WorldWideScience

Sample records for human dc-tc hybrids

  1. Exploring Human Capital and Hybrid Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klyver, Kim; Lomberg, Carina; Steffens, Paul

    2016-01-01

    An individual’s human capital affects their choice to become and entrepreneur and also their likely success as a nascent entrepreneur. This paper explores how hybrid employment—entrepreneur opportunities impact these dynamics. Drawing on insights from decision theory, we argue that an individual...... longitudinal dataset of individuals facing career transition as nascent entrepreneurs, job seekers or both, we find that while hybrid nascent entrepreneurship (trying to start a business while being employed) has a positive influence on outcomes, hybrid search (concurrent job search while trying to start...

  2. Highly Elastic and Conductive Human-Based Protein Hybrid Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annabi, Nasim; Shin, Su Ryon; Tamayol, Ali; Miscuglio, Mario; Bakooshli, Mohsen Afshar; Assmann, Alexander; Mostafalu, Pooria; Sun, Jeong-Yun; Mithieux, Suzanne; Cheung, Louis; Tang, Xiaowu Shirley; Weiss, Anthony S; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-01-01

    A highly elastic hybrid hydrogel of methacryloyl-substituted recombinant human tropoelastin (MeTro) and graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles are developed. The synergistic effect of these two materials significantly enhances both ultimate strain (250%), reversible rotation (9700°), and the fracture energy (38.8 ± 0.8 J m(-2) ) in the hybrid network. Furthermore, improved electrical signal propagation and subsequent contraction of the muscles connected by hybrid hydrogels are observed in ex vivo tests.

  3. Hybrid Battery Ultracapacitor System For Human Robotic Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to develop a hybrid battery-ultra capacitor storage system that powers human-robotic systems in space missions. Space missions...

  4. The human chameleon: Hybrid Jews in cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Vudka

    2016-01-01

    This research explores the seditious potential of hybrid Jewish figures in cinema, based on certain thinkers of post WWII French philosophy, feminist and postcolonial theories, and traditional Jewish texts, which in different ways point to a reevaluation of the "chameleon Jew" in positive terms. Whi

  5. The human chameleon: Hybrid Jews in cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vudka, A.

    2016-01-01

    This research explores the seditious potential of hybrid Jewish figures in cinema, based on certain thinkers of post WWII French philosophy, feminist and postcolonial theories, and traditional Jewish texts, which in different ways point to a reevaluation of the "chameleon Jew" in positive terms. Whi

  6. Beyond eugenics: the forgotten scandal of hybridizing humans and apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etkind, Alexander

    2008-06-01

    This paper examines the available evidence on one of the most radical ideas in the history of eugenics and utopianism. In the mid-1920s, the zoology professor Ilia Ivanov submitted to the Soviet government a project for hybridizing humans and apes by means of artificial insemination. He received substantial financing and organized expeditions to Africa to catch apes for his experiments. His project caused an international sensation. The American Association for the Advancement of Atheism announced its fund-raising campaign to support Ivanov's project but gave it a scandalously racist interpretation. Ivanov's own motivation remained unclear, as did the motivation of those in the Bolshevik government who supported Ivanov until his arrest in 1930. This paper discusses three hypothetical reasons for Ivanov's adventure: first, hybridization between humans and apes, should it be successful, would support the atheist propaganda of the Bolsheviks; second, regardless of the success of hybridization, Ivanov would catch and bring to Russia apes, which were necessary for the rejuvenation programs that were fashionable among the Bolshevik elite; and third, hybridization, should it be successful, would pave the way to the New Socialist Man whose 'construction by scientific means' was the official purpose of the Bolsheviks. Ivanov's ideas were arguably important for the American proponent of reform eugenics, Herman Muller, and for the Soviet anthropologist Boris Porshnev.

  7. [Detection of human papilloma viruses using in situ hybridization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuljić-Kapulica, N; Radojković, M; Majstorović, J; Matić, V; Krstić, L; Budisin, A; Lepsanović, Z

    1993-01-01

    First experiences in the diagnosis of human papilloma viruses are reported. The method of in situ hybridization was used together with biotin tests for types of HPV: 6/11, 16/18 and 31/33/51. The study was performed on the preparations of of the cervix tissue with displasmic proliferation and laryngeal papilloma tissues. There have been examined 37 specimens: in 6 were found sequence of HPV genoma for types 6/11 and in 1 specimen for types 16/18 and 31/33/51/.

  8. Cultivating Curiosity: Integrating Hybrid Teaching in Courses in Human Behavior in the Social Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Keyes, Elizabeth; Schneider, Dana A.

    2013-01-01

    This study illustrates an experience of implementing a hybrid model for teaching human behavior in the social environment in an urban university setting. Developing a hybrid model in a BSW program arose out of a desire to reach students in a different way. Designed to promote curiosity and active learning, this particular hybrid model has students…

  9. A HYBRID APPROACH TO HUMAN SKIN REGION DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vijayanandh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Face recognition is important in research areas like machine vision and complex security systems. Skin region detection is a vital factor for processing in such systems. Hence the proposed paper focuses on isolating the regions of an image corresponding to human skin region through the hybrid method. This paper intends to combine the skin region detected from RGB and YCbCr color spaces image by the explicit skin color conditions and the skin label cluster identified from CIEL*a*b color space image, which is clustered by Hillclimbing segmentation with K-Means clustering algorithm. Then the resultant image is dilated by arbitrary shape and filtered by the median filter, in order to enhance the skin region and to avoid the noise respectively. The proposed method has been tested on various real images, which contain one or more human beings and the performance of skin region detection is found to be quite satisfactory.

  10. Biologic effect of a hybrid preparation of human chorionic gonadotropin in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemberg, E

    1982-01-01

    Alpha and beta-hCG subunits were recombined generating a hybrid hCG preparation (AB1ER-CR-2XY) which met the required specifications of a pharmaceutical product. The biologic activity contained in each vial of AB1ER-CR-2XY was equivalent to 10 000IU of hCG-IS. This preparation was given as a single dose of 10 000IU by the i.m. route to four female subjects presenting unexplained infertility. The hCG hybrid was demonstrated to effect gonadal stimulation in humans.

  11. An improved method for producing radiation hybrids applied to human chromosome 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    At the initiation of the grant we had just produced radiation hybrids from a monochromosomal microcell hybrid containing human chromosome 19 as its only human component. Radiation hybrids were produced using doses of radiation ranging from 1000--8000 rads. Lethally irradiated cells were then fused to hamster recipients (CHTG49) and selected for growth in histidinol. Approximately 240 clones were isolated and 75 clones were expanded for the isolation of DNA. This report describes in situ hybridization studies and the introduction of markers into human chromosome 19.

  12. Human cDNA mapping using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenberg, J.R.

    1993-03-04

    Genetic mapping is approached using the techniques of high resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This technology and the results of its application are designed to rapidly generate whole genome as tool box of expressed sequence to speed the identification of human disease genes. The results of this study are intended to dovetail with and to link the results of existing technologies for creating backbone YAC and genetic maps. In the first eight months, this approach generated 60--80% of the expressed sequence map, the remainder expected to be derived through more long-term, labor-intensive, regional chromosomal gene searches or sequencing. The laboratory has made significant progress in the set-up phase, in mapping fetal and adult brain and other cDNAs, in testing a model system for directly linking genetic and physical maps using FISH with small fragments, in setting up a database, and in establishing the validity and throughput of the system.

  13. Restriction of human adenovirus replication in Chinese hamster cell lines and their hybrids with human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radna, R L; Foellmer, B; Feldman, L A; Francke, U; Ozer, H L

    1987-11-01

    We have found that the replication of human adenovirus (Ad2) is restricted in multiple Chinese hamster cell lines including CHO and V79. The major site of restriction involves differential accumulation of late viral proteins as demonstrated by immunofluorescence assay and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with and without prior immunoprecipitation. Synthesis of fiber and penton base are markedly reduced, whereas others, such as the 100K polypeptide, are synthesized efficiently. This pattern of restriction is similar to that previously reported for Ad2 infection of several monkey cell lines; however, the restriction is more marked in the Chinese hamster cell lines. The restriction is most likely due to a deficient cellular function since stable cell hybrids between V79 or CHO and human cells are permissive for virus replication. By analysis of a series of hybrids with reduced numbers of human chromosomes, fiber synthesis was correlated with the presence of the short arm of human chromosome 3. More hybrids showed restoration of fiber synthesis than production of progeny virus, suggesting that more than one unlinked function is required for the latter.

  14. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA by the hybrid capture assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Maria Odete O.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection is the main cause of cervical cancers and cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN worldwide. Consequently, it would be useful to evaluate HPV testing to screen for cervical cancer. Recently developed, the second-generation Hybrid Capture (HCA II test is a non-radioactive, relatively rapid, liquid hybridization assay designed to detect 18 HPV types, divided into high and low-risk groups. We evaluated 1055 women for HPV infection with the HCA II test. Five hundred and ten (48.3% of these women had HPV infection; 60 (11.8% had low cancer-risk HPV DNA; 269 (52.7% had high-risk HPV types and 181 (35.5% had both groups. Hence, 450 women (88.2% in this HPV-infected group had at least one high risk HPV type, and were therefore considered to be at high risk for cancer. Among the group with Papanicolaou (Pap test results, the overall prevalence of HPV DNA was 58.4%. Significant differences in HPV infection of the cervix were detected between Pap I (normal smears and Pap IV (carcinomas (p<0.0001. Values of HPV viral load obtained for Pap I and SILs were significantly different, with an upward trend (p<0.0001, suggesting a positive correlation between high viral load values and risk of SIL. Because of the high costs of the HCA II test, its use for routine cervical mass screening cannot be recommended in poor countries. Nevertheless, it is a useful tool when combined with cytology, diagnosing high-risk infections in apparently normal tissues. Use of this technique could help reduce the risk of cancer.

  15. Human disturbance causes the formation of a hybrid swarm between two naturally sympatric fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselman, Daniel J; Argo, Emily E; McBride, Meghan C; Bentzen, Paul; Schultz, Thomas F; Perez-Umphrey, Anna A; Palkovacs, Eric P

    2014-03-01

    Most evidence for hybrid swarm formation stemming from anthropogenic habitat disturbance comes from the breakdown of reproductive isolation between incipient species, or introgression between allopatric species following secondary contact. Human impacts on hybridization between divergent species that naturally occur in sympatry have received considerably less attention. Theory predicts that reinforcement should act to preserve reproductive isolation under such circumstances, potentially making reproductive barriers resistant to human habitat alteration. Using 15 microsatellites, we examined hybridization between sympatric populations of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and blueback herring (A. aestivalis) to test whether the frequency of hybridization and pattern of introgression have been impacted by the construction of a dam that isolated formerly anadromous populations of both species in a landlocked freshwater reservoir. The frequency of hybridization and pattern of introgression differed markedly between anadromous and landlocked populations. The rangewide frequency of hybridization among anadromous populations was generally 0-8%, whereas all landlocked individuals were hybrids. Although neutral introgression was observed among anadromous hybrids, directional introgression leading to increased prevalence of alewife genotypes was detected among landlocked hybrids. We demonstrate that habitat alteration can lead to hybrid swarm formation between divergent species that naturally occur sympatrically, and provide empirical evidence that reinforcement does not always sustain reproductive isolation under such circumstances.

  16. Chromosomal assignment of human DNA fingerprint sequences by simultaneous hybridization to arbitrarily primed PCR products from human/rodent monochromosome cell hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Jun; Sekiya, Takao [National Cancer Center Research Institute, Chuo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Navarro, J.M. [Burnham Institute, La Jolla, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-15

    We have developed a technique for the simultaneous chromosomal assignment of multiple human DNA sequences from DNA fingerprints obtained by the arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR). Radioactively labeled human AP-PCR products are hybridized to DNA fingerprints generated with the same arbitrary primer from human/rodent monochromosome cell hybrids after electroblotting to a nylong membrane. Human-specific hybridization bands in the human/rodent fingerprints unambiguously determine their chromosome of origin. We named this method simultaneous hybridization of arbitrarily primed PCR DNA fingerprinting products (SHARP). Using this approach, we determined the chromosomal origins of most major bands of human AP-PCR fingerprints obtained with two arbitrary primers. Altogether, the chromosomal localization of near 50 DNA fragments, comprehensive of all human chromosomes except chromosomes 21 and Y, was achieved in this simple manner. Chromosome assignment of fingerprint bands is essential for molecular karyotyping of cancer by AP-PCR DNA fingerprinting. The SHARP method provides a convenient and powerful tool for this purpose. 23 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Ultrastructural localization of human papilloma virus by nonradioactive in situ hybridization on tissue of human cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, H A; Rafferty, P A; Warhol, M J

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A nonradioactive in situ hybridization was developed to localize human papilloma virus (HPV) at the ultrastructural level. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Cervical biopsies from human uterine cervices clinically suspicious of condyloma were embedded in Lowicryl K4M at low temperature...... confirmed the specificity of the HPV positive signals. CONCLUSIONS: This study helps define the subcellular compartmentalization of HPV DNA in infected human cells....

  18. Detection of Human Picornaviruses by Multiplex Reverse Transcription-PCR and Liquid Hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Jokela, Pia; Joki-Korpela, Päivi; Maaronen, Marita; Glumoff, Virpi; Hyypiä, Timo

    2005-01-01

    A qualitative multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and liquid hybridization assay for the detection of human enteroviruses, rhinoviruses, parechoviruses, and Aichi virus was developed. Furthermore, a separate assay for the recognition of hepatitis A virus was established to complement the test pattern so that all human picornaviruses were covered. The amplicons, which represented the 5′ untranslated regions of the viral RNA genomes, were identified in liquid hybridization reactions with g...

  19. Positioning of human chromosomes in murine cell hybrids according to synteny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaburn, Karen J; Newbold, Robert F; Bridger, Joanna M

    2008-12-01

    Chromosomes occupy non-random spatial positions in interphase nuclei. It remains unclear what orchestrates this high level of organisation. To determine how the nuclear environment influences the spatial positioning of chromosomes, we utilised a panel of stable mouse hybrid cell lines carrying a single, intact human chromosome. Eleven of 22 human chromosomes revealed an alternative location in hybrid nuclei compared to that of human fibroblasts, with the majority becoming more internally localised. Human chromosomes in mouse nuclei position according to neither their gene density nor size, but rather the position of human chromosomes in hybrid nuclei appears to mimic that of syntenic mouse chromosomes. These results suggest that chromosomes adopt the behaviour of their host species chromosomes and that the nuclear environment is an important determinant of the interphase positioning of chromosomes.

  20. Marketing image categorization using hybrid human-machine combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanasambandam, Nathan; Madhu, Himanshu

    2012-03-01

    Marketing instruments with nested, short-form, symbol loaded content need to be studied differently. Image classification in the Web2.0 world can dynamically use a configurable amount of internal and external data as well as varying levels of crowd-sourcing. Our work is one such examination of how to construct a hybrid technique involving learning and crowd-sourcing. Through a parameter called turkmix and a multitude of crowd-sourcing techniques available we show that we can control the trend of metrics such as precision and recall on the hybrid categorizer.

  1. Disentangling hybridization and host colonization in parasitic roundworms of humans and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscione, Charles D; Anderson, Joel D; Sudimack, Dan; Peng, Weidong; Jha, Bharat; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Anderson, Timothy J C

    2007-11-07

    Knowledge of cross-transmission and hybridization between parasites of humans and reservoir hosts is critical for understanding the evolution of the parasite and for implementing control programmes. There is now a consensus that populations of pig and human Ascaris (roundworms) show significant genetic subdivision. However, it is unclear whether this has resulted from a single or multiple host shift(s). Furthermore, previous molecular data have not been sufficient to determine whether sympatric populations of human and pig Ascaris can exchange genes. To disentangle patterns of host colonization and hybridization, we used 23 microsatellite loci to conduct Bayesian clustering analyses of individual worms collected from pigs and humans. We observed strong differentiation between populations which was primarily driven by geography, with secondary differentiation resulting from host affiliation within locations. This pattern is consistent with multiple host colonization events. However, there is low support for the short internal branches of the dendrograms. In part, the relationships among clusters may result from current hybridization among sympatric human and pig roundworms. Indeed, congruence in three Bayesian methods indicated that 4 and 7% of roundworms sampled from Guatemala and China, respectively, were hybrids. These results indicate that there is contemporary cross-transmission between populations of human and pig Ascaris.

  2. Hybridization of two major termite invaders as a consequence of human activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouvenc, Thomas; Helmick, Ericka E; Su, Nan-Yao

    2015-01-01

    While hybridization of an invasive species with a native species is a common occurrence, hybridization between two invasive species is rare. Formosan subterranean termites (Coptotermes formosanus) and Asian subterranean termites (C. gestroi) are both ecologically successful and are the two most economically important termite pests in the world. Both species have spread throughout many areas of the world due to human activity; however, their distributions overlap in only three narrow areas because of distinct ecological requirements. In south Florida, where C. formosanus and C. gestroi are both invasive, the dispersal flight seasons of both species overlapped for the first time on record in 2013 and 2014. Pairings of heterospecific individuals were readily observed in the field and C. gestroi males preferentially engaged in mating behavior with C. formosanus females rather than females from their own species. In the laboratory, heterospecific and conspecific pairings had an equal colony establishment rate, but heterospecific incipient colonies had twice the growth rate of conspecific incipient colonies, suggesting a potential case of hybrid vigor. As all pre-zygotic barriers were lifted between the two species in the field, the apparent absence of post-zygotic barriers in the laboratory raises the possibility for introgressive hybridization in south Florida. While laboratory observations remain to be confirmed in the field, and the alate hybrid fertility is currently unknown, our results raise a tangible concern about the hybridization of two major destructive pest species. Such hybridization would likely be associated with a new economic impact.

  3. Hybridization of two major termite invaders as a consequence of human activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Chouvenc

    Full Text Available While hybridization of an invasive species with a native species is a common occurrence, hybridization between two invasive species is rare. Formosan subterranean termites (Coptotermes formosanus and Asian subterranean termites (C. gestroi are both ecologically successful and are the two most economically important termite pests in the world. Both species have spread throughout many areas of the world due to human activity; however, their distributions overlap in only three narrow areas because of distinct ecological requirements. In south Florida, where C. formosanus and C. gestroi are both invasive, the dispersal flight seasons of both species overlapped for the first time on record in 2013 and 2014. Pairings of heterospecific individuals were readily observed in the field and C. gestroi males preferentially engaged in mating behavior with C. formosanus females rather than females from their own species. In the laboratory, heterospecific and conspecific pairings had an equal colony establishment rate, but heterospecific incipient colonies had twice the growth rate of conspecific incipient colonies, suggesting a potential case of hybrid vigor. As all pre-zygotic barriers were lifted between the two species in the field, the apparent absence of post-zygotic barriers in the laboratory raises the possibility for introgressive hybridization in south Florida. While laboratory observations remain to be confirmed in the field, and the alate hybrid fertility is currently unknown, our results raise a tangible concern about the hybridization of two major destructive pest species. Such hybridization would likely be associated with a new economic impact.

  4. Revisiting Milgram's Cyranoid Method: Experimenting With Hybrid Human Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Kevin; Gillespie, Alex

    2015-01-01

    In two studies based on Stanley Milgram's original pilots, we present the first systematic examination of cyranoids as social psychological research tools. A cyranoid is created by cooperatively joining in real-time the body of one person with speech generated by another via covert speech shadowing. The resulting hybrid persona can subsequently interact with third parties face-to-face. We show that naïve interlocutors perceive a cyranoid to be a unified, autonomously communicating person, evidence for a phenomenon Milgram termed the "cyranic illusion." We also show that creating cyranoids composed of contrasting identities (a child speaking adult-generated words and vice versa) can be used to study how stereotyping and person perception are mediated by inner (dispositional) vs. outer (physical) identity. Our results establish the cyranoid method as a unique means of obtaining experimental control over inner and outer identities within social interactions rich in mundane realism.

  5. Human management and hybridization shape treegourd fruits in the Brazilian Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrósio Moreira, Priscila; Mariac, Cédric; Zekraoui, Leila; Couderc, Marie; Rodrigues, Doriane Picanço; Clement, Charles R; Vigouroux, Yves

    2017-07-01

    Local people's perceptions of cultivated and wild agrobiodiversity, as well as their management of hybridization are still understudied in Amazonia. Here we analyze domesticated treegourd (Crescentia cujete), whose versatile fruits have technological, symbolic, and medicinal uses. A wild relative (C. amazonica) of the cultivated species grows spontaneously in Amazonian flooded forests. We demonstrated, using whole chloroplast sequences and nuclear microsatellites, that the two species are strongly differentiated. Nonetheless, they hybridize readily throughout Amazonia and the proportions of admixture correlate with fruit size variation of cultivated trees. New morphotypes arise from hybridization, which are recognized by people and named as local varieties. Small hybrid fruits are used to make the important symbolic rattle (maracá), suggesting that management of hybrid trees is an ancient human practice in Amazonia. Effective conservation of Amazonian agrobiodiversity needs to incorporate this interaction between wild and cultivated populations that is managed by smallholder families. Beyond treegourd, our study clearly shows that hybridization plays an important role in tree crop phenotypic diversification and that the integration of molecular analyses and farmers' perceptions of diversity help disentangle crop domestication history.

  6. A high-resolution radiation hybrid map of the human genome draft sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, M; Aggarwal, A; Allen, J; Almendras, A A; Bajorek, E S; Beasley, E M; Brady, S D; Bushard, J M; Bustos, V I; Chu, A; Chung, T R; De Witte, A; Denys, M E; Dominguez, R; Fang, N Y; Foster, B D; Freudenberg, R W; Hadley, D; Hamilton, L R; Jeffrey, T J; Kelly, L; Lazzeroni, L; Levy, M R; Lewis, S C; Liu, X; Lopez, F J; Louie, B; Marquis, J P; Martinez, R A; Matsuura, M K; Misherghi, N S; Norton, J A; Olshen, A; Perkins, S M; Perou, A J; Piercy, C; Piercy, M; Qin, F; Reif, T; Sheppard, K; Shokoohi, V; Smick, G A; Sun, W L; Stewart, E A; Fernando, J; Tejeda; Tran, N M; Trejo, T; Vo, N T; Yan, S C; Zierten, D L; Zhao, S; Sachidanandam, R; Trask, B J; Myers, R M; Cox, D R

    2001-02-16

    We have constructed a physical map of the human genome by using a panel of 90 whole-genome radiation hybrids (the TNG panel) in conjunction with 40,322 sequence-tagged sites (STSs) derived from random genomic sequences as well as expressed sequences. Of 36,678 STSs on the TNG radiation hybrid map, only 3604 (9.8%) were absent from the unassembled draft sequence of the human genome. Of 20,030 STSs ordered on the TNG map as well as the assembled human genome draft sequence and the Celera assembled human genome sequence, 36% of the STSs had a discrepant order between the working draft sequence and the Celera sequence. The TNG map order was identical to one of the two sequence orders in 60% of these discrepant cases.

  7. Disentangling hybridization and host colonization in parasitic roundworms of humans and pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Criscione, Charles D.; Anderson, Joel D; Sudimack, Dan; Peng, Weidong; Jha, Bharat; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Timothy J C Anderson

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of cross-transmission and hybridization between parasites of humans and reservoir hosts is critical for understanding the evolution of the parasite and for implementing control programmes. There is now a consensus that populations of pig and human Ascaris (roundworms) show significant genetic subdivision. However, it is unclear whether this has resulted from a single or multiple host shift(s). Furthermore, previous molecular data have not been sufficient to determine whether sympatr...

  8. Detection of human papillomavirus in oral warts using in situ hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Orsini Machado de Sousa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The human papillomavirus is a group of DNA epitheliotrophic viruses associated with the etiology of benign and malignant oral warts. More than 100 types have been identified and among them, 24 have been found into the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to analyze human papillomavirus prevalence and its subtypes in 50 oral warts, of which 20 were squamous papillomas, 17 condylomaacuminatum and 13 verruca vulgaris. Method: In situ hybridization was used with biotinylated DNA probes for wide-spectrum HPV and with specific probes for human papillomavirus 6/11, human papillomavirus 16/18 and human papillomavirus 31/33. Results: Human papillomavirus was present in ten (20% of the 50 oral wart cases, 03 (3/20 squamous papillomas, 05 (5/17 condyloma acuminatum and 02 (2/13 verruca vulgaris. Of these, 8 (16% were positive to the HPV probe 6/11 being 5 condyloma acuminatum, 1 squamous papilloma and 2 verruca vulgaris. Three cases (6% demonstrated positivity to the human papillomavirus probe 16/18, with 2 being cases of condyloma and the other a case of squamous papilloma. Of the six positive cases to the human papillomavirus probe 31/33, (12% 4 were condyloma acuminatum and 2 squamous papillomas. Conclusion: The human papillomavirus expression (20% found in this study was low, but within the average found in the literature. Nonetheless, in addition to in situ hybridization, other methods may be necessary for confirming the presence of human papillomavirus.

  9. Child human model development: a hybrid validation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, P.A.; Rooij, L. van; Rodarius, C.; Crandall, J.

    2008-01-01

    The current study presents a development and validation approach of a child human body model that will help understand child impact injuries and improve the biofidelity of child anthropometric test devices. Due to the lack of fundamental child biomechanical data needed to fully develop such models a

  10. Child human model development: a hybrid validation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, P.A.; Rooij, L. van; Rodarius, C.; Crandall, J.

    2008-01-01

    The current study presents a development and validation approach of a child human body model that will help understand child impact injuries and improve the biofidelity of child anthropometric test devices. Due to the lack of fundamental child biomechanical data needed to fully develop such models a

  11. Motion segmentation method for hybrid characteristic on human motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Newman; Wong, Ben; Chow, Daniel

    2009-03-11

    Motion segmentation and analysis are used to improve the process of classification of motion and information gathered on repetitive or periodic characteristic. The classification result is useful for ergonomic and postural safety analysis, since repetitive motion is known to be related to certain musculoskeletal disorders. Past studies mainly focused on motion segmentation on particular motion characteristic with certain prior knowledge on static or periodic property of motion, which narrowed method's applicability. This paper attempts to introduce a method to tackle human joint motion without having prior knowledge. The motion is segmented by a two-pass algorithm. Recursive least square (RLS) is firstly used to estimate possible segments on the input human-motion set. Further, period identification and extra segmentation process are applied to produce meaningful segments. Each of the result segments is modeled by a damped harmonic model, with frequency, amplitude and duration produced as parameters for ergonomic evaluation and other human factor studies such as task safety evaluation and sport analysis. Experiments show that the method can handle periodic, random and mixed characteristics on human motion, which can also be extended to the usage in repetitive motion in workflow and irregular periodic motion like sport movement.

  12. Human and mouse genome analysis using array comparative genomic hybridization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, Antoine Maria

    2004-01-01

    Almost all human cancers as well as developmental abnormalities are characterized by the presence of genetic alterations, most of which target a gene or a particular genomic locus resulting in altered gene expression and ultimately an altered phenotype. Different types of genetic alterations include

  13. Synthesis and bioevaluation of pyrazole-benzimidazolone hybrids as novel human 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yu-Ling; Lin, Hong-Yan; Ruan, Xu; Yang, Sheng-Gang; Hao, Ge-Fei; Yang, Wen-Chao; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2015-03-06

    4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD), an essential enzyme in tyrosine catabolism, is an important target for treating type I tyrosinemia. Inhibition of HPPD can effectively alleviate the symptoms of type I tyrosinemia. However, only one commercial HPPD inhibitor, 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl) cyclohexane-1,3-dione (NTBC), has been available for clinical use so far. In the present study, a series of novel pyrazole-benzimidazolone hybrids were designed, synthesized and evaluated as potent human HPPD inhibitors. Most of the new compounds displayed significant inhibitory activity against the recombinant human HPPD. Moreover, compound 9l was identified as the most potent candidate with IC50 value of 0.021 μM against recombinant human HPPD, about 3-fold more potent than NTBC. Thus the pyrazole-benzimidazolone hybrid has great potential to be further developed for the treatment of type I tyrosinemia.

  14. Comparison of PCR and hybrid capture methods for detection of human papillomavirus in injection drug-using women at high risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, K V; Solomon, L; Daniel, R; Cohn, S; Vlahov, D

    1997-02-01

    We compared Hybrid Capture, a new technique for detection of human papillomaviruses (HPV), with a PCR assay based on L1 consensus primers. By both methods, the HPV prevalence was higher in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women than in HIV-negative women. PCR had a higher sensitivity (0.89 versus 0.48) but lower specificity (0.43 versus 0.93) for detection of Pap smear abnormalities, compared to Hybrid Capture. The higher intensity of hybridization signal by PCR was related to higher estimates of viral load by Hybrid Capture.

  15. Performance Analysis of Hybrid Distribution in Human-Centric Multimedia Networking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yuxiang; DONG Fang; LAN Julong

    2016-01-01

    With the booming of Human-centric mul-timedia networking (HMN), there are rising amount of human-made multimedia that needs to distribute to con-sumers with higher speed and efficiency. Hybrid distribu-tion of Client/Server (C/S) and Peer-to-Peer (P2P) have been successfully deployed on the Internet and the practi-cal benefits have been widely reported, while its theoretical performance remains unknown for mass data delivery un-fortunately. This paper presents an analytical and experi-mental study on the performance of accelerating large-scale hybrid distribution over the Internet. In particular, this pa-per focuses on the user behavior in HMN and establishes a user behavior model based on the Kermack-McKendrick model in epidemiology. Analytical expressions of average delay in HMN are then derived based on C/S, P2P and hy-brid distribution, respectively. Our simulation shows how to design and deploy a hybrid distribution system of HMN that helps to bridge the gap between system ultilization and quality of service, which provides direct guidance for practical system design.

  16. Characterization of the human ESC transcriptome by hybrid sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Kin Fai; Sebastiano, Vittorio; Afshar, Pegah Tootoonchi; Durruthy, Jens Durruthy; Lee, Lawrence; Williams, Brian A; van Bakel, Harm; Schadt, Eric E; Reijo-Pera, Renee A; Underwood, Jason G; Wong, Wing Hung

    2013-12-10

    Although transcriptional and posttranscriptional events are detected in RNA-Seq data from second-generation sequencing, full-length mRNA isoforms are not captured. On the other hand, third-generation sequencing, which yields much longer reads, has current limitations of lower raw accuracy and throughput. Here, we combine second-generation sequencing and third-generation sequencing with a custom-designed method for isoform identification and quantification to generate a high-confidence isoform dataset for human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We report 8,084 RefSeq-annotated isoforms detected as full-length and an additional 5,459 isoforms predicted through statistical inference. Over one-third of these are novel isoforms, including 273 RNAs from gene loci that have not previously been identified. Further characterization of the novel loci indicates that a subset is expressed in pluripotent cells but not in diverse fetal and adult tissues; moreover, their reduced expression perturbs the network of pluripotency-associated genes. Results suggest that gene identification, even in well-characterized human cell lines and tissues, is likely far from complete.

  17. Monochromosomal hybrids for the analysis of the human genome. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athwal, R.S. [Temple Univ. School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Fels Inst. for Cancer Research and Molecular Biology

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this research project is to produce panels of mouse/human and/or Chinese hamster/human hybrid cell lines each harboring a single different human chromosome. The human chromosome present in rodent cell will be marked with a dominant selectable marker and maintained by selection. In these experiments human chromosomes first ``tagged`` with a selectable marker in human cells are subsequently transferred to rodent cells by microcell fusion method. Several different experimental schemes have been developed to ``tag`` human chromosomes with a selectable marker. Amphotropic retroviral vectors provide a highly efficient system to introduce selectable markers into normal diploid human cells. The integration of retroviral vector into the cell genome occurs at random by recombination at a defined nucleotide sequence in the LTRs and only a single copy of the vector integrates in a cell. This property of retroviral vectors allows to isolate a segment of the chromosomal DNA flanking the vector integration site by PCR amplification. In these studies the amphotropic retroviral vector pZIPgpt that carries a dominant selectable marker gpt, is used to tag the human chromosomes in normal diploid cells. Human DNA flanking the integrated vector is rescued by PCR amplification and cloned into a plasmid vector. Cloned human DNA is then used to probe Southern blots of DNAs from a panel of hybrid cell lines to identify the chromosome of its origin. This allows them to identify clonal human cell lines, each carrying the marker integrated into a different chromosome. Marked chromosomes are then transferred to rodent cells by MMCT.

  18. Detection of human papillomavirus in laryngeal lesions by in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, H A; Fessler, J N; Warhol, M J

    1994-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with human neoplasms of squamous epithelium. Squamous papillomas and verrucous carcinomas are two types of squamous neoplasms of the larynx that present difficult problems in differential diagnosis. Using in situ hybridization with biotinylated DNA probes......, we examined benign squamous papillomas and verrucous squamous carcinomas of the larynx for the presence of HPV. Forty-two biopsy specimens from 18 patients with laryngeal papillomas and 11 biopsy specimens from seven patients with verrucous carcinomas were obtained from the files of Pennsylvania...... Hospital, Philadelphia, PA. Tissue sections were hybridized with an HPV DNA cocktail. The HPV-positive cases then were subtyped further with DNA probes specific for HPV subtypes 6/11, 16/18, and 31/33/35. All benign squamous papillomas (42 of 42) were positive for HPV subtype 6/11. None of the verrucous...

  19. [Mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms shared between modern humans and neanderthals: adaptive convergence or evidence for interspecific hybridization?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliarchuk, B A

    2013-09-01

    An analysis of the variability of the nucleotide sequences in the mitochondrial genome of modern humans, neanderthals, Denisovans, and other primates has shown that there are shared polymorphisms at positions 2758 and 7146 between modern Homo sapiens (in phylogenetic cluster L2'3'4'5'6) and Homo neanderthalensis (in the group of European neanderthals younger than 48000 years). It is suggested that the convergence may be due to adaptive changes in the mitochondrial genomes of modern humans and neanderthals or interspecific hybridization associated with mtDNA recombination.

  20. Interactions of hybrid gold-tannic acid nanoparticles with human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekowski, Szymon; Tomaszewska, Emilia; Soliwoda, Katarzyna; Celichowski, Grzegorz; Grobelny, Jaroslaw

    2017-01-01

    Nanoparticles present a wide spectrum of chemical, biological, and physical properties which result in their usage in many branches of science. We present an investigation of the interaction between human serum albumin and hybrid gold-tannic acid nanoparticles synthesized via a chemical reduction method. The results obtained demonstrate that tannic acid can be a very effective reducing and stabilizing agent and allows monodisperse hybrid gold nanomaterial to be obtained. The synthesized hybrid gold-tannic acid nanoparticles strongly interact with human serum albumin by formation of protein-corona complexes. The strength of the interaction with albumin depends on the number of tannic acid molecules on the surface of the nanoparticles and the presence of citric acid. Nanoparticles of large size and rich in tannic acid react more strongly with the protein [K SV = (8.00 ± 0.2) × 10(5) M(-1)] compared with smaller ones [K SV = (6.83 ± 0.5) × 10(4) M(-1)] containing citric acid and low concentration of tannic acid.

  1. [Oncogenic human papillomaviruses in extra-genital Bowen disease revealed by in situ hybridization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derancourt, C; Mougin, C; Chopard Lallier, M; Coumes-Marquet, S; Drobacheff, C; Laurent, R

    2001-01-01

    The association between mucosal oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV) and bowenoid papulosis or genital Bowen's disease is well documented. In contrast this association with extra-genital Bowen's disease is poorly studied. The aim of this study was to detect oncogenic (16/18, 31/33/51) and non oncogenic (8/11) mucosal HPV using a in situ hybridization method in 28 skin biopsy specimens of extra-genital Bowen's disease. Twenty-eight cases of extra-genital Bowen's disease seen in the period 1990-96 in the Dermatology department were included: 19 women and 9 men (mean age: 72 years). Bowen's disease locations were: hands and feet (8 cases), limbs (11 cases), face (8 cases), trunk (1 case). Blinded histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of Bowen's disease and signs of HPV infection (koilocytosis). In situ hybridization was performed using three biotinylated probes detecting HPV types 6/11, 16/18, 31/33/51. Oncogenic HPV genoma was detected in 8 skin samples (28.6 p. 100). In all these cases, 16/18 probe was positive and in two cases, both 16/18 and 31/33/51 probes were positive; 4/8 Bowen's diseases of the extremities were positive for HPV. Koilocytes were found in 6/8 of skin samples with positive HPV detection. Mucosal oncogenic HPV are detected by in situ hybridization in 28.6 p. 100 of extra-genital Bowen's disease. In situ hybridization is an easier technique than Southern-Blot hybridization which is the gold standard. Five studies reported similar results and three studies reported different results that we discuss. A precise understanding of oncogenic HPV implication in the development of extra-genital Bowen's disease could lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies (topical cidofovir or imiquimod).

  2. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses of human oocytes in trisomy 18 and 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, E.Y.; Chen, Y.J.; Gartler, S.M. [Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The commonly accepted view of synapsis is that only 2 homologues can synapse at any one site and that this restriction applies to polyploids as well. However, triple synapsis has been observed is some triploid plants and in triploid chicken. In humans, triple synapsis of the long arm of chromosome 21 was detected in sperm of a trisomic 21 individual. More recently, studies of oocytes from trisomic 21 and 18 fetuses also indicated extensive triple synapsis along the entire length of the chromosomes. To further investigate this question, we undertook an evaluation of trivalent synapsis in fetal oocytes from 2 trisomic 21 and 2 trisomic 18 fetuses using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with whole chromosome probes. Oocytes were hybridized with whole chromosome probes obtained from ONCOR, Inc. after fixation with methanol and acetic acid. Slides were scored for the distribution of prophase stages, hybridization efficiency, and hybridization characteristics of chromosomes 18 and 21 in the trisomic 18 and 21 fetuses respectively. Fifty-eight per cent (379/650) of pachytenes analyzed for chromosome 18 contained a conspicous trivalent and 319 (48%) of these nuclei contained a single, thick, continuous fluorescent signal consistent with complete triple synapsis along the entire length of all 3 chromosomes. Sixteen per cent (104/650) of pachytene contained 2 signals consistent with a bivalent and a univalent, and 9 cells contained 3 thin signals consistent with asynapsis of all 3 chromosomes. The remaining 158 pachytenes had unusual pairing configurations that we could not classify, but they most likely represent trivalents with partial pairing between different homologues. In the 2 trisomic 21 fetuses, the majority (143/232) of pachytenes also contained one signal while only 52 cells contained a bivalent and univalent. Five cells contained 3 separate signals. These results confirm the existence of triple synapsis in human meiosis.

  3. Development and Control of Compliant Hybrid Joints for Human-Symbiotic Mobile Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Li

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop a robot with the ability to secure human safety in humanrobot collisions arising in our living and working environments. The humansymbiotic service robot using compliant hybrid joints realizes human safety, absorbs impact force, and fulfills task. In unexpected or expected collisions with human, the arising impulse force is attenuated effectively by the proposed physical model. Owing to the displacement of the links, several recovery controls have been developed for the endeffector to maintain its desired task position after the collision. The force attenuation property has been verified through collision simulations and experiments in that the capability of the proposed passive arm in overcoming the limitations of active compliance control has been demonstrated.

  4. Characterization of a Chinese hamster-human hybrid cell line with increased system L amino acid transport activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobaton, C D; Moreno, A; Oxender, D L

    1984-03-01

    We have studied leucine transport in several Chinese hamster-human hybrid cell lines obtained by fusion of a temperature-sensitive line of Chinese hamster ovary cells, ts025C1, and normal human leukocytes. A hybrid cell line exhibiting a twofold increase in L-leucine uptake over that in the parental cell line was found. This hybrid cell line, 158CnpT-1, was temperature resistant, whereas the parental Chinese hamster ovary mutant, ts025C1, contained a temperature-sensitive leucyl-tRNA synthetase mutation. An examination of the different amino acid transport systems in this hybrid cell line revealed a specific increase of system L activity with no significant changes in systems A and ASC. The Vmax for L-leucine uptake exhibited by the hybrid 158CnpT-1 was twice that in the CHO parental mutant, ts025C1. Cytogenetic analysis showed that the hybrid 158CnpT-1 contains four complete human chromosomes (numbers 4, 5, 10, and 21) and three interspecific chromosomal translocations in a total complement of 34 chromosomes. Biochemical and cytogenetic analysis of segregant clones obtained from hybrid 158CnpT-1 showed that the primary temperature resistance and high system L transport phenotypes can be segregated from this hybrid independently. The loss of the primary temperature resistance was associated with the loss of the human chromosome 5, as previously reported by other laboratories, whereas the loss of the high leucine transport phenotype, which is associated with a lesser degree of temperature resistance, was correlated with the loss of human chromosome 20.

  5. Design of wearable hybrid generator for harvesting heat energy from human body depending on physiological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung-Soo; Kim, Min-Ki; Kim, Kyongtae; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2017-09-01

    We developed a prototype of a wearable hybrid generator (WHG) that is used for harvesting the heat energy of the human body. This WHG is constructed by integrating a thermoelectric generator (TEG) in a circular mesh polyester knit fabric, circular-shaped pyroelectric generator (PEG), and quick sweat-pickup/dry-fabric. The fabric packaging enables the TEG part of the WHG to generate energy steadily while maintaining a temperature difference in extreme temperature environments. Moreover, when the body sweats, the evaporation heat of the sweat leads to thermal fluctuations in the WHG. This phenomenon further leads to an increase in the output power of the WHG. These characteristics of the WHG make it possible to produce electrical energy steadily without reduction in the conversion efficiency, as both TEG and PEG use the same energy source of the human skin and the ambient temperature. Under a temperature difference of ˜6.5 °C and temperature change rate of ˜0.62 °C s-1, the output power and output power density of the WHG, respectively, are ˜4.5 nW and ˜1.5 μW m-2. Our hybrid approach will provide a framework to enhance the output power of the wearable generators that harvest heat energy from human body in various environments.

  6. Sensitivity Analysis of Hybrid Propulsion Transportation System for Human Mars Expeditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Joyce, Ryan T.; Kessler, Paul D.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration continues to develop and refine various transportation options to successfully field a human Mars campaign. One of these transportation options is the Hybrid Transportation System which utilizes both solar electric propulsion and chemical propulsion. The Hybrid propulsion system utilizes chemical propulsion to perform high thrust maneuvers, where the delta-V is most optimal when ap- plied to save time and to leverage the Oberth effect. It then utilizes solar electric propulsion to augment the chemical burns throughout the interplanetary trajectory. This eliminates the need for the development of two separate vehicles for crew and cargo missions. Previous studies considered single point designs of the architecture, with fixed payload mass and propulsion system performance parameters. As the architecture matures, it is inevitable that the payload mass and the performance of the propulsion system will change. It is desirable to understand how these changes will impact the in-space transportation system's mass and power requirements. This study presents an in-depth sensitivity analysis of the Hybrid crew transportation system to payload mass growth and solar electric propulsion performance. This analysis is used to identify the breakpoints of the current architecture and to inform future architecture and campaign design decisions.

  7. Localization of the human OB gene (OBS) to chromosome 7q32 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geffroy, S.; Duban, B.; Martinville, B. de [Universitaire de Lille (France)] [and others

    1995-08-10

    An important gene involved in the pathogenesis of obesity is the product of the human homologue of the murine obese gene (gene symbol OBS). Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we have localized the human OB gene to human chromosome 7, specifically to region 7q32.1. The FISH data of human OBS provide a gene-associated marker for genetic mapping. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  8. First human use of hybrid synthetic/biologic mesh in ventral hernia repair: a multicenter trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, James G; El-Hayek, Kevin; Strong, Andrew T; LaPinska, Melissa Phillips; Yoo, Jin S; Pauli, Eric M; Kroh, Matthew

    2017-07-19

    Mesh options for reinforcement of ventral/incisional hernia (VIH) repair include synthetic or biologic materials. While each material has known advantages and disadvantages, little is understood about outcomes when these materials are used in combination. This multicenter study reports on the first human use of a novel synthetic/biologic hybrid mesh (Zenapro(®) Hybrid Hernia Repair Device) for VIH repair. This prospective, multicenter post-market clinical trial enrolled consecutive adults who underwent elective VIH repair with hybrid mesh placed in the intraperitoneal or retromuscular/preperitoneal position. Patients were classified as Ventral Hernia Working Group (VHWG) grades 1-3 and had clean or clean-contaminated wounds. Outcomes of ventral and incisional hernia were compared using appropriate parametric tests. In all, 63 patients underwent VIH repair with hybrid mesh. Most were females (54.0%), had a mean age of 54.8 ± 10.9 years and mean body mass index of 34.5 ± 7.8 kg/m(2), and classified as VHWG grade 2 (87.3%). Most defects were midline (92.1%) with a mean area of 106 ± 155 cm(2). Cases were commonly classified as clean (92.1%) and were performed laparoscopically (60.3%). Primary fascial closure was achieved in 82.5% with 28.2% requiring component separation. Mesh location was frequently intraperitoneal (69.8%). Overall, 39% of patients available for follow-up at 12 months suffered surgical site events, which were generally more frequent after incisional hernia repair. Of these, seroma (23.7%) was most common, but few (8.5%) required procedural intervention. Other surgical site events that required procedural intervention included hematoma (1.7%), wound dehiscence (1.7%), and surgical site infection (3.4%). Recurrence rate was 6.8% (95% CI 2.2-16.6%) at 12-months postoperatively. Zenapro(®) Hybrid Hernia Repair Device is safe and effective in VHWG grade 1-2 patients with clean wounds out to 12 months. Short-term outcomes and recurrence

  9. A Comparison of the Roche Cobas HPV Test With the Hybrid Capture 2 Test for the Detection of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Genotypes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levi, Angelique W; Bernstein, Jane I; Hui, Pei; Duch, Kara; Schofield, Kevin; Chhieng, David C

    2016-01-01

    All Food and Drug Administration-approved methods in the United States for human papillomavirus testing including the Hybrid Capture 2 human papillomavirus assay and the Roche cobas human papilloma...

  10. Introgressive hybridization of Schistosoma haematobium group species in Senegal: species barrier break down between ruminant and human schistosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie L Webster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomes are dioecious parasitic flatworms, which live in the vasculature of their mammalian definitive hosts. They are the causative agent of schistosomiasis, a disease of considerable medical and veterinary importance in tropical and subtropical regions. Schistosomes undergo a sexual reproductive stage within their mammalian host enabling interactions between different species, which may result in hybridization if the species involved are phylogenetically close. In Senegal, three closely related species in the Schistosoma haematobium group are endemic: S. haematobium, which causes urogenital schistosomiasis in humans, and S. bovis and S. curassoni, which cause intestinal schistosomiasis in cows, sheep and goats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Large-scale multi-loci molecular analysis of parasite samples collected from children and domestic livestock across Senegal revealed that interactions and hybridization were taking place between all three species. Evidence of hybridization between S. haematobium/S. curassoni and S. haematobium/S. bovis was commonly found in children from across Senegal, with 88% of the children surveyed in areas of suspected species overlap excreting hybrid miracidia. No S. haematobium worms or hybrids thereof were found in ruminants, although S. bovis and S. curassoni hybrid worms were found in cows. Complementary experimental mixed species infections in laboratory rodents confirmed that males and females of each species readily pair and produce viable hybrid offspring. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: THESE DATA PROVIDE INDISPUTABLE EVIDENCE FOR: the high occurrence of bidirectional hybridization between these Schistosoma species; the first conclusive evidence for the natural hybridisation between S. haematobium and S. curassoni; and demonstrate that the transmission of the different species and their hybrids appears focal. Hybridization between schistosomes has been known to influence the disease epidemiology

  11. [Detection of DNA human cytomegalovirus of a molecular methods: hybrid capture DNA CMV by immunocompromised].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhiri, Leila; Arrouji, Zakia; Slim, Amine; Ben Redjeb, Saida

    2006-10-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a member of the beta-virus herpes family, is a ubiquitous human pathogen. After a primary infection, HCMV establishes life latency. HCMV rarely causes symptomatic disease in an immunocompetent host, however, it is a major cause of infectious morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals and developing fetuses. The HCMV genome consists of 240 kbp of double stranded DNA. Early diagnosis molecular of CMV infection is important. The objective of this study was to develop a molecular methods: Quantitative Hybrid capture for the detection of DNA CMV. We present results for 200 immunocompromised collected from 1999 to 2003 (122 men and 78 women, whom mean age was 35 years). Our results showed that 25% of women and 36% of men were positif for hybrid capture DNA CMV. This simple test (cold probe) provide quantitative and fast results. Also the efficacity of anti-CMV therapy can be followed. More over, in contrary with pp65-antigenemia assay and CMV PCR, this test can be managed on biopsy sample.

  12. Molecular paleoparasitological hybridization approach as effective tool for diagnosing human intestinal parasites from scarce archaeological remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2014-01-01

    Paleoparasitology is the science that uses parasitological techniques for diagnosing parasitic diseases in the past. Advances in molecular biology brought new insights into this field allowing the study of archaeological material. However, due to technical limitations a proper diagnosis and confirmation of the presence of parasites is not always possible, especially in scarce and degraded archaeological remains. In this study, we developed a Molecular Paleoparasitological Hybridization (MPH) approach using ancient DNA (aDNA) hybridization to confirm and complement paleoparasitological diagnosis. Eight molecular targets from four helminth parasites were included: Ascaris sp., Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, and Strongyloides stercoralis. The MPH analysis using 18th century human remains from Praça XV cemetery (CPXV), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, revealed for the first time the presence E. vermicularis aDNA (50%) in archaeological sites of Brazil. Besides, the results confirmed T. trichiura and Ascaris sp. infections. The prevalence of infection by Ascaris sp. and E. vermicularis increased considerably when MPH was applied. However, a lower aDNA detection of T. trichiura (40%) was observed when compared to the diagnosis by paleoparasitological analysis (70%). Therefore, based on these data, we suggest a combination of Paleoparasitological and MPH approaches to verify the real panorama of intestinal parasite infection in human archeological samples.

  13. Eye-hand Hybrid Gesture Recognition System for Human Machine Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Raajan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Gesture Recognition has become a way for computers to recognise and understand human body language. They bridge the gap between machines and human beings and make the primitive interfaces like keyboards and mice redundant. This paper suggests a hybrid gesture recognition system for computer interface and wireless robot control. The real-time eye-hand gesture recognition system can be used for computer drawing, navigating cursors and simulating mouse clicks, playing games, controlling a wireless robot with commands and more. The robot illustrated in this paper is controlled by RF module. Playing a PING-PONG game has also been demonstrated using the gestures. The Haar cascade classifiers and template matching are used to detect eye gestures and convex hull for finding the defects and counting the number of fingers in the given region.

  14. A hybrid neural network system for prediction and recognition of promoter regions in human genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chuan-bo; LI Tao

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a high specificity and sensitivity algorithm called PromPredictor for recognizing promoter regions in the human genome. PromPredictor extracts compositional features and CpG islands information from genomic sequence,feeding these features as input for a hybrid neural network system (HNN) and then applies the HNN for prediction. It combines a novel promoter recognition model, coding theory, feature selection and dimensionality reduction with machine learning algorithm.Evaluation on Human chromosome 22 was ~66% in sensitivity and ~48% in specificity. Comparison with two other systems revealed that our method had superior sensitivity and specificity in predicting promoter regions. PromPredictor is written in MATLAB and requires Matlab to run. PromPredictor is freely available at http://www.whtelecom.com/Prompredictor.htm.

  15. Expression of a Hybrid Human Superoxide Dismutase with a High Affinity for Heparin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A designed heparin-affinity of human Cu, Zn-SOD is described. The natural leader peptide of P.leiognathi Cu, Zn-SOD and a heparin-binding peptide containing a stretch of 7 Arg were fused to the N-terminal and the C-terminal of human Cu, Zn-SOD respectively. The resulted hybrid enzyme had not only a normal SOD activity but also a high affinity for heparin eluted on the heparin-Sepharose column at 0.4 mol/L NaCl. Some properties, such as the optimum pH, the thermostability and the half-life in the circulation of rats, were also analyzed.

  16. Pattern Recognition in Collective Cognitive Systems: Hybrid Human-Machine Learning (HHML) By Heterogeneous Ensembles

    CERN Document Server

    Dashti, Hesam T; Siahpirani, Alireza F; Tonejc, Jernej; Uilecan, Ioan V; Simas, Tiago; Miranda, Bruno; Ribeiro, Rita; Wang, Liya; Assadi, Amir H

    2010-01-01

    The ubiquitous role of the cyber-infrastructures, such as the WWW, provides myriad opportunities for machine learning and its broad spectrum of application domains taking advantage of digital communication. Pattern classification and feature extraction are among the first applications of machine learning that have received extensive attention. The most remarkable achievements have addressed data sets of moderate-to-large size. The 'data deluge' in the last decade or two has posed new challenges for AI researchers to design new, effective and accurate algorithms for similar tasks using ultra-massive data sets and complex (natural or synthetic) dynamical systems. We propose a novel principled approach to feature extraction in hybrid architectures comprised of humans and machines in networked communication, who collaborate to solve a pre-assigned pattern recognition (feature extraction) task. There are two practical considerations addressed below: (1) Human experts, such as plant biologists or astronomers, often...

  17. Controlled release of human growth hormone fused with a human hybrid Fc fragment through a nanoporous polymer membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eung-Sam; Jang, Do Soo; Yang, Seung Yun; Lee, Mi Nam; Jin, Kyeong Sik; Cha, Hyung Jin; Kim, Jin Kon; Sung, Young Chul; Choi, Kwan Yong

    2013-05-01

    Nanotechnology has been applied to the development of more effective and compatible drug delivery systems for therapeutic proteins. Human growth hormone (hGH) was fused with a hybrid Fc fragment containing partial Fc domains of human IgD and IgG4 to produce a long-acting fusion protein. The fusion protein, hGH-hyFc, resulted in the increase of the hydrodynamic diameter (ca. 11 nm) compared with the diameter (ca. 5 nm) of the recombinant hGH. A diblock copolymer membrane with nanopores (average diameter of 14.3 nm) exhibited a constant release rate of hGH-hyFc. The hGH-hyFc protein released in a controlled manner for one month was found to trigger the phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) in human B lymphocyte and to exhibit an almost identical circular dichroism spectrum to that of the original hGH-hyFc, suggesting that the released fusion protein should maintain the functional and structural integrity of hGH. Thus, the nanoporous release device could be a potential delivery system for the long-term controlled release of therapeutic proteins fused with the hybrid Fc fragment.Nanotechnology has been applied to the development of more effective and compatible drug delivery systems for therapeutic proteins. Human growth hormone (hGH) was fused with a hybrid Fc fragment containing partial Fc domains of human IgD and IgG4 to produce a long-acting fusion protein. The fusion protein, hGH-hyFc, resulted in the increase of the hydrodynamic diameter (ca. 11 nm) compared with the diameter (ca. 5 nm) of the recombinant hGH. A diblock copolymer membrane with nanopores (average diameter of 14.3 nm) exhibited a constant release rate of hGH-hyFc. The hGH-hyFc protein released in a controlled manner for one month was found to trigger the phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) in human B lymphocyte and to exhibit an almost identical circular dichroism spectrum to that of the original hGH-hyFc, suggesting that the released fusion protein should maintain the functional and

  18. The UF family of hybrid phantoms of the developing human fetus for computational radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, Matthew R; Geyer, John W; Bolch, Wesley [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Aris, John P [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Shifrin, Roger Y, E-mail: wbolch@ufl.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2011-08-07

    Historically, the development of computational phantoms for radiation dosimetry has primarily been directed at capturing and representing adult and pediatric anatomy, with less emphasis devoted to models of the human fetus. As concern grows over possible radiation-induced cancers from medical and non-medical exposures of the pregnant female, the need to better quantify fetal radiation doses, particularly at the organ-level, also increases. Studies such as the European Union's SOLO (Epidemiological Studies of Exposed Southern Urals Populations) hope to improve our understanding of cancer risks following chronic in utero radiation exposure. For projects such as SOLO, currently available fetal anatomic models do not provide sufficient anatomical detail for organ-level dose assessment. To address this need, two fetal hybrid computational phantoms were constructed using high-quality magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography image sets obtained for two well-preserved fetal specimens aged 11.5 and 21 weeks post-conception. Individual soft tissue organs, bone sites and outer body contours were segmented from these images using 3D-DOCTOR(TM) and then imported to the 3D modeling software package Rhinoceros(TM) for further modeling and conversion of soft tissue organs, certain bone sites and outer body contours to deformable non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces. The two specimen-specific phantoms, along with a modified version of the 38 week UF hybrid newborn phantom, comprised a set of base phantoms from which a series of hybrid computational phantoms was derived for fetal ages 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 38 weeks post-conception. The methodology used to construct the series of phantoms accounted for the following age-dependent parameters: (1) variations in skeletal size and proportion, (2) bone-dependent variations in relative levels of bone growth, (3) variations in individual organ masses and total fetal masses and (4) statistical percentile variations

  19. The UF family of hybrid phantoms of the developing human fetus for computational radiation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Matthew R.; Geyer, John W.; Aris, John P.; Shifrin, Roger Y.; Bolch, Wesley

    2011-08-01

    Historically, the development of computational phantoms for radiation dosimetry has primarily been directed at capturing and representing adult and pediatric anatomy, with less emphasis devoted to models of the human fetus. As concern grows over possible radiation-induced cancers from medical and non-medical exposures of the pregnant female, the need to better quantify fetal radiation doses, particularly at the organ-level, also increases. Studies such as the European Union's SOLO (Epidemiological Studies of Exposed Southern Urals Populations) hope to improve our understanding of cancer risks following chronic in utero radiation exposure. For projects such as SOLO, currently available fetal anatomic models do not provide sufficient anatomical detail for organ-level dose assessment. To address this need, two fetal hybrid computational phantoms were constructed using high-quality magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography image sets obtained for two well-preserved fetal specimens aged 11.5 and 21 weeks post-conception. Individual soft tissue organs, bone sites and outer body contours were segmented from these images using 3D-DOCTOR™ and then imported to the 3D modeling software package Rhinoceros™ for further modeling and conversion of soft tissue organs, certain bone sites and outer body contours to deformable non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces. The two specimen-specific phantoms, along with a modified version of the 38 week UF hybrid newborn phantom, comprised a set of base phantoms from which a series of hybrid computational phantoms was derived for fetal ages 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 38 weeks post-conception. The methodology used to construct the series of phantoms accounted for the following age-dependent parameters: (1) variations in skeletal size and proportion, (2) bone-dependent variations in relative levels of bone growth, (3) variations in individual organ masses and total fetal masses and (4) statistical percentile variations in

  20. The politics of death in Mexico: dislocating human rights and asylum law through hybrid agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadna Estévez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 Mexico’s then-president Felipe Calderón declared war on drug trafficking. The human toll was devastating with the loss of over 95,000 lives and the forced disappearance of more than 27,000 people. In addition, two percent of the Mexican population was displaced with families forced to flee their homes in the face of criminal violence. This article offers an explanation of how death, forced disappearances, persecution and exile are in essence the specific effects of governmentalization of the Mexican state. This govern­mentalization includes the shared use, by criminals and authorities, of techniques for dominating the population and controlling the conduct of citizens through the practices of death, that is, by employing the politics of death (necropolitics. The article goes on to discuss how the objectives, rationality and governmentalization of the State serve to dislocate human rights discourse in such a way that its truth politics excludes people suffering serious human rights violations, such as Mexican asylum seekers. This is accompanied by a new mode of subjectivity produced by Mexico's politics of death – the Endriago subject – which operates as a hybrid perpetrator of human rights violations.

