WorldWideScience

Sample records for human controlled technical

  1. [Technical guideline for human rabies prevention and control (2016)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H; Li, Y; Chen, R F; Tao, X Y; Yu, P C; Cao, S C; Li, L; Chen, Z H; Zhu, W Y; Yin, W W; Li, Y H; Wang, C L; Yu, H J

    2016-02-01

    In order to promote the prevention and control programs on rabies in our country, to regulate the prevention and disposition of rabies and to reduce the deaths caused by rabies, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention has organized a panel of experts, in the reference with Guidelines issued by WHO, American Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, and the latest research progress from home and abroad, and compiled this document-"Technical Guidelines for Human Rabies Prevention and Control (2016)". The Guidelines conducted a systematic review on the etiology, clinical characteristics, laboratory diagnosis, epidemiology of rabies and provided evidence on varieties, mechanisms, effects, side-effects and security of rabies vaccine, as well as on other preparations on passive immunity of its kind, on methods related to prevention and disposition of exposure etc, finally to have come up with the recommendation on the above mentioned various techniques. The guidelines will be used by staff working on prevention and control of rabies from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention at all levels, from the departments of outpatient and divisions of infection and emergency control in all the medical institutions. The guideline will be updated and revised, following the research progress from home and abroad.

  2. TECHNICAL CULTURE AND HUMAN AXJOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ­Krystyna Chałas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Technical culture is the value of each historical period. It is the subject of the ongoing development. While it is a value which is associated with different categories of values, mainly material, cognitive, social. Between culture and these three categories of values ​ there is a cognitive effect. Technical culture determines the quality of human axjosphere. The aim of this study is to show the relationships and dependencies between technical culture and the structures in which a person lives and works. It is mainly about the answer to the question of which values of technical culture are closely related to and what are the inter dependencies? The primary task is to define the concept of the technical culture and to show its teaching essence. The second task boils down to indicate the range of values ​​inherent in the culture of technology, determining the value of the technological culture and values, which are developed by the technical culture. Indication of the interaction between the technical culture and values ​​is the third task.

  3. Vehicle and positive control values from the in vivo rodent comet assay and biomonitoring studies using human lymphocytes: historical database and influence of technical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Kamala; Springer, S; Bruce, S; Lawlor, T; Hewitt, N; Aardema, M J

    2014-10-01

    There is increased interest in the in vivo comet assay in rodents as a follow-up approach for determining the biological relevance of chemicals that are genotoxic in in vitro assays. This is partly because, unlike other assays, DNA damage can be assessed in this assay in virtually any tissue. Since background levels of DNA damage can vary with the species, tissue, and cell processing method, a robust historical control database covering multiple tissues is essential. We describe extensive vehicle and positive control data for multiple tissues from rats and mice. In addition, we report historical data from control and genotoxin-treated human blood. Technical issues impacting comet results are described, including the method of cell preparation and freezing. Cell preparation by scraping (stomach and other GI tract organs) resulted in higher % tail DNA than mincing (liver, spleen, kidney etc) or direct collection (blood or bone marrow). Treatment with the positive control genotoxicant, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) in rats and methyl methanesulfonate in mice, resulted in statistically significant increases in % tail DNA. Background DNA damage was not markedly increased when cell suspensions were stored frozen prior to preparing slides, and the outcome of the assay was unchanged (EMS was always positive). In conclusion, historical data from our laboratory for the in vivo comet assay for multiple tissues from rats and mice, as well as human blood show very good reproducibility. These data and recommendations provided are aimed at contributing to the design and proper interpretation of results from comet assays. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Human Research Ethics Committees in Technical Universities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koepsell, D.R.; Brinkman, W.P.; Pont, S.C.

    2014-01-01

    Human research ethics has developed in both theory and practice mostly from experiences in medical research. Human participants, however, are used in a much broader range of research than ethics committees oversee, including both basic and applied research at technical universities. Although

  5. Chaotic Phenomena in Technical Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik

    1997-01-01

    The paper discusses a number of examples of technical control systems that can exhibit deterministic chaos and other forms of complex nonlinear behavior. These examples include thermostatically regulated radiators, closely placed refrigirators, and industrial cooling compressors. The paper...... continues to describe the possible perspective in driving our technical systems to operate in a chaotic regime. An example of a technical system capable of operating under unstable conditions is the F/A-18 fighter....

  6. The Effects of Degraded Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems on Human-system Interfaces and Operator Performance: HFE Review Guidance and Technical Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J.M.; W. Gunther, G. Martinez-Guridi

    2010-02-26

    New and advanced reactors will use integrated digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems to support operators in their monitoring and control functions. Even though digital systems are typically highly reliable, their potential for degradation or failure could significantly affect operator performance and, consequently, impact plant safety. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) supported this research project to investigate the effects of degraded I&C systems on human performance and plant operations. The objective was to develop human factors engineering (HFE) review guidance addressing the detection and management of degraded digital I&C conditions by plant operators. We reviewed pertinent standards and guidelines, empirical studies, and plant operating experience. In addition, we conducted an evaluation of the potential effects of selected failure modes of the digital feedwater system on human-system interfaces (HSIs) and operator performance. The results indicated that I&C degradations are prevalent in plants employing digital systems and the overall effects on plant behavior can be significant, such as causing a reactor trip or causing equipment to operate unexpectedly. I&C degradations can impact the HSIs used by operators to monitor and control the plant. For example, sensor degradations can make displays difficult to interpret and can sometimes mislead operators by making it appear that a process disturbance has occurred. We used the information obtained as the technical basis upon which to develop HFE review guidance. The guidance addresses the treatment of degraded I&C conditions as part of the design process and the HSI features and functions that support operators to monitor I&C performance and manage I&C degradations when they occur. In addition, we identified topics for future research.

  7. Optimal Corrosion Control Treatment Evaluation Technical Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides technical recommendations that both systems and primacy agencies can use to comply with LCR CCT requirements and effective evaluation and designation of optimal corrosion control treatment (OCCT).

  8. Analysis Of Human Capital Development In Technical Colleges In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the human capital development in Technical Colleges in Imo State of Nigeria. All the Technical Colleges in the State participated in the study. Results showed low enrollment in the Colleges. There was gender inequity in the enrollment as only 59 females (1.97%) enrolled in the Technical Colleges.

  9. Technical intelligence and culture: Nut cracking in humans and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Christophe; Bombjaková, Daša; Boyette, Adam; Meier, Amelia

    2017-06-01

    According to the technical intelligence hypothesis, humans are superior to all other animal species in understanding and using tools. However, the vast majority of comparative studies between humans and chimpanzees, both proficient tool users, have not controlled for the effects of age, prior knowledge, past experience, rearing conditions, or differences in experimental procedures. We tested whether humans are superior to chimpanzees in selecting better tools, using them more dexteriously, achieving higher performance and gaining access to more resource as predicted under the technical intelligence hypothesis. Aka and Mbendjele hunter-gatherers in the rainforest of Central African Republic and the Republic of Congo, respectively, and Taï chimpanzees in the rainforest of Côte d'Ivoire were observed cracking hard Panda oleosa nuts with different tools, as well as the soft Coula edulis and Elaeis guinensis nuts. The nut-cracking techniques, hammer material selection and two efficiency measures were compared. As predicted, the Aka and the Mbendjele were able to exploit more species of hard nuts in the forest than chimpanzees. However, the chimpanzees were sometimes more efficient than the humans. Social roles differed between the two species, with the Aka and especially the Mbendjele exhibiting cooperation between nut-crackers whereas the chimpanzees were mainly individualistic. Observations of nut-cracking by humans and chimpanzees only partially supported the technical intelligence hypothesis as higher degrees of flexibility in tool selection seen in chimpanzees compensated for use of less efficient tool material than in humans. Nut cracking was a stronger social undertaking in humans than in chimpanzees. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Aircraft digital flight control technical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Otha B.; Leggett, David B.

    1993-01-01

    The Aircraft Digital Flight Control Technical Review was initiated by two pilot induced oscillation (PIO) incidents in the spring and summer of 1992. Maj. Gen. Franklin (PEO) wondered why the Air Force development process for digital flight control systems was not preventing PIO problems. Consequently, a technical review team was formed to examine the development process and determine why PIO problems continued to occur. The team was also to identify the 'best practices' used in the various programs. The charter of the team was to focus on the PIO problem, assess the current development process, and document the 'best practices.' The team reviewed all major USAF aircraft programs with digital flight controls, specifically, the F-15E, F-16C/D, F-22, F-111, C-17, and B-2. The team interviewed contractor, System Program Office (SPO), and Combined Test Force (CTF) personnel on these programs. The team also went to NAS Patuxent River to interview USN personnel about the F/A-18 program. The team also reviewed experimental USAF and NASA systems with digital flight control systems: X-29, X-31, F-15 STOL and Maneuver Technology Demonstrator (SMTD), and the Variable In-Flight Stability Test Aircraft (VISTA). The team also discussed the problem with other experts in the field including Ralph Smith and personnel from Calspan. The major conclusions and recommendations from the review are presented.

  11. Measurable Control System Security through Ideal Driven Technical Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Sean McBride; Marie Farrar; Zachary Tudor

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division supported development of a small set of security ideals as a framework to establish measurable control systems security. Based on these ideals, a draft set of proposed technical metrics was developed to allow control systems owner-operators to track improvements or degradations in their individual control systems security posture. The technical metrics development effort included review and evaluation of over thirty metrics-related documents. On the bases of complexity, ambiguity, or misleading and distorting effects the metrics identified during the reviews were determined to be weaker than necessary to aid defense against the myriad threats posed by cyber-terrorism to human safety, as well as to economic prosperity. Using the results of our metrics review and the set of security ideals as a starting point for metrics development, we identified thirteen potential technical metrics - with at least one metric supporting each ideal. Two case study applications of the ideals and thirteen metrics to control systems were then performed to establish potential difficulties in applying both the ideals and the metrics. The case studies resulted in no changes to the ideals, and only a few deletions and refinements to the thirteen potential metrics. This led to a final proposed set of ten core technical metrics. To further validate the security ideals, the modifications made to the original thirteen potential metrics, and the final proposed set of ten core metrics, seven separate control systems security assessments performed over the past three years were reviewed for findings and recommended mitigations. These findings and mitigations were then mapped to the security ideals and metrics to assess gaps in their coverage. The mappings indicated that there are no gaps in the security ideals and that the ten core technical metrics provide significant coverage of standard security issues with 87% coverage. Based

  12. Human factors challenges for advanced process control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubler, W.F.; O`Hara, J..M.

    1996-08-01

    New human-system interface technologies provide opportunities for improving operator and plant performance. However, if these technologies are not properly implemented, they may introduce new challenges to performance and safety. This paper reports the results from a survey of human factors considerations that arise in the implementation of advanced human-system interface technologies in process control and other complex systems. General trends were identified for several areas based on a review of technical literature and a combination of interviews and site visits with process control organizations. Human factors considerations are discussed for two of these areas, automation and controls.

  13. Advanced Combustion and Emission Control Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The Advanced Combustion and Emission Control (ACEC) Technical Team is focused on removing technical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high-efficiency, emission-compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light-duty vehicle powertrains (i.e., passenger car, minivan, SUV, and pickup trucks).

  14. Human-centred Methods of Social and Technical Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    Different inderstandings of design are presented.The historical background of human-centred designis described.Methods of social shaping are described in detailand the author's research experiences with using these methods in differentinternational projects presented and a model tointegrate...... technical and social perspective of design is suggested....

  15. Primer Control System Cyber Security Framework and Technical Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne F. Boyer; Miles A. McQueen

    2008-05-01

    The Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division supported development of a control system cyber security framework and a set of technical metrics to aid owner-operators in tracking control systems security. The framework defines seven relevant cyber security dimensions and provides the foundation for thinking about control system security. Based on the developed security framework, a set of ten technical metrics are recommended that allow control systems owner-operators to track improvements or degradations in their individual control systems security posture.

  16. 77 FR 43196 - Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... COMMISSION 25 CFR Parts 543 and 547 Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards AGENCY... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Part 543 addresses minimum internal control standards (MICS) for Class II gaming operations. The regulations require tribes to establish controls and implement procedures at least as...

  17. Human System Simulation in Support of Human Performance Technical Basis at NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Gertman; Katya Le Blanc; alan mecham; william phoenix; Magdy Tawfik; Jeffrey Joe

    2010-06-01

    This paper focuses on strategies and progress toward establishing the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL’s) Human Systems Simulator Laboratory at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES), a consortium of Idaho State Universities. The INL is one of the National Laboratories of the US Department of Energy. One of the first planned applications for the Human Systems Simulator Laboratory is implementation of a dynamic nuclear power plant simulation (NPP) where studies of operator workload, situation awareness, performance and preference will be carried out in simulated control rooms including nuclear power plant control rooms. Simulation offers a means by which to review operational concepts, improve design practices and provide a technical basis for licensing decisions. In preparation for the next generation power plant and current government and industry efforts in support of light water reactor sustainability, human operators will be attached to a suite of physiological measurement instruments and, in combination with traditional Human Factors Measurement techniques, carry out control room tasks in simulated advanced digital and hybrid analog/digital control rooms. The current focus of the Human Systems Simulator Laboratory is building core competence in quantitative and qualitative measurements of situation awareness and workload. Of particular interest is whether introduction of digital systems including automated procedures has the potential to reduce workload and enhance safety while improving situation awareness or whether workload is merely shifted and situation awareness is modified in yet to be determined ways. Data analysis is carried out by engineers and scientists and includes measures of the physical and neurological correlates of human performance. The current approach supports a user-centered design philosophy (see ISO 13407 “Human Centered Design Process for Interactive Systems, 1999) wherein the context for task performance along with the

  18. Dynamics and control of technical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Balthazar, José M; Kaczmarczyk, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The main topics of this Special Issue are linear and, mainly, nonlinear dynamics, chaos and control of systems and structures and their applications in different field of science and engineering. According to the goal of the Special Issue, the selected contributions are divided into three major parts: ""Vibration Problems in Vertical Transportation Systems"", ""Nonlinear Dynamics, Chaos and Control of Elastic Structures"" and ""New Strategies and Challenges for Aerospace and Ocean Structures Dynamics and Control"". The discussion of real problems in aerospace and how these problems can be unde

  19. Ideal Based Cyber Security Technical Metrics for Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. F. Boyer; M. A. McQueen

    2007-10-01

    Much of the world's critical infrastructure is at risk from attack through electronic networks connected to control systems. Security metrics are important because they provide the basis for management decisions that affect the protection of the infrastructure. A cyber security technical metric is the security relevant output from an explicit mathematical model that makes use of objective measurements of a technical object. A specific set of technical security metrics are proposed for use by the operators of control systems. Our proposed metrics are based on seven security ideals associated with seven corresponding abstract dimensions of security. We have defined at least one metric for each of the seven ideals. Each metric is a measure of how nearly the associated ideal has been achieved. These seven ideals provide a useful structure for further metrics development. A case study shows how the proposed metrics can be applied to an operational control system.

  20. Integrated Project Control and Technical Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Joo, Po Kook; Kim, Gye Ryung (and others)

    2003-06-15

    First, Since PEFP puts it's aim on technology innovation through collaboration and technological fusion among the subprojects from the various fields, It has been tried to make the subprojects consist with the goal of the whole project through building and running the integrated project control system. Also, adopting CPM(Critical Process Management), intensive process management framework has been founded. Secondly, for the every procedure, including purchase, building, installation and a trial running, license, quality control, etc., could be efficiently executed, every related task has been carried out. And, the tasks involved in international cooperative relationship and host site selection are carried out as well, so that PEFP could be firmly supported. Finally, TRM(Technology Road Map) is made up not only for the purpose of managing efficiency and effectiveness on the investment, but also for the purpose of life cycle management from developing stage to commercializing stage.

  1. Technical energy savings versus changes in human behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    Energy savings seems to be the most environmentally benign element in an energy policy. The paper is a reflection on the work on saving energy both by improving technology and by adapting human daily behaviour. A simple model is suggested for the energy chain which converts the primary energy all...... the way into human satisfaction via energy services. Results of various analyses and field experiments show saving potentials for electricity of 50 - 80 per cents. Barriers for implementing these technical saving options are discussed. Also the necessity and potentials for changing behavioural or life...

  2. Integrated Project Control and Technical Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Kim, Jun Yeon; Joo, Po Kook and others

    2005-08-15

    First, Since PEFP puts it's aim on technology innovation through collaboration and technological fusion among the sub-projects from the various fields. It has been tried to make the sub-projects consist with the goal of the whole project through building and running the integrated project control system. Also, adopting CPM(Critical Process Management), intensive process management framework has been founded. Secondly, for the every procedure, including purchase, building, installation and a trial running, license, quality control, etc., could be efficiently executed, every related task has been carried out. And, the tasks involved in international cooperative relationship and host site selection are carried out as well, so that PEFP could be firmly supported. Finally, Strategic management procedures including TRM(Technology Road Map), economic evaluation on PEFP, preliminary evaluation on company-involved R and D and TRESIS(Technology, Resources, Economic Evaluation System) are made up not only for the purpose of managing efficiency and effectiveness on the investment, but also for the purpose of life cycle management from developing stage to commercializing stage.

  3. Human spinal motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    interneurons and exert a direct (willful) muscle control with the aid of a context-dependent integration of somatosensory and visual information at cortical level. However, spinal networks also play an important role. Sensory feedback through spinal circuitries is integrated with central motor commands...... and contributes importantly to the muscle activity underlying voluntary movements. Regulation of spinal interneurons is used to switch between motor states such as locomotion (reciprocal innervation) and stance (coactivation pattern). Cortical regulation of presynaptic inhibition of sensory afferents may focus...... the central motor command by opening or closing sensory feedback pathways. In the future, human studies of spinal motor control, in close collaboration with animal studies on the molecular biology of the spinal cord, will continue to document the neural basis for human behavior. Expected final online...

  4. Realtime control of biogas reactors. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, Allan K.

    2010-12-15

    In this project several online methods were connected to a biogas pilot plant designed and built by Xergi A/S (Foulum, Denmark). The pilot plant was composed of two stainless steel tanks used as substrate storage and as digester, respectively. The total volume of the reactor tank was 300 L, the working volume 200 L and the headspace volume 100 L. The process temperature in the biogas reactor was maintained at 52 {+-} 0.5 deg. C during normal operating conditions. The biogas production was measured with a flow meter and a controller was used for automatic control of temperature, effluent removal, feeding and for data logging. A NIRS (near infrared spectrometer) was connected to a recurrent loop measuring on the slurry while a {mu}-GC (micro gas chromatograph) and a MIMS (membrane inlet mass spectrometer) enabled online measurements of the gas phase composition. During the project period three monitoring campaigns were accomplished. The loading rate of the biogas reactor was increased stepwise during the periods while the process was monitored. In the first two campaigns the load was increased by increasing the mass of organic material added to the reactor each day. However, this increasing amount changed the retention time in the reactor and in order to keep the retention time constant an increasing amount of inhibitor of the microbial process was instead added in the third campaign and as such maintaining a constant organic load mass added to the reactor. The effect is similar to an increase in process load, while keeping the load of organic material and hence retention time constant. Methods have been developed for the following online technologies and each technology has been evaluated with regard to future use as a tool for biogas process monitoring: 1) {mu}-GC was able to quantitative monitor important gas phase parameters in a reliable, fast and low-maintenance way. 2) MIMS was able to quantitative monitor gas phase composition in a reliable and fast manner

  5. Control damage by seedling debarking weevil. Technical note No. 271

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eidt, D.C.; Weaver, C.A.A.

    1993-01-01

    Technical note describing a method of controlling the damage to seedlings by the seedling debarking weevil by using nematodes. Information is given on the damage involved, the nematodes to be used, treatment methods, planting procedures, benefits and costs, and results of earlier trials.

  6. CERN'S TECHNICAL CONTROL ROOM (TCR) A CENTRAL SERVICE FOR EVERYONE

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz

    2002-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate CERN equipment services or contractors. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number '72201'. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity covers the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, and buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaur...

  7. CERN'S TECHNICAL CONTROL ROOM (TCR) A CENTRAL SERVICE FOR EVERYONE

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz / TCR Responsible

    2000-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate equipment services. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number 72201. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity concerns the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaurants, or part of the tec...

  8. CERN'S TECHNICAL CONTROL ROOM (TCR) A CENTRAL SERVICE FOR EVERYONE

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz

    2002-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate equipment services. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number '72201'. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity concerns the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaurants, or part of the t...

  9. CERN'S TECHNICAL CONTROL ROOM (TCR) A CENTRALSERVICE FOR EVERYONE

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz / TCR Responsible

    2001-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate equipment services. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number '72201'. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity concerns the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaurants, or part of the t...

  10. CERN's Technical Control Room (TCR) A Central Service for Everyone

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz

    2001-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate equipment services. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number '72201'. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity concerns the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaurants, or part of the t...

  11. CERN'S TECHNICAL CONTROL ROOM (TCR) A CENTRAL SERVICE FOR EVERYONE

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz (TCR Responsible)

    2001-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate equipment services. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number '72201'. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity concerns the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaurants, or part of the t...

  12. CERN'S TECHNICAL CONTROL ROOM (TCR) A CENTRAL SERVICE FOR EVERYONE

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz (TCR Responsible)

    2001-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate equipment services. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number 72201. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity concerns the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaurants, or part of the tec...