  1. An improved method for producing radiation hybrids applied to human chromosome 19. Technical progress report, March 1, 1991--February 28, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, C.L.

    1992-04-01

    At the initiation of the grant we had just produced radiation hybrids from a monochromosomal microcell hybrid containing human chromosome 19 as its only human component. Radiation hybrids were produced using doses of radiation ranging from 1000--8000 rads. Lethally irradiated cells were then fused to hamster recipients (CHTG49) and selected for growth in histidinol. Approximately 240 clones were isolated and 75 clones were expanded for the isolation of DNA. This report describes in situ hybridization studies and the introduction of markers into human chromosome 19.

  2. Joint Human-Robot Action: Virtual Intentionality and Hybrid Human-Robot Cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2009-01-01

    How must we understand joint action between humans and robots? Responding to Knoblich & Sebanz (2008) I ask the question if robots would meet he conditions for joint action prescribed by standard theories. On such accounts, it seems, (present) robots do not have intentions, so it seems only 'assymet

  3. Human secreted carbonic anhydrase: cDNA cloning, nucleotide sequence, and hybridization histochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldred, P.; Fu, Ping; Barrett, G.; Penschow, J.D.; Wright, R.D.; Coghlan, J.P.; Fernley, R.T. (The Howard Florey Institute of Experimental Physiology and Medicine, Parkville, Victoria (Australia))

    1991-01-01

    Complementary DNA clones coding for the human secreted carbonic anhydrase isozyme (CAVI) have been isolated and their nucleotide sequences determined. These clones identify a 1.45-kb mRNA that is present in high levels in parotid submandibular salivary glands but absent in other tissues such as the sublingual gland, kidney, liver, and prostate gland. Hybridization histochemistry of human salivary glands shows mRNA for CA VI located in the acinar cells of these glands. The cDNA clones encode a protein of 308 amino acids that includes a 17 amino acid leader sequence typical of secreted proteins. The mature protein has 291 amino acids compared to 259 or 260 for the cytoplasmic isozymes, with most of the extra amino acids present as a carboxyl terminal extension. In comparison, sheep CA VI has a 45 amino acid extension. Overall the human CA VI protein has a sequence identity of 35 {percent} with human CA II, while residues involved in the active site of the enzymes have been conserved. The human and sheep secreted carbonic anhydrases have a sequence identity of 72 {percent}. This includes the two cysteine residues that are known to be involved in an intramolecular disulfide bond in the sheep CA VI. The enzyme is known to be glycosylated and three potential N-glycosylation sites (Asn-X-Thr/Ser) have been identified. Two of these are known to be glycosylated in sheep CA VI. Southern analysis of human DNA indicates that there is only one gene coding for CA VI.

  4. Identification of up-regulated genes in human uterine leiomyoma by suppression subtractive hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In searching for differentially expressed genes in human uterine leiomyomas (ULs), suppression sub-tractive hybridization was used to construct an UL up-regulated library, which turned out to represent 88genes. After two rounds of screening by reverse Northern analysis, twenty genes were proved to be up-regulated, including seventeen known genes and three genes with unknown function. All these genes werefirstly associated with UL. Three genes with notable difference were selected for Northern confirmationOur results proved the authenticity of the twenty genes. One gene named Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) showedup-regulation in 4/6 of the patients and investigation of tissue distribution indicated that it had obviousexpression in prostate, testis, liver, heart and skeletal muscle.

  5. Two novel EHEC/EAEC hybrid strains isolated from human infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Prager

    Full Text Available The so far highest number of life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome was associated with a food-borne outbreak in 2011 in Germany which was caused by an enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC of the rare serotype O104:H4. Most importantly, the outbreak strain harbored genes characteristic of both EHEC and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC. Such strains have been described seldom but due to the combination of virulence genes show a high pathogenicity potential. To evaluate the importance of EHEC/EAEC hybrid strains in human disease, we analyzed the EHEC strain collection of the German National Reference Centre for Salmonella and other Bacterial Enteric Pathogens (NRC. After exclusion of O104:H4 EHEC/EAEC strains, out of about 2400 EHEC strains sent to NRC between 2008 and 2012, two strains exhibited both EHEC and EAEC marker genes, specifically were stx2 and aatA positive. Like the 2011 outbreak strain, one of the novel EHEC/EAEC harbored the Shiga toxin gene type stx2a. The strain was isolated from a patient with bloody diarrhea in 2010, was serotyped as O59:H-, belonged to MLST ST1136, and exhibited genes for type IV aggregative adherence fimbriae (AAF. The second strain was isolated from a patient with diarrhea in 2012, harbored stx2b, was typed as Orough:H-, and belonged to MLST ST26. Although the strain conferred the aggregative adherence phenotype, no known AAF genes corresponding to fimbrial types I to V were detected. In summary, EHEC/EAEC hybrid strains are currently rarely isolated from human disease cases in Germany and two novel EHEC/EAEC of rare serovars/MLST sequence types were characterized.

  6. A multi-sensorial hybrid control for robotic manipulation in human-robot workspaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomares, Jorge; Perea, Ivan; García, Gabriel J; Jara, Carlos A; Corrales, Juan A; Torres, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Autonomous manipulation in semi-structured environments where human operators can interact is an increasingly common task in robotic applications. This paper describes an intelligent multi-sensorial approach that solves this issue by providing a multi-robotic platform with a high degree of autonomy and the capability to perform complex tasks. The proposed sensorial system is composed of a hybrid visual servo control to efficiently guide the robot towards the object to be manipulated, an inertial motion capture system and an indoor localization system to avoid possible collisions between human operators and robots working in the same workspace, and a tactile sensor algorithm to correctly manipulate the object. The proposed controller employs the whole multi-sensorial system and combines the measurements of each one of the used sensors during two different phases considered in the robot task: a first phase where the robot approaches the object to be grasped, and a second phase of manipulation of the object. In both phases, the unexpected presence of humans is taken into account. This paper also presents the successful results obtained in several experimental setups which verify the validity of the proposed approach.

  7. A Multi-Sensorial Hybrid Control for Robotic Manipulation in Human-Robot Workspaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Corrales

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous manipulation in semi-structured environments where human operators can interact is an increasingly common task in robotic applications. This paper describes an intelligent multi-sensorial approach that solves this issue by providing a multi-robotic platform with a high degree of autonomy and the capability to perform complex tasks. The proposed sensorial system is composed of a hybrid visual servo control to efficiently guide the robot towards the object to be manipulated, an inertial motion capture system and an indoor localization system to avoid possible collisions between human operators and robots working in the same workspace, and a tactile sensor algorithm to correctly manipulate the object. The proposed controller employs the whole multi-sensorial system and combines the measurements of each one of the used sensors during two different phases considered in the robot task: a first phase where the robot approaches the object to be grasped, and a second phase of manipulation of the object. In both phases, the unexpected presence of humans is taken into account. This paper also presents the successful results obtained in several experimental setups which verify the validity of the proposed approach.

  8. Adaptation of hybrid human-computer interaction systems using EEG error-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Biasiucci, Andrea; Forster, Killian; Roggen, Daniel; Troster, Gerhard; Millan, Jose Del R

    2010-01-01

    Performance improvement in both humans and artificial systems strongly relies in the ability of recognizing erroneous behavior or decisions. This paper, that builds upon previous studies on EEG error-related signals, presents a hybrid approach for human computer interaction that uses human gestures to send commands to a computer and exploits brain activity to provide implicit feedback about the recognition of such commands. Using a simple computer game as a case study, we show that EEG activity evoked by erroneous gesture recognition can be classified in single trials above random levels. Automatic artifact rejection techniques are used, taking into account that subjects are allowed to move during the experiment. Moreover, we present a simple adaptation mechanism that uses the EEG signal to label newly acquired samples and can be used to re-calibrate the gesture recognition system in a supervised manner. Offline analysis show that, although the achieved EEG decoding accuracy is far from being perfect, these signals convey sufficient information to significantly improve the overall system performance.

  9. Hybrid Capture 2 and cobas human papillomavirus assays perform similarly on SurePath samples from women with abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fornari, D; Rebolj, M; Bjerregaard, B

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In two laboratories (Departments of Pathology, Copenhagen University Hospitals of Herlev and Hvidovre), we compared cobas and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) human papillomavirus (HPV) assays using SurePath® samples from women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) at...

  10. Construction of a metastasis-associated gene subtracted cDNA library of human colorectal carcinoma by suppression subtraction hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Liang; Yan-Qing Ding; Xin Li; Guang-Zhi Yang; Jun Xiao; Li-Chun Lu; Jin-Hua Zhang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To construct a differentially-expressed gene subtracted cDNA library from two colorectal carcinoma (CRC) cell lines with different metastatic phenotypes by suppression subtractive hybridization.METHODS: Two cell lines of human CRC from the same patient were used. SW620 cell line showing highly metastatic potential was regarded as tester in the forward subtractive hybridization, while SW480 cell line with lowly metastatic potential was treated as tester in the reverse hybridization. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH)was employed to obtain cDNA fragments of differentially expressed genes for the metastasis of CRC. These fragments were ligated with T vectors, screened through the bluewhite screening system to establish cDNA library.RESULTS: After the blue-white screening, 235 white clones were picked out from the positive-going hybridization and 232 from the reverse. PCR results showed that 200-700 bp inserts were seen in 98% and 91% clones from the forward and reverse hybridizations, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: A subtractive cDNA library of differentially expressed genes specific for metastasis of CRC can be constructed with SSH and T/A cloning techniques.

  11. Interspecies comparative genome hybridization and interspecies representational difference analysis reveal gross DNA differences between humans and great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toder, R; Xia, Y; Bausch, E

    1998-09-01

    Comparative chromosome G-/R-banding, comparative gene mapping and chromosome painting techniques have demonstrated that only few chromosomal rearrangements occurred during great ape and human evolution. Interspecies comparative genome hybridization (CGH), used here in this study, between human, gorilla and pygmy chimpanzee revealed species-specific regions in all three species. In contrast to the human, a far more complex distribution of species-specific blocks was detected with CGH in gorilla and pygmy chimpanzee. Most of these blocks coincide with already described heterochromatic regions on gorilla and chimpanzee chromosomes. Representational difference analysis (RDA) was used to subtract the complex genome of gorilla against human in order to enrich gorilla-specific DNA sequences. Gorilla-specific clones isolated with this technique revealed a 32-bp repeat unit. These clones were mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to the telomeric regions of gorilla chromosomes that had been shown by interspecies CGH to contain species-specific sequences.

  12. Robust Intelligence (RI) under uncertainty: Mathematical foundations of autonomous hybrid (human-machine-robot) teams, organizations and systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lawless, William F.

    2013-01-01

    To develop a theory of Robust Intelligence (RI), we continue to advance our theory of interdependence on the efficient and effective control of systems of autonomous hybrid teams composed of robots, machines and humans working interchangeably. As is the case with humans, we believe that RI is less likely to be achieved by individual computational agents; instead, we propose that a better path to RI is with interdependent agents. However, unlike conventional computational models where agents a...

  13. Three-dimensional hierarchical cultivation of human skin cells on bio-adaptive hybrid fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planz, Viktoria; Seif, Salem; Atchison, Jennifer S; Vukosavljevic, Branko; Sparenberg, Lisa; Kroner, Elmar; Windbergs, Maike

    2016-07-11

    The human skin comprises a complex multi-scale layered structure with hierarchical organization of different cells within the extracellular matrix (ECM). This supportive fiber-reinforced structure provides a dynamically changing microenvironment with specific topographical, mechanical and biochemical cell recognition sites to facilitate cell attachment and proliferation. Current advances in developing artificial matrices for cultivation of human cells concentrate on surface functionalizing of biocompatible materials with different biomolecules like growth factors to enhance cell attachment. However, an often neglected aspect for efficient modulation of cell-matrix interactions is posed by the mechanical characteristics of such artificial matrices. To address this issue, we fabricated biocompatible hybrid fibers simulating the complex biomechanical characteristics of native ECM in human skin. Subsequently, we analyzed interactions of such fibers with human skin cells focusing on the identification of key fiber characteristics for optimized cell-matrix interactions. We successfully identified the mediating effect of bio-adaptive elasto-plastic stiffness paired with hydrophilic surface properties as key factors for cell attachment and proliferation, thus elucidating the synergistic role of these parameters to induce cellular responses. Co-cultivation of fibroblasts and keratinocytes on such fiber mats representing the specific cells in dermis and epidermis resulted in a hierarchical organization of dermal and epidermal tissue layers. In addition, terminal differentiation of keratinocytes at the air interface was observed. These findings provide valuable new insights into cell behaviour in three-dimensional structures and cell-material interactions which can be used for rational development of bio-inspired functional materials for advanced biomedical applications.

  14. Simulated human patients and patient-centredness: The uncanny hybridity of nursing education, technology, and learning to care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Aileen V

    2017-01-01

    Positioned within a hybrid of the human and technology, professional nursing practice has always occupied a space that is more than human. In nursing education, technology is central in providing tools with which practice knowledge is mobilized so that students can safely engage with simulated human patients without causing harm to real people. However, while there is an increased emphasis on deploying these simulated humans as emissaries from person-centred care to demonstrate what it is like to care for real humans, the nature of what is really going on in simulation-what is real and what is simulated-is very rarely discussed and poorly understood. This paper explores how elements of postcolonial critical thought can aid in understanding the challenges of educating nurses to provide person-centred care within a healthcare culture that is increasingly reliant on technology. Because nursing education is itself a hybrid of real and simulated practice, it provides an appropriate case study to explore the philosophical question of technology in healthcare discourse, particularly as it relates to the relationship between the human patient and its uncanny simulated double. Drawing on postcolonial elements such as the uncanny, diaspora, hybridity, and créolité, the hybrid conditions of nursing education are examined in order to open up new possibilities of thinking about how learning to care is entangled with this technological space to assist in shaping professional knowledge of person-centred care. Considering these issues through a postcolonial lens opens up questions about the nature of the difficulty in using simulated human technologies in clinical education, particularly with the paradoxical aim of providing person-centred care within a climate that increasingly characterized as posthuman. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Isolation and characterization of a human apoptosis-inducing gene with yeast two-hybrid system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐兵; 齐义鹏; Masuo; Yutsudo; 刘青珍

    2000-01-01

    asy gene is a novel apoptosis-inducing gene, but its mechanism is unclear. To investigate the mechanism of asy inducing apoptosis, a novel gene encoding ASY interacting protein (asyip) is isolated from human lung cell line (WI-38) cDNA library with yeast two-hybrid system. The asyip gene is constitutively expressed as two mRNA transcripts with the size of 1.8 and 2.7 kb in various human tissues at different levels. Sequence analysis of full-length cDNA reveals that the two alternative transcripts of asyip gene contain common 5’ end and different 3’ end, and share a common open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 236 amino acids. Two protein kinase C phosphorylation sites and two casein kinase II phosphorylation sites are found in ASYIP amino acid sequence. Two highly hydrophobic regions encoding potentially two transmembrane domains are present. The ASYIP protein contains a C-terminal endoplasmic reticulum retrieval signal (Lys-Lys-Lys-Ala-Glu). Immunoprecipitation assay confirmed the interaction of

  16. Isolation and characterization of a human apoptosis-inducing gene with yeast two-hybrid system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    asy gene is a novel apoptosis-inducing gene,but its mechanism is unclear.To investigate the mechanism of asy inducing apoptosis,a novel gene encoding ASY interacting protein (asyip) is isolated from human lung cell line (WI-38) cDNA library with yeast two-hybrid system.The asyip gene is constitutively expressed as two mRNA transcripts with the size of 1.8 and 2.7 kb in various human tissues at different levels.Sequence analysis of full-length cDNA reveals that the two alternative transcripts of asyip gene contain common 5' end and different 3' end,and share a common open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 236 amino acids.Two protein kinase C phosphorylation sites and two casein kinase II phosphorylation sites are found in ASYIP amino acid sequence.Two highly hydrophobic regions encoding potentially two transmembrane domains are present.The ASYIP protein contains a C-terminal endoplasmic reticulum retrieval signal (Lys-Lys-Lys-Ala-Glu).Immunoprecipitation assay confirmed the interaction of ASY and ASYIP in mammalian cells.Compared with asy gene,overexpression of asyip gene can inhibit growth of tumor cell Saos2 and induce cell apoptosis with a low efficiency.

  17. Helminths of wild hybrid marmosets (Callithrix sp. living in an environment with high human activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Oliveira Tavela

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the helminth fauna in hybrid, non-native marmosets, through analysis of fecal samples. The study involved 51 marmosets (genus Callithrix from five groups living in places with levels of human impact in Viçosa-MG. The marmosets were caught using a multiple-entrance trap and were anaesthetized. Feces were collected, refrigerated and analyzed by means of the sedimentation technique (Hoffmann-Pons-Janner. Eggs and parasites were identified, but not counted. Most of the marmosets (86% were parasitized by at least one genus of helminths. Among the infected marmosets, 37% presented co-infection. The intestinal helminths comprised four different taxa: Primasubulura jacchi, Ancylostomatidae, Prosthenorchis sp. and Dilepididae.P. jacchi and Ancylostomatidae had higher prevalences (> 80% and > 40%, respectively and were found in all marmoset groups. Dilepididae species were found in almost all the groups, but only accounted for around 30% of the marmosets. Prosthenorchis sp. showed a relatively low prevalence (< 10% and was only found in one group. Although two parasites are commonly found in marmosets and other primates (P. jacchi and Prosthenorchis sp., our study is the first record for Ancylostomatidae and Dilepididae. Factors like marmosets' feeding behavior and their contact with humans and other species of nonhuman primates seem to be determinants of infection among marmosets.

  18. Cross-species hybridization of woodchuck hepatitis virus-induced hepatocellular carcinoma using human oligonucleotide microarrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul W Anderson; Bud C Tennant; Zhenghong Lee

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To demonstrate the feasibility of using woodchuck samples on human microarrays, to provide insight into pathways involving positron emission tomography (PET) imaging tracers and to identify genes that could be potential molecular imaging targets for woodchuck hepatocellular carcinoma.METHODS: Labeled cRNA from woodchuck tissue samples were hybridized to Affymetrix U133 plus 2.0 GeneChips(R). Ten genes were selected for validation using quantitative RT-PCR and literature review was made.RESULTS: Testis enhanced gene transcript (BAX Inhibitor 1), alpha-fetoprotein, isocitrate dehydrogenase 3 (NAD+) beta, acetyl-CoA synthetase 2, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2, and N-myc2 were up-regulated and spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase was down-regulated in the woodchuck HCC. We also found previously published results supporting 8 of the 10 most up-regulated genes and all 10 of the 10 most downregulated genes.CONCLUSION: Many of our microarray results were validated using RT-PCR or literature search. Hence, we believe that woodchuck HCC and non-cancerous liver samples can be used on human microarrays to yield meaningful results.

  19. Hybrid mathematical model of cardiomyocyte turnover in the adult human heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy A Elser

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: The capacity for cardiomyocyte regeneration in the healthy adult human heart is fundamentally relevant for both myocardial homeostasis and cardiomyopathy therapeutics. However, estimates of cardiomyocyte turnover rates conflict greatly, with a study employing C14 pulse-chase methodology concluding 1% annual turnover in youth declining to 0.5% with aging and another using cell population dynamics indicating substantial, age-increasing turnover (4% increasing to 20%. OBJECTIVE: Create a hybrid mathematical model to critically examine rates of cardiomyocyte turnover derived from alternative methodologies. METHODS AND RESULTS: Examined in isolation, the cell population analysis exhibited severe sensitivity to a stem cell expansion exponent (20% variation causing 2-fold turnover change and apoptosis rate. Similarly, the pulse-chase model was acutely sensitive to assumptions of instantaneous incorporation of atmospheric C14 into the body (4-fold impact on turnover in young subjects while numerical restrictions precluded otherwise viable solutions. Incorporating considerations of primary variable sensitivity and controversial model assumptions, an unbiased numerical solver identified a scenario of significant, age-increasing turnover (4-6% increasing to 15-22% with age that was compatible with data from both studies, provided that successive generations of cardiomyocytes experienced higher attrition rates than predecessors. CONCLUSIONS: Assignment of histologically-observed stem/progenitor cells into discrete regenerative phenotypes in the cell population model strongly influenced turnover dynamics without being directly testable. Alternatively, C14 trafficking assumptions and restrictive models in the pulse-chase model artificially eliminated high-turnover solutions. Nevertheless, discrepancies among recent cell turnover estimates can be explained and reconciled. The hybrid mathematical model provided herein permits further examination of

  20. Diagnosis of human papillomatosis by polymerase chain reaction in cases of divergence between results of hybrid capture and papanicolaou cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Garcez Novaes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As various types of human papillomavirus (HPV are involved in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer, correct diagnosis is of fundamental importance for screening programs. We evaluated the divergence of results between Papanicolaou cytology and hybrid capture by PCR detection of HPV DNA . A transversal study was conducted on 70 women attending private gynecological clinics in Brasilia, Brazil. PCRs were conducted with specific primers for general and high-risk HPV DNA. Based on the PCR results, hybrid capture was a superior diagnostic technique. When Papanicolaou was compared with the molecular biology methods, it was found that a positive Papanicolaou result does not necessarily indicate the presence of HPV. The agreement between PCR and hybrid capture results can be attributed to the fact that both methods detect latent infection, while Papanicolaou detects only microscopic cellular alterations.

  1. Gold Nano Popcorn Attached SWCNT Hybrid Nanomaterial for Targeted Diagnosis and Photothermal Therapy of Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beqa, Lule; Fan, Zhen; Singh, Anant Kumar; Senapati, Dulal; Ray, Paresh Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer presents greatest challenge in health care in today’s world. The key to ultimately successful treatment of breast cancer disease is an early and accurate diagnosis. Current breast cancer treatments are often associated with severe side effects. Driven by the need, we report the design of novel hybrid nanomaterial using gold nano popcorn-attached single wall carbon nanotube for targeted diagnosis and selective photothermal treatment. Targeted SK-BR-3 human breast cancer cell sensing have been performed in 10 cancer cells/mL level, using surface enhanced Raman scattering of single walls carbon nanotube’s D and G bands. Our data show that S6 aptamer attached hybrid nanomaterial based SERS assay is highly sensitive to targeted human breast cancer SK-BR-3 cell line and it will be able to distinguish it from other non targeted MDA-MB breast cancer cell line and HaCaT normal skin cell line. Our results also show that 10 minutes of photothermal therapy treatment by 1.5 W/cm2 power, 785 nm laser is enough to kill cancer cells very effectively using S6 aptamer attached hybrid nanomaterials. Possible mechanisms for targeted sensing and operating principle for highly efficient photothermal therapy have been discussed. Our experimental results reported here open up a new possibility for using aptamers modified hybrid nanomaterial for reliable diagnosis and targeted therapy of cancer cell lines quickly. PMID:21842867

  2. Gold nano-popcorn attached SWCNT hybrid nanomaterial for targeted diagnosis and photothermal therapy of human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beqa, Lule; Fan, Zhen; Singh, Anant Kumar; Senapati, Dulal; Ray, Paresh Chandra

    2011-09-01

    Breast cancer presents greatest challenge in health care in today's world. The key to ultimately successful treatment of breast cancer disease is an early and accurate diagnosis. Current breast cancer treatments are often associated with severe side effects. Driven by the need, we report the design of novel hybrid nanomaterial using gold nano popcorn-attached single wall carbon nanotube for targeted diagnosis and selective photothermal treatment. Targeted SK-BR-3 human breast cancer cell sensing have been performed in 10 cancer cells/mL level, using surface enhanced Raman scattering of single walls carbon nanotube's D and G bands. Our data show that S6 aptamer attached hybrid nanomaterial based SERS assay is highly sensitive to targeted human breast cancer SK-BR-3 cell line and it will be able to distinguish it from other non targeted MDA-MB breast cancer cell line and HaCaT normal skin cell line. Our results also show that 10 min of photothermal therapy treatment by 1.5 W/cm(2) power, 785 nm laser is enough to kill cancer cells very effectively using S6 aptamer attached hybrid nanomaterials. Possible mechanisms for targeted sensing and operating principle for highly efficient photothermal therapy have been discussed. Our experimental results reported here open up a new possibility for using aptamers modified hybrid nanomaterial for reliable diagnosis and targeted therapy of cancer cell lines quickly.

  3. Detection of human papillomavirus in pterygium and conjunctival papilloma by hybrid capture II and PCR assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Y; Kubo, E; Tsuzuki, S; Akagi, Y

    2008-11-01

    To elucidate the putative role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in pterygium and conjunctival papilloma. Hybrid capture II (HC-II) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were performed to detect HPV in pterygium (42 samples obtained from 40 patients) and conjunctival papilloma (8 samples from 6 patients). The amount of HPV DNA was evaluated by measurement of relative light units (RLUs) on a luminometer. All papilloma samples were positive for HPV DNA by PCR and HC-II. The RLU values for specimens of recurrent and re-recurrent papilloma were markedly higher than those for specimens of primary lesions. HPV was detected by PCR in 2 of 42 (4.8%) beta-globin-positive pterygium specimens, whereas HC-II showed that HPV was negative in all pterygium samples. Our results support the hypothesis that HPV DNA is associated with the pathogenesis of conjunctival papilloma, but not pterygium. RLU measurement by HC-II may serve as a marker for evaluating the activity of HPV in conjunctival tumours.

  4. The Red Queen in mitochondria: cyto-nuclear co-evolution, hybrid breakdown and human disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Yu eChou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyto-nuclear incompatibility, a specific form of Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibility caused by incompatible alleles between mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, has been suggested to play a critical role during speciation. Several features of the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA, including high mutation rate, dynamic genomic structure, and uniparental inheritance, make mtDNA more likely to accumulate mutations in the population. Once mtDNA has changed, the nuclear genome needs to play catch-up due to the intimate interactions between these two genomes. In two populations, if cyto-nuclear co-evolution is driven in different directions, it may eventually lead to hybrid incompatibility. Although cyto-nuclear incompatibility has been observed in a wide range of organisms, it remains unclear what type of mutations drives the co-evolution. Currently, evidence supporting adaptive mutations in mtDNA remains limited. On the other hand, it has been known that some mutations allow mtDNA to propagate more efficiently but compromise the host fitness (described as selfish mtDNA. Arms races between such selfish mtDNA and host nuclear genomes can accelerate cyto-nuclear co-evolution and lead to a phenomenon called the Red Queen Effect. Here, we discuss how the Red Queen Effect may contribute to the frequent observation of cyto-nuclear incompatibility and be the underlying driving force of some human mitochondrial diseases.

  5. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in the genital tract determined by hybrid capture assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda N. Carestiato

    Full Text Available Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection is the most prevalent sexually-transmitted virus worldwide. It is known to be the etiological agent of cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN. Consequently, there is strong motivation to evaluate HPV testing in cervical cancer screening. Recently developed, the second generation of the hybrid capture test (HCA II is a non-radioactive, relatively rapid, hybridization assay, designed to detect 18 HPV types divided into high and low-risk groups. We evaluated 7,314 patients (5,833 women and 1,481 men for HPV infection by HCA II. Among them, 3,008 (41.1% presented HPV infection: 430 (14.2% had HPV DNA of low risk for cancer, 1,631 (54.2% had high risk HPV types and 947 (31.5% had both types. The prevalence in females was 44.9%. The prevalence of HPV DNA in the group for which cytological results were available was slightly higher: 55.3% (1007/1824. Significant differences were detected in the frequency of HPV infection of the cervix between normal cases and those with high-grade squamous-intraepithelial lesions (HSIL(P<0.0001. Among males, the prevalence was 26.2%, composed of 9.1% in Group A, 9.7% in Group B and 7.4% with multiple infections. We observed that male prevalence was lower and that low-risk types were more frequent than in females. HPV viral load was significantly greater in SILs than in normal or inflammatory cases (P<0.0001, suggesting an association between high viral load values and risk of SIL. Because of high costs, the HCA II test cannot be recommended for routine mass screening for cervical infection in poor countries. Nevertheless, it was found to be a useful tool, when combined with cytology, discovering high-risk infections in apparently normal tissues and revealing silent infections that may be responsible for the maintenance of HPV in the general population. These findings point to the need for close and careful management of patients, thereby reducing overtreatment

  6. Human papillomavirus type 29 (HPV-29), an HPV type cross-hybridizing with HPV-2 and with HPV-3-related types.

    OpenAIRE

    Favre, M.; Croissant, O; Orth, G

    1989-01-01

    The cloning and partial characterization of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 29 is presented. By hybridization analyses, this virus appears to be related to HPV types associated with common warts and HPV types associated with flat warts.

  7. Establishment of a new human pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma cell line, FU-MFH-2: molecular cytogenetic characterization by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization and comparative genomic hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isayama Teruto

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH is one of the most frequent malignant soft tissue tumors in adults. Despite the considerable amount of research on MFH cell lines, their characterization at a molecular cytogenetic level has not been extensively analyzed. Methods and results We established a new permanent human cell line, FU-MFH-2, from a metastatic pleomorphic MFH of a 72-year-old Japanese man, and applied multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH, Urovysion™ FISH, and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH for the characterization of chromosomal aberrations. FU-MFH-2 cells were spindle or polygonal in shape with oval nuclei, and were successfully maintained in vitro for over 80 passages. The histological features of heterotransplanted tumors in severe combined immunodeficiency mice were essentially the same as those of the original tumor. Cytogenetic and M-FISH analyses displayed a hypotriploid karyotype with numerous structural aberrations. Urovysion™ FISH revealed a homozygous deletion of the p16INK4A locus on chromosome band 9p21. CGH analysis showed a high-level amplification of 9q31-q34, gains of 1p12-p34.3, 2p21, 2q11.2-q21, 3p, 4p, 6q22-qter, 8p11.2, 8q11.2-q21.1, 9q21-qter, 11q13, 12q24, 15q21-qter, 16p13, 17, 20, and X, and losses of 1q43-qter, 4q32-qter, 5q14-q23, 7q32-qter, 8p21-pter, 8q23, 9p21-pter, 10p11.2-p13, and 10q11.2-q22. Conclusion The FU-MFH-2 cell line will be a particularly useful model for studying molecular pathogenesis of human pleomorphic MFH.

  8. Hyperspectral hybrid method classification for detecting altered mucosa of the human larynx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ron

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the field of earth observation, hyperspectral detector systems allow precise target detections of surface components from remote sensing platforms. This enables specific land covers to be identified without the need to physically travel to the areas examined. In the medical field, efforts are underway to develop optical technologies that detect altering tissue surfaces without the necessity to perform an excisional biopsy. With the establishment of expedient classification procedures, hyperspectral imaging may provide a non-invasive diagnostic method that allows determination of pathological tissue with high reliability. In this study, we examined the performance of a hyperspectral hybrid method classification for the automatic detection of altered mucosa of the human larynx. Materials and methods Hyperspectral Imaging was performed in vivo and 30 bands from 390 to 680 nm for 5 cases of laryngeal disorders (2x hemorrhagic polyp, 3x leukoplakia were obtained. Image stacks were processed with unsupervised clustering (linear spectral unmixing, spectral signatures were extracted from unlabeled cluster maps and subsequently applied as end-members for supervised classification (spectral angle mapper of further medical cases with identical diagnosis. Results Linear spectral unmixing clearly highlighted altered mucosa as single spectral clusters in all cases. Matching classes were identified, and extracted spectral signatures could readily be applied for supervised classifications. Automatic target detection performed well, as the considered classes showed notable correspondence with pathological tissue locations. Conclusions Using hyperspectral classification procedures derived from remote sensing applications for diagnostic purposes can create concrete benefits for the medical field. The approach shows that it would be rewarding to collect spectral signatures from histologically different lesions of laryngeal disorders in

  9. Assignment of the gene for human tetranectin (TNA) to chromosome 3p22-->p21.3 by somatic cell hybrid mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durkin, M E; Naylor, S L; Albrechtsen, R

    1997-01-01

    Tetranectin is a plasminogen-binding protein that is induced during the mineralization phase of osteogenesis. By screening a human chromosome 3 somatic cell hybrid mapping panel, we have localized the human tetranectin gene (TNA) to 3p22-->p21.3, which is distinct from the loci of two human conne...

  10. Embodied energy of construction materials: integrating human and capital energy into an IO-based hybrid model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Manish K; Culp, Charles H; Fernandez-Solis, Jose L

    2015-02-01

    Buildings alone consume approximately 40% of the annual global energy and contribute indirectly to the increasing concentration of atmospheric carbon. The total life cycle energy use of a building is composed of embodied and operating energy. Embodied energy includes all energy required to manufacture and transport building materials, and construct, maintain, and demolish a building. For a systemic energy and carbon assessment of buildings, it is critical to use a whole life cycle approach, which takes into account the embodied as well as operating energy. Whereas the calculation of a building's operating energy is straightforward, there is a lack of a complete embodied energy calculation method. Although an input-output-based (IO-based) hybrid method could provide a complete and consistent embodied energy calculation, there are unresolved issues, such as an overdependence on price data and exclusion of the energy of human labor and capital inputs. This paper proposes a method for calculating and integrating the energy of labor and capital input into an IO-based hybrid method. The results demonstrate that the IO-based hybrid method can provide relatively complete results. Also, to avoid errors, the total amount of human and capital energy should not be excluded from the calculation.

  11. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA by in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction in human papillomavirus equivocal and dysplastic cervical biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroyer, K R; Lovelace, G S; Abarca, M L; Fennell, R H; Corkill, M E; Woodard, W D; Davilla, G H

    1993-09-01

    One hundred twenty-one paraffin-embedded cervical biopsy specimens were tested for the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA by in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction. By in situ hybridization using probes for HPV types 6/11, 16/18, 31/33/35, 42/43/44, 51/52, and 45/56, HPV DNA was found in none of 20 normal/squamous metaplasia biopsy specimens, in one of 76 HPV equivocal biopsy specimens, in seven of 12 condyloma/mild dysplasia biopsy specimens, and in 12 of 13 moderate/severe dysplasia biopsy specimens. Polymerase chain reaction using HPV L1 consensus sequence primers followed by filter hybridization of the amplification products was positive for HPV DNA in two of 20 normal/squamous metaplasia biopsy specimens, in 23 of 76 HPV equivocal biopsy specimens, in eight of 12 condyloma/mild dysplasia biopsy specimens, and in 12 of 13 moderate/severe dysplasia biopsy specimens. Among biopsies that tested positive by polymerase chain reaction but that were negative by in situ hybridization, the most commonly identified HPV was type 16. We conclude that although HPV equivocal biopsy specimens contain HPV DNA more frequently than histologically normal tissue, the majority of biopsy specimens in this category test negative for HPV DNA. The clinical significance of a positive test for HPV, in the absence of unequivocal histologic changes, remains to be determined.

  12. Screening of proteins that interact with human thrombopoietin receptor c-Mpl using yeast two-hybrid system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵新燕[1; 冯丽冰[2; 周伟国[3; 戴卫列[4; 李昌本[5; 赵寿元[6

    2000-01-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) is the major cytokine involved in platelet production and exerts its effects via the receptor c-Mpl. The yeast two-hybrid system has been used to screen the proteins interacting with c-Mpl. First, the cDNA fragment of c-Mpl intracellular domain was cloned into two-hybrid vector pAS2, and the resulting plasmid is designated as pASMM. Then a human placenta cDNA library was screened using the pASMM as a target plasmid. Seven positive clones were isolated from 150 000 independent transformants. Sequence analysis of one of the positive clones demonstrates that a part of coding sequence of vimentin from 611 bp to 3’ end and flanking non-translation region was obtained. Therefore, there is an interaction between vimentin and TPO receptor. The results suggest that cytoskeletal protein may play an important role in TPO signal transduction pathway.

  13. Screening of proteins that interact with human thrombopoietin receptor c-Mpl using yeast two-hybrid system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Thrombopoietin(TPO) is the major cytokine involved in platelet production and exerts its effects via the receptor c-Mpl.The yeast two-hybrid system has been used to screen the proteins interacting with c-Mpl.First,the cDNA fragment of c-Mpl intracellular domain was cloned into two-hybrid vector pAS2,and the resulting plasmid is designated as pASMM.Then a human placenta cDNA library was screened using the pASMM as a target plasmid.Seven positive clones were isolated from 150 000 independent transformants.Sequence analysis of one of the positive clones demonstrates that a part of coding sequence of vimentin from 611 bp to 3'end and flanking non-translation region was obtained.Therefore,there is an interaction between vimentin and TPO receptor.The results suggest that cytoskeletal protein may play an important role in TPO signal transduction pathway.

  14. The Hybrid Design: Integrating the Human and Technical Components of Just-In-Time Knowledge Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabie Y. Conteh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the right balance of human and technical resources in the design of Just-in-Time knowledge delivery. It also examines and analyzes the case study: “Teltech: The business of Knowledge Management” by Davenport. It further attempts to depict the characteristics of the hybrid. The paper describes how the hybrid can be applied to Just-In-Time knowledge delivery. It also seeks to analyze and explore its interplay with knowledge splits with a view to designing Just-In- Time Knowledge Management. These include: “tacit versus explicit knowledge”, “in-process” versus “after action” documentation, “process-centered versus product-centered approach”, “knowledge versus information” and the “culture of sharing versus hoarding.”

  15. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introgression of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals 40,000 YBP after a half-million years of separation, may have led to the best example of a hybrid swarm on earth. Modern trade and transportation in support of the human hybrids has continued to introduce additional species, genotyp...

  16. Online assessment of human-robot interaction for hybrid control of walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del-Ama, Antonio J; Moreno, Juan C; Gil-Agudo, Angel; de-los-Reyes, Ana; Pons, José L

    2012-01-01

    Restoration of walking ability of Spinal Cord Injury subjects can be achieved by different approaches, as the use of robotic exoskeletons or electrical stimulation of the user's muscles. The combined (hybrid) approach has the potential to provide a solution to the drawback of each approach. Specific challenges must be addressed with specific sensory systems and control strategies. In this paper we present a system and a procedure to estimate muscle fatigue from online physical interaction assessment to provide hybrid control of walking, regarding the performances of the muscles under stimulation.

  17. Online Assessment of Human-Robot Interaction for Hybrid Control of Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana de-los-Reyes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of walking ability of Spinal Cord Injury subjects can be achieved by different approaches, as the use of robotic exoskeletons or electrical stimulation of the user’s muscles. The combined (hybrid approach has the potential to provide a solution to the drawback of each approach. Specific challenges must be addressed with specific sensory systems and control strategies. In this paper we present a system and a procedure to estimate muscle fatigue from online physical interaction assessment to provide hybrid control of walking, regarding the performances of the muscles under stimulation.

  18. Human Papilloma Virus 16 and 18 Association in Cervical Intraepithelial Lesions and Cervical Cancers by In Situ Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanty Manisa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To correlate the association of high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV 16, 18 in cervical intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancers by in-situ hybridization (ISH technique. Study Group: Cervical biopsy and hysterectomy specimen of 78 young and adult women, attending Hi-Tech Medical College and Hospital, Bhubaneswar, who were clinically or cytologically suspected of cervical intraepithelial lesion or cervical cancer were taken as source of target viral DNA. Material: Formalin 10% as fixative H & E stain as routine staining agent In-situ hybridization kit for HPV 16 and 18 DNA. Method: After following standard protocol for surgical grossing, HPV 16, 18 In-situ hybridization kit was used on paraffin embedded tissue sections. Results: The percentage of positive cases was highest in cervical cancer patients followed by cervical intraepithelial lesions, high grade, and low grade. Conclusion: This study has been carried out for the first in our state and our results show high degree of positivity of HPV 16/18 in females with cervical intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancers attending our tertiary care hospital.

  19. A radiation hybrid map of human chromosome 11q22-q23 containing the ataxia-telangiectasia disease locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, C.W. III; Cox, D.R.; Kapp, L.; Murnane, J. (Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)); Cornelis, F.; Julier, C.; Lathrop, M.; James, M.R. (Centre d' Etude du Polymorphisme Humain, Paris (France))

    1993-07-01

    The authors describe a high-resolution radiation hybrid map of human chromosome 11q22-q23 containing the ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) disease gene loci. The order and intermarker distances of 32 chromosome 11q22-q23 markers were determined by a multipoint maximum likelihood method analysis of the cosegregation of markers in 100 radiation hybrids. The radiation hybrid map of polymorphic loci was consistent with genetic linkage maps of common markers. Several genes, including [alpha]B-crystallin, adrenal ferrodoxin, CBL2, collagenase, dopamine receptor type 2, neural cell adhesion molecule, progesterone receptor, and stromelysins 1 and 2, were placed in relation to previously ordered, genetically mapped polymorphic loci. Five new markers ([alpha]B-crystallin, adrenal ferrodoxin, CJ52.114, CJ52.3, and D11S535) were ordered within the current published flanking markers for the AT group A and group C disease loci. A candidate AT group D gene (ATDC) identified by Kapp et al. was mapped telomeric to THY1, outside the flanking markers identified by multipoint linkage analysis for the major AT locus. 29 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. Hybrid Lentivirus-transposon Vectors With a Random Integration Profile in Human Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Nicklas H; Moldt, Brian; Mátés, Lajos

    2009-01-01

    Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon vectors have a significantly safer insertion profile, but efficient delivery into relevant cell/tissue types is a limitation. In an attempt to combine the favorable features of the two vector systems we established a novel hybrid vector technology based on SB transposase...

  1. Analysis of the protein-protein interactions between the human acidic ribosomal P-proteins: evaluation by the two hybrid system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tchórzewski, M; Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O

    2000-01-01

    on the function of these proteins, we are the first to have precisely analyzed mutual interactions among human P-proteins, employing the two hybrid system. The human acidic ribosomal P-proteins, (P1 or P2,) were fused to the GAL4 binding domain (BD) as well as the activation domain (AD), and analyzed in yeast...

  2. Human Papillomavirus Genotyping After Denaturation of Specimens for Hybrid Capture 2 Testing: Feasibility Study for the HPV Persistence and Progression Cohort†

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping could be clinically useful, depending on the results of large, prospective studies like the HPV Persistence and Progression cohort. The cohort is based on genotyping and follow-up of Hybrid Capture-positive women at Kaiser Permanente, Northern California. HPV DNA testing by Hybrid Capture 2 requires denaturation with alkali, possibly damaging the DNA for optimal PCR-based genotyping. A feasibility study was conducted on paired aliquots of anonymized speci...

  3. Hybrids of Shigatoxigenic and Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC/ETEC) Among Human and Animal Isolates in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyholm, O; Heinikainen, S; Pelkonen, S; Hallanvuo, S; Haukka, K; Siitonen, A

    2015-11-01

    Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) cause serious foodborne infections in humans. Total of 450 Shigatoxigenic E. coli (STEC) strains isolated from humans, animals and environment in Finland were examined by multiplex PCR targeting the virulence genes of various DEC pathogroups simultaneously. One per cent (3/291) of the human STEC and 14% (22/159) of the animal and environmental STEC had genes typically present in enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). The strains possessed genes encoding both Shiga toxin 1 and/or 2 (stx1 and/or stx2 ) and ETEC-specific heat-stable (ST) enterotoxin Ia (estIa). The identified stx subtypes were stx1a, stx1c, stx2a, stx2d and stx2g. The three human STEC/ETEC strains were isolated from the patients with haemolytic uraemic syndrome and diarrhoea and from an asymptomatic carrier. The animal STEC/ETEC strains were isolated from cattle and moose. The human and animal STEC/ETEC strains belonged to 11 serotypes, of which O2:H27, O15:H16, O101:H-, O128:H8 and O141:H8 have previously been described to be associated with human disease. Identification of multiple virulence genes offers further information for assessing the virulence potential of STEC and other DEC. The emergence of novel hybrid pathogens should be taken into account in the patient care and epidemiological surveillance.

  4. Hybrid microscopy of human carotid atheroma by means of optical-resolution optoacoustic and non-linear optical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Markus; Karlas, Angelos; Soliman, Dominik; Pelisek, Jaroslav; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2017-03-01

    Carotid atheromatosis is causally related to stroke, a leading cause of disability and death. We present the analysis of a human carotid atheroma using a novel hybrid microscopy system that combines optical-resolution optoacoustic (photoacoustic) microscopy and several non-linear optical microscopy modalities (second and third harmonic generation, as well as, two-photon excitation fluorescence) to achieve a multimodal examination of the extracted tissue within the same imaging framework. Our system enables the label-free investigation of atheromatous human carotid tissue with a resolution of about 1 μm and allows for the congruent interrogation of plaque morphology and clinically relevant constituents such as red blood cells, collagen, and elastin. Our data reveal mutual interactions between blood embeddings and connective tissue within the atheroma, offering comprehensive insights into its stage of evolution and severity, and potentially facilitating the further development of diagnostic tools, as well as treatment strategies.

  5. Application of Hybrid Along-Track Interferometry/Displaced Phase Center Antenna Method for Moving Human Target Detection in Forest Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Antenna Method for Moving Human Target Detection in Forest Environments by DaHan Liao Approved for public release...Research Laboratory Application of Hybrid Along-Track Interferometry/Displaced Phase Center Antenna Method for Moving Human Target Detection...Phase Center Antenna Method for Moving Human Target Detection in Forest Environments 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  6. Analyses of 32 loci clarify phylogenetic relationships among Trypanosoma cruzi lineages and support a single hybridization prior to human contact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Flores-López

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The genetic diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, has been traditionally divided in two major groups, T. cruzi I and II, corresponding to discrete typing units TcI and TcII-VI under a recently proposed nomenclature. The two major groups of T. cruzi seem to differ in important biological characteristics, and are thus thought to represent a natural division relevant for epidemiological studies and development of prophylaxis. To understand the potential connection between the different manifestations of Chagas disease and variability of T. cruzi strains, it is essential to have a correct reconstruction of the evolutionary history of T. cruzi. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nucleotide sequences from 32 unlinked loci (>26 Kilobases of aligned sequence were used to reconstruct the evolutionary history of strains representing the known genetic variability of T. cruzi. Thorough phylogenetic analyses show that the original classification of T. cruzi in two major lineages does not reflect its evolutionary history and that there is only strong evidence for one major and recent hybridization event in the history of this species. Furthermore, estimates of divergence times using Bayesian methods show that current extant lineages of T. cruzi diverged very recently, within the last 3 million years, and that the major hybridization event leading to hybrid lineages TcV and TcVI occurred less than 1 million years ago, well before the contact of T. cruzi with humans in South America. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The described phylogenetic relationships among the six major genetic subdivisions of T. cruzi should serve as guidelines for targeted epidemiological and prophylaxis studies. We suggest that it is important to reconsider conclusions from previous studies that have attempted to uncover important biological differences between the two originally defined major lineages of T. cruzi especially if those conclusions

  7. Direct fluorescence in situ hybridization on human metaphase chromosomes using quantum dot-platinum labeled DNA probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Gyoyeon [Chemical Kinomics Research Center, Future Convergence Research Division, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Biological Chemistry, Korea University of Science and Technology, 217, Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hansol [Chemical Kinomics Research Center, Future Convergence Research Division, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jiyeon, E-mail: jylee@kist.re.kr [Chemical Kinomics Research Center, Future Convergence Research Division, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Biological Chemistry, Korea University of Science and Technology, 217, Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-13

    The telomere shortening in chromosomes implies the senescence, apoptosis, or oncogenic transformation of cells. Since detecting telomeres in aging and diseases like cancer, is important, the direct detection of telomeres has been a very useful biomarker. We propose a telomere detection method using a newly synthesized quantum dot (QD) based probe with oligonucleotide conjugation and direct fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). QD-oligonucleotides were prepared with metal coordination bonding based on platinum-guanine binding reported in our previous work. The QD-oligonucleotide conjugation method has an advantage where any sequence containing guanine at the end can be easily bound to the starting QD-Pt conjugate. A synthesized telomeric oligonucleotide was bound to the QD-Pt conjugate successfully and this probe hybridized specifically on the telomere of fabricated MV-4-11 and MOLT-4 chromosomes. Additionally, the QD-telomeric oligonucleotide probe successfully detected the telomeres on the CGH metaphase slide. Due to the excellent photostability and high quantum yield of QDs, the QD-oligonucleotide probe has high fluorescence intensity when compared to the organic dye-oligonucleotide probe. Our QD-oligonucleotide probe, conjugation method of this QD probe, and hybridization protocol with the chromosomes can be a useful tool for chromosome painting and FISH. - Highlights: • We prepared a probe linked between QD and telomeric oligonucleotide with platinum-guanine bonding. • Telomeres were detected by our new telomere probes successfully in three different human metaphase chromosomes. • QDPt-DNA probe has high fluorescence intensity in comparison with organic dye-DNA probe.

  8. Advances in hybrid MR–PET at 3 T and 9.4 T in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon Shah, N., E-mail: n.j.shah@fz-juelich.de [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine-4, Research Centre Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, JARA, RWTH Aachen University Aachen (Germany); Mauler, Jörg [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine-4, Research Centre Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Neuner, Irene [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine-4, Research Centre Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Oros-Peusquens, Ana-Maria; Romanzetti, Sandro; Vahedipour, Kaveh; Felder, Jörg; Celik, Avdo [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine-4, Research Centre Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Iida, Hidehiro [Department of Investigative Radiology, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, 5-7-1, Fujishirodai, Suita, Osaka, 565-8565 (Japan); Langen, Karl-Josef; Herzog, Hans [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine-4, Research Centre Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2013-02-21

    Hybrid MR–PET data acquisition in simultaneous mode confers a number of advantages at 3 T and 9.4 T. From an MR perspective, the potential for ultra-high resolution structural imaging is discussed and example images of the cerebellum with an isotropic resolution of 320 μm are presented. Further, metabolic imaging is discussed and high-resolution images of the sodium distribution are demonstrated. Examples of tumour imaging on a 3 T MR–PET system are included and discussed.

  9. Th2/1 Hybrid Cells Occurring in Murine and Human Strongyloidiasis Share Effector Functions of Th1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristin N. Bock

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Infections by the soil-transmitted threadworm Strongyloides stercoralis affect 30–100 million people worldwide, predominantly in tropic and sub-tropic regions. Here we assessed the T helper cell phenotypes in threadworm-infected patients and experimental murine infections with focus on CD4+ T cells co-expressing markers of Th2 and Th1 differentiation. We show that mice infected with the close relative S. ratti generate strong Th2 responses characterized by the expansion of CD4+ GATA-3+ cells expressing IL-4/-5/-13 in blood, spleen, gut-draining lymph nodes, lung and gut tissue. In addition to conventional Th2 cells, significantly increased frequencies of GATA-3+T-bet+ Th2/1-hybrid cells were detected in all organs and co-expressed Th2- and Th1-cytokines at intermediate levels. Assessing the phenotype of blood-derived CD4+ T cells from South Indian patients infected with S. stercoralis and local uninfected control donors we found that GATA-3 expressing Th2 cells were significantly increased in the patient cohort, coinciding with elevated eosinophil and IgE/IgG4 levels. A fraction of IL-4+CD4+ T cells simultaneously expressed IFN-γ hence displaying a Th2/1 hybrid phenotype. In accordance with murine Th2/1 cells, human Th2/1 cells expressed intermediate levels of Th2 cytokines. Contrasting their murine counterparts, human Th2/1 hybrids were marked by high levels of IFN-γ and rather low GATA-3 expression. Assessing the effector function of murine Th2/1 cells in vitro we found that Th2/1 cells were qualified for driving the classical activation of macrophages. Furthermore, Th2/1 cells shared innate, cytokine-driven effector functions with Th1 cells. Hence, the key findings of our study are that T helper cells with combined characteristics of Th2 and Th1 cells are integral to immune responses of helminth-infected mice, but also occur in helminth-infected humans and we suggest that Th2/1 cells are poised for the instruction of balanced immune

  10. A novel EOG/EEG hybrid human-machine interface adopting eye movements and ERPs: application to robot control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiaxin; Zhang, Yu; Cichocki, Andrzej; Matsuno, Fumitoshi

    2015-03-01

    This study presents a novel human-machine interface (HMI) based on both electrooculography (EOG) and electroencephalography (EEG). This hybrid interface works in two modes: an EOG mode recognizes eye movements such as blinks, and an EEG mode detects event related potentials (ERPs) like P300. While both eye movements and ERPs have been separately used for implementing assistive interfaces, which help patients with motor disabilities in performing daily tasks, the proposed hybrid interface integrates them together. In this way, both the eye movements and ERPs complement each other. Therefore, it can provide a better efficiency and a wider scope of application. In this study, we design a threshold algorithm that can recognize four kinds of eye movements including blink, wink, gaze, and frown. In addition, an oddball paradigm with stimuli of inverted faces is used to evoke multiple ERP components including P300, N170, and VPP. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed system, two different online experiments are carried out. One is to control a multifunctional humanoid robot, and the other is to control four mobile robots. In both experiments, the subjects can complete tasks effectively by using the proposed interface, whereas the best completion time is relatively short and very close to the one operated by hand.

  11. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis of small supernumerary marker chromosomes in human infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guediche, N; Tosca, L; Kara Terki, A; Bas, C; Lecerf, L; Young, J; Briand-Suleau, A; Tou, B; Bouligand, J; Brisset, S; Misrahi, M; Guiochon-Mantel, A; Goossens, M; Tachdjian, G

    2012-01-01

    Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) are structurally abnormal chromosomes that cannot be unambiguously identified by conventional banding cytogenetics. This study describes four patients with sSMC in relation with infertility. Patient 1 had primary infertility. His brother, fertile, carried the same sSMC (patient 2). Patient 3 presented polycystic ovary syndrome and patient 4 primary ovarian insufficiency. Cytogenetic studies, array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and sperm analyses were compared with cases previously reported. sSMC corresponded to the 15q11.2 region (patients 1 and 2), the centromeric chromosome 15 region (patient 3) and the 21p11.2 region (patient 4). Array CGH showed 3.6-Mb gain for patients 1 and 2 and 0.266-Mb gain for patient 4. Sperm fluorescent in-situ hybridization analyses found ratios of 0.37 and 0.30 of sperm nuclei with sSMC(15) for patients 1 and 2, respectively (P < 0.001). An increase of sperm nuclei with disomy X, Y and 18 was noted for patient 1 compared with control and patient 2 (P < 0.001). Among the genes mapped in the unbalanced chromosomal regions, POTE B and BAGE are related to the testis and ovary, respectively. The implication of sSMC in infertility could be due to duplication, but also to mechanical effects perturbing meiosis.

  12. Human cDNA mapping using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Progress report, April 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenberg, J.R.

    1993-03-04

    Genetic mapping is approached using the techniques of high resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This technology and the results of its application are designed to rapidly generate whole genome as tool box of expressed sequence to speed the identification of human disease genes. The results of this study are intended to dovetail with and to link the results of existing technologies for creating backbone YAC and genetic maps. In the first eight months, this approach generated 60--80% of the expressed sequence map, the remainder expected to be derived through more long-term, labor-intensive, regional chromosomal gene searches or sequencing. The laboratory has made significant progress in the set-up phase, in mapping fetal and adult brain and other cDNAs, in testing a model system for directly linking genetic and physical maps using FISH with small fragments, in setting up a database, and in establishing the validity and throughput of the system.

  13. Importation of Hybrid Human-Associated Trypanosoma cruzi Strains of Southern South American Origin, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    We report the characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi of southern South American origin among humans, domestic vectors, and peridomestic hosts in Colombia using high-resolution nuclear and mitochondrial genotyping. Expanding our understanding of the geographic range of lineage TcVI, which is associated with severe Chagas disease, will help clarify risk of human infection for improved disease control.

  14. Pigs and profits: hybrids of animals, technology and humans in Danish industrialised farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anneberg, Inger; Vaarst, Mette; Bubandt, Nils

    2013-01-01

    Farm animals live and die as part of a food production system rich in paradoxes. One central paradox of modern farming revolves around the classic anthropological opposition between ‘nature’ and ‘culture’. Inspired by Bruno Latour's diagnosis of the processes of purification and mediation...... that attend the separation between ‘nature’ and ‘culture’ in the modern constitution, we trace how this paradox plays itself out on Danish pig farms. The paper argues that, although they have to be consistently ignored, hybrids of various kinds are essential to the co-production of meat and profit...... on industrial, debt-ridden and highly effective farms in the Western world....

  15. High resolution profiling of human exon methylation by liquid hybridization capture-based bisulfite sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Junwen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA methylation plays important roles in gene regulation during both normal developmental and disease states. In the past decade, a number of methods have been developed and applied to characterize the genome-wide distribution of DNA methylation. Most of these methods endeavored to screen whole genome and turned to be enormously costly and time consuming for studies of the complex mammalian genome. Thus, they are not practical for researchers to study multiple clinical samples in biomarker research. Results Here, we display a novel strategy that relies on the selective capture of target regions by liquid hybridization followed by bisulfite conversion and deep sequencing, which is referred to as liquid hybridization capture-based bisulfite sequencing (LHC-BS. To estimate this method, we utilized about 2 μg of native genomic DNA from YanHuang (YH whole blood samples and a mature dendritic cell (mDC line, respectively, to evaluate their methylation statuses of target regions of exome. The results indicated that the LHC-BS system was able to cover more than 97% of the exome regions and detect their methylation statuses with acceptable allele dropouts. Most of the regions that couldn't provide accurate methylation information were distributed in chromosomes 6 and Y because of multiple mapping to those regions. The accuracy of this strategy was evaluated by pair-wise comparisons using the results from whole genome bisulfite sequencing and validated by bisulfite specific PCR sequencing. Conclusions In the present study, we employed a liquid hybridisation capture system to enrich for exon regions and then combined with bisulfite sequencing to examine the methylation statuses for the first time. This technique is highly sensitive and flexible and can be applied to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs at specific genomic locations of interest, such as regulatory elements or promoters.

  16. Assignment of heregulin (HGL) to human chromosome 8p22-p11 by PCR analysis of somatic cell hybrid DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.; Wood, W.I. (Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Heregulin is a recently described ligand and specific activator of the receptor tyrosine kinase designated HER2 (also called erbB2 or neu). Heregulin is a secreted 45-kDa protein that contains a region with amino acid sequence similarity to epidermal growth factor (EGF). The receptors for heregulin and EGF are encoded by related protooncogenes that can produce cellular transformation and are associated with human malignancies. The overexpression of HER2 correlates with a poor prognosis in breast, ovarian, and other cancers. Heregulin was purified from the conditioned medium of a human breast cancer cell line. The isolation of cDNA clones encoding heregulin show that several alternatively spliced variants of the protein are produced. The mature protein is derived from the N-terminal half of a 640-amino-acid precursor that includes a hydrophobic domain that may anchor the precursor in the cell membrane. Recombinantly produced heregulin stimulates the tyrosine phosphorylation of HER2 in a number of cell lines and augments the proliferation of the HER2-overexpressing cell line, SK-BR-3. Heregulin mRNA is expressed in many human tissues including breast, brain, ovary, testis, small intestine, and others. The rat homologue of heregulin has also been isolated, and cDNA clones encoding this protein have been described. The rat protein has been termed Neu differentiation factor based on its ability to induce the differentiation of a mammary tumor cell line. The gene for heregulin was mapped to human chromosome 8 by PCR amplification using primers specific for human but not rodent DNA in somatic cell hybrids.

  17. A hybrid CPU-GPU accelerated framework for fast mapping of high-resolution human brain connectome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Du, Haixiao; Xia, Mingrui; Ren, Ling; Xu, Mo; Xie, Teng; Gong, Gaolang; Xu, Ningyi; Yang, Huazhong; He, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Recently, a combination of non-invasive neuroimaging techniques and graph theoretical approaches has provided a unique opportunity for understanding the patterns of the structural and functional connectivity of the human brain (referred to as the human brain connectome). Currently, there is a very large amount of brain imaging data that have been collected, and there are very high requirements for the computational capabilities that are used in high-resolution connectome research. In this paper, we propose a hybrid CPU-GPU framework to accelerate the computation of the human brain connectome. We applied this framework to a publicly available resting-state functional MRI dataset from 197 participants. For each subject, we first computed Pearson's Correlation coefficient between any pairs of the time series of gray-matter voxels, and then we constructed unweighted undirected brain networks with 58 k nodes and a sparsity range from 0.02% to 0.17%. Next, graphic properties of the functional brain networks were quantified, analyzed and compared with those of 15 corresponding random networks. With our proposed accelerating framework, the above process for each network cost 80∼150 minutes, depending on the network sparsity. Further analyses revealed that high-resolution functional brain networks have efficient small-world properties, significant modular structure, a power law degree distribution and highly connected nodes in the medial frontal and parietal cortical regions. These results are largely compatible with previous human brain network studies. Taken together, our proposed framework can substantially enhance the applicability and efficacy of high-resolution (voxel-based) brain network analysis, and have the potential to accelerate the mapping of the human brain connectome in normal and disease states.

  18. A hybrid CPU-GPU accelerated framework for fast mapping of high-resolution human brain connectome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    Full Text Available Recently, a combination of non-invasive neuroimaging techniques and graph theoretical approaches has provided a unique opportunity for understanding the patterns of the structural and functional connectivity of the human brain (referred to as the human brain connectome. Currently, there is a very large amount of brain imaging data that have been collected, and there are very high requirements for the computational capabilities that are used in high-resolution connectome research. In this paper, we propose a hybrid CPU-GPU framework to accelerate the computation of the human brain connectome. We applied this framework to a publicly available resting-state functional MRI dataset from 197 participants. For each subject, we first computed Pearson's Correlation coefficient between any pairs of the time series of gray-matter voxels, and then we constructed unweighted undirected brain networks with 58 k nodes and a sparsity range from 0.02% to 0.17%. Next, graphic properties of the functional brain networks were quantified, analyzed and compared with those of 15 corresponding random networks. With our proposed accelerating framework, the above process for each network cost 80∼150 minutes, depending on the network sparsity. Further analyses revealed that high-resolution functional brain networks have efficient small-world properties, significant modular structure, a power law degree distribution and highly connected nodes in the medial frontal and parietal cortical regions. These results are largely compatible with previous human brain network studies. Taken together, our proposed framework can substantially enhance the applicability and efficacy of high-resolution (voxel-based brain network analysis, and have the potential to accelerate the mapping of the human brain connectome in normal and disease states.

  19. Human and Bovine Dentin Composition and Its Hybridization Mechanism Assessed by FT-Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. S. Soares

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available FT-Raman spectroscopy was used to study the human and bovine dentin and their interactions with adhesive systems. Ten human (H molars and ten bovine (B teeth were prepared exposing the dentin and then each specimen was divided into two parts. The resulted forty dentin segments were treated either with the total-etch one bottle adhesive (Prime & Bond 2.1, PB or with the single-step self-etching adhesive (Xeno III, X and divided into four groups: HPB (control, HX, BPB, and BX. Each group was analyzed by FT-Raman spectroscopy before and after the adhesive treatment. Six regions of the Raman spectrum were analyzed and the integrated areas of organic and inorganic peaks were calculated. Bovine untreated specimens showed higher peak area of PO4 3−ν2  content than in human specimens. Human untreated specimens had higher peak areas of PO4 3−ν4 and CO3 2−ν1  contents than in bovine specimens. The peak areas of amide III, CH2, and amide I contents were higher in human than in bovine specimens (before treatments. Treated dentin showed no significant statistical differences between the adhesives for both inorganic and organic contents considering the same substrate. However, the differences found between human and bovine specimens after adhesives application show a reduced accuracy of these substrates as a substitute to the human specimens.

  20. Comparison of viable cell counts and fluorescence in situ hybridization using specific rRNA-based probes for the quantification of human fecal bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, HJM; Gibson, GR; Elfferich, P; Raangs, GC; Wildeboer-Veloo, ACM; Argaiz, A; Roberfroid, MB; Welling, GW

    2000-01-01

    Conventional cultivation and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using 16S rRNA-based probes were compared for the enumeration of human colonic bacteria. Groups of common intestinal anaerobic bacteria were enumerated in slurries prepared From fecal samples of three healthy volunteers. To intro

  1. Head excursion of restrained human volunteers and hybrid III dummies in steady state rollover tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, Edward; Hare, Barry; Hughes, Raymond; Lewis, Lance; Iiyama, Hiroshi; Curzon, Anne; Cooper, Eddie

    2003-01-01

    Seatbelts provide substantial benefits in rollover crashes, yet occupants still receive head and neck injuries from contacting the vehicle roof interior when the roof exterior strikes the ground. Prior research has evaluated rollover restraint performance utilizing anthropomorphic test devices (dummies), but little dynamic testing has been done with human volunteers to learn how they move during rollovers. In this study, the vertical excursion of the head of restrained dummies and human subjects was measured in a vehicle being rotated about its longitudinal roll axis at roll rates from 180-to-360 deg/sec and under static inversion conditions. The vehicle's restraint design was the commonly used 3-point seatbelt with continuous loop webbing and a sliding latch plate. This paper presents an analysis of the observed occupant motion and provides a comparison of dummy and human motion under similar test conditions. Thirty-five tests (eighteen static and seventeen dynamic) were completed using two different sizes of dummies and human subjects in both near and far-side roll directions. The research indicates that far-side rollovers cause the restrained test subjects to have greater head excursion than near-side rollovers, and that static inversion testing underestimates head excursion for far-side occupants. Human vertical head excursion of up to 200 mm was found at a roll rate of 220 deg/sec. Humans exhibit greater variability in head excursion in comparison to dummies. Transfer of seatbelt webbing through the latch plate did not correlate directly with differences in head excursion.

  2. Identification of gene products suppressed by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection or gp120 exposure of primary human astrocytes by rapid subtraction hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zao-Zhong; Kang, Dong-Chul; Chen, Yinming; Pekarskaya, Olga; Chao, Wei; Volsky, David J; Fisher, Paul B

    2003-06-01

    Neurodegeneration and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-associated dementia (HAD) are the major disease manifestations of HIV-1 colonization of the central nervous system (CNS). In the brain, HIV-1 replicates in microglial cells and infiltrating macrophages and it persists in a low-productive, noncytolytic state in astrocytes. Astrocytes play critical roles in the maintenance of the brain microenvironment, responses to injury, and in neuronal signal transmission, and disruption of these functions by HIV-1 could contribute to HAD. To better understand the potential effects of HIV-1 on astrocyte biology, the authors investigated changes in gene expression using an efficient and sensitive rapid subtraction hybridization approach, RaSH. Primary human astrocytes were isolated from abortus brain tissue, low-passage cells were infected with HIV-1 or mock infected, and total cellular RNAs were isolated at multiple time points over a period of 1 week. This approach is designed to identify gene products modulated early and late after HIV-1 infection and limits the cloning of genes displaying normal cell-cycle fluctuations in astrocytes. By subtracting temporal cDNAs derived from HIV-1-infected astrocytes from temporal cDNAs made from uninfected cells, 10 genes displaying reduced expression in infected cells, termed astrocyte suppressed genes (ASGs), were identified and their suppression was confirmed by Northern blot hybridization. Both known and novel ASGs, not reported in current DNA databases, that are down-regulated by HIV-1 infection are described. Northern blotting confirms suppression of the same panel of ASGs by treatment of astrocytes with recombinant HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, gp120. These results extend our previous analysis of astrocyte genes induced or enhanced by HIV-1 infection and together they suggest that HIV-1 and viral proteins have profound effects on astrocyte physiology, which may influence their function in the CNS.

  3. Generation of high-affinity fully human anti-interleukin-8 antibodies from its cDNA by two-hybrid screening and affinity maturation in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ling; Azam, Mark; Lin, Yu-Huei; Sheridan, James; Wei, Shuanghong; Gupta, Gigi; Singh, Rakesh K; Pauling, Michelle H; Chu, Waihei; Tran, Antares; Yu, Nai-Xuan; Hu, Jiefeng; Wang, Wei; Long, Hao; Xiang, Dong; Zhu, Li; Hua, Shao-Bing

    2010-10-01

    We have developed a technology for rapidly generating novel and fully human antibodies by simply using the antigen DNA. A human single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody library was constructed in a yeast two-hybrid vector with high complexity. After cloning cDNA encoding the mature sequence of human interleukin-8 (hIL8) into the yeast two-hybrid system vector, we have screened the human scFv antibody library and obtained three distinct scFv clones that could specifically bind to hIL8. One clone was chosen for further improvement by a novel affinity maturation process using the error-prone PCR of the scFv sequence followed by additional rounds of yeast two-hybrid screening. The scFv antibodies of both primary and affinity-matured scFv clones were expressed in E. coli. All purified scFvs showed specific binding to hIL8 in reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation and ELISA assays. All scFvs, as well as a fully human IgG antibody converted from one of the scFv clones and expressed in the mammalian cells, were able to effectively inhibit hIL8 in neutrophil chemotaxis assays. The technology described can generate fully human antibodies with high efficiency and low cost.

  4. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization in the study of human skin melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeron, Thierry; Coelho, Sergio G; Miyamura, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Kaoruko; Hearing, Vincent J

    2007-03-01

    Although keratinocytes are the most numerous type of cell in the skin, melanocytes are also key players as they produce and distribute melanin that protects the skin from ultraviolet (UV) radiation. In vitro experiments on melanocytic cell lines are useful to study melanogenesis and their progression towards melanoma. However, interactions of melanocytes with keratinocytes and with other types of cells in the skin, such as fibroblasts and Langerhans cells, are also crucial. We describe two techniques, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and tissue in situ hybridization (TISH), that can be used to identify and study melanocytes in the skin and their responses to UV or other stimuli in situ. We describe a practical method to localize melanocytic antigens on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections and in frozen sections using indirect immunofluorescence with conjugated secondary antibodies. In addition, we detail the use of TISH and its combination with IHC to study mRNA levels of genes expressed in the skin at cellular resolution. This methodology, along with relevant tips and troubleshooting items, are important tools to identify and study melanocytes in the skin.

  5. Human papillomavirus detection in genital lesions by in situ hybridization and ultrastructural observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. S. Oliveira

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection of papillomavirus DNA in sity hybridization technique was perfomed in 29 symptomatic patients (6 males and 23 females during the period of 1989-1991 at the Clinic for Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Universidade Federal Fluminense, State of rio de Janeiro. All the male patients had condyloma acuminata. Only HPV 6/11 were found in these lesions. Clinical features inthe female patients included vulvar condyloma acuminata, bowenoid populosis, flat cervical condyloma, cervical condyloma acuminatum and cervical intraepithelialneoplasia grade II (CIN II. We also found cases of condyloma acuminata associated to vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia grade III (VIN III, as well as to vaginal invasive carcinoma. HPV 6/11 and 16/18 were found in vulvar condyloma acuminata. Mixed infection by 6/11-16/18 HPV were also seen in these lesions as well as in the patient who had cervical condyloma acuminatum. HPV 16/18 were found in the condyloma acuminatum plus VIN III and in the CIN II lesions. We have found HPV31/33/51 in the specimen of condyloma acuminatum plus invasive carcinoma. In order to investigate the ultrastructural aspects of HPV infection in genital tissue, the biopsies of three female patients were observed under electron microscope.Mature virus particles were found in the cells of a condyloma acuminatum as wellas in the condyloma acuminatum plus invasive carcinoma case. In another sample, chromosome breakages were found in the nuclei of the infected cells although no viral particles were observed.

  6. Cross-reactivity profiles of hybrid capture II, cobas, and APTIMA human papillomavirus assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Sarah Nørgaard; Rebolj, Matejka; Ejegod, Ditte Møller

    2016-01-01

    evaluated to what extent these can be explained by cross-reactivity, i.e. positive test results without evidence of high-risk HPV genotypes. The patterns of cross-reactivity have been thoroughly studied for hybrid capture II (HC2) but not yet for newer HPV assays although the manufacturers claimed...... no or limited frequency of cross-reactivity. In this independent study we evaluated the frequency of cross-reactivity for HC2, cobas, and APTIMA assays.METHODS:Consecutive routine cervical screening samples from 5022 Danish women, including 2859 from women attending primary screening, were tested with the three...... cytology and positive high-risk HPV test results were invited for repeated testing in 18 months.RESULTS:Cross-reactivity to low-risk genotypes was detected in 109 (2.2 %) out of 5022 samples on HC2, 62 (1.2 %) on cobas, and 35 (0.7 %) on APTIMA with only 10 of the samples cross-reacting on all 3 assays...

  7. Final LDRD report human interaction with complex systems: advances in hybrid reachability and control.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oishi, Meeko M.

    2006-08-01

    This document describes new advances in hybrid reachability techniques accomplished during the course of a one-year Truman Postdoctoral Fellowship. These techniques provide guarantees of safety in complex systems, which is especially important in high-risk, expensive, or safety-critical systems. My work focused on new approaches to two specific problems motivated by real-world issues in complex systems: (1) multi-objective controller synthesis, and (2) control for recovery from error. Regarding the first problem, a novel application of reachability analysis allowed controller synthesis in a single step to achieve (a) safety, (b) stability, and (c) prevent input saturation. By extending the state to include the input parameters, constraints for stability, saturation, and envelope protection are incorporated into a single reachability analysis. Regarding the second problem, a new approach to the problem of recovery provides (a) states from which recovery is possible, and (b) controllers to guide the system during a recovery maneuver from an error state to a safe state in minimal time. Results are computed in both problems on nonlinear models of single longitudinal aircraft dynamics and two-aircraft lateral collision avoidance dynamics.

  8. In situ hybridization of bat chromosomes with human (TTAGGGn probe, after previous digestion with Alu I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina de Cassia Faria

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to verify the ability of the enzyme Alu I to cleave and/or remove satellite DNA sequences from heterochromatic regions in chromosomes of bats, by identifying the occurrence of modifications in the pattern of fluorescence in situ hybridization with telomeric DNA. The localization and fluorescence intensity of the telomeric DNA sites of the Alu-digested and undigested chromosomes of species Eumops glaucinus, Carollia perspicillata, and Platyrrhinus lineatus were analyzed. Telomeric sequences were detected at the termini of chromosomes of all three species, although, in C. perspicillata, the signals were very faint or absent in most chromosomes. This finding was interpreted as being due to a reduced number of copies of the telomeric repeat, resulting from extensive telomeric association and/or rearrangements undergone by the chromosomes of Carollia. Fluorescent signals were also observed in centromeric and pericentromeric regions in several two-arm chromosomes of E. glaucinus and C. perspicillata. In E. glaucinus and P. lineatus, some interstitial and terminal telomeric sites were observed to be in association with regions of constitutive heterochromatin and ribosomal DNA (NORs. After digestion, these telomeric sites showed a significant decrease in signal intensity, indicating that enzyme Alu I cleaves and/or removes part of the satellite DNA present in these regions. These results suggest that the telomeric sequence is a component of the heterochromatin, and that the C-band- positive regions of bat chromosomes have a different DNA composition.

  9. Cleavage of a Recombinant Human Immunoglobulin A2 (IgA2)-IgA1 Hybrid Antibody by Certain Bacterial IgA1 Proteases

    OpenAIRE

    Senior, Bernard W.; Dunlop, James I.; Batten, Margaret R.; Kilian, Mogens; Woof, Jenny M.

    2000-01-01

    To understand more about the factors influencing the cleavage of immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) by microbial IgA1 proteases, a recombinant human IgA2/IgA1 hybrid molecule was generated. In the hybrid, termed IgA2/A1 half hinge, a seven-amino-acid sequence corresponding to one half of the duplicated sequence making up the IgA1 hinge was incorporated into the equivalent site in IgA2. Insertion of the IgA1 half hinge into IgA2 did not affect antigen binding capacity or the functional activity of the h...

  10. Identification of human rotavirus serotype by hybridization to polymerase chain reaction-generated probes derived from a hyperdivergent region of the gene encoding outer capsid protein VP7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, J.; Sears, J.; Schael, I.P.; White, L.; Garcia, D.; Lanata, C.; Kapikian, A.Z. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-08-01

    We have synthesized {sup 32}P-labeled hybridization probes from a hyperdivergent region (nucleotides 51 to 392) of the rotavirus gene encoding the VP7 glycoprotein by using the polymerase chain reaction method. Both RNA (after an initial reverse transcription step) and cloned cDNA from human rotavirus serotypes 1 through 4 could be used as templates to amplify this region. High-stringency hybridization of each of the four probes to rotavirus RNAs dotted on nylon membranes allowed the specific detection of corresponding sequences and thus permitted identification of the serotype of the strains dotted. The procedure was useful when applied to rotaviruses isolated from field studies.

  11. Quantitation of isobaric phosphatidylcholine species in human plasma using a hybrid quadrupole linear ion-trap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacek, Petr; Bukowski, Michael; Rosenberger, Thad A; Picklo, Matthew

    2016-12-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) species in human plasma are used as biomarkers of disease. PC biomarkers are often limited by the inability to separate isobaric PCs. In this work, we developed a targeted shotgun approach for analysis of isobaric and isomeric PCs. This approach is comprised of two MS methods: a precursor ion scanning (PIS) of mass m/z 184 in positive mode (PIS m/z +184) and MS(3) fragmentation in negative mode, both performed on the same instrument, a hybrid triple quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometer. The MS(3) experiment identified the FA composition and the relative abundance of isobaric and sn-1, sn-2 positional isomeric PC species, which were subsequently combined with absolute quantitative data obtained by PIS m/z +184 scan. This approach was applied to the analysis of a National Institute of Standards and Technology human blood plasma standard reference material (SRM 1950). We quantified more than 70 PCs and confirmed that a majority are present in isobaric and isomeric mixtures. The FA content determined by this method was comparable to that obtained using GC with flame ionization detection, supporting the quantitative nature of this MS method. This methodology will provide more in-depth biomarker information for clinical and mechanistic studies.

  12. Screening for proteins interacting with MCM7 in human lung cancer library using yeast two hybrid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchen HAN

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective MCM7 is a subunit of the MCM complex that plays a key role in DNA replication initiation. But little is known about its interaction proteins. In this study yeast two hybrid screening was used to identify the MCM7 interacting proteins. Methods Yeast expression vector containing human full length MCM7-pGBKT7 plasmid was constructed, and with a library of cDNAs from human lung cancer-pACT2 plasmid was transformed into yeast strain AH109, and was electively grew in X-a-gal auxotrophy medium SD/-Trp-Leu-His-Ade, and the blue colonies were picked up, the plasmid of the yeast colonies was extracted , and transformed into E. Coli to extract DNA and performed sequence analysis. Results Eleven proteins were identified which could specifically interact with MCM7 proteins, among these five were cytoskeleton proteins, six were enzymes, kinases and related receptors. Conclusion The investigation provides functional clues for further exploration of MCM7 gene.

  13. Human cDNA mapping using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Progress report, April 1--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenberg, J.R.

    1993-12-31

    The ultimate goal of this proposal is to create a cDNA map of the human genome. Mapping is approached using the techniques of high resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This technology and the results of its application are designed to rapidly generate whole genome as tool box of expressed sequence to speed the identification of human disease genes. The results of this study are intended to dovetail with and to link the results of existing technologies for creating backbone YAC and genetic maps. In the first eight months, this approach will generate 60--80% of the expressed sequence map, the remainder expected to be derived through more long-term, labor-intensive, regional chromosomal gene searches or sequencing. The laboratory has made significant progress in the set-up phase, in mapping fetal and adult brain and other cDNAs, in testing a model system for directly linking genetic and physical maps using FISH with small fragments, in setting up a database, and in establishing the validity and throughput of the system.

  14. Correlation between Ki-67 and telomerase expression with in situ hybridization for high-risk human papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vega-Peсa Arianna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the relationship of Ki-67 and telomerase expression with the progression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and the physical state of the DNA of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV types. A comparative study was done on 80 biopsies of human (female cervical tissue, distributed in the following manner: 20 CIN-negative biopsies and 60 CIN-positive biopsies of varying grades. The detection of the proteins Ki-67 and telomerase was performed through immunohistochemistry; the detection of HR-HPV, by in situ hybridization. The expression of Ki-67 and telomerase increased with the progression of the CIN lesion (p <0.001. The HR-HPV genome was detected in 75% of the cases with CIN, as well as in 20% of the tissues without histological lesions (p=0.001. A significant association was found between the increase in telomerase and Ki-67 expression and the integration of the DNA of HR-HPV. The overexpression of Ki-67, telomerase and the presence the integration of the DNA of HR-HPV are evidenced by more aggressive lesions that may progress to invasive carcinoma.

  15. Human and Bovine Dentin Composition and Its Hybridization Mechanism Assessed by FT-Raman Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    L. E. S. Soares; A. D. F. Campos; Martin, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    FT-Raman spectroscopy was used to study the human and bovine dentin and their interactions with adhesive systems. Ten human (H) molars and ten bovine (B) teeth were prepared exposing the dentin and then each specimen was divided into two parts. The resulted forty dentin segments were treated either with the total-etch one bottle adhesive (Prime & Bond 2.1, PB) or with the single-step self-etching adhesive (Xeno III, X) and divided into four groups: HPB (control), HX, BPB, and BX. Each group w...

  16. Fiber-type composition of the human jaw muscles--(part 2) role of hybrid fibers and factors responsible for inter-individual variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korfage, J A M; Koolstra, J H; Langenbach, G E J; van Eijden, T M G J

    2005-09-01

    This is the second of two articles about fiber-type composition of the human jaw muscles. It reviews the functional relationship of hybrid fibers and the adaptive properties of jaw-muscle fibers. In addition, to explain inter-individual variation in fiber-type composition, we discuss these adaptive properties in relation to environmental stimuli or perturbations. The fiber-type composition of the human jaw muscles is very different from that of limb and trunk muscles. Apart from the presence of the usual type I, IIA, and IIX myosin heavy-chains (MyHC), human jaw-muscle fibers contain MyHCs that are typical for developing or cardiac muscle. In addition, much more frequently than in limb and trunk muscles, jaw-muscle fibers are hybrid, i.e., they contain more than one type of MyHC isoform. Since these fibers have contractile properties that differ from those of pure fibers, this relatively large quantity of hybrid fibers provides a mechanism that produces a very fine gradation of force and movement. The presence of hybrid fibers might also reflect the adaptive capacity of jaw-muscle fibers. The capacity for adaptation also explains the observed large inter-individual variability in fiber-type composition. Besides local influences, like the amount of muscle activation and/or stretch, more general influences, like aging and gender, also play a role in the composition of fiber types.

  17. Dual-targeting hybrid nanoparticles for the delivery of SN38 to Her2 and CD44 overexpressed human gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhe; Luo, Huiyan; Cao, Zhong; Chen, Ya; Gao, Jinbiao; Li, Yingqin; Jiang, Qing; Xu, Ruihua; Liu, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Gastric cancer (GC), particularly of the type with high expression of both human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2) and cluster determinant 44 (CD44), is one of the most malignant human tumors which causes a high mortality rate due to rapid tumor growth and metastasis. To develop effective therapeutic treatments, a dual-targeting hybrid nanoparticle (NP) system was designed and constructed to deliver the SN38 agent specifically to human solid gastric tumors bearing excessive Her2 and CD44. The hybrid NPs consist of a particle core made of the biodegradable polymer PLGA and a lipoid shell prepared by conjugating the AHNP peptides and n-hexadecylamine (HDA) to the carboxyl groups of hyaluronic acid (HA). Upon encapsulation of the SN38 agent in the NPs, the AHNP peptides and HA on the NP surface allow preferential delivery of the drug to gastric cancer cells (e.g., HGC27 cells) by targeting Her2 and CD44. Cellular uptake and in vivo biodistribution experiments verified the active targeting and prolonged in vivo circulation properties of the dual-targeting hybrid NPs, leading to enhanced accumulation of the drug in tumors. Furthermore, the anti-proliferation mechanism studies revealed that the inhibition of the growth and invasive activity of HGC27 cells was not only attributed to the enhanced cellular uptake of dual-targeting NPs, but also benefited from the suppression of CD44 and Her2 expression by HA and AHNP moieties. Finally, intravenous administration of the SN38-loaded dual-targeting hybrid NPs induced significant growth inhibition of HGC27 tumor xenografted in nude mice compared with a clinical antitumor agent, Irinotecan (CPT-11), and the other NP formulations. These results demonstrate that the designed dual-targeting hybrid NPs are promising for targeted anti-cancer drug delivery to treat human gastric tumors over-expressing Her2 and CD44.Gastric cancer (GC), particularly of the type with high expression of both human epidermal growth factor receptor

  18. An Examination of Collaborative Learning Assessment through Dialogue (CLAD) in Traditional and Hybrid Human Development Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Wanda C.; Green, Peter J.; Fitch, Trey

    2010-01-01

    This investigation assessed the effectiveness of using Collaborative Learning Assessment through Dialogue (CLAD) (Fitch & Hulgin, 2007) with students in undergraduate human development courses. The key parts of CLAD are student collaboration, active learning, and altering the role of the instructor to a guide who enhances learning opportunities.…

  19. Hybrid Lentivirus-transposon Vectors With a Random Integration Profile in Human Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Nicklas H; Moldt, Brian; Mátés, Lajos

    2009-01-01

    Gene delivery by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-based lentiviral vectors (LVs) is efficient, but genomic integration of the viral DNA is strongly biased toward transcriptionally active loci resulting in an increased risk of insertional mutagenesis in gene therapy protocols. Nonviral ...

  20. DETECTION OF STRAND BREAKS OF DNA IN HUMAN EARLY CHORIONIC VILLUS CELLS INDUCED BY DIAGNOSTIC ULTRASOUND USING 32p-LABELED ALU HYBRIDIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Caifeng; Li Xu; Zhang Yunjing

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore if strand breaks of DNA in human early chorionic villus cells in uterus were induced by diagnostic ultrasound and to evaluate the method used for detection of single-stranded breaks and doublestranded breaks in human DNA. Methods 60 normal pregnant women aged 20-30, who underwent artificial abortion during 6-8 weeks of gestation, were randomly divided into 2 experimental groups: All 30 cases were exposed to diagnostic ultrasound in uterus for 10 minutes, and 24 hours later chorionic villi were extracted; the other 30 cases were taken as the control group. Single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA in villus cells in all cases were isolated by the alkaline unwinding combined with hydroxylapatite chromatography, and were quantitatively detected using32 P-labeled Alu probe for dot-blotting hybridization. Results There was no significant difference in quantity and percentage in single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA between 2 groups (P>0.05). 32 P-Alu probe could only hybridize with human DNA, and could detect DNA isolated from as few as 2.5 × 103 chorionic villus cells and 0.45 ng DNA in human leukocytes. Conclusion The results suggested that there were no DNA strand damages in human chorionic villus cells when the uterus was exposed to diagnostic ultrasound for 10 minutes. The method, 32P-Alu probe for dot-blotting hybridization, was even more specific, sensitive and accurate than conventional approaches.

  1. Uncoupling of allosteric and oligomeric regulation in a functional hybrid enzyme constructed from Escherichia coli and human ribonucleotide reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuan; Long, Marcus J C; Rigney, Mike; Parvez, Saba; Blessing, William A; Aye, Yimon

    2013-10-08

    An N-terminal-domain (NTD) and adjacent catalytic body (CB) make up subunit-α of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), the rate-limiting enzyme for de novo dNTP biosynthesis. A strong linkage exists between ligand binding at the NTD and oligomerization-coupled RNR inhibition, inducible by both dATP and nucleotide chemotherapeutics. These observations have distinguished the NTD as an oligomeric regulation domain dictating the assembly of inactive RNR oligomers. Inactive states of RNR differ between eukaryotes and prokaryotes (α6 in human versus α4β4 in Escherichia coli , wherein β is RNR's other subunit); however, the NTD structurally interconnects individual α2 or α2 and β2 dimeric motifs within the respective α6 or α4β4 complexes. To elucidate the influence of NTD ligand binding on RNR allosteric and oligomeric regulation, we engineered a human- E. coli hybrid enzyme (HE) where human-NTD is fused to E. coli -CB. Both the NTD and the CB of the HE bind dATP. The HE specifically partners with E. coli -β to form an active holocomplex. However, although the NTD is the sole physical tether to support α2 and/or β2 associations in the dATP-bound α6 or α4β4 fully inhibited RNR complexes, the binding of dATP to the HE NTD only partially suppresses HE activity and fully precludes formation of higher-order HE oligomers. We postulate that oligomeric regulation is the ultimate mechanism for potent RNR inhibition, requiring species-specific NTD-CB interactions. Such interdomain cooperativity in RNR oligomerization is unexpected from structural studies alone or biochemical studies of point mutants.

  2. In vitro evaluation of human hybrid cell lines generated by fusion of B-lymphoblastoid cells and ex vivo tumour cells as candidate vaccines for haematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Yehia S; Dunnion, Debbie; Teobald, Iryna; Walewska, Renata; Browning, Michael J

    2012-10-12

    Fusions of dendritic cells (DCs) and tumour cells have been shown to induce protective immunity to tumour challenge in animal models, and to represent a promising approach to cancer immunotherapy. The broader clinical application of this approach, however, is potentially constrained by the lack of replicative capacity and limited standardisation of fusion cell preparations. We show here that fusion of ex vivo tumour cells isolated from patients with a range of haematological malignancies with the human B-lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL), HMy2, followed by chemical selection of the hybridomas, generated stable, self-replicating human hybrid cell lines that grew continuously in tissue culture, and survived freeze/thawing cycles. The hybrid cell lines expressed HLA class I and class II molecules, and the major T-cell costimulatory molecules, CD80 and CD86. All but two of 14 hybrid cell lines generated expressed tumour-associated antigens that were not expressed by HMy2 cells, and were therefore derived from the parent tumour cells. The hybrid cell lines stimulated allogeneic T-cell proliferative responses and interferon-gamma release in vitro to a considerably greater degree than their respective parent tumour cells. The enhanced T-cell stimulation was inhibited by CTLA4-Ig fusion protein, and by blocking antibodies to MHC class I and class II molecules. Finally, all of five LCL/tumour hybrid cell lines tested induced tumour antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cell responses in vitro in PBL from healthy, HLA-A2+ individuals, as detected by HLA-A2-peptide pentamer staining and cellular cytotoxicity. These data show that stable hybrid cell lines, with enhanced immunostimulatory properties and potential for therapeutic vaccination, can be generated by in vitro fusion and chemical selection of B-LCL and ex vivo haematological tumour cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bioelectronic Device Mimicking Human Sensory System based on Nanovesicle-Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daesan; Jin, Hye; Lee, San; Kim, Tae; Park, Juhun; Song, Hyun; Park, Tai; Hong, Seunghun

    2013-03-01

    We have developed a nanovesicle-based bioelectronic nose (NBN) that could mimic the receptor-mediated signal transmission of human olfactory systems and recognize a specific odorant. The NBN was comprised of a single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT)-based field effect transistor and cell-derived nanovesicles containing human olfactory receptors and calcium ion signal pathways. Importantly, the NBN took advantages of cell signal pathways for sensing signal amplification. It enabled ~100 times higher sensitivity than that of previous bioelectronic noses based on only olfactory receptor protein and CNT transistors. The NBN sensors exhibited a high sensitivity of 1 fM detection limit and a human-like selectivity with single-carbon-atomic resolution. Furthermore, these sensors could mimic a receptor-mediated cellular signal transmission in live cells. This versatile sensor platform should be useful for the study of molecular recognition and biological processes on cell membranes and also for various practical applications such as food conditioning and medical diagnostics.

  4. Hybrids of Iron-Filled Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes and Anticancer Agents as Potential Magnetic Drug Delivery Systems: In Vitro Studies against Human Melanoma, Colon Carcinoma, and Colon Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Boncel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell type, morphology, and functioning are key variables in the construction of efficient “drug-vehicle” hybrids in magnetic drug delivery. Iron-encapsulated multiwall carbon nanotubes (Fe@MWCNTs appear as promising candidates for theranostics due to in situ chemical catalytic vapor deposition (c-CVD synthesis, straightforward organic functionalization, and nanoneedle (1D behavior. Here, model hybrids were synthesized by exploring C-sp2 chemistry ((1+2-cycloaddition of nitrenes and amidation of the outer MWCNT walls combined with anticancer agents, that is, 5-fluorouracil (5FU, purpurin (Purp, and 1,8-naphthalimide DNA intercalators (NIDIs, via linkers. Analyses of the Fe@MWCNT vehicles by SEM, TEM, and Raman spectroscopy revealed their morphology while Mössbauer spectroscopy confirmed the presence of encapsulated ferromagnetic iron-based nanodomains. Cytotoxicity of the hybrids was studied using a 24 h MTS assay combined with the apoptosis and life cycle assays against human melanoma (Me45, colon carcinoma (HCT116+, and colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2. The cells had different sensitivity to the vehicles themselves as well as to the hybrids. MWCNT-based covalent hybrids of 5FU and Purp emerged as the most promising systems against Me45 and HCT116+ cell lines with the highest in vitro cytotoxicity and proapoptotic activity. Furthermore, nanotubes bearing 4-nitro- and 4-(N-morpholinyl-1,8-naphthalimide DNA intercalators appear as a promising candidate for the treatment of Caco-2.

  5. Hybridization and extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todesco, Marco; Pascual, Mariana A; Owens, Gregory L; Ostevik, Katherine L; Moyers, Brook T; Hübner, Sariel; Heredia, Sylvia M; Hahn, Min A; Caseys, Celine; Bock, Dan G; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2016-08-01

    Hybridization may drive rare taxa to extinction through genetic swamping, where the rare form is replaced by hybrids, or by demographic swamping, where population growth rates are reduced due to the wasteful production of maladaptive hybrids. Conversely, hybridization may rescue the viability of small, inbred populations. Understanding the factors that contribute to destructive versus constructive outcomes of hybridization is key to managing conservation concerns. Here, we survey the literature for studies of hybridization and extinction to identify the ecological, evolutionary, and genetic factors that critically affect extinction risk through hybridization. We find that while extinction risk is highly situation dependent, genetic swamping is much more frequent than demographic swamping. In addition, human involvement is associated with increased risk and high reproductive isolation with reduced risk. Although climate change is predicted to increase the risk of hybridization-induced extinction, we find little empirical support for this prediction. Similarly, theoretical and experimental studies imply that genetic rescue through hybridization may be equally or more probable than demographic swamping, but our literature survey failed to support this claim. We conclude that halting the introduction of hybridization-prone exotics and restoring mature and diverse habitats that are resistant to hybrid establishment should be management priorities.

  6. A hybrid approach for de novo human genome sequence assembly and phasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostovoy, Yulia; Levy-Sakin, Michal; Lam, Jessica; Lam, Ernest T; Hastie, Alex R; Marks, Patrick; Lee, Joyce; Chu, Catherine; Lin, Chin; Džakula, Željko; Cao, Han; Schlebusch, Stephen A; Giorda, Kristina; Schnall-Levin, Michael; Wall, Jeffrey D; Kwok, Pui-Yan

    2016-07-01

    Despite tremendous progress in genome sequencing, the basic goal of producing a phased (haplotype-resolved) genome sequence with end-to-end contiguity for each chromosome at reasonable cost and effort is still unrealized. In this study, we describe an approach to performing de novo genome assembly and experimental phasing by integrating the data from Illumina short-read sequencing, 10X Genomics linked-read sequencing, and BioNano Genomics genome mapping to yield a high-quality, phased, de novo assembled human genome.

  7. Cross-reactivity profiles of hybrid capture II, cobas, and APTIMA human papillomavirus assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Sarah Nørgaard; Rebolj, Matejka; Ejegod, Ditte Møller

    2016-01-01

    Background High-risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) testing is replacing cytology in cervical cancer screening as it is more sensitive for preinvasive cervical lesions. However, the bottleneck of HPV testing is the many false positive test results (positive tests without cervical lesions). Here, we...... assays. None of the 35 genotypes was detected in 49 (1.0 %), 162 (3.2 %), and 56 (1.1 %) samples, respectively. In primary screening at age 30 to 65 years (n = 2859), samples of 72 (25 %) out of 289 with high-risk infections on HC2 and 

  8. ERIC-PCR fingerprinting-based community DNA hybridization to pinpoint genome-specific fragments as molecular markers to identify and track populations common to healthy human guts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guifang; Pan, Li; Du, Huimin; Chen, Junyi; Zhao, Liping

    2004-10-01

    Bacterial populations common to healthy human guts may play important roles in human health. A new strategy for discovering genomic sequences as markers for these bacteria was developed using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC)-PCR fingerprinting. Structural features within microbial communities are compared with ERIC-PCR followed by DNA hybridization to identify genomic fragments shared by samples from healthy human individuals. ERIC-PCR profiles of fecal samples from 12 diseased or healthy human and piglet subjects demonstrated stable, unique banding patterns for each individual tested. Sequence homology of DNA fragments in bands of identical size was examined between samples by hybridization under high stringency conditions with DIG-labeled ERIC-PCR products derived from the fecal sample of one healthy child. Comparative analysis of the hybridization profiles with the original agarose fingerprints identified three predominant bands as signatures for populations associated with healthy human guts with sizes of 500, 800 and 1000 bp. Clone library profiling of the three bands produced 17 genome fragments, three of which showed high similarity only with regions of the Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron genome, while the remainder were orphan sequences. Association of these sequences with healthy guts was validated by sequence-selective PCR experiments, which showed that a single fragment was present in all 32 healthy humans and 13 healthy piglets tested. Two fragments were present in the healthy human group and in 18 children with non-infectious diarrhea but not in eight children with infectious diarrhea. Genome fragments identified with this novel strategy may be used as genome-specific markers for dynamic monitoring and sequence-guided isolation of functionally important bacterial populations in complex communities such as human gut microflora.

  9. Classification of Human Emotion from Deap EEG Signal Using Hybrid Improved Neural Networks with Cuckoo Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sreeshakthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Department of Computer Science and Engineering,Anna University Regional Centre, Coimbatore, Indiam.sribtechit@gmail.comJ. PreethiDepartment of Computer Science and EngineeringAnna University Regional Centre, Coimbatore, Indiapreethi17j@yahoo.comEmotions are very important in human decision handling, interaction and cognitive process. In this paper describes that recognize the human emotions from DEAP EEG dataset with different kind of methods. Audio – video based stimuli is used to extract the emotions. EEG signal is divided into different bands using discrete wavelet transformation with db8 wavelet function for further process. Statistical and energy based features are extracted from the bands, based on the features emotions are classified with feed forward neural network with weight optimized algorithm like PSO. Before that the particular band has to be selected based on the training performance of neural networks and then the emotions are classified. In this experimental result describes that the gamma and alpha bands are provides the accurate classification result with average classification rate of 90.3% of using NNRBF, 90.325% of using PNN, 96.3% of using PSO trained NN, 98.1 of using Cuckoo trained NN. At last the emotions are classified into two different groups like valence and arousal. Based on that identifies the person normal and abnormal behavioral using classified emotion.

  10. HYBRID HUMAN-ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE APPROACH FOR PAVEMENT DISTRESS ASSESSMENT (PICUCHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reus Salini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The pavement surface condition assessment is a critical component for a proper pavement management system as well as for pavement rehabilitation design. A number of devices were developed to automatically record surface distresses in a continuous survey mode, but the software required for automatic distress identification remains a big challenge. In this study, a new method named PICture Unsupervised Classification with Human Analysis (PICUCHA is proposed to circumvent many of the limitations of existing approaches, based on a combination of human and artificial intelligence. It was designed from scratch to be capable to identify sealed and unsealed cracks, potholes, patches, different types of pavements and others. The self-learning algorithms do not use any distresses predefinition and can process images taken by cameras with different brands, technologies and resolution. This study describes some key aspects of the new method and provides examples in which PICUCHA was tested in real conditions showing accuracy up to 96.9% in image pattern detection and classification.

  11. Chip-based in situ hybridization for identification of bacteria from the human microbiome.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Light, Yooli Kim; Meagher, Robert J.; Singh, Anup K.; Liu, Peng

    2010-11-01

    The emerging field of metagenomics seeks to assess the genetic diversity of complex mixed populations of bacteria, such as those found at different sites within the human body. A single person's mouth typically harbors up to 100 bacterial species, while surveys of many people have found more than 700 different species, of which {approx}50% have never been cultivated. In typical metagenomics studies, the cells themselves are destroyed in the process of gathering sequence information, and thus the connection between genotype and phenotype is lost. A great deal of sequence information may be generated, but it is impossible to assign any given sequence to a specific cell. We seek non-destructive, culture-independent means of gathering sequence information from selected individual cells from mixed populations. As a first step, we have developed a microfluidic device for concentrating and specifically labeling bacteria from a mixed population. Bacteria are electrophoretically concentrated against a photopolymerized membrane element, and then incubated with a specific fluorescent label, which can include antibodies as well as specific or non-specific nucleic acid stains. Unbound stain is washed away, and the labeled bacteria are released from the membrane. The stained cells can then be observed via epifluorescence microscopy, or counted via flow cytometry. We have tested our device with three representative bacteria from the human microbiome: E. coli (gut, Gram-negative), Lactobacillus acidophilus (mouth, Gram-positive), and Streptococcus mutans (mouth, Gram-positive), with results comparable to off-chip labeling techniques.

  12. Classification of Human Emotion from Deap EEG Signal Using Hybrid Improved Neural Networks with Cuckoo Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sreeshakthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Department of Computer Science and Engineering,Anna University Regional Centre, Coimbatore, Indiam.sribtechit@gmail.comJ. PreethiDepartment of Computer Science and EngineeringAnna University Regional Centre, Coimbatore, Indiapreethi17j@yahoo.comEmotions are very important in human decision handling, interaction and cognitive process. In this paper describes that recognize the human emotions from DEAP EEG dataset with different kind of methods. Audio – video based stimuli is used to extract the emotions. EEG signal is divided into different bands using discrete wavelet transformation with db8 wavelet function for further process. Statistical and energy based features are extracted from the bands, based on the features emotions are classified with feed forward neural network with weight optimized algorithm like PSO. Before that the particular band has to be selected based on the training performance of neural networks and then the emotions are classified. In this experimental result describes that the gamma and alpha bands are provides the accurate classification result with average classification rate of 90.3% of using NNRBF, 90.325% of using PNN, 96.3% of using PSO trained NN, 98.1 of using Cuckoo trained NN. At last the emotions are classified into two different groups like valence and arousal. Based on that identifies the person normal and abnormal behavioral using classified emotion.

  13. Chromosomal localization of the [delta] opioid receptor gene to human 1p34. 3-36. 1 and mouse 4D bands by in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Befort, K.; Kieffer, B. (Ecole Superieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg (France)); Mattei, M.G.; Roeckel, N. (Hopital d' Enfants de la Timone, Marseille (France))

    1994-03-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the precise localization of this gene in the murine as well as human genome by in situ hybridization. Southern analysis, using the noncoding part of the cDNA as a probe (NotI-BamHI fragment, 1040 bp) under high-stringency conditions, shows the existence of a single-copy gene in the murine genome. In a similar analysis performed on human genomic DNA, the coding part of the cDNA (PstI-NotI fragment, 976 bp) clearly detected a single gene in the human genome (not shown). The authors therefore used these two probes for the chromosomal localization of the murine gene and its human counterpart, respectively. Chromosome spread preparations from concanavalin A (mouse) or phytohemagglutinin (human)-stimulated lymphocytes were hybridized with tritium-labeled cDNAs, exposed for 15 days, and developed, as described previously. For the murine assignment, a total of 100 metaphase cells were examined, and 149 silver grains were found. Forty-two grains were associated with chromosome 4, and 73.8% of them mapped to the D1-D3 region of the chromosome. In the 120 metaphase human cells analyzed, 197 silver grains were found, 25.8% of which were located on chromosome 1. The distribution of grains allowed mapping of the human [delta] opioid receptor gene to the p34.3-p36.1 region of the short arm with a maximum in the p35 band.

  14. Detection of high risk human papillomavirus cervical infections by the hybrid capture in Asunción, Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mendoza Torres

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the most frequent malignant tumour of women in Latin America being human papillomavirus (HPV the main cause. The aim of this study was to increase the knowledge about the cervical infections with oncogenic HPV types (HR-HPV in Asuncion, Paraguay. Two hundred and seventy-two cervical samples were analyzed using hybrid capture II assay (HCA II for HR-HPV. The frequency of HR-HPV in the study group was 44%. HR-HPV was detected in 25% of the women negative for squamous intraepithelial lesions (NSIL, 72% with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS, 68% with low SIL and 78% with high SIL. A moderate concordance was observed between HCA II assay and cytology (kappa: 0.43 IC95% 0.3 - 0.5. It was detected a high frequency of HR-HPV in women from 11 to 30 years old and in those over 60 years old. The data obtained in this study showed a high frequency of HR-HPV in woman with NSIL and ASCUS, which corroborate that the use of cytology together with HCA II assay for HR-HPV could improve remarkably the efficiency of screening programs of cervical cancer in Paraguay. Furthermore, these findings point out the need for the periodical follow-up of HR-HPV infections in older women.

  15. Detection of high risk human papillomavirus cervical infections by the hybrid capture in Asunción, Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Laura Mendoza; Páez, Malvina; Insaurralde, Ariel; Rodriguez, María Isabel; Castro, Amalia; Kasamatsu, Elena

    2009-06-01

    Cervical cancer is the most frequent malignant tumour of women in Latin America being human papillomavirus (HPV) the main cause. The aim of this study was to increase the knowledge about the cervical infections with oncogenic HPV types (HR-HPV) in Asuncion, Paraguay. Two hundred and seventy-two cervical samples were analyzed using hybrid capture II assay (HCA II) for HR-HPV. The frequency of HR-HPV in the study group was 44%. HR-HPV was detected in 25% of the women negative for squamous intraepithelial lesions (NSIL), 72% with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 68% with low SIL and 78% with high SIL. A moderate concordance was observed between HCA II assay and cytology (kappa: 0.43 IC(95% 0.3-0.5)). It was detected a high frequency of HR-HPV in women from 11 to 30 years old and in those over 60 years old. The data obtained in this study showed a high frequency of HR-HPV in woman with NSIL and ASCUS, which corroborate that the use of cytology together with HCA II assay for HR-HPV could improve remarkably the efficiency of screening programs of cervical cancer in Paraguay. Furthermore, these findings point out the need for the periodical follow-up of HR-HPV infections in older women.

  16. Gamma-ray mutagenesis studies in a new human-hamster hybrid, A(L)CD59(+/-), which has two human chromosomes 11 but is hemizygous for the CD59 gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, S. M.; Vannais, D. B.; Kronenberg, A.; Ueno, A.; Waldren, C. A.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Kraemer, S. M., Vannais, D. B., Kronenberg, A., Ueno, A. and Waldren, C. A. Gamma-Ray Mutagenesis Studies in a New Human-Hamster Hybrid, A(L)CD59(+/-), which has Two Human Chromosomes 11 but is Hemizygous for the CD59 Gene. Radiat. Res. 156, 10-19 (2001).We have developed a human-CHO hybrid cell line, named A(L)CD59(+/-), which has two copies of human chromosome 11 but is hemizygous for the CD59 gene and the CD59 cell surface antigen that it encodes. Our previous studies used the A(L) and A(L)C hybrids that respectively contain one or two sets of CHO chromosomes plus a single copy of human chromosome 11. The CD59 gene at 11p13.5 and the CD59 antigen encoded by it are the principal markers used in our mutagenesis studies. The hybrid A(L)CD59(+/-) contains two copies of human chromosome 11, only one of which carries the CD59 gene. The incidence of CD59 (-) mutants (formerly called S1(-)) induced by (137)Cs gamma rays is about fivefold greater in A(L)CD59(+/-) cells than in A(L) cells. Evidence is presented that this increase in mutant yield is due to the increased induction of certain classes of large chromosomal mutations that are lethal to A(L) cells but are tolerated in the A(L)CD59(+/-) hybrid. In addition, significantly more of the CD59 (-) mutants induced by (137)Cs gamma rays in A(L)CD59(+/-) cells display chromosomal instability than in A(L) cells. On the other hand, the yield of gamma-ray-induced CD59 (-) mutants in A(L)CD59(+/-) cells is half that of the A(L)C hybrid, which also tolerates very large mutations but has only one copy of human chromosome 11. We interpret the difference in mutability as evidence that repair processes involving the homologous chromosomes 11 play a role in determining mutant yields. The A(L)CD59(+/-) hybrid provides a useful new tool for quantifying mutagenesis and shedding light on mechanisms of genetic instability and mutagenesis.

  17. Implementation of Software Tools for Hybrid Control Rooms in the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokstad, Håkon [Halden Reactor Project, Halden (Norway); Berntsson, Olof [Halden Reactor Project, Halden (Norway); McDonald, Robert [Halden Reactor Project, Halden (Norway); Boring, Ronald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hallbert, Bruce [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fitzgerald, Kirk [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) and Idaho National Laboratory have designed, implemented, tested and installed a functioning prototype of a set of large screen overview and procedure support displays for the Generic Pressurized Water Reactor (GPWR) simulator in the U.S. Department of Energy’s Human Systems Simulation Laboratory. The overview display is based on IFE’s extensive experiences with large screen overview displays in the Halden Man-Machine Laboratory (HAMMLAB), and presents the main control room indicators on a combined three-screen display. The procedure support displays are designed and implemented to provide a compact but still comprehensive overview of the relevant process measurements and indicators to support operators' good situational awareness during the performance of various types of procedures and plant conditions.

  18. Human Serum Albumin Hybrid Incorporating Synthetic Hemes :A Novel O2-Carrying Hemoprotein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Incorporation of synthetic heme (FeP) into recombinant human serum albumin(rHSA) provides an artificial hemoprotein(rHSA-FeP) which can bind and release oxygenreversibly under physiological conditions(in aqueous media, pH 7.3, 37 ℃) like hemoglobin(Hb) and myoglobin. An rHSA host absorbs maximally eight FeP molecules, and thesolution properties are almost identical to those of rHSA itself. The second-order structureand surface charge distribution of rHSA were always constant independent of the bindingnumbers of FeP. Its O2-binding ability satisfies the initial clinical requirements for red cellsubstitute. Although the NO-binding affinity is 8-fold high compared to the Hb's,administration of this fluid into rats showed negligible change in the blood pressure.Physiological responses to exchange transfusion with this rHSA-FeP into anaesthetized ratshave also been evaluated.

  19. Hybridization-Based Detection of Helicobacter pylori at Human Body Temperature Using Advanced Locked Nucleic Acid (LNA) Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontenete, Sílvia; Guimarães, Nuno; Leite, Marina

    2013-01-01

    the possibility of developing a variant of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), named fluorescence in vivo hybridization (FIVH), for the detection of Helicobacter pylori. Using oligonucleotide variations comprising locked nucleic acids (LNA) and 2'-O-methyl RNAs (2'OMe) with two types of backbone linkages...

  20. Classifying human voices by using hybrid SFX time-series preprocessing and ensemble feature selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Simon; Lan, Kun; Wong, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Voice biometrics is one kind of physiological characteristics whose voice is different for each individual person. Due to this uniqueness, voice classification has found useful applications in classifying speakers' gender, mother tongue or ethnicity (accent), emotion states, identity verification, verbal command control, and so forth. In this paper, we adopt a new preprocessing method named Statistical Feature Extraction (SFX) for extracting important features in training a classification model, based on piecewise transformation treating an audio waveform as a time-series. Using SFX we can faithfully remodel statistical characteristics of the time-series; together with spectral analysis, a substantial amount of features are extracted in combination. An ensemble is utilized in selecting only the influential features to be used in classification model induction. We focus on the comparison of effects of various popular data mining algorithms on multiple datasets. Our experiment consists of classification tests over four typical categories of human voice data, namely, Female and Male, Emotional Speech, Speaker Identification, and Language Recognition. The experiments yield encouraging results supporting the fact that heuristically choosing significant features from both time and frequency domains indeed produces better performance in voice classification than traditional signal processing techniques alone, like wavelets and LPC-to-CC.

  1. The human interactome knowledge base (hint-kb): An integrative human protein interaction database enriched with predicted protein–protein interaction scores using a novel hybrid technique

    KAUST Repository

    Theofilatos, Konstantinos A.

    2013-07-12

    Proteins are the functional components of many cellular processes and the identification of their physical protein–protein interactions (PPIs) is an area of mature academic research. Various databases have been developed containing information about experimentally and computationally detected human PPIs as well as their corresponding annotation data. However, these databases contain many false positive interactions, are partial and only a few of them incorporate data from various sources. To overcome these limitations, we have developed HINT-KB (http://biotools.ceid.upatras.gr/hint-kb/), a knowledge base that integrates data from various sources, provides a user-friendly interface for their retrieval, cal-culatesasetoffeaturesofinterest and computesaconfidence score for every candidate protein interaction. This confidence score is essential for filtering the false positive interactions which are present in existing databases, predicting new protein interactions and measuring the frequency of each true protein interaction. For this reason, a novel machine learning hybrid methodology, called (Evolutionary Kalman Mathematical Modelling—EvoKalMaModel), was used to achieve an accurate and interpretable scoring methodology. The experimental results indicated that the proposed scoring scheme outperforms existing computational methods for the prediction of PPIs.