  13. Simulation-based ureteroscopy skills training curriculum with integration of technical and non-technical skills: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunckhorst, Oliver; Shahid, Shahab; Aydin, Abdullatif; McIlhenny, Craig; Khan, Shahid; Raza, Syed Johar; Sahai, Arun; Brewin, James; Bello, Fernando; Kneebone, Roger; Khan, Muhammad Shamim; Dasgupta, Prokar; Ahmed, Kamran

    2015-09-01

    Current training modalities within ureteroscopy have been extensively validated and must now be integrated within a comprehensive curriculum. Additionally, non-technical skills often cause surgical error and little research has been conducted to combine this with technical skills teaching. This study therefore aimed to develop and validate a curriculum for semi-rigid ureteroscopy, integrating both technical and non-technical skills teaching within the programme. Delphi methodology was utilised for curriculum development and content validation, with a randomised trial then conducted (n = 32) for curriculum evaluation. The developed curriculum consisted of four modules; initially developing basic technical skills and subsequently integrating non-technical skills teaching. Sixteen participants underwent the simulation-based curriculum and were subsequently assessed, together with the control cohort (n = 16) within a full immersion environment. Both technical (Time to completion, OSATS and a task specific checklist) and non-technical (NOTSS) outcome measures were recorded with parametric and non-parametric analyses used depending on the distribution of our data as evaluated by a Shapiro-Wilk test. Improvements within the intervention cohort demonstrated educational value across all technical and non-technical parameters recorded, including time to completion (p technical and non-technical skills teaching is both educationally valuable and feasible. Additionally, the curriculum offers a validated simulation-based training modality within ureteroscopy and a framework for the development of other simulation-based programmes.

  14. Technical Guidance for Constructing a Human Well-Being ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Research and Development’s Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program (EPA 2015) developed the Human Well-being Index (HWBI) as an integrative measure of economic, social, and environmental contributions to well-being. The HWBI is composed of indicators and metrics representing eight domains of well-being: connection to nature, cultural fulfillment, education, health, leisure time, living standards, safety and security, and social cohesion. The domains and indicators in the HWBI were selected to provide a well-being framework that is broadly applicable to many different populations and communities, and can be customized using community-specific metrics. A primary purpose of this report is to adapt the US Human Well-Being Index (HWBI) to quantify human well-being for Puerto Rico. Additionally, our adaptation of the HWBI for Puerto Rico provides an example of how the HWBI can be adapted to different communities and technical guidance on processing data and calculating index using R.

  15. Mental practice enhances surgical technical skills: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sonal; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Sirimanna, Pramudith; Moran, Aidan; Grantcharov, Teodor; Kneebone, Roger; Sevdalis, Nick; Darzi, Ara

    2011-02-01

    To assess the effects of mental practice on surgical performance. Increasing concerns for patient safety have highlighted a need for alternative training strategies outside the operating room. Mental practice (MP), "the cognitive rehearsal of a task before performance," has been successful in sport and music to enhance skill. This study investigates whether MP enhances performance in laparoscopic surgery. After baseline skills testing, 20 novice surgeons underwent training on an evidence-based virtual reality curriculum. After randomization using the closed envelope technique, all participants performed 5 Virtual Reality (VR) laparoscopic cholecystectomies (LC). Mental practice participants performed 30 minutes of MP before each LC; control participants viewed an online lecture. Technical performance was assessed using video Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills-based global ratings scale (scored from 7 to 35). Mental imagery was assessed using a previously validated Mental Imagery Questionnaire. Eighteen participants completed the study. There were no intergroup differences in baseline technical ability. Learning curves were demonstrated for both MP and control groups. Mental practice was superior to control (global ratings) for the first LC (median 20 vs 15, P = 0.005), second LC (20.5 vs 13.5, P = 0.001), third LC (24 vs 15.5, P imagery for the MP group was also significantly superior to the control group across all sessions (P imagery significantly correlated with better quality of performance (ρ 0.51–0.62, Ps < 0.05). This is the first randomized controlled study to show that MP enhances the quality of performance based on VR laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This may be a time- and cost-effective strategy to augment traditional training in the OR thus potentially improving patient care.

  16. The Consolidated Human Activity Database — Master Version (CHAD-Master) Technical Memorandum

    Science.gov (United States)

    This technical memorandum contains information about the Consolidated Human Activity Database -- Master version, including CHAD contents, inventory of variables: Questionnaire files and Event files, CHAD codes, and references.

  17. Fire Control and Human Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Claire

    1978-01-01

    Briefly outlines some aspects of the discovery of fire control by primitive people, such as the preadaptation for speech, the evolution of the human brain, and natural selection for human nakedness or loss of hair. (CS)

  18. Intelligent cruise control field operational test. Volume I, Technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    This document reports on a cooperative agreement between NHTSA and UMTRI entitled Intelligent Cruise Control (ICC) Field Operational Test (FOT). The main goal of the work is to characterize safety and comfort issues that are fundamental to human inte...

  19. COMP report: CPQR technical quality control guidelines for CT simulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Després, Philippe; Gaede, Stewart

    2017-11-16

    The Canadian Organization of Medical Physicists (COMP), in close partnership with the Canadian Partnership for Quality Radiotherapy (CPQR) has developed a series of Technical Quality Control (TQC) guidelines for radiation treatment equipment. These guidelines outline the performance objectives that equipment should meet in order to ensure an acceptable level of radiation treatment quality. The TQC guidelines have been rigorously reviewed and field tested in a variety of Canadian radiation treatment facilities. The development process enables rapid review and update to keep the guidelines current with changes in technology (the most updated version of this guideline can be found on the CPQR website). This particular TQC details recommended quality control testing of CT simulators. © 2017 Canadian Organization of Medical Physicists. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  20. On The Human, Organizational, and Technical Aspects of Software Development and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaševičius, Robertas

    Information systems are designed, constructed, and used by people. Therefore, a software design process is not purely a technical task, but a complex psycho-socio-technical process embedded within organizational, cultural, and social structures. These structures influence the behavior and products of the programmer's work such as source code and documentation. This chapter (1) discusses the non-technical (organizational, social, cultural, and psychological) aspects of software development reflected in program source code; (2) presents a taxonomy of the social disciplines of computer science; and (3) discusses the socio-technical software analysis methods for discovering the human, organizational, and technical aspects embedded within software development artifacts.

  1. Minding the Gap: Reconciling Human and Technical Perspectives on the IoT for Healthy Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Soro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two distinct bodies of literature on the Internet of Things, one that derives from a technical perspective, while the other comes from a human perspective. From a technical perspective, sensors can automatically detect physical activity, thus enabling elderly people to live independently, while sensors in essence check that they are active, remind them to take their pills, and so on. From a human perspective, people seek control over their lives, good health, social connection, and a sense of well-being that comes from having purpose and feeling competent in daily routines. So are technologies meant to enable users to stay in control of their lives and manage their relations and preferred routines, or do they undermine it, making elderly people feel subjects of surveillance and incompetent, disrupting their daily arrangements? And is there a middle path that we might take in design that creates innovative technologies that are aesthetic in form and function and empowering to use? In this paper, we offer a framework and examples of designs that bridge these perspectives.

  2. 76 FR 49532 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control; Technical Report on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control; Technical Report on the Effectiveness of Electronic Stability Control Systems for Cars and LTVs... Technical Report on its existing Safety Standard 126, Electronic Stability Control Systems. The report's...

  3. [Human basophil degranulation test. Results of a modified technic (I)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román Pérez, F; Berlanga Cortés, J A; Urquiă, M; Guerra Pasadas, F; Peña Martínez, J

    1986-01-01

    The degranulation of human basophils towards antigenic substances, to which they must be previously sensitized as a result of the antigen-antibody union at the membrane level, is a phenomenon that has an important application complementing diagnosis of diseases mediated by the Gell and Coombs classification of Type I Hypersensitivity, on which the principle of Human Basophils Degranulation Test (HBDT) was based. An essential requirement is to be able to collect an adequate quantity of basophils, as well as the visualization by means of a technique of convenient stain. In this work, we show a modified HBDT technique for basophil granulocytes staining. A total of 33 HBDT was carried out on patients sensitive to grass pollen and/or Olea europea pollen and/or D. pteronyssinus, and as controls, HBDT was done on healthy individuals with negative clinical history. Basophil enrichemnt from the circulating blood sample was done by means of centrifugation in Percoll density gradients of 1072, 1076, 1080 and 1082, and we obtained a higher number of basophils with a density of 1080 at 400 Xg for 30 minutes. The cellular bottom was resuspended in 600 microliters of PBS. We employed lyophilized antigenic extracts from grass pollen, Olea europea and D. pteronyssinus, employing weight/volume concentration of 10(-4), 10(-5), 10(-6) and 10(-7). The optimum dilutions were 10(-5) for grass pollen and D. pteronyssinus.

  4. Vertically integrated analysis of human DNA. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, M.

    1997-10-01

    This project has been oriented toward improving the vertical integration of the sequential steps associated with the large-scale analysis of human DNA. The central focus has been on an approach to the preparation of {open_quotes}sequence-ready{close_quotes} maps, which is referred to as multiple-complete-digest (MCD) mapping, primarily directed at cosmid clones. MCD mapping relies on simple experimental steps, supported by advanced image-analysis and map-assembly software, to produce extremely accurate restriction-site and clone-overlap maps. We believe that MCD mapping is one of the few high-resolution mapping systems that has the potential for high-level automation. Successful automation of this process would be a landmark event in genome analysis. Once other higher organisms, paving the way for cost-effective sequencing of these genomes. Critically, MCD mapping has the potential to provide built-in quality control for sequencing accuracy and to make possible a highly integrated end product even if there are large numbers of discontinuities in the actual sequence.

  5. Human-system Interfaces to Automatic Systems: Review Guidance and Technical Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OHara, J.M.; Higgins, J.C.

    2010-01-31

    Automation has become ubiquitous in modern complex systems and commercial nuclear power plants are no exception. Beyond the control of plant functions and systems, automation is applied to a wide range of additional functions including monitoring and detection, situation assessment, response planning, response implementation, and interface management. Automation has become a 'team player' supporting plant personnel in nearly all aspects of plant operation. In light of the increasing use and importance of automation in new and future plants, guidance is needed to enable the NRC staff to conduct safety reviews of the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of modern automation. The objective of the research described in this report was to develop guidance for reviewing the operator's interface with automation. We first developed a characterization of the important HFE aspects of automation based on how it is implemented in current systems. The characterization included five dimensions: Level of automation, function of automation, modes of automation, flexibility of allocation, and reliability of automation. Next, we reviewed literature pertaining to the effects of these aspects of automation on human performance and the design of human-system interfaces (HSIs) for automation. Then, we used the technical basis established by the literature to develop design review guidance. The guidance is divided into the following seven topics: Automation displays, interaction and control, automation modes, automation levels, adaptive automation, error tolerance and failure management, and HSI integration. In addition, we identified insights into the automaton design process, operator training, and operations.

  6. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Sagl

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on both the intentional and the unintentional sensing capabilities of today’s technologies and discuss current technological trends that we consider have the ability to enrich human and technical geo-sensor information with contextual detail. The different types of sensors used to collect contextual information are analyzed and sorted into three groups on the basis of names considering frequently used related terms, and characteristic contextual parameters. These three groups, namely technical in situ sensors, technical remote sensors, and human sensors are analyzed and linked to three dimensions involved in sensing (data generation, geographic phenomena, and type of sensing. In contrast to other scientific publications, we found a large number of technologies and applications using in situ and mobile technical sensors within the context of smart cities, and surprisingly limited use of remote sensing approaches. In this article we further provide a critical discussion of possible impacts and influences of both technical and human sensing approaches on society, pointing out that a larger number of sensors, increased fusion of information, and the use of standardized data formats and interfaces will not necessarily result in any improvement in the quality of life of the citizens of a smart city. This article seeks to improve our understanding of technical and human geo-sensing capabilities, and to demonstrate that the use of such sensors can facilitate the

  7. Technical advance: immunophenotypical characterization of human neutrophil differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mora-Jensen, Helena Isabel; Jendholm, Johan; Fossum, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The current study reports a flow cytometry-based protocol for the prospective purification of human BM populations representing six successive stages of terminal neutrophil differentiation, including early promyelocytes and late promyelocytes, myelocytes, metamyelocytes, band cells, and PMN...... differentiation in vivo in the human setting and constitutes an important alternative to models that are based on in vitro differentiation of myeloid cell lines and HPCs....

  8. Risk management in the oil and gas industry : integration of human, organisational and technical factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skogdalen, Jon Espen

    2011-07-01

    The overall objective of this thesis is to provide knowledge and tools for the major hazard risk assessment for offshore installations (and onshore plants) based on an improved understanding of the influence of organisational, human and technical (OMT) factors. This extensive objective was further described by the following sub-goals: 1. Identify and describe human and organisational barriers in risk analysis, 2. Provide knowledge regarding human, organisational and technical factors that influence safety barriers, 3. Define indicators that are suitable for the measurement of barrier performance, 4. Develop models for barrier performance reflecting human, organisational and technical factors These four sub-goals formed the basis for the more specific objectives in the articles. The Deepwater Horizon accident and Macondo blowout were important inputs for several of the articles. One important acknowledgement is that risk management of major hazards differs from managing occupational safety. Another is that managing risks in the oil and gas (O&G) industry demands a high level due to the potential severe consequences. Quantitative risk analyses/assessments (QRAs) are used for risk control in the O&G industry. An important part of the QRA process is to identify and describe barriers in risk analysis. A study of offshore QRAs (Skogdalen and Vinnem, 2011b) showed that there were large differences between the analyses regarding incorporation of human and organisational factors (HOFs). The study divided the QRAs into a four-level classification system. Level 1 QRAs did not describe or comment on HOFs at all. By contrast, relevant research projects were conducted to fulfil the requirements of level 3 analyses. At this level, there was a systematic collection of data related to HOFs. The methods for analyzing the data were systematic and documented, and the QRAs were adjusted according to the status of the HOFs. A second study of QRAs (Skogdalen and Vinnem, 2011a) revealed

  9. Advanced human-system interface design review guideline. General evaluation model, technical development, and guideline description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    Advanced control rooms will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator`s overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well before these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this project was to develop a general approach to advanced HSI review and the human factors guidelines to support NRC safety reviews of advanced systems. This two-volume report provides the results of the project. Volume I describes the development of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) including (1) its theoretical and technical foundation, (2) a general model for the review of advanced HSIs, (3) guideline development in both hard-copy and computer-based versions, and (4) the tests and evaluations performed to develop and validate the DRG. Volume I also includes a discussion of the gaps in available guidance and a methodology for addressing them. Volume 2 provides the guidelines to be used for advanced HSI review and the procedures for their use.

  10. Social Bots: Human-Like by Means of Human Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimme, Christian; Preuss, Mike; Adam, Lena; Trautmann, Heike

    2017-12-01

    Social bots are currently regarded an influential but also somewhat mysterious factor in public discourse and opinion making. They are considered to be capable of massively distributing propaganda in social and online media, and their application is even suspected to be partly responsible for recent election results. Astonishingly, the term social bot is not well defined and different scientific disciplines use divergent definitions. This work starts with a balanced definition attempt, before providing an overview of how social bots actually work (taking the example of Twitter) and what their current technical limitations are. Despite recent research progress in Deep Learning and Big Data, there are many activities bots cannot handle well. We then discuss how bot capabilities can be extended and controlled by integrating humans into the process and reason that this is currently the most promising way to realize meaningful interactions with other humans. This finally leads to the conclusion that hybridization is a challenge for current detection mechanisms and has to be handled with more sophisticated approaches to identify political propaganda distributed with social bots.

  11. Applying Human Capital Performance Bonds to Career and Technical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stacy; Rothschild, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Profound demographic and technological changes are upon us, changes that pose new and evolving challenges requiring fresh approaches from virtually every sector and system. Education is no exception. As fiscal pressures grow, federal, state, and local governments are cutting back where they can, often in human service budgets. Ironically, these…

  12. Supervisory Control of Multiple Uninhabited Systems Methodologies and Human-Robot Interface Technologies Technical (Commande et Surveillance de multiples systemes sans pilote Methodologies et technologies d’interfaces homme-robot)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    nécessaire entre le domaine ergonomie et d’autres domaines d’ingénierie, comme l’automatisation des processus ou l’informatique. HFM-217...PO Box 23 3769 ZG Soesterberg The Netherlands email: leo.vanbreda@tno.nl Members BGen Prof. Corinne ROUMES Chef du Dept Action et Cognition ...systems / UAV swarms" • FRA-2: Dr. Angélica Léal – PEA “Human Factors & Authority Sharing” (FHPA) • GER-1: Prof. Dr. Axel Schulte – Cognitive and

  13. An Integrated Workflow To Assess Technical and Biological Variability of Cell Population Frequencies in Human Peripheral Blood by Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burel, Julie G; Qian, Yu; Lindestam Arlehamn, Cecilia; Weiskopf, Daniela; Zapardiel-Gonzalo, Jose; Taplitz, Randy; Gilman, Robert H; Saito, Mayuko; de Silva, Aruna D; Vijayanand, Pandurangan; Scheuermann, Richard H; Sette, Alessandro; Peters, Bjoern

    2017-02-15

    In the context of large-scale human system immunology studies, controlling for technical and biological variability is crucial to ensure that experimental data support research conclusions. In this study, we report on a universal workflow to evaluate both technical and biological variation in multiparameter flow cytometry, applied to the development of a 10-color panel to identify all major cell populations and T cell subsets in cryopreserved PBMC. Replicate runs from a control donation and comparison of different gating strategies assessed the technical variability associated with each cell population and permitted the calculation of a quality control score. Applying our panel to a large collection of PBMC samples, we found that most cell populations showed low intraindividual variability over time. In contrast, certain subpopulations such as CD56 T cells and Temra CD4 T cells were associated with high interindividual variability. Age but not gender had a significant effect on the frequency of several populations, with a drastic decrease in naive T cells observed in older donors. Ethnicity also influenced a significant proportion of immune cell population frequencies, emphasizing the need to account for these covariates in immune profiling studies. We also exemplify the usefulness of our workflow by identifying a novel cell-subset signature of latent tuberculosis infection. Thus, our study provides a universal workflow to establish and evaluate any flow cytometry panel in systems immunology studies. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  14. Human Factors Engineering Aspects of Modifications in Control Room Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Clefton, Gordon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This report describes the basic aspects of control room modernization projects in the U.S. nuclear industry and the need for supplementary guidance on the integration of human factors considerations into the licensing and regulatory aspects of digital upgrades. The report pays specific attention to the integration of principles described in NUREG-0711 (Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model) and how supplementary guidance can help to raise general awareness in the industry regarding the complexities of control room modernization projects created by many interdependent regulations, standards and guidelines. The report also describes how human factors engineering principles and methods provided by various resources and international standards can help in navigating through the process of licensing digital upgrades. In particular, the integration of human factors engineering guidance and requirements into the process of licensing digital upgrades can help reduce uncertainty related to development of technical bases for digital upgrades that will avoid the introduction of new failure modes.

  15. Socio-technicality, Human Work Interaction Design (HWID), and Work Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Campos, Pedro; Abdelnour-Nocera, José

    proposal to use Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) to theorize about work engagement in HCI design. We explain the HWID framework, and briefly talk about how theorize different cases. The promise is a sociotechnical, social-relativistic conceptualization of work engagement for HCI design, which can...... the sociotechnical tradition, however, tells us that looking at work engagement only or mainly from a technical design side is the wrong way to go; instead the social and the technical need to be considered on an equal footing. We give the theoretical motivation and background in sociotechnical thinking for our...

  16. Crew systems: integrating human and technical subsystems for the exploration of space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, M. M.; Harrison, A. A.; Summit, J.

    1994-01-01

    Space exploration missions will require combining human and technical subsystems into overall "crew systems" capable of performing under the rigorous conditions of outer space. This report describes substantive and conceptual relationships among humans, intelligent machines, and communication systems, and explores how these components may be combined to complement and strengthen one another. We identify key research issues in the combination of humans and technology and examine the role of individual differences, group processes, and environmental conditions. We conclude that a crew system is, in effect, a social cyborg, a living system consisting of multiple individuals whose capabilities are extended by advanced technology.

  17. Quantifying control effort of biological and technical movements: an information-entropy-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeufle, D F B; Günther, M; Wunner, G; Schmitt, S

    2014-01-01

    In biomechanics and biorobotics, muscles are often associated with reduced movement control effort and simplified control compared to technical actuators. This is based on evidence that the nonlinear muscle properties positively influence movement control. It is, however, open how to quantify the simplicity aspect of control effort and compare it between systems. Physical measures, such as energy consumption, stability, or jerk, have already been applied to compare biological and technical systems. Here a physical measure of control effort based on information entropy is presented. The idea is that control is simpler if a specific movement is generated with less processed sensor information, depending on the control scheme and the physical properties of the systems being compared. By calculating the Shannon information entropy of all sensor signals required for control, an information cost function can be formulated allowing the comparison of models of biological and technical control systems. Exemplarily applied to (bio-)mechanical models of hopping, the method reveals that the required information for generating hopping with a muscle driven by a simple reflex control scheme is only I=32 bits versus I=660 bits with a DC motor and a proportional differential controller. This approach to quantifying control effort captures the simplicity of a control scheme and can be used to compare completely different actuators and control approaches.

  18. Quantifying control effort of biological and technical movements: An information-entropy-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeufle, D. F. B.; Günther, M.; Wunner, G.; Schmitt, S.

    2014-01-01

    In biomechanics and biorobotics, muscles are often associated with reduced movement control effort and simplified control compared to technical actuators. This is based on evidence that the nonlinear muscle properties positively influence movement control. It is, however, open how to quantify the simplicity aspect of control effort and compare it between systems. Physical measures, such as energy consumption, stability, or jerk, have already been applied to compare biological and technical systems. Here a physical measure of control effort based on information entropy is presented. The idea is that control is simpler if a specific movement is generated with less processed sensor information, depending on the control scheme and the physical properties of the systems being compared. By calculating the Shannon information entropy of all sensor signals required for control, an information cost function can be formulated allowing the comparison of models of biological and technical control systems. Exemplarily applied to (bio-)mechanical models of hopping, the method reveals that the required information for generating hopping with a muscle driven by a simple reflex control scheme is only I =32bits versus I =660bits with a DC motor and a proportional differential controller. This approach to quantifying control effort captures the simplicity of a control scheme and can be used to compare completely different actuators and control approaches.