  2. Demonstration of Brachyspira aalborgi lineages 2 and 3 in human colonic biopsies with intestinal spirochaetosis by specific fluorescent in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Teglbjærg, Peter S.; Lindboe, Christian F.;

    2004-01-01

    of these organisms in human intestinal spirochaetosis. Seventeen human colonic biopsies from Norway and Denmark with intestinal spirochaetosis caused by Brachyspira-like organisms different from the type strain of B. aalborgi (lineage 1) were examined. Application of the probe gave a positive signal in two Norwegian...... biopsies, whereas the 15 other biopsies were hybridization-negative. The positive reaction visualized the spirochaetes as a fluorescent, 3-5 mum-high fringe on the surface epithelium, extending into the crypts. The study verified the presence of B. aalborgi lineages 2 and 3 and identified the bacteria...

  3. Human papillomavirus genotyping after denaturation of specimens for Hybrid Capture 2 testing: feasibility study for the HPV persistence and progression cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMere, Brandon J; Kornegay, Janet; Fetterman, Barbara; Sadorra, Mark; Shieh, Jen; Castle, Philip E

    2007-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping could be clinically useful, depending on the results of large, prospective studies like the HPV persistence and progression (PaP) cohort. The cohort is based on genotyping and follow-up of Hybrid Capture-positive women at Kaiser Permanente, Northern California. HPV DNA testing by Hybrid Capture 2 requires denaturation with alkali, possibly damaging the DNA for optimal PCR-based genotyping. A feasibility study was conducted on paired aliquots of anonymized specimens from 100 women with low-grade intraepithelial lesion cytology. Test aliquots were left in denaturant for 10 or 18h at 4 degrees C and then neutralized; comparison aliquots were not denatured but diluted to match the timing, temperature, concentration and salt conditions of the treated specimens. The masked aliquots were tested using a commercialized PCR-based assay that detects of 37 HPV genotypes. There was no overall effect of treatment on test positivity or number of types. HPV16 was marginally more likely to be detected in untreated versus treated aliquots (P=0.09) but HPV45 was marginally more likely to be detected in treated than untreated aliquots (P=0.07), suggesting that these differences represented chance (intra-test variability). It can be concluded that residual Hybrid Capture-positive specimens can be genotyped by PCR after Hybrid Capture 2 processing.

  4. Cleavage of a recombinant human immunoglobulin A2 (IgA2)-IgA1 hybrid antibody by certain bacterial IgA1 proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senior, B; Dunlop, JI; Batten, MR

    2000-01-01

    To understand more about the factors influencing the cleavage of immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) by microbial IgA1 proteases, a recombinant human IgA2/IgA1 hybrid molecule was generated. In the hybrid, termed IgA2/A1 half hinge, a seven-amino-acid sequence corresponding to one half of the duplicated...... sequence making up the IgA1 hinge was incorporated into the equivalent site in IgA2. Insertion of the IgA1 half hinge into IgA2 did not affect antigen binding capacity or the functional activity of the hybrid molecule, as judged by its ability to bind to IgA Fcalpha receptors and trigger respiratory bursts...... in neutrophils. Although the IgA2/A1 hybrid contained only half of the IgA1 hinge, it was found to be cleaved by a variety of different bacterial IgA1 proteases, including representatives of those that cleave IgA1 in the different duplicated halves of the hinge, namely, those of Prevotella melaninogenica...

  5. The oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) localizes to human chromosome 3p25 by fluorescence in situ hybridization and PCR analysis of somatic cell hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, C.F. Jr.; Clancy, T.E.; Quan, R. [Children`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-10

    The human oxytocin receptor regulates parturition and myometrial contractility, breast milk let-down, and reproductive behaviors in the mammalian central nervous system. Kimura et al. recently identified a human oxytocin receptor cDNA by means of expression cloning from a human myometrial cDNA library. To elucidate further the molecular mechanisms that regulate oxytocin receptor gene expression and to define the expected Mendelian inheritance of possible human disease states, we must determine the number of genes, their localization, and their organization and structure. We summarize below our data indicating that the human oxytocin receptor gene is localized to 3p25 and exists as a single copy in the haploid genome. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  6. A novel hybrid aspirin-NO-releasing compound inhibits TNFalpha release from LPS-activated human monocytes and macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox Sarah

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cytoprotective nature of nitric oxide (NO led to development of NO-aspirins in the hope of overcoming the gastric side-effects of aspirin. However, the NO moiety gives these hybrids potential for actions further to their aspirin-mediated anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory effects. Having previously shown that novel NO-aspirin hybrids containing a furoxan NO-releasing group have potent anti-platelet effects, here we investigate their anti-inflammatory properties. Here we examine their effects upon TNFα release from lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages and investigate a potential mechanism of action through effects on LPS-stimulated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB activation. Methods Peripheral venous blood was drawn from the antecubital fossa of human volunteers. Mononuclear cells were isolated and cultured. The resultant differentiated macrophages were treated with pharmacologically relevant concentrations of either a furoxan-aspirin (B8, B7; 10 μM, their respective furazan NO-free counterparts (B16, B15; 10 μM, aspirin (10 μM, existing nitroaspirin (NCX4016; 10 μM, an NO donor (DEA/NO; 10 μM or dexamethasone (1 μM, in the presence and absence of LPS (10 ng/ml; 4 h. Parallel experiments were conducted on undifferentiated fresh monocytes. Supernatants were assessed by specific ELISA for TNFα release and by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assay for cell necrosis. To assess NF-κB activation, the effects of the compounds on the loss of cytoplasmic inhibitor of NF-κB, IκBα (assessed by western blotting and nuclear localisation (assessed by immunofluorescence of the p65 subunit of NF-κB were determined. Results B8 significantly reduced TNFα release from LPS-treated macrophages to 36 ± 10% of the LPS control. B8 and B16 significantly inhibited monocyte TNFα release to 28 ± 5, and 49 ± 9% of control, respectively. The B8 effect was equivalent in magnitude to that of

  7. Comparison of repair of DNA double-strand breaks in identical sequences in primary human fibroblast and immortal hamster-human hybrid cells harboring a single copy of human chromosome 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladi, B.; Waldren, C. A.; Rydberg, B.; Cooper, P. K.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    We have optimized a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis assay that measures induction and repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in specific regions of the genome (Lobrich et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 12050-12054, 1995). The increased sensitivity resulting from these improvements makes it possible to analyze the size distribution of broken DNA molecules immediately after the introduction of DSBs and after repair incubation. This analysis shows that the distribution of broken DNA pieces after exposure to sparsely ionizing radiation is consistent with the distribution expected from randomly induced DSBs. It is apparent from the distribution of rejoined DNA pieces after repair incubation that DNA ends continue to rejoin between 3 and 24 h postirradiation and that some of these rejoining events are in fact misrejoining events, since novel restriction fragments both larger and smaller than the original fragment are generated after repair. This improved assay was also used to study the kinetics of DSB rejoining and the extent of misrejoining in identical DNA sequences in human GM38 cells and human-hamster hybrid A(L) cells containing a single human chromosome 11. Despite the numerous differences between these cells, which include species and tissue of origin, levels of TP53, expression of telomerase, and the presence or absence of a homologous chromosome for the restriction fragments examined, the kinetics of rejoining of radiation-induced DSBs and the extent of misrejoining were similar in the two cell lines when studied in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle. Furthermore, DSBs were removed from the single-copy human chromosome in the hamster A(L) cells with similar kinetics and misrejoining frequency as at a locus on this hybrid's CHO chromosomes.

  8. A Hybrid Neural Network Approach for Kinematic Modeling of a Novel 6-UPS Parallel Human-Like Mastication Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Kalani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction we aimed to introduce a 6-universal-prismatic-spherical (UPS parallel mechanism for the human jaw motion and theoretically evaluate its kinematic problem. We proposed a strategy to provide a fast and accurate solution to the kinematic problem. The proposed strategy could accelerate the process of solution-finding for the direct kinematic problem by reducing the number of required iterations in order to reach the desired accuracy level. Materials and Methods To overcome the direct kinematic problem, an artificial neural network and third-order Newton-Raphson algorithm were combined to provide an improved hybrid method. In this method, approximate solution was presented for the direct kinematic problem by the neural network. This solution could be considered as the initial guess for the third-order Newton-Raphson algorithm to provide an answer with the desired level of accuracy. Results The results showed that the proposed combination could help find a approximate solution and reduce the execution time for the direct kinematic problem, The results showed that muscular actuations showed periodic behaviors, and the maximum length variation of temporalis muscle was larger than that of masseter and pterygoid muscles. By reducing the processing time for solving the direct kinematic problem, more time could be devoted to control calculations.. In this method, for relatively high levels of accuracy, the number of iterations and computational time decreased by 90% and 34%, respectively, compared to the conventional Newton method. Conclusion The present analysis could allow researchers to characterize and study the mastication process by specifying different chewing patterns (e.g., muscle displacements.

  9. Human papillomavirus testing in primary cervical screening and the cut-off level for hybrid capture 2 tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Njor, Sisse Helle

    2011-01-01

    To determine the trade-off between the sensitivity and the specificity for high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia at hybrid capture 2 cut-off values above the standard = 1 relative light units/cut-off level (rlu/co).......To determine the trade-off between the sensitivity and the specificity for high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia at hybrid capture 2 cut-off values above the standard = 1 relative light units/cut-off level (rlu/co)....

  10. Identification of a deletion in the mismatch repair gene, MSH2, using mouse-human cell hybrids monosomal for chromosome 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatt, R E; Nakagawa, H; Hampel, H; Sedra, M; Fuchik, M B; Comeras, I; de la Chapelle, A; Prior, T W

    2003-03-01

    Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer is characterized by mutations in one of the DNA mismatch repair genes, primarily MLH1, MSH2, or MSH6. We report here the identification of a genomic deletion of approximately 11.4 kb encompassing the first two exons of the MSH2 gene in two generations of an Ohio family. By Southern blot analysis, using a cDNA probe spanning the first seven exons of MSH2, an alteration in each of three different enzyme digests (including a unique 13-kb band on HindIII digests) was observed, which suggested the presence of a large alteration in the 5' region of this gene. Mouse-human cell hybrids from a mutation carrier were then generated which contained a single copy each of human chromosome 2 on which the MSH2 gene resides. Southern blots on DNA from the cell hybrids demonstrated the same, unique 13-kb band from one MSH2 allele, as seen in the diploid DNA. DNA from this same monosomal cell hybrid failed to amplify in polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) using primers to exons 1 and 2, demonstrating the deletion of these sequences in one MSH2 allele, and the breakpoints involving Alu repeats were identified by PCR amplification and sequence analysis.

  11. Hybrid Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    2003-01-01

    We review the status of hybrid baryons. The only known way to study hybrids rigorously is via excited adiabatic potentials. Hybrids can be modelled by both the bag and flux-tube models. The low-lying hybrid baryon is N 1/2^+ with a mass of 1.5-1.8 GeV. Hybrid baryons can be produced in the glue-rich processes of diffractive gamma N and pi N production, Psi decays and p pbar annihilation.

  12. Palm oil and cardiovascular disease: a randomized trial of the effects of hybrid palm oil supplementation on human plasma lipid patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucci, P; Borrero, M; Ruiz, A; Pacetti, D; Frega, N G; Diez, O; Ojeda, M; Gagliardi, R; Parra, L; Angel, M

    2016-01-01

    This study examines, for the first time, the effect of hybrid Elaeis oleifera × E. guineensis palm oil supplementation on human plasma lipids related to CVD risk factors. One hundred sixty eligible participants were randomized and assigned to one of the two treatments: 25 mL hybrid palm oil (HPO group) or 25 mL extra virgin olive oil (EVOO group) daily for 3 months. Fasting venous samples were obtained at baseline and after 1, 2 and 3 months for measurement of plasma lipids (TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and TAGs). Changes in body mass index and waist circumference were also assessed. Although there was an overall reduction in TC (7.4%, p palm oil can be seen as a "tropical equivalent of olive oil".

  13. Novel hybrids of metronidazole and quinolones: synthesis, bioactive evaluation, cytotoxicity, preliminary antimicrobial mechanism and effect of metal ions on their transportation by human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Sheng-Feng; Peng, Li-Ping; Zhang, Hui-Zhen; Rasheed, Syed; Vijaya Kumar, Kannekanti; Zhou, Cheng-He

    2014-10-30

    A novel series of hybrids of metronidazole and quinolones as antimicrobial agents were designed and synthesized. Most prepared compounds exhibited good or even stronger antimicrobial activities in comparison with reference drugs. Furthermore, these highly active metronidazole-quinolone hybrids showed appropriate ranges of pKa, log P and aqueous solubility to pharmacokinetic behaviors and no obvious toxicity to A549 and human hepatocyte LO2 cells. Their competitive interactions with metal ions to HSA revealed that the participation of Mg(2+) ion in compound 7d-HSA association could result in a concentration increase of free compound 7d. Molecular modeling and experimental investigation of compound 7d with DNA suggested that possible antibacterial mechanism might be in relation with multiple binding sites between bioactive molecules and topo IV-DNA complex.

  14. Study comparing human papillomavirus (HPV) real-time multiplex PCR and Hybrid Capture II INNO-LiPA v2 HPV genotyping PCR assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftner, Thomas; Germ, Liesje; Swoyer, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA genotyping is an essential test to establish efficacy in HPV vaccine clinical trials and HPV prevalence in natural history studies. A number of HPV DNA genotyping methods have been cited in the literature, but the comparability of the outcomes from the different...... methods has not been well characterized. Clinically, cytology is used to establish possible HPV infection. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of HPV multiplex PCR assays compared to those of the testing scheme of the Hybrid Capture II (HCII) assay followed by an HPV PCR/line hybridization assay...... (HCII-LiPA v2). SurePath residual samples were split into two aliquots. One aliquot was subjected to HCII testing followed by DNA extraction and LiPA v2 genotyping. The second aliquot was shipped to a second laboratory, where DNA was extracted and HPV multiplex PCR testing was performed. Comparisons...

  15. Quinoline-azetidinone hybrids: Synthesis and in vitro antiproliferation activity against Hep G2 and Hep 3B human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegaon, S G; Parchure, P; Araujo, L D; Salve, P S; Alagawadi, K R; Jalalpure, S S; Kumbar, V M

    2017-04-01

    In search of new heterocyclic anticancer agents, a new quinoline-azetidinone hybrid template have been designed, synthesized and screened for their cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines such as Hep G2, and Hep 3B by the MTT assay and results were compared with paclitaxel, 5-fluorouracil and doxorubicin. Interestingly, some of the compounds were found significantly active against both cell lines. The compound 6f (IC50=0.04±0.01µM) exhibited potent antiproliferation activity against Hep G2 cell line, and 6j compound (IC50=0.66±0.01µM) demonstrated potent antiproliferation activity against Hep 3B cell line and provide to be more potent as cytotoxic agents than standard drugs. Morphological changes suggest the induction of apoptosis and describe the mechanism of action of these hybrid antitumor agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. First-in-human evaluation of a hybrid modality that allows combined radio- and (near-infrared) fluorescence tracing during surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Nynke S. van den [Leiden University Medical Center, Interventional Molecular Imaging Laboratory, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Urology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Simon, Herve [Eurorad S.A., Eckbolsheim (France); Kleinjan, Gijs H. [Leiden University Medical Center, Interventional Molecular Imaging Laboratory, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Engelen, Thijs [Leiden University Medical Center, Interventional Molecular Imaging Laboratory, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Head and Neck Surgery and Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bunschoten, Anton; Welling, Mick M. [Leiden University Medical Center, Interventional Molecular Imaging Laboratory, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Tijink, Bernard M. [The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Head and Neck Surgery and Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Horenblas, Simon [The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Urology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Chambron, Jacques [The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leeuwen, Fijs W.B. van [Leiden University Medical Center, Interventional Molecular Imaging Laboratory, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Urology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Head and Neck Surgery and Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-10-15

    The clinical introduction of the hybrid tracer indocyanine green (ICG)-{sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid, composed of a radioactive and a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence component, has created the need for surgical (imaging) modalities that allow for simultaneous detection of both signals. This study describes the first-in-human use of a prototype opto-nuclear probe during sentinel node (SN) biopsy using ICG-{sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid. To allow for fluorescence tracing, a derivative of the conventional gamma probe technology was generated in which two optical fibers were integrated to allow for excitation (785 nm) and emission signal collection (> 810 nm). The ability of this opto-nuclear probe to detect the fluorescence signal of the hybrid tracer ICG-{sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid was firstly determined ex vivo in (non)SNs samples obtained from 41 patients who underwent hybrid tracer-based SN biopsy in the head and neck or urogenital area. In an in vivo proof-of-concept study in nine of these 41 patients, SNs were localized using combined gamma and fluorescence tracing with the opto-nuclear probe. Fluorescence tracing was performed in a similar manner as gamma tracing and under ambient light conditions. Ex vivo, the gamma tracing option of the opto-nuclear probe correctly identified the SN in all 150 evaluated (non)SN samples. Ex vivo fluorescence tracing in the low-sensitivity mode correctly identified 71.7 % of the samples. This increased to 98.9 % when fluorescence tracing was performed in the high-sensitivity mode. In vivo fluorescence tracing (high-sensitivity mode) accurately identified the SNs in all nine patients (20 SNs evaluated; 100 %). This study demonstrates the first-in-human evaluation of a hybrid modality capable of detecting both gamma and fluorescence signals during a surgical procedure. Fluorescence tracing could be performed in ambient light. (orig.)

  17. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Szalanski, Allen L; Gaskin, John F.; Young, Nicholas E.; West, Amanda; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Tripodi, Amber

    2015-01-01

    Science has shown that the introgression or hybridization of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals up to 40,000 YBP may have led to the swarm of modern humans on earth. However, there is little doubt that modern trade and transportation in support of the humans has continued to introduce additional species, genotypes, and hybrids to every country on the globe. We assessed the utility of species distributions modeling of genotypes to assess the risk of current and future invaders. We evaluated 93 locations of the genus Tamarix for which genetic data were available. Maxent models of habitat suitability showed that the hybrid, T. ramosissima x T. chinensis, was slightly greater than the parent taxa (AUCs > 0.83). General linear models of Africanized honey bees, a hybrid cross of Tanzanian Apis mellifera scutellata and a variety of European honey bee including A. m. ligustica, showed that the Africanized bees (AUC = 0.81) may be displacing European honey bees (AUC > 0.76) over large areas of the southwestern U.S. More important, Maxent modeling of sub-populations (A1 and A26 mitotypes based on mDNA) could be accurately modeled (AUC > 0.9), and they responded differently to environmental drivers. This suggests that rapid evolutionary change may be underway in the Africanized bees, allowing the bees to spread into new areas and extending their total range. Protecting native species and ecosystems may benefit from risk maps of harmful invasive species, hybrids, and genotypes.

  18. Finding a human telomere DNA-RNA hybrid G-quadruplex formed by human telomeric 6-mer RNA and 16-mer DNA using click chemistry: a protective structure for telomere end.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Suzuki, Yuta; Ishizuka, Takumi; Xiao, Chao-Da; Liu, Xiao; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Komiyama, Makoto

    2014-08-15

    Telomeric repeat-containing RNA is a non-coding RNA molecule newly found in mammalian cells. The telomere RNA has been found to localize to the telomere DNA, but how the newly discovered RNA molecule interacts with telomere DNA is less known. In this study, using the click chemistry we successfully found that a 6-mer human telomere RNA and 16-mer human telomere DNA sequence can form a DNA-RNA hybrid type G-quadruplex structure. Detection of the click-reaction products directly probes DNA-RNA G-quadruplex structures in a complicated solution, whereas traditional methods such as NMR and crystallography may not be suitable. Importantly, we found that formation of DNA-RNA G-quadruplex induced an exonuclease resistance for telomere DNA, indicating that such structures might be important for protecting telomeric DNA from enzyme digestion to avoid telomere DNA shortening. These results provide the direct evidence for formation of DNA-RNA hybrid G-quadruplex structure by human telomere DNA and RNA sequence, suggesting DNA-RNA hybrid G-quadruplex structure associated between telomere DNA and RNA may respond to chromosome end protection and/or present a valuable target for drug design.

  19. High-resolution cytogenetic mapping of 342 new cosmid markers including 43 RFLP markers on human chromosome 17 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inazawa, Johji; Ariyama, Takeshi; Abe, Tatsuo (Kyoto Prefectual Univ. of Medicine (Japan)); Saito, Hiroko; Nakamura, Yusuke (Cancer Institute, Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-07-01

    The authors have constructed a high-resolution cytogenetic map of human chromosome 17 with 342 cosmid markers, each newly isolated from a cosmid library constructed from a human-mouse hybrid cell line containing a single human chromosome 17. Direct mapping on R- and/or G-banded (pro)metaphase chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization localized these markers throughout the chromosome, although density was highest in the R-band-dominant regions of 17p13, 17p11.2, 17q11.2-q12, 17q21.3, 17q23, and 17q25. By screening some of the cosmid clones, they identified 71 polymorphic systems with 43 markers; 11 of these are VNTRs. As the high-resolution cytogenetic map contains a large number of markers, it can provide useful landmarks for a contig map of chromosome 17. Furthermore, the map will contribute to positional cloning of aberrant genes responsible for inherited diseases such as Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS), Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), and familial early-onset breast cancer, as well as putative tumor suppressor genes on this chromosome. 47 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Expression of very low density lipoprotein receptor in the vascular wall. Analysis of human tissues by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, H A; Gåfvels, M E; Kariko, K

    1996-01-01

    for the uptake and transport of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and perhaps facilitate the development of atherosclerosis in hypertriglyceridemic individuals, we used in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to determine whether VLDL receptor mRNA and protein was expressed in human vascular tissue. We......The recently cloned very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor binds triglyceride-rich, apolipoprotein-E-containing lipoproteins with high affinity. The observation that VLDL receptor mRNA is abundantly expressed in extracts of tissues such as skeletal muscle and heart, but not liver, has led...... tissue suggests a potentially important role for this receptor in normal and pathophysiological vascular processes....

  1. Prediction of human cell radiosensitivity: Comparison of clonogenic assay with chromosome aberrations scored using premature chromosome condensation with fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasai, K.; Evans, J.W.; Kovacs, M.S. [Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether chromosome aberrations scored by premature chromosome condensation (PCC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can predict the radiosensitivity of human cell lines, thereby providing a possible means of assessing the in situ radiosensitivity of normal tissues and the radiocurability of individual human cancers. We used four cells lines of different radiosensitivity: normal human fibroblasts (AG1522), ataxia-telangiectasia fibroblasts (AT2052), a human fibrosarcoma cell line (HT1080), and a human melanoma cell line (melanoma 903). These were irradiated in plateau phase with a range of doses and assessed both for clonogenic cell survival and for aberrations in a single chromosome (number 4) immediately after, and 24 h after irradiation. The initial number of breaks in chromosome 4 was proportional to irradiation dose and was identical for all the different human cell lines, irrespective of radiosensitivity. On the other hand, the number of chromosome 4 breaks remaining 24 h after irradiation reflected the radiosensitivity of the cells such that the relationship between residual chromosome aberrations and cell survival was the same for the different cell lines. These results suggest that the scoring of chromosome aberrations in interphase using FISH with PCC holds considerable promise for predicting the radiosensitivity of normal and tumor tissues in situ. 28 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Introduction of the human pro. cap alpha. 1(I) collagen gene into pro. cap alpha. 1(I)-deficient Mov-13 mouse cells leads to formation of functional mouse-human hybrid type I collagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnieke, A.; Dziadek, M.; Bateman, J.; Mascara, T.; Harbers, K.; Gelinas, R.; Jaenisch, R.

    1987-02-01

    The Mov-13 mouse strain carries a retroviral insertion in the pro..cap alpha..1(I) collagen gene that prevents transcription of the gene. Cell lines derived from homozygous embryos do not express type I collagen although normal amounts of pro..cap alpha..2 mRNA are synthesized. The authors have introduced genomic clones of either the human or mouse pro..cap alpha..1(I) collagen gene into homozygous cell lines to assess whether the human or mouse pro..cap alpha..1(I) chains can associate with the endogenous mouse pro..cap alpha..2(I) chain to form stable type I collagen. The human gene under control of the simian virus 40 promoter was efficiently transcribed in the transfected cells. Protein analyses revealed that stable heterotrimers consisting of two human ..cap alpha..1 chains and one mouse ..cap alpha..2 chain were formed and that type I collagen was secreted by the transfected cells at normal rates. However, the electrophoretic migration of both ..cap alpha..1(I) and ..cap alpha..2(I) chains in the human-mouse hybrid molecules were retarded, compared to the ..cap alpha..(I) chains in control mouse cells. Inhibition of the posttranslational hydroxylation of lysine and proline resulted in comigration of human and mouse ..cap alpha..1 and ..cap alpha..2 chains, suggesting that increased posttranslational modification caused the altered electrophoretic migration in the human-mouse hybrid molecules. Amino acid sequence differences between the mouse and human ..cap alpha.. chains may interfere with the normal rate of helix formation and increase the degree of posttranslational modifications similar to those observed in patients with lethal perinatal osteogenesis imperfecta. The Mov-13 mouse system should allow the authors to study the effect specific mutations introduced in transfected pro..cap alpha..1(I) genes have on the synthesis, assembly, and function of collagen I.

  3. Optimal Threshold for a Positive Hybrid Capture 2 Test for Detection of Human Papillomavirus: Data from the ARTISTIC Trial▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, A.; Bailey, A.; Turner, A.; Almonte, M.; Gilham, C.; Baysson, H.; Peto, J.; Roberts, C.; Thomson, C.; Desai, M.; Mather, J.; Kitchener, H.

    2010-01-01

    We present data on the use of the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) test for the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) with different thresholds for positivity within a primary screening setting and as a method of triage for low-grade cytology. In the ARTISTIC population-based trial, 18,386 women were screened by cytology and for HPV. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia lesions of grade two and higher (CIN2+ lesions) were identified for 453 women within 30 months of an abnormal baseline sample. When a relative light unit/cutoff (RLU/Co) ratio of ≥1 was used as the threshold for considering an HC2 result positive, 15.6% of results were positive, and the proportion of CIN2+ lesions in this group was 14.7%. The relative sensitivity for CIN2+ lesion detection was 93.4%. When an RLU/Co ratio of ≥2 was used as the threshold, there was a 2.5% reduction in positivity, with an increase in the proportion of CIN2+ lesions detected. The relative sensitivity decreased slightly, to 90.3%. Among women with low-grade cytology, HPV prevalences were 43.7% and 40.3% at RLU/Co ratios of ≥1 and ≥2, respectively. The proportions of CIN2+ lesions detected were 17.3% and 18.0%, with relative sensitivities of 87.7% at an RLU/Co ratio of ≥1 and 84.2% at an RLU/Co ratio of ≥2. At an RLU/Co ratio of ≥1, 68.3% of HC2-positive results were confirmed by the Roche line blot assay, compared to 77.2% of those at an RLU/Co ratio of ≥2. Fewer HC2-positive results were confirmed for 35- to 64-year-olds (50.3% at an RLU/Co ratio of ≥1 and 63.2% at an RLU/Co ratio of >2) than for 20- to 34-year-olds (78.7% at an RLU/Co ratio of ≥1 and 83.7% at an RLU/Co ratio of >2). If the HC2 test is used for routine screening as an initial test or as a method of triage for low-grade cytology, we would suggest increasing the threshold for positivity from the RLU/Co ratio of ≥1, recommended by the manufacturer, to an RLU/Co ratio of ≥2, since this study has shown that a beneficial balance

  4. Hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.G.W. [Electrical Machines (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    The reasons for adopting hybrid vehicles result mainly from the lack of adequate range from electric vehicles at an acceptable cost. Hybrids can offer significant improvements in emissions and fuel economy. Series and parallel hybrids are compared. A combination of series and parallel operation would be the ideal. This can be obtained using a planetary gearbox as a power split device allowing a small generator to transfer power to the propulsion motor giving the effect of a CVT. It allows the engine to run at semi-constant speed giving better fuel economy and reduced emissions. Hybrid car developments are described that show the wide range of possible hybrid systems. (author)

  5. Effect of micro-nano-hybrid structured hydroxyapatite bioceramics on osteogenic and cementogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cell via Wnt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Lixia; Liu, Jiaqiang; Zhao, Jinglei; Chang, Jiang; Xia, Lunguo; Jiang, Lingyong; Wang, Xiuhui; Lin, Kaili; Fang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    The surface structure of bioceramic scaffolds is crucial for its bioactivity and osteoinductive ability, and in recent years, human periodontal ligament stem cells have been certified to possess high osteogenic and cementogenic differential ability. In the present study, hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramics with micro-nano-hybrid surface (mnHA [the hybrid of nanorods and microrods]) were fabricated via hydrothermal reaction of the α-tricalcium phosphate granules as precursors in aqueous solution, and the effects of mnHA on the attachment, proliferation, osteogenic and cementogenic differentiations of human periodontal ligament stem cells as well as the related mechanisms were systematically investigated. The results showed that mnHA bioceramics could promote cell adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and expression of osteogenic/cementogenic-related markers including runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), ALP, osteocalcin (OCN), cementum attachment protein (CAP), and cementum protein (CEMP) as compared to the HA bioceramics with flat and dense surface. Moreover, mnHA bioceramics stimulated gene expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) and β-catenin, which are the key genes of canonical Wnt signaling. Moreover, the stimulatory effect on ALP activity and osteogenic and cementogenic gene expression, including that of ALP, OCN, CAP, CEMP, and Runx2 of mnHA bioceramics could be repressed by canonical Wnt signaling inhibitor dickkopf1 (Dkk1). The results suggested that the HA bioceramics with mnHA could act as promising grafts for periodontal tissue regeneration.

  6. Risk and efficacy of human-enabled interspecific hybridization for climate-change adaptation: Response to Hamilton and Miller (2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, Ryan P.; Luikart, Gordon; Lowe, Winsor H.; Boyer, Matthew C.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2016-01-01

    Hamilton and Miller (2016) provide an interesting and provocative discussion of how hybridization and introgression can promote evolutionary potential in the face of climate change. They argue that hybridization—mating between individuals from genetically distinct populations—can alleviate inbreeding depression and promote adaptive introgression and evolutionary rescue. We agree that deliberate intraspecific hybridization (mating between individuals of the same species) is an underused management tool for increasing fitness in inbred populations (i.e., genetic rescue; Frankham 2015; Whiteley et al. 2015). The potential risks and benefits of assisted gene flow have been discussed in the literature, and an emerging consensus suggests that mating between populations isolated for approximately 50–100 generations can benefit fitness, often with a minor risk of outbreeding depression (Frankham et al. 2011; Aitken & Whitlock 2013; Allendorf et al. 2013).

  7. Expression of Recombinant Human Alpha-Lactalbumin in the Milk of Transgenic Goats Using a Hybrid Pomoter/Enhancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Guo Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve nutrient content of goat milk, we describe the construction of a vector (pBLAC containing a hybrid goat β-lactoglobulin (BLG promoter/cytomegalovirus (CMV enhancer. We also describe the generation of transgenic goats expressing rhLA by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. Of 334 one-cell stage embryos derived from three transgenic cell lines and 99 embryos derived from non-transgenic (NT cells surgically transferred to the oviducts of 37 recipients, two recipients delivered two kids (2% from the non-transfected line and five recipients delivered six kids (1.8% from transgenic cell lines, three of which died within 2 days. Compared to the NT donor cells, transfection of donor cells does not negatively affect the development of nuclear transfer embryos into viable transgenic offspring. However, the clone efficiency in cell line number 1 was lower than that in numbers 2 and 3, and in the NT lines (0.9% versus 1.9% 2.4% and 2%; P<0.05. Two transgenic cloned goats expressed rhLA in the milk at 0.1–0.9 mg/mL. The mammary gland-specific expression vector pBLAC with hybrid BLG/CMV can drive the hLA gene to express in vitro and in vivo. These data establish the basis for use of a hybrid promoter/enhancer strategy to produce rhLA transgenic goats.

  8. Identification of human DNA in forensic evidence by loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a colorimetric gold nanoparticle hybridization probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watthanapanpituck, Khanistha; Kiatpathomchai, Wansika; Chu, Eric; Panvisavas, Nathinee

    2014-11-01

    A DNA test based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and colorimetric gold nanoparticle (AuNP) hybridization probe to detect the presence of human DNA in forensic evidence was developed. The LAMP primer set targeted eight regions of the human cytochrome b, and its specificity was verified against the DNA of 11 animal species, which included animals closely related to humans, such as chimpanzee and orangutan. By using the AuNP probe, sequence-specific LAMP product could be detected and the test result could be visualized through the change in color. The limit of detection was demonstrated with reproducibility to be as low as 718 fg of genomic DNA, which is equivalent to approximately 100 plasmid DNA copies containing the cytochrome b DNA target region. A simple DNA extraction method for the commonly found forensic biological samples was also devised to streamline the test process. This LAMP-AuNP human DNA test showed to be a robust, specific, and cost-effective tool for the forensic identification of human specimens without requiring sophisticated laboratory instruments.

  9. A hybrid liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry strategy in a forensic laboratory for opioid, cocaine and amphetamine classes in human urine using a hybrid linear ion trap-triple quadrupole mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Geraldine; Regan, Liam; Tierney, Julie; Nangle, Michael

    2010-10-29

    A rapid method has been developed to analyse morphine, codeine, morphine-3-glucuronide, 6-monoacetylmorphine, cocaine, benzoylegonine, buprenorphine, dihydrocodeine, cocaethylene, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, ketamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, pseudoephedrine, lignocaine, benzylpiperazine, methamphetamine, amphetamine, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine and methadone in human urine. Urine samples were diluted with methanol:water (1:1, v/v) and sample aliquots were analysed by hybrid linear ion trap-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry with a runtime of 12.5 min. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) as survey scan and an enhanced product ion (EPI) scan as dependent scan were performed in an information-dependent acquisition (IDA) experiment. Finally, drug identification and confirmation was carried out by library search with a developed in-house MS/MS library based on EPI spectra at a collision energy spread of 35±15 in positive mode and MRM ratios. The method was validated in urine, according to the criteria defined in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. At least two MRM transitions for each substance were monitored in addition to EPI spectra and deuterated analytes were used as internal standards for quantitation. The reporting level was 0.05 μg mL(-1) for the range of analytes tested. The regression coefficients (r(2)) for the calibration curves (0-4 μg mL(-1)) in the study were ≥0.98. The method proved to be simple and time efficient and was implemented as an analytical strategy for the illicit drug monitoring of opioids, cocaines and amphetamines in criminal samples from crime offenders, abusers or victims in the Republic of Ireland. To the best of our knowledge there are no hybrid LC-MS applications using MRM mode and product ion spectra in the linear ion trap mode for opioids, cocaines or amphetamines with validation data in urine.

  10. Hybrid retroviral vector with MCK enhancers inserted in LTR for stable and specific expression of human factor IX in skeletal muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-min 王健民; HOU Jun 侯军; QIU Xin-fang 邱信芳; Kurachi Kotoku; XUE Jing-lun 薛京伦

    2004-01-01

    Background Retroviral vectors have been widely used to introduce foreign into various target cells in vitro, thus showing relatively high systemic delivery efficiency of various transgene products. The authors investigated the stability and efficiency of skeletal muscle-specific hybrid retroviral vectors in expression of human factor IX (FIX) in vitro and iv vivo. Methods FIX cDNA in LIXSN vector was replaced with a FIX minigene containing splicing donor and splicing acceptor sequence of first intron of human FIX gene. Two copies of muscle creatine kinase enhancer (MCK, Me2) were inserted in forward or reverse orientation at NheI site of 3' long terminal repeat (LTR), resulting in two hybrid vectors, which were designated as LMe2IXm2SN(F) and LMe2IXm2SN(R), respectively. The vectors were tested in vitro and in vivo for stability and muscle-specificity of factor IX expression with SCID mice. Results Muscle cells carrying vector with Me2 expressed significantly higher levels of FIX (up to 1800 ng/106.24h) than those without Me2, thus suggesting that Me2 could specifically increase expression level of FIX in muscle cells. Myoblasts transduced with LMe2IXm2SN(R) produced much less FIX in vivo in SCID mice than LMe2IXm2SN(F). One or two copies of Me2 sequence were deleted in myoblasts transduced with LMe2IXm2SN(R) without changing the orientation of Me2. Conclusions LTR inserted with MCK enhancers can specifically increase human FIX expression in skeletal muscle cells in vitro and in vivo, and MCK enhancer should be positioned in the same orientation as that of LTR promoter.

  11. Simple Objective Detection of Human Lyme Disease Infection Using Immuno-PCR and a Single Recombinant Hybrid Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Micah D.; Molins, Claudia R.; Schriefer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    A serology-based tiered approach has, to date, provided the most effective means of laboratory confirmation of clinically suspected cases of Lyme disease, but it lacks sensitivity in the early stages of disease and is often dependent on subjectively scored immunoblots. We recently demonstrated the use of immuno-PCR (iPCR) for detecting Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in patient serum samples that were positive for Lyme disease. To better understand the performance of the Lyme disease iPCR assay, the repeatability and variability of the background of the assay across samples from a healthy population (n = 36) were analyzed. Both of these parameters were found to have coefficients of variation of Lyme disease patient serum samples (n = 12) demonstrated a strong correlation with that of 2-tier testing. Furthermore, a simplified iPCR approach using a single hybrid antigen and detecting only IgG antibodies confirmed the 2-tier diagnosis in the Lyme disease patient serum samples (n = 12). Validation of the hybrid antigen IgG iPCR assay using a blinded panel of Lyme disease and non-Lyme disease patient serum samples (n = 92) resulted in a sensitivity of 69% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50% to 84%), compared to that of the 2-tier analysis at 59% (95% CI, 41% to 76%), and a specificity of 98% (95% CI, 91% to 100%) compared to that of the 2-tier analysis at 97% (95% CI, 88% to 100%). A single-tier hybrid antigen iPCR assay has the potential to be an improved method for detecting host-generated antibodies against B. burgdorferi. PMID:24899074

  12. Implementation of hybrid clustering based on partitioning around medoids algorithm and divisive analysis on human Papillomavirus DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimbi, Mentari Dian; Bustamam, Alhadi; Lestari, Dian

    2017-03-01

    Data clustering can be executed through partition or hierarchical method for many types of data including DNA sequences. Both clustering methods can be combined by processing partition algorithm in the first level and hierarchical in the second level, called hybrid clustering. In the partition phase some popular methods such as PAM, K-means, or Fuzzy c-means methods could be applied. In this study we selected partitioning around medoids (PAM) in our partition stage. Furthermore, following the partition algorithm, in hierarchical stage we applied divisive analysis algorithm (DIANA) in order to have more specific clusters and sub clusters structures. The number of main clusters is determined using Davies Bouldin Index (DBI) value. We choose the optimal number of clusters if the results minimize the DBI value. In this work, we conduct the clustering on 1252 HPV DNA sequences data from GenBank. The characteristic extraction is initially performed, followed by normalizing and genetic distance calculation using Euclidean distance. In our implementation, we used the hybrid PAM and DIANA using the R open source programming tool. In our results, we obtained 3 main clusters with average DBI value is 0.979, using PAM in the first stage. After executing DIANA in the second stage, we obtained 4 sub clusters for Cluster-1, 9 sub clusters for Cluster-2 and 2 sub clusters in Cluster-3, with the BDI value 0.972, 0.771, and 0.768 for each main cluster respectively. Since the second stage produce lower DBI value compare to the DBI value in the first stage, we conclude that this hybrid approach can improve the accuracy of our clustering results.

  13. The Truncated Human Telomeric Sequence forms a Hybrid-Type Intramolecular Mixed Parallel/antiparallel G-quadruplex Structure in K(+) Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuxia; Cheng, Dengfeng; Ge, Min; Lin, Weizhen

    2016-07-01

    In 80-90% tumor cells, telomerase becomes active and stabilizes the length of telomeres. The formation and stabilization of G-quadruplexes formed from human telomeric sequences have been proved able to inhibit the activity of telomerase, thus human telomeric G-quadruplex structure has become a potential target for the development of cancer therapy. Hence, structure of G-quadruplex formed in K(+) solution has been an attractive hotspot for further studies. However, the exact structure of human telomeric G-quadruplex in K(+) is extremely controversial, this study provides information for the understanding of different G-quadruplexes. Here, we report that 22nt and 24nt human telomeric sequences form unimolecular hybrid-type mixed parallel/antiparallel G-quadruplex in K(+) solution elucidated utilizing Circular Dichroism, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, and gel electrophoresis. Moreover, individual configuration of these two sequences was speculated in this study. The detailed structure information of the G-quadruplex formed under physiologically relevant condition is necessary for structure-based rational drug design.

  14. Interspecies hybridization on DNA resequencing microarrays: efficiency of sequence recovery and accuracy of SNP detection in human, ape, and codfish mitochondrial DNA genomes sequenced on a human-specific MitoChip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carr Steven M

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iterative DNA "resequencing" on oligonucleotide microarrays offers a high-throughput method to measure intraspecific biodiversity, one that is especially suited to SNP-dense gene regions such as vertebrate mitochondrial (mtDNA genomes. However, costs of single-species design and microarray fabrication are prohibitive. A cost-effective, multi-species strategy is to hybridize experimental DNAs from diverse species to a common microarray that is tiled with oligonucleotide sets from multiple, homologous reference genomes. Such a strategy requires that cross-hybridization between the experimental DNAs and reference oligos from the different species not interfere with the accurate recovery of species-specific data. To determine the pattern and limits of such interspecific hybridization, we compared the efficiency of sequence recovery and accuracy of SNP identification by a 15,452-base human-specific microarray challenged with human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and codfish mtDNA genomes. Results In the human genome, 99.67% of the sequence was recovered with 100.0% accuracy. Accuracy of SNP identification declines log-linearly with sequence divergence from the reference, from 0.067 to 0.247 errors per SNP in the chimpanzee and gorilla genomes, respectively. Efficiency of sequence recovery declines with the increase of the number of interspecific SNPs in the 25b interval tiled by the reference oligonucleotides. In the gorilla genome, which differs from the human reference by 10%, and in which 46% of these 25b regions contain 3 or more SNP differences from the reference, only 88% of the sequence is recoverable. In the codfish genome, which differs from the reference by > 30%, less than 4% of the sequence is recoverable, in short islands ≥ 12b that are conserved between primates and fish. Conclusion Experimental DNAs bind inefficiently to homologous reference oligonucleotide sets on a re-sequencing microarray when their sequences differ by

  15. GPCR-I-TASSER: A Hybrid Approach to G Protein-Coupled Receptor Structure Modeling and the Application to the Human Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Yang, Jianyi; Jang, Richard; Zhang, Yang

    2015-08-01

    Experimental structure determination remains difficult for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). We propose a new hybrid protocol to construct GPCR structure models that integrates experimental mutagenesis data with ab initio transmembrane (TM) helix assembly simulations. The method was tested on 24 known GPCRs where the ab initio TM-helix assembly procedure constructed the correct fold for 20 cases. When combined with weak homology and sparse mutagenesis restraints, the method generated correct folds for all the tested cases with an average Cα root-mean-square deviation 2.4 Å in the TM regions. The new hybrid protocol was applied to model all 1,026 GPCRs in the human genome, where 923 have a high confidence score and are expected to have correct folds; these contain many pharmaceutically important families with no previously solved structures, including Trace amine, Prostanoids, Releasing hormones, Melanocortins, Vasopressin, and Neuropeptide Y receptors. The results demonstrate new progress on genome-wide structure modeling of TM proteins.

  16. A physical map of 15 loci on human chromosome 5q23-q33 by two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saltman, D.L.; Dolganov, G.M. (Genelabs Inc. Redwood City, CA (United States)); Warrington, J.A.; Wasmuth, J.J. (Univ. of California, Irvine (United States)); Lovett, M. (Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas (United States))

    1993-06-01

    The q23-q33 region of human chromosome 5 encodes a large number of growth factors, growth factor receptors, and hormone/neurotransmitter receptors. This is also the general region into which several disease genes have been mapped, including diastrophic dysplasia, Treacher Collins syndrome, hereditary startle disease, the myeloid disorders that are associated with the 5q-syndrome, autosomal-dominant forms of hereditary deafness, and limb girdle muscular dystrophy. The authors have developed a framework physical map of this region using cosmid clones isolated from the Los Alamos arrayed chromosome 5-specific library. Entry points into this library included 14 probes to genes within this interval and one anonymous polymorphic marker locus. A physical map has been constructed using fluorescence in situ hybridization of these cosmids on metaphase and interphase chromosomes, and this is in good agreement with the radiation hybrid map of the region. The derived order of loci across the region is cen-IL4-IL5-IRF1-IL3-IL9-EGR1-CD14-FGFA-GRL-D5S207-ADRB2-SPARC-RPS14-CSF1R-ADRA1, and the total distance spanned by these loci is approximately 15 Mb. The framework map, genomic clones, and contig expansion within 5q23-q33 should provide valuable resources for the eventual isolation of the clinically relevant loci that reside in this region. 31 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Hybrid Human-Computing Distributed Sense-Making: Extending the SOA Paradigm for Dynamic Adjudication and Optimization of Human and Computer Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimland, Jeffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    In many evolving systems, inputs can be derived from both human observations and physical sensors. Additionally, many computation and analysis tasks can be performed by either human beings or artificial intelligence (AI) applications. For example, weather prediction, emergency event response, assistive technology for various human sensory and…

  18. Expression of {mu}, {kappa}, and {delta} opioid receptor messenger RNA in the human CNS: a {sup 33}P in situ hybridization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peckys, D.; Landwehrmeyer, G.B. [Department of Neurology, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Neurozentrum, Breisacherstrasse 64, D-79106 Freiburg (Germany)

    1999-02-01

    The existence of at least three opioid receptor types, referred to as {mu}, {kappa}, and {delta}, is well established. Complementary DNAs corresponding to the pharmacologically defined {mu}, {kappa}, and {delta} opioid receptors have been isolated in various species including man. The expression patterns of opioid receptor transcripts in human brain has not been established with a cellular resolution, in part because of the low apparent abundance of opioid receptor messenger RNAs in human brain. To visualize opioid receptor messenger RNAs we developed a sensitive in situ hybridization histochemistry method using {sup 33}P-labelled RNA probes. In the present study we report the regional and cellular expression of {mu}, {kappa}, and {delta} opioid receptor messenger RNAs in selected areas of the human brain. Hybridization of the different opioid receptor probes resulted in distinct labelling patterns. For the {mu} and {kappa} opioid receptor probes, the most intense regional signals were observed in striatum, thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebral cortex, cerebellum and certain brainstem areas as well as the spinal cord. The most intense signals for the {delta} opioid receptor probe were found in cerebral cortex. Expression of opioid receptor transcripts was restricted to subpopulations of neurons within most regions studied demonstrating differences in the cellular expression patterns of {mu}, {kappa}, and {delta} opioid receptor messenger RNAs in numerous brain regions. The messenger RNA distribution patterns for each opioid receptor corresponded in general to the distribution of opioid receptor binding sites as visualized by receptor autoradiography. However, some mismatches, for instance between {mu} opioid receptor receptor binding and {mu} opioid receptor messenger RNA expression in the anterior striatum, were observed. A comparison of the distribution patterns of opioid receptor messenger RNAs in the human brain and that reported for the rat suggests a homologous

  19. Changes in the Fatty Acid Profile and Phospholipid Molecular Species Composition of Human Erythrocyte Membranes after Hybrid Palm and Extra Virgin Olive Oil Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacetti, D; Gagliardi, R; Balzano, M; Frega, N G; Ojeda, M L; Borrero, M; Ruiz, A; Lucci, P

    2016-07-13

    This work aims to evaluate and compare, for the first time, the effects of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and hybrid palm oil (HPO) supplementation on the fatty acid profile and phospholipid (PL) molecular species composition of human erythrocyte membranes. Results supported the effectiveness of both HPO and EVOO supplementation (3 months, 25 mL/day) in decreasing the lipophilic index of erythrocytes with no significant differences between HPO and EVOO groups at month 3. On the other hand, the novel and rapid ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method used for PL analysis reveals an increase in the levels of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine species esterified with polyunsaturated fatty acids. This work demonstrates the ability of both EVOO and HPO to increase the degree of unsaturation of erythrocyte membrane lipids with an improvement in membrane fluidity that could be associated with a lower risk of developing cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Triplet repeat sequences in human DNA can be detected by hybridization to a synthetic (5'-CGG-3')17 oligodeoxyribonucleotide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behn-Krappa, A; Mollenhauer, J; Doerfler, W

    1993-01-01

    The seemingly autonomous amplification of naturally occurring triplet repeat sequences in the human genome has been implicated in the causation of human genetic disease, such as the fragile X (Martin-Bell) syndrome, myotonic dystrophy (Curshmann-Steinert), spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy...

  1. Human cDNA mapping using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Final progress report, April 1, 1994--July 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenberg, J.R.

    1997-12-31

    The ultimate goal of this research is to generate and apply novel technologies to speed completion and integration of the human genome map and sequence with biomedical problems. To do this, techniques were developed and genome-wide resources generated. This includes a genome-wide Mapped and Integrated BAC/PAC Resource that has been used for gene finding, map completion and anchoring, breakpoint definition and sequencing. In the last period of the grant, the Human Mapped BAC/PAC Resource was also applied to determine regions of human variation and to develop a novel paradigm of primate evolution through to humans. Further, in order to more rapidly evaluate animal models of human disease, a BAC Map of the mouse was generated in collaboration with the MTI Genome Center, Dr. Bruce Birren.

  2. Fluorescent in-situ hybridization of cattle and sheep chromosomes with cloned human fragile-X DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Ahmd; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl; Babar, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    An extensive study on spontaneous and 5-Fluorodeoxyuridine induced fragile sites identified Xq31 in cattle (Bos taurus) and (Xq24, Xq26) in sheep (Ovis aries) in addition to several autosomal fragile sites (under publication). A ZOO-FISH study using three cloned human fragile-X probes with CCG....../CGG(n) trinucleotide repeat sequence was carried out to determine homology between human and bovine fragile-X. The hybridisation results showed only a weak signal on a human chromosome that was not an X with all three fragile site probes. No signals were detected in sheep chromosomes. The signal of all three human...... showed no signals whatsoever. It was therefore concluded that no homology existed between human and bovine fragile-X....

  3. A hybrid mixture discriminant analysis-random forest computational model for the prediction of volume of distribution of drugs in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Franco; Obach, R Scott; Dicapua, Frank M; Bakken, Gregory A; Lu, Jing; Potter, David M; Gao, Feng; Miller, Michael D; Zhang, Yao

    2006-04-06

    A computational approach is described that can predict the VD(ss) of new compounds in humans, with an accuracy of within 2-fold of the actual value. A dataset of VD values for 384 drugs in humans was used to train a hybrid mixture discriminant analysis-random forest (MDA-RF) model using 31 computed descriptors. Descriptors included terms describing lipophilicity, ionization, molecular volume, and various molecular fragments. For a test set of 23 proprietary compounds not used in model construction, the geometric mean fold-error (GMFE) was 1.78-fold (+/-11.4%). The model was also tested using a leave-class out approach wherein subsets of drugs based on therapeutic class were removed from the training set of 384, the model was recast, and the VD(ss) values for each of the subsets were predicted. GMFE values ranged from 1.46 to 2.94-fold, depending on the subset. Finally, for an additional set of 74 compounds, VD(ss) predictions made using the computational model were compared to predictions made using previously described methods dependent on animal pharmacokinetic data. Computational VD(ss) predictions were, on average, 2.13-fold different from the VD(ss) predictions from animal data. The computational model described can predict human VD(ss) with an accuracy comparable to predictions requiring substantially greater effort and can be applied in place of animal experimentation.

  4. Molecular characterization of a novel human hybrid-type receptor that binds the alpha2-macroglobulin receptor-associated protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Linda; Madsen, P; Moestrup, S K;

    1996-01-01

    the corresponding cDNA. The gene, designated SORL1, maps to chromosome 11q 23/24 and encodes a 2214-residue type 1 receptor containing a furin cleavage site immediately preceding the N terminus determined in the purified protein. The receptor, designated sorLA-1, has a short cytoplasmic tail containing a tyrosine......-based internalization signal and a large external part containing (from the N-terminal): 1) a segment homologous to domains in the yeast vacuolar protein sorting 10 protein, Vps10p, that binds carboxypeptidase Y, 2) five tandemly arranged YWTD repeats and a cluster of 11 class A repeats characteristic of the low...... density lipoprotein receptor gene family receptors, and 3) six tandemly arranged fibronectin type III repeats also found in certain neural adhesion proteins. sorLA-1 may therefore be classified as a hybrid receptor. Northern blotting revealed specific mRNA transcripts in brain, spinal cord, and testis...

  5. Use of hybrid chitosan membranes and human mesenchymal stem cells from the Wharton jelly of umbilical cord for promoting nerve regeneration in an axonotmesis rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrea G(a)rtner; Yuri Nakamura; Satoshi Hayakawa; Akiyoshi Osakah; Beatriz Porto; Ana Lúcia Luís; Artur SP Varej(a)o; Ana Colette Maurício; Tiago Pereira; Maria Jo(a)o Sim(o)es; Paulo AS Armada-da-Silva; Miguel L Fran(c)a; Rosa Sousa; Simone Bompasso; Stefania Raimondo; Yuki Shirosaki

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have been dedicated to the development of scaffolds for improving post-traumatic nerve regeneration.The goal of this study was to assess the effect on nerve regeneration,associating a hybrid chitosan membrane with non-differentiated human mesenchymal stem cells isolated from Wharton's jelly of umbilical cord,in peripheral nerve reconstruction after crush injury.Chromosome analysis on human mesenchymal stem cell line from Wharton's jelly was carried out and no structural alterations were found in metaphase.Chitosan membranes were previously tested in vitro,to assess their ability in supporting human mesenchymal stem cell survival,expansion,and differentiation.For the in vivo testing,Sasco Sprague adult rats were divided in 4 groups of 6 or 7 animals each:Group 1,sciatic axonotmesis injury without any other intervention (Group 1-Crush); Group 2,the axonotmesis lesion of 3 mm was infiltrated with a suspension of 1 250- 1 500 human mesenchymal stem cells (total volume of 50 μL) (Group 2-CrushCell); Group 3,axonotmesis lesion of 3 mm was enwrapped with a chitosan type Ⅲ membrane covered with a monolayer of non-differentiated human mesenchymal stem cells (Group 3-CrushChitlllCell) and Group 4,axonotmesis lesion of 3 mm was enwrapped with a chitosan type Ⅲ membrane (Group 4-CrushChitlll).Motor and sensory functional recovery was evaluated throughout a healing period of 12 weeks using sciatic functional index,static sciatic index,extensor postural thrust,and withdrawal reflex latency.Stereological analysis was carried out on regenerated nerve fibers.Results showed that infiltration of human mesenchymal stem cells,or the combination of chitosan membrane enwrapment and human mesenchymal stem cell enrichment after nerve crush injury provide a slight advantage to post-traumatic nerve regeneration.Results obtained with chitosan type Ⅲ membrane alone confirmed that they significantly improve post-traumatic axonal regrowth and may represent a very promising

  6. Use of hybrid chitosan membranes and human mesenchymal stem cells from the Wharton jelly of umbilical cord for promoting nerve regeneration in an axonotmesis rat model★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Andrea; Pereira, Tiago; Simões, Maria João; Armada-da-Silva, Paulo AS; França, Miguel L; Sousa, Rosa; Bompasso, Simone; Raimondo, Stefania; Shirosaki, Yuki; Nakamura, Yuri; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Osakah, Akiyoshi; Porto, Beatriz; Luís, Ana Lúcia; Varejão, Artur SP; Maurício, Ana Colette

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have been dedicated to the development of scaffolds for improving post-traumatic nerve regeneration. The goal of this study was to assess the effect on nerve regeneration, associating a hybrid chitosan membrane with non-differentiated human mesenchymal stem cells isolated from Wharton's jelly of umbilical cord, in peripheral nerve reconstruction after crush injury. Chromosome analysis on human mesenchymal stem cell line from Wharton's jelly was carried out and no structural alterations were found in metaphase. Chitosan membranes were previously tested in vitro, to assess their ability in supporting human mesenchymal stem cell survival, expansion, and differentiation. For the in vivo testing, Sasco Sprague adult rats were divided in 4 groups of 6 or 7 animals each: Group 1, sciatic axonotmesis injury without any other intervention (Group 1-Crush); Group 2, the axonotmesis lesion of 3 mm was infiltrated with a suspension of 1 250–1 500 human mesenchymal stem cells (total volume of 50 μL) (Group 2-CrushCell); Group 3, axonotmesis lesion of 3 mm was enwrapped with a chitosan type III membrane covered with a monolayer of non-differentiated human mesenchymal stem cells (Group 3-CrushChitIIICell) and Group 4, axonotmesis lesion of 3 mm was enwrapped with a chitosan type III membrane (Group 4-CrushChitIII). Motor and sensory functional recovery was evaluated throughout a healing period of 12 weeks using sciatic functional index, static sciatic index, extensor postural thrust, and withdrawal reflex latency. Stereological analysis was carried out on regenerated nerve fibers. Results showed that infiltration of human mesenchymal stem cells, or the combination of chitosan membrane enwrapment and human mesenchymal stem cell enrichment after nerve crush injury provide a slight advantage to post-traumatic nerve regeneration. Results obtained with chitosan type III membrane alone confirmed that they significantly improve post-traumatic axonal regrowth and may

  7. Use of hybrid chitosan membranes and human mesenchymal stem cells from the Wharton jelly of umbilical cord for promoting nerve regeneration in an axonotmesis rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Andrea; Pereira, Tiago; Simões, Maria João; Armada-da-Silva, Paulo As; França, Miguel L; Sousa, Rosa; Bompasso, Simone; Raimondo, Stefania; Shirosaki, Yuki; Nakamura, Yuri; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Osakah, Akiyoshi; Porto, Beatriz; Luís, Ana Lúcia; Varejão, Artur Sp; Maurício, Ana Colette

    2012-10-15

    Many studies have been dedicated to the development of scaffolds for improving post-traumatic nerve regeneration. The goal of this study was to assess the effect on nerve regeneration, associating a hybrid chitosan membrane with non-differentiated human mesenchymal stem cells isolated from Wharton's jelly of umbilical cord, in peripheral nerve reconstruction after crush injury. Chromosome analysis on human mesenchymal stem cell line from Wharton's jelly was carried out and no structural alterations were found in metaphase. Chitosan membranes were previously tested in vitro, to assess their ability in supporting human mesenchymal stem cell survival, expansion, and differentiation. For the in vivo testing, Sasco Sprague adult rats were divided in 4 groups of 6 or 7 animals each: Group 1, sciatic axonotmesis injury without any other intervention (Group 1-Crush); Group 2, the axonotmesis lesion of 3 mm was infiltrated with a suspension of 1 250-1 500 human mesenchymal stem cells (total volume of 50 μL) (Group 2-CrushCell); Group 3, axonotmesis lesion of 3 mm was enwrapped with a chitosan type III membrane covered with a monolayer of non-differentiated human mesenchymal stem cells (Group 3-CrushChitIIICell) and Group 4, axonotmesis lesion of 3 mm was enwrapped with a chitosan type III membrane (Group 4-CrushChitIII). Motor and sensory functional recovery was evaluated throughout a healing period of 12 weeks using sciatic functional index, static sciatic index, extensor postural thrust, and withdrawal reflex latency. Stereological analysis was carried out on regenerated nerve fibers. Results showed that infiltration of human mesenchymal stem cells, or the combination of chitosan membrane enwrapment and human mesenchymal stem cell enrichment after nerve crush injury provide a slight advantage to post-traumatic nerve regeneration. Results obtained with chitosan type III membrane alone confirmed that they significantly improve post-traumatic axonal regrowth and may

  8. Hybrid Metaheuristics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to provide a state of the art of hybrid metaheuristics. The book provides a complete background that enables readers to design and implement hybrid metaheuristics to solve complex optimization problems (continuous/discrete, mono-objective/multi-objective, optimization under uncertainty) in a diverse range of application domains. Readers learn to solve large scale problems quickly and efficiently combining metaheuristics with complementary metaheuristics, mathematical programming, constraint programming and machine learning. Numerous real-world examples of problems and solutions demonstrate how hybrid metaheuristics are applied in such fields as networks, logistics and transportation, bio-medical, engineering design, scheduling.

  9. A detector insert based on continuous scintillators for hybrid MR–PET imaging of the human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rato Mendes, P., E-mail: pedro.rato@ciemat.es [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Cuerdo, R.; Sarasola, I.; García de Acilu, P.; Navarrete, J.; Vela, O.; Oller, J.C.; Cela, J.M. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Núñez, L.; Pastrana, M. [Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro Majadahonda, Manuel de Falla 1, 28222 Majadahonda (Spain); Romero, L.; Willmott, C. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-02-21

    We are developing a positron emission tomography (PET) insert for existing magnetic resonance (MR) equipment, aiming at hybrid MR–PET imaging. Our detector block design is based on trapezoid-shaped LYSO:Ce monolithic scintillators coupled to magnetically compatible Hamamatsu S8550-02 silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) matrices with a dedicated ASIC front-end readout from GammaMedica-Ideas (Fornebu, Norway). The detectors are position sensitive, capable of determining the incidence point of 511 keV gammas with an intrinsic spatial resolution on the order of 2 mm by means of supervised learning neural-network (NN) algorithms. These algorithms, apart from providing continuous coordinates, are also intrinsically corrected for depth of interaction effects and thus parallax-free. Recently we have implemented an advanced prototype featuring two heads with four detector blocks each and final front-end and readout electronics, improving the spatial resolution of reconstructed point source images down to 1.7 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM). Presently we are carrying out operational tests of components and systems under magnetic fields using a 3 T MR scanner. In this paper we present a description of our project, a summary of the results obtained with laboratory prototypes, and the strategy to build and install the complete system at the nuclear medicine department of a collaborating hospital.

  10. Chromosomal aberrations in human hepatocellular carcinomas associated with hepatitis C virus infection detected by comparative genomic hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakura, C; Hagiwara, A; Taniguchi, H; Yamaguchi, T; Yamagishi, H; Takahashi, T; Koyama, K; Nakamura, Y; Abe, T; Inazawa, J

    1999-01-01

    Thirty-five hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) were analysed by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), to screen for changes in copy-number of DNA sequences. Chromosomal losses were noted in 1p34–36 (37%), 4q12–21 (48%), 5q13–21 (35%), 6q13–16 (23%), 8p21–23 (28%), 13q (20%), 16q (33%) and 17p13 (37%). Gains were noted in 1q (46%), 6p (20%), 8q21–24 (31%) and 17q (43%). High level gains indicative of gene amplifications were found in 7q31 (3%), 11q13 (3%), 14q12 (6%) and 17q12 (3%); amplification at 14q12 may be characteristic for HCCs. No significant difference in chromosomal aberrations was noted between carcinomas associated with HCV-infection in our study and those reported earlier in HCCs infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), indicating that both HBV- and HCV-related carcinomas may progress through a similar cascade of molecular events. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10471057

  11. A detector insert based on continuous scintillators for hybrid MR-PET imaging of the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rato Mendes, P.; Cuerdo, R.; Sarasola, I.; García de Acilu, P.; Navarrete, J.; Vela, O.; Oller, J. C.; Cela, J. M.; Núñez, L.; Pastrana, M.; Romero, L.; Willmott, C.

    2013-02-01

    We are developing a positron emission tomography (PET) insert for existing magnetic resonance (MR) equipment, aiming at hybrid MR-PET imaging. Our detector block design is based on trapezoid-shaped LYSO:Ce monolithic scintillators coupled to magnetically compatible Hamamatsu S8550-02 silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) matrices with a dedicated ASIC front-end readout from GammaMedica-Ideas (Fornebu, Norway). The detectors are position sensitive, capable of determining the incidence point of 511 keV gammas with an intrinsic spatial resolution on the order of 2 mm by means of supervised learning neural-network (NN) algorithms. These algorithms, apart from providing continuous coordinates, are also intrinsically corrected for depth of interaction effects and thus parallax-free. Recently we have implemented an advanced prototype featuring two heads with four detector blocks each and final front-end and readout electronics, improving the spatial resolution of reconstructed point source images down to 1.7 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM). Presently we are carrying out operational tests of components and systems under magnetic fields using a 3 T MR scanner. In this paper we present a description of our project, a summary of the results obtained with laboratory prototypes, and the strategy to build and install the complete system at the nuclear medicine department of a collaborating hospital.

  12. Human carbonyl reductase (CBR) localized to band 21q22. 1 by high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization displays gene dosage effects in trisomy 21 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemieux, N. (Universite de Montreal (Canada)); Malfoy, B. (Institut Curie Section de Biologie, Paris (France)); Forrest, G.L. (Beckman Research Institute at the City of Hope, Duarte, CA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Human carbonyl reductase (CBR) belongs to a group of NADPH-dependent enzymes called aldo-keto reductases. The enzyme can function as an aldo-keto reductase or as a quinone reductase with potential for modulating quinone-mediated oxygen free radicals. The CBR gene was mapped by high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization to band 21q22.12, very close to the SOD1 locus at position 2lq22.11. CBR displayed gene dosage effects in trisomy 21 human lymphoblasts at the DNA and mRNA levels. Lymphoblasts with increasing chromosome 21 ploidy also showed increased aldo-keto reductase activity and increased quinone reductase activity. Both aldo-keto reductase activity and quinone reductase activity have been shown to be associated with carbonyl reductase. The location of CBR near SOD1 and the increased enzyme activity and potential for free radical modulation in trisomy 21 cells implicate CBR as a candidate for contributing to the pathology of certain diseases such as Down syndrome and Alzheimer disease. 28 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. Measurement of the absolute optical properties and cerebral blood volume of the adult human head with hybrid differential and spatially resolved spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Terence S [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Tachtsidis, Ilias [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Smith, Martin [Department of Neuroanaesthesia and Neurocritical Care, The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London (United Kingdom); Delpy, David T [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Elwell, Clare E [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2006-02-07

    A hybrid differential and spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS) technique has been developed to measure absolute absorption coefficient ({mu}{sub a}), reduced scattering coefficient ({mu}'{sub s}) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) in the adult human head. A spectrometer with both differential and SRS capabilities has been used to carry out measurements in 12 subjects. Two versions of the calculation have been considered using the hybrid technique, with one considering water as a chromophore as well as oxy- and deoxy-haemoglobin, and one ignoring water. The CBV has also been measured using a previously described technique based on changing the arterial saturation (SaO{sub 2}) measured separately by a pulse oximeter, resulting in mean {+-} SD CBV{sup a} (intra-individual coefficient of variation) = 2.22 {+-} 1.06 ml/100 g (29.9%). (The superscript on CBV indicates the different calculation basis.) Using the hybrid technique with water ignored, CBV{sup 0} = 3.18 {+-} 0.73 ml/100 g (10.0%), {mu}{sup 0}{sub a}(813 nm) = 0.010 {+-} 0.003 mm{sup -1} and {mu}'{sup 0}{sub s}(813 nm) = 1.19 {+-} 0.55 mm{sup -1} (data quoted at 813 nm). With water considered, CBV{sup w} = 3.05 {+-} 0.77 ml/100 g (10.5%), {mu}{sup w}{sub a}(813 nm) = 0.010 {+-} 0.003 mm{sup -1} and {mu}'{sup w}{sub s}(813 nm) = 1.28 {+-} 0.56 mm{sup -1}. The mean biases between CBV{sup 0}/CBV{sup w}, CBV{sup 0}/CBV{sup a} and CBV{sup w}/CBV{sup a} are 0.14 {+-} 0.09, 0.79 {+-} 1.22 and 0.65 {+-} 1.24 ml/100 g. The mean biases between {mu}{sup 0}{sub a}(813 nm)/{mu}{sup w}{sub a}(813 nm) and {mu}'{sup 0}{sub s}(813 nm)/{mu}'{sup w}{sub s}(813 nm) are (5.9 {+-} 10.0) x 10{sup -4} mm{sup -1} and -0.084 {+-} 0.266 mm{sup -1}, respectively. The method we describe extends the functionality of the current SRS instrumentation.

  14. Magnetic solid phase extraction of gemfibrozil from human serum and pharmaceutical wastewater samples utilizing a β-cyclodextrin grafted graphene oxide-magnetite nano-hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolmohammad-Zadeh, Hossein; Talleb, Zeynab

    2015-03-01

    A magnetic solid phase extraction method based on β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) grafted graphene oxide (GO)/magnetite (Fe3O4) nano-hybrid as an innovative adsorbent was developed for the separation and pre-concentration of gemfibrozil prior to its determination by spectrofluorometry. The as-prepared β-CD/GO/Fe3O4 nano-hybrid possesses the magnetism property of Fe3O4 nano-particles that makes it easily manipulated by an external magnetic field. On the other hand, the surface modification of GO by β-CD leads to selective separation of the target analyte from sample matrices. The structure and morphology of the synthesized adsorbent were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The experimental factors affecting the extraction/pre-concentration and determination of the analyte were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the calibration graph was linear in the range between 10 and 5000 pg mL(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9989. The limit of detection and enrichment factor for gemfibrozil were 3 pg mL(-1) and 100, respectively. The maximum sorption capacity of the adsorbent for gemfibrozil was 49.8 mg g(-1). The method was successfully applied to monitoring gemfibrozil in human serum and pharmaceutical wastewaters samples with recoveries in the range of 96.0-104.0% for the spiked samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Human mixed infections of Leishmania spp. and Leishmania-Trypanosoma cruzi in a sub Andean Bolivian area: identification by polymerase chain reaction/hybridization and isoenzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Bastrenta

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Parasites belonging to Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania donovani, Leishmania mexicana complexes and Trypanosoma cruzi (clones 20 and 39 were searched in blood, lesions and strains collected from 28 patients with active cutaneous leishmaniasis and one patient with visceral leishmaniasis. PCR-hybridization with specific probes of Leishmania complexes (L. braziliensis, L. donovani and L. mexicana and T. cruzi clones was applied to the different DNA samples. Over 29 patients, 8 (27.6% presented a mixed infection Leishmania complex species, 17 (58.6% a mixed infection Leishmania-T. cruzi, and 4 (13.8% a multi Leishmania-T. cruzi infection. Several patients were infected by the two Bolivian major clones 20 and 39 of T. cruzi (44.8%. The L. braziliensis complex was more frequently detected in lesions than in blood and a reverse result was observed for L. mexicana complex. The polymerase chain reaction-hybridization design offers new arguments supporting the idea of an underestimated rate of visceral leishmanisis in Bolivia. Parasites were isolated by culture from the blood of two patients and lesions of 10 patients. The UPGMA (unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages dendrogram computed from Jaccard's distances obtained from 11 isoenzyme loci data confirmed the presence of the three Leishmania complexes and undoubtedly identified human infections by L. (V. braziliensis, L. (L. chagasi and L. (L. mexicana species. Additional evidence of parasite mixtures was visualized through mixed isoenzyme profiles, L. (V. braziliensis-L. (L. mexicana and Leishmania spp.-T. cruzi.The epidemiological profile in the studied area appeared more complex than currently known. This is the first report of parasitological evidence of Bolivian patients with trypanosomatidae multi infections and consequences on the diseases' control and patient treatments are discussed.

  16. Study comparing human papillomavirus (HPV) real-time multiplex PCR and Hybrid Capture II INNO-LiPA v2 HPV genotyping PCR assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftner, Thomas; Germ, Liesje; Swoyer, Ryan; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Breugelmans, J Gabrielle; Munk, Christian; Stubenrauch, Frank; Antonello, Joseph; Bryan, Janine T; Taddeo, Frank J

    2009-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA genotyping is an essential test to establish efficacy in HPV vaccine clinical trials and HPV prevalence in natural history studies. A number of HPV DNA genotyping methods have been cited in the literature, but the comparability of the outcomes from the different methods has not been well characterized. Clinically, cytology is used to establish possible HPV infection. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of HPV multiplex PCR assays compared to those of the testing scheme of the Hybrid Capture II (HCII) assay followed by an HPV PCR/line hybridization assay (HCII-LiPA v2). SurePath residual samples were split into two aliquots. One aliquot was subjected to HCII testing followed by DNA extraction and LiPA v2 genotyping. The second aliquot was shipped to a second laboratory, where DNA was extracted and HPV multiplex PCR testing was performed. Comparisons were evaluated for 15 HPV types common in both assays. A slightly higher proportion of samples tested positive by the HPV multiplex PCR than by the HCII-LiPA v2 assay. The sensitivities of the multiplex PCR assay relative to those of the HCII-LiPA v2 assay for HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18, for example, were 0.806, 0.646, 0.920, and 0.860, respectively; the specificities were 0.986, 0.998, 0.960, and 0.986, respectively. The overall comparability of detection of the 15 HPV types was quite high. Analyses of DNA genotype testing compared to cytology results demonstrated a significant discordance between cytology-negative (normal) and HPV DNA-positive results. This demonstrates the challenges of cytological diagnosis and the possibility that a significant number of HPV-infected cells may appear cytologically normal.

  17. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  18. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available effect was observed for the elongation at break of the hybrid composites. The impact strength of the hybrid composites increased with the addition of glass fibres. The tensile and impact properties of thermoplastic natural rubber reinforced short... panels made from conventional structural materials. Figure 3 illustrates the performance of cellular biocomposite panels against conventional systems used for building and residential construction, namely a pre- cast pre-stressed hollow core concrete...

  19. Quantitation of isobaric phosphatidylcholine species in human plasma using a hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) species in human plasma are used as biomarkers of disease. PC biomarkers are often limited by the inability to separate isobaric PC. In this work, we developed a targeted shotgun approach for analysis of isobaric and isomeric PC. This approach is comprised of two mass spectr...

  20. Hybrid capture vs. PCR screening of cervical human papilloma virus infections. Cytological and histological associations in 1270 women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsivilika Angeliki

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated two molecular methods of HPV detection and their correlation with cytological and histological diagnosis in a large sample of Greek women. Methods All women with liquid-based cytology performed at a University Hospital between 2000 and 2003 were included. The Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2 kit and in house Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR were used for HPV DNA detection. Cervical biopsy was performed for women with ASCUS+ cytology, HPV detection, or abnormal colposcopy. Positive (PLR and negative (NLR likelihood ratios were calculated for cytology and HPV molecular testing for the prediction of CIN2 and greater histology. Results Of the 1270 women evaluated 241 (18.5% had abnormal cytology. Cytology diagnosed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL or invasive carcinoma in 21(1.7% cases whereas 26 (2% women had CIN2+ or greater histology. PCR detected HPV in 397/1270 (31.3% and HC2 in 260/1270 (20.4% samples. Both molecular tests exhibited high reproducibility (Cohen's kappa value 0.691, 95% CI: 0.664 - 0.718. Positive likelihood ratios (PLR of 9.4, 3.8 and 3.4 and negative likelihood ratios of 0.13, 0.21, and 0 were noted for ≥ LSIL, any positive HC2 or any positive PCR-HPV testing, for predicting CIN2+ histology, respectively. All CIN 3+ lesions harbored high risk oncogenic HPV type infections. Conclusions HPV infection was found in a large proportion of this population and was associated with CIN 2/3 lesions and infiltrating carcinomas. Thin prep testing and HPV detection by HC2 or PCR performed very well with regards to identifying high grade lesions in an environment with experienced examiners.

  1. Detecting hybridization using ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Nathan K; Shapiro, Beth; Green, Richard E

    2016-06-01

    It is well established that related species hybridize and that this can have varied but significant effects on speciation and environmental adaptation. It should therefore come as no surprise that hybridization is not limited to species that are alive today. In the last several decades, advances in technologies for recovering and sequencing DNA from fossil remains have enabled the assembly of high-coverage genome sequences for a growing diversity of organisms, including many that are extinct. Thanks to the development of new statistical approaches for detecting and quantifying admixture from genomic data, genomes from extinct populations have proven useful both in revealing previously unknown hybridization events and informing the study of hybridization between living organisms. Here, we review some of the key recent statistical innovations for detecting ancient hybridization using genomewide sequence data and discuss how these innovations have revised our understanding of human evolutionary history.

  2. Effect of micro-nano-hybrid structured hydroxyapatite bioceramics on osteogenic and cementogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cell via Wnt signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao LX

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lixia Mao,1,* Jiaqiang Liu,1,* Jinglei Zhao,1 Jiang Chang,2 Lunguo Xia,1 Lingyong Jiang,1 Xiuhui Wang,2 Kaili Lin,2,3 Bing Fang11Center of Craniofacial Orthodontics, Department of Oral and Cranio-maxillofacial Science, Top Priority Clinical Medical Center of Shanghai Municipal Commission of Health and Family Planning, Ninth People’s Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 2State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Tooth Restoration and Regeneration, School of Stomatology, Tongji University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: The surface structure of bioceramic scaffolds is crucial for its bioactivity and osteoinductive ability, and in recent years, human periodontal ligament stem cells have been certified to possess high osteogenic and cementogenic differential ability. In the present study, hydroxyapatite (HA bioceramics with micro-nano-hybrid surface (mnHA [the hybrid of nanorods and microrods] were fabricated via hydrothermal reaction of the α-tricalcium phosphate granules as precursors in aqueous solution, and the effects of mnHA on the attachment, proliferation, osteogenic and cementogenic differentiations of human periodontal ligament stem cells as well as the related mechanisms were systematically investigated. The results showed that mnHA bioceramics could promote cell adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, and expression of osteogenic/cementogenic-related markers including runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2, ALP, osteocalcin (OCN, cementum attachment protein (CAP, and cementum protein (CEMP as compared to the HA bioceramics with flat and dense surface. Moreover, mnHA bioceramics stimulated gene expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor

  3. The generation of hybrid electrospun nanofiber layer with extracellular matrix derived from human pluripotent stem cells, for regenerative medicine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtrichman, Ronit; Zeevi-Levin, Naama; Zaid, Rinat; Barak, Efrat; Fishman, Bettina; Ziskind, Anna; Shulman, Rita; Novak, Atara; Avrahami, Ron; Livne, Erella; Lowenstein, Lior; Zussman, Eyal; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph

    2014-10-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) has been utilized as a biological scaffold for tissue engineering applications in a variety of body systems, due to its bioactivity and biocompatibility. In the current study we developed a modified protocol for the efficient and reproducible derivation of mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) from human embryonic stem cells as well as human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) originating from hair follicle keratinocytes (HFKTs). ECM was produced from these MPCs and characterized in comparison to adipose mesenchymal stem cell ECM, demonstrating robust ECM generation by the excised HFKT-iPSC-MPCs. Exploiting the advantages of electrospinning we generated two types of electrospun biodegradable nanofiber layers (NFLs), fabricated from polycaprolactone (PCL) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), which provide mechanical support for cell seeding and ECM generation. Elucidating the optimized decellularization treatment we were able to generate an available "off-the-shelf" implantable product (NFL-ECM). Using rat subcutaneous transplantation model we demonstrate that this stem-cell-derived construct is biocompatible and biodegradable and holds great potential for tissue regeneration applications.

  4. Human lymphocyte markers defined by antibodies derived from somatic cell hybrids. II. A hybridoma secreting antibody against an antigen expressed by human B and null lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, I G; Bradley, J; Brooks, D A; Kupa, A; McNamara, P J; Thomas, M E; Zola, H

    1980-06-01

    A hybridoma (FMC4) has been derived which secretes antibody showing selective reaction with human B lymphocytes, monocytes and some null lymphocytes. Few, if any, T lymphocytes in normal blood are stained, although stimulation of lymphocytes with PHA leads to an increase in the proportion of cells reacting with the hybridoma antibody. The antibody reacts with B and null lymphoblastoid cell lines but not with T cell lines. B chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells but not T-CLLs are stained and null-type acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) cells but not T-type ALL also react. Normal blood myeloid cells do not react with FMC4 supernatant whilst some myeloid leukaemias do. The expression of the antigen reacting with FMC4 supernatant suggests that FMC4 may secrete an antibody against the human equivalent of the Ia antigen.

  5. Screening for Novel Binding Proteins Interacting with Human Papillomavirus Type 18 E6 Oncogene in the Hela cDNA Library by Yeast Two-Hybrid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuang LI; Ping LIU; Ling XI; Xuefeng JIANG; Jianfeng ZHOU; Shixuan WANG; Li MENG; Yunping LU; Ding Ma

    2008-01-01

    To screen for novel binding proteins interacting with high-risk HPV 18 E6 oncogene, the strain AH109 was transformed with pGBKT7-HPV18 E6 plasmid, and subsequent transference was utilized to screen for interacting proteins with HPV 18 E6 in human Hela cDNA library. HPVl8 E6 mRNA was expressed in yeast and there was no self-activation and toxicity in AH109. Seven proteins that interacted with HPV18 E6, including transmembrane protein 87B, phosphonoformate im- muno-associated protein 5, vimentin, KM-HN-1 protein, dedicator of cytokinesis 7, vaccinia related kinase 2 and a hypothetical protein, were identified. It was suggested that yeast two-hybrid system is an efficient for screening interacting proteins. The high-risk HPV 18 E6 oncogene may interact with the proteins, which may be associated with signal transduction and transeriptional control, epithelial cell invasion and migration, as well as humoral and cellular immune etc. This investigation provides functional clues for further exploration of potential oncogenesis targets for cancer biotherapy.

  6. Differentially expressed genes of human microvascular endothelial cells in response to anti-dengue virus NS1 antibodies by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yue; Jiang, Lan; Fang, Danyun; Jiang, Lifang; Zhou, Junmei

    2013-06-01

    It has been previously shown that anti-dengue virus (DENV) nonstructural protein NS1 antibodies could act as autoantibodies that direct against one or more of the host's own proteins, which has potential implications for dengue hemorrhagic fever pathogenesis. In the present study, we have employed suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to identify the differentially expressed genes from human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) in response to anti-dengue virus type 2 NS1 antibodies (anti-DENV2 NS1 Abs). A total of 35 clones from the SSH cDNA library were randomly selected for further analysis using bioinformatics tools after vector screening. After searching for sequence homology in NCBI GenBank database with BLASTN and BLASTX programs, 23 obtained sequences with significant matches (E-values <1×10(-4)) in the SSH library. The predicted genes in the subtracted library include immune response molecules (CD59 antigen preproprotein preproprotein, MURR1), signal transduction molecules (Nuclear casein kinase and cyclin-dependent kinase substrate 1), calcium-binding proteins (S100A6, Annexin A2 isoform 1/2), and cell-membrane component (Yip1 domain family). From these clones, 5 upregulated genes were selected for differential expression profiling by real-time RT-PCR to confirm their upregulated status. The results confirmed their differential upregulation, and thus verified the success of SSHs and the likely involvement of these genes in dengue pathogenesis.

  7. A new mixed mode solid phase extraction strategy for opioids, cocaines, amphetamines and adulterants in human blood with hybrid liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Geraldine; Regan, Liam

    2011-04-05

    A rapid method has been developed to analyse morphine, codeine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, dihydrocodeine, cocaethylene, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, ketamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, pseudoephedrine, lignocaine, benzylpiperazine, methamphetamine, amphetamine, methadone, phenethylamine and levamisole in human blood. Blood samples were cleaned up using mixed mode solid phase extraction using Evolute™ CX solid phase extraction cartridges and the sample aliquots were analysed by hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap (QTRAP) mass spectrometry with a runtime of 12.5 min. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) as survey scan and an enhanced product ion (EPI) scan as dependent scan were performed in an information-dependent acquisition (IDA) experiment. Finally, drug identification and confirmation was carried out by library search with a developed in-house MS/MS library based on EPI spectra at a collision energy spread of 35 ± 15 in positive mode and MRM ratios. The method was validated in blood, according to the criteria defined in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. At least two MRM transitions for each substance were monitored in addition to EPI spectra. Deuterated analogues of analytes were used as internal standards for quantitation where possible. The method proved to be simple and time efficient and was implemented as an analytical strategy for the illicit drug monitoring of opioids, cocaines, amphetamines and adulterants in forensic cases of crime offenders, abusers or victims in the Republic of Ireland.

  8. Soundscapes/Artabilitation - Evolution of a Hybrid Human Performance Concept, Method & Apparatus Where Digital Interactive Media, The Arts, & Entertainment are Combined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, A. L.

    'SoundScapes' is a body of empirical research that for almost two decades has focused upon investigating noninvasive gesture control of multi-sensory stimuli and potential uses in therapy and the arts. In this context noninvasive gesture refers to motion in invisible activity zones of a system input device utilizing technology outside of human vision. Especially targeted are disabled people of all ages, and special focus has been on the profoundly impaired who especially have limited opportunities for creative self-articulation and playful interaction. The concept has been explored in various situations including: - live stage performances; interactive room installations for museums, workshops, and festivals; and in health-care sessions at hospitals, institutes and special schools. Multifaceted aspects continuously cross-inform in a systemic manner, and each situation where the motion-sensitive environment is applied is considered as a hybrid system. Whilst simplistic in concept, i.e. learning by playful and creative doings, inherent are complexities of optimizing the interactive system to user-experience and evaluation of same. This chapter presents the system in context to its conceived-for-target community; it also presents the parallel practice-led investigations in performance art. Reciprocal design and reflective cross-analysis of the activities has resulted such that performance informs design and strategies of intervention and evaluation with impaired users, and vice versa.

  9. Enhancement of osteogenic differentiation of human adipose derived stem cells by the controlled release of platelet lysates from hybrid scaffolds produced by supercritical fluid foaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Vítor E; Duarte, Ana Rita C; Popa, Elena G; Gomes, Manuela E; Mano, João F; Reis, Rui L

    2012-08-20

    A new generation of scaffolds capable of acting not only as support for cells but also as a source of biological cues to promote tissue regeneration is currently a hot topic of in bone Tissue Engineering (TE) research. The inclusion of growth factor (GF) controlled release functionalities in the scaffolds is a possible strategy to achieve such goal. Platelet Lysate (PL) is an autologous source of GFs, providing several bioactive agents known to act on bone regeneration. In this study, chitosan-chondroitin sulfate nanoparticles loaded with PL were included in a poly(D,L-lactic acid) foam produced by supercritical fluid foaming. The tridimensional (3D) structures were then seeded with human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) and cultured in vitro under osteogenic stimulus. The osteogenic differentiation of the seeded hASCs was observed earlier for the PL-loaded constructs, as shown by the earlier alkaline phosphatase peak and calcium detection and stronger Runx2 expression at day 7 of culture, in comparison with the control scaffolds. Osteocalcin gene expression was upregulated in presence of PL during all culture period, which indicates an enhanced osteogenic induction. These results suggest the synergistic effect of PL and hASCs in combinatory TE strategies and support the potential of PL to increase the multifunctionality of the 3D hybrid construct for bone TE applications.

  10. Detection of high-risk subtypes of human papillomavirus in cervical swabs: routine use of the Digene Hybrid Capture assay and polymerase chain reaction analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, M M

    2012-02-03

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are major causative agents in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer, and more than twenty types are associated with its development. With the introduction of liquid-based preparation systems, it is envisaged that large-scale HPV testing will be established in the near future. Preliminary studies demonstrate the accessibility of these samples for DNA testing using both the Digene Hybrid Capture assay (DHCA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. This study aims to assess the validity and sensitivity of the DHCA system to detect high-risk HPV DNA, using two sets of HPV consensus primers (Gp5+\\/Gp6+ and MY09\\/MY11) in tandem with routine assessment of cervical smear and biopsy samples. Results indicate that the combination of DHCA and PCR detects more high-grade lesions than does the DHCA alone. DHCA-negative cases were categorised by subsequent PCR amplification into low-grade HPV-negative (12\\/16) cervical lesions and high-grade HPV-positive (7\\/9) cervical lesions. Gp5+\\/Gp6+ primers were less sensitive in detecting HPV-positive samples than was the MY09\\/MY11 primer set. These results support the use of high-risk HPV testing by DHCA, with subsequent analysis of DHCA-negative samples by PCR using the MY09\\/MY11 primers.

  11. Detection of Human Papilloma Virus Type 16 E6 mRNA in Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma by In Situ Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-rong Jiang; Peng Wang; Yong Li; Tao Ning; Xiao-song Rao; Bao-guoLiu

    2010-01-01

    Objective:Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma(LSCC)is a common malignant tumor in Northeast China and is frequently associated with well-established risk factors like smoking and alcohol abuse.Human papilloma virus(HPV)is an epitheliotropic oncogenic virus that has been detected in a variety of head and neck tumors including LSCC.This retrospective study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV infection in patients with LSCC.Methods:In situ hybridization was performed in 99 patients with LSCC to detect the expression of HPV-16 E6mRNA.Results:The positive rate of HPV16 E6 mRNA was 36.36%(36/99)in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma(LSCC),whereas only 3 of 50(6%)specimens of the normal laryngeal mucosa as a control group showed positive results(P0.05).Conclusion:The results suggest that the increased prevalence of HPV infection compared to normal laryngeal mucosa and the fact that high-risk HPV types(especially type 16)were the most frequently identified do not allow the exclusion of HPV as a risk factor in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.However,their clinical value remains to be further investigated.

  12. Detection of Human Papilloma Virus Type 16 E6 mRNA in Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma by In Situ Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-rong Jiang; Peng Wang; Yong Li; Tao Ning; Xiao-song Rao; Bao-guoLiu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma(LSCC) is a common malignant tumor in Northeast China and is frequently associated with well-established risk factors like smoking and alcohol abuse.Human papilloma virus (HPV) is an epitheliotropic oncogenic virus that has been detected in a variety of head and neck tumors including LSCC.This retrospective study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV infection in patients with LSCC.Methods: In situ hybridization was performed in 99 patients with LSCC to detect the expression of HPV-16 E6 mRNA.Results: The positive rate of HPV 16 E6 mRNA was 36.36%(36/99) in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC),whereas only 3 of 50(6%) specimens of the normal laryngeal mucosa as a control group showed positive results(P0.05).Conclusion: The results suggest that the increased prevalence of HPV infection compared to normal laryngeal mucosa and the fact that high-risk HPV types(especially type 16) were the most frequently identified do not allow the exclusion of HPV as a risk factor in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.However,their clinical value remains to be further investigated.

  13. Handling Real-World Context Awareness, Uncertainty and Vagueness in Real-Time Human Activity Tracking and Recognition with a Fuzzy Ontology-Based Hybrid Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Díaz-Rodríguez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human activity recognition is a key task in ambient intelligence applications to achieve proper ambient assisted living. There has been remarkable progress in this domain, but some challenges still remain to obtain robust methods. Our goal in this work is to provide a system that allows the modeling and recognition of a set of complex activities in real life scenarios involving interaction with the environment. The proposed framework is a hybrid model that comprises two main modules: a low level sub-activity recognizer, based on data-driven methods, and a high-level activity recognizer, implemented with a fuzzy ontology to include the semantic interpretation of actions performed by users. The fuzzy ontology is fed by the sub-activities recognized by the low level data-driven component and provides fuzzy ontological reasoning to recognize both the activities and their influence in the environment with semantics. An additional benefit of the approach is the ability to handle vagueness and uncertainty in the knowledge-based module, which substantially outperforms the treatment of incomplete and/or imprecise data with respect to classic crisp ontologies. We validate these advantages with the public CAD-120 dataset (Cornell Activity Dataset, achieving an accuracy of 90.1% and 91.07% for low-level and high-level activities, respectively. This entails an improvement over fully data-driven or ontology-based approaches.

  14. [Detection of high risk human papillomavirus by hybrid capture II® according cytological findings in women treated for squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix, period 2006/2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongelós, Pamela; Páez, Malvina; Rodriguez-Riveros, Isabel; Giménez, Graciela; Castro, Amalia; Mendoza, Laura

    2013-03-01

    To determinate the frequency of high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) by hybrid capture II (r) (CH II(r)), according cytology results in women treated for squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix (SIL). A descriptive cross-sectional study of a series of cases that included 122 women treated, 79 (75%) for low grade SIL (LSIL) and 43 (35%) for high grade SIL (HSIL) attending at the HPV Laboratory at the Health Sciences Research Institute (IICS), National University of Asunción (UNA), for post-treatment control during period 2006/2010. A total of 28% (34/122) of women treated for SIL were positive for HR-HPV, detecting viral infection in 20% of women with no SIL (NSIL) (22/108), in 83% of women with LSIL (10/12) and in 100% of women with HSIL (2/2). Of 34 women positive for HR-HPV, 10 women (29%) had high values (100 pg / mL or more) of relative viral load, detecting an increase of positive cases with severity of the lesion (28% NSIL, 30% LSIL, 50% HSIL). HR-HPV detection by CH II(r) and high relative viral load values especially in women with NSIL could help to identify treated women at risk of developing recurrence, thereby contributing to strengthening the cervical cancer prevention program.

  15. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  16. Context-dependent individualization of nucleotides and virtual genomic hybridization allow the precise location of human SNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, José; Gómez-Romero, Laura; Ibarra-Soria, Ximena; Palacios-Flores, Kim; Arriola, Luis R; Wences, Alejandro; García, Delfino; Boege, Margareta; Dávila, Guillermo; Flores, Margarita; Palacios, Rafael

    2011-09-13

    We have entered the era of individual genomic sequencing, and can already see exponential progress in the field. It is of utmost importance to exclude false-positive variants from reported datasets. However, because of the nature of the used algorithms, this task has not been optimized to the required level of precision. This study presents a unique strategy for identifying SNPs, called COIN-VGH, that largely minimizes the presence of false-positives in the generated data. The algorithm was developed using the X-chromosome-specific regions from the previously sequenced genomes of Craig Venter and James Watson. The algorithm is based on the concept that a nucleotide can be individualized if it is analyzed in the context of its surrounding genomic sequence. COIN-VGH consists of defining the most comprehensive set of nucleotide strings of a defined length that map with 100% identity to a unique position within the human reference genome (HRG). Such set is used to retrieve sequence reads from a query genome (QG), allowing the production of a genomic landscape that represents a draft HRG-guided assembly of the QG. This landscape is analyzed for specific signatures that indicate the presence of SNPs. The fidelity of the variation signature was assessed using simulation experiments by virtually altering the HRG at defined positions. Finally, the signature regions identified in the HRG and in the QG reads are aligned and the precise nature and position of the corresponding SNPs are detected. The advantages of COIN-VGH over previous algorithms are discussed.

  17. Performance of the Aptima High-Risk Human Papillomavirus mRNA Assay in a Referral Population in Comparison with Hybrid Capture 2 and Cytology▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clad, Andreas; Reuschenbach, Miriam; Weinschenk, Johanna; Grote, Ruth; Rahmsdorf, Janina; Freudenberg, Nikolaus

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the Aptima human papillomavirus (HPV) (AHPV; Gen-Probe Incorporated) assay, which detects E6/E7 mRNA from 14 high-risk types, the Hybrid Capture 2 HPV DNA (HC2; Qiagen Incorporated) test, and repeat cytology for their ability to detect high-grade cervical lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ [CIN2+]) in women referred to colposcopy due to an abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smear. A total of 424 clinical specimens, stored in liquid-based cytology (LBC) vials at room temperature for up to 3 years, were tested by repeat cytology, the AHPV assay, and the HC2 test. Assay results were compared to each other and to histology results. The overall agreement between the AHPV assay and the HC2 test was 88.4%. The sensitivity (specificity) of cytology, the HC2 test, and the AHPV assay for the detection of CIN2+ was 84.9% (66.3%), 91.3% (61.0%), and 91.7% (75.0%) and for the detection of CIN3+ was 93.9% (54.4%), 95.7% (46.0%), and 98.2% (56.3%), respectively. Of the disease-positive specimens containing high-risk HPV (HR HPV) DNA as determined by Linear Array (Roche Diagnostics), the AHPV assay missed 3 CIN2 and 1 microfocal CIN3 specimen, while the HC2 test missed 6 CIN2, 4 CIN3, and 1 cervical carcinoma specimen. The AHPV assay had a sensitivity similar to but a specificity significantly higher (P < 0.0001) than the HC2 test for the detection of CIN2+. The AHPV assay was significantly more sensitive (P = 0.0041) and significantly more specific (P = 0.0163) than cytology for the detection of disease (CIN2+). PMID:21191046

  18. Performance of the Aptima high-risk human papillomavirus mRNA assay in a referral population in comparison with Hybrid Capture 2 and cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clad, Andreas; Reuschenbach, Miriam; Weinschenk, Johanna; Grote, Ruth; Rahmsdorf, Janina; Freudenberg, Nikolaus

    2011-03-01

    This study compared the Aptima human papillomavirus (HPV) (AHPV; Gen-Probe Incorporated) assay, which detects E6/E7 mRNA from 14 high-risk types, the Hybrid Capture 2 HPV DNA (HC2; Qiagen Incorporated) test, and repeat cytology for their ability to detect high-grade cervical lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ [CIN2+]) in women referred to colposcopy due to an abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smear. A total of 424 clinical specimens, stored in liquid-based cytology (LBC) vials at room temperature for up to 3 years, were tested by repeat cytology, the AHPV assay, and the HC2 test. Assay results were compared to each other and to histology results. The overall agreement between the AHPV assay and the HC2 test was 88.4%. The sensitivity (specificity) of cytology, the HC2 test, and the AHPV assay for the detection of CIN2+ was 84.9% (66.3%), 91.3% (61.0%), and 91.7% (75.0%) and for the detection of CIN3+ was 93.9% (54.4%), 95.7% (46.0%), and 98.2% (56.3%), respectively. Of the disease-positive specimens containing high-risk HPV (HR HPV) DNA as determined by Linear Array (Roche Diagnostics), the AHPV assay missed 3 CIN2 and 1 microfocal CIN3 specimen, while the HC2 test missed 6 CIN2, 4 CIN3, and 1 cervical carcinoma specimen. The AHPV assay had a sensitivity similar to but a specificity significantly higher (P < 0.0001) than the HC2 test for the detection of CIN2+. The AHPV assay was significantly more sensitive (P = 0.0041) and significantly more specific (P = 0.0163) than cytology for the detection of disease (CIN2+).

  19. Technetium-99m-labeled Arg-Gly-Asp-conjugated alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone hybrid peptides for human melanoma imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Jianquan; Guo Haixun [College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Miao Yubin, E-mail: ymiao@salud.unm.ed [College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Cancer Research and Treatment Center, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Department of Dermatology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine whether {sup 99m}Tc-labeled Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-conjugated alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone ({alpha}-MSH) hybrid peptide targeting both melanocortin-1 (MC1) and {alpha}{sub v{beta}3} integrin receptors was superior in melanoma targeting to {sup 99m}Tc-labeled {alpha}-MSH or RGD peptide targeting only the MC1 or {alpha}{sub v{beta}3} integrin receptor. Methods: RGD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH, RAD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH and RGD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSHscramble were designed to target both MC1 and {alpha}{sub v{beta}3} integrin receptors, MC1 receptor only and {alpha}{sub v{beta}3} integrin receptor only, respectively. The MC1 or {alpha}{sub v{beta}3} integrin receptor binding affinities of three peptides were determined in M21 human melanoma cells. The melanoma targeting properties of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled RGD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH, RAD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH and RGD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSHscramble were determined in M21 human melanoma-xenografted nude mice. Meanwhile, the melanoma uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-RGD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH was blocked with various non-radiolabeled peptides in M21 melanoma xenografts. Results: RGD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH displayed 2.0 and 403 nM binding affinities to both MC1 and {alpha}{sub v{beta}3} integrin receptors, whereas RAD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH or RGD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSHscramble lost their {alpha}{sub v{beta}3} integrin receptor binding affinity by greater than 248-fold or MC1 receptor binding affinity by more than 100-fold, respectively. The melanoma uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-RGD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH was 2.49 and 2.24 times (P < .05) the melanoma uptakes of {sup 99m}Tc-RAD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH and {sup 99m}Tc-RGD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSHscramble at 2 h post-injection, respectively. Either RGD or (Arg{sup 11})CCMSH peptide co-injection could block 42% and 57% of the tumor uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-RGD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH, whereas the coinjection of RGD+(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH peptide mixture

  20. Hybrid microelectronic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, P.

    Various areas of hybrid microelectronic technology are discussed. The topics addressed include: basic thick film processing, thick film pastes and substrates, add-on components and attachment methods, thin film processing, and design of thick film hybrid circuits. Also considered are: packaging hybrid circuits, automating the production of hybrid circuits, application of hybrid techniques, customer's view of hybrid technology, and quality control and assurance in hybrid circuit production.

  1. Hybrid lentivirus-phiC31-int-NLS vector allows site-specific recombination in murine and human cells but induces DNA damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Grandchamp

    Full Text Available Gene transfer allows transient or permanent genetic modifications of cells for experimental or therapeutic purposes. Gene delivery by HIV-derived lentiviral vector (LV is highly effective but the risk of insertional mutagenesis is important and the random/uncontrollable integration of the DNA vector can deregulate the cell transcriptional activity. Non Integrative Lentiviral Vectors (NILVs solve this issue in non-dividing cells, but they do not allow long term expression in dividing cells. In this context, obtaining stable expression while avoiding the problems inherent to unpredictable DNA vector integration requires the ability to control the integration site. One possibility is to use the integrase of phage phiC31 (phiC31-int which catalyzes efficient site-specific recombination between the attP site in the phage genome and the chromosomal attB site of its Streptomyces host. Previous studies showed that phiC31-int is active in many eukaryotic cells, such as murine or human cells, and directs the integration of a DNA substrate into pseudo attP sites (pattP which are homologous to the native attP site. In this study, we combined the efficiency of NILV for gene delivery and the specificity of phiC31-int for DNA substrate integration to engineer a hybrid tool for gene transfer with the aim of allowing long term expression in dividing and non-dividing cells preventing genotoxicity. We demonstrated the feasibility to target NILV integration in human and murine pattP sites with a dual NILV vectors system: one which delivers phiC31-int, the other which constitute the substrate containing an attB site in its DNA sequence. These promising results are however alleviated by the occurrence of significant DNA damages. Further improvements are thus required to prevent chromosomal rearrangements for a therapeutic use of the system. However, its use as a tool for experimental applications such as transgenesis is already applicable.

  2. Dual receptor-targeting ⁹⁹mTc-labeled Arg-Gly-Asp-conjugated Alpha-Melanocyte stimulating hormone hybrid peptides for human melanoma imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingli; Yang, Jianquan; Miao, Yubin

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the substitution of the Lys linker with the aminooctanoic acid (Aoc) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) linker could substantially decrease the non-specific renal uptake of (99m)Tc-labeled Arg-Gly-Asp-conjugated α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) hybrid peptides. The RGD motif {Arg-Gly-Asp-DTyr-Asp} was coupled to [Cys(3,4,10), D-Phe(7), Arg(11)]α-MSH₃₋₁₃ via the Aoc or PEG₂ linker to generate RGD-Aoc-(Arg(11))CCMSH and RGD-PEG-(Arg(11))CCMSH. The biodistribution results of (99m)Tc-RGD-Aoc-(Arg(11))CCMSH and (99m)Tc-RGD-PEG₂-(Arg(11))CCMSH were examined in M21 human melanoma-xenografted nude mice. The substitution of Lys linker with Aoc and PEG₂ linker significantly reduced the renal uptake of (99m)Tc-RGD-Aoc-(Arg(11))CCMSH and (99m)Tc-RGD-PEG₂-(Arg(11))CCMSH by 58% and 63% at 2h post-injection. The renal uptake of (99m)Tc-RGD-Aoc-(Arg(11))CCMSH and (99m)Tc-RGD-PEG₂-(Arg(11))CCMSH was 27.93 ± 3.98 and 22.01 ± 9.89% ID/g at 2 h post-injection. (99m)Tc-RGD-Aoc-(Arg(11))CCMSH displayed higher tumor uptake than (99m)Tc-RGD-PEG₂-(Arg(11))CCMSH (2.35 ± 0.12 vs. 1.71 ± 0.25% ID/g at 2 h post-injection). The M21 human melanoma lesions could be clearly visualized by SPECT/CT using (99m)Tc-RGD-Aoc-(Arg(11))CCMSH as an imaging probe. The favorable effect of Aoc and PEG₂ linker in reducing the renal uptake provided a new insight into the design of novel dual receptor-targeting radiolabeled peptides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hybrid Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  4. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...... masters», i.e. by producing skills for the labour market and enabling individuals to progress more or less directly to higher education. The specific focus of this book is placed on conditions, structures and processes which help to combine VET with qualifications leading into higher education...

  5. Philip Rieff’s typology of culture and its applicability to the literary hybridization of the theological ideas of humanity and spiritual progress (a Bulgarian case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Szwat-Gyłybowa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Philip Rieff’s typology of culture and its applicability to the literary hybridization of the theological ideas of humanity and spiritual progress (a Bulgarian case study The twentieth century has become in a special way a time of reflection on the theologi­cal roots of human thinking, including thinking in political terms; suffice it to mention such names as Walter Benjamin, Carl Schmitt and Erich Voegelin. One of the thinkers who joined the ongoing disputes was Philip Rieff, who in his book My Life Among the Deathworks (2006, took on the task of a controversial (according to many revitalization of the Judeo-Christian paradigm. Reflecting on the subject of art works over several centuries, he abstracted typo­logical criteria allowing him to build a dichotomous model of art, as dedicated either to death (the non-Judeo-Christian variety or to life (the Judeo-Christian variety. The paper attempts to verify his reasoning by reflecting on the theological models of humanity and spiritual progress in Teodora Dimova’s novel The Train to Emmaus (Vlakat za Emaus, 2014.   O przydatności typologii Philipa Rieffa w badaniach nad literackimi hybrydyzacjami teologicznych idei człowieczeństwa i duchowego postępu (na jednym przykładzie bułgarskim Wiek dwudziesty w szczególny sposób stał się czasem refleksji nad teologicznymi korze­niami ludzkiego myślenia, w tym myślenia w kategoriach politycznych; dość wspomnieć choćby nazwiska tak różnych myślicieli jak Walter Benjamin, Carl Schmitt, Erich Voegelin. Jednym z badaczy, który włączył się w toczące się dysputy był Philip Rieff, który w książce My Life Among the Deathworks (2006 podjął trud dyskusyjnej (zdaniem wielu rewitalizacji paradygmatu judeochrześcijańskiego. Snując rozważania na temat dzieł sztuki na przestrzeni kilku wieków, wyabstrahował kryteria typologiczne, pozwalające budować dychotomiczny model sztuki jako dedykowanej śmierci (wariant antyjudeochrze

  6. Inference in hybrid Bayesian networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Rumí, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1980s, Bayesian Networks (BNs) have become increasingly popular for building statistical models of complex systems. This is particularly true for boolean systems, where BNs often prove to be a more efficient modelling framework than traditional reliability-techniques (like fault trees...... decade's research on inference in hybrid Bayesian networks. The discussions are linked to an example model for estimating human reliability....

  7. Comparative genomic hybridization: practical guidelines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuken, J.W.M.; Sprenger, S.H.; Wesseling, P.

    2002-01-01

    Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a technique used to identify copy number changes throughout a genome. Until now, hundreds of CGH studies have been published reporting chromosomal imbalances in a large variety of human neoplasms. Additionally, technical improvements of specific steps in a

  8. Effect of heme structure on O(2)-binding properties of human serum albumin-heme hybrids: intramolecular histidine coordination provides a stable O(2)-adduct complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Teruyuki; Matsukawa, Yasuko; Tsuchida, Eishun

    2002-01-01

    5,10,15,20-Tetrakis[(alpha,alpha,alpha,alpha-o-pivaloylamino)phenyl]porphinatoiron(II) and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis([alpha,alpha,alpha,alpha-o-(1-methylcyclohexanoylamino)]phenyl)porphinatoiron(II) complexes bearing a covalently bound 8-(2-methyl-1-imidazolyl)octanoyloxymethyl or 4-(methyl-L-histidinamido)butanoyloxymethyl side-chain [FeRP(B) series: R = piv or cyc, B = Im or His] have been synthesized. The histidine-bound derivatives [FepivP(His), FecycP(His)] formed five N-coordinated high-spin iron(II) complexes in organic solvents under an N(2) atmosphere and showed large O(2)-binding affinities in comparison to those of the 2-methylimidazole-bound analogues [FepivP(Im), FecycP(Im)] due to the low O(2)-dissociation rate constants. On the contrary, the difference in the fence groups around the O(2)-coordination site (pivaloyl or 1-methylhexanoyl) did not significantly influence to the O(2)-binding parameters. These four porphinatoiron(II)s were efficiently incorporated into recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA), thus providing the synthetic hemoprotein, the albumin-heme hybrid [rHSA-FeRP(B)]. An rHSA host absorbs a maximum of eight FeRP(B) molecules in each case. The obtained rHSA-FeRP(B) can reversibly bind and release O(2) under physiological conditions (in aqueous media, pH 7.3, 37 degrees C) like hemoglobin and myoglobin. As in organic solutions, the difference in the fence groups did not affect their O(2)-binding parameters, but the axial histidine coordination significantly increased the O(2)-binding affinity, which is again ascribed to the low O(2)-dissociation rates. The most remarkable effect of the heme structure appeared in the half-life (tau(1/2)) of the O(2)-adduct complex. The dioxygenated rHSA-FecycP(His) showed an unusually long lifetime (tau(1/2): 25 h at 37 degrees C) which is ca. 13-fold longer than that of rHSA-FepivP(Im).

  9. Comparison of Southern blot analysis with isotopic and nonisotopic in situ hybridization for the detection of human papillomavirus sequences in invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, L; Pilotti, S; Rotola, A; Di Luca, D; Cassai, E; Rilke, F

    1992-03-01

    To compare the efficiency of hybridization methods for the detection of HPV genome, 22 cases of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix were analyzed by Southern blot analysis and in situ hybridization carried out with 35S- and biotin-labeled probes. These cases contained from less than one to as many as 50 copies per cell of HPV 16 and 18 types. To increase the sensitivity of biotinylated probes, a silver enhancement procedure of the peroxidase reaction product was applied. Results showed that in situ hybridization performed with isotopic probes is as sensitive as Southern blot analysis and is more sensitive than that performed with biotin-labeled probe. However, the application of the silver enhancement procedure increases the percentage of HPV-positive cases from 27 to 50%.

  10. Hybrid soft computing approaches research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Paramartha; Chakraborty, Susanta

    2016-01-01

    The book provides a platform for dealing with the flaws and failings of the soft computing paradigm through different manifestations. The different chapters highlight the necessity of the hybrid soft computing methodology in general with emphasis on several application perspectives in particular. Typical examples include (a) Study of Economic Load Dispatch by Various Hybrid Optimization Techniques, (b) An Application of Color Magnetic Resonance Brain Image Segmentation by ParaOptiMUSIG activation Function, (c) Hybrid Rough-PSO Approach in Remote Sensing Imagery Analysis,  (d) A Study and Analysis of Hybrid Intelligent Techniques for Breast Cancer Detection using Breast Thermograms, and (e) Hybridization of 2D-3D Images for Human Face Recognition. The elaborate findings of the chapters enhance the exhibition of the hybrid soft computing paradigm in the field of intelligent computing.

  11. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  12. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, J. A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of hybrid automata as timed transition systems. We also relate the synchronized product operator on hybrid automata to the parallel composition operator of the process algebra. It turns out that the f...

  13. Effect of new hybrids based on 5,16-pregnadiene scaffold linked to an anti-inflammatory drug on the growth of a human astrocytoma cell line (U373).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Mariana; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Cabeza, Marisa; Alcaraz, Belén; Bratoeff, Eugene

    2015-03-26

    In spite of the fact that anaplastic astrocytoma is an uncommon disease, very often the pathology of this disease is associated with lethal effects due to the late diagnosis and unspecific treatments. This paper reports the synthesis and the biological effect on the growth of U373 cell line (human anaplastic astrocytoma) of new hybrid compounds based on 5,16-pregnadiene scaffold linked to an anti-inflammatory drug (6a-e). Moreover, we also determined the cell growth effect of five non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (naproxen, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, indomethacin and sulindac) as well as the free steroidal alcohol 5. The results from this study indicated that sulindac as well as compound 5 decreased the number of U373 cells at different concentrations. However, when an anti-inflammatory drug was bound to the steroidal structure (5), the resulting compounds (6a-e) showed an enhanced biological effect with exception of hybrid 6c. Furthermore, derivative 6e (sulindac hybrid) did not allow cell growth during six days of experiment at a concentration of 10 μM. The overall data indicated that these molecules showed an anti-proliferative activity on anaplastic astrocytoma cell line.

  14. Detection of Human Papillomavirus DNA in Cervical Samples: Analysis of the New PGMY-PCR Compared To the Hybrid Capture II and MY-PCR Assays and a Two-Step Nested PCR Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Giovannelli, Lucia; Lama, Anna; Capra, Giuseppina; Giordano, Viviana; Aricò, Pietro; Ammatuna, Pietro

    2004-01-01

    The PGMY-PCR for human papillomavirus (HPV) was evaluated, in parallel with nested PCR (nPCR), in samples with noted Hybrid Capture II (HCII) and MY-PCR results. PGMY-PCR detected HPV DNA in 2.5% of HCII-negative-MY-PCR-negative samples and in 71.7% of HCII-positive-MY-PCR-negative samples; also, it detected the MY-PCR-negative-nPCR-negative types HPV-42, HPV-44, HPV-51, HPV-87, and HPV-89.

  15. Hybridized tetraquarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Esposito

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X,Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules but rather a manifestation of the interplay between the two. While meson molecules need a negative or zero binding energy, its counterpart for h-tetraquarks is required to be positive. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs0π± channel by the D0 Collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb Collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X,Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568 are also made.

  16. Hybridized Tetraquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X, Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules. The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs pi+- channel by the D0 collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X, Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568) are also made.

  17. Demonstration of a semi-autonomous hybrid brain-machine interface using human intracranial EEG, eye tracking, and computer vision to control a robotic upper limb prosthetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, David P; Hotson, Guy; Katyal, Kapil D; Wester, Brock A; Fifer, Matthew S; McGee, Timothy G; Harris, Andrew; Johannes, Matthew S; Vogelstein, R Jacob; Ravitz, Alan D; Anderson, William S; Thakor, Nitish V; Crone, Nathan E

    2014-07-01

    To increase the ability of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) to control advanced prostheses such as the modular prosthetic limb (MPL), we are developing a novel system: the Hybrid Augmented Reality Multimodal Operation Neural Integration Environment (HARMONIE). This system utilizes hybrid input, supervisory control, and intelligent robotics to allow users to identify an object (via eye tracking and computer vision) and initiate (via brain-control) a semi-autonomous reach-grasp-and-drop of the object by the MPL. Sequential iterations of HARMONIE were tested in two pilot subjects implanted with electrocorticographic (ECoG) and depth electrodes within motor areas. The subjects performed the complex task in 71.4% (20/28) and 67.7% (21/31) of trials after minimal training. Balanced accuracy for detecting movements was 91.1% and 92.9%, significantly greater than chance accuracies (p system improvements implemented for the second subject. Our hybrid-BMI design prevented all but one baseline false positive from initiating the system. The novel approach demonstrated in this proof-of-principle study, using hybrid input, supervisory control, and intelligent robotics, addresses limitations of current BMIs.