  19. Integrating Space Flight Resource Management Skills into Technical Lessons for International Space Station Flight Controller Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Evelyn

    2008-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center s (JSC) International Space Station (ISS) Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM) training program is designed to teach the team skills required to be an effective flight controller. It was adapted from the SFRM training given to Shuttle flight controllers to fit the needs of a "24 hours a day/365 days a year" flight controller. More recently, the length reduction of technical training flows for ISS flight controllers impacted the number of opportunities for fully integrated team scenario based training, where most SFRM training occurred. Thus, the ISS SFRM training program is evolving yet again, using a new approach of teaching and evaluating SFRM alongside of technical materials. Because there are very few models in other industries that have successfully tied team and technical skills together, challenges are arising. Despite this, the Mission Operations Directorate of NASA s JSC is committed to implementing this integrated training approach because of the anticipated benefits.

  20. Industrial management- control and profit a technical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Halevi, Gideon

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents controlling tools for management in order to be in a position to communicate with control engineers concerning technological decisions. The main objective of manufacturing management is to make profit. However, in traditional manufacturing systems none of the separate stages in the process support this objective. Management is not expert in any of these stages, and therefore is dependent on specific experts at each stage and must follow their decisions. Each stage has its own first priority which is not profit and cost. This means that management does not have real control over these functional stages, nor over the process as a whole. This book presents controlling tools for management in order to allow them to communicate better with the experts of the particular manufacturing stages to reach better results and higher profits. It is shown that most enterprises can improve their efficiency rate by between 25 and 60% by using the tools developed here.

  1. Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Technical Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Hallbert

    2012-09-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.

  2. Team of the Technical Control Room, TCR, at work

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    0202037_06 transmit of the instruction from a team TCR to the changing .0202037_01 Kenneth Olesen brings a solution to a user of the CERN, while Mark Harvey checks its monitors .0202037_02 Laurent Randot and Eric Lienard (with the phone) work in the control room .0202037_08 Mr Jean-Pierre Hernández, shift leader TCR , stay near the order console for the electric wire of the CERN .0202037_09 The order console with all the diode on .0202037_10 View of the control room .

  3. Technical Manuals for the Elderly - Can Controlled Language Principles Help?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Margrethe H.

    It is a challenge to the elderly to manoeuvre in today’s ICT society, where the command of technology plays an increasing role at all levels. On the one hand, age-related impairments may infl uence the ability of the elderly to familiarize with new technology. On the other hand, technological...... manuals specifi cally aimed at the elderly. The purpose of the present contribution is to discuss, on the basis of general recommendations in the literature on user manuals for the elderly, to what extent controlled language rules can improve such manuals. The general purpose of a controlled language...

  4. Synthesis study of Texas signal control systems : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, several versions of traffic control systems have been established across the United States and within the state of Texas. There is a growing need to identify the various versions of these systems that exist, including the system hard...

  5. Final Technical Report: Distributed Controls for High Penetrations of Renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Raymond H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neely, Jason C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rashkin, Lee J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Trudnowski, Daniel J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilson, David G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this effort was to apply four potential control analysis/design approaches to the design of distributed grid control systems to address the impact of latency and communications uncertainty with high penetrations of photovoltaic (PV) generation. The four techniques considered were: optimal fixed structure control; Nyquist stability criterion; vector Lyapunov analysis; and Hamiltonian design methods. A reduced order model of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) developed for the Matlab Power Systems Toolbox (PST) was employed for the study, as well as representative smaller systems (e.g., a two-area, three-area, and four-area power system). Excellent results were obtained with the optimal fixed structure approach, and the methodology we developed was published in a journal article. This approach is promising because it offers a method for designing optimal control systems with the feedback signals available from Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) data as opposed to full state feedback or the design of an observer. The Nyquist approach inherently handles time delay and incorporates performance guarantees (e.g., gain and phase margin). We developed a technique that works for moderate sized systems, but the approach does not scale well to extremely large system because of computational complexity. The vector Lyapunov approach was applied to a two area model to demonstrate the utility for modeling communications uncertainty. Application to large power systems requires a method to automatically expand/contract the state space and partition the system so that communications uncertainty can be considered. The Hamiltonian Surface Shaping and Power Flow Control (HSSPFC) design methodology was selected to investigate grid systems for energy storage requirements to support high penetration of variable or stochastic generation (such as wind and PV) and loads. This method was applied to several small system models.

  6. Improved Controls for Fusion RF Systems. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Jeffrey A. [Rockfield Research Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2011-11-08

    We have addressed the specific requirements for the integrated systems controlling an array of klystrons used for Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD). The immediate goal for our design was to modernize the transmitter protection system (TPS) for LHCD on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center (MIT-PSFC). Working with the Alcator C-Mod team, we have upgraded the design of these controls to retrofit for improvements in performance and safety, as well as to facilitate the upcoming expansion from 12 to 16 klystrons. The longer range goals to generalize the designs in such a way that they will be of benefit to other programs within the international fusion effort was met by designing a system which was flexible enough to address all the MIT system requirements, and modular enough to adapt to a large variety of other requirements with minimal reconfiguration.

  7. SYNTHESIS OF THE TECHNICAL CONTROL SYSTEMS WITH VARIABLE STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Change. Also the object as a result of an adverse effect is considered. The formal problem definition of synthesis of hardy management system is considered. Model choice criteria ensemble is set. The rule of choice algorithm implementation on the basis of different reference functions is provided. The conclusion is drawn that in case of preliminary processing of the available prior data it is possible to select reference functions correctly which reflect physical processes more precisely. The mathematical description of a dynamic object on the basis of a differential equation, or its decision is provided. Defini- tion of function of a trend is given. Criteria for selection of model of damage are given. The recommendation of modifica- tion of Demark trends algorithm by means of the sliding Yazvinsky's window and a method of self-organization for in- crease of accuracy of creation of a predictive model of damage is made. It is offered to realize a model choice by means of more complex logical analysis of an observed vector in the appropriate situation. Logic-functional control task definition is given and approach to its decision is formulated. The conclusion about what the task of synthesis management system con- sists of is given. This article describes the method of synthesis of control system with variable structure provides increasing survivability control system in a significant change of the external environment, as well as the object itself from the adverse impacts.

  8. The Importance of Postural Control in Relation to Technical Abilities in Small-Sided Soccer Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edis, Çağlar; Vural, Faik; Vurgun, Hikmet

    2016-12-01

    Making assessments regarding postural control and balance is very important for injury prevention in soccer. However, there has been no study that has associated postural control variables with branch-specific technical properties in a game. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationships between variables designating postural control levels and technical performance variables in different (1:1, 2:2 and 3:3) small-sided games (SSGs). Sixteen trained male amateur soccer players volunteered to take part in the study (age 17.2 ± 1.02 years, body height 176.25 ± 0.07 m, body mass 67.67 ± 13.27 kg). Following familiarization sessions, postural control was evaluated using one-leg and both-leg quiet-stance positions by measuring postural sway with a Tekscan HR Mat™ in anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. Later, 1:1, 2:2 and 3:3 SSGs were performed at two-day intervals and the technical variables specified for each game were analyzed. A Spearman's rank-order correlation analysis demonstrated the relationship between postural control and soccer-specific technical variables in 1:1 (r-values ranging from 0.582 to 0.776), 2:2 (rvalues ranging from 0.511 to 0.740) and 3:3 (r-values ranging from 0.502 to 0.834) SSGs. In addition, a Wilcoxon signed rank test revealed differences between SSGs in terms of several variables. The results of the study showed that higher postural control levels are among the important variables that affect success in the performance of technical skills under rival pressure and suddenly changing conditions. Therefore, it is recommended that in addition to its use for injury prevention purposes, balance training should be conducted to improve branch-specific technical skills and to increase the levels of their successful performance in a game.

  9. Study on the Technical Efficiency of Creative Human Capital in China by Three-Stage Data Envelopment Analysis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous researches have proved the positive effect of creative human capital and its development on the development of economy. Yet, the technical efficiency of creative human capital and its effects are still under research. The authors are trying to estimate the technical efficiency value in Chinese context, which is adjusted by the environmental variables and statistical noises, by establishing a three-stage data envelopment analysis model, using data from 2003 to 2010. The research results indicate that, in this period, the entirety of creative human capital in China and the technical efficiency value in different regions and different provinces is still in the low level and could be promoted. Otherwise, technical non-efficiency is mostly derived from the scale nonefficiency and rarely affected by pure technical efficiency. The research also examines environmental variables’ marked effects on the technical efficiency, and it shows that different environmental variables differ in the aspect of their own effects. The expansion of the scale of education, development of healthy environment, growth of GDP, development of skill training, and population migration could reduce the input of creative human capital and promote the technical efficiency, while development of trade and institutional change, on the contrary, would block the input of creative human capital and the promotion the technical efficiency.

  10. Prioritization and selection of parameters for control chart implementation based on technical criticality and cost criticality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirintra Tan-intara-art

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An important problem in control chart implementation is the availability of resources to collect and analyze data for control charts implementation. This paper proposes a method to prioritize and select final product parameters to control. The prioritization is based on cost of quality and technical criticality of those parameters. The prioritization method is demonstrated by a case study of flexible printed circuit manufacturing.

  11. Sources of Technical Variability in Quantitative LC-MS Proteomics: Human Brain Tissue Sample Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piehowski, Paul D.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Orton, Daniel J.; Xie, Fang; Moore, Ronald J.; Ramirez Restrepo, Manuel; Engel, Anzhelika; Lieberman, Andrew P.; Albin, Roger L.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Myers, Amanda J.

    2013-05-03

    To design a robust quantitative proteomics study, an understanding of both the inherent heterogeneity of the biological samples being studied as well as the technical variability of the proteomics methods and platform is needed. Additionally, accurately identifying the technical steps associated with the largest variability would provide valuable information for the improvement and design of future processing pipelines. We present an experimental strategy that allows for a detailed examination of the variability of the quantitative LC-MS proteomics measurements. By replicating analyses at different stages of processing, various technical components can be estimated and their individual contribution to technical variability can be dissected. This design can be easily adapted to other quantitative proteomics pipelines. Herein, we applied this methodology to our label-free workflow for the processing of human brain tissue. For this application, the pipeline was divided into four critical components: Tissue dissection and homogenization (extraction), protein denaturation followed by trypsin digestion and SPE clean-up (digestion), short-term run-to-run instrumental response fluctuation (instrumental variance), and long-term drift of the quantitative response of the LC-MS/MS platform over the 2 week period of continuous analysis (instrumental stability). From this analysis, we found the following contributions to variability: extraction (72%) >> instrumental variance (16%) > instrumental stability (8.4%) > digestion (3.1%). Furthermore, the stability of the platform and its’ suitability for discovery proteomics studies is demonstrated.

  12. Large Space Telescope (LST) Pointing Control System (PCS) analytical Advanced Technical Development (ATD) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    The large space telescope (LST) pointing control system (PCS) advanced technical development (ATD) program is described. The approach used is to describe the overall PCS development effort, showing how the analytical ATD program elements fit into it. Then the analytical ATD program elements are summarized.

  13. Application of objective clinical human reliability analysis (OCHRA) in assessment of technical performance in laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J D; Miskovic, D; Allison, A S; Conti, J A; Ockrim, J; Cooper, E J; Hanna, G B; Francis, N K

    2016-06-01

    Laparoscopic rectal resection is technically challenging, with outcomes dependent upon technical performance. No robust objective assessment tool exists for laparoscopic rectal resection surgery. This study aimed to investigate the application of the objective clinical human reliability analysis (OCHRA) technique for assessing technical performance of laparoscopic rectal surgery and explore the validity and reliability of this technique. Laparoscopic rectal cancer resection operations were described in the format of a hierarchical task analysis. Potential technical errors were defined. The OCHRA technique was used to identify technical errors enacted in videos of twenty consecutive laparoscopic rectal cancer resection operations from a single site. The procedural task, spatial location, and circumstances of all identified errors were logged. Clinical validity was assessed through correlation with clinical outcomes; reliability was assessed by test-retest. A total of 335 execution errors identified, with a median 15 per operation. More errors were observed during pelvic tasks compared with abdominal tasks (p technical performance of laparoscopic rectal surgery.

  14. Control system oriented human interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barale, P.; Jacobson, V.; Kilgore, R.; Rondeau, D.

    1976-11-01

    The on-line control system interface for magnet beam steering and focusing in the Bevalac is described. An Aydin model 5205B display generator was chosen. This display generator will allow the computer to completely rewrite a monitor screen in less than 50 ms and is also capable of controlling a color monitor. (PMA)

  15. 10th IAEA Technical Meeting on Control, Data Acquisition and Remote Participation for Fusion Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Axel, E-mail: axel.winter@iter.org

    2016-11-15

    The 10th Technical Meeting on Control, Data Acquisition, and Remote Participation for Fusion Research was held April 20–24, 2015. It was hosted this year by the Institute of Plasma Research, in Ahmedabad, India. This biennial conference has been a venue for sharing ideas and results since 1997. This year's conference focused on new developments and perspectives in the areas of control, data acquisition, and remote participation for nuclear fusion research around the world.

  16. Instrumentation and Controls Division, Technical Support Department Management Plan, FY 1993--FY 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adkisson, B.P.; Kunselman, C.W.; Effler, R.P.; Miller, D.R.; Millet, A.J.; Stansberry, C.T.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the organization, key functions, and major activities of the Technical Support Department The Department is the programmatic support element of the Instrumentation and Controls Division. The Department`s primary focus is the support of existing equipment and systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that are generally characterized as instrumentation and controls. The support takes the form of repair, calibration, fabrication, field engineering, preventive maintenance, software support, and record keeping.

  17. Cox report and the US-China arms control technical exchange program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Capua, M S

    1999-09-01

    The ACE program furthered the national security interests of the US by promoting technical approaches to the implementation and verification of arms control treaties that the international community embraces. The Cox Committee report suggests that uncontrolled interactions were taking place between US and Chinese nuclear weapons scientists in the course of the ACE program. On the contrary, elaborate controls were in place at the very beginning and remained in place to control the interactions and protect US national security information. The ACE program payoff to national security was just beginning and its suspension, resulting from the Cox reports allegations, is a setback to US-China progress on arms control.

  18. The Importance of Postural Control in Relation to Technical Abilities in Small-Sided Soccer Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edis Çağlar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Making assessments regarding postural control and balance is very important for injury prevention in soccer. However, there has been no study that has associated postural control variables with branch-specific technical properties in a game. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationships between variables designating postural control levels and technical performance variables in different (1:1, 2:2 and 3:3 small-sided games (SSGs. Sixteen trained male amateur soccer players volunteered to take part in the study (age 17.2 ± 1.02 years, body height 176.25 ± 0.07 m, body mass 67.67 ± 13.27 kg. Following familiarization sessions, postural control was evaluated using one-leg and both-leg quiet-stance positions by measuring postural sway with a Tekscan HR Mat™ in anterior–posterior and medial–lateral directions. Later, 1:1, 2:2 and 3:3 SSGs were performed at two-day intervals and the technical variables specified for each game were analyzed. A Spearman’s rank-order correlation analysis demonstrated the relationship between postural control and soccer-specific technical variables in 1:1 (r-values ranging from 0.582 to 0.776, 2:2 (rvalues ranging from 0.511 to 0.740 and 3:3 (r-values ranging from 0.502 to 0.834 SSGs. In addition, a Wilcoxon signed rank test revealed differences between SSGs in terms of several variables. The results of the study showed that higher postural control levels are among the important variables that affect success in the performance of technical skills under rival pressure and suddenly changing conditions. Therefore, it is recommended that in addition to its use for injury prevention purposes, balance training should be conducted to improve branch-specific technical skills and to increase the levels of their successful performance in a game.

  19. Risk-based configuration control: Application of PSA in improving technical specifications and operational safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samanta, P.K.; Kim, I.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Vesely, W.E. [Science Applications International Corp., Dublin, OH (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Risk-based configuration control is the management of component configurations using a risk perspective to control risk and assure safety. A configuration, as used here, is a set of component operability statuses that define the state of a nuclear power plant. If the component configurations that have high risk implications do not occur, then the risk from the operation of nuclear power plants would be minimal. The control of component configurations, i.e., the management of component statuses, to minimize the risk from components being unavailable, becomes difficult, because the status of a standby safety system component is often not apparent unless it is tested. Controlling plant configuration from a risk-perspective can provide more direct risk control and also more operational flexibility by allowing looser controls in areas unimportant to risk. Risk-based configuration control approaches can be used to replace parts of nuclear power plant Technical Specifications. With the advances in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) technology, such approaches to improve Technical Specifications and operational safety are feasible. In this paper, we present an analysis of configuration risks, and a framework for risk-based configuration control to achieve the desired control of risk-significant configurations during plant operation.

  20. Risk-based configuration control: Application of PSA in improving technical specifications and operational safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samanta, P.K.; Kim, I.S. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Vesely, W.E. (Science Applications International Corp., Dublin, OH (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Risk-based configuration control is the management of component configurations using a risk perspective to control risk and assure safety. A configuration, as used here, is a set of component operability statuses that define the state of a nuclear power plant. If the component configurations that have high risk implications do not occur, then the risk from the operation of nuclear power plants would be minimal. The control of component configurations, i.e., the management of component statuses, to minimize the risk from components being unavailable, becomes difficult, because the status of a standby safety system component is often not apparent unless it is tested. Controlling plant configuration from a risk-perspective can provide more direct risk control and also more operational flexibility by allowing looser controls in areas unimportant to risk. Risk-based configuration control approaches can be used to replace parts of nuclear power plant Technical Specifications. With the advances in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) technology, such approaches to improve Technical Specifications and operational safety are feasible. In this paper, we present an analysis of configuration risks, and a framework for risk-based configuration control to achieve the desired control of risk-significant configurations during plant operation.

  1. Human/computer control of undersea teleoperators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, T. B.; Verplank, W. L.; Brooks, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    The potential of supervisory controlled teleoperators for accomplishment of manipulation and sensory tasks in deep ocean environments is discussed. Teleoperators and supervisory control are defined, the current problems of human divers are reviewed, and some assertions are made about why supervisory control has potential use to replace and extend human diver capabilities. The relative roles of man and computer and the variables involved in man-computer interaction are next discussed. Finally, a detailed description of a supervisory controlled teleoperator system, SUPERMAN, is presented.

  2. Control of human trophoblast function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biondi Carla

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The trophoblast, i.e. the peripheral part of the human conceptus, exerts a crucial role in implantation and placentation. Both processes properly occur as a consequence of an intimate dialogue between fetal and maternal tissues, fulfilled by membrane ligands and receptors, as well as by hormone and local factor release. During blastocyst implantation, generation of distinct trophoblast cell types begins, namely the villous and the extravillous trophoblast, the former of which is devoted to fetal-maternal exchanges and the latter binds the placental body to the uterine wall. Physiological placentation is characterized by the invasion of the uterine spiral arteries by extravillous trophoblast cells arising from anchoring villi. Due to this invasion, the arterial structure is replaced by amorphous fibrinoid material and endovascular trophoblastic cells. This transformation establishes a low-resistance, high-capacity perfusion system from the radial arteries to the intervillous space, in which the villous tree is embedded. The physiology of pregnancy depends upon the orderly progress of structural and functional changes of villous and extravillous trophoblast, whereas a derangement of such processes can lead to different types of complications of varying degrees of gravity, including possible pregnancy loss and maternal life-threatening diseases. In this review we describe the mechanisms which regulate trophoblast differentiation, proliferation, migration and invasiveness, and the alterations in these mechanisms which lead to pathological conditions. Furthermore, based on the growing evidence that proper inflammatory changes and oxidative balance are needed for successful gestation, we explain the mechanisms by which agents able to influence such processes may be useful in the prevention and treatment of pregnancy disorders.

  3. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Minnesota. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Monica; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen; Wraight, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  4. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Iowa. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrstock, Ellen; Bhatt, Monica; Cushing, Ellen; Wraight, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  5. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Michigan. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Cassandra; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  6. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Ohio. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  7. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Illinois. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Coby; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  8. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Wisconsin. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Ellen; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Meyer, Cassandra

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  9. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Indiana. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Cassandra; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  10. Assessment of control technology for stationary sources. Volume I: technical discussion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minicucci, D.; Herther, M.; Babb, L.; Kuby, W.

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a reference document for use by the Air Resources Board, local air pollution control districts, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that describes technological options available for the control of emissions from stationary sources located in California. Control technologies were examined for 10 industry groups and six air pollutants. Volume I, Technical Discussion, includes an overall introduction to the project, descriptions of its major elements, background information for each industry group addressed, and the project bibliography. In Volume II, Control Technology Data Tables, qualitative descriptions of control options for the various sources and quantitative information on control technology cost, efficiency, reliability, energy consumption, other environmental impacts, and application status are presented in tabular format. Also included is a code list that classifies the stationary sources examined by industry, process and emission source.

  11. Human rights and conventionality control in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azul América Aguiar-Aguilar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The protection of human rights in Mexico has, de jure, suffered an important change in the last years, given a new judicial interpretation delivered by the National Supreme Court of Justice that allows the use of conventionality control, which means, that it allows federal and state judges to verify the conformity of domestic laws with those established in the Inter-American Convention of Human Rights. To what extent domestic actors are protecting human rights using this new legal tool called conventionality control? In this article I explore whom and how is conventionality control being used in Mexico. Using N-Vivo Software I reviewed concluded decisions delivered by intermediate level courts (Collegiate Circuit Courts in three Mexican states. The evidence points that conventionality control is a very useful tool especially to defenders, who appear in sentences claiming compliance with the commitments Mexico has acquired when this country ratified the Convention.

  12. Human right to water and conventionality control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana N. Martínez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Humanity faces the challenge of achieving the sustainability of water resources supply for the satisfaction of human needs and ofensuring the sustainability of the natural ecosystems for the achievement of sustainable human development and the quality of life of present and future generations. For this reason the recognition of access to water as a Human Right has fundamental significance. We proceed to analyze the international instruments that provide content and legal basis to the human right to water and the obligations of States. In this context, we deal with the constitutional reception of human right to water in Argentina in the constitutional reform of 1994 and the control of conventionality as guarantor of access to water, which has led to different domestic courts to consider cases in which a violation ofthe right to water was proved.