  18. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  19. Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  20. The RBE of 3.4 MeV alpha-particles and 0.565 MeV neutrons relative to 60Co gamma-rays for neoplastic transformation of human hybrid cells and the impact of culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg-Schwager, M; Spieren, S; Pralle, E; Giesen, U; Brede, H J; Thiemig, M; Frankenberg, D

    2010-01-01

    The neoplastic transformation of human hybrid CGL1 cells is affected by perturbations from external influences such as serum batch and concentration, the number of medium changes during the 21-day expression period and cell seeding density. Nevertheless, for doses up to 1.5 Gy, published transformation frequencies for low linear energy transfer (LET) radiations (gamma-rays, MeV electrons or photons) are in good agreement, whereas for higher doses larger variations are reported. The (60)Co gamma-ray data here for doses up to 1.5 Gy, using a low-yield serum batch and only one medium change, are in agreement with published frequencies of neoplastic transformation of human hybrid cells. For 3.4 MeV alpha-particles (LET = 124 keV/mum) and 0.565 MeV monoenergetic neutrons relative to low doses of (60)Co gamma-rays, a maximum relative biological effectiveness (RBE(M)) of 2.8 +/- 0.2 and 1.5 +/- 0.2, respectively, was calculated. Surprisingly, at higher doses of (60)Co gamma-rays lower frequencies of neoplastic transformation were observed. This non-monotonic dose relationship for neoplastic transformation by (60)Co gamma-rays is likely due to the lack of a G2/M arrest observed at low doses resulting in higher transformation frequencies per dose, whereas the lower frequencies per dose observed for higher doses are likely related to the induction of a G2/M arrest.

  1. Mapping of the gene encoding the melanocortin-1 ([alpha]-melanocyte stimulating hormone) receptor (MC1R) to human chromosome 16q24. 3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gantz, I.; Yamada, Tadataka; Tashiro, Takao; Konda, Yoshitaka; Shimoto, Yoshimasa; Miwa, Hiroto; Trent, J.M. (Univ. of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States))

    1994-01-15

    [alpha]-Melanocyte stimulating hormone ([alpha]-MSH), a hormone originally named for its ability to regulate pigmentation of melanocytes, is a 13-amino-acid post-translational product of the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene. [alpha]-MSH and the other products of POMC processing, which share the core heptapeptide amino acid sequence Met-Glu (Gly)-His-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly (Asp), the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), [beta]-MSH, and [gamma]-MSH, are collectively referred to as melanocortins. While best known for their effects on the melanocyte (pigmentation) and adrenal cortical cells (steroidogenesis), melanocortins have been postulated to function in diverse activities, including enhancement of learning and memory, control of the cardiovascular system, analgesia, thermoregulation, immunomodulation, parturition, and neurotrophism. To identify the chromosomal band encoding the human melanocortin-1 receptor gene, 1 [mu]g of an EMBL clone coding region of the human MC1R and approximately 15 kb of surrounding DNA was labeled with biotin and hybridized to human metaphase chromosomes as previously described. The results indicate that the human MC1R gene is localized to 16q24.3. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  2. A hybrid piezoelectric structure for wearable nanogenerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Minbaek; Wang, Sihong; Wang, Zhong Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Chen, Chih-Yen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013 (China); Cha, Seung Nam; Park, Yong Jun; Kim, Jong Min [Frontier Research Lab, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Samsung Electronics, Gyeonggi-Do 446-712 (Korea, Republic of); Chou, Li-Jen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013 (China)

    2012-04-03

    A hybrid-fiber nanogenerator comprising a ZnO nanowire array, PVDF polymer and two electrodes is presented. Depending on the bending or spreading action of the human arm, at an angle of {proportional_to}90 , the hybrid fiber reaches electrical outputs of {proportional_to}0.1 V and {proportional_to}10 nA cm{sup -2}. The unique structure of the hybrid fiber may inspire future research in wearable energy-harvesting technology. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....

  4. Rapid Genotyping of the Human Renin (REN Gene by the LightCycler® Instrument: Identification of Unexpected Nucleotide Substitutions within the Selected Hybridization Probe Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Wee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a serious disorder affecting nearly 3% of all in the Western world. It is associated with hypertension and proteinuria, and several lines of evidence suggest that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS may be involved in the development of hypertension at different stages of a preeclamptic pregnancy. In this study, we developed rapid genotyping assays on the LightCycler® instrument to allow the detection of genetic variants in the renin gene (REN that may predispose to preeclampsia. The method is based on real-time PCR and allele-specific hybridization probes, followed by fluorescent melting curve analysis to expose a change in melting temperature (Tm. Ninety-two mother-father-child triads (n=276 from preeclamptic pregnancies were genotyped for three haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs in REN. All three htSNPs (rs5705, rs1464816 and rs3795575 were successfully genotyped. Furthermore, two unexpected nucleotide substitutions (rs11571084 and rs61757041 were identified within the selected hybridization probe area of rs1464816 and rs3795575 due to aberrant melting peaks. In conclusion, genotyping on the LightCycler® instrument proved to be rapid and highly reproducible. The ability to uncover additional nucleotide substitutions is particularly important in that it allows the identification of potentially etiological variants that might otherwise be overlooked by other genotyping methods.

  5. Human telomeric sequence forms a hybrid-type intramolecular G-quadruplex structure with mixed parallel/antiparallel strands in potassium solution

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrus, Attila; Chen, Ding; Dai, Jixun; Bialis, Tiffanie; Jones, Roger A.; Yang, Danzhou

    2006-01-01

    Human telomeric DNA consists of tandem repeats of the sequence d(TTAGGG). The formation and stabilization of DNA G-quadruplexes in the human telomeric sequence have been shown to inhibit the activity of telomerase, thus the telomeric DNA G-quadruplex has been considered as an attractive target for cancer therapeutic intervention. However, knowledge of the intact human telomeric G-quadruplex structure(s) formed under physiological conditions is a prerequisite for structure-based rational drug ...

  6. The Hybrid Museum: Hybrid Economies of Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus

    2013-01-01

    this article shows that there are two different museum mindsets where the second mindset leans towards participatory practices. It is shown how a museum can support a hybrid economy of meaning that builds on both a user generated economy of meaning and an institutional economy of meaning and adds value to both....... Such a museum is referred to as a hybrid museum....

  7. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  8. Hybrid Management in Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Jespersen, Peter Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer......Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer...

  9. Resin Catalyst Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Asaoka

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction: What are resin catalyst hybrids? There are typically two types of resin catalyst. One is acidic resin which representative is polystyrene sulfonic acid. The other is basic resin which is availed as metal complex support. The objective items of this study on resin catalyst are consisting of pellet hybrid, equilibrium hybrid and function hybrid of acid and base,as shown in Fig. 1[1-5].

  10. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  11. Human lymphocyte markers defined by antibodies derived from somatic cell hybrids. III. A marker defining a subpopulation of lymphocytes which cuts across the normal T-B-null classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zola, H; Beckman, I G; Bradley, J; Brooks, D A; Kupa, A; McNamara, P J; Smart, I J; Thomas, M E

    1980-06-01

    A somatic cell hybrid line which secreted antibody reacting selectively with a proportion of the white cells in human blood was prepared. The hybridoma appeared to be monoclonal, and the antibody secreted stained 67% of the lymphocyte population in blood. It reacted less well with granulocytes and monocytes. The lymphocytes stained comprised 80% of the T cells and 50% of the B cells. The antibody showed no recognizable pattern in its reactivity with cell lines and leukaemic cells, although B cells tended to react less well than T cells, null cells, or myeloid leukaemic cells. The expression of the antigenic determinant is discussed in relation to the classification of leucocytes. This determinant and certain other markers exhibited differential expression on closely related cells, and yet were shared by more distantly related cells.

  12. Hybridization between invasive Spartina Densiflora (Poaceae) and native S. Foliosa in San Francisco Bay, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapid evolution in contemporary time can result when related species, brought together through human-aided introduction, hybridize. The evolutionary consequences of post introduction hybridization range from allopolyploid speciation to extinction of species through genetic amalg...

  13. Kinetic and kinematic responses of post mortem human surrogates and the Hybrid III ATD in high-speed frontal sled tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, Stephanie M; Kemper, Andrew R; Madigan, Michael L; Duma, Stefan M

    2013-06-01

    Despite improvements in vehicle design and safety technologies, frontal automotive collisions continue to result in a substantial number of injuries and fatalities each year. Although a considerable amount of research has been performed on PMHSs and ATDs, matched dynamic whole-body frontal testing with PMHSs and the current ATD aimed at quantifying both kinetic and kinematic data in a single controlled study is lacking in the literature. Therefore, a total of 4 dynamic matched frontal sled tests were performed with three male PMHSs and a Hybrid III 50th percentile male ATD (28.6g, Δv=40 kph). Each subject was restrained using a 4 kN load limiting, driver-side, 3-point seatbelt. Belt force was measured for the lap belt and shoulder belt. Reaction forces were measured at the seat pan, seat back, independent foot plates, and steering column. Linear head acceleration, angular head acceleration, and pelvic acceleration were measured for all subjects. Acceleration of C7, T7, T12, both femurs, and both tibias were also measured for the PMHSs. A Vicon motion analysis system, consisting of 12 MX-T20 2 megapixel cameras, was used to quantify subject 3D motion (±1 mm) at a rate of 1 kHz. Excursions of select anatomical regions were normalized to their respective initial positions and compared by test condition and between subject types. Notable discrepancies were observed in the responses of the PMHSs and the ATD. The reaction forces and belt loading for the ATD, particularly foot plate, seat back, steering column, and lap belt forces, were not in agreement with those of the PMHSs. The forward excursions of the ATD were consistently within those of the PMHSs with the exception of the left upper extremity. This could potentially be due to the known limitations of the Hybrid III ATD shoulder and chest. The results presented herein demonstrate that there are some limitations to the current Hybrid III ATD under the loading conditions evaluated in the current study. Overall

  14. Realizing the Hybrid Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinfield, Stephen; Eaton, Jonathan; Edwards, Catherine; Russell, Rosemary; Wissenburg, Astrid; Wynne, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Outlines five projects currently funded by the United Kingdom's Electronic Libraries Program (eLib): HyLiFe (Hybrid Library of the Future), MALIBU (MAnaging the hybrid Library for the Benefit of Users), HeadLine (Hybrid Electronic Access and Delivery in the Library Networked Environment), ATHENS (authentication scheme), and BUILDER (Birmingham…

  15. Homoploid hybrid expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homoploid hybrid speciation occurs when a stable, fertile, and reproductively isolated lineage results from hybridization between two distinct species without a change in ploidy level. Reproductive isolation between a homoploid hybrid species and its parents is generally attained via chromosomal re...

  16. Hybrid armature projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Ronald S.; Asay, James R.; Hall, Clint A.; Konrad, Carl H.; Sauve, Gerald L.; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Susoeff, Allan R.

    1993-01-01

    A projectile for a railgun that uses a hybrid armature and provides a seed block around part of the outer surface of the projectile to seed the hybrid plasma brush. In addition, the hybrid armature is continuously vaporized to replenish plasma in a plasma armature to provide a tandem armature and provides a unique ridge and groove to reduce plasama blowby.

  17. Intraply Hybrid Composite Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    Several theoretical approaches combined in program. Intraply hybrid composites investigated theoretically and experimentally at Lewis Research Center. Theories developed during investigations and corroborated by attendant experiments used to develop computer program identified as INHYD (Intraply Hybrid Composite Design). INHYD includes several composites micromechanics theories, intraply hybrid composite theories, and integrated hygrothermomechanical theory. Equations from theories used by program as appropriate for user's specific applications.

  18. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  19. Screening of genes for proteins interacting with the PS1TP5 protein of hepatitis B virus: probing a human leukocyte cDNA library using the yeast two-hybrid system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-kang; ZHAO Long-feng; CHENG Jun; GUO Jiang; LUN Yong-zhi; HONG Yuan

    2006-01-01

    Background The hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome includes S, C, P and X regions. The S region is divided into four subregions of pre-pre-S, pre-S1, pre-S2 and S. PS1TP5 (human gene 5 transactivated by pre-S1 protein of HBV) is a novel target gene transactivated by the pre-S1 protein that has been screened with a suppression subtractive hybridization technique in our laboratory (GenBank accession: AY427953). In order to investigate the biological function of the PS1TP5 protein, we performed a yeast two-hybrid system 3 to screen proteins from a human leukocyte cDNA library interacting with the PS 1TP5 protein.Methods The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to amplify the gene of PS1TP5 from the mRNA of HepG2 cells and the gene was then cloned into the pGEM-T vector. After being sequenced and analyzed with Vector NTI 9.1 and NCBI BLAST software, the target gene of PS1TP5 was cut from the pGEM-T vector and cloned into a yeast expression plasmid pGBKT7, then "bait" plasmid pGBKT7-PS 1TP5 was transformed into the yeast strain AH109. The yeast protein was isolated and analyzed with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting hybridization.After expression of the pGBKT7-PS1TP5 fusion protein in the AH109 yeast strain was accomplished, a yeast two-hybrid screening was performed by mating AH 109 with Y 187 containing a leukocyte cDNA library plasmid.The mated yeast was plated on quadruple dropout medium and assayed for α-gal activity. The interaction between the PS1TP5 protein and the proteins obtained from positive colonies was further confirmed by repeating the yeast two-hybrid screen. After extracting and sequencing of plasmids from blue colonies we carried out a bioinformatic analysis.Results Forty true positive colonies were selected and sequenced, full length sequences were obtained and we searched for homologous DNA sequences from GenBank. Among the 40 positive colonies, 23 coding genes

  20. ASSIGNMENT OF THE GENE CODING FOR HUMAN CYTOCHROME-C-OXIDASE SUBUNIT-VIB TO CHROMOSOME-19, BAND-Q13.1, BY FLUORESCENCE INSITU HYBRIDIZATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TAANMAN, JW; VANDERVEEN, AY; SCHRAGE, C; DEVRIES, H; BUYS, CHCM

    1991-01-01

    A cloned, 40 kb, genomic DNA fragment, containing the last exon of the gene for human cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIb and its flanking sequences, was used as a probe to localize the subunit VIb gene on human metaphase chromosomes. The probe was labelled with Bio-11-dUTP and detected by fluorescence

  1. Hybrid instrument applied to human reliability study in event of loss of external electric power in a nuclear power plant; Instrumento hibrido aplicado ao estudo da confiabilidade humana em evento de perda de energia eletrica externa em usina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Eduardo Ferraz

    2015-04-01

    The study projects in highly complex installations involves robust modeling, supported by conceptual and mathematical tools, to carry out systematic research and structured the different risk scenarios that can lead to unwanted events from occurring equipment failures or human errors. In the context of classical modeling, the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) seeks to provide qualitative and quantitative information about the project particularity and their operational facilities, including the identification of factors or scenarios that contribute to the risk and consequent comparison options for increasing safety. In this context, the aim of the thesis is to develop a hybrid instrument (CPP-HI) innovative, from the integrated modeling techniques of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), concepts of Human Reliability Analysis and Probabilistic Composition of Preferences (PCP). In support of modeling and validation of the CPP-HI, a simulation was performed on a triggering event 'Loss of External Electric Power' - PEEE, in a Nuclear Power plant. The results were simulated in a virtual environment (sensitivity analysis) and are robust to the study of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) in the context of the PSA. (author)

  2. The implementation of hybrid clustering using fuzzy c-means and divisive algorithm for analyzing DNA human Papillomavirus cause of cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andryani, Diyah Septi; Bustamam, Alhadi; Lestari, Dian

    2017-03-01

    Clustering aims to classify the different patterns into groups called clusters. In this clustering method, we use n-mers frequency to calculate the distance matrix which is considered more accurate than using the DNA alignment. The clustering results could be used to discover biologically important sub-sections and groups of genes. Many clustering methods have been developed, while hard clustering methods considered less accurate than fuzzy clustering methods, especially if it is used for outliers data. Among fuzzy clustering methods, fuzzy c-means is one the best known for its accuracy and simplicity. Fuzzy c-means clustering uses membership function variable, which refers to how likely the data could be members into a cluster. Fuzzy c-means clustering works using the principle of minimizing the objective function. Parameters of membership function in fuzzy are used as a weighting factor which is also called the fuzzier. In this study we implement hybrid clustering using fuzzy c-means and divisive algorithm which could improve the accuracy of cluster membership compare to traditional partitional approach only. In this study fuzzy c-means is used in the first step to find partition results. Furthermore divisive algorithms will run on the second step to find sub-clusters and dendogram of phylogenetic tree. To find the best number of clusters is determined using the minimum value of Davies Bouldin Index (DBI) of the cluster results. In this research, the results show that the methods introduced in this paper is better than other partitioning methods. Finally, we found 3 clusters with DBI value of 1.126628 at first step of clustering. Moreover, DBI values after implementing the second step of clustering are always producing smaller IDB values compare to the results of using first step clustering only. This condition indicates that the hybrid approach in this study produce better performance of the cluster results, in term its DBI values.

  3. Unraveling the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of diacetoxyscirpenol in various animal species and human using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time-of-flight hybrid mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shupeng; De Boevre, Marthe; Zhang, Huiyan; De Ruyck, Karl; Sun, Feifei; Wang, Zhanhui; Cao, Xingyuan; Shen, Jianzhong; De Saeger, Sarah; Zhang, Suxia

    2015-11-01

    Diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), a Fusarium mycotoxin belonging to the trichothecene type A mycotoxins, is able to contaminate food and feed worldwide. Only limited information is available regarding the metabolism of DAS. The present study used ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time-of-flight hybrid mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q/TOF) to investigate the in vitro phase I and II metabolism of DAS by rat, chicken, swine, goat, cow, and human liver microsomes. An extensive metabolization profile of DAS has been observed. A total of seven phase I and three phase II metabolites of DAS were detected. Among the identified molecules, four phase I metabolites (8β-hydroxy-DAS, neosolaniol, 7-hydroxy-DAS, and its epimer) and two phase II metabolites (4-deacetyl-DAS-3-glucuronic acid and 4-deacetyl-DAS-4-glucuronic acid) were identified for the first time. These results indicate that the major metabolic pathways of DAS in vitro were hydrolyzation (M1-M3), hydroxylation (M4-M7), and conjugation (M8-M10). Qualitative differences in phase I and II metabolic profiles of DAS between the five animal species and human were observed. 4-Deacetyl-DAS was the primary metabolite from liver microsomes of all species, especially human. The in vivo metabolism of DAS in rats and chickens after oral administration of DAS was also investigated and compared. The major metabolites for rats and chickens were 4-deacetyl-DAS and 7-hydroxy-DAS. These results will help to gain a more detailed insight into the metabolism and toxicity of DAS among different animal species and human. Graphical Abstract The metabolism of diacetoxyscirpenol in farm animals and human.

  4. The hydrogen hybrid option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-10-15

    The energy efficiency of various piston engine options for series hybrid automobiles are compared with conventional, battery powered electric, and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell hybrid automobiles. Gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hydrogen are considered for these hybrids. The engine and fuel comparisons are done on a basis of equal vehicle weight, drag, and rolling resistance. The relative emissions of these various fueled vehicle options are also presented. It is concluded that a highly optimized, hydrogen fueled, piston engine, series electric hybrid automobile will have efficiency comparable to a similar fuel cell hybrid automobile and will have fewer total emissions than the battery powered vehicle, even without a catalyst.

  5. Spoof Plasmon Hybridization

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jingjing; Luo, Yu; Shen, Xiaopeng; Maier, Stefan A; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    Plasmon hybridization between closely spaced nanoparticles yields new hybrid modes not found in individual constituents, allowing for the engineering of resonance properties and field enhancement capabilities of metallic nanostructure. Experimental verifications of plasmon hybridization have been thus far mostly limited to optical frequencies, as metals cannot support surface plasmons at longer wavelengths. Here, we introduce the concept of 'spoof plasmon hybridization' in highly conductive metal structures and investigate experimentally the interaction of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) in adjacent metal disks corrugated with subwavelength spiral patterns. We show that the hybridization results in the splitting of spoof plasmon modes into bonding and antibonding resonances analogous to molecular orbital rule and plasmonic hybridization in optical spectrum. These hybrid modes can be manipulated to produce enormous field enhancements (larger than 5000) by tuning the separation between disks or alte...

  6. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  7. Hybrid dynamical systems observation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Defoort, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of contributions defining the state of current knowledge and new trends in hybrid systems – systems involving both continuous dynamics and discrete events – as described by the work of several well-known groups of researchers. Hybrid Dynamical Systems presents theoretical advances in such areas as diagnosability, observability and stabilization for various classes of system. Continuous and discrete state estimation and self-triggering control of nonlinear systems are advanced. The text employs various methods, among them, high-order sliding modes, Takagi–Sugeno representation and sampled-data switching to achieve its ends. The many applications of hybrid systems from power converters to computer science are not forgotten; studies of flexible-joint robotic arms and – as representative biological systems – the behaviour of the human heart and vasculature, demonstrate the wide-ranging practical significance of control in hybrid systems. The cross-disciplinary origins of study ...

  8. Correlation of p16INK4a immunoexpression and human papillomavirus (HPV) detected by in-situ hybridization in cervical squamous neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, P L; Koh, C C; Nazarina, A R; Teoh, K H; Looi, L M

    2016-04-01

    Persistence and eventual integration of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) into the cervical cell is crucial to the progression of cervical neoplasia and it would be beneficial to morphologically identify this transformation in routine surgical pathology practice. Increased p16(INK4a) (p16) expression is a downstream event following HPV E7 binding to pRB. A study was conducted to assess the correlation between hrHPV detection using a commercial in-situ hybridization assay (Ventana INFORM HPV ISH) and p16 immunoexpression (CINtec Histology Kit) in cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions and squamous carcinoma. 27 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cervical low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), 21 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and 51 squamous carcinoma (SCC) were interrogated. hrHPV was significantly more frequent in HSIL (76.2%) and SCC (88.2%) compared to LSIL(37.0%). p16 expression was similarly more frequent in HSIL (95.2%) and SCC (90.2%) compared to LSIL(3.7%). That the rates of hrHPV when compared with p16 expression were almost equivalent in HSIL and SCC while p16 was expressed in only 1 of the 10 LSIL with hrHPV, are expected considering the likelihood that transformation has occurred in HSIL and SCC but does not occur in majority of LSIL.

  9. Hybrids monosomal for human chromosome 5 reveal the presence of a spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) carrier with two SMN1 copies on one chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailman, M D; Hemingway, T; Darsey, R L; Glasure, C E; Huang, Y; Chadwick, R B; Heinz, J W; Papp, A C; Snyder, P J; Sedra, M S; Schafer, R W; Abuelo, D N; Reich, E W; Theil, K S; Burghes, A H; de la Chapelle, A; Prior, T W

    2001-02-01

    We have analyzed the survival motor neuron gene (SMN1) dosage in 100 parents of children with homozygous SMN1 deletions. Of these parents, 96 (96%) demonstrated the expected one-copy SMN1 carrier genotype. However, four parents (4%) were observed to have a normal two-copy SMN1 dosage. The presence of two intact SMN1 genes in the parent of an affected child indicates either the occurrence of a de novo mutation event or a situation in which one chromosome has two copies of SMN1, whereas the other is null. We have separated individual chromosomes from two of these parents with two-copy SMN1 dosage by somatic cell hybridization and have employed a modified quantitative dosage assay to provide direct evidence that one parent is a two-copy/ zero-copy SMN1 carrier, whereas the other parent had an affected child as the result of a de novo mutation. These findings are important for assessing the recurrence risk of parents of children with spinal muscular atrophy and for providing accurate family counseling.

  10. Analyses of numerical aberrations of chromosome 17 and tp53 gene deletion/amplification in human oral squamous cell carcinoma using dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi MESZAROS

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, oral and facial cancers represent approximately 5% of all cancers. Deactivation and unregulated expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes may be involved in the pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. The genomic change results in numerical and structural chromosomal alterations, particularly in chromosomes 3, 9, 11 and 17. The aim of our study was to identify numerical aberrations of chromosome 17, deletion or amplification of p53 gene and to reveal correlations between abnormalities of chromosome 17and of p53 gene with TNM status and grading in 15 subjects with oral squamous cell carcinoma. 80 % of cases presented chromosome 17 polysomy and only 20% of cases had chromosome 17 monosomy. 46.6 % of samples revealed p53 gene amplification and 33.3 % of them p53 deletion. Polysomy of chromosome 17 was also detected in tumor-adjacent epithelia. The degree of the cytogenetic abnormality did not correlate with the stage of the disease, the histological differentiation of oral squamous cell carcinoma and lymph node metastasis. Molecular cytogenetic techniques, using fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome-specific DNA probes, facilitate the confirmation of presumed chromosomal aberrations with high sensitivity and specificity.

  11. Ancient hybridization and genomic stabilization in a swordtail fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumer, Molly; Cui, Rongfeng; Powell, Daniel L; Rosenthal, Gil G; Andolfatto, Peter

    2016-06-01

    A rapidly increasing body of work is revealing that the genomes of distinct species often exhibit hybrid ancestry, presumably due to postspeciation hybridization between closely related species. Despite the growing number of documented cases, we still know relatively little about how genomes evolve and stabilize following hybridization, and to what extent hybridization is functionally relevant. Here, we examine the case of Xiphophorus nezahualcoyotl, a teleost fish whose genome exhibits significant hybrid ancestry. We show that hybridization was relatively ancient and is unlikely to be ongoing. Strikingly, the genome of X. nezahualcoyotl has largely stabilized following hybridization, distinguishing it from examples such as human-Neanderthal hybridization. Hybridization-derived regions are remarkably distinct from other regions of the genome, tending to be enriched in genomic regions with reduced constraint. These results suggest that selection has played a role in removing hybrid ancestry from certain functionally important regions. Combined with findings in other systems, our results raise many questions about the process of genomic stabilization and the role of selection in shaping patterns of hybrid ancestry in the genome. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Mapping the interactions of dengue virus NS1 protein with human liver proteins using a yeast two-hybrid system: identification of C1q as an interacting partner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana M Silva

    Full Text Available Dengue constitutes a global health concern. The clinical manifestation of this disease varies from mild febrile illness to severe hemorrhage and/or fatal hypovolemic shock. Flavivirus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 is a secreted glycoprotein that is displayed on the surface of infected cells but is absent in viral particles. NS1 accumulates at high levels in the plasma of dengue virus (DENV-infected patients, and previous reports highlight its involvement in immune evasion, dengue severity, liver dysfunction and pathogenesis. In the present study, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to search for DENV2 NS1-interacting partners using a human liver cDNA library. We identified fifty genes, including human complement component 1 (C1q, which was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation, ELISA and immunofluorescence assays, revealing for the first time the direct binding of this protein to NS1. Furthermore, the majority of the identified genes encode proteins that are secreted into the plasma of patients, and most of these proteins are classified as acute-phase proteins (APPs, such as plasminogen, haptoglobin, hemopexin, α-2-HS-glycoprotein, retinol binding protein 4, transferrin, and C4. The results presented here confirm the direct interaction of DENV NS1 with a key protein of the complement system and suggest a role for this complement protein in the pathogenesis of DENV infection.

  13. Localization of two human autoantigen genes by PCR screening and in situ hybridization-glycyl-tRNA synthetase locates to 7p15 and Alanyl-tRNA synthetase locates to 16q22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, R.C.; Pai, S.I.; Liu, P. [National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Ge, Q.; Targoff, I.N. [Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aminoacyl-RS) catalyze the attachment of an amino acid to its cognate tRNA. Five of 20 human aminoacyl-RS (histidyl-RS, threonyl-RS, isoleucyl-RS, glycyl-RS, and alanyl-RS) have been identified as targets of autoantibodies in the autoimmune disease polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM; 9). A sixth autoantigenic amino-acyl-RS, lysyl-RS, was recently reported. The genes for histidyl-RS and threonyl-RS have been assigned to chromosome 5, as have the genes for leucyl-RS and arginyl-RS. Six other aminoacyl-RS (glutamyl-prolyl-RS, valyl-RS, cysteinyl-RS, methionyl-RS, tryptophanyl-RS, and asparaginyl-RS) were assigned to chromosomes 1, 6, 11, 12, 14, and 18, respectively. The reason for a preponderance of aminoacyl-RS genes on chromosome 5 is unknown, but it has been suggested that regulatory relatedness might be a factor. Recently the entire or partial cDNA sequences for two autoantigenic aminoacyl-RS genes, glycyl-RS (gene symbol GARS; 4) and alanyl-RS (gene symbol AARS; 1), were reported. To understand further the genesis of autoimmune responses to aminoacyl-RS and to determine whether genes for autoantigenic aminoacyl-RS colocalize to chromosome 5, we have determined the chromosomal site of the GARS and AARS genes by PCR-based screening of somatic cell hybrid panels and by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Henkin and Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria;

    2014-01-01

    Leon Henkin was not a modal logician, but there is a branch of modal logic that has been deeply influenced by his work. That branch is hybrid logic, a family of logics that extend orthodox modal logic with special proposition symbols (called nominals) that name worlds. This paper explains why...... Henkin’s techniques are so important in hybrid logic. We do so by proving a completeness result for a hybrid type theory called HTT, probably the strongest hybrid logic that has yet been explored. Our completeness result builds on earlier work with a system called BHTT, or basic hybrid type theory...... is due to the first-order perspective, which lies at the heart of Henin’s best known work and hybrid logic....

  15. Novaprep(®) Vial Test is a suitable liquid-based cytology medium for high risk human papillomavirus testing by Hybrid Capture 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prétet, Jean-Luc; Vidal, Chrystelle; Le Bail Carval, Karine; Ramanah, Rajeev; Carcopino, Xavier; Cartier, Isabelle; Labouyrie, Eric; Kantelip, Bernadette; Coumes-Marquet, Sylviane; Riethmuller, Didier; Mougin, Christiane

    2010-12-01

    Liquid-based cytology (LBC) for cervical cancer screening presents the advantage that cytological and virological investigations can be undertaken from the same specimen. Nevertheless, the fixative may alter DNA integrity and the sample may be inadequate for HPV DNA detection. The Novaprep(®) Vial Test (NVT) (Novacyt, Vélizy-Villacoublay, France) is a new device dedicated to LBC which permits an automated cell spreading over slides and an automated cell sampling for molecular analyses. To determine whether the NVT was suitable for high risk (HR) HPV DNA detection with the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) assay (Qiagen, Courtaboeuf, France). Two cervical specimens were harvested. The first sample was taken with a Rovers Cervex Brush (Therapak Corporation, Buford, USA) placed in the NVT and the second sample was taken with a DNAPAP cervical sampler placed in the Specimen Transport Medium (STM) (Qiagen). This last sample served as gold standard for HPV detection. NVT and STM samples were analyzed for HR HPV DNA with HC2 assay. One hundred and thirty-one samples stored in NVT and STM were analyzed. The overall HC2 positivity determined from the 99 samples classified as satisfactory for cellularity (>5000 cells/slide) was 84% whatever the collection medium was. Agreement for HPV detection between NVT and STM was 94%, with a Kappa of 0.78. Moreover, we noted that HC2 values obtained from NVT samples were correlated to those obtained from STM samples. The Novaprep(®) Vial Test adequately preserves HPV DNA and is suitable for HPV testing with HC2 if cellularity is satisfactory. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. BSA Hybrid Synthesized Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong Bin LIU; Xiao Pei DENG; Chang Sheng ZHAO

    2006-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA), a naturally occurring biopolymer, was regarded as a polymeric material to graft to an acrylic acid (AA)-N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) copolymer to form a biomacromolecular hybrid polymer. The hybrid polymer can be blended with polyethersulfone (PES) to increase the hydrophilicity of the PES membrane, which suggested that the hybrid polymer might have a wide application in the modification of biomaterials.

  17. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  18. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  19. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  1. Hybrid Unifying Variable Supernetwork Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Qiang; FANG; Jin-qing; LI; Yong

    2015-01-01

    In order to compare new phenomenon of topology change,evolution,hybrid ratio and network characteristics of unified hybrid network theoretical model with unified hybrid supernetwork model,this paper constructed unified hybrid variable supernetwork model(HUVSM).The first layer introduces a hybrid ratio dr,the

  2. Large Unifying Hybrid Supernetwork Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Qiang; FANG; Jin-qing; LI; Yong

    2015-01-01

    For depicting multi-hybrid process,large unifying hybrid network model(so called LUHNM)has two sub-hybrid ratios except dr.They are deterministic hybrid ratio(so called fd)and random hybrid ratio(so called gr),respectively.

  3. Hybrid Rocket Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sankaran Venugopal; K K Rajesh; V Ramanujachari

    2011-01-01

    With their unique operational characteristics, hybrid rockets can potentially provide safer, lower-cost avenues for spacecraft and missiles than the current solid propellant and liquid propellant systems...

  4. Hybrid FOSS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers are continuing their efforts to further develop FOSS technologies. A hybrid FOSS technique (HyFOSS) employs conventional continuous grating...

  5. Clinical performance of hybrid capture 2 human papillomavirus testing for recurrent high-grade cervical/vaginal intraepithelial neoplasm in patients with an ASC-US Papanicolaou test result during long-term posttherapy follow-up monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vivar, Andrea Diaz; Dawlett, Marilyn; Wang, Jian-Ping; Jack, Annie; Gong, Yun; Staerkel, Gregg; Guo, Ming

    2015-02-01

    Women who have been treated for high-grade cervical or vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN or VAIN) or invasive carcinoma are at risk for recurrent/persistent disease and require long-term monitoring. The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing in this setting is unclear. To evaluate the clinical performance of the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) HPV test for recurrent/residual high-grade CIN or VAIN in patients with a posttherapy abnormal squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) Papanicolaou test result. We reviewed the follow-up data on 100 patients who had an ASC-US Papanicolaou test and HC2 HPV results after treatment for high-grade CIN/VAIN or carcinoma. Human papillomavirus genotyping was performed for women with a negative HC2 result whose follow-up biopsy revealed CIN/VAIN 2+. The patients' mean age was 47 years. The HC2 test result was positive in 33% of the patients. Follow-up biopsy was available for 17 of these patients (52%) and for 25 of the 67 patients (37%) with a negative HC2 result. A total of 5 of the patients (29%) with a positive HC2 result and 2 of the patients (8%) with a negative HC2 result had CIN/VAIN 3 on follow-up biopsy, a statistically insignificant difference (P = .10). Human papillomavirus 16/18 genotypes were detected in the CIN/VAIN 2+ lesions of 5 patients with a negative HC2 result. HC2 yielded a false-negative rate of 8% for CIN 3. HC2 testing therefore may not be sufficient for triage of patients with an ASC-US Papanicolaou test result. Patients with ASC-US during long-term posttherapy follow-up need close monitoring, with colposcopic evaluation if clinically indicated.

  6. Human life support during interplanetary travel and domicile. VI - Generic modular flow schematic for hybrid physical/chemical-biological life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathi, Gani B.; Seshan, P. K.; Ferrall, Joseph; Rohatgi, Naresh

    1992-01-01

    An extension is proposed for the NASA Space Exploration Initiative's Generic Modular Flow Schematics for physical/chemical life support systems which involves the addition of biological processes. The new system architecture includes plant, microbial, and animal habitat, as well as the human habitat subsystem. Major Feedstock Production and Food Preparation and Packaging components have also been incorporated. Inedible plant, aquaculture, microbial, and animal solids are processed for recycling.

  7. Biotransformation and metabolic profile of buddleoside with human intestinal microflora by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid linear ion trap/orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jin-Hua; Duan, Jin-Ao; Jiang, Shu; Qian, Yi-Yun; Qian, Da-Wei

    2016-07-01

    Buddleoside (also known as linarin) as the major flavonoid in Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., has been reported to possess a wide range of pharmacological activities. The human intestinal microbiota might have an important impact on drug metabolism and ultimately on the drug oral bioavailability. However, the interaction of the buddleoside with human intestinal bacteria remains unknown. In this study, the conversion of buddleoside by different bacteria from human feces was firstly investigated. A reliable, sensitive and rapid analytical method, ultra performance liquid chromatography was established and successfully applied to investigate the metabolites and metabolic profile of buddleoside by human intestinal bacteria. Among the isolated bacteria, four strains including Escherichia sp. 4, Escherichia sp. 34, Enterococcus sp. 45 and Bacillus sp. 46 showed more powerful conversion capability. Based on the accurate mass data and the characteristic MS(n) product ions, the parent and six metabolites were detected and tentatively identified compared with blank samples. The metabolites were produced by four main metabolic pathways including deglycosylation, acetylation, methylation and hydroxylation. Buddleoside could be firstly converted to its aglycon acacetin (M2) by the majority of the isolated intestinal bacteria. Subsequently, M2 was further metabolize to its methylated (M3), acetylated (M4), hydroxylated (M5) and hydrogenated product (M6). However, acacetin-7-glucosid (M1) was obtained only from the minor bacterial samples like Bacillus sp. 46. To further explain the metabolism of buddleoside, the β-d-glucosidase and α-l-rhamnosidase activities of four strains were analyzed. Bacillus sp. 46 could only produce α-l-rhamnosidase, while the other three strains showed two kinds of enzyme activities. Furthermore, the activities of α-l-rhamnosidase and β-d-glucosidase reached the highest level at 12-18h and 10-12h, respectively. The metabolic routes and metabolites

  8. Unrepaired DNA damage facilitates elimination of uniparental chromosomes in interspecific hybrid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Yin, Hao; Lv, Lei; Feng, Yingying; Chen, Shaopeng; Liang, Junting; Huang, Yun; Jiang, Xiaohua; Jiang, Hanwei; Bukhari, Ihtisham; Wu, Lijun; Cooke, Howard J; Shi, Qinghua

    2014-01-01

    Elimination of uniparental chromosomes occurs frequently in interspecific hybrid cells. For example, human chromosomes are always eliminated during clone formation when human cells are fused with mouse cells. However, the underlying mechanisms are still elusive. Here, we show that the elimination of human chromosomes in human-mouse hybrid cells is accompanied by continued cell division at the presence of DNA damage on human chromosomes. Deficiency in DNA damage repair on human chromosomes occurs after cell fusion. Furthermore, increasing the level of DNA damage on human chromosomes by irradiation accelerates human chromosome loss in hybrid cells. Our results indicate that the elimination of human chromosomes in human-mouse hybrid cells results from unrepaired DNA damage on human chromosomes. We therefore provide a novel mechanism underlying chromosome instability which may facilitate the understanding of carcinogenesis.

  9. Intelligent Control Scheme of Engineering Machinery of Cluster Hybrid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Qiang; WANG Hongli

    2005-01-01

    In a hybrid system, the subsystems with discrete dynamics play a central role in a hybrid system. In the course of engineering machinery of cluster construction, the discrete control law is hard to obtain because the construction environment is complex and there exist many affecting factors. In this paper, hierarchically intelligent control, expert control and fuzzy control are introduced into the discrete subsystems of engineering machinery of cluster hybrid system, so as to rebuild the hybrid system and make the discrete control law easily and effectively obtained. The structures, reasoning mechanism and arithmetic of intelligent control are replanted to discrete dynamic, conti-nuous process and the interface of the hybrid system. The structures of three types of intelligent hybrid system are presented and the human experiences summarized from engineering machinery of cluster are taken into account.

  10. Hybridization and endangered species protection in the molecular era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, Robert K; Shaffer, H Bradley

    2016-06-01

    After decades of discussion, there is little consensus on the extent to which hybrids between endangered and nonendangered species should be protected by US law. As increasingly larger, genome-scale data sets are developed, we can identify individuals and populations with even trace levels of genetic admixture, making the 'hybrid problem' all the more difficult. We developed a decision-tree framework for evaluating hybrid protection, including both the processes that produced hybrids (human-mediated or natural) and the ecological impact of hybrids on natural ecosystems. We then evaluated our decision tree for four case studies drawn from our own work and briefly discuss several other cases from the literature. Throughout, we highlight the management outcomes that our approach provides and the nuances of hybridization as a conservation problem.

  11. Fast hybridization solution for the detection of immobilized nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T T; Kain, S R

    1995-03-01

    We have developed a fast hybridization solution, termed ExpressHyb, for the rapid and sensitive detection of nucleic acids immobilized on membrane supports. This solution reduces typical hybridization times of 12-24 h to as little as 1 h while simultaneously increasing the sensitivity of detection in many applications. Using ExpressHyb, human beta-actin mRNA was detected on a human multiple tissue Northern (MTN) blot following a 30-min hybridization, with optimal detection occurring with a 1-h hybridization interval. The moderately abundant human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) mRNA was detected using similar hybridization conditions and yielded improved signal-to-background characteristics relative to overnight hybridizations in conventional solutions. ExpressHyb can be used with either 32P- or digoxigenin-labeled probes and works effectively with both cDNA and oligonucleotide probes. For non-isotopic detection in particular, ExpressHyb reduces the nonspecific background commonly encountered with this technique. In cDNA library screening, ExpressHyb was found to both reduce the time required for effective hybridizations and to increase the number of positive colonies obtained relative to conventional overnight procedures. Taken together, these results illustrate the broad capability of ExpressHyb Hybridization Solution to improve nucleic acid detection in a variety of important techniques.

  12. Cardiac hybrid imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaemperli, Oliver [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Nuclear Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    Hybrid cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging allows combined assessment of anatomical and functional aspects of cardiac disease. In coronary artery disease (CAD), hybrid SPECT/CT imaging allows detection of coronary artery stenosis and myocardial perfusion abnormalities. The clinical value of hybrid imaging has been documented in several subsets of patients. In selected groups of patients, hybrid imaging improves the diagnostic accuracy to detect CAD compared to the single imaging techniques. Additionally, this approach facilitates functional interrogation of coronary stenoses and guidance with regard to revascularization procedures. Moreover, the anatomical information obtained from CT coronary angiography or coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) adds prognostic information over perfusion data from SPECT. The use of cardiac hybrid imaging has been favoured by the dissemination of dedicated hybrid systems and the release of dedicated image fusion software, which allow simple patient throughput for hybrid SPECT/CT studies. Further technological improvements such as more efficient detector technology to allow for low-radiation protocols, ultra-fast image acquisition and improved low-noise image reconstruction algorithms will be instrumental to further promote hybrid SPECT/CT in research and clinical practice. (orig.)

  13. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  14. A Hybrid Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew; Christensen, Steen Hyldgaard; Botin, Lars

    contexts, or sites, for mixing scientific knowledge and technical skills from different fields and social domains into new combinations, thus fostering what the authors term a “hybrid imagination”. Such a hybrid imagination is especially important today, as a way to counter the competitive and commercial...

  15. Hybrid trajectory spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a general framework for describing and studying hybrid systems. We represent the trajectories of the system as functions on a hybrid time domain, and the system itself by its trajectory space, which is the set of all possible trajectories. The trajectory space is given a na

  16. Editorial: Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005.......An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005....

  17. Hybrid reactors. [Fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-09-09

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of /sup 233/U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m/sup -2/, and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid.

  18. Hybrid propulsion technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Technology was identified which will enable application of hybrid propulsion to manned and unmanned space launch vehicles. Two design concepts are proposed. The first is a hybrid propulsion system using the classical method of regression (classical hybrid) resulting from the flow of oxidizer across a fuel grain surface. The second system uses a self-sustaining gas generator (gas generator hybrid) to produce a fuel rich exhaust that was mixed with oxidizer in a separate combustor. Both systems offer cost and reliability improvement over the existing solid rocket booster and proposed liquid boosters. The designs were evaluated using life cycle cost and reliability. The program consisted of: (1) identification and evaluation of candidate oxidizers and fuels; (2) preliminary evaluation of booster design concepts; (3) preparation of a detailed point design including life cycle costs and reliability analyses; (4) identification of those hybrid specific technologies needing improvement; and (5) preperation of a technology acquisition plan and large scale demonstration plan.

  19. Design and development of a hybrid bioartificial water-induced shape memory polymeric material as an integral component for the anastomosis of human hollow organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paonessa, Siriana; Barbani, Niccoletta; Rocchietti, Elisa Cibrario; Giachino, Claudia; Cristallini, Caterina

    2017-06-01

    A large number of pathologies require the resection of the bowel and anastomoses to rejoin the two remaining stumps to regain lumen patency. Various materials have been used to rejoin one bowel end to the other such as catgut, stainless steel, and absorbable sutures. The present method for anastomosis surgery uses an entero-entero anastomosis (EEA) circular stapler with only a staple line. This method can have some drawbacks, such as intracellular fluid leakage and local inflammations. The aim of this study is to design and develop a novel bioartificial polymer with a ring shape made of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and gelatin (80/20 ratio (w/w)) loaded both directly with acetylsalicylic acid and with nanoparticles incorporating the same drug to reduce local inflammation even for a prolonged period of time. A physical method (8cycles freezing/thawing) was used to obtain a crosslinked bioartificial shape memory ring. Mechanical analysis showed a storage modulus having a comparable value with that of the human colon. HPLC analysis pointed out a sustained and prolonged release of the anti-inflammatory drug both immediately after anastomosis surgery and during healing period. Cell culture tests indicated the cytocompatibility of the bioartificial device. A shape memory of the hydrogel prepared in ring form was observed at 37°C after immersion in water. These bioartificial devices can represent a new approach to serve as a multifunctional anastomotic ring. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Facile fabrication of FeN nanoparticles/nitrogen-doped graphene core-shell hybrid and its use as a platform for NADH detection in human blood serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, Jayaraman; Thanh, Tran Duy; Kim, Nam Hoon; Lee, Joong Hee

    2016-09-15

    Herein, we present a novel strategy for the synthesis of an iron nitride nanoparticles-encapsulated nitrogen-doped graphene (FeN NPs/NG) core-shell hierarchical nanostructure to boost the electrochemical performance in a highly sensitive, selective, reproducible, and stable sensing platform for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). This core-shell hierarchical nanostructure provides an excellent conductive network for effective charge transfer and avoids the agglomeration and restacking of NG sheets, which provides better access to the electrode material for NADH oxidation. The FeN NPs/NG core-shell hierarchical nanostructure demonstrates direct and mediatorless responses to NADH oxidation at a low potential. This material displays a high sensitivity of 0.028μA/μMcm(2), a wide linear range from 0.4 to 718μM, and a detection limit of 25nM with a fast response time of less than 3s. The interferences from common interferents, such as glucose, uric acid, dopamine, and ascorbic acid, are negligible. The fabricated sensor was further tested for the determination of NADH in human blood serum. The resulting high sensitivity, excellent selectivity, outstanding stability, and good reproducibility make the proposed FeN NPs/NG core-shell hierarchical nanostructure as a promising candidate for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A Melanoma Brain Metastasis with a Donor-Patient Hybrid Genome following Bone Marrow Transplantation: First Evidence for Fusion in Human Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossitza Lazova

    Full Text Available Tumor cell fusion with motile bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs has long been posited as a mechanism for cancer metastasis. While there is much support for this from cell culture and animal studies, it has yet to be confirmed in human cancer, as tumor and marrow-derived cells from the same patient cannot be easily distinguished genetically.We carried out genotyping of a metastatic melanoma to the brain that arose following allogeneic bone-marrow transplantation (BMT, using forensic short tandem repeat (STR length-polymorphisms to distinguish donor and patient genomes. Tumor cells were isolated free of leucocytes by laser microdissection, and tumor and pre-transplant blood lymphocyte DNAs were analyzed for donor and patient alleles at 14 autosomal STR loci and the sex chromosomes.All alleles in the donor and patient pre-BMT lymphocytes were found in tumor cells. The alleles showed disproportionate relative abundances in similar patterns throughout the tumor, indicating the tumor was initiated by a clonal fusion event.Our results strongly support fusion between a BMDC and a tumor cell playing a role in the origin of this metastasis. Depending on the frequency of such events, the findings could have important implications for understanding the generation of metastases, including the origins of tumor initiating cells and the cancer epigenome.

  2. In Vivo, Non-Invasive Characterization of Human Bone by Hybrid Broadband (600-1200 nm) Diffuse Optical and Correlation Spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliazzi, Marco; Negredo, Eugènia; Martelli, Fabrizio; Farina, Andrea; Dalla Mora, Alberto; Lindner, Claus; Farzam, Parisa; Pérez-Álvarez, Núria; Puig, Jordi; Taroni, Paola; Pifferi, Antonio; Durduran, Turgut

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive in vivo diffuse optical characterization of human bone opens a new possibility of diagnosing bone related pathologies. We present an in vivo characterization performed on seventeen healthy subjects at six different superficial bone locations: radius distal, radius proximal, ulna distal, ulna proximal, trochanter and calcaneus. A tailored diffuse optical protocol for high penetration depth combined with the rather superficial nature of considered tissues ensured the effective probing of the bone tissue. Measurements were performed using a broadband system for Time-Resolved Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy (TRS) to assess mean absorption and reduced scattering spectra in the 600–1200 nm range and Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy (DCS) to monitor microvascular blood flow. Significant variations among tissue constituents were found between different locations; with radius distal rich of collagen, suggesting it as a prominent location for bone related measurements, and calcaneus bone having highest blood flow among the body locations being considered. By using TRS and DCS together, we are able to probe the perfusion and oxygen consumption of the tissue without any contrast agents. Therefore, we predict that these methods will be able to evaluate the impairment of the oxygen metabolism of the bone at the point-of-care. PMID:27997565

  3. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  4. Hybrid systems with constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Daafouz, Jamal; Sigalotti, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Control theory is the main subject of this title, in particular analysis and control design for hybrid dynamic systems.The notion of hybrid systems offers a strong theoretical and unified framework to cope with the modeling, analysis and control design of systems where both continuous and discrete dynamics interact. The theory of hybrid systems has been the subject of intensive research over the last decade and a large number of diverse and challenging problems have been investigated. Nevertheless, many important mathematical problems remain open.This book is dedicated mainly to

  5. Hybrid Bloch Brane

    CERN Document Server

    Bazeia, D; Losano, L

    2016-01-01

    This work reports on models described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in the five-dimensional spacetime, with a warped geometry involving one infinite extra dimension. Through a mechanism that smoothly changes a thick brane into a hybrid brane, one investigates the appearance of hybrid branes hosting internal structure, characterized by the splitting on the energy density and the volcano potential, induced by the parameter which controls interactions between the two scalar fields. In particular, we investigate distinct symmetric and asymmetric hybrid brane scenarios.

  6. Hybrid Bloch brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Lima, Elisama E.M.; Losano, L. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    This work reports on models described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in the five-dimensional spacetime, with a warped geometry involving one infinite extra dimension. Through a mechanism that smoothly changes a thick brane into a hybrid brane, one investigates the appearance of hybrid branes hosting internal structure, characterized by the splitting on the energy density and the volcano potential, induced by the parameter which controls interactions between the two scalar fields. In particular, we investigate distinct symmetric and asymmetric hybrid brane scenarios. (orig.)

  7. Hybrid silicon evanescent devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W. Fang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Si photonics as an integration platform has recently been a focus of optoelectronics research because of the promise of low-cost manufacturing based on the ubiquitous electronics fabrication infrastructure. The key challenge for Si photonic systems is the realization of compact, electrically driven optical gain elements. We review our recent developments in hybrid Si evanescent devices. We have demonstrated electrically pumped lasers, amplifiers, and photodetectors that can provide a low-cost, scalable solution for hybrid integration on a Si platform by using a novel hybrid waveguide architecture, consisting of III-V quantum wells bonded to Si waveguides.

  8. Ecological host fitting of Trypanosoma cruzi TcI in Bolivia: mosaic population structure, hybridization and a role for humans in Andean parasite dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, Louisa A; Garcia, Lineth; Vanhove, Mathieu; Huaranca, Carlos; Bustamante, Marinely; Torrico, Marycruz; Torrico, Faustino; Miles, Michael A; Llewellyn, Martin S

    2015-05-01

    An improved understanding of how a parasite species exploits its genetic repertoire to colonize novel hosts and environmental niches is crucial to establish the epidemiological risk associated with emergent pathogenic genotypes. Trypanosoma cruzi, a genetically heterogeneous, multi-host zoonosis, provides an ideal system to examine the sylvatic diversification of parasitic protozoa. In Bolivia, T. cruzi I, the oldest and most widespread genetic lineage, is pervasive across a range of ecological clines. High-resolution nuclear (26 loci) and mitochondrial (10 loci) genotyping of 199 contemporaneous sylvatic TcI clones was undertaken to provide insights into the biogeographical basis of T. cruzi evolution. Three distinct sylvatic parasite transmission cycles were identified: one highland population among terrestrial rodent and triatomine species, composed of genetically homogenous strains (Ar = 2.95; PA/L = 0.61; DAS = 0.151), and two highly diverse, parasite assemblages circulating among predominantly arboreal mammals and vectors in the lowlands (Ar = 3.40 and 3.93; PA/L = 1.12 and 0.60; DAS = 0.425 and 0.311, respectively). Very limited gene flow between neighbouring terrestrial highland and arboreal lowland areas (distance ~220 km; FST = 0.42 and 0.35) but strong connectivity between ecologically similar but geographically disparate terrestrial highland ecotopes (distance >465 km; FST = 0.016-0.084) strongly supports ecological host fitting as the predominant mechanism of parasite diversification. Dissimilar heterozygosity estimates (excess in highlands, deficit in lowlands) and mitochondrial introgression among lowland strains may indicate fundamental differences in mating strategies between populations. Finally, accelerated parasite dissemination between densely populated, highland areas, compared to uninhabited lowland foci, likely reflects passive, long-range anthroponotic dispersal. The impact of humans on the risk of epizootic Chagas disease transmission in

  9. Chaotic mixer improves microarray hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuain, Mark K; Seale, Kevin; Peek, Joel; Fisher, Timothy S; Levy, Shawn; Stremler, Mark A; Haselton, Frederick R

    2004-02-15

    Hybridization is an important aspect of microarray experimental design which influences array signal levels and the repeatability of data within an array and across different arrays. Current methods typically require 24h and use target inefficiently. In these studies, we compare hybridization signals obtained in conventional static hybridization, which depends on diffusional target delivery, with signals obtained in a dynamic hybridization chamber, which employs a fluid mixer based on chaotic advection theory to deliver targets across a conventional glass slide array. Microarrays were printed with a pattern of 102 identical probe spots containing a 65-mer oligonucleotide capture probe. Hybridization of a 725-bp fluorescently labeled target was used to measure average target hybridization levels, local signal-to-noise ratios, and array hybridization uniformity. Dynamic hybridization for 1h with 1 or 10ng of target DNA increased hybridization signal intensities approximately threefold over a 24-h static hybridization. Similarly, a 10- or 60-min dynamic hybridization of 10ng of target DNA increased hybridization signal intensities fourfold over a 24h static hybridization. In time course studies, static hybridization reached a maximum within 8 to 12h using either 1 or 10ng of target. In time course studies using the dynamic hybridization chamber, hybridization using 1ng of target increased to a maximum at 4h and that using 10ng of target did not vary over the time points tested. In comparison to static hybridization, dynamic hybridization reduced the signal-to-noise ratios threefold and reduced spot-to-spot variation twofold. Therefore, we conclude that dynamic hybridization based on a chaotic mixer design improves both the speed of hybridization and the maximum level of hybridization while increasing signal-to-noise ratios and reducing spot-to-spot variation.

  10. Assignment of FUT8 to chicken chromosome band 5q1.4 and to human chromosome 14q23.2-->q24.1 by in situ hybridization. Conserved and compared synteny between human and chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coullin, Ph.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Heilig, R.; Mollicone, R.; Oriol, R.; Candelier, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The human FUT8 gene is implicated in crucial developmental stages and is overexpressed in some tumors and other malignant diseases. Based on three different experiments we have assigned the FUT8 gene to chromosome bands 14q23.2 --> q24.1 and not 14q24.3 as previously shown (Yamaguchi et al., 1999

  11. Analysis of chromosome aberration data by hybrid-scale models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indrawati, Iwiq [Research and Development on Radiation and Nuclear Biomedical Center, National Nuclear Energy Agency (Indonesia); Kumazawa, Shigeru [Nuclear Technology and Education Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Honkomagome, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for analyzing data of chromosome aberrations, which is useful to understand the characteristics of dose-response relationships and to construct the calibration curves for the biological dosimetry. The hybrid scale of linear and logarithmic scales brings a particular plotting paper, where the normal section paper, two types of semi-log papers and the log-log paper are continuously connected. The hybrid-hybrid plotting paper may contain nine kinds of linear relationships, and these are conveniently called hybrid scale models. One can systematically select the best-fit model among the nine models by among the conditions for a straight line of data points. A biological interpretation is possible with some hybrid-scale models. In this report, the hybrid scale models were applied to separately reported data on chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes as well as on chromosome breaks in Tradescantia. The results proved that the proposed models fit the data better than the linear-quadratic model, despite the demerit of the increased number of model parameters. We showed that the hybrid-hybrid model (both variables of dose and response using the hybrid scale) provides the best-fit straight lines to be used as the reliable and readable calibration curves of chromosome aberrations. (author)

  12. Hybrid polymer microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembaum, A.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques have been successfully tested for bonding polymeric spheres, typically 0.1 micron in diameter, to spheres with diameter up to 100 microns. Hybrids are being developed as improved packing material for ion-exchange columns, filters, and separators.