  13. Final Technical Report of the project "Controlling Quantum Information by Quantum Correlations"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girolami, Davide [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-17

    The report describes hypotheses, aims, methods and results of the project 20170675PRD2, “Controlling Quantum Information by Quantum Correlations”, which has been run from July 31, 2017 to January 7, 2018. The technical work has been performed by Director’s Fellow Davide Girolami of the T-4 Division, Physics of Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, under the supervision of Wojciech Zurek (T-4), Lukasz Cincio (T-4), and Marcus Daniels (CCS-7). The project ended as Davide Girolami has been converted to J. R. Oppenheimer Fellow to work on the project 20180702PRD1, “Optimal Control of Quantum Machines”, started on January 8, 2018.

  14. Compulsory premarital screening for the human immunodeficiency virus. Technical and public health considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, P D; Barry, M J; Mayer, K H; Brandt, A M; Gostin, L; Fineberg, H V

    1987-10-02

    The effectiveness of a mandatory premarital screening program was examined as a means of curtailing the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the United States. The epidemiology of the HIV, the technical characteristics of tests for antibodies to HIV, and the logistic, economic, and legal implications of such a program were considered. In one year, universal premarital screening in the United States currently would detect fewer than one tenth of 1% of HIV-infected individuals at a cost of substantially more than +100 million. More than 100 infected individuals would be told that they were probably not infected, and there would likely be more than 350 false-positive results. Public education, counseling of individuals, and discretionary testing can be important tools in reducing the spread of HIV infection, but mandatory premarital screening in a population with a low prevalence of infection is a relatively ineffective and inefficient use of resources.

  15. Proprioceptive Control of Human Movement. The Human Movement Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, John

    Various research studies concerned with the feedback from proprioceptors which accompany movement and the way in which this information is relevant to the control of activity are brought together in this volume. It is intended for the use of those who have some basic knowledge of human anatomy and physiology as well as an acquaintance with…

  16. Applying human rights to maternal health: UN Technical Guidance on rights-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamin, Alicia Ely

    2013-05-01

    In the last few years there have been several critical milestones in acknowledging the centrality of human rights to sustainably addressing the scourge of maternal death and morbidity around the world, including from the United Nations Human Rights Council. In 2012, the Council adopted a resolution welcoming a Technical Guidance on rights-based approaches to maternal mortality and morbidity, and calling for a report on its implementation in 2 years. The present paper provides an overview of the contents and significance of the Guidance. It reviews how the Guidance can assist policymakers in improving women's health and their enjoyment of rights by setting out the implications of adopting a human rights-based approach at each step of the policy cycle, from planning and budgeting, to ensuring implementation, to monitoring and evaluation, to fostering accountability mechanisms. The Guidance should also prove useful to clinicians in understanding rights frameworks as applied to maternal health. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fiber-optic, anti-cycling, high pressure sodium street light control. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This is the Final Technical Progress Report on a project to develop and market a Fiber-Optic Anti-Cycling High Pressure Sodium Street Light Control. The field test units are now being made with a single vertical PC board design and contains a computer-on-a-chip or PROM IC to take the place of the majority of the components previously contained on the upper logic board. This will reduce the final costs of the unit when it is in production and increase the control`s flexibility. The authors have finished the soft tooling and have made the 400 plastic cases for the field test units. The new configuration of the cases entails a simplified design of the control shell which will have the lenses cast in place. The shell and base plastics are now finished and in final assembly awaiting the completion of the PC boards.

  18. Shared resource control between human and computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendler, James; Wilson, Reid

    1989-01-01

    The advantages of an AI system of actively monitoring human control of a shared resource (such as a telerobotic manipulator) are presented. A system is described in which a simple AI planning program gains efficiency by monitoring human actions and recognizing when the actions cause a change in the system's assumed state of the world. This enables the planner to recognize when an interaction occurs between human actions and system goals, and allows maintenance of an up-to-date knowledge of the state of the world and thus informs the operator when human action would undo a goal achieved by the system, when an action would render a system goal unachievable, and efficiently replans the establishment of goals after human intervention.

  19. Property, Control and Separated Human Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Neil

    2017-03-01

    This article examines the relationship between the existence of control rights and property in separated human biomaterials. Much of the theory as to what constitutes property is examined and it is contended that Article 22 of the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine does not presuppose property in such materials. An analysis is undertaken of the case-law relating to control and property in sperm and embryos from the UK, Australia and the US and the shortcomings of utilising the property paradigm in these disputes are highlighted.

  20. Indicators for control and evaluation of technical-tactical preparation in team handball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orelbis Aróstica Villa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for monitoring and evaluating the technical and tactical preparation as a dialectical unity led us to the determination of the direct influence among the indicators involved in the process of monitoring and evaluating the technical and tactical preparation in the Handball team at School category. In order to carry out this research, a sample of 12 high performance handball trainers from seven provinces of Cuba was used. Once the sample was determined, we proceeded to the application of methods for analyzing the documents and survey just for collecting the data, to analyze and process them so that we could reach conclusions from the research. The papers concludes that the determination of direct influence among indicators may lead the training to be as close as possible to competition, provoking the athlete to get used to acting under mental and emotional pressure and to experience domain in the correct resolution of the situations presented in the competitions. Also, this influence will allow these indicators to make the planning, control and evaluation of the technical and tactical preparation easier, taking into account the potential and characteristics of the individual athletes.

  1. Uranium mining in Virginia: scientific, technical, environmental, human health and safety, and regulatory aspects of uranium mining and processing in Virginia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Uranium Mining in Virginia; Committee on Earth Resources; National Research Council

    2012-01-01

    .... Uranium Mining in Virginia examines the scientific, technical, environmental, human health and safety, and regulatory aspects of uranium mining, milling, and processing as they relate to the Common...

  2. Technical process automatic control system programs for large substations and the electrical part of power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, V.I.; Rosman, L.V.; Salamatova, V.P.; Shandura, Z.A.

    1981-04-01

    Technical process automatic control systems (TPACS) for large substations and the electrical part of power plants are created in order to increase operating reliability, decrease the cost of their operation, increasing work capacity, decreasing losses and increasing electrical energy quality. The use of TPACs will also provide a savings in capital outlay as a result of a decrease in reserve coefficients in selection of power equipment, an increase in industrialization of installation and a decrease in the amount of space occupied by control equipment. In order to obtain the maximum savings from the use of the TPACS, certain problems must be solved which cannot be solved using tradition automation means, or are not solved with sufficient accuracy using them or, finally, the solution of which, using TPACS, decrease the overall dimensions and the cost of control equipment. In this article, the authors describe methods for solving these problems. (JMT)

  3. COMP Report: CPQR technical quality control guidelines for CyberKnife®Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandervoort, Eric; Patrocinio, Horacio; Chow, Tom; Soisson, Emilie; Nadeau, Dominic Béliveau

    2018-01-26

    The Canadian Organization of Medical Physicists (COMP), in close partnership with the Canadian Partnership for Quality Radiotherapy (CPQR) has developed a series of Technical Quality Control (TQC) guidelines for radiation treatment equipment. These guidelines outline the performance objectives that equipment should meet in order to ensure an acceptable level of radiation treatment quality. This particular TQC contains detailed performance objectives and safety criteria for CyberKnife ® Technology. The quality control recommendations in this document are based upon previously published guidelines and the collective experience of all Canadian sites using this technology. This TQC guideline has been field tested at the newest Canadian CyberKnife installation site and includes recommendations for quality control of the Iris™ and InCise™ MLC collimation systems. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  4. 21 CFR 14.160 - Establishment of standing technical advisory committees for human prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... established to advise the Commissioner: (a) Generally on the safety and effectiveness, including the labeling and advertising, and regulatory control of the human prescription drugs falling within the... determination of safety and effectiveness in that class of drugs. (b) Specifically on any particular matter...

  5. Human reliability analysis of control room operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R.; Grecco, Claudio H.S. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Human reliability is the probability that a person correctly performs some system required action in a required time period and performs no extraneous action that can degrade the system Human reliability analysis (HRA) is the analysis, prediction and evaluation of work-oriented human performance using some indices as human error likelihood and probability of task accomplishment. Significant progress has been made in the HRA field during the last years, mainly in nuclear area. Some first-generation HRA methods were developed, as THERP (Technique for human error rate prediction). Now, an array of called second-generation methods are emerging as alternatives, for instance ATHEANA (A Technique for human event analysis). The ergonomics approach has as tool the ergonomic work analysis. It focus on the study of operator's activities in physical and mental form, considering at the same time the observed characteristics of operator and the elements of the work environment as they are presented to and perceived by the operators. The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology to analyze the human reliability of the operators of industrial plant control room, using a framework that includes the approach used by ATHEANA, THERP and the work ergonomics analysis. (author)

  6. Production, review, and impact of technical quality control guidelines in a national context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Michelle K; Malkoske, Kyle E; Brown, Erika; Diamond, Kevin; Frenière, Normand; Grant, John; Pomerleau-Dalcourt, Natalie; Schella, Jason; Schreiner, L John; Tantôt, Laurent; Villareal-Barajas, J Eduardo; Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre

    2016-11-08

    A close partnership between the Canadian Partnership for Quality Radiotherapy (CPQR) and the Canadian Organization of Medical Physicist's (COMP) Quality Assurance and Radiation Safety Advisory Committee (QARSAC) has resulted in the development of a suite of Technical Quality Control (TQC) guidelines for radiation treatment equipment; they outline specific performance objectives and criteria that equipment should meet in order to assure an acceptable level of radiation treatment quality. The adopted framework for the development and maintenance of the TQCs ensures the guidelines incorporate input from the medical physics com-munity during development, measures the workload required to perform the QC tests outlined in each TQC, and remain relevant (i.e., "living documents") through subsequent planned reviews and updates. The framework includes consolidation of existing guidelines and/or literature by expert reviewers, structured stages of public review, external field-testing, and ratification by COMP. This TQC develop-ment framework is a cross-country initiative that allows for rapid development of robust, community-driven living guideline documents that are owned by the com-munity and reviewed to keep relevant in a rapidly evolving technical environment. Community engagement and uptake survey data shows 70% of Canadian centers are part of this process and that the data in the guideline documents reflect, and are influencing, the way Canadian radiation treatment centers run their technical quality control programs. For a medium-sized center comprising six linear accelerators and a comprehensive brachytherapy program, we evaluate the physics workload to 1.5 full-time equivalent physicists per year to complete all QC tests listed in this suite. © 2016 The Authors.

  7. Chemistry, manufacturing and control (CMC) and clinical trial technical support for influenza vaccine manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Rahnuma; Holt, Renee; Hjorth, Richard; Berlanda Scorza, Francesco

    2016-10-26

    With the support of the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) of the US Department of Health and Human Services, PATH has contributed to the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines (GAP) by providing technical and clinical assistance to several developing country vaccine manufacturers (DCVMs). GAP builds regionally based independent and sustainable influenza vaccine production capacity to mitigate the overall global shortage of influenza vaccines. The program also ensures adequate influenza vaccine manufacturing capacity in the event of an influenza pandemic. Since 2009, PATH has worked closely with two DCVMs in Vietnam: the Institute of Vaccines and Medical Biologicals (IVAC) and VABIOTECH. Beginning in 2013, PATH also began working with Torlak Institute in Serbia; Instituto Butantan in Brazil; Serum Institute of India Private Ltd. in India; and Changchun BCHT Biotechnology Co. (BCHT) in China. The DCVMs supported under the GAP program all had existing influenza vaccine manufacturing capability and required technical support from PATH to improve vaccine yield, process efficiency, and product formulation. PATH has provided customized technical support for the manufacturing process to each DCVM based on their respective requirements. Additionally, PATH, working with BARDA and WHO, supported several DCVMs in the clinical development of influenza vaccine candidates progressing toward national licensure or WHO prequalification. As a result of the activities outlined in this review, several companies were able to make excellent progress in developing state-of-the-art manufacturing processes and completing early phase clinical trials. Licensure trials are currently ongoing or planned for several DCVMs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. COMP report: CPQR technical quality control guidelines for brachytherapy remote afterloaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenière, Normand

    2018-02-07

    The Canadian Organization of Medical Physicists (COMP), in close partnership with the Canadian Partnership for Quality Radiotherapy (CPQR) has developed a series of Technical Quality Control (TQC) guidelines for radiation treatment equipment. These guidelines outline the performance objectives that equipment should meet in order to ensure an acceptable level of radiation treatment quality. The TQC guidelines have been rigorously reviewed and field tested in a variety of Canadian radiation treatment facilities. The development process enables rapid review and update to keep the guidelines current with changes in technology (the most updated version of this guideline can be found on the CPQR website). This particular TQC details recommended quality control testing of brachytherapy remote afterloaders. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  9. COMP report: CPQR technical quality control guidelines for kilovoltage X ray radiotherapy machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furstoss, Christophe

    2017-11-22

    The Canadian Organization of Medical Physicists (COMP) in close partnership with the Canadian Partnership for Quality Radiotherapy (CPQR) has developed a series of Technical Quality Control (TQC) guidelines for radiation treatment equipment. These guidelines outline the performance objectives that equipment should meet in order to ensure an acceptable level of radiation treatment quality. The TQC guidelines have been rigorously reviewed and field tested at various Canadian radiation treatment facilities. The development process enables rapid review and update to keep the guidelines current with changes in technology (the most updated version of this guideline can be found on the CPQR website). This particular TQC details recommended quality control for kilovoltage X Ray radiotherapy machines. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  10. COMP report: CPQR technical quality control guideline for medical linear accelerators and multileaf collimators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Charles; Ghasroddashti, Esmaeel; Angers, Crystal Plume; Zeng, Grace; Barnett, Erin

    2017-12-04

    The Canadian Organization of Medical Physicists (COMP), in close partnership with the Canadian Partnership for Quality Radiotherapy (CPQR) has developed a series of Technical Quality Control (TQC) guidelines for radiation treatment equipment. These guidelines outline the performance objectives that equipment should meet in order to ensure an acceptable level of radiation treatment quality. The TQC guidelines have been rigorously reviewed and field tested in a variety of Canadian radiation treatment facilities. The development process enables rapid review and update to keep the guidelines current with changes in technology (the most updated version of this guideline can be found on the CPQR website). This particular TQC details recommended quality control testing for medical linear accelerators and multileaf collimators. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  11. Human response to an individually controlled environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, G.L.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2005-01-01

    Forty-eight subjects tested an individually controlled system (ICS) at room air temperatures of 20, 22 and 26 degrees C. Human response to a reference condition without the ICS at a room air temperature of 22 degrees C was also collected. ne ICS incorporated Personalized Ventilation (PV), an under......-desk air terminal device supplying cool air, a chair with convectively heated backrest, an under-desk radiant heating panel and a floor-heating panel. The temperature of the PV air and the under-desk air was kept at 20 degrees C. The subjects were provided with control of the flow rate and direction...

  12. Technical performance evaluation of a human brain PET/MRI system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, Armin; Wehrl, Hans F.; Judenhofer, Martin S.; Pichler, Bernd J. [Eberhard Karls University, Department of Preclinical Imaging and Radiopharmacy, Tuebingen (Germany); Hofmann, Matthias [Eberhard Karls University, Department of Preclinical Imaging and Radiopharmacy, Tuebingen (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tuebingen (Germany); Eriksson, Lars; Ladebeck, Ralf; Byars, Larry; Michel, Christian; Schmand, Matthias [Siemens Healthcare, Knoxville, TN (United States); Lichy, Matthias P. [Eberhard Karls University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen (Germany); Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Claussen, Claus D. [Eberhard Karls University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Sossi, Vesna [University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

    2012-08-15

    Technical performance evaluation of a human brain PET/MRI system. The magnetic field compatible positron emission tomography (PET) insert is based on avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays coupled with lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) crystals and slip-fits into a slightly modified clinical 3-T MRI system. The mutual interference between the two imaging techniques was minimised by the careful design of the hardware to maintain the quality of the B{sub 0} and B{sub 1} field homogeneity. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the homogeneity of the MR images were minimally influenced by the presence of the PET. Measurements according to the Function Biomedical Informatics Research Network (FBIRN) protocol proved the combined system's ability to perform functional MRI (fMRI). The performance of the PET insert was evaluated according to the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) standard. The noise equivalent count rate (NEC) peaked at 30.7 x 10{sup 3} counts/s at 7.3 kBq/mL. The point source sensitivity was greater than 7 %. The spatial resolution in the centre field of view was less than 3 mm. Patient data sets clearly revealed a noticeably good PET and MR image quality. PET and MRI phantom tests and first patient data exhibit the device's potential for simultaneous multiparametric imaging. (orig.)

  13. Fragile Balance: Human Mediums and Technical Media in Oliver Lodges Presidential Address of 1891

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhard Schuettpelz, Ehler Voss

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the work of the Victorian physicist and radio pioneer Oliver Lodge (1851–1940 in the context of what we call the mediumistic trial of the long 19th century. We are focusing on a short moment in the early 1890s when Lodge’s radio experiments were part of a common expansion into physical and psychical research. By rigorously applying David Bloors heuristic "principle of symmetry", we demonstrate how Oliver Lodge lived in a world of systems-building and Empire-building that enabled him to categorize human mediums, electromagnetic entities and technical media as parts of an indeterminate but unified field of experimental settings. Though this historical moment was to become a unique tipping point in the initial convergence and later divergence of physical and psychical research, it reveals some general aspects of the mediumistic trial in the long 19th century, namely the existence of a common interface between religious and secularist positions and aspirations.

  14. Development, Technical, and User Evaluation of a Web Mobile Application for Self-Control of Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Zapirain, Begoña; de la Torre Díez, Isabel; Sainz de Abajo, Beatriz; López-Coronado, Miguel

    2016-09-01

    The main objective of this research was to develop and evaluate a Web-based mobile application (app) known as "Diario Diabetes" on both a technical and user level, by means of which individuals with diabetes may monitor their illness easily at any time and in any place using any device that has Internet access. The technologies used to develop the app were HTML, CSS, JavaScript, PHP, and MySQL, all of which are an open source. Once the app was developed, it was evaluated on a technical level (by measuring loading times) and on a user level, through a survey. Different loading times for the application were measured, with it being noted that under no circumstances does this exceed 2 s. Usability was evaluated by 150 users who initially used the application. A majority (71%) of users used a PC to access the app, 83% considered the app's design to be attractive, 67% considered the tasks to be very useful, and 67% found it very easy to use. Although applications exist for controlling diabetes both at mobile virtual shops or on a research level, our app may help to improve the administration of these types of patients and they are the ones who will ultimately opt for one or the other. According to the results obtained, we can state that all users would recommend the app's use to other users.

  15. Human Factors and Technical Considerations for a Computerized Operator Support System Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, Thomas Anthony [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lew, Roger Thomas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Medema, Heather Dawne [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thomas, Kenneth David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A prototype computerized operator support system (COSS) has been developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The prototype is based on four underlying elements consisting of a digital alarm system, computer-based procedures, PI&D system representations, and a recommender module for mitigation actions. At this point, the prototype simulates an interface to a sensor validation module and a fault diagnosis module. These two modules will be fully integrated in the next version of the prototype. The initial version of the prototype is now operational at the Idaho National Laboratory using the U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL). The HSSL is a full-scope, full-scale glass top simulator capable of simulating existing and future nuclear power plant main control rooms. The COSS is interfaced to the Generic Pressurized Water Reactor (gPWR) simulator with industry-typical control board layouts. The glass top panels display realistic images of the control boards that can be operated by touch gestures. A section of the simulated control board was dedicated to the COSS human-system interface (HSI), which resulted in a seamless integration of the COSS into the normal control room environment. A COSS demonstration scenario has been developed for the prototype involving the Chemical & Volume Control System (CVCS) of the PWR simulator. It involves a primary coolant leak outside of containment that would require tripping the reactor if not mitigated in a very short timeframe. The COSS prototype presents a series of operator screens that provide the needed information and soft controls to successfully mitigate the event.

  16. History, Rhetoric, and Humanism: Toward a More Comprehensive Definition of Technical Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Russell

    1991-01-01

    Argues for studying technical communication in the larger context of evolving science and technology, developing trends in technical education, and the oratorical tradition of broad learning. Suggests supplementing studies of the workplace with increased attention to humanistic questions of what a person needs to be and know to cooperate…

  17. COMP report: CPQR technical quality control guidelines for treatment planning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal-Barajas, Jose E

    2018-01-27

    The Canadian Organization of Medical Physicists (COMP), in close partnership with the Canadian Partnership for Quality Radiotherapy (CPQR) has developed a series of Technical Quality Control (TQC) guidelines for radiation treatment equipment. These guidelines outline the performance objectives that equipment should meet in order to ensure an acceptable level of radiation treatment quality. The TQC guidelines have been rigorously reviewed and field tested in a variety of Canadian radiation treatment facilities. The development process enables rapid review and update to keep the guidelines current with changes in technology. This article contains detailed performance objectives and safety criteria for Treatment Planning Systems (TPS) for External Beam Radiotherapy. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  18. Demand Response Control in Low Voltage Grids for Technical and Commercial Aggregation Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz de Cerio Mendaza, Iker; Szczesny, Ireneusz; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2016-01-01

    . In this way, a system operator playing a role of an aggregator not only could trade flexible demand in the power markets but also materialize its energy agreements while ensuring the local network security and reliability. To verify the effectiveness of this extended method, a Danish low voltage networks...... hand, some of those represent a source of flexibility which can be used to satisfy different technical and commercial purposes. This paper introduces an upgraded hierarchical structure which aims to serve as a platform for activating and controlling the demand response in low voltage networks...... is considered. The results show that it is possible to fulfill energy commitments in energy markets such as the regulation power market while respecting the proper network operation. However, the activation of the flexibility offered might be limited depending on the network characteristics and the season...