  13. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  14. Hybrid photon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid photon detectors detect light via vacuum photocathodes and accelerate the emitted photoelectrons by an electric field towards inversely polarized silicon anodes, where they are absorbed, thus producing electron-hole pairs. These, in turn, are collected and generate electronic signals on their ohmic contacts. This review first describes the characteristic properties of the main components of hybrid photon detectors: light entrance windows, photocathodes, and silicon anodes. Then, essential relations describing the trajectories of photoelectrons in electric and magnetic fields and their backscattering from the silicon anodes are derived. Depending on their anode configurations, three families of hybrid photon detectors are presented: hybrid photomultiplier tubes with single anodes for photon counting with high sensitivity and for gamma spectroscopy; multi-anode photon detector tubes with anodes subdivided into square or hexagonal pads for position-sensitive photon detection; imaging silicon pixel array t...

  15. Functional hybrid materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fahmi, Amir; Pietsch, Torsten; Mendoza, Cesar; Cheval, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    .... This paper describes our group's achievements towards the development of multifunctional nanostructures via self-assembly of hybrid systems based on the block copolymer PS-b-P4VP and inorganic nanoparticles (NPs...

  16. Hybrid Rocket Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaran Venugopal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available With their unique operational characteristics, hybrid rockets can potentially provide safer, lower-cost avenues for spacecraft and missiles than the current solid propellant and liquid propellant systems. Classical hybrids can be throttled for thrust tailoring, perform in-flight motor shutdown and restart. In classical hybrids, the fuel is stored in the form of a solid grain, requiring only half the feed system hardware of liquid bipropellant engines. The commonly used fuels are benign, nontoxic, and not hazardous to store and transport. Solid fuel grains are not highly susceptible to cracks, imperfections, and environmental temperature and are therefore safer to manufacture, store, transport, and use for launch. The status of development based on the experience of the last few decades indicating the maturity of the hybrid rocket technology is given in brief.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(3, pp.193-200, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.518

  17. Nitrous Paraffin Hybrid Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nitrous Oxide Paraffin Hybrid engine (N2OP) is a proposed technology designed to provide small launch vehicles with high specific impulse, indefinitely storable...

  18. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  19. Hybridity in Disgrace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建平

    2015-01-01

    John Maxwell Coetzee's masterpiece-Disgrace is the representative work about post colonialism.The novel describes a series of disgraceful events happened between the white and the black in the post apartheid South Africa.The famous literature theory-hybridity of Homi K.Bhabha is the very key theory to analyze the work.In post apartheid South Africa,hybridity is the only way for the white and the black to coexist.

  20. Hybrid Baryon Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    2000-01-01

    We discuss whether a low-lying hybrid baryon should be defined as a three quark - gluon bound state or as three quarks moving on an excited adiabatic potential. We show that the latter definition becomes exact, not only for very heavy quarks, but also for specific dynamics. We review the literature on the signatures of hybrid baryons, with specific reference to strong hadronic decays, electromagnetic couplings, diffractive production and production in psi decay.

  1. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  2. Requirements for Hybrid Cosimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-16

    hybrid cosimulation version of the Functional Mockup Interface (FMI) standard. A cosimulation standard de nes interfaces that enable diverse simulation...cosimulation standards, and specifically provides guidance for development of a hybrid cosimulation version of the Functional Mockup Interface (FMI) standard...V. Peetz, and S. Wolf. The functional mockup interface for tool independent exchange of simulation models. In Proc. of the 8-th International

  3. Quantification of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 immunohistochemistry using the Ventana Image Analysis System: correlation with gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization: the importance of instrument validation for achieving high (>95%) concordance rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Jake; Parsa, Rezvaneh; Chau, Donnie; Koduru, Prasad; Peng, Yan; Fang, Yisheng; Sarode, Venetia Rumnong

    2015-05-01

    The use of computer-based image analysis for scoring human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) immunohistochemistry (IHC) has gained a lot of interest recently. We investigated the performance of the Ventana Image Analysis System (VIAS) in HER2 quantification by IHC and its correlation with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We specifically compared the 3+ IHC results using the manufacturer's machine score cutoffs versus laboratory-defined cutoffs with the FISH assay. Using the manufacturer's 3+ cutoff (VIAS score; 2.51 to 3.5), 181/536 (33.7%) were scored 3+, and FISH was positive in 147/181 (81.2%), 2 (1.1%) were equivocal, and 32 (17.6%) were FISH (-). Using the laboratory-defined 3+ cutoff (VIAS score 3.5), 52 (28.7%) cases were downgraded to 2+, of which 29 (55.7%) were FISH (-), and 23 (44.2%) were FISH (+). With the revised cutoff, there were improvements in the concordance rate from 89.1% to 97.0% and in the positive predictive value from 82.1% to 97.6%. The false-positive rate for 3+ decreased from 9.0% to 0.8%. Six of 175 (3.4%) IHC (-) cases were FISH (+). Three cases with a VIAS score 3.5 showed polysomy of chromosome 17. In conclusion, the VIAS may be a valuable tool for assisting pathologists in HER2 scoring; however, the positive cutoff defined by the manufacturer is associated with a high false-positive rate. This study highlights the importance of instrument validation/calibration to reduce false-positive results.

  4. Rapid screening of drugs of abuse in human urine by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution and high mass accuracy hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowen; Shen, Baohua; Jiang, Zheng; Huang, Yi; Zhuo, Xianyi

    2013-08-09

    A novel analytical toxicology method has been developed for the analysis of drugs of abuse in human urine by using a high resolution and high mass accuracy hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer (LTQ-Orbitrap-MS). This method allows for the detection of different drugs of abuse, including amphetamines, cocaine, opiate alkaloids, cannabinoids, hallucinogens and their metabolites. After solid-phase extraction with Oasis HLB cartridges, spiked urine samples were analysed by HPLC/LTQ-Orbitrap-MS using an electrospray interface in positive ionisation mode, with resolving power of 30,000 full width at half maximum (FWHM). Gradient elution off of a Hypersil Gold PFP column (50mm×2.1mm) allowed to resolve 65 target compounds and 3 internal standards in a total chromatographic run time of 20min. Validation of this method consisted of confirmation of identity, selectivity, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), lowest limits of quantification (LLOQ), accuracy, precision, extraction recovery and matrix effect. The regression coefficients (r(2)) for the calibration curves (LLOQ - 100ng/mL) in the study were ≥0.99. The LODs for 65 validated compounds were better than 5ng/ml except for 4 compounds. The relative standard deviation (RSD), which was used to estimate repeatability at three concentrations, was always less than 15%. The recovery of extraction and matrix effects were above 50 and 70%, respectively. Mass accuracy was always better than 2ppm, corresponding to a maximum mass error of 0.8 millimass units (mmu). The accurate masses of characteristic fragments were obtained by collisional experiments for a more reliable identification of the analytes. Automated data analysis and reporting were performed using ToxID software with an exact mass database. This procedure was then successfully applied to analyse drugs of abuse in a real urine sample from subject who was assumed to be drug addict.

  5. 肝细胞生成素在睾丸组织中的相互作用蛋白%Identification of Hepatopoietin Interacting Proteins in Human Testis by Yeast Two-hybrid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈筱潇; 李勇; 邱宗荫; 贺福初

    2004-01-01

    Hepatopoietin (HPO) has diverse functions in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation. Its high level expression in testis suggests that HPO may have important role for testicular physiological functions. Using HPO as "bait", a yeast two-hybrid library screen of human testis was performed. By screening and selecting the positive colonies, retesting interactions in yeast, amplifying the AD/library inserts, sequencing and sequence comparing, four HPO-interacting proteins were identified: NADH dehydrogenase 1, Na+/K+ ATPase beta-3 subunit (ATP1β3), phospholipase C delta 1 and epididymal secretory protein. The significance of identification of these proteins may provide mechanistic insight into the biologic role of HPO in testis.%肝细胞生成素(HPO)具有复杂的生理功能,在睾丸中的高表达提示其在生殖活动中的重要性,而不仅局限于肝再生.构建了酵母表达载体pGBKT7-HPO,采用酵母双杂交系统,以HPO为诱饵蛋白,从人睾丸cDNA文库中寻找能够与HPO相互作用的蛋白质.经过筛选、验证阳性克隆,并进行PCR、测序和序列比对,得到4种相互作用蛋白质:NADH脱氢酶1、钠/钾ATP酶β3亚基、磷脂酶C δ1以及附睾分泌蛋白.提示HPO可能参与了细胞的蛋白质合成,能量代谢等.通过对候选蛋白的研究,为探讨HPO对睾丸组织细胞功能的调节机制提供了重要的线索.

  6. Prospective comparison of hybrid capture 2 and SPF₁₀-LiPA for carcinogenic human papillomavirus detection and risk prediction of cervical cancer: a population-based cohort study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li; Feng, Rui Mei; Zhang, Li; Xu, Xiao Qian; Zhao, Xue Lian; Wang, Margaret Zhuoer; Qiao, You Lin; Zhao, Fang Hui

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the extent of the cross-reactivity of hybrid capture 2 (HC2) assay and evaluate the potential effect of cross-reactivity on the long-term risk for cervical cancer and precancers. Based on the Shanxi Province Cervical Cancer Screening Study-I (SPOCCS-I) cohort from 2005 to 2014 in Shanxi, China, SPF₁₀-line probe assay (LiPA) was performed in all 598 HC2 positive and 300 random-selected HC2 negative cervical specimens. Ten-year cumulative incidence rate (CIR) of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) of these two tests was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Possible human papillomavirus (HPV) types to be cross-reacted by HC2 were also analyzed. The overall agreement between HC2 and SPF₁₀-LiPA for detecting carcinogenic HPV was 73.27%. The highest 10-year cumulative risk of CIN2+ was observed in both HC2 positive and LiPA-carcinogenic HPV positive women (25.70%; 95% confidence interval [CI]=23.55%-27.91%), followed by HC2 positive but LiPA-non-carcinogenic HPV positive women (9.97%; 95% CI=8.57%-11.50%), HC2 negative but LiPA-carcinogenic HPV positive (2.56%; 95% CI=2.44%-2.70%) and HC2 positive but LiPA-HPV negative (1.85%; 95% CI=1.78%-1.92%) women. The proportion of cross-reactivity of HC2 with untargeted carcinogenic types was 8.9%, most of which were attributable to HPV26, 73, 82, 69, 71, 53, 11, 43, and 54. The noticeable high risk of CIN2+ in women infected with cross-reacted non-carcinogenic HPV and low risk in those with miss-to-detective carcinogenic HPV supported an overall good clinical performance of HC2 for a general cervical cancer screening.

  7. 人肝细胞/微孔聚丙烯杂化界面的生物相容性%Biocompatibility of human hepatocyte/microporous polypropylene hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞; 彭承宏; 韩宝三; 王兆海; 吴旭波; 吴薇; 高长有

    2008-01-01

    背景:生物反应器膜材料不仅具备双向物质交换、良好的理化特性,还要具有良好的生物相容性.目的:评价人肝细胞/微孔聚丙烯杂化界面,即接技改性微孔聚丙烯超滤膜的生物相容性.设计、时间及地点:动物实验观察,于2005-09/2007-10在上海交通大学医学院附属瑞金医院器官移植中心(上海消化外科研究所)实验室和浙江大学高分子材料研究所共同完成.材料:选用孔径为0.2 μm,分子截流量为Mr 50000-100000的微孔聚丙烯超滤平面薄膜为实验模型,利用光化学接枝聚合改性技术,在聚丙烯超滤膜表面通过化学键的形式接枝亲水性丙烯酰胺基团,成功地构建一种人肿细胞/微孔聚丙烯杂化界面,即新型的生物人工肝生物反应器膜--接枝改性微孔聚丙烯超滤膜.方法:参照国际标准化组织ISO10993-1:1992医疗器械生物学评价标准和要求进行溶血试验、细胞毒性试验、全身急性毒性试验、热原试验、皮肤和皮内刺激试验,评价接枝改性微孔聚丙烯超滤膜的生物相容性.主要观察指标:接枝改性微孔聚丙烯超滤膜浸提液的溶血试验、细胞毒性试验、全身急性毒性试验、热原试验、皮肤和皮内刺激试验结果.结果:接枝改性微孔聚丙烯超滤膜的溶血率为1.90% 50 000-100 000 molecular blockage, were used. Photochemical graft polymerization modification technique was adopted to graft hydrophilic acrylamide group through chemical bonds on MPP surface and succeeded in constructing an interface of human hepatocyte/microporous polypropylene, i.e. bioreactor membrane of bioartificial liver, graft modified MPP.METHODS: The biocompatibility of modified MPP was evaluated by hemolysis test, cytotoxicity test, acute systemic toxicity test, pyrogen test, skin sensitization and percutaneous stimulation test according to the requirements and biological evaluation criteria of medical device of ISO10993-1:1992.MAIN

  8. 基于混合遗传算法的人体运动捕获数据关键帧提取%Keyframe Extraction from Human Motion Capture Data by Simplex Hybrid Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘贤梅; 郝爱民; 赵丹

    2011-01-01

    为实现基于最佳关键帧集合的人体运动的紧致表示,提出一种遗传算法与单纯形法结合的人体运动捕获数据关键帧提取方法.以重构误差最小化和压缩率最优为目标,定义适应度函数,度量重构运动与原始运动之间的重构误差,通过关节位置和关节速率加权计算,并考虑数据的运动特性.利用背景知识对初始种群的个体进行优化,保证进化的良好基础和种群的多样性.将遗传算法和局部搜索技术结合,提高算法运行效率和求解质量.实验结果表明,该方法能够高效地从运动捕获数据中提取出最优的关键帧集合,较好地满足运动数据的紧致表示,且能高质量重构其它帧.%To obtain a compact representation of human motion based on keyframes, a method for keyframes extracting of the captured human motion data by simplex hybrid genetic algorithm is presented, which combines genetic algorithm with a local search technique to converge faster and produce the optimal solution. Firstly, the fitness function is defined to evaluate the availability of keyframe with the goals of minimal reconstruction error and optimal compression rate. Then, the reconstruction error is computed between the original motion and the reconstruction one by the weighted differences of joint positions and velocities. The velocity term helps to preserve the dynamics of motion. Finally, the individuals of initial population are optimized by the knowledge to assure the evolutionary efficiency and the population diversity. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively extract keyframes, produce remarkable results in terms of quality and compression ratio, and reconstruct all other non-keyframes of an animation with these keyframes.

  9. Suppression Subtractive Hybridization Identified Genes Differentially Expressed in a Multidrug Resistance Cell Line of Human Lung Adenocarcinoma%肺腺癌多药耐药细胞特异表达基因的克隆与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈杰; 钱桂生; 黄桂君; 熊玮; 李靖

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to clone and screen multidrug resistance related gene of human adenocarcinoma cell. Methods: The suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was performed on human adenocarcinoma multidrug resistance cell line (SPC-A-1/CDDP, as tester) and human adenocarcinoma cell line (SPC-A-1, as driver). After the subtracted cDNA library being constructed, the dot blots was used to screen the subtracted cDNA library with forward and reverse-subtracted cDNA probes. The differentially expressed cDNA fragments in SPC-A-1/CDDP was sequenced and analyzed through Genbank with Blast search. The novel cDNA sequences were analyzed by Northern blots. Results: A high quality subtracted cDNA library was constructed. Twenty-three differentially expressed cDNA fragments in SPC-A-1/CDDP were identified. Two of them were novel cDNA sequences and the others had 93%-100% homology with the known genes respectively. Northern blots indicated the novel cDNA sequences only expressed in SPC-A-1/CDDP cell. Conclusion: The novel cDNA sequences might be multidrug resistance related genes in human lung adenocarcinoma. SSH is a powerful technique to identify differentially expressed genes.%目的:克隆和筛选肺腺癌多药耐药细胞特异表达基因。方法:将肺腺癌多药耐药细胞(SPC-A-1/CDDP)作为实验方,肺腺癌细胞(SPC-A-1)作为对照方,应用抑制消减杂交技术,构建实验方特异表达cDNA消减文库;用斑点杂交法初步筛选cDNA消减文库后,将获得的阳性克隆进行测序和同源性分析(Genbank),对新的cDNA序列进行Northern blot杂交验证。结果:建立了一个肺腺癌多药耐药细胞(SPC-A-1/CDDP)特异表达cDNA消减文库,斑点杂交法初步筛选显示23个克隆中有SPC-A-1/CDDP特异表达cDNA片断,测序和同源性分析表明2个cDNA片断为新序列,其余cDNA片断与已知基因有93%~100%的同源性,Northern blot杂交结果表明2

  10. The Hybrids of Postmodernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana BĂDULESCU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hybridization is a fundamental characteristic of postmodernism, included by Ihab Hassan in his “catena” of features. This paper looks into the hybrids of postmodernism, which are the result of migration, displacement and uprooting, the re-visitation of myths, folklore and legends, or projections of their author’s imagination. The hybrids used as examples here are drawn from several novels written by Salman Rushdie, especially The Satanic Verses, two short stories, one by Márquez and the other by Donald Barthelme, Borges’s Book of Imaginary Beings, Cărtărescu’s Encyclopaedia of Dragons and Michelle Cliff’s No Telephone to Heaven. Diverse as they may be, these hybrids emphasize a defining characteristic of postmodernism, which is its pluralism. I conclude that the hybrids of postmodernism are aesthetically or politically subversive. Besides, what makes them difficult to grasp is their unfixed and protean nature. They ask for high leaps of the imagination, a total suspension of disbelief and a complete surrender to the powerful seduction of imagination on the reader’s part.

  11. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  12. Mars Hybrid Propulsion System Trajectory Analysis. Part II; Cargo Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single spaceship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper shows the feasibility of the hybrid transportation architecture to pre-deploy cargo to Mars and Phobos in support of the Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions. The analysis shows that the hybrid propulsion stage is able to deliver all of the current manifested payload to Phobos and Mars through the first three crew missions. The conjunction class trajectory also allows the hybrid propulsion stage to return to Earth in a timely fashion so it can be reused for additional cargo deployment. The 1,100 days total trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to deliver cargo to Mars every other Earth-Mars transit opportunity. For the first two Mars surface mission in the Evolvable Mars Campaign, the short trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to be reused for three round-trip journeys to Mars, which matches the hybrid propulsion stage's designed lifetime for three round-trip crew missions to the Martian sphere of influence.

  13. Hybrids of Gibbs Point Process Models and Their Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Baddeley

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe a simple way to construct new statistical models for spatial point pattern data. Taking two or more existing models (finite Gibbs spatial point processes we multiply the probability densities together and renormalise to obtain a new probability density. We call the resulting model a hybrid. We discuss stochastic properties of hybrids, their statistical implications, statistical inference, computational strategies and software implementation in the R package spatstat. Hybrids are particularly useful for constructing models which exhibit interaction at different spatial scales. The methods are demonstrated on a real data set on human social interaction. Software and data are provided.

  14. for hybrid dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassim M. Haddad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop a unified dynamical systems framework for a general class of systems possessing left-continuous flows; that is, left-continuous dynamical systems. These systems are shown to generalize virtually all existing notions of dynamical systems and include hybrid, impulsive, and switching dynamical systems as special cases. Furthermore, we generalize dissipativity, passivity, and nonexpansivity theory to left-continuous dynamical systems. Specifically, the classical concepts of system storage functions and supply rates are extended to left-continuous dynamical systems providing a generalized hybrid system energy interpretation in terms of stored energy, dissipated energy over the continuous-time dynamics, and dissipated energy over the resetting events. Finally, the generalized dissipativity notions are used to develop general stability criteria for feedback interconnections of left-continuous dynamical systems. These results generalize the positivity and small gain theorems to the case of left-continuous, hybrid, and impulsive dynamical systems.

  15. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnkö, M.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Sere, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time-derivatives in modell......In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time...... parallel composition. Moreover, as the strength of the action system formalism is the support for stepwise development by refinement, we investigate refinement involving a differential action. We show that, due to the predicate transformer semantics, standard action refinement techniques apply also...... to the differential action, thus, allowing stepwise development of hybrid systems Udgivelsesdato: JAN 1...

  16. Conditional Hybrid Nonclassicality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo, E.; Sperling, J.; Costanzo, L. S.; Bellini, M.; Zavatta, A.; Vogel, W.

    2017-09-01

    We derive and implement a general method to characterize the nonclassicality in compound discrete- and continuous-variable systems. For this purpose, we introduce the operational notion of conditional hybrid nonclassicality which relates to the ability to produce a nonclassical continuous-variable state by projecting onto a general superposition of discrete-variable subsystem. We discuss the importance of this form of quantumness in connection with interfaces for quantum communication. To verify the conditional hybrid nonclassicality, a matrix version of a nonclassicality quasiprobability is derived and its sampling approach is formulated. We experimentally generate an entangled, hybrid Schrödinger cat state, using a coherent photon-addition process acting on two temporal modes, and we directly sample its nonclassicality quasiprobability matrix. The introduced conditional quantum effects are certified with high statistical significance.

  17. Porosity in hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, D.W.; Beaucage, G.; Loy, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Multicomponent, or hybrid composites are emerging as precursors to porous materials. Sacrifice of an ephemeral phase can be used to generate porosity, the nature of which depends on precursor structure. Retention of an organic constituent, on the other hand, can add desirable toughness to an otherwise brittle ceramic. We use small-angle x-ray and neutron scattering to examine porosity in both simple and hybrid materials. We find that microphase separation controls porosity in almost all systems studied. Pore distributions are controlled by the detailed bonding within and between phases as well as the flexibility of polymeric constituents. Thus hybridization opens new regions of pore distributions not available in simple systems. We look at several sacrificial concepts and show that it is possible to generate multimodal pore size distributions due to the complicated phase structure in the precursor.

  18. Photoproduction of Hybrid Mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, T

    1998-01-01

    In this contribution I discuss prospects for photoproducing hybrid mesons at CEBAF, based on recent model results and experimental indications of possible hybrids. One excellent opportunity appears to be a search for the I=1, JPC=2+-, neutral "(b2)o" hybrid in (a2 pi)o through diffractive photoproduction. Other notable possibilities accessible through pi+ or pio exchange photoproduction are I=1, JPC=1-+, charged "pi1+" in f1 pi+, (b1 pi)+ and (rho pi)+; piJ(1770)+ in f2 pi+ and (b1 pi)+; pi(1800)+ in f0 pi+, f2 pi+, omega rho+ and (rho pi)+; a1 in f1 pi+ and f2 pi+; and omega in (rho pi)o, omega eta and (K1 K)o.

  19. The Hybrid Ethical Reasoning Agent IMMANUEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose; Linder, Felix

    We introduce a novel software library that supportsthe implementation of hybrid ethical reasoning agents (HERA).The objective is to make moral principles available to robotprogramming. At its current stage, HERA can assess the moralpermissibility of actions using the principle of double effect......, andit can make utilitarian judgments.We present the prototype robotIMMANUEL based on HERA. The robot will be used to conductresearch on joint moral reasoning in human-robot interaction....

  20. The Hybrid Ethical Reasoning Agent IMMANUEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose; Linder, Felix

    We introduce a novel software library that supportsthe implementation of hybrid ethical reasoning agents (HERA).The objective is to make moral principles available to robotprogramming. At its current stage, HERA can assess the moralpermissibility of actions using the principle of double effect, a......, andit can make utilitarian judgments.We present the prototype robotIMMANUEL based on HERA. The robot will be used to conductresearch on joint moral reasoning in human-robot interaction....

  1. Hybrid-Actuated Finger Prosthesis with Tactile Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Finger prostheses are devices developed to emulate the functionality of natural human fingers. On top of their aesthetic appearance in terms of shape, size and colour, such biomimetic devices require a high level of dexterity. They must be capable of gripping an object, and even manipulating it in the hand. This paper presents a biomimetic robotic finger actuated by a hybrid mechanism and integrated with a tactile sensor. The hybrid actuation mechanism comprises a DC micromotor and a Shape Me...

  2. Smart hybrid rotary damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C. S. Walter; DesRoches, Reginald

    2014-03-01

    This paper develops a smart hybrid rotary damper using a re-centering smart shape memory alloy (SMA) material as well as conventional energy-dissipating metallic plates that are easy to be replaced. The ends of the SMA and steel plates are inserted in the hinge. When the damper rotates, all the plates bend, providing energy dissipating and recentering characteristics. Such smart hybrid rotary dampers can be installed in structures to mitigate structural responses and to re-center automatically. The damaged energy-dissipating plates can be easily replaced promptly after an external excitation, reducing repair time and costs. An OpenSEES model of a smart hybrid rotary was established and calibrated to reproduce the realistic behavior measured from a full-scale experimental test. Furthermore, the seismic performance of a 3-story moment resisting model building with smart hybrid rotary dampers designed for downtown Los Angeles was also evaluated in the OpenSEES structural analysis software. Such a smart moment resisting frame exhibits perfect residual roof displacement, 0.006", extremely smaller than 18.04" for the conventional moment resisting frame subjected to a 2500 year return period ground motion for the downtown LA area (an amplified factor of 1.15 on Kobe earthquake). The smart hybrid rotary dampers are also applied into an eccentric braced steel frame, which combines a moment frame system and a bracing system. The results illustrate that adding smart hybrid rotaries in this braced system not only completely restores the building after an external excitation, but also significantly reduces peak interstory drifts.

  3. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  4. Hybrid Weyl semimetal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei-Ye; Luo, Xi; Dai, Xi; Yu, Yue; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Gang

    2016-09-01

    We construct a tight-binding model realizing one pair of Weyl nodes and three distinct Weyl semimetals. In the type-I (type-II) Weyl semimetal, both nodes belong to type-I (type-II) Weyl nodes. In addition, there exists a third type, previously undiscovered and dubbed "hybrid Weyl semimetal", in which one Weyl node is of type I while the other is of type II. For the hybrid Weyl semimetal, we further demonstrate the bulk Fermi surfaces and the topologically protected surface states, analyze the unique Landau-level structure and quantum oscillation, and discuss the conditions for possible material realization.

  5. Toyota hybrid synergy drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, H.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Hannes Gautschi, director of service and training at the Toyota company in Switzerland, takes a look at Toyota's hybrid drive vehicles. The construction of the vehicles and their combined combustion engines and electric generators and drives is presented and the combined operation of these components is described. Braking and energy recovery are discussed. Figures on the performance, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} output of the hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles.

  6. Toyota hybrid synergy drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, H.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Hannes Gautschi, director of service and training at the Toyota company in Switzerland, takes a look at Toyota's hybrid drive vehicles. The construction of the vehicles and their combined combustion engines and electric generators and drives is presented and the combined operation of these components is described. Braking and energy recovery are discussed. Figures on the performance, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} output of the hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles.

  7. THERMALLY CLEAVABLE HYBRID MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Gaina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermally cleavable hybrid materials were prepared by the Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction of poly(vinyl furfural to N phenylmaleimido-N’-(triethoxysilylpropylurea followed by the sol-gel condensation reaction of trietoxysilyl groups with water and acetic acid. Thermal and dynamic mechanical analysis, dielectric and FTIR spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure and properties of the composites. The size of the inorganic silica particles in the hybrid material varied dependent on the silica content. The DSC study of the prepared materials revealed that the cleavage process of the formed cycloadducts takes place at temperatures varying between 143-165°C and is an endothermic process.

  8. The hybrid BCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Pfurtscheller

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, everybody knows what a hybrid car is. A hybrid car normally has 2 engines, its main purpose being to enhance energy efficiency and reduce CO2 output. Similarly, a typical hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI is also composed of 2 BCIs or at least one BCI and another system. Such a hybrid BCI, like any BCI, must fulfil the following four criteria: (i the device must rely on signals recorded directly from the brain; (ii there must be at least one recordable brain signal that the user can intentionally modulate to effect goal-directed behaviour; (iii real time processing; and (iv the user must obtain feedback. This paper introduces some hybrid BCIs which have already been published or are currently in development or validation, and some concepts for future work. The BCIs described classify 2 EEG patterns: One is the event-related (desynchronisation (ERD, ERS of sensorimotor rhythms, and the other is the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP. The hybrid BCI can either have more than one input whereby the inputs are typically processed simultaneously or operate 2 systems sequentially, whereby the first system can act as a “brain switch”. In the case of self-paced operation of a SSVEP-based hand orthosis control with an motor imagery-based switch it was possible to reduce the rate of false positives during resting periods by about 50% compared to the SSVEP BCI alone. It is shown that such a brain switch can also rely on hemodynamic changes measured through near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Another interesting approach is a hybrid BCI with simultaneous operations of ERD- and SSVEP-based BCIs. Here it is important to prove the existing promising offline simulation results with online experiments. Hybrid BCIs can also use one brain signal and another input. Such an additional input can be a physiological signal like the heart rate but also a signal from an external device like, an eye gaze control system.

  9. A Mathematical Approach to Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, P. S. C.; Thompson, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents an approach to hybridization which exploits the similarities between the algebra of wave functions and vectors. This method will account satisfactorily for the number of orbitals formed when applied to hybrids involving the s and p orbitals. (GS)

  10. A hybrid multibreath wash-in wash-out lung function quantification scheme in human subjects using hyperpolarized (3) He MRI for simultaneous assessment of specific ventilation, alveolar oxygen tension, oxygen uptake, and air trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedani, Hooman; Kadlecek, Stephen; Xin, Yi; Siddiqui, Sarmad; Gatens, Heather; Naji, Joseph; Ishii, Masaru; Cereda, Maurizio; Rossman, Milton; Rizi, Rahim

    2017-08-01

    To present a method for simultaneous acquisition of alveolar oxygen tension (PA O2 ), specific ventilation (SV), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of hyperpolarized (HP) gas in the human lung, allowing reinterpretation of the PA O2 and SV maps to produce a map of oxygen uptake (R). An imaging scheme was designed with a series of identical normoxic HP gas wash-in breaths to measure ADC, SV, PA O2 , and R in less than 2 min. Signal dynamics were fit to an iterative recursive model that regionally solved for these parameters. This measurement was successfully performed in 12 subjects classified in three healthy, smoker, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cohorts. The overall whole lung ADC, SV, PA O2 , and R in healthy, smoker, and COPD subjects was 0.20 ± 0.03 cm(2) /s, 0.39 ± 0.06,113 ± 2 Torr, and 1.55 ± 0.35 Torr/s, respectively, in healthy subjects; 0.21 ± 0.03 cm(2) /s, 0.33 ± 0.06, 115.9 ± 4 Torr, and 0.97 ± 0.2 Torr/s, respectively, in smokers; and 0.25 ± 0.06 cm(2) /s, 0.23 ± 0.08, 114.8 ± 6.0Torr, and 0.94 ± 0.12 Torr/s, respectively, in subjects with COPD. Hetrogeneity of SV, PA O2 , and R were indicators of both smoking-related changes and disease, and the severity of the disease correlated with the degree of this heterogeneity. Subjects with symptoms showed reduced oxygen uptake and specific ventilation. High-resolution, nearly coregistered and quantitative measures of lung function and structure were obtained with less than 1 L of HP gas. This hybrid multibreath technique produced measures of lung function that revealed clear differences among the cohorts and subjects and were confirmed by correlations with global lung measurements. Magn Reson Med 78:611-624, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  11. Comparison of immunohistochemistry with fluorescence in situ hybridization in determining the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status of breast cancer specimens: a multicenter study of 3149 Chinese patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Xiaohong; Shi Yuankai; Ma Li; Lyu Zheng; Yang Hongying; Yao Jiarui; Li Jian

    2014-01-01

    Background Accurate detection of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression and gene amplification is crucial for the application of HER2-specific therapy and for evaluating the response of patients with breast cancer.A uniform and standard procedure of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) needs to be established for evaluating the HER2 status in breast cancer tissues for the treatment of patients with real HER2-positive tumors.The present multicenter study was aimed to examine the HER2 status in breast cancer specimens from Chinese patients using both IHC and FISH methods.Methods A multicenter study was performed on the HER2 status in 3 149 breast cancer specimens from different ethnic populations and areas in China by IHC and FISH assays.The potential association of HER2 status with demographic and clinical characteristics was analyzed.Results The positive rates for HER2 over-expression and HER2 amplification were 23.3% and 27.5% in this study,respectively.The concordance between IHC and FISH was 71.2% (K=0.494,P <0.001).Furthermore,72.9% of specimens with IHC 2+ were negative to FISH.The discordance rates among laboratories were from 5% to 28% for IHC and 1% to 16% for FISH.HER2 amplification was associated significantly with advanced tumor stage (Ⅲ or Ⅳ,P=0.002),large tumor size (>5 cm,P=0.002),moderate and poor histological grades (P <0.0001),post-menopause (P <0.0001),ER-PR-(P=0.002),and having >4 lymph nodes affected (P <0.0001) in this population.The positive rates of HER2 amplification in specimens from Man and Hui Chinese were significantly higher than that in other Chinese populations.There are slightly higher positive rates of HER2 expression and amplification in Chinese patients with breast cancer.Conclusion These findings may provide new insights into understanding the epidemiological features of HER2 expression and amplification,and may be valuable for clinical

  12. 实时PCR和PCR-RDB法检测人乳头瘤病毒的比对研究%Comparison of real time PCR and PCR¯reverse dot blot hybridization for detection of Human papillomavirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖克林; 严泽浩; 罗茗月; 麦光兴; 陈熙; 熊礼宽

    2014-01-01

    目的:比较实时 PCR 法和 PCR-反向点杂交法(PCR-RDB)检测 HPV 的一致性。方法收集109份女性生殖道样本,利用实时 PCR 法和 PCR-RDB 法分别检测 HPV 感染和基因型分布情况,不一致样本采用 PCR-悬浮芯片杂交法复检。结果83.5%(91/109)的样本两种方法结果一致(kappa=0.671),18例不一致样本 PCR-悬浮芯片杂交法复检显示7例与实时 PCR相符,11例与 PCR-RDB 相符;高、低病毒载量组间 PCR-RDB 法的检测结果差异无统计学意义(χ2=1.476,P =0.224)。结论实时 PCR 和 PCR-RDB 两法用于 HPV 检测一致性一般;HPV 病毒载量在103~108范围内时 PCR-RDB 法的阳性率较稳定。%Objective To compare real time PCR with PCR-reverse dot blot hybridization (PCR-RDB)for detecting human pap-illomavirus (HPV)infection in women.Methods A total of 109 genital specimens from women were collected in the study.All specimens were tested HPV by using real time PCR and PCR-RDB,discrepant samples were tested again by PCR-xMAP.Results The concordant rate was 83.5%(91/109)between real time PCR and PCR-RDB (kappa=0.671),the other 18 discrepant samples were retested by PCR-xMAP,7 of those were identical with real time PCR and 11 with PCR-RDB.No differences of PCR-RDB pos-itive rates were found between the high and low viral load groups (χ2 =1.476,P =0.224).Conclusion It demonstrated moderate consistency between real time PCR and PCR-RDB.The HPV positive rates of PCR-RDB were stable when the viral loads were 103-108 .

  13. Hybrid Ventilation Air Flow Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    The scope of this annex is therefore to obtain better knowledge of the use of hybrid ventilation technologies. The annex focus on development of control strategies for hybrid ventilation, on development of methods to predict hybrid ventilation performance in office buildings and on implementation...

  14. (Hybrid) Baryons Symmetries and Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    1999-01-01

    We construct (hybrid) baryons in the flux-tube model of Isgur and Paton. In the limit of adiabatic quark motion, we build proper eigenstates of orbital angular momentum and construct the flavour, spin and J^P of hybrid baryons from the symmetries of the system. The lowest mass hybrid baryon is estimated at approximately 2 GeV.

  15. Improved hybrid rocket fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, David L.

    1995-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, as part of its Independent R&D, has initiated development of a clean burning, high performance hybrid fuel for consideration as an alternative to the solid rocket thrust augmentation currently utilized by American space launch systems including Atlas, Delta, Pegasus, Space Shuttle, and Titan. It could also be used in single stage to orbit or as the only propulsion system in a new launch vehicle. Compared to solid propellants based on aluminum and ammonium perchlorate, this fuel is more environmentally benign in that it totally eliminates hydrogen chloride and aluminum oxide by products, producing only water, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon oxides, and trace amounts of nitrogen oxides. Compared to other hybrid fuel formulations under development, this fuel is cheaper, denser, and faster burning. The specific impulse of this fuel is comparable to other hybrid fuels and is between that of solids and liquids. The fuel also requires less oxygen than similar hybrid fuels to produce maximum specific impulse, thus reducing oxygen delivery system requirements.

  16. Workshop on hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANZhijun

    1994-01-01

    FAO, in collaboration with FEDEARROZ in Colombia and EMBRAPA / CNPAF in Brail, organized a workshop on the Establishment of a Coorperative Research Network on Hybrid Rice in Latin America and the Caribbean held from Mar 16 to 18, 1994 at EMBRAPA/CNPAF in Brazil. Dr MAO Changxiang,

  17. Teelt van hybride wintertarwerassen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, R.D.; Paauw, J.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Om de mogelijkheden van de teelt van hybride wintertarwerassen onder Nederlandse omstandigheden in beeld te brengen zijn er van 2000-2002 proeven uitgevoerd op het PPO-proefbedrijf te Lelystad. In deze proeven zijn een 4-tal hybriderassen (Hybnos, Hyno-braba, Hyno-esta, Mercury) vergeleken met een s

  18. Organics go hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzani, Guglielmo; Petrozza, Annamaria; Caironi, Mario

    2017-01-01

    From displays to solar cells, the field of organic optoelectronics has come a long way over the past 50 years, but the realization of an electrically pumped organic laser remains elusive. The answer may lie with hybrid organic-inorganic materials called perovskites.

  19. Hybrid-secure MPC 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Christoph; Raub, Dominik; Maurer, Ueli

    2010-01-01

    Most protocols for distributed, fault-tolerant computation, or multi-party computation (MPC), provide security guarantees in an all-or-nothing fashion. In contrast, a hybrid-secure protocol provides different security guarantees depending on the set of corrupted parties and the computational powe...

  20. Indexical Hybrid Tense Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now...

  1. Hybrid printed electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.; Smits, E.; Rubingh, E.; Teunissen, P.; Kusters, R.; Abbel, R.; Brand, J. van den

    2016-01-01

    Although many electronic functionalities can be realized by printed or organic electronics, short-term marketable products often require robust, reproducible, and nondisturbing technologies. In this chapter we show how hybrid electronics, a combination of printed circuitry, thin-film electronics,

  2. New evidence for hybrid zones of forest and savanna elephants in Central and West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondol, Samrat; Moltke, Ida; Hart, John; Keigwin, Michael; Brown, Lisa; Stephens, Matthew; Wasser, Samuel K

    2015-12-01

    The African elephant consists of forest and savanna subspecies. Both subspecies are highly endangered due to severe poaching and habitat loss, and knowledge of their population structure is vital to their conservation. Previous studies have demonstrated marked genetic and morphological differences between forest and savanna elephants, and despite extensive sampling, genetic evidence of hybridization between them has been restricted largely to a few hybrids in the Garamba region of northeastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Here, we present new genetic data on hybridization from previously unsampled areas of Africa. Novel statistical methods applied to these data identify 46 hybrid samples--many more than have been previously identified--only two of which are from the Garamba region. The remaining 44 are from three other geographically distinct locations: a major hybrid zone along the border of the DRC and Uganda, a second potential hybrid zone in Central African Republic and a smaller fraction of hybrids in the Pendjari-Arli complex of West Africa. Most of the hybrids show evidence of interbreeding over more than one generation, demonstrating that hybrids are fertile. Mitochondrial and Y chromosome data demonstrate that the hybridization is bidirectional, involving males and females from both subspecies. We hypothesize that the hybrid zones may have been facilitated by poaching and habitat modification. The localized geography and rarity of hybrid zones, their possible facilitation from human pressures, and the high divergence and genetic distinctness of forest and savanna elephants throughout their ranges, are consistent with calls for separate species classification.

  3. Hybrid keyword search auctions

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1. We show that risk-seeking advertisers will choose only a per-impression bid whereas risk-averse advertisers will choose only a per-click bid, and argue that both kind of advertisers arise naturally. Hence, the ability to bid in a hybrid fashion is important to account for the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2. For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, we show that having the extra information from the advertisers in the form of a per-impression bid can result in significantly higher revenue. 3. An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer\\'s estimate can use per-impression bids to correct the auctioneer\\'s prior without incurring any extra cost. 4. The hybrid auction can allow the advertiser and auctioneer to implement complex dynamic programming strategies to deal with the uncertainty in the click-probability using the same basic auction. The per-click and per-impression bidding schemes can only be used to implement two extreme cases of these strategies. As Internet commerce matures, we need more sophisticated pricing models to exploit all the information held by each of the participants. We believe that hybrid auctions could be an important step in this direction. The

  4. Ants exhibit asymmetric hybridization in a mosaic hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Jessica; Zahnd, Sacha; Athanasiades, Anouk; Türler, Rebecca; Chapuisat, Michel; Brelsford, Alan

    2016-10-01

    Research on hybridization between species provides unparalleled insights into the pre- and postzygotic isolating mechanisms that drive speciation. In social organisms, colony-level incompatibilities may provide additional reproductive barriers not present in solitary species, and hybrid zones offer an opportunity to identify these barriers. Here, we use genotyping-by-sequencing to sequence hundreds of markers in a hybrid zone between two socially polymorphic ant species, Formica selysi and Formica cinerea. We characterize the zone, determine the frequency of hybrid workers, infer whether hybrid queens or males are produced and investigate whether hybridization is influenced by colony social organization. We also compare cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and aggression levels between the two species. The hybrid zone exhibits a mosaic structure. The asymmetric distribution of hybrids skewed towards F. cinerea suggests a pattern of unidirectional nuclear gene flow from F. selysi into F. cinerea. The occurrence of backcrossed individuals indicates that hybrid queens and/or males are fertile, and the presence of the F. cinerea mitochondrial haplotype in 97% of hybrids shows that successful F1 hybrids will generally have F. cinerea mothers and F. selysi fathers. We found no evidence that social organization contributes to speciation, because hybrids occur in both single-queen and multiple-queen colonies. Strongly differentiated cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and heightened interspecific aggression further reveal that species recognition cues are both present and perceived. The discovery of fertile hybrids and asymmetrical gene flow is unusual in ants, and this hybrid zone will therefore provide an ideal system with which to investigate speciation in social insects.

  5. Human papillomavirus detection in cervical dysplasias or neoplasias and in condylomata acuminaata by in situ hybridization with biotinylated DNA probes Detecção de papilomavirus humano em displasias ou neoplasias cervicais e em condilomas acuminados por hibridização in situ com sondas de DNA biotiniladas

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane Machado Guimarães; Geraldo Brasileiro Filho; Sérgio Danilo Junho Pena

    1992-01-01

    Specimens from cervical dysplasias or carcinomas and genital condylomata acuminata were retrospectively analysed by in situ hybridization (ISH) with bioti-nylated DNA probes for human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16 and 18. In the control group no case was positive for HPV DNA. In mild/moderate dysplasias, 4 cases (14%) were positive for HPV 6 or 11 and 2 cases (7%), for HPV 16. In the severe dysplasia/in situ carcinoma group, 9 cases (31%) showed presence of DNA of HPV types 16 or 18. S...

  6. Nucleic acid in-situ hybridization detection of infectious agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Curtis T.

    2000-04-01

    Limitations of traditional culture methods and newer polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for detection and speciation of infectious agents demonstrate the need for more rapid and better diagnostics. Nucleic acid hybridization is a detection technology that has gained wide acceptance in cancer and prenatal cytogenetics. Using a modification of the nucleic acid hybridization technique known as fluorescence in-situ hybridization, infectious agents can be detected in a variety of specimens with high sensitivity and specificity. The specimens derive from all types of human and animal sources including body fluids, tissue aspirates and biopsy material. Nucleic acid hybridization can be performed in less than one hour. The result can be interpreted either using traditional fluorescence microscopy or automated platforms such as micro arrays. This paper demonstrates proof of concept for nucleic acid hybridization detection of different infectious agents. Interpretation within a cytologic and histologic context is possible with fluorescence microscopic analysis, thereby providing confirmatory evidence of hybridization. With careful probe selection, nucleic acid hybridization promises to be a highly sensitive and specific practical diagnostic alternative to culture, traditional staining methods, immunohistochemistry and complicated nucleic acid amplification tests.

  7. Regulation of a metallothionein-growth hormone hybrid gene in bovine papilloma virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlakis, G N; Hamer, D H

    1983-01-01

    We have constructed bovine papilloma virus recombinants carrying a hybrid gene in which human growth hormone structural sequences are fused to the promoter and presumptive control region of the mouse metallothionein-I gene. Mouse cells transformed with the recombinants synthesize metallothionein-growth hormone hybrid mRNA with the same 5' end as metallothionein mRNA. Hybrid mRNA is inducible by cadmium but not by dexamethasone, whereas the chromosomal metallothionein genes in the same cells a...

  8. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  9. Phoxonic Hybrid Superlattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Redondo, Elena; Huesmann, Hannah; El Boudouti, El-Houssaine; Tremel, Wolfgang; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram; Butt, Hans-Juergen; Fytas, George

    2015-06-17

    We studied experimentally and theoretically the direction-dependent elastic and electromagnetic wave propagation in a supported film of hybrid PMMA (poly[methyl-methacrylate])-TiO2 superlattice (SL). In the direction normal to the layers, this one-dimensional periodic structure opens propagation band gaps for both hypersonic (GHz) phonons and near-UV photons. The high mismatch of elastic and optical impedance results in a large dual phoxonic band gap. The presence of defects inherent to the spin-coating fabrication technique is sensitively manifested in the band gap region. Utilizing Brillouin light scattering, phonon propagation along the layers was observed to be distinctly different from propagation normal to them and can, under certain conditions (SL thickness and substrate elasticity), reveal the nanomechanical properties of the constituent layers. Besides the first realization of unidirectional phoxonic behavior, hybrid (soft-hard) periodic materials are a promising simple platform for opto-acoustic interactions and applications such as filters and Bragg mirrors.

  10. The Power of Hybridization

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Programming languages always seem to do some things well but not others: Python punts when it comes to user interfaces, Java’s artificial complexity prevents rapid development and produces tangles, and it will be awhile before we see benefits from C++ concurrency work. The cognitive load of languages and their blind spots increases the cost of experimentation, impeding your ability to fail fast and iterate. If you use a single language to solve your problem, you are binding yourself to the worldview limitations and the mistakes made by the creator of that language. Consider increasing your wiggle room by crossing language boundaries, complementing a language that is powerful in one area with a different language powerful in another. Language hybridization can speed development to quickly discover your real problems, giving you more time to fix them. After making a case for hybridizing your thinking in general, I will present a number of simple examples; first showing the benefits of using other languages...

  11. A Pseudoscalar Hybrid Meson?

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    1996-01-01

    New experimental information on the non--exotic J^{PC} = 0^{-+} isovector seen at 1.8 GeV by VES yields convincing evidence of its excited gluonic (hybrid) nature when a critical study of alternative quarkonium assignments is made in the context of ^3 P_0 decay by flux--tube breaking. Production of this gluonic excitation via meson exchange is promising, although its two photon production vanishes.

  12. Military Hybrid Vehicle Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    Furthermore, a standard duty cycle that is accepted for measuring fuel economy does not exist nor does a focus towards a particular technology. This...expanded into mild hybrid with the addition of a clutch connecting the generator to the transmission and additional energy storage [16-17...speed control and one for engine/generator torque [35]. Urban, Highway, Composite 33%, 27.9%, 49% General vehicle simulation [30]. Urban 19.0

  13. Fibonacci-Pell Hybridities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Thomas; Gao, Zhenguang

    2012-01-01

    We develop a recurrence satisfied by the Fibonacci and Pell families. We then use it to find explicit formulae and generating functions for the hybrids "F[subscript n]P[subscript n]", "L[subscript n]P[subscript n]", "F[subscript n]Q[subscript n]" and "L[subscript n]Q[subscript n]", where "F[subscript n]", "L[subscript n]", "P[subscript n]" and…

  14. Hybrid electroluminescent devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiang, Joseph John; Duggal, Anil Raj; Michael, Joseph Darryl

    2010-08-03

    A hybrid electroluminescent (EL) device comprises at least one inorganic diode element and at least one organic EL element that are electrically connected in series. The absolute value of the breakdown voltage of the inorganic diode element is greater than the absolute value of the maximum reverse bias voltage across the series. The inorganic diode element can be a power diode, a Schottky barrier diode, or a light-emitting diode.

  15. Hybrid undulator numerical optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hairetdinov, A.H. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zukov, A.A. [Solid State Physics Institute, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    3D properties of the hybrid undulator scheme arc studied numerically using PANDIRA code. It is shown that there exist two well defined sets of undulator parameters which provide either maximum on-axis field amplitude or minimal higher harmonics amplitude of the basic undulator field. Thus the alternative between higher field amplitude or pure sinusoidal field exists. The behavior of the undulator field amplitude and harmonics structure for a large set of (undulator gap)/(undulator wavelength) values is demonstrated.

  16. Hybridization as a facilitator of species range expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Explaining the evolution of species geographical ranges is fundamental to understanding how biodiversity is distributed and maintained. The solution to this classic problem in ecology and evolution remains elusive: we still do not fully know how species geographical ranges evolve and what factors fuel range expansions. Resolving this problem is now more crucial than ever with increasing biodiversity loss, global change and movement of species by humans. Here, we describe and evaluate the hypothesis that hybridization between species can contribute to species range expansion. We discuss how such a process can occur and the empirical data that are needed to test this hypothesis. We also examine how species can expand into new environments via hybridization with a resident species, and yet remain distinct species. Generally, hybridization may play an underappreciated role in influencing the evolution of species ranges. Whether—and to what extent—hybridization has such an effect requires further study across more diverse taxa. PMID:27683368

  17. Asymmetric Hybrid Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumanov, George [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2015-11-05

    Hybrid Nanoparticles (AHNs) are rationally-designed multifunctional nanostructures and novel building blocks for the next generation of advanced materials and devices. Nanoscale materials attract considerable interest because of their unusual properties and potential for practical applications. Most of the activity in this field is focused on the synthesis of homogeneous nanoparticles from metals, metal oxides, semiconductors, and polymers. It is well recognized that properties of nanoparticles can be further enhanced if they are made as hybrid structures. This program is concerned with the synthesis, characterization, and application of such hybrid structures termed AHNs. AHNs are composed of a homogeneous core and several caps of different materials deposited on its surface (Fig. 1). Combined properties of the core and the caps as well as new properties that arise from core-cap and cap-cap interactions render AHNs multifunctional. In addition, specific chemical reactivity of the caps enables directional self-assembly of AHNs into complex architectures that are not possible with only spherical nanoparticles.

  18. Hybrid Keyword Search Auctions

    CERN Document Server

    Goel, Ashish

    2008-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1) It takes into account the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2) For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, the hybrid auction can result in significantly higher revenue. 3) An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer's es...

  19. Printed hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karioja, Pentti; Mäkinen, Jukka-Tapani; Keränen, Kimmo; Aikio, Janne; Alajoki, Teemu; Jaakola, Tuomo; Koponen, Matti; Keränen, Antti; Heikkinen, Mikko; Tuomikoski, Markus; Suhonen, Riikka; Hakalahti, Leena; Kopola, Pälvi; Hast, Jukka; Liedert, Ralf; Hiltunen, Jussi; Masuda, Noriyuki; Kemppainen, Antti; Rönkä, Kari; Korhonen, Raimo

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents research activities carried out at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland in the field of hybrid integration of optics, electronics and mechanics. Main focus area in our research is the manufacturing of electronic modules and product structures with printed electronics, film-over-molding and polymer sheet lamination technologies and the goal is in the next generation of smart systems utilizing monolithic polymer packages. The combination of manufacturing technologies such as roll-to-roll -printing, injection molding and traditional component assembly is called Printed Hybrid Systems (PHS). Several demonstrator structures have been made, which show the potential of polymer packaging technology. One demonstrator example is a laminated structure with embedded LED chips. Element thickness is only 0.3mm and the flexible stack of foils can be bent in two directions after assembly process and was shaped curved using heat and pressure. The combination of printed flexible circuit boards and injection molding has also been demonstrated with several functional modules. The demonstrators illustrate the potential of origami electronics, which can be cut and folded to 3D shapes. It shows that several manufacturing process steps can be eliminated by Printed Hybrid Systems technology. The main benefits of this combination are small size, ruggedness and conformality. The devices are ideally suited for medical applications as the sensitive electronic components are well protected inside the plastic and the structures can be cleaned easily due to the fact that they have no joints or seams that can accumulate dirt or bacteria.

  20. Hybrid2 - The hybrid power system simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.; Green, H.J.; Dijk, V.A.P. van [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Manwell, J.F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    There is a large-scale need and desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world; however the lack of a user friendly, flexible performance prediction model for hybrid power systems incorporating renewables hindered the analysis of hybrids as options to conventional solutions. A user friendly model was needed with the versatility to simulate the many system locations, widely varying hardware configurations, and differing control options for potential hybrid power systems. To meet these ends, researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) developed the Hybrid2 software. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, features, and functionality of the Hybrid2 code, discusses its validation and future plans. Model availability and technical support provided to Hybrid2 users are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. [Investigation of human papillomavirus prevalence in women in Eskişehir, Turkey by Pap smear, hybrid capture 2 test and consensus real-time polymerase chain reaction and typing with pyrosequencing method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Ferhat Gürkan; Us, Tercan; Kaşifoğlu, Nilgün; Özalp, Sabit Sinan; Akgün, Yurdanur; Öge, Tufan

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections have a broad range of clinical spectrum from subclinical or asymptomatic infection to anogenital carcinoma. The detection of HPV-DNA and determination of the risk groups in cervical cancer (CC) screening is very important because CC is considered to be a preventable illness which is the third most common cancer type of women in the world. The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of HPV-DNA in women by two different molecular methods and to compare their results together with the results of cytology, in Eskişehir, Central Anatolia, Turkey. A total of 1081 women aged between 30-65 years, who applied to Eskişehir Early Diagnosis, Screening and Training of Cancer Center (KETEM) for screening were included in the study. Three separate cervical samples were collected simultaneously from the participants for cytologic examination and molecular studies. In the first step of the study, all cervical samples were investigated for the presence of HPV-DNA by Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2; Qiagen, Germany) method. In the second part of the study, consensus real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (Takara Bio Inc., Japan) was performed in 152 samples which included HC2 positive and randomly selected negative samples, and then the HPV genotypes were detected by using a commercial kit based on pyrosequencing method (Diatech Pharmacogenetics S.R.L, Italy). In the first part of the study, HC2 test was found positive in 3% (32/1081) of the women, while in 4.4% (47/1081) Pap smear was positive alone or with HC2 test. Five (0.5%) samples yielded positive results with both of the methods, and four of them were positive for high risk HPV types. Cytology results were negative in 19 out of 23 (23/1081, 2.1%) samples that were reported as high risk HPV by HC2 test. On the other hand, 42 (42/1081, 3.9%) samples that were positive by cytology yielded negative results by HC2 test. In the second part of the study, 32 (21.1%) of 152 selected

  2. Telomeres in ICF syndrome cells are vulnerable to DNA damage due to elevated DNA:RNA hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagie, Shira; Toubiana, Shir; Hartono, Stella R.; Katzir, Hagar; Tzur-Gilat, Aya; Havazelet, Shany; Francastel, Claire; Velasco, Guillaume; Chédin, Frédéric; Selig, Sara

    2017-01-01

    DNA:RNA hybrids, nucleic acid structures with diverse physiological functions, can disrupt genome integrity when dysregulated. Human telomeres were shown to form hybrids with the lncRNA TERRA, yet the formation and distribution of these hybrids among telomeres, their regulation and their cellular effects remain elusive. Here we predict and confirm in several human cell types that DNA:RNA hybrids form at many subtelomeric and telomeric regions. We demonstrate that ICF syndrome cells, which exhibit short telomeres and elevated TERRA levels, are enriched for hybrids at telomeric regions throughout the cell cycle. Telomeric hybrids are associated with high levels of DNA damage at chromosome ends in ICF cells, which are significantly reduced with overexpression of RNase H1. Our findings suggest that abnormally high TERRA levels in ICF syndrome lead to accumulation of telomeric hybrids that, in turn, can result in telomeric dysfunction. PMID:28117327

  3. First-Order Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid logic is an extension of modal logic which allows us to refer explicitly to points of the model in the syntax of formulas. It is easy to justify interest in hybrid logic on applied grounds, with the usefulness of the additional expressive power. For example, when reasoning about time one...... often wants to build up a series of assertions about what happens at a particular instant, and standard modal formalisms do not allow this. What is less obvious is that the route hybrid logic takes to overcome this problem often actually improves the behaviour of the underlying modal formalism....... For example, it becomes far simpler to formulate proof-systems for hybrid logic, and completeness results can be proved of a generality that is simply not available in modal logic. That is, hybridization is a systematic way of remedying a number of known deficiencies of modal logic. First-order hybrid logic...

  4. Hybridization in geese: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ottenburghs, Jente; Van Hooft, Pim; van Wieren, Sipke E.; Ydenberg, Ronald C; Herbert H. T. Prins

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of hybridization in waterfowl (ducks, geese and swans) makes this bird group an excellent study system to answer questions related to the evolution and maintenance of species boundaries. However, knowledge on waterfowl hybridization is biased towards ducks, with a large knowledge gap in geese. In this review, we assemble the available information on hybrid geese by focusing on three main themes: (1) incidence and frequency, (2) behavioural mechanisms leading to hybridizatio...

  5. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.; Beshears, David L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Jordan, John K.; Lind, Randall F.

    2011-07-05

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  6. Hybrid solar lighting systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.; Beshears, David L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Jordan, John K.; Lind, Randall F.

    2007-06-12

    A hybrid solar lighting system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates each component.

  7. The governance of hybrid organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger; Cornforth, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?......The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?...