  19. THE SYSTEM OF TECHNICAL VISION IN THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE REMOTE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Shavetov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the development of video broadcasting system in view of controlling mobile robots over the Internet. A brief overview of the issues and their solutions, encountered in the real-time broadcasting video stream, is given. Affordable and versatile solutions of technical vision are considered. An approach for frame-accurate video rebroadcasting to unlimited number of end-users is proposed. The optimal performance parameters of network equipment for the final number of cameras are defined. System approbation on five IP cameras of different manufacturers is done. The average time delay for broadcasting in MJPEG format over the local network was 200 ms and 500 ms over the Internet.

  20. Optimal control with multiple human papillomavirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Tufail; Imran, Mudassar; Jayaraman, Raja

    2016-03-21

    A two-sex, deterministic ordinary differential equations model for human papillomavirus (HPV) is constructed and analyzed for optimal control strategies in a vaccination program administering three types of vaccines in the female population: a bivalent vaccine that targets two HPV types and provides longer duration of protection and cross-protection against some non-target types, a quadrivalent vaccine which targets an additional two HPV types, and a nonavalent vaccine which targets nine HPV types (including those covered by the quadrivalent vaccine), but with lesser type-specific efficacy. Considering constant vaccination controls, the disease-free equilibrium and the effective reproduction number Rv for the autonomous model are computed in terms of the model parameters. Local-asymptotic stability of the disease-free equilibrium is established in terms of Rv. Uncertainty and Sensitivity analyses are carried out to study the influence of various important model parameters on the HPV infection prevalence. Assuming the HPV infection prevalence in the population under the constant control, optimal control theory is used to devise optimal vaccination strategies for the associated non-autonomous model when the vaccination rates are functions of time. The impact of these strategies on the number of infected individuals and the accumulated cost is assessed and compared with the constant control case. Switch times from one vaccine combination to a different combination including the nonavalent vaccine are assessed during an optimally designed HPV immunization program. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gaze training enhances laparoscopic technical skill acquisition and multi-tasking performance: a randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark R; Vine, Samuel J; Bright, Elizabeth; Masters, Rich S W; Defriend, David; McGrath, John S

    2011-12-01

    The operating room environment is replete with stressors and distractions that increase the attention demands of what are already complex psychomotor procedures. Contemporary research in other fields (e.g., sport) has revealed that gaze training interventions may support the development of robust movement skills. This current study was designed to examine the utility of gaze training for technical laparoscopic skills and to test performance under multitasking conditions. Thirty medical trainees with no laparoscopic experience were divided randomly into one of three treatment groups: gaze trained (GAZE), movement trained (MOVE), and discovery learning/control (DISCOVERY). Participants were fitted with a Mobile Eye gaze registration system, which measures eye-line of gaze at 25 Hz. Training consisted of ten repetitions of the "eye-hand coordination" task from the LAP Mentor VR laparoscopic surgical simulator while receiving instruction and video feedback (specific to each treatment condition). After training, all participants completed a control test (designed to assess learning) and a multitasking transfer test, in which they completed the procedure while performing a concurrent tone counting task. Not only did the GAZE group learn more quickly than the MOVE and DISCOVERY groups (faster completion times in the control test), but the performance difference was even more pronounced when multitasking. Differences in gaze control (target locking fixations), rather than tool movement measures (tool path length), underpinned this performance advantage for GAZE training. These results suggest that although the GAZE intervention focused on training gaze behavior only, there were indirect benefits for movement behaviors and performance efficiency. Additionally, focusing on a single external target when learning, rather than on complex movement patterns, may have freed-up attentional resources that could be applied to concurrent cognitive tasks.

  2. Parameter optimization of measuring and control elements in the monitoring systems of complex technical objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekrylov, Ivan; Korotaev, Valery; Blokhina, Anastasia; Kleshchenok, Maksim

    2017-06-01

    In the world is the widespread adoption of measuring equipment of new generation, which is characterized by small size, high automation level, a multi-channel, digital filtering, satellite synchronization, wireless communication, digital record in long-term memory with great resource, powered by long-lived sources, etc. However, modern equipment base of the Russian institutions and the level of development of technical facilities and measuring technologies lag far behind developed countries. For this reason, the vacated niches are actively developed by foreign companies. For example, more than 70% instrumentation performing works on the territory of Russia, equipped with imported equipment (products of Sweden and Germany companies); the amount of work performed with German equipment is more than 70% of the total volume of these works; more than 80% of industrial measurements are performed using HEXAGON equipment (Sweden). These trends show that the Russian sector of measuring technology gradually become import-dependent, which poses a threat to the economic security of the country and consistent with national priorities. The results of the research will allow to develop the theory of formation of control systems of the displacement with high accuracy and unattainable for the existing analogue ergonomic and weight characteristics combined with a comparable or lower cost. These advantages will allow you to be successful competition, and eventually to supplant the existing system, which had no fundamental changes in the last 20 years and, therefore, retained all the drawbacks: large size and weight, high power consumption, the dependence on magnetic fields

  3. Technical training seminar: Data Converters and Linear Products for Signal Processing and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Davide Vitè

    2006-01-01

    Monday 23 January 2006 TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR from 14:00 to 17:30, Training Centre Auditorium (bldg. 503) Data Converters and Linear Products for Signal Processing and Control Marco Corsi, William Bright, Olrik Maier, Andrea Huder / TEXAS INSTRUMENTS (US, D, CH) Texas Instruments will present recent technology advances in design and manufacturing of A/D and D/A converters, and of operational amplifiers. 14:00 - 15:30 HIGH SPEED - Technology and the new process BiCom3: High speed ADCs, DACs, operational amplifiers 15:30 - 15:45 coffee 15:45 - 17:15 HIGH PRECISION - Technology and the new process HPA07: High precision ADCs, DACs, operational amplifiers questions, discussion Industrial partners: Robert Medioni, François Caloz Spoerle Electronic, CH-1440 Montagny (VD), Switzerland Phone: + 41 24 447 01 37, email: RMedioni@spoerle.com, http://www.spoerle.com Language: English. Free seminar (no registration). Organiser: Davide Vitè / HR-PMD-ATT / 75141 For more information, visit the Te...

  4. Post-Modernism as the Resurgence of Humanism in Technical Communication Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Paul M.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews recent developments in the rhetoric of science, social constructionism, feminist critiques of science, and ethics. Explains how they are postmodernistic, and explains how they are also humanistic. Concludes by discussing the implications for the practice and teaching of technical communication. (SR)

  5. Post-Modernism as the Resurgence of Humanism in Technical Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, P. M.

    Scholars, teachers, and practitioners of technical communication are empowered by developments in postmodernism, especially in the face of the historical privileging of the generators of specialized knowledge. Developments in four areas--the rhetoric of science, social constructionism, feminist critiques of science, and ethics--are of a humanistic…

  6. AN ANALYSIS OF TECHNICAL SECURITY CONTROL REQUIREMENTS FOR DIGITAL I&C SYSTEMS IN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAE-GU SONG

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants have been digitalized for the purpose of maintenance and precise operation. This digitalization, however, brings out issues related to cyber security. In the most recent past, international standard organizations, regulatory institutes, and research institutes have performed a number of studies addressing these systems cyber security. In order to provide information helpful to the system designers in their application of cyber security for the systems, this paper presents methods and considerations to define attack vectors in a target system, to review and select the requirements in the Regulatory Guide 5.71, and to integrate the results to identify applicable technical security control requirements. In this study, attack vectors are analyzed through the vulnerability analyses and penetration tests with a simplified safety system, and the elements of critical digital assets acting as attack vectors are identified. Among the security control requirements listed in Appendices B and C to Regulatory Guide 5.71, those that should be implemented into the systems are selected and classified in groups of technical security control requirements using the results of the attack vector analysis. For the attack vector elements of critical digital assets, all the technical security control requirements are evaluated to determine whether they are applicable and effective, and considerations in this evaluation are also discussed. The technical security control requirements in three important categories of access control, monitoring and logging, and encryption are derived and grouped according to the elements of attack vectors as results for the sample safety system.

  7. Sensorimotor integration in human postural control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterka, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    It is generally accepted that human bipedal upright stance is achieved by feedback mechanisms that generate an appropriate corrective torque based on body-sway motion detected primarily by visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive sensory systems. Because orientation information from the various senses is not always available (eyes closed) or accurate (compliant support surface), the postural control system must somehow adjust to maintain stance in a wide variety of environmental conditions. This is the sensorimotor integration problem that we investigated by evoking anterior-posterior (AP) body sway using pseudorandom rotation of the visual surround and/or support surface (amplitudes 0.5-8 degrees ) in both normal subjects and subjects with severe bilateral vestibular loss (VL). AP rotation of body center-of-mass (COM) was measured in response to six conditions offering different combinations of available sensory information. Stimulus-response data were analyzed using spectral analysis to compute transfer functions and coherence functions over a frequency range from 0.017 to 2.23 Hz. Stimulus-response data were quite linear for any given condition and amplitude. However, overall behavior in normal subjects was nonlinear because gain decreased and phase functions sometimes changed with increasing stimulus amplitude. "Sensory channel reweighting" could account for this nonlinear behavior with subjects showing increasing reliance on vestibular cues as stimulus amplitudes increased. VL subjects could not perform this reweighting, and their stimulus-response behavior remained quite linear. Transfer function curve fits based on a simple feedback control model provided estimates of postural stiffness, damping, and feedback time delay. There were only small changes in these parameters with increasing visual stimulus amplitude. However, stiffness increased as much as 60% with increasing support surface amplitude. To maintain postural stability and avoid resonant behavior, an

  8. Reproduction (II): Human Control of Reproductive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Alfred

    1970-01-01

    Describes methods of intervening in reproduction of animals and humans (artificial insemination, contraception, ovular and blastodisc transplants, pre selection of sex, cloning) and discusses the social implications of their use with humans. (AL)

  9. $\\infty-$Dimensional Cerebellar Controller for Realistic Human Biodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Ivancevic, Vladimir G.; Ivancevic, Tijana T.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we propose an $\\infty-$dimensional cerebellar model of neural controller for realistic human biodynamics. The model is developed using Feynman's action-amplitude (partition function) formalism. The cerebellum controller is acting as a supervisor for an autogenetic servo control of human musculo-skeletal dynamics, which is presented in (dissipative, driven) Hamiltonian form. The $\\infty-$dimensional cerebellar controller is closely related to entropic motor control. Keywords: rea...

  10. Role of medical, technical, and administrative leadership in the human resource management life cycle: a team approach to laboratory management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, D S; Dilts, T J

    1999-01-01

    We believe the team approach to laboratory management achieves the best outcomes. Laboratory management requires the integration of medical, technical, and administrative expertise to achieve optimal service, quality, and cost performance. Usually, a management team of two or more individuals must be assembled to achieve all of these critical leadership functions. The individual members of the management team must possess the requisite expertise in clinical medicine, laboratory science, technology management, and administration. They also must work together in a unified and collaborative manner, regardless of where individual team members appear on the organizational chart. The management team members share in executing the entire human resource management life cycle, creating the proper environment to maximize human performance. Above all, the management team provides visionary and credible leadership.

  11. Control of Dog Mediated Human Rabies in Haiti: No Time to Spare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millien, Max F; Pierre-Louis, Jocelyne B; Wallace, Ryan; Caldas, Eduardo; Rwangabgoba, Jean M; Poncelet, Jean L; Cosivi, Ottorino; Del Rio Vilas, Victor J

    2015-01-01

    The American region has pledged to eliminate dog-mediated human rabies by 2015. As part of these efforts, we describe the findings of a desk and field mission review of Haiti's rabies situation by the end of 2013. While government officials recognize the importance of dog-mediated rabies control, and the national rabies plan adequately contemplates the basic capacities to that effect, regular and sufficient implementation, for example, of dog vaccination, is hampered by limited funding. Compounding insufficient funding and human resources, official surveillance figures do not accurately reflect the risk to the population, as evidenced by the large number of rabid dogs detected by focalized and enhanced surveillance activities conducted by the Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Rural Development (MARNDR) and the Health and Population Ministry (MSPP) with the technical assistance of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Although international support is common, either in the form of on-the-ground technical support or donations of immunobiologicals, it is not comprehensive. In addition, there is limited coordination with MARNDR/MSPP and with other actors at the strategic or operational level due to human resources limitations. Given these findings, the 2015 elimination goal in the region is compromised by the situation in Haiti where control of the disease is not yet in sight despite the best efforts of the resolute national officials. More importantly, dog-mediated rabies is still a threat to the Haitian population.

  12. Control of Dog Mediated Human Rabies in Haiti: No Time to Spare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max F Millien

    Full Text Available The American region has pledged to eliminate dog-mediated human rabies by 2015. As part of these efforts, we describe the findings of a desk and field mission review of Haiti's rabies situation by the end of 2013. While government officials recognize the importance of dog-mediated rabies control, and the national rabies plan adequately contemplates the basic capacities to that effect, regular and sufficient implementation, for example, of dog vaccination, is hampered by limited funding. Compounding insufficient funding and human resources, official surveillance figures do not accurately reflect the risk to the population, as evidenced by the large number of rabid dogs detected by focalized and enhanced surveillance activities conducted by the Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Rural Development (MARNDR and the Health and Population Ministry (MSPP with the technical assistance of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Although international support is common, either in the form of on-the-ground technical support or donations of immunobiologicals, it is not comprehensive. In addition, there is limited coordination with MARNDR/MSPP and with other actors at the strategic or operational level due to human resources limitations. Given these findings, the 2015 elimination goal in the region is compromised by the situation in Haiti where control of the disease is not yet in sight despite the best efforts of the resolute national officials. More importantly, dog-mediated rabies is still a threat to the Haitian population.

  13. Monochromosomal hybrids for the analysis of the human genome. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athwal, R.S. [Temple Univ. School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Fels Inst. for Cancer Research and Molecular Biology

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this research project is to produce panels of mouse/human and/or Chinese hamster/human hybrid cell lines each harboring a single different human chromosome. The human chromosome present in rodent cell will be marked with a dominant selectable marker and maintained by selection. In these experiments human chromosomes first ``tagged`` with a selectable marker in human cells are subsequently transferred to rodent cells by microcell fusion method. Several different experimental schemes have been developed to ``tag`` human chromosomes with a selectable marker. Amphotropic retroviral vectors provide a highly efficient system to introduce selectable markers into normal diploid human cells. The integration of retroviral vector into the cell genome occurs at random by recombination at a defined nucleotide sequence in the LTRs and only a single copy of the vector integrates in a cell. This property of retroviral vectors allows to isolate a segment of the chromosomal DNA flanking the vector integration site by PCR amplification. In these studies the amphotropic retroviral vector pZIPgpt that carries a dominant selectable marker gpt, is used to tag the human chromosomes in normal diploid cells. Human DNA flanking the integrated vector is rescued by PCR amplification and cloned into a plasmid vector. Cloned human DNA is then used to probe Southern blots of DNAs from a panel of hybrid cell lines to identify the chromosome of its origin. This allows them to identify clonal human cell lines, each carrying the marker integrated into a different chromosome. Marked chromosomes are then transferred to rodent cells by MMCT.

  14. Technical Standards for Command and Control Information Systems (CCISs) and Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    requirements for operating Directory services in multi-national, multi- lingual , and multi-cultural environments [SC21 N7931]. This report recommends...Specifiscation of Busie Notation WDAM 4 Removal of Definition of Root Arco of Object Identifier Tree car 1 Draft Technical Cotrlgedau 1I ISOMC 3324-1

  15. The Literature of Technical and Professional Communication: Citation Patterns and Bibliographic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Donnelyn

    Through an examination of the technical and professional writing profession as it defines itself and through a citation analysis of its journals, this thesis highlights the literature, identifies access problems, and suggests some strategies for confronting bibliographic obstacles. After a brief introductory chapter, the second chapter of the…

  16. Control-technical optimization of topped denitrification through fuzzy control; Regelungstechnische Optimierung der vorgeschalteten Denitrifikation durch Anwendung von Fuzzy-Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, U. [Hydroplan Ingenieurgesellschaft, Worms (Germany); Poepel, H.J. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. WAR - Wasserversorgung, Abwassertechnik, Abfalltechnik, Umwelt- und Raumplanung

    1999-07-01

    The present paper describes complex fuzzy systems for controlling nitrogen elimination at plants with topped denitrification. For the design and testing of the fuzzy systems, dynamic simulation calculations and experimental tests were carried out in a semi-technical pilot plant. The controlling fuzzy systems indicate the supposed oxygen values for individual tank areas and the most appropriate partitioning of the activated sludge tank (anoxic/aerobic zone) as a function of the input quantities used. It is established that, with the more flexible control behaviour, a more stable nitrogen elimination and, at the same time, a cut in the amount of air transferred to the system can be attained in comparison with a conventional control. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen dieses Beitrags werden komplexe Fuzzy-Systeme zur Regelung der Stickstoffelimination in Anlagen mit vorgeschalteter Denitrifikation vorgestellt. Zum Entwurf und zur Erprobung der Fuzzy-Systeme wurden dynamische Simulationsrechnungen und experimentelle Untersuchungen an einer halbtechnischen Versuchsanlage durchgefuehrt. Die uebergeordneten Fuzzy-Systeme geben in Abhaengigkeit der verwendeten Eingangsgroessen Sauerstoffsollwerte fuer die einzelnen Beckenbereiche und die jeweils guenstigste Aufteilung des Belebungsbeckens (anoxische/aerobe Zone) vor. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass durch das flexible Reglerverhalten eine stabilere Stickstoffelimination und gleichzeitig eine Einsparung an eingetragener Luftmenge im Vergleich zu einem konventionellen Regelsystem erreicht werden kann. (orig.)

  17. Technical Note: Construction of heterogeneous head phantom for quality control in stereotactic radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Mohsen; Teimouri, Javad; Shirazi, Alireza; Geraily, Ghazale; Esfahani, Mahbod; Shafaei, Mostafa

    2017-10-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is a high precision modality for conformally delivering high doses of radiation to the brain lesion with a large dose volume. Several studies for the quality control of this technique were performed to measure the dose delivered to the target with a homogenous head phantom and some dosimeters. Some studies were also performed with one or two instances of heterogeneity in the head phantom to measure the dose delivered to the target. But these studies assumed the head as a sphere and simple shape heterogeneity. The construction of an adult human head phantom with the same size, shape, and real inhomogeneity as an adult human head is needed. Only then is measuring the accurate dose delivered to the area of interest and comparison with the calculated dose possible. According to the ICRU Report 44, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and methyl methacrylate were selected as a bone and soft tissue, respectively. A set of computed tomography (CT) scans from a standard human head were taken, and simplification of the CT images was used to design the layers of the phantom. The parts of each slice were cut and attached together. Tests of density and CT number were done to compare the material of the phantom with tissues of the head. The dose delivered to the target was measured with an EBT3 film. The density of the PTFE and Plexiglas that were inserted in the phantom are in good agreement with bone and soft tissue. Also, the CT numbers of these materials have a low difference. The dose distribution from the EBT3 film and the treatment planning system is similar. The constructed phantom with a size and inhomogeneity like an adult human head is suitable to measure the dose delivered to the area of interest. It also helps make an accurate comparison with the calculated dose by the treatment planning system. By using this phantom, the actual dose delivered to the target was obtained. This anthropomorphic head phantom can be used in other modalities of

  18. Assessing the Impact of Arts and Humanities Research at the University of Cambridge. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Ruth; Celia, Claire; Diepeveen, Stephanie; Chonaill, Siobhan Ni; Rabinovich, Lila; Tiessen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This project for the University of Cambridge and the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) assesses the impacts of arts and humanities research at the University of Cambridge. Evidence from interviews, a survey of research staff and detailed case studies indicates that these disciplines already have a broad range of impacts. Many of these…

  19. Simultaneous 31P NMR spectroscopy and EMG in exercising and recovering human skeletal muscle: technical aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard-Poulsen, P; Thomsen, C; Sinkjaer, T

    1994-01-01

    The bioenergetics of human skeletal muscle can be studied by 31P NMR spectroscopy (31P-MRS) and by surface electromyography (SEMG). Simultaneous 31P-MRS and SEMG permit accurate and noninvasive studies of the correlation between metabolic and electrical changes in exercising and recovering human ...

  20. Constraints for control of the human hand

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    van Duinen, Hiske; Gandevia, Simon C

    2011-01-01

    .... The human hand is widely assumed to have evolved from hands like those of African apes, yet recent studies have shown that our hands and those of the earliest hominids are very similar and unlike those of living apes...

  1. Applying Human-performance Models to Designing and Evaluating Nuclear Power Plants: Review Guidance and Technical Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J.M.

    2009-11-30

    Human performance models (HPMs) are simulations of human behavior with which we can predict human performance. Designers use them to support their human factors engineering (HFE) programs for a wide range of complex systems, including commercial nuclear power plants. Applicants to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) can use HPMs for design certifications, operating licenses, and license amendments. In the context of nuclear-plant safety, it is important to assure that HPMs are verified and validated, and their usage is consistent with their intended purpose. Using HPMs improperly may generate misleading or incorrect information, entailing safety concerns. The objective of this research was to develop guidance to support the NRC staff's reviews of an applicant's use of HPMs in an HFE program. The guidance is divided into three topical areas: (1) HPM Verification, (2) HPM Validation, and (3) User Interface Verification. Following this guidance will help ensure the benefits of HPMs are achieved in a technically sound, defensible manner. During the course of developing this guidance, I identified several issues that could not be addressed; they also are discussed.

  2. Effect of intermittent feedback control on robustness of human-like postural control system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tanabe, Hiroko; Fujii, Keisuke; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Kouzaki, Motoki

    2016-01-01

    .... Human standing has been recently modelled using an intermittent feedback control. However, the causality inside of the closed-loop postural control system associated with the neural control strategy is still unknown...

  3. Uniquely Human Self-Control Begins at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Esther; Misch, Antonia; Hernandez-Lloreda, Victoria; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Human beings have remarkable skills of self-control, but the evolutionary origins of these skills are unknown. Here we compare children at 3 and 6 years of age with one of humans' two nearest relatives, chimpanzees, on a battery of reactivity and self-control tasks. Three-year-old children and chimpanzees were very similar in their abilities to…

  4. Analysis of human factors effects on the safety of transporting radioactive waste materials: Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abkowitz, M.D.; Abkowitz, S.B.; Lepofsky, M.

    1989-04-01

    This report examines the extent of human factors effects on the safety of transporting radioactive waste materials. It is seen principally as a scoping effort, to establish whether there is a need for DOE to undertake a more formal approach to studying human factors in radioactive waste transport, and if so, logical directions for that program to follow. Human factors effects are evaluated on driving and loading/transfer operations only. Particular emphasis is placed on the driving function, examining the relationship between human error and safety as it relates to the impairment of driver performance. Although multi-modal in focus, the widespread availability of data and previous literature on truck operations resulted in a primary study focus on the trucking mode from the standpoint of policy development. In addition to the analysis of human factors accident statistics, the report provides relevant background material on several policies that have been instituted or are under consideration, directed at improving human reliability in the transport sector. On the basis of reported findings, preliminary policy areas are identified. 71 refs., 26 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Human control of an inverted pendulum: Is continuous control necessary? Is intermittent control effective? Is intermittent control physiological?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loram, Ian D; Gollee, Henrik; Lakie, Martin; Gawthrop, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    Human motor control is often explained in terms of engineering ‘servo’ theory. Recently, continuous, optimal control using internal models has emerged as a leading paradigm for voluntary movement. However, these engineering paradigms are designed for high bandwidth, inflexible, consistent systems whereas human control is low bandwidth and flexible using noisy sensors and actuators. By contrast, engineering intermittent control was designed for bandwidth-limited applications. Our general interest is whether intermittent rather than continuous control is generic to human motor control. Currently, it would be assumed that continuous control is the superior and physiologically natural choice for controlling unstable loads, for example as required for maintaining human balance. Using visuo-manual tracking of an unstable load, we show that control using gentle, intermittent taps is entirely natural and effective. The gentle tapping method resulted in slightly superior position control and velocity minimisation, a reduced feedback time delay, greater robustness to changing actuator gain and equal or greater linearity with respect to the external disturbance. Control was possible with a median contact rate of 0.8 ± 0.3 s−1. However, when optimising position or velocity regulation, a modal contact rate of 2 s−1 was observed. This modal rate was consistent with insignificant disturbance–joystick coherence beyond 1–2 Hz in both tapping and continuous contact methods. For this load, these results demonstrate a motor control process of serial ballistic trajectories limited to an optimum rate of 2 s−1. Consistent with theoretical reasoning, our results suggest that intermittent open loop action is a natural consequence of human physiology. PMID:21098004

  6. PID Controller Design for Human Elbow Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Eski, Ikbal; Kirnap, Ahmet; Kirnap, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    A controller design for mechatronic system which capable of doing  passive therapeutic exercises of patients whohave upper extremity limitation is presented in this paper. Expectation fromcontroller is it should produce torque values can exactly repeat degree valuesdepended on time which were taken from first therapy exercises of patients. Thedesigned controller tested with real angle values which was  taken from during elbow therapy. Simulationresults showed that the proposed control system ...

  7. Impact of Large Amounts of Wind Power on Primary Frequency Control : A technical and economic study

    OpenAIRE

    Farrokhseresht, Nakisa

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy sources help reaching the environmental, social and economic goals of producing electrical energy in a clean and sustainable matter. Among the various renewable resources, wind power is assumed to have the most favorable technical and economic prospects and offers signicant potential for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. As wind power installations are more and more common in power systems, additional research is needed in order to guarantee the quality and the stabili...

  8. Estimating Weight and Moments for Ship Control Design Technical Assessment Team Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-26

    other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a...estimations for the Ship Change Document (SCD) Technical Assessment Team (TAT) review process. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Weight and Moment, Weight Calculations 16...service life allowances early in life, will be put into a critical status if the rate of consumption is too high. If a class has managed to reduce

  9. A computer simulation approach to measurement of human control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J.; Davenport, E. L.; Engler, H. F.; Sears, W. E., III

    1982-01-01

    Human control strategy is measured through use of a psychologically-based computer simulation which reflects a broader theory of control behavior. The simulation is called the human operator performance emulator, or HOPE. HOPE was designed to emulate control learning in a one-dimensional preview tracking task and to measure control strategy in that setting. When given a numerical representation of a track and information about current position in relation to that track, HOPE generates positions for a stick controlling the cursor to be moved along the track. In other words, HOPE generates control stick behavior corresponding to that which might be used by a person learning preview tracking.

  10. Human rights-based approach to tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler, Carolyn; Lando, Harry; Schneider, Nick; Sehgal, Hitakshi

    2012-03-01

    The Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC) is currently the most potent tool for implementation of tobacco control laws across the globe. The FCTC is derivative from previously constructed international human rights conventions. These previous conventions have enforcement mechanisms, unlike the FCTC. However, the FCTC relies on state parties to report periodically on its implementation rather than on a continuous monitoring system. The Human Rights and Tobacco Control Network proposes that abiding by the principles of human rights delineated by international treaties, citizens across the globe can demand effective action for tobacco control. This paper explains the link between fundamental human rights and the right to tobacco control. Mechanisms are described to link the FCTC and its principles with human rights-based monitoring reports, which are provided to oversight committees for the other human rights conventions. The initial work of the Human Rights and Tobacco Control Network is summarised and considers the future directions for the human rights-based approach to tobacco control.

  11. Issues in human/computer control of dexterous remote hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, K.

    1987-01-01

    Much research on dexterous robot hands has been aimed at the design and control problems associated with their autonomous operation, while relatively little research has addressed the problem of direct human control. It is likely that these two modes can be combined in a complementary manner yielding more capability than either alone could provide. While many of the issues in mixed computer/human control of dexterous hands parallel those found in supervisory control of traditional remote manipulators, the unique geometry and capabilities of dexterous hands pose many new problems. Among these are the control of redundant degrees of freedom, grasp stabilization and specification of non-anthropomorphic behavior. An overview is given of progress made at the MIT AI Laboratory in control of the Salisbury 3 finger hand, including experiments in grasp planning and manipulation via controlled slip. It is also suggested how we might introduce human control into the process at a variety of functional levels.

  12. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch Monday 9 February 2004 From 10:00 to 12:00 - IT Auditorium - bldg. 31, 3rd floor ANSOFT High-Frequency Seminar David Prestaux, Application Engineer, ANSOFT F-78535 BUC, France This Technical Training seminar will present two Ansoft application products: Ansoft HFSS and Ansoft Designer. Ansoft HFSS makes use of the Finite Element Method (FEM) to calculate field solutions from first principles. It can accurately predict all high-frequency behaviours such as dispersion, mode conversion, and losses due to materials and radiation. Ansoft Designer is a suite of design tools to fully integrate high-frequency, physics-based electromagnetic simulations into a seamless system-level simulation environment. Ansoft Designer uses a simple interface to give complete control over every design task, by a method allowing multiple solvers, Solver on Demand. • Introduction • Overview of the Ansoft Total solution • Ansoft HFSS 9...

  13. The Hybrid Design: Integrating the Human and Technical Components of Just-In-Time Knowledge Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabie Y. Conteh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the right balance of human and technical resources in the design of Just-in-Time knowledge delivery. It also examines and analyzes the case study: “Teltech: The business of Knowledge Management” by Davenport. It further attempts to depict the characteristics of the hybrid. The paper describes how the hybrid can be applied to Just-In-Time knowledge delivery. It also seeks to analyze and explore its interplay with knowledge splits with a view to designing Just-In- Time Knowledge Management. These include: “tacit versus explicit knowledge”, “in-process” versus “after action” documentation, “process-centered versus product-centered approach”, “knowledge versus information” and the “culture of sharing versus hoarding.”

  14. Is Wildlife Fertility Control Always Humane?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan O. Hampton

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of fertility control techniques to reduce reproductive rates in wildlife populations has been the source of much research. Techniques targeting wildlife fertility have been diverse. Most research into fertility control methods has focused upon efficacy, with few studies rigorously assessing animal welfare beyond opportunistic anecdote. However, fertility control techniques represent several very different mechanisms of action (modalities, each with their own different animal welfare risks. We provide a review of the mechanisms of action for fertility control methods, and consider the role of manipulation of reproductive hormones (“endocrine suppression” for the long-term ability of animals to behave normally. We consider the potential welfare costs of animal manipulation techniques that are required to administer fertility treatments, including capture, restraint, surgery and drug delivery, and the requirement for repeated administration within the lifetime of an animal. We challenge the assumption that fertility control modalities generate similar and desirable animal welfare outcomes, and we argue that knowledge of reproductive physiology and behaviour should be more adeptly applied to wild animal management decisions. We encourage wildlife managers to carefully assess long-term behavioural risks, associated animal handling techniques, and the importance of positive welfare states when selecting fertility control methods as a means of population control.

  15. Mechanistic and Technical Challenges in Studying the Human Microbiome and Cancer Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mukesh

    2017-04-01

    This article reviews the significance of the microbiome in cancer epidemiology, mechanistic and technical challenges in the field, and characterization of the microbiome in different tumor types to identify biomarkers of risk, progression, and prognosis. Publications on the microbiome and cancer epidemiology were reviewed to analyze sample collection and processing, microbiome taxa characterization by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, and microbiome metabolite characterization (metabotyping) by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The analysis identified methodology types, research design, sample types, and issues in integrating data from different platforms. Aerodigestive cancer epidemiology studies conducted by different groups demonstrated the significance of microbiome information in developing approaches to improve health. Challenges exist in sample preparation and processing (eg, standardization of methods for collection and analysis). These challenges relate to technology, data integration from "omics" studies, inherent bias in primer selection during 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, the need for large consortia with well-characterized biospecimens, cause and effect issues, resilience of microbiota to exposure events (requires longitudinal studies), and expanding studies for fungal and viral diversity (most studies used bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing for microbiota characterization). Despite these challenges, microbiome and cancer epidemiology studies are significant and may facilitate cancer risk assessment, diagnosis, and prognosis. In the future, clinical trials likely will use microbiota modifications to improve the efficacy of existing treatments.

  16. Culture in great apes: using intricate complexity in feeding skills to trace the evolutionary origin of human technical prowess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Richard W

    2007-04-29

    Geographical cataloguing of traits, as used in human ethnography, has led to the description of 'culture' in some non-human great apes. Culture, in these terms, is detected as a pattern of local ignorance resulting from environmental constraints on knowledge transmission. However, in many cases, the geographical variations may alternatively be explained by ecology. Social transmission of information can reliably be identified in many other animal species, by experiment or distinctive patterns in distribution; but the excitement of detecting culture in great apes derives from the possibility of understanding the evolution of cumulative technological culture in humans. Given this interest, I argue that great ape research should concentrate on technically complex behaviour patterns that are ubiquitous within a local population; in these cases, a wholly non-social ontogeny is highly unlikely. From this perspective, cultural transmission has an important role in the elaborate feeding skills of all species of great ape, in conveying the 'gist' or organization of skills. In contrast, social learning is unlikely to be responsible for local stylistic differences, which are apt to reflect sensitive adaptations to ecology.

  17. Risk-based configuration control: Application of PRA in improving technical specifications and operational safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samanta, P.K.; Kim, I.S. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Vesely, W.E. (Science Applications International Corp., Columbus, OH (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The objective of risk-based configuration control is to detect and control plant configurations form a risk perspective. The configurations of particular interest involve components which are down during power operation. Controlling plant configurations from a risk-perspective can provide more direct risk control and also more operational flexibility by allowing looser control in areas unimportant to risk.

  18. Risk-based configuration control: Application of PRA in improving technical specifications and operational safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samanta, P.K.; Kim, I.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Vesely, W.E. [Science Applications International Corp., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The objective of risk-based configuration control is to detect and control plant configurations form a risk perspective. The configurations of particular interest involve components which are down during power operation. Controlling plant configurations from a risk-perspective can provide more direct risk control and also more operational flexibility by allowing looser control in areas unimportant to risk.

  19. Human Decision-Making in Computer-Aided Fault Diagnosis. Technical Report 434. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, William B.; And Others

    A series of six experiments was conducted to increase understanding of human performance on diagnostic tasks, and in the process to investigate the feasibility of using context-free computer-based simulations to train troubleshooting skills. Three simulated diagnostic tasks were developed: a simple context-free task, a complex context-free task,…

  20. Monochromosomal hybrids for the analysis of the human genome. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athwal, R.S.

    1992-12-31

    We have already produced monochromosomal hybrids for 2/3 of the human genome and we have generated sufficient biological materials to complete the proposed panels of hybrid cell lines. We have developed experimental procedures to identify marked chromosomes in human cell lines prior to their transfer to rodent cells. This would eliminate redundancy in the production of monochromosomal hybrids and therefore help expedite completion of the hybrid cell panels. We have also developed a highly sensitive method to identify human chromosomes in hybrid cells. Monochromosomal hybrids produced in our lab are used in a number of laboratories for experiments on gene mapping, gene isolation, chromosome fractionation and genetic analysis for complementation of cellular phenotypes such as DNA repair and regulation of cell growth. Monochromosomal hybrids cell lines are freely available to scientific community for experiments on gene mapping and analysis of the human genome. We are preparing large quantities of DNA from each hybrid cell line which will be available to the research community for various experiments.

  1. An improved method for producing radiation hybrids applied to human chromosome 19. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, C.L.; Mark, H.F.L.

    1992-11-01

    Using radiation hybrids from a monochromosomal microcell hybrid containing human chromosome 19 as its only human component (PK87-19), we have initiated analysis of a panel of hybrids for markers in known locations on human chromosome 19. Also begun was a fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis of the hybrid cell lines using biotinylated total human DNA as a hybridization probe to metaphase chromosomes prepared from the hybrids cell lines. We are analyzing our panel of 94 hybrids for additional markers obtained from the literature, or the genome data base as well as to complete the analysis of any hybrids not yet scored for the markers iii the table. The hybrid panel has been tested for apolipoprotein C{sub 2} for the radiation hybrids for D19Sl77 (mfd 120), D19Sl78 (mfd 139) and for HRC (histidine rich calcium binding protein). In addition we have also analyzed for the presence of slow troponin 1 (TNNT1) and GPI (glucose phosphate isomerase).

  2. Defense of Defense Human Factors Engineering Technical Advisory Group Meeting Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Williamson, D; Internet Relay Chat (IRC) Coordinate Extractor (ICE) 11 Meeting Agenda DoD HFE TAG Distribution A: Cleared for public release...the grass roots connection – Explore the joint mission space – Create new metrics to measure human performance and effectiveness – Need-driven

  3. Modeling Human Error Mechanism for Soft Control in Advanced Control Rooms (ACRs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aljneibi, Hanan Salah Ali [Khalifa Univ., Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Ha, Jun Su; Kang, Seongkeun; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To achieve the switch from conventional analog-based design to digital design in ACRs, a large number of manual operating controls and switches have to be replaced by a few common multi-function devices which is called soft control system. The soft controls in APR-1400 ACRs are classified into safety-grade and non-safety-grade soft controls; each was designed using different and independent input devices in ACRs. The operations using soft controls require operators to perform new tasks which were not necessary in conventional controls such as navigating computerized displays to monitor plant information and control devices. These kinds of computerized displays and soft controls may make operations more convenient but they might cause new types of human error. In this study the human error mechanism during the soft controls is studied and modeled to be used for analysis and enhancement of human performance (or human errors) during NPP operation. The developed model would contribute to a lot of applications to improve human performance (or reduce human errors), HMI designs, and operators' training program in ACRs. The developed model of human error mechanism for the soft control is based on assumptions that a human operator has certain amount of capacity in cognitive resources and if resources required by operating tasks are greater than resources invested by the operator, human error (or poor human performance) is likely to occur (especially in 'slip'); good HMI (Human-machine Interface) design decreases the required resources; operator's skillfulness decreases the required resources; and high vigilance increases the invested resources. In this study the human error mechanism during the soft controls is studied and modeled to be used for analysis and enhancement of human performance (or reduction of human errors) during NPP operation.

  4. Human response to an individually controlled microenvironment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Knudsen, G.L.

    2007-01-01

    The response of 48 subjects to an individually controlled microenvironment was studied at room air temperatures of 20 degrees C, 22 degrees C, and 26 degrees C An individually controlled system (ICS) comprising personalized ventilation, an under-desk air terminal device supplying cool air, a chair...... with convectively heated backrest, an under-desk radiant heating panel, and a floor-heating panel were used. The temperature of the air supplied from the personalized ventilation and the under-desk device was 20 degrees C The subjects were provided with control of the flow rate and direction of the personalized air...... at a room temperature of 22 degrees C without ICS. Thus, ICS will increase the number of satisfied occupants when applied in practice. The design and control of the ICS, as well as the background air distribution in a room, should be carefully considered in order to obtain the maximum number of occupants...

  5. Comprehensive Control of Human Papillomavirus Infections and Related Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, F. Xavier; Broker, Thomas R.; Forman, David; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Gillison, Maura L.; Doorbar, John; Stern, Peter L.; Stanley, Margaret; Arbyn, Marc; Poljak, Mario; Cuzick, Jack; Castle, Philip E.; Schiller, John T.; Markowitz, Lauri E.; Fisher, William A.; Canfell, Karen; Denny, Lynette A.; Franco, Eduardo L.; Steben, Marc; Kane, Mark A.; Schiffman, Mark; Meijer, Chris J.L.M.; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Castellsagué, Xavier; Kim, Jane J.; Brotons, Maria; Alemany, Laia; Albero, Ginesa; Diaz, Mireia; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as one of the major causes of infection-related cancer worldwide, as well as the causal factor in other diseases. Strong evidence for a causal etiology with HPV has been stated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer for cancers of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including base of the tongue and tonsils). Of the estimated 12.7 million new cancers occurring in 2008 worldwide, 4.8% were attributable to HPV infection, with substantially higher incidence and mortality rates seen in developing versus developed countries. In recent years, we have gained tremendous knowledge about HPVs and their interactions with host cells, tissues and the immune system; have validated and implemented strategies for safe and efficacious prophylactic vaccination against HPV infections; have developed increasingly sensitive and specific molecular diagnostic tools for HPV detection for use in cervical cancer screening; and have substantially increased global awareness of HPV and its many associated diseases in women, men, and children. While these achievements exemplify the success of biomedical research in generating important public health interventions, they also generate new and daunting challenges: costs of HPV prevention and medical care, the implementation of what is technically possible, socio-political resistance to prevention opportunities, and the very wide ranges of national economic capabilities and health care systems. Gains and challenges faced in the quest for comprehensive control of HPV infection and HPV-related cancers and other disease are summarized in this review. The information presented may be viewed in terms of a reframed paradigm of prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases that will include strategic combinations of at least four major components: 1) routine introduction of HPV vaccines to women in all countries, 2) extension and simplification of

  6. Comprehensive control of human papillomavirus infections and related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, F Xavier; Broker, Thomas R; Forman, David; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Gillison, Maura L; Doorbar, John; Stern, Peter L; Stanley, Margaret; Arbyn, Marc; Poljak, Mario; Cuzick, Jack; Castle, Philip E; Schiller, John T; Markowitz, Lauri E; Fisher, William A; Canfell, Karen; Denny, Lynette A; Franco, Eduardo L; Steben, Marc; Kane, Mark A; Schiffman, Mark; Meijer, Chris J L M; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Castellsagué, Xavier; Kim, Jane J; Brotons, Maria; Alemany, Laia; Albero, Ginesa; Diaz, Mireia; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2013-12-31

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as one of the major causes of infection-related cancer worldwide, as well as the causal factor in other diseases. Strong evidence for a causal etiology with HPV has been stated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer for cancers of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including base of the tongue and tonsils). Of the estimated 12.7 million new cancers occurring in 2008 worldwide, 4.8% were attributable to HPV infection, with substantially higher incidence and mortality rates seen in developing versus developed countries. In recent years, we have gained tremendous knowledge about HPVs and their interactions with host cells, tissues and the immune system; have validated and implemented strategies for safe and efficacious prophylactic vaccination against HPV infections; have developed increasingly sensitive and specific molecular diagnostic tools for HPV detection for use in cervical cancer screening; and have substantially increased global awareness of HPV and its many associated diseases in women, men, and children. While these achievements exemplify the success of biomedical research in generating important public health interventions, they also generate new and daunting challenges: costs of HPV prevention and medical care, the implementation of what is technically possible, socio-political resistance to prevention opportunities, and the very wide ranges of national economic capabilities and health care systems. Gains and challenges faced in the quest for comprehensive control of HPV infection and HPV-related cancers and other disease are summarized in this review. The information presented may be viewed in terms of a reframed paradigm of prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases that will include strategic combinations of at least four major components: 1) routine introduction of HPV vaccines to women in all countries, 2) extension and simplification of

  7. Human Factors in Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    knowlodg of the world from our experience, undverstanding, end acquisition of’ information. These divisions do not fit practical considerations nuatly...Clearly in air tra.ffic control the coan-troller relies liavily on long term memory for hei general knowlodge of the principles, methods and techniques of...air traffic control and for his specific knowledge about the way those prinoiples are translated into practice in a partioalar air space under his own

  8. Is Wildlife Fertility Control Always Humane?

    OpenAIRE

    Hampton, Jordan O.; Timothy H. Hyndman; Anne Barnes; Teresa Collins

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary There are various fertility control methods (modalities) currently available that aim to reduce the abundance of problematic free-ranging mammalian wildlife. Here, we propose that dissimilarities in the mechanism of action indicate these methods produce great variation in animal welfare outcomes. We present a framework to assist managers in minimising animal welfare risks. Abstract Investigation of fertility control techniques to reduce reproductive rates in wildlife population...