  8. User-interfaces for hybrid systems: Analysis and design through hybrid reachability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Meeko Mitsuko Karen

    Hybrid systems combine discrete state dynamics, which model mode switching, with continuous state dynamics, which model the physical processes themselves. Applications of hybrid system theory to automated systems have traditionally assumed that the controller itself is an automaton which runs in parallel with the system under control. We model human interaction with hybrid systems, which involves the user; the automation's discrete mode-logic, and the underlying continuous dynamics of the physical system. Often in safety-critical systems, user-interfaces display a reduced set of information about the entire system, however must still provide adequate information and must not confuse the user. We present (1) a method of designing a discrete event system abstraction of the hybrid system, in order to verify or design user-interfaces for hybrid human-automation systems, and (2) the relationship between user-interfaces and discrete observability properties. Using a hybrid computational tool for reachability, we find the largest region in which the system can always remain---this is the safe region of operation. By implementing a controller which arises from this computation, we mathematically guarantee that this safe region is invariant. Assigning discrete states to the computed invariant regions, we create a discrete event system from this hybrid system with safety restrictions. This abstraction can then be used in existing interface verification and design methods. A user-interface, modeled as a discrete system, must, not only be reduced (extraneous information has been eliminated), but also "immediately observable". We derive conditions for immediate observability, in which the current state can be constructed from the current output and last occurring event. Based on finite state machine state-reduction techniques, we synthesize an output for remote user-interfaces which fulfills this property. Aircraft are prime examples of complex, safety-critical systems. In

  9. Cryogenic Hybrid Magnetic Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Crawford R.; Dirusso, Eliseo; Brown, Gerald V.

    1994-01-01

    Cryogenic hybrid magnetic bearing is example of class of magnetic bearings in which permanent magnets and electromagnets used to suspend shafts. Electromagnets provide active control of position of shaft. Bearing operates at temperatures from -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C) to 650 degrees F (343 degrees C); designed for possible use in rocket-engine turbopumps, where effects of cryogenic environment and fluid severely limit lubrication of conventional ball bearings. This and similar bearings also suitable for terrestrial rotating machinery; for example, gas-turbine engines, high-vacuum pumps, canned pumps, precise gimbals that suspend sensors, and pumps that handle corrosive or gritty fluids.

  10. Hybrid power semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D. Y.

    1985-10-01

    The voltage rating of a bipolar transistor may be greatly extended while at the same time reducing its switching time by operating it in conjunction with FETs in a hybrid circuit. One FET is used to drive the bipolar transistor while the other FET is connected in series with the transistor and an inductive load. Both FETs are turned on or off by a single drive signal of load power, the second FET upon ceasing conductions, rendering one power electrode of the bipolar transistor open. Means are provided to dissipate currents which flow after the bipolar transistor is rendered nonconducting.

  11. Hybrid Random Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Freno, Antonino

    2011-01-01

    This book presents an exciting new synthesis of directed and undirected, discrete and continuous graphical models. Combining elements of Bayesian networks and Markov random fields, the newly introduced hybrid random fields are an interesting approach to get the best of both these worlds, with an added promise of modularity and scalability. The authors have written an enjoyable book---rigorous in the treatment of the mathematical background, but also enlivened by interesting and original historical and philosophical perspectives. -- Manfred Jaeger, Aalborg Universitet The book not only marks an

  12. Reflections on Intellectual Hybridity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimala Price

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from the growing literature on interdisciplinarity and my own experiences as an intellectual hybrid, I discuss the personal and institutional challenges inherent in crossing disciplinary boundaries in the academy. I argue that boundary crossing is a natural occurrence and that the issue of (interdisciplinarity is a matter of degree and of determining who gets to define the boundaries. Defining boundaries is not merely an intellectual enterprise, but also a political act that delineates what is, or is not, legitimate scholarship. This issue is especially salient to women's and gender studies during times of economic distress and educational budget cuts.

  13. Hybrid Keyword Search Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, Ashish; Munagala, Kamesh

    2008-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the ...

  14. Hybrid optofluidic biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Joshua W.

    Optofluidics, born of the desire to create a system containing microfluidic environments with integrated optical elements, has seen dramatic increases in popularity over the last 10 years. In particular, the application of this technology towards chip based molecular sensors has undergone significant development. The most sensitive of these biosensors interface liquid- and solid-core antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides (ARROWs). These sensor chips are created using conventional silicon microfabrication. As such, ARROW technology has previously been unable to utilize state-of-the-art microfluidic developments because the technology used--soft polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) micromolded chips--is unamenable to the silicon microfabrication workflows implemented in the creation of ARROW detection chips. The original goal of this thesis was to employ hybrid integration, or the connection of independently designed and fabricated optofluidic and microfluidic chips, to create enhanced biosensors with the capability of processing and detecting biological samples on a single hybrid system. After successful demonstration of this paradigm, this work expanded into a new direction--direct integration of sensing and detection technologies on a new platform with dynamic, multi-dimensional photonic re-configurability. This thesis reports a number of firsts, including: • 1,000 fold optical transmission enhancement of ARROW optofluidic detection chips through thermal annealing, • Detection of single nucleic acids on a silicon-based ARROW chip, • Hybrid optofluidic integration of ARROW detection chips and passive PDMS microfluidic chips, • Hybrid optofluidic integration of ARROW detection chips and actively controllable PDMS microfluidic chips with integrated microvalves, • On-chip concentration and detection of clinical Ebola nucleic acids, • Multimode interference (MMI) waveguide based wavelength division multiplexing for detection of single influenza virions,

  15. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7. Hybrid vehicle review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leschly, K.O.

    1979-09-30

    Review of hybrid vehicles (HVs) built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes on-road hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

  16. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7: Hybrid vehicle review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschly, K. O.

    1979-01-01

    Review of hybrid vehicles built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes onroad hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

  17. The Hybrid Advantage: Graduate Student Perspectives of Hybrid Education Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sarah; Villareal, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid courses combine online and face-to-face learning environments. To organize and teach hybrid courses, instructors must understand the uses of multiple online learning tools and face-toface classroom activities to promote and monitor the progress of students. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the perspectives of…

  18. Analysis of hybrid viscous damper by real time hybrid simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Mark Laier; Ou, Ge; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2016-01-01

    Results from real time hybrid simulations are compared to full numerical simulations for a hybrid viscous damper, composed of a viscous dashpot in series with an active actuator and a load cell. By controlling the actuator displacement via filtered integral force feedback the damping performance...... of the hybrid viscous damper is improved, while for pure integral force feedback the damper stroke is instead increased. In the real time hybrid simulations viscous damping is emulated by a bang-bang controlled Magneto-Rheological (MR) damper. The controller activates high-frequency modes and generates drift...... in the actuator displacement, and only a fraction of the measured damper force can therefore be used as input to the investigated integral force feedback in the real time hybrid simulations....

  19. Hybrid Reality Lab Capabilities - Video 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Francisco J.; Noyes, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Our Hybrid Reality and Advanced Operations Lab is developing incredibly realistic and immersive systems that could be used to provide training, support engineering analysis, and augment data collection for various human performance metrics at NASA. To get a better understanding of what Hybrid Reality is, let's go through the two most commonly known types of immersive realities: Virtual Reality, and Augmented Reality. Virtual Reality creates immersive scenes that are completely made up of digital information. This technology has been used to train astronauts at NASA, used during teleoperation of remote assets (arms, rovers, robots, etc.) and other activities. One challenge with Virtual Reality is that if you are using it for real time-applications (like landing an airplane) then the information used to create the virtual scenes can be old (i.e. visualized long after physical objects moved in the scene) and not accurate enough to land the airplane safely. This is where Augmented Reality comes in. Augmented Reality takes real-time environment information (from a camera, or see through window, and places digitally created information into the scene so that it matches with the video/glass information). Augmented Reality enhances real environment information collected with a live sensor or viewport (e.g. camera, window, etc.) with the information-rich visualization provided by Virtual Reality. Hybrid Reality takes Augmented Reality even further, by creating a higher level of immersion where interactivity can take place. Hybrid Reality takes Virtual Reality objects and a trackable, physical representation of those objects, places them in the same coordinate system, and allows people to interact with both objects' representations (virtual and physical) simultaneously. After a short period of adjustment, the individuals begin to interact with all the objects in the scene as if they were real-life objects. The ability to physically touch and interact with digitally created

  20. Imaging of RNA in situ hybridization by atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalle, W.H.J.; Macville, M.V.E.; van de Corput, M.P.C.; de Grooth, B.G.; Tanke, H.J.; Raap, A.K.

    In this study we investigated the possibility of imaging internal cellular molecules after cytochemical detection with atomic force microscopy (AFM). To this end, rat 9G and HeLa cells were hybridized with haptenized probes for 28S ribosomal RNA, human elongation factor mRNA and cytomegalovirus

  1. Keep trophy records honest: Identifying whitetail/mule deer hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim Heffelfinger; Renee Prive; David Paetkau; Carlos Alcala-Galvan; Roy Lopez; Irv Kornfield; Eldon Buckner

    2012-01-01

    Humans have always been fascinated by hybrids. Consider such classic monsters as Wolfman, Dracula, and Mothmanor heroes such as Spiderman, Batman, and Catwoman. This trend pre-dates Hollywood by millennia; the "Minotaur" in Greek mythology was half man and half bull. Our fascination with creatures that are half one thing and half another extends to wildlife....

  2. Application of Hybrid Dynamical Theory to the Cardiovascular System

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2014-10-14

    In hybrid dynamical systems, the state evolves in continuous time as well as in discrete modes activated by internal conditions or by external events. In the recent years, hybrid systems modeling has been used to represent the dynamics of biological systems. In such systems, discrete behaviors might originate from unexpected changes in normal performance, e.g., a transition from a healthy to an abnormal condition. Simplifications, model assumptions, and/or modeled (and ignored) nonlinearities can be represented by sudden changes in the state. Modeling cardiovascular system (CVS), one of the most fascinating but most complex human physiological systems, with a hybrid approach, is the focus of this chapter. The hybrid property appears naturally in the CVS thanks to the presence of valves which, depending on their state (closed or open), divide the cardiac cycle into four phases. This chapter shows how hybrid models can be used for modeling the CVS. In addition, it describes a preliminary study on the detection of some cardiac anomalies based on the hybrid model and using the standard observer-based approach.

  3. Arabidopsis hybrid speciation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmickl, Roswitha; Koch, Marcus A

    2011-08-23

    The genus Arabidopsis provides a unique opportunity to study fundamental biological questions in plant sciences using the diploid model species Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis lyrata. However, only a few studies have focused on introgression and hybrid speciation in Arabidopsis, although polyploidy is a common phenomenon within this genus. More recently, there is growing evidence of significant gene flow between the various Arabidopsis species. So far, we know Arabidopsis suecica and Arabidopsis kamchatica as fully stabilized allopolyploid species. Both species evolved during Pleistocene glaciation and deglaciation cycles in Fennoscandinavia and the amphi-Beringian region, respectively. These hybrid studies were conducted either on a phylogeographic scale or reconstructed experimentally in the laboratory. In our study we focus at a regional and population level. Our research area is located in the foothills of the eastern Austrian Alps, where two Arabidopsis species, Arabidopsis arenosa and A. lyrata ssp. petraea, are sympatrically distributed. Our hypothesis of genetic introgression, migration, and adaptation to the changing environment during the Pleistocene has been confirmed: We observed significant, mainly unidirectional gene flow between the two species, which has given rise to the tetraploid A. lyrata. This cytotype was able to escape from the narrow ecological niche occupied by diploid A. lyrata ssp. petraea on limestone outcrops by migrating northward into siliceous areas, leaving behind a trail of genetic differentiation.

  4. Suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbel, Mohamed T; Murphy, David

    2011-01-01

    Comparing two RNA populations that differ from the effects of a single independent variable, such as a drug treatment or a specific genetic defect, can establish differences in the abundance of specific transcripts that vary in a population dependent manner. There are different methods for identifying differentially expressed genes. These methods include microarray, Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE), and quantitative Reverse-Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). Herein, the protocol describes an easy and cost-effective alternative that does not require prior knowledge of the transcriptomes under examination. It is specifically relevant when low levels of RNA starting material are available. This protocol describes the use of Switching Mechanism At RNA Termini Polymerase Chain Reaction (SMART-PCR) to amplify cDNA from small amounts of RNA. The amplified cDNA populations under comparison are then subjected to Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH-PCR). SSH-PCR is a technique that couples subtractive hybridization with suppression PCR to selectively amplify fragments of differentially expressed genes. The resulting products are cDNA populations enriched for significantly overrepresented transcripts in either of the two input RNAs. These cDNA populations can then be cloned to generate subtracted cDNA library. Microarrays made with clones from the subtracted forward and reverse cDNA libraries are then screened for differentially expressed genes using targets generated from tester and driver total RNAs.

  5. Landmarks in Hybrid Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elkawkagy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although planning techniques achieved a significant progress during recent years, solving many planning problem still difficult even for modern planners. In this paper, we will adopt landmark concept to hybrid planning setting - a method that combines reasoning about procedural knowledge and causalities. Land-marks are a well-known concept in the realm of classical planning. Recently, they have been adapted to hierarchical approaches. Such landmarks can be extracted in a pre-processing step from a declarative hierarchical planning domain and problem description. It was shown how this technique allows for a considerable reduction of the search space by eliminating futile plan development options before the actual planning. Therefore, we will present a new approach to in¬tegrate landmark pre-processing technique in the context of hierarchical planning with landmark technique in the classical planning. This integration allows to incorporate the ability of using extracted landmark tasks from hierarchical domain knowledge in the form of HTN and using landmark literals from classical planning. To this end, we will construct a transformation technique to transform the hybrid planning domain into a classical domain model. The method¬ologies in this paper have been implemented successfully, and we will present some experimental results that give evidence for the consid-erable performance increase gained through planning system.

  6. Overview on hybrid propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabro, M.

    2011-10-01

    Aside of research works, this historical survey shows propulsion units used by students for small satellites and for gas generation, or those for the Space Ship One, even if LOx/HTPB was studied and tested in large motors for its potential very low cost; however, this combination highlights a series of technical problems without any performance advantage over the existing LOx/Kerosene family and never been operational for ETO applications. The particularity of hybrid propulsion is to use the state-of-the-art of both liquids and solids; the only show stopper is the propellant itself. The past work focused on LOx/HTPB (selected for its low cost) appears to be a dead-end (combustion problems and global low performances resulting from a high level of residuals). The solution that appears through the past experience is the addition of hydrides to a binder (HTPB or other) or to a binder and a homogeneous fuel or a mixture of both, with or without others additives; within these solutions some will not present any manufacturing problem and some may have a low cost. Nevertheless, the studies of the following phases have to demonstrate the compatibility of the potential regression rate range with a high-performance global design of a hybrid Motor and the manufacturing at a reasonable cost of a hydride giving a high level of performances.

  7. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  8. Hybrid internet access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Vivek; Baras, John S.; Dillon, Douglas; Falk, Aaron; Suphasindhu, Narin

    1995-01-01

    Access to the Internet is either too slow (dial-up SLIP) or too expensive (switched 56 kbps, frame relay) for the home user or small enterprise. The Center for Satellite and Hybrid Communication Networks and Hughes Network Systems have collaborated using systems integration principles to develop a prototype of a low-cost hybrid (dial-up and satellite) newtork terminal which can deliver data from the Internet to the user at rates up to 160 kbps. An asymmetric TCP/IP connection is used breaking the network link into two physical channels: a terrestrial dial-up for carrying data from the terminal into the Internet and a receive-only satellite link carrying IP packets from the Internet to the user. With a goal of supporting bandwidth hungry Internet applications such as Mosaic, Gopher, and FTP, this system has been designed to support any Intel 80386/486 PC, any commercial TCP/IP package, any unmodified host on the Internet, and any of the routers, etc., within the Internet. The design exploits the following three observations: 1) satellites are able to offer high bandwidth connections to a large geographical area, 2) a receive-only VSAT is cheap to manufacture and easier to install than one which can also transmit, and 3) most computer users, especially those in a home environment, will want to consume much more information than they generate. IP encapsulation, or tunneling, issued to manipulate the TCP/IP protocols to route packets asymmetrically.

  9. Total synthesis of a potent hybrid of the anticancer natural products dictyostatin and discodermolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Ian; Naylor, Guy J; Wright, Amy E

    2008-10-14

    A potent dictyostatin-discodermolide hybrid was designed and synthesised; it showed enhanced cell growth inhibitory activity relative to discodermolide in four human cancer cell lines including the Taxol-resistant NCI/ADR-Res cell line.

  10. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of a macrocyclic discodermolide/dictyostatin hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Ian; Gardner, Nicola M

    2007-01-01

    A 22-membered macrocyclic discodermolide/dictyostatin hybrid has been designed and synthesised; biological evaluation against a range of human cancer cell lines revealed significant levels of growth inhibition.

  11. A comparison of hybridization efficiency between flat glass and channel glass solid supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betanzos-Cabrera, Gabriel; Harker, Brent W; Doktycz, Mitchel J; Weber, James L; Beattie, Kenneth L

    2008-01-01

    Two different solid supports, channel glass and flat glass, were compared for their affect on the sensitivity and efficiency of DNA hybridization reactions. Both solid supports were tested using a set of arrayed, synthetic oligonucleotides that are designed to detect short insertion/deletion polymorphisms (SIDPs). A total of 13 different human SIDPs were chosen for analysis. Capture probes, designed for this test set, were covalently immobilized on substrates. Hybridization efficiency was assessed using fluorescently labeled stacking probes which were preannealed to the target and then hybridized to the support-bound oligonucleotide array; the hybridization pattern was detected by fluorescence imaging. It was found that structural features of nucleic acid capture probes tethered to a solid support and the molecular basis of their interaction with targets in solution have direct implications on the hybridization process. Our results demonstrate that channel glass has a number of practical advantages over flat glass including higher sensitivity and a faster hybridization rate.

  12. Unified Hybrid Network Theoretical Model Trilogy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The first of the unified hybrid network theoretical model trilogy (UHNTF) is the harmonious unification hybrid preferential model (HUHPM), seen in the inner loop of Fig. 1, the unified hybrid ratio is defined.

  13. Franchising As Hybrid Organization: Russian Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyuzel F. Yusupova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Russia has favorable conditions for development of hybrid cooperation (franchising on the different markets. On the one hand, as well as for the majority of countries with transition economies many Russian markets has been undersaturated. On the other hand, as for the developed countries, Russia has highly skilled human resources and the developed structure of consumption. In these conditions a model of coordination of the relations of franchising has been more and more popular. The benefit of this form can be explained from the side of institutional approach. The matter is that in real practice to determine the borders of firm is not simple. Key decisions of firm sometimes can be performed not in one center that can complicate distribution of control and responsibility and the determination of its borders. On the other hand, the determination of key decisions in the market, distribution of its assets and responsibility within one firm can strongly increase agency expenses. Therefore the hybrid form of coordination of the relations (to which the franchising belongs can lower these expenses, but in case of strict accomplishment of terms of the contract. The hybrid forms of coordination includes the combination of characteristics of the market and hierarchy. Transactions are controlled via the price mechanism for coordination. For control and management of united actions, the maintenance of a certain symmetry in relations are necessary the hierarchical elements. The different conditions of franchise are the reasons of risks for both parties. And for decrease in risk of opportunism the special tools are developed for disciplining of the franchisee. The described examples of the Russian franchises through comparison of contract terms showed how hybrid agreements solve the cooperation problems connected with specificity of resources, transactional expenses and the competition.

  14. Chaotic Dynamics in Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Collins (Pieter)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we give an overview of some aspects of chaotic dynamics in hybrid systems, which comprise different types of behaviour. Hybrid systems may exhibit discontinuous dependence on initial conditions leading to new dynamical phenomena. We indicate how methods from topological

  15. Chaotic dynamics in hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Collins (Pieter)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we give an overview of some aspects of chaotic dynamics in hybrid systems, which comprise different types of behaviour. Hybrid systems may exhibit discontinuous dependence on initial conditions leading to new dynamical phenomena. We indicate how methods from topological

  16. The governance of hybrid organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger; Cornforth, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?...

  17. Expanding Discourse Repertoires with Hybridity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    In "Hybrid discourse practice and science learning" Kamberelis and Wehunt present a theoretically rich argument about the potential of hybrid discourses for science learning. These discourses draw from different forms of "talk, social practice, and material practices" to create interactions that are "intertextually complex" and "interactionally…

  18. Design Principles for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system -Hybrid Ventilation....... The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and - principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples....

  19. Hybridity in Embedded Computing Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞慧群; 孙永强

    1996-01-01

    An embedded system is a system that computer is used as a component in a larger device.In this paper,we study hybridity in embedded systems and present an interval based temporal logic to express and reason about hybrid properties of such kind of systems.

  20. Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, R. A.; Chapman, C. P.; Brennand, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    ELVEC computer program provides vehicle designer with simulation tool for detailed studies of electric and hybrid vehicle performance and cost. ELVEC simulates performance of user-specified electric or hybrid vehicle under user specified driving schedule profile or operating schedule. ELVEC performs vehicle design and life cycle cost analysis.

  1. Hybrid Charmonium from Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, X Q

    2006-01-01

    We review our recent results on the JPC = 0¡¡ exotic hybrid charmonium mass and JPC = 0¡+, 1¡¡ and 1++ nonexotic hybrid charmonium spectrum from anisotropic improved lattice QCD and discuss the relevance to the recent discovery of the Y(4260) state and future experimental search for other states.

  2. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2010-02-09

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  3. Assignment of the human gene for pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPPA) to 9q33.1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization to mitotic and meiotic chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silahtaroglu, A N; Tümer, Z; Kristensen, Torsten;

    1993-01-01

    Low levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPPA) during the first trimester has been suggested as a biochemical indicator of pregnancies with aneuploid fetuses. Furthermore, the complete absence of PAPPA in pregnancies associated with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CL) has suggested a cau...... a causal connection between PAPPA and the development of CL. We have assigned the locus for PAPPA to chromosome region 9q33.1 on mitotic and meiotic chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization, using a 3.7-kb partial PAPPA cDNA probe...

  4. Assignment of the human gene for pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPPA) to 9q33.1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization to mitotic and meiotic chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silahtaroglu, A N; Tümer, Z; Kristensen, Torsten

    1993-01-01

    Low levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPPA) during the first trimester has been suggested as a biochemical indicator of pregnancies with aneuploid fetuses. Furthermore, the complete absence of PAPPA in pregnancies associated with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CL) has suggested a cau...... a causal connection between PAPPA and the development of CL. We have assigned the locus for PAPPA to chromosome region 9q33.1 on mitotic and meiotic chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization, using a 3.7-kb partial PAPPA cDNA probe...

  5. Hybrid laser-arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) is a combination of laser welding with arc welding that overcomes many of the shortfalls of both processes. This important book gives a comprehensive account of hybrid laser-arc welding technology and applications. The first part of the book reviews...... the characteristics of the process, including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality. Part II discusses applications of the process to such metals as magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel as well as the use of hybrid laser-arc welding in such sectors as ship...... building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding, will be a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Professor Flemming Ove Olsen works in the Department of Manufacturing...

  6. Molecular evidence for hybridization in Colias (Lepidoptera: Pieridae): are Colias hybrids really hybrids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Heather E; Jasieniuk, Marie; Okada, Miki; Shapiro, Arthur M

    2015-01-01

    Gene flow and hybridization among species dramatically affect our understanding of the species as a biological unit, species relationships, and species adaptations. In North American Colias eurytheme and Colias eriphyle, there has been historical debate over the extent of hybridization occurring and the identity of phenotypically intermediate individuals as genetic hybrids. This study assesses the population structure of these two species to measure the extent of hybridization and the genetic identity of phenotypic intermediates as hybrids. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker analysis was performed on 378 specimens collected from northern California and Nevada. Population structure was inferred using a Bayesian/Markov chain Monte Carlo method, which probabilistically assigns individuals to genetic clusters. Three genetic clusters provided the best fit for the data. C. eurytheme individuals were primarily assigned to two closely related clusters, and C. eriphyle individuals were mostly assigned to a third, more distantly related cluster. There appeared to be significant hybridization between the two species. Individuals of intermediate phenotype (putative hybrids) were found to be genetically indistinguishable from C. eriphyle, indicating that previous work based on the assumption that these intermediate forms are hybrids may warrant reconsideration. PMID:26306172

  7. Hybrid Natural Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Graham G.; Germán, Gabriel; Vázquez, J. Alberto

    2016-05-01

    We construct two simple effective field theory versions of Hybrid Natural Inflation (HNI) that illustrate the range of its phenomenological implications. The resulting inflationary sector potential, V = Δ4(1 + acos( ϕ/f)), arises naturally, with the inflaton field a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson. The end of inflation is triggered by a waterfall field and the conditions for this to happen are determined. Also of interest is the fact that the slow-roll parameter ɛ (and hence the tensor r) is a non-monotonic function of the field with a maximum where observables take universal values that determines the maximum possible tensor to scalar ratio r. In one of the models the inflationary scale can be as low as the electroweak scale. We explore in detail the associated HNI phenomenology, taking account of the constraints from Black Hole production, and perform a detailed fit to the Planck 2015 temperature and polarisation data.

  8. Auditing Hybrid IT Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Mateescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a personal approach of auditing the hybrid IT environments consisting in both on premise and on demand services and systems. The analysis is performed from both safety and profitability perspectives and it aims to offer to strategy, technical and business teams a representation of the value added by the cloud programme within the company’s portfolio. Starting from the importance of the IT Governance in the actual business environments, we presented in the first section the main principles that drive the technology strategy in order to maximize the value added by IT assets in the business products. Section two summarizes the frameworks leveraged by our approach in order to implement the safety and profitability computation algorithms described in the third section. The paper concludes with benefits of our personal frameworks and presents the future developments.

  9. Hybrid Noncoherent Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Skachek, Vitaly; Nedic, Angelia

    2011-01-01

    We describe a novel extension of subspace codes for noncoherent networks, suitable for use when the network is viewed as a communication system that introduces both dimension and symbol errors. We show that when symbol erasures occur in a significantly large number of different basis vectors transmitted through the network and when the min-cut of the networks is much smaller then the length of the transmitted codewords, the new family of codes outperforms their subspace code counterparts. For the proposed coding scheme, termed hybrid network coding, we derive two upper bounds on the size of the codes. These bounds represent a variation of the Singleton and of the sphere-packing bound. We show that a simple concatenated scheme that represents a combination of subspace codes and Reed-Solomon codes is asymptotically optimal with respect to the Singleton bound. Finally, we describe two efficient decoding algorithms for concatenated subspace codes that in certain cases have smaller complexity than subspace decoder...

  10. Nanoporous hybrid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Oligomer-suspended SiO2-polyethylene glycol nanoparticles are studied as porous media electrolytes. At SiO2 volume fractions, , bracketing a critical value y ≈ 0.29, the suspensions jam and their mechanical modulus increase by more than seven orders. For >y, the mean pore diameter is close to the anion size, yet the ionic conductivity remains surprisingly high and can be understood, at all , using a simple effective medium model proposed by Maxwell. SiO 2-polyethylene glycol hybrid electrolytes are also reported to manifest attractive electrochemical stability windows (0.3-6.3 V) and to reach a steady-state interfacial impedance when in contact with metallic lithium. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  11. Hybrid vehicle control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  12. Hybrid vehicle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  13. Hybrid Batch Bayesian Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Azimi, Javad; Fern, Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian Optimization aims at optimizing an unknown non-convex/concave function that is costly to evaluate. We are interested in application scenarios where concurrent function evaluations are possible. Under such a setting, BO could choose to either sequentially evaluate the function, one input at a time and wait for the output of the function before making the next selection, or evaluate the function at a batch of multiple inputs at once. These two different settings are commonly referred to as the sequential and batch settings of Bayesian Optimization. In general, the sequential setting leads to better optimization performance as each function evaluation is selected with more information, whereas the batch setting has an advantage in terms of the total experimental time (the number of iterations). In this work, our goal is to combine the strength of both settings. Specifically, we systematically analyze Bayesian optimization using Gaussian process as the posterior estimator and provide a hybrid algorithm t...

  14. Photochromic mesoporous hybrid coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboin, L.; Matheron, M.; Gacoin, T.; Boilot, J.-P.

    2008-09-01

    Spirooxazine (SO) photochromic molecules were trapped in sol-gel matrices. In order to increase the colourability and improve mechanical properties of sol-gel photochromic films, we present an original strategy in which SO photochromic molecules were dispersed in mesoporous organized films using the impregnation technique. Well-ordered organosilicate mesoporous coatings with the 3D-hexagonal symmetry were prepared by the sol-gel technique. These robust mesoporous films, which contain high amounts of hydrophobic methyl groups at the pore surface, offer optimized environments for photochromic dyes dispersed by impregnation technique. After impregnation by a spirooxazine solution, the photochromic response is only slightly slower when compared with mesostructured or soft sol-gel matrices, showing that mesoporous organized hybrid matrix are good host for photochromic dyes. Moreover, the molecular loading in films is easily adjustable in a large range using multi-impregnation procedure and increasing the film thickness leading to coatings for optical switching devices.

  15. Hybrid Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jianping Gene; Shih, Wei

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid light-weight heat exchanger concept has been developed that uses high-conductivity carbon-carbon (C-C) composites as the heat-transfer fins and uses conventional high-temperature metals, such as Inconel, nickel, and titanium as the parting sheets to meet leakage and structural requirements. In order to maximize thermal conductivity, the majority of carbon fiber is aligned in the fin direction resulting in 300 W/m.K or higher conductivity in the fin directions. As a result of this fiber orientation, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the C-C composite in both non-fiber directions matches well with the CTE of various high-temperature metal alloys. This allows the joining of fins and parting sheets by using high-temperature braze alloys.

  16. From hybrid-media system to hybrid-media politicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eberholst, Mads Kæmsgaard; Ørsten, Mark; Burkal, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    An increasingly complex hybrid system of social- and traditional-news media surrounds Nordic election campaigns as politically experienced incumbents favour traditional news media, and younger, lesser-known candidates’ social media. Despite little evidence for hybrid-media politicians, politicians......’ media use is changing rapidly; 15%–16% of Danish candidates used Twitter in 2011 but 68% in 2015. In this large-sample content analysis, party leaders have high traditional-news-media and low Twitter presence, and younger candidates visa-versa, but some politicians have high presence in both. Hybrid...

  17. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  18. Assignment of casein kinase 2 alpha sequences to two different human chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Klett, C; Göttert, E

    1992-01-01

    Human casein kinase 2 alpha gene (CK-2-alpha) sequences have been localized within the human genome by in situ hybridization and somatic cell hybrid analysis using a CK-2 alpha cDNA as a probe. By in situ hybridization, the CK-2 alpha cDNA could be assigned to two different loci, one on 11p15.1-ter...

  19. Wankel engine for hybrid powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butti, A. [Univ. of Florence (Italy); Site, V.D.

    1995-12-31

    The Wankel engine is suited to be used to drive hybrid propulsion systems. The main disadvantage of hybrid propulsion systems is the complexity that causes a high weight and large dimensions. For these reason hybrid systems are more suitable for large size vehicle (buses, vans) rather than for small passenger cars. A considerable reduction of hybrid systems weight and dimensions can be obtained using a Wankel rotary engine instead of a conventional engine. The Wankel engine is light, compact, simple, and produces low noise and low vibrations. Therefore a Wankel engine powered hybrid system is suited to be used on small cars. In this paper a 1,000 kg parallel hybrid car with continuously variable transmission and a 6,000 kg series hybrid minibus both equipped with Wankel engines are considered. The Wankel engine works at steady state to minimize fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. The simulation of the behavior of these two vehicles during a ECE + EUDC test cycle is presented in order to evaluate the performances of the systems.

  20. Fabrication of Hybrid Petroelectric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Adinarayana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In automobile sector, the need for alternative fuel as a replacement of conventional fossil fuel, due to its depletion and amount of emission has given way for new technologies like Fuel cells vehicles, Electric vehicles. Still a lot of advancement has to take place in these technologies for commercialization. The gap between the current fossil fuel technology and zero emission vehicles can be bridged by hybrid technology. Hybrid vehicles are those which can run on two or more powering sources/fuels. Feasibility of this technology is been proved in four wheelers and automobile giants like Toyota, Honda, and Hyundai have launched successful vehicles like Toyota prius, Honda insight etc. This technology maximizes the advantages of the two fuels and minimizes the disadvantages of the same. The best preferred hybrid pair is electric and fossil fuel. This increases the mileage of the vehicle twice the existing and also reduces the emission to half. At present, we like to explore the hybrid technology in the two wheeler sector and its feasibility on road. This paper deals with an attempt to make a hybrid with electric start and petrol run. Further a design of basic hybrid elements like motor, battery, and engine. As on today, hybrid products are one of the best solutions for all pollution hazards at a fairly nominal price. An investment within the means of a common man that guarantees a better environment to live in.

  1. Hybrid laser technology and doped biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Zemek, Josef; Remsa, Jan; Mikšovský, Jan; Kocourek, Tomáš; Písařík, Petr; Trávníčková, Martina; Filová, Elena; Bačáková, Lucie

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid laser-based technologies for deposition of new types of doped thin films are presented. The focus is on arrangements combining pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with magnetron sputtering (MS), and on the setup with two simultaneously running PLD systems (dual PLD). Advantages and disadvantages of both arrangements are discussed. Layers of different dopants concentration were prepared. Experience with deposition of chromium and titanium doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) films for potential coating of bone implants is presented. Properties of the layers prepared by both technologies are compared and discussed. The suitability of the layers for colonization with human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and human osteoblast-like cells, were also evaluated under in vitro conditions.

  2. Hybrid Vehicle Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-06-01

    This report summarizes the activities on the Hybrid Vehicle Program. The program objectives and the vehicle specifications are reviewed. The Hybrid Vehicle has been designed so that maximum use can be made of existing production components with a minimum compromise to program goals. The program status as of the February 9-10 Hardware Test Review is presented, and discussions of the vehicle subsystem, the hybrid propulsion subsystem, the battery subsystem, and the test mule programs are included. Other program aspects included are quality assurance and support equipment. 16 references, 132 figures, 47 tables.

  3. Pseudovector mesons, hybrids and glueballs

    CERN Document Server

    Burakovsky, L; Burakovsky, Leonid; Page, Philip R.

    2000-01-01

    We consider glueball- (hybrid) meson mixing for the low-lying four pseudovector states. The h_1'(1380) decays dominantly to K*K with some presence in rho pi and omega eta. The newly observed h_1(1600) has a D- to S-wave width ratio to omega eta which does not enable differentiation between a conventional and hybrid meson interpretation. We predict the decay pattern of the isopartner conventional or hybrid meson b_1(1650). A notably narrow s sbar partner h_1'(1810) is predicted.

  4. Completeness in Hybrid Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Areces, Carlos; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia;

    2014-01-01

    We show that basic hybridization (adding nominals and @ operators) makes it possible to give straightforward Henkin-style completeness proofs even when the modal logic being hybridized is higher-order. The key ideas are to add nominals as expressions of type t, and to extend to arbitrary types...... the way we interpret @i in propositional and first-order hybrid logic. This means: interpret @iαa , where αa is an expression of any type a , as an expression of type a that rigidly returns the value that αa receives at the i-world. The axiomatization and completeness proofs are generalizations of those...

  5. Hybrid codes: Methods and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winske, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Omidi, N. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss hybrid'' algorithms used in the study of low frequency electromagnetic phenomena, where one or more ion species are treated kinetically via standard PIC methods used in particle codes and the electrons are treated as a single charge neutralizing massless fluid. Other types of hybrid models are possible, as discussed in Winske and Quest, but hybrid codes with particle ions and massless fluid electrons have become the most common for simulating space plasma physics phenomena in the last decade, as we discuss in this paper.

  6. Hybrid laser-arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    the characteristics of the process, including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality. Part II discusses applications of the process to such metals as magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel as well as the use of hybrid laser-arc welding in such sectors as ship...... building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding, will be a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Professor Flemming Ove Olsen works in the Department of Manufacturing...

  7. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Probe Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolomeo, Doron; Stanyon, Roscoe R; Rocchi, Mariano

    2017-01-01

    The public human genome sequencing project utilized a hierarchical approach. A large number of BAC/PAC clones, with an insert size approximate from 50 kb to 300 kb, were identified and finely mapped with respect to the Sequence Tagged Site (STS) physical map and with respect to each other. A "golden path" of BACs, covering the entire human genome, was then selected and each clone was fully sequenced. The large number of remaining BACs was not fully sequenced, but the availability of the end sequence (~800-1000 bp) at each end allowed them to be very precisely mapped on the human genome.The search for copy number variations of the human genome used several strategies. One of these approaches took advantage of the fact that fosmid clones, contrary to BAC/PAC clones, have a fixed insert size (~40 kb) (Kidd et al., Nature 453: 56-64, 2008). In this context, the ends of ~7 million fosmid clones were sequenced, and therefore it was possible to precisely map these clones on the human genome.In summary, a large number of genomic clones (GC) are available for FISH experiments. They usually yield bright FISH signals and are extremely precious for molecular cytogenetics, and in particular cancer cytogenetics. The already-labeled probes available commercially are usually based on a combination of such GCs. The present chapter summarizes the protocols for extracting, labeling, and hybridization onto slides of DNA obtained from GC.

  8. HYBRIDIZATION AND CHAMELEONIC JOURNALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Schryver Kurtz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O texto aborda a crescente hibridização entre o Jornalismo e demais formatos midiáticos como resultado natural de um processo que já está na própria raiz da comunicação enquanto atividade histórica. A lógica interna e as potencialidades estéticas e discursivas do fenômeno são analisadas a partir das convergências entre jornalismo e cinema. Para tanto, utiliza o falso documentário Zelig (1983, texto fílmico de Woody Allen, híbrido por natureza, postulado como um microcosmo rico em pistas e sugestões para refletir sobre a fusão entre conteúdos informativos e não informativos.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Hibridização; Jornalismo; Cinema; Zelig.       ABSTRACT The text discusses the growing hybridization between journalism and other media formats as a natural result of a process that is already in the very root of communication while historical activity. The internal logic and the aesthetic and discursive potential of the phenomenon are analyzed through the convergences between journalism and cinema. Therefore, uses the mockumentary Zelig (1983, filmic text of Woody Allen, hybrid by nature, postulated as a microcosm rich in clues and suggestions to reflect about the merger between informative and uninformative content.      KEYWORDS: Hybridization; Journalism; Cinema; Zelig.     RESUMEN El texto aborda la creciente hibridación entre el periodismo y otros formatos de medios como um resultado natural de un proceso que ya está en la raíz misma de la comunicación mientras actividad histórica. Se analizan la lógica interna y el potencial estético y discursivo del fenómeno a través de las convergencias entre el periodismo y el cine. Para ello, utiliza el falso documental Zelig (1983, texto fílmico de Woody Allen, híbrido en su naturaleza, postulado como un microcosmos rico en pistas y sugerencias para reflexionar sobre la fusión entre contenidos informativos y no informativos.      PALABRAS CLAVE: Hibridaci

  9. Advanced Hybrid Computer Systems. Software Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This software technology final report evaluates advances made in Advanced Hybrid Computer System software technology . The report describes what...automatic patching software is available as well as which analog/hybrid programming languages would be most feasible for the Advanced Hybrid Computer...compiler software . The problem of how software would interface with the hybrid system is also presented.

  10. Novel hybrid adaptive controller for manipulation in complex perturbation environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex M C Smith

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a hybrid control scheme, combining the advantages of task-space and joint-space control. The controller is based on a human-like adaptive design, which minimises both control effort and tracking error. Our novel hybrid adaptive controller has been tested in extensive simulations, in a scenario where a Baxter robot manipulator is affected by external disturbances in the form of interaction with the environment and tool-like end-effector perturbations. The results demonstrated improved performance in the hybrid controller over both of its component parts. In addition, we introduce a novel method for online adaptation of learning parameters, using the fuzzy control formalism to utilise expert knowledge from the experimenter. This mechanism of meta-learning induces further improvement in performance and avoids the need for tuning through trial testing.

  11. DIAGNOSIS WINDOWS PROBLEMS BASED ON HYBRID INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAFWAN O. HASOON

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the artificial intelligence technologies by integrating Radial Basis Function networks with expert systems to construct a robust hybrid system. The purpose of building the hybrid system is to give recommendations to repair the operating system (Windows problems and troubleshoot the problems that can be repaired. The neural network has unique characteristics which it can complete the uncompleted data, the expert system can't deal with data that is incomplete, but using the neural network individually has some disadvantages which it can't give explanations and recommendations to the problems. The expert system has the ability to explain and give recommendations by using the rules and the human expert in some conditions. Therefore, we have combined the two technologies. The paper will explain the integration methods between the two technologies and which method is suitable to be used in the proposed hybrid system.

  12. Novel Hybrid Adaptive Controller for Manipulation in Complex Perturbation Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alex M. C.; Yang, Chenguang; Ma, Hongbin; Culverhouse, Phil; Cangelosi, Angelo; Burdet, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a hybrid control scheme, combining the advantages of task-space and joint-space control. The controller is based on a human-like adaptive design, which minimises both control effort and tracking error. Our novel hybrid adaptive controller has been tested in extensive simulations, in a scenario where a Baxter robot manipulator is affected by external disturbances in the form of interaction with the environment and tool-like end-effector perturbations. The results demonstrated improved performance in the hybrid controller over both of its component parts. In addition, we introduce a novel method for online adaptation of learning parameters, using the fuzzy control formalism to utilise expert knowledge from the experimenter. This mechanism of meta-learning induces further improvement in performance and avoids the need for tuning through trial testing. PMID:26029916

  13. Developing a hybrid wind instrument: using a loudspeaker to couple a theoretical exciter to a real resonator

    OpenAIRE

    Buys, K.; D. Sharp; Laney, R.

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid wind instrument generates self-sustained sounds via a real-time interaction between a computed physical model of an exciter (such as human lips interacting with a mouthpiece) and a real acoustic resonator. Successful implementation of a hybrid wind instrument will not only open up new musical possibilities but will also provide a valuable research tool. However, attempts to produce a hybrid instrument have so far fallen short, in terms of both the accuracy and the variation in the so...

  14. How common is homoploid hybrid speciation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumer, Molly; Rosenthal, Gil G; Andolfatto, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Hybridization has long been considered a process that prevents divergence between species. In contrast to this historical view, an increasing number of empirical studies claim to show evidence for hybrid speciation without a ploidy change. However, the importance of hybridization as a route to speciation is poorly understood, and many claims have been made with insufficient evidence that hybridization played a role in the speciation process. We propose criteria to determine the strength of evidence for homoploid hybrid speciation. Based on an evaluation of the literature using this framework, we conclude that although hybridization appears to be common, evidence for an important role of hybridization in homoploid speciation is more circumscribed.

  15. Real and Hybrid Atomic Orbitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D. B.; Fowler, P. W.

    1981-01-01

    Demonstrates that the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogenlike atom separates in both spheroconal and prolate spheroidal coordinates and that these separations provide a sound theoretical basis for the real and hybrid atomic orbitals. (Author/SK)

  16. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  17. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  18. Hybrid models for complex fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Tronci, Cesare

    2010-01-01

    This paper formulates a new approach to complex fluid dynamics, which accounts for microscopic statistical effects in the micromotion. While the ordinary fluid variables (mass density and momentum) undergo usual dynamics, the order parameter field is replaced by a statistical distribution on the order parameter space. This distribution depends also on the point in physical space and its dynamics retains the usual fluid transport features while containing the statistical information on the order parameter space. This approach is based on a hybrid moment closure for Yang-Mills Vlasov plasmas, which replaces the usual cold-plasma assumption. After presenting the basic properties of the hybrid closure, such as momentum map features, singular solutions and Casimir invariants, the effect of Yang-Mills fields is considered and a direct application to ferromagnetic fluids is presented. Hybrid models are also formulated for complex fluids with symmetry breaking. For the special case of liquid crystals, a hybrid formul...

  19. Annular Hybrid Rocket Motor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Engineers at SpaceDev have conducted a preliminary design and analysis of a proprietary annular design concept for a hybrid motor. A U.S. Patent application has been...

  20. Design Procedure for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Tjelflaat, Per Olaf

    Mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately during many years. The natural next step in this development is development of ventilation concepts that utilises and combines the best features from each system into a new type of ventilation system - Hybrid Ventilation....... Buildings with hybrid ventilation often include other sustainable technologies and an energy optimisation requires an integrated approach in the design of the building and its mechanical systems. Therefore, the hybrid ventilation design procedure differs from the design procedure for conventional HVAC....... The first ideas on a design procedure for hybrid ventilation is presented and the different types of design methods, that is needed in different phases of the design process, is discussed....

  1. Towards Modelling of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal

    2006-01-01

    The article is an attempt to use methods of category theory and topology for analysis of hybrid systems. We use the notion of a directed topological space; it is a topological space together with a set of privileged paths. Dynamical systems are examples of directed topological spaces. A hybrid...... system consists of a number of dynamical systems that are glued together according to information encoded in the discrete part of the system. We develop a definition of a hybrid system as a functor from the category generated by a transition system to the category of directed topological spaces. Its...... directed homotopy colimit (geometric realization) is a single directed topological space. The behavior of hybrid systems can be then understood in terms of the behavior of dynamical systems through the directed homotopy colimit....

  2. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  3. Hybrid Platforms, Tools, and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Kathryn E.; Bruenjes, Linda S.; Smith, Sarah A.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter discusses common tools and resources for building a hybrid course in a higher education setting and provides recommendations for best practices in Learning Management Systems and Open Educational Resources.

  4. A hybrid base isolation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, G.C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lobo, R.F.; Srinivasan, M. [Hart Consultant Group, Santa Monica, CA (United States); Asher, J.W. [kpff Engineers, Santa Monica, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This paper proposes a new analysis procedure for hybrid base isolation buildings when considering the displacement response of a base isolated building to wind loads. The system is considered hybrid because of the presence of viscous dampers in the building above the isolator level. The proposed analysis approach incorporates a detailed site specific wind study combined with a dynamic nonlinear analysis of the building response.

  5. Ion-atom hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Willitsch, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The study of interactions between simultaneously trapped cold ions and atoms has emerged as a new research direction in recent years. The development of ion-atom hybrid experiments has paved the way for investigating elastic, inelastic and reactive collisions between these species at very low temperatures, for exploring new cooling mechanisms of ions by atoms and for implementing new hybrid quantum systems. The present lecture reviews experimental methods, recent results and upcoming developments in this emerging field.

  6. Information component of hybrid war

    OpenAIRE

    Bohdanov, Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid warfare in the three-dimensional coordinate system «Matter-Information-measure» is considering. In particular, the information component is highlighted and analyzed. The factors of preparation of information operations is defined, which are disclosed as an example of experience of volunteer group information warfare of Institute of special communication and information security of NTUU «KPI».Keywords: coordinate system «Matter-Information-Measure» hybrid warfare, information componen...

  7. Formal Description of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chaochen; Ji, Wang; Ravn, Anders P.

    1996-01-01

    A language to describe hybrid systems, i.e. networks of communicating discrete and continuous processes, is proposed. A semantics of the language is given in Extended Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic with a proof system that allows reasoning in mathematical analysis about continuous ...... processes to be embedded into the logic. The semantics thus provides a secure link to hybrid system models based on a general theory of dynamical systems....

  8. Hybrid particles and associated methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V; Rodriguez, Rene; Pak, Joshua J; Sun, Chivin

    2015-02-10

    Hybrid particles that comprise a coating surrounding a chalcopyrite material, the coating comprising a metal, a semiconductive material, or a polymer; a core comprising a chalcopyrite material and a shell comprising a functionalized chalcopyrite material, the shell enveloping the core; or a reaction product of a chalcopyrite material and at least one of a reagent, heat, and radiation. Methods of forming the hybrid particles are also disclosed.

  9. Genetic evidence for multiple events of hybridization between wolves and domestic dogs in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Raquel; Llaneza, Luis; Blanco, Juan C; Lopes, Susana; Álvares, Francisco; García, Emilio J; Palacios, Vicente; Cortés, Yolanda; Talegón, Javier; Ferrand, Nuno

    2011-12-01

    Hybridization between wild species and their domestic counterparts may represent a major threat to natural populations. However, high genetic similarity between the hybridizing taxa makes the detection of hybrids a difficult task and may hinder attempts to assess the impact of hybridization in conservation biology. In this work, we used a combination of 42 autosomal microsatellites together with Y-chromosome microsatellite-defined haplotypes and mtDNA sequences to investigate the occurrence and dynamics of wolf-dog hybridization in the Iberian Peninsula. To do this, we applied a variety of Bayesian analyses and a parallel set of simulation studies to evaluate (i) the differences between Iberian wolves and dogs, (ii) the frequency and geographical distribution of hybridization and (iii) the directionality of hybridization. First, we show that Iberian wolves and dogs form two well-differentiated genetic entities, suggesting that introgressive hybridization is not a widespread phenomenon shaping both gene pools. Second, we found evidence for the existence of hybridization that is apparently restricted to more peripheral and recently expanded wolf populations. Third, we describe compelling evidence suggesting that the dynamics of hybridization in wolf populations is mediated by crosses between male dogs and female wolves. More importantly, the observation of a population showing the occurrence of a continuum of hybrid classes forming mixed packs may indicate that we have underestimated hybridization. If future studies confirm this pattern, then an intriguing avenue of research is to investigate how introgression from free-ranging domestic dogs is enabling wolf populations to adapt to the highly humanized habitats of southern Europe while still maintaining their genetic differentiation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Hybrid cluster identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Herrero, J.

    2004-10-01

    I present a hybrid method for the labelling of clusters in two-dimensional lattices, which combines the recursive approach with iterative scanning to reduce the stack size required by the pure recursive technique, while keeping its benefits: single pass and straightforward cluster characterization and percolation detection parallel to the labelling. While the capacity to hold the entire lattice in memory is usually regarded as the major constraint for the applicability of the recursive technique, the required stack size is the real limiting factor. Resorting to recursion only for the transverse direction greatly reduces the recursion depth and therefore the required stack. It also enhances the overall performance of the recursive technique, as is shown by results on a set of uniform random binary lattices and on a set of samples of the Ising model. I also show how this technique may replace the recursive technique in Wolff's cluster algorithm, decreasing the risk of stack overflow and increasing its speed, and the Hoshen-Kopelman algorithm in the Swendsen-Wang cluster algorithm, allowing effortless characterization during generation of the samples and increasing its speed.

  11. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph; Grant E. Dunham

    2000-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and recollection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hour parametric tests and 100-hour proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency.

  12. Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wei-Kan

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB's) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS's) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS's, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, we present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

  13. Hybrid manifold embedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Yan; Chan, Keith C C; Hua, Kien A

    2014-12-01

    In this brief, we present a novel supervised manifold learning framework dubbed hybrid manifold embedding (HyME). Unlike most of the existing supervised manifold learning algorithms that give linear explicit mapping functions, the HyME aims to provide a more general nonlinear explicit mapping function by performing a two-layer learning procedure. In the first layer, a new clustering strategy called geodesic clustering is proposed to divide the original data set into several subsets with minimum nonlinearity. In the second layer, a supervised dimensionality reduction scheme called locally conjugate discriminant projection is performed on each subset for maximizing the discriminant information and minimizing the dimension redundancy simultaneously in the reduced low-dimensional space. By integrating these two layers in a unified mapping function, a supervised manifold embedding framework is established to describe both global and local manifold structure as well as to preserve the discriminative ability in the learned subspace. Experiments on various data sets validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Hybrid Power Management (HPM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center s Avionics, Power and Communications Branch of the Engineering and Systems Division initiated the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program for the GRC Technology Transfer and Partnership Office. HPM is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The advanced power devices include ultracapacitors and fuel cells. HPM has extremely wide potential. Applications include power generation, transportation systems, biotechnology systems, and space power systems. HPM has the potential to significantly alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, and stimulate the economy. One of the unique power devices being utilized by HPM for energy storage is the ultracapacitor. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy storage device, which has extremely high volumetric capacitance energy due to high surface area electrodes, and very small electrode separation. Ultracapacitors are a reliable, long life, maintenance free, energy storage system. This flexible operating system can be applied to all power systems to significantly improve system efficiency, reliability, and performance. There are many existing and conceptual applications of HPM.

  15. Hybrid power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harmohan N.

    2012-06-05

    A hybrid power system is comprised of a high energy density element such as a fuel-cell and high power density elements such as a supercapacitor banks. A DC/DC converter electrically connected to the fuel cell and converting the energy level of the energy supplied by the fuel cell. A first switch is electrically connected to the DC/DC converter. First and second supercapacitors are electrically connected to the first switch and a second switch. A controller is connected to the first switch and the second switch, monitoring charge levels of the supercapacitors and controls the switching in response to the charge levels. A load is electrically connected to the second switch. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the first supercapacitor when the second switch connects the second supercapacitor to the load. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the second supercapacitor when the second switch connects the first supercapacitor to the load.

  16. Hybrid spacecraft attitude control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuganth Varatharajoo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.

  17. Optimal control of hybrid vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Jager, Bram; Kessels, John

    2013-01-01

    Optimal Control of Hybrid Vehicles provides a description of power train control for hybrid vehicles. The background, environmental motivation and control challenges associated with hybrid vehicles are introduced. The text includes mathematical models for all relevant components in the hybrid power train. The power split problem in hybrid power trains is formally described and several numerical solutions detailed, including dynamic programming and a novel solution for state-constrained optimal control problems based on Pontryagin’s maximum principle.   Real-time-implementable strategies that can approximate the optimal solution closely are dealt with in depth. Several approaches are discussed and compared, including a state-of-the-art strategy which is adaptive for vehicle conditions like velocity and mass. Two case studies are included in the book: ·        a control strategy for a micro-hybrid power train; and ·        experimental results obtained with a real-time strategy implemented in...

  18. Recent hybridization between Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Kanako; Suzuki, Yumi; Tachi, Eiko; Li, Tiaoying; Chen, Xingwang; Nakao, Minoru; Nkouawa, Agathe; Yanagida, Testuya; Sako, Yasuhito; Ito, Akira; Sato, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Munehiro

    2012-06-01

    Five Taenia tapeworms collected from humans in Tibetan Plateau, Sichuan, China, where three species of human Taenia are sympatrically endemic, were examined for the mitochondrial cox1 gene and two nuclear genes, ef1 and elp. Phylogenetic analyses of these genes revealed that two adult worms showed nuclear-mitochondrial discordance, suggesting that they originated from hybridization between Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. One of two worms had T. asiatica-type mtDNA, whereas another worm had T. saginata-type mtDNA, indicating that reciprocal hybridization between T. saginata and T. asiatica could occur. The worm having T. asiatica-type mtDNA was heterozygous at both nuclear loci with T. saginata-type alleles and T. asiatica-type alleles. In another worm, the ef1 locus was heterozygous with a T. saginata-type alleles and T. asiatica-type alleles, while the elp locus was homozygous with T. saginata-type alleles. Self-fertilization is the main reproductive method of the genus Taenia. Since self-fertilization represents a type of inbreeding, each locus in the offspring would become homozygous over generations with genetic drift. The fact that some nuclear loci are still heterozygous means that hybridization might have occurred recently. Hybridization between T. asiatica and T. saginata is probably an ongoing event in many areas in which they are sympatrically endemic.

  19. Mars Hybrid Propulsion System Trajectory Analysis. Part I; Crew Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASAs Human spaceflight Architecture team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single space- ship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper provides the analysis of the interplanetary segments of the three Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions to Mars using the hybrid transportation architecture. The trajectory analysis provides departure and arrival dates and propellant needs for the three crew missions that are used by the campaign analysis team for campaign build-up and logistics aggregation analysis. Sensitivity analyses were performed to investigate the impact of mass growth, departure window, and propulsion system performance on the hybrid transportation architecture. The results and system analysis from this paper contribute to analyses of the other human spaceflight architecture team tasks and feed into the definition of the Evolvable Mars Campaign.

  20. Sensitivity of APTIMA HPV E6/E7 mRNA test in comparison with hybrid capture 2 HPV DNA test for detection of high risk oncogenic human papillomavirus in 396 biopsy confirmed cervical cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Partha; Banerjee, Dipanwita; Mittal, Srabani; Dutta, Sankhadeep; Ghosh, Ishita; Chowdhury, Nilarun; Abraham, Priya; Chandna, Puneet; Ratnam, Sam

    2016-07-01

    The sensitivity of E6/E7 mRNA-based Aptima HPV test (AHPV; Hologic, Inc.) for detection of cervical cancer has been reported based on only a small number of cases. We determined the sensitivity of AHPV in comparison with the DNA-based Hybrid Capture 2 HPV test (HC2; Qiagen) for the detection of oncogenic HPV in a large number of cervical cancers at the time of diagnosis using cervical samples obtained in ThinPrep (Hologic). Samples yielding discordant results were genotyped using Linear Array assay (LA; Roche). Of 396 cases tested, AHPV detected 377 (sensitivity, 95.2%; 95%CI: 93.1-97.3), and HC2 376 (sensitivity, 94.9%; 95%CI: 92.7-97.1) with an agreement of 97.2% (kappa 0.7; 95%CI: 0.54-0.87). Among six AHPV+/HC2- cases, LA identified oncogenic HPV types in four including a type 73 and was negative in two. Among five AHPV-/HC2+ cases, LA detected oncogenic HPV types in two including a type 73 and was negative in three. Of 14 AHPV-/HC2- cases, 13 were genotyped. LA detected oncogenic HPV types in six, non-oncogenic types in three, and was negative in four. This is the largest study to demonstrate the sensitivity of AHPV for the detection of invasive cervical cancer and this assay showed equal sensitivity to HC2.