  9. Plant Modeling for Human Supervisory Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of multilevel flow modelling (MFM) and its application for design of displays for the supervisory control of industrial plant. The problem of designing the inforrrzatian content of sacpervisory displays is discussed and plant representations like MFM using levels...... is also provided by an analysis of the relations between levels of abstraction. It is also described how MFM supparts reazsonin about control actions by defining levels of intervention and by modal distinctions between function enablement and initiation....

  10. A Methodology for Evaluating Technical Performance Parameter Design Margins to Control Earth and Space Science Instrument Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Selden, Felicia L.

    Costs of aerospace missions have increased over the last twenty years, placing the future of the space program in jeopardy. A potential source for such growth can be attributed to the complex multidisciplinary and challenging nature of earth and space science instrument development. Design margins are additional resources carried in technical performance parameters to mitigate uncertainties throughout the product lifecycle. Margins are traditionally derived and allocated based upon historical experience intrinsic to organizations, as opposed to quantitative methods, jeopardizing the development of low-cost space-based instruments. This dissertation utilizes a methodology to evaluate the interrelationships between pre-launch and actual launch margins for the key technical performance parameters of mass, power, and data-rate to identify the extent to which excessive or insufficient margins are used in the design of space-based instruments in an effort to control instrument cost growth. The research examined 62 space-based instruments from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Federally Funded Research and Development Centers, and universities. Statistical analysis consisting of paired t-tests and multiple linear regression were utilized to determine the degree to which space-based instruments are over or under designed by the use of excessive or insufficient design margins and to determine the effect of design margins for the technical performance parameters of mass, power, and data-rate on the percentage instrument cost growth from the preliminary design phase to launch. Findings confirm, that in the implementation of space-based instruments, design margins are allocated to technical performance parameters above suggested government/industry standards, impacting the development of low-cost space-based instruments. The findings provide senior leadership, systems engineers, project managers, and resource managers with the ability to determine where

  11. Visual servo control for a human-following robot

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burke, Michael G

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This thesis presents work completed on the design of control and vision components for use in a monocular vision-based human-following robot. The use of vision in a controller feedback loop is referred to as vision-based or visual servo control...

  12. Human factors in traffic management centers: A literature review. Technical report, January 1998--March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowakowski, C.; Green, P.; Kojima, M.

    1999-04-01

    This report represents the first of several in a project funded by the Matsushita Communication Industrial Co. Ltd. (Panasonic) at the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI). Mark Kojima served as the project liaison from Panasonic. The purpose of this effort was to review the current literature on human factors in the design of traffic management centers, interview personnel at several local traffic management centers, and identify topics that need further research.

  13. Alternative Control Technologies: Human Factors Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    the late 60’s and has been installed in a variety of Theta angle (angle of fan bea when onedo hle intersecting Tea angle)_. Surveyin Fingure 2...7-11 24. Sutter, E.E., "The Visual Evoked Response as a Communication Channel", in "Proceedings: IEEE Symposium on Biosensors ", IEEE, 1984, pp 95-100...interactive communication", IBM Hursley Human Symposium on Biosensors ", IEEE, 1984, pp 95-100. Factors Laboratory Report, 1983. Taheri, B., Smith, R.L

  14. Kinect technology for hand tracking control of surgical robots: technical and surgical skill comparison to current robotic masters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yonjae; Leonard, Simon; Shademan, Azad; Krieger, Axel; Kim, Peter C W

    2014-06-01

    Current surgical robots are controlled by a mechanical master located away from the patient, tracking surgeon's hands by wire and pulleys or mechanical linkage. Contactless hand tracking for surgical robot control is an attractive alternative, because it can be executed with minimal footprint at the patient's bedside without impairing sterility, while eliminating current disassociation between surgeon and patient. We compared technical and technologic feasibility of contactless hand tracking to the current clinical standard master controllers. A hand-tracking system (Kinect™-based 3Gear), a wire-based mechanical master (Mantis Duo), and a clinical mechanical linkage master (da Vinci) were evaluated for technical parameters with strong clinical relevance: system latency, static noise, robot slave tremor, and controller range. Five experienced surgeons performed a skill comparison study, evaluating the three different master controllers for efficiency and accuracy in peg transfer and pointing tasks. da Vinci had the lowest latency of 89 ms, followed by Mantis with 374 ms and 3Gear with 576 ms. Mantis and da Vinci produced zero static error. 3Gear produced average static error of 0.49 mm. The tremor of the robot used by the 3Gear and Mantis system had a radius of 1.7 mm compared with 0.5 mm for da Vinci. The three master controllers all had similar range. The surgeons took 1.98 times longer to complete the peg transfer task with the 3Gear system compared with Mantis, and 2.72 times longer with Mantis compared with da Vinci (p value 2.1e-9). For the pointer task, surgeons were most accurate with da Vinci with average error of 0.72 mm compared with Mantis's 1.61 mm and 3Gear's 2.41 mm (p value 0.00078). Contactless hand-tracking technology as a surgical master can execute simple surgical tasks. Whereas traditional master controllers outperformed, given that contactless hand-tracking is a first-generation technology, clinical potential is promising and could

  15. Mouse salivary glands and human β-defensin-2 as a study model for antimicrobial gene therapy: technical considerations☆

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Chunyi; Dang, Hoa N.; Gazor, Farzad; Huang, George T.-J.

    2006-01-01

    Transduction of salivary glands with antimicrobial peptide genes has great potential for oral infection control. Our ultimate goal is to introduce antimicrobial peptide genes into salivary glands that secrete these peptides into saliva to control bacterial/fungal infection in the oral cavity. However, an animal study model to test this potential has not been established. Therefore, we determined to test (i) whether the potent antimicrobial peptide human β-defensin-2 (hBD-2) can be overexpress...

  16. NASA information sciences and human factors program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Lee; Hood, Ray; Montemerlo, Melvin; Jenkins, James; Smith, Paul; Dibattista, John; Depaula, Ramon; Hunter, Paul; Lavery, David

    1991-01-01

    The FY-90 descriptions of technical accomplishments are contained in seven sections: Automation and Robotics, Communications, Computer Sciences, Controls and Guidance, Data Systems, Human Factors, and Sensor Technology.

  17. Continued benefits of a technical assistance web site to local tobacco control coalitions during a state budget shortfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B; Young, Walter F; Bettinghaus, Erwin P; Borland, Ron; Walther, Joseph B; Helme, Donald; Andersen, Peter A; Cutter, Gary R; Maloy, Julie A

    2011-01-01

    A state budget shortfall defunded 10 local tobacco coalitions during a randomized trial but defunded coalitions continued to have access to 2 technical assistance Web sites. To test the ability of Web-based technology to provide technical assistance to local tobacco control coalitions. Randomized 2-group trial with local tobacco control coalitions as the unit of randomization. Local communities (ie, counties) within the State of Colorado. Leaders and members in 34 local tobacco control coalitions funded by the state health department in Colorado. Two technical assistance Web sites: A Basic Web site with text-based information and a multimedia Enhanced Web site containing learning modules, resources, and communication features. Use of the Web sites in minutes, pages, and session and evaluations of coalition functioning on coalition development, conflict resolution, leadership satisfaction, decision-making satisfaction, shared mission, personal involvement, and organization involvement in survey of leaders and members. Coalitions that were defunded but had access to the multimedia Enhanced Web site during the Fully Funded period and after defunding continued to use it (treatment group × funding status × period, F(3,714) = 3.18, P = .0234). Coalitions with access to the Basic Web site had low Web site use throughout and use by defunded coalitions was nearly zero when funding ceased. Members in defunded Basic Web site coalitions reported that their coalitions functioned worse than defunded Enhanced Web site coalitions (coalition development: group × status, F(1,360) = 4.81, P = .029; conflict resolution: group × status, F(1,306) = 5.69, P = .018; leadership satisfaction: group × status, F(1,342) = 5.69, P = .023). The Enhanced Web site may have had a protective effect on defunded coalitions. Defunded coalitions may have increased their capacity by using the Enhanced Web site when fully funded or by continuing to use the available online resources after defunding

  18. Mechanics of human voice production and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyan

    2016-01-01

    As the primary means of communication, voice plays an important role in daily life. Voice also conveys personal information such as social status, personal traits, and the emotional state of the speaker. Mechanically, voice production involves complex fluid-structure interaction within the glottis and its control by laryngeal muscle activation. An important goal of voice research is to establish a causal theory linking voice physiology and biomechanics to how speakers use and control voice to communicate meaning and personal information. Establishing such a causal theory has important implications for clinical voice management, voice training, and many speech technology applications. This paper provides a review of voice physiology and biomechanics, the physics of vocal fold vibration and sound production, and laryngeal muscular control of the fundamental frequency of voice, vocal intensity, and voice quality. Current efforts to develop mechanical and computational models of voice production are also critically reviewed. Finally, issues and future challenges in developing a causal theory of voice production and perception are discussed. PMID:27794319

  19. Technical guide for applications of gene expression profiling in human health risk assessment of environmental chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon-Lacombe, Julie A; Moffat, Ivy D; Deveau, Michelle; Husain, Mainul; Auerbach, Scott; Krewski, Daniel; Thomas, Russell S; Bushel, Pierre R; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole L

    2015-07-01

    Toxicogenomics promises to be an important part of future human health risk assessment of environmental chemicals. The application of gene expression profiles (e.g., for hazard identification, chemical prioritization, chemical grouping, mode of action discovery, and quantitative analysis of response) is growing in the literature, but their use in formal risk assessment by regulatory agencies is relatively infrequent. Although additional validations for specific applications are required, gene expression data can be of immediate use for increasing confidence in chemical evaluations. We believe that a primary reason for the current lack of integration is the limited practical guidance available for risk assessment specialists with limited experience in genomics. The present manuscript provides basic information on gene expression profiling, along with guidance on evaluating the quality of genomic experiments and data, and interpretation of results presented in the form of heat maps, pathway analyses and other common approaches. Moreover, potential ways to integrate information from gene expression experiments into current risk assessment are presented using published studies as examples. The primary objective of this work is to facilitate integration of gene expression data into human health risk assessments of environmental chemicals. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Postmortem morphology and viability of human Peyer's patches in distal ileum: a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarino, Biagio; Di Vella, Giancarlo; Magrone, Thea; Jirillo, Felicita; Tafaro, Angela; Piscitelli, Domenico; Casiello, Michela; Amati, Luigi; Jirillo, Emilio; Tattoli, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    The intestinal mucosa contains a highly specialized immune system which plays a central role in the induction of immune reactions. In the small bowel, Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (GALT) is organized in lymphoid aggregates which are known as Peyer's Patches (PP). Even though human PP involvement in systemic immunity has been described, little is known about their anatomy and morphology and viability. The aim of this study was to examine PP according to their macroscopic anatomy, distribution and cell viability after death. Specimens from the distal ileum were obtained from 72 serial autopsy cases: PP were identified and, parts of them were analyzed for histological examination. Moreover, viability of recovered PP cells was assessed by the trypan blue exclusion test. Most of the PP (90%) were situated on the antimesenteric border of ileum, and the greatest density of PP occurred in the most distal segment. The number of PP varied with age, with the maximum number observed in 21- to 30-years old cadavers. Histological examination showed their remarkable architectural preservation at different post-mortem intervals (PMI), while the mucosal surface underwent autolysis. In 56% of cases PP cells were still viable, especially at PMI < 24 hours after death. These data confirm that human PP are still well preserved in a remarkable percentage of cadavers also several hours after death, and their availability may be helpful in various fields of research.

  1. Determinants of human resource investment in internal controls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jong-Hag Choi Joonil Lee Catherine Heyjung Sonu

    2013-01-01

    Using the unique reporting environment in Korea, this study investigates the determinants of human resource investment in internal controls for 1352 listed firms disclosing the number of personnel who...

  2. A HUMAN FACTORS META MODEL FOR U.S. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe, Jeffrey C.

    2017-03-01

    Over the last several years, the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored human factors research and development (R&D) and human factors engineering (HFE) activities through its Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program to modernize the main control rooms (MCR) of commercial nuclear power plants (NPP). Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in partnership with numerous commercial nuclear utilities, has conducted some of this R&D to enable the life extension of NPPs (i.e., provide the technical basis for the long-term reliability, productivity, safety, and security of U.S. NPPs). From these activities performed to date, a human factors meta model for U.S. NPP control room modernization can now be formulated. This paper discusses this emergent HFE meta model for NPP control room modernization, with the goal of providing an integrated high level roadmap and guidance on how to perform human factors R&D and HFE for those in the U.S. nuclear industry that are engaging in the process of upgrading their MCRs.

  3. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by the Technical University of Dresden

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Experiment

    2012-01-01

    The German programme "Netzwerk Teilchenwelt" is a network of 24 particle physics institutes in Germany and CERN which offers students and teachers the unique opportunity to get to know particle physics in hands-on exercises. With real data from CERN the participants of our workshops are able to do experiments and work like a particle physicists! Today, the participants of a particle physics camp held at the Technical University of Dresden where "Netzwerk Teilchenwelt" is coordinated are invited to virtually visit CERN and its experiments and ask questions about work and life at the world's greatest collider. Scientists from the Dresden Institute of Particle Physics currently working at CERN will answer questions about the experiments, their research and report about their exciting time in Geneva. http://atlas-live-virtual-visit.web.cern.ch/atlas-live-virtual-visit/2012/Dresden-2012.html

  4. Technical Basis for Physical Fidelity of NRC Control Room Training Simulators for Advanced Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minsk, Brian S.; Branch, Kristi M.; Bates, Edward K.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Gore, Bryan F.; Faris, Drury K.

    2009-10-09

    The objective of this study is to determine how simulator physical fidelity influences the effectiveness of training the regulatory personnel responsible for examination and oversight of operating personnel and inspection of technical systems at nuclear power reactors. It seeks to contribute to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC’s) understanding of the physical fidelity requirements of training simulators. The goal of the study is to provide an analytic framework, data, and analyses that inform NRC decisions about the physical fidelity requirements of the simulators it will need to train its staff for assignment at advanced reactors. These staff are expected to come from increasingly diverse educational and experiential backgrounds.

  5. Safety Metrics for Human-Computer Controlled Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveson, Nancy G; Hatanaka, Iwao

    2000-01-01

    The rapid growth of computer technology and innovation has played a significant role in the rise of computer automation of human tasks in modem production systems across all industries. Although the rationale for automation has been to eliminate "human error" or to relieve humans from manual repetitive tasks, various computer-related hazards and accidents have emerged as a direct result of increased system complexity attributed to computer automation. The risk assessment techniques utilized for electromechanical systems are not suitable for today's software-intensive systems or complex human-computer controlled systems.This thesis will propose a new systemic model-based framework for analyzing risk in safety-critical systems where both computers and humans are controlling safety-critical functions. A new systems accident model will be developed based upon modem systems theory and human cognitive processes to better characterize system accidents, the role of human operators, and the influence of software in its direct control of significant system functions Better risk assessments will then be achievable through the application of this new framework to complex human-computer controlled systems.

  6. Situation awareness in process control; designing the human interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passenier, P.O.; Delft, J.H. van

    1999-01-01

    Through the introduction of process automation, the supervision of multiple functions becomes more and more the role of a single human operator, the 'process manager', assisted by a process information and control system. Consequently, the level of direct involvement of the human operator with the

  7. HVAC System Automatic Controls and Indoor Air Quality in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    Fans, motors, coils, and other control components enable a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system to function smoothly. An explanation of these control components and how they make school HVAC systems work is provided. Different systems may be compared by counting the number of controlled devices that are required. Control…

  8. Effects of Human Factors in Engineering and Design for Teaching Mathematics: A Comparison Study of Online and Face-to-Face at a Technical College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mativo, John M.; Hill, Roger B.; Godfrey, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this study was to examine four characteristics for successful and unsuccessful students enrolled in basic mathematics courses at a technical college. The characteristics, considered to be in part effects of human factors in engineering and design, examined the preferred learning styles, computer information systems competency,…

  9. Modeling the human as a controller in a multitask environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, T.; Rouse, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    Modeling the human as a controller of slowly responding systems with preview is considered. Along with control tasks, discrete noncontrol tasks occur at irregular intervals. In multitask situations such as these, it has been observed that humans tend to apply piecewise constant controls. It is believed that the magnitude of controls and the durations for which they remain constant are dependent directly on the system bandwidth, preview distance, complexity of the trajectory to be followed, and nature of the noncontrol tasks. A simple heuristic model of human control behavior in this situation is presented. The results of a simulation study, whose purpose was determination of the sensitivity of the model to its parameters, are discussed.

  10. Human Telomerase RNA Processing and Quality Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chi-Kang; Wang, Hui-Fang; Burns, Allison M; Schroeder, Morgan R; Gaspari, Martina; Baumann, Peter

    2015-12-15

    The non-coding RNA subunit of telomerase provides the template for telomerase activity. In diverse fungi, 3' end processing of telomerase RNA involves a single cleavage by the spliceosome. Here, we examine how human telomerase RNA (hTR) primary transcripts are processed into the mature form of precisely 451 nt. We find that the splicing inhibitor isoginkgetin mimics the effects of RNA exosome inhibition and causes accumulation of long hTR transcripts. Depletion of exosome components and accessory factors reveals functions for the cap binding complex (CBC) and the nuclear exosome targeting (NEXT) complex in hTR turnover. Whereas longer transcripts are predominantly degraded, shorter precursor RNAs are oligo-adenylated by TRF4-2 and either processed by poly(A)-specific ribonuclease (PARN) or degraded by the exosome. Our results reveal that hTR biogenesis involves a kinetic competition between RNA processing and degradation and suggest treatment options for telomerase insufficiency disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Human Telomerase RNA Processing and Quality Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Kang Tseng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The non-coding RNA subunit of telomerase provides the template for telomerase activity. In diverse fungi, 3′ end processing of telomerase RNA involves a single cleavage by the spliceosome. Here, we examine how human telomerase RNA (hTR primary transcripts are processed into the mature form of precisely 451 nt. We find that the splicing inhibitor isoginkgetin mimics the effects of RNA exosome inhibition and causes accumulation of long hTR transcripts. Depletion of exosome components and accessory factors reveals functions for the cap binding complex (CBC and the nuclear exosome targeting (NEXT complex in hTR turnover. Whereas longer transcripts are predominantly degraded, shorter precursor RNAs are oligo-adenylated by TRF4-2 and either processed by poly(A-specific ribonuclease (PARN or degraded by the exosome. Our results reveal that hTR biogenesis involves a kinetic competition between RNA processing and degradation and suggest treatment options for telomerase insufficiency disorders.

  12. Genetic control of postnatal human brain growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dyck, Laura I; Morrow, Eric M

    2017-02-01

    Studies investigating postnatal brain growth disorders inform the biology underlying the development of human brain circuitry. This research is becoming increasingly important for the diagnosis and treatment of childhood neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism and related disorders. Here, we review recent research on typical and abnormal postnatal brain growth and examine potential biological mechanisms. Clinically, brain growth disorders are heralded by diverging head size for a given age and sex, but are more precisely characterized by brain imaging, post-mortem analysis, and animal model studies. Recent neuroimaging and molecular biological studies on postnatal brain growth disorders have broadened our view of both typical and pathological postnatal neurodevelopment. Correlating gene and protein function with brain growth trajectories uncovers postnatal biological mechanisms, including neuronal arborization, synaptogenesis and pruning, and gliogenesis and myelination. Recent investigations of childhood neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders highlight the underlying genetic programming and experience-dependent remodeling of neural circuitry. To understand typical and abnormal postnatal brain development, clinicians and researchers should characterize brain growth trajectories in the context of neurogenetic syndromes. Understanding mechanisms and trajectories of postnatal brain growth will aid in differentiating, diagnosing, and potentially treating neurodevelopmental disorders.

  13. Deep Space Network (DSN), Network Operations Control Center (NOCC) computer-human interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellman, Alvin; Carlton, Magdi

    1993-01-01

    The Network Operations Control Center (NOCC) of the DSN is responsible for scheduling the resources of DSN, and monitoring all multi-mission spacecraft tracking activities in real-time. Operations performs this job with computer systems at JPL connected to over 100 computers at Goldstone, Australia and Spain. The old computer system became obsolete, and the first version of the new system was installed in 1991. Significant improvements for the computer-human interfaces became the dominant theme for the replacement project. Major issues required innovating problem solving. Among these issues were: How to present several thousand data elements on displays without overloading the operator? What is the best graphical representation of DSN end-to-end data flow? How to operate the system without memorizing mnemonics of hundreds of operator directives? Which computing environment will meet the competing performance requirements? This paper presents the technical challenges, engineering solutions, and results of the NOCC computer-human interface design.

  14. Technical Agency in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    ) description of hybrid networks in which human and non-human actants are granted agency without differentiating different kinds of agency, EMCA focuses on the member's perspectives and the situated construction of technical agency that is made relevant within an ongoing interaction. Based on an EMCA analysis......The paper combines the discussion of technical agency and hybrid networks of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) with an ethnomethodological/conversation analytical (EMCA) perspective on situated practices in which participants ascribe agency to technical artefacts. While ANT works with (ethnographic...... of three video recordings of situations in which technical agency is made relevant by the human participants, the paper demonstrates different ways in which agency is granted to technical artefacts. Human participants can treat a technology as communication partner, as an active part (and actant...

  15. Feasible way of Human Solid and Liquid Wastes' Inclusion Into Intersystem Mass Exchange of Biological-Technical Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Kudenko, Yurii; Griboskaya, Illiada; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Lasseur, Christophe

    The basic objective arising at use of mineralized human solid and liquid wastes serving as the source of mineral elements for plants cultivation in biological-technical life support systems appears to be NaCl presence in them. The given work is aimed at feasibility study of mineralized human metabolites' utilization for nutrient solutions' preparation for their further employment at a long-term cultivation of uneven-aged wheat and Salicornia europaea L. cenosis in a conveyer regime. Human solid and liquid wastes were mineralized by the "wet incineration" method developed by Yu. Kudenko. On their base the solutions were prepared which were used for cultivation of 5-aged wheat conveyer with the time step-interval of 14 days. Wheat was cultivated by hydroponics method on expanded clay aggregate. For partial demineralization of nutrient solution every two weeks after regular wheat harvesting 12 L of solution was withdrawn from the wheat irrigation tank and used for Salicornia europaea cultivation by the water culture method in a conveyer regime. The Salicornia europaea conveyer was represented by 2 ages with the time step-interval of 14 days. Resulting from repeating withdrawal of the solution used for wheat cultivation, sodium concentration in the wheat irrigation solution did not exceed 400 mg/l, and mineral elements contained in the taken solution were used for Salicornia europaea cultivation. The experiment lasted 7 months. Total wheat biomass productivity averaged 30.1 g*m-2*day-1 at harvest index equal to 36.8The work was carried out under support of SB RAS grant 132 and INTAS 05-1000008-8010

  16. Buried waste integrated demonstration human engineered control station. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This document describes the Human Engineered Control Station (HECS) project activities including the conceptual designs. The purpose of the HECS is to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of remote retrieval by providing an integrated remote control station. The HECS integrates human capabilities, limitations, and expectations into the design to reduce the potential for human error, provides an easy system to learn and operate, provides an increased productivity, and reduces the ultimate investment in training. The overall HECS consists of the technology interface stations, supporting engineering aids, platform (trailer), communications network (broadband system), and collision avoidance system.

  17. Human factors issues in the use of artificial intelligence in air traffic control. October 1990 Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockaday, Stephen; Kuhlenschmidt, Sharon (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the workshop was to explore the role of human factors in facilitating the introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) to advanced air traffic control (ATC) automation concepts. AI is an umbrella term which is continually expanding to cover a variety of techniques where machines are performing actions taken based upon dynamic, external stimuli. AI methods can be implemented using more traditional programming languages such as LISP or PROLOG, or they can be implemented using state-of-the-art techniques such as object-oriented programming, neural nets (hardware or software), and knowledge based expert systems. As this technology advances and as increasingly powerful computing platforms become available, the use of AI to enhance ATC systems can be realized. Substantial efforts along these lines are already being undertaken at the FAA Technical Center, NASA Ames Research Center, academic institutions, industry, and elsewhere. Although it is clear that the technology is ripe for bringing computer automation to ATC systems, the proper scope and role of automation are not at all apparent. The major concern is how to combine human controllers with computer technology. A wide spectrum of options exists, ranging from using automation only to provide extra tools to augment decision making by human controllers to turning over moment-by-moment control to automated systems and using humans as supervisors and system managers. Across this spectrum, it is now obvious that the difficulties that occur when tying human and automated systems together must be resolved so that automation can be introduced safely and effectively. The focus of the workshop was to further explore the role of injecting AI into ATC systems and to identify the human factors that need to be considered for successful application of the technology to present and future ATC systems.

  18. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    Overview From a technical perspective, CMS has been in “beam operation” state since 6th November. The detector is fully closed with all components operational and the magnetic field is normally at the nominal 3.8T. The UXC cavern is normally closed with the radiation veto set. Access to UXC is now only possible during downtimes of LHC. Such accesses must be carefully planned, documented and carried out in agreement with CMS Technical Coordination, Experimental Area Management, LHC programme coordination and the CCC. Material flow in and out of UXC is now strictly controlled. Access to USC remains possible at any time, although, for safety reasons, it is necessary to register with the shift crew in the control room before going down.It is obligatory for all material leaving UXC to pass through the underground buffer zone for RP scanning, database entry and appropriate labeling for traceability. Technical coordination (notably Stephane Bally and Christoph Schaefer), the shift crew and run ...

  19. CARA: A Human Reliability Assessment Tool for Air Traffic Safety Management — Technical Basis and Preliminary Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, Barry; Gibson, Huw

    This paper aims to serve as the basis for development of a sound Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) capability for Air Traffic Management (ATM) applications in safety case and Human Factors assurance work. ATM is considered a 'high reliability' industry, although recent ATM-related accident occurrences have shown that such a status can never be assumed, and there is a continual need to look for safety vulnerabilities and mitigate them or their effects. Clearly, however, ATM is very human-centred, and will remain so at least in the mid-term (e.g. up to 2025). The air traffic controller has shown great capacity for safety over the years, and this must be maintained against a background of continually increasing traffic levels (currently running at 4 - 18% per year in Europe) and automation support aimed largely at enhancing capacity. Other industries have for several decades made use of HRA approaches. Such approaches aim to predict what can go wrong, and how often things can go wrong, from the human perspective. Such a capability is useful to ensure that safety cases of current and future systems are not ignoring the key component in the ATM system, the human controller.

  20. Technical note: comparing von Luschan skin color tiles and modern spectrophotometry for measuring human skin pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiatoniowski, Anna K; Quillen, Ellen E; Shriver, Mark D; Jablonski, Nina G

    2013-06-01

    Prior to the introduction of reflectance spectrophotometry into anthropological field research during the 1950s, human skin color was most commonly classified by visual skin color matching using the von Luschan tiles, a set of 36 standardized, opaque glass tiles arranged in a chromatic scale. Our goal was to establish a conversion formula between the tile-based color matching method and modern reflectance spectrophotometry to make historical and contemporary data comparable. Skin pigmentation measurements were taken on the forehead, inner upper arms, and backs of the hands using both the tiles and a spectrophotometer on 246 participants showing a broad range of skin pigmentation. From these data, a second-order polynomial conversion formula was derived by jackknife analysis to estimate melanin index (M-index) based on tile values. This conversion formula provides a means for comparing modern data to von Luschan tile measurements recorded in historical reports. This is particularly important for populations now extinct, extirpated, or admixed for which tile-based measures of skin pigmentation are the only data available. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Human factors survey of advanced instrumentation and controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    A survey oriented towards identifying the human factors issues in regard to the use of advanced instrumentation and controls (I C) in the nuclear industry was conducted. A number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities were participants in the survey. Human factors items, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays (CGD), controls, organizational support, training, and related topics, were discussed. The survey found the industry to be concerned about the human factors issues related to the implementation of advanced I C. Fifteen potential human factors problems were identified. They include: the need for an advanced I C guideline equivalent to NUREG-0700; a role change in the control room from operator to supervisor; information overload; adequacy of existing training technology for advanced I C; and operator acceptance and trust. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Control of human mandibular posture during locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Timothy S; Flavel, Stanley C; Nordstrom, Michael A

    2004-01-01

    Mandibular movements and masseter muscle activity were measured in humans during hopping, walking and running to determine whether reflexes contribute to the maintenance of jaw position during locomotion. In initial experiments, subjects hopped so that they landed either on their toes or on their heel. Landing on the toes provoked only small mandibular movements and no reflex responses in the masseter electromyogram (EMG). Landing on the heels with the jaw muscles relaxed caused the mandible to move vertically downwards relative to the maxilla, and evoked a brisk reflex response in the masseter at monosynaptic latency. Neither this relative movement of the mandible nor the reflex was seen when the teeth were clenched: hence the reflex is not the result of vestibular activation during head movement. The same variables were measured in a second series of experiments while subjects stood, walked and ran at various speeds and at various inclinations on a treadmill. During walking, the vertical movements of the head and therefore the mandible were slow and small, and there was no tonic masseter EMG or gait-related activity in the jaw-closing muscles. When subjects ran, the vertical head and jaw movement depended on the running speed and the inclination of the treadmill. Landing on the heels induced larger movements than landing on the toes. About 10 ms after each foot-strike, the mandible moved downwards relative to the maxilla, thereby stretching the jaw-closing muscles and activating them at segmental reflex latency. This caused the mandible to move back upwards. The strength of the reflex response was related to the speed and amplitude of the vertical jaw movement following landing. It is concluded that, during walking, the small, slow movements of the mandible relative to the maxilla are subthreshold for stretch reflexes in the jaw muscles: i.e. the mandible is supported by visco-elasticity of the soft tissues in the masticatory system. However, the brisker downward

  3. Sensor guided control and navigation with intelligent machines. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Bijoy K.

    2001-03-26

    This item constitutes the final report on ''Visionics: An integrated approach to analysis and design of intelligent machines.'' The report discusses dynamical systems approach to problems in robust control of possibly time-varying linear systems, problems in vision and visually guided control, and, finally, applications of these control techniques to intelligent navigation with a mobile platform. Robust design of a controller for a time-varying system essentially deals with the problem of synthesizing a controller that can adapt to sudden changes in the parameters of the plant and can maintain stability. The approach presented is to design a compensator that simultaneously stabilizes each and every possible mode of the plant as the parameters undergo sudden and unexpected changes. Such changes can in fact be detected by a visual sensor and, hence, visually guided control problems are studied as a natural consequence. The problem here is to detect parameters of the plant and maintain st ability in the closed loop using a ccd camera as a sensor. The main result discussed in the report is the role of perspective systems theory that was developed in order to analyze such a detection and control problem. The robust control algorithms and the visually guided control algorithms are applied in the context of a PUMA 560 robot arm control where the goal is to visually locate a moving part on a mobile turntable. Such problems are of paramount importance in manufacturing with a certain lack of structure. Sensor guided control problems are extended to problems in robot navigation using a NOMADIC mobile platform with a ccd and a laser range finder as sensors. The localization and map building problems are studied with the objective of navigation in an unstructured terrain.

  4. Simple control-theoretic models of human steering activity in visually guided vehicle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Ronald A.

    1991-01-01

    A simple control theoretic model of human steering or control activity in the lateral-directional control of vehicles such as automobiles and rotorcraft is discussed. The term 'control theoretic' is used to emphasize the fact that the model is derived from a consideration of well-known control system design principles as opposed to psychological theories regarding egomotion, etc. The model is employed to emphasize the 'closed-loop' nature of tasks involving the visually guided control of vehicles upon, or in close proximity to, the earth and to hypothesize how changes in vehicle dynamics can significantly alter the nature of the visual cues which a human might use in such tasks.

  5. Pest control in Albania: an example of collaboration in technical and scientific development in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkelejda Velo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In September 2007, a severe cockroach (Blattella germanica infestation was reported on the premises of the Scutari Regional Hospital. The hospital was infested by cockroaches despite regular insecticide treatment by local pest control officers. The failure of treatment required a careful evaluation of the problem. It also created the opportunity for a more complete analysis of pest control in Albania.

  6. Technical trends of integrated chassis control. Chassi kei sogo seigyo system no gijutsu doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, H.; Yokoya, Y.; Tabata, M.; Minabe, H.; Hiraiwa, N.; Okada, A. (Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan))

    1992-01-01

    The research and development as well as adoption to actual vehicles of electronic control systems for such each section of a chassis system as suspension, steering, driving and braking, etc. have been expanded drastically in recent several years and its momentum is even more than predictions made before. Quite recently, integrated control systems are becoming the main stream of research and development which reduces demerits of each unit control system as far as possible, avoid the cases that a certain kind of performance is improved by one control measure, but other kind of performance becomes degraded on the contrary, and derive much more merits of each unit control system. In this article, the integrated chassis control systems now being studied and developed by Nissan, Toyota and Mitsubishi, etc. are briefly introduced and in addition, the integrated control system covering the active suspension {center dot} yaw rate feed back active 4WS (4 wheel suspension) {center dot} ABS (anti-lock brake) {center dot} TRC (traction control) is explained which was adopted for the Soarer of 1991 model. 16 refs., 16 figs.

  7. The Advantages of Abstract Control Knowledge in Expert System Design. Technical Report #7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.

    This paper argues that an important design principle for building expert systems is to represent all control knowledge abstractly and separately from the domain knowledge upon which it operates. Abstract control knowledge is defined as the specifications of when and how a program is to carry out its operations, such as pursuing a goal, focusing,…

  8. Technical Report on Occupations in Numerically Controlled Metal-Cutting Machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Employment Service.

    At the present time, only 5 percent of the short-run metal-cutting machining in the United States is done by numerically controlled machined tools, but within the next decade it is expected to increase by 50 percent. Numerically controlled machines use taped data which is changed into instructions and directs the machine to do certain steps…

  9. Dog population management for the control of human echinococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachani, Malika; Heath, David

    2014-11-01

    Cystic and alveolar hydatid disease of humans caused by infection with Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis are significant zoonoses in developing countries. For human infections, the main definitive host is the dog, and reduction in the population of unwanted dogs, together with anthelmintic treatment of wanted dogs, are recommended control procedures for these zoonoses. Both owned and unowned dogs have been shown to be a major source of Echinococcus spp. infection in developing countries. Unowned dogs are the most challenging category in dog population management for the control of major zoonotic diseases. Unowned dogs are those dogs that do not have an owner, and those dogs whose owner cannot readily be identified. Control of numbers of unowned dogs can be done in various ways if funds are available. Fertility control and humane euthanasia are likely to be the most effective procedures in developing countries. Fertility control requires significant funding, and where resources are scarce humane euthanasia may be the most effective option. Both procedures are ongoing events, with no predictable end point. This paper examines the sociology and technology for the population management of owned and unowned dogs, specifically for the reduction of human hydatid disease. Examples are given for developing and developed countries. Although a "One Health" approach is desirable, the technology for hydatid control is different from that for rabies, and FAO Animal Welfare recommendations for dog population management should be adjusted accordingly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Humans can integrate feedback of discrete events in their sensorimotor control of a robotic hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriani, Christian; Segil, Jacob L; Clemente, Francesco; ff Weir, Richard F; Edin, Benoni

    2014-11-01

    Providing functionally effective sensory feedback to users of prosthetics is a largely unsolved challenge. Traditional solutions require high band-widths for providing feedback for the control of manipulation and yet have been largely unsuccessful. In this study, we have explored a strategy that relies on temporally discrete sensory feedback that is technically simple to provide. According to the Discrete Event-driven Sensory feedback Control (DESC) policy, motor tasks in humans are organized in phases delimited by means of sensory encoded discrete mechanical events. To explore the applicability of DESC for control, we designed a paradigm in which healthy humans operated an artificial robot hand to lift and replace an instrumented object, a task that can readily be learned and mastered under visual control. Assuming that the central nervous system of humans naturally organizes motor tasks based on a strategy akin to DESC, we delivered short-lasting vibrotactile feedback related to events that are known to forcefully affect progression of the grasp-lift-and-hold task. After training, we determined whether the artificial feedback had been integrated with the sensorimotor control by introducing short delays and we indeed observed that the participants significantly delayed subsequent phases of the task. This study thus gives support to the DESC policy hypothesis. Moreover, it demonstrates that humans can integrate temporally discrete sensory feedback while controlling an artificial hand and invites further studies in which inexpensive, noninvasive technology could be used in clever ways to provide physiologically appropriate sensory feedback in upper limb prosthetics with much lower band-width requirements than with traditional solutions.

  11. Thermal vision based intelligent system for human detection and tracking in mobile robot control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Ivan T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the authors in thermal vision based mobile robot control. The most important segment of the high level control loop of mobile robot platform is an intelligent real-time algorithm for human detection and tracking. Temperature variations across same objects, air flow with different temperature gradients, reflections, person overlap while crossing each other, and many other non-linearities, uncertainty and noise, put challenges in thermal image processing and therefore the need of computationally intelligent algorithms for obtaining the efficient performance from human motion tracking system. The main goal was to enable mobile robot platform or any technical system to recognize the person in indoor environment, localize it and track it with accuracy high enough to allow adequate human-machine interaction. The developed computationally intelligent algorithms enables robust and reliable human detection and tracking based on neural network classifier and autoregressive neural network for time series prediction. Intelligent algorithm used for thermal image segmentation gives accurate inputs for classification. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35005

  12. Compliance Assurance Monitoring Technical Guidance Document Appendix A: Electrostatic Precipitator Control Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compliance assurance monitoring is intended to provide a reasonable assurance of compliance with applicable requirements under the Clean Air Act for large emission units that rely on pollution control device equipment to achieve compliance.

  13. Compliance Assurance Monitoring Technical Guidance Document Appendix A: Wet Electrostatic Precipitator Control Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compliance assurance monitoring is intended to provide a reasonable assurance of compliance with applicable requirements under the Clean Air Act for large emission units that rely on pollution control device equipment to achieve compliance.

  14. THE IMPACT OF MANAGEMENT CONTROL ON THE HUMAN FACTOR AND CONSEQUENTLY ON ENTERPRISE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA CRISTINA MATEI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The current economic environment where enterprises run their activities is characterized by diversified, competitional supply, superior to the demand; a supply that is heterogenous, unstable both quantitatively and qualitatively; comprising numerous technical as well as technological mutations. Under these circumstances, enterprise managers must ensure the achievement of objectives and performance. In order to accomplish these, human, financial, material resources are to be used. The limits imposed by the usage of financial and material resources can be compensated for by means of the creativity and innovation pertaining to employees, therefore, the success of an enterprise becomes closely related to the capitalization of staff intelligence and skills, while the human resource becomes important for the management control by means of which an enterprise makes sure that its activities run according to plan and that objectives are met. The paper presents the impact of management control on the human factor and further to the enterprise performance, strategies of employee motivation, aspects regarding the use of plans as objectives, as well as aspects concerning the use of control techniques regarding the assessment of results.

  15. Tracking instrument and control for solar concentrators. Final technical report, October 1979-January 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J; Kuhlman, J

    1981-01-31

    The tracker uses a single photo sensor, and a rotating aperature to obtain tracking accuracies better than 1.5 mrads (0.1 degs). Peak signal detection is used to eliminate tracking of false sources, i.e., clouds, etc. A prism is employed to obtain an extended field of view (150 degs axially - 360 degs radially). The tracker digitally measures the Suns displacement angle relative to the concentrator axis, and repositions it incrementally. This arrangement permits the use of low cost non-servo motors. The local controller contains microprocessor based electronics, incorporating digital signal processing. A single controller may be time shared by a maximum of sixteen trackers, providing a high performance, cost effective solar tracking system, suitable for both line and point focus concentrators. An installation may have the local controller programmed as a standalone unit or slaved to a central controller. When used with a central controller, dynamic data monitoring and logging is available, together with the ability to change system modes and parameters, as desired.

  16. Instrumentation and process control for fossil demonstration plants. Monthly technical progress report, August 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeSage, L.G.; O' Fallon, N.M.

    1977-09-01

    Instrumentation and Process Control for Fossil Demonstration Plants (FDP) is reported. Work has been performed on updating the study of the state-of-the-art of instrumentation for FDP, development of mass-flow and other on-line instruments for FDP, process control analysis for FDP, and organization of a symposium on instrumentation and control for FDP. A Solids/Gas Flow Test Facility (S/GFTF) under construction for instrument development, testing, evaluation, and calibration is described. The development work for several mass-flow and other on-line instruments is described: acoustic flowmeter, capacitive density flowmeter, neutron activation flowmeter and composition analysis system, gamma ray correlation flowmeter, optical flowmeter, and capacitive liquid interface level meter.

  17. Exascale Virtualized and Programmable Distributed Cyber Resource Control: Final Scientific Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, S.J.Ben [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Lauer, Gregory S. [Raytheon BBN Technologies, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-09-30

    file transfers within a single domain. Adding support for IP traffic changes the nature of the RSA problem: instead of choosing to accept or deny each request for network support, IP traffic is inherently elastic and thus lends itself to a bandwidth maximization formulation. We developed a number of algorithms that could be easily deployed within existing and new FlexGrid networks, leading to networks that better support scientific collaboration. Cross-domain RSA research is essential to support large-scale FlexGrid networks, since configuration information is generally not shared or coordinated across domains. The results presented here are in their early stages. They are technically feasible and practical, but still require coordination among organizations and equipment owners and a higher-layer framework for managing network requests.

  18. Optogenetic control of human neurons in organotypic brain cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, My; Avaliani, Natalia; Svensson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Optogenetics is one of the most powerful tools in neuroscience, allowing for selective control of specific neuronal populations in the brain of experimental animals, including mammals. We report, for the first time, the application of optogenetic tools to human brain tissue providing a proof......-of-concept for the use of optogenetics in neuromodulation of human cortical and hippocampal neurons as a possible tool to explore network mechanisms and develop future therapeutic strategies....

  19. Active Control of Thermostatic Loads for Economic and Technical Support to Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Mendaza, Iker Diaz de Cerio; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    Active control of electric water heaters (EWHs) is presented in this paper as a means of exploiting demand flexibility for supporting low-voltage (LV) distribution grids. A single-node model of an EWH is implemented in DIgSILENT PowerFactory using a thermal energy balancing equation and three dec...

  20. 32 CFR 250.9 - Notice to accompany the dissemination of export-controlled technical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for items controlled by the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), or the Department of.... Government assumes no liability for direct patent infringement, or contributory patent infringement or misuse... resulting from manufacture or use for any purpose of any product, article, system, or material involving...

  1. Reflex control of robotic gait using human walking data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Catherine A; Meng, Lin; Conway, Bernard A; Porr, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Control of human walking is not thoroughly understood, which has implications in developing suitable strategies for the retraining of a functional gait following neurological injuries such as spinal cord injury (SCI). Bipedal robots allow us to investigate simple elements of the complex nervous system to quantify their contribution to motor control. RunBot is a bipedal robot which operates through reflexes without using central pattern generators or trajectory planning algorithms. Ground contact information from the feet is used to activate motors in the legs, generating a gait cycle visually similar to that of humans. Rather than developing a more complicated biologically realistic neural system to control the robot's stepping, we have instead further simplified our model by measuring the correlation between heel contact and leg muscle activity (EMG) in human subjects during walking and from this data created filter functions transferring the sensory data into motor actions. Adaptive filtering was used to identify the unknown transfer functions which translate the contact information into muscle activation signals. Our results show a causal relationship between ground contact information from the heel and EMG, which allows us to create a minimal, linear, analogue control system for controlling walking. The derived transfer functions were applied to RunBot II as a proof of concept. The gait cycle produced was stable and controlled, which is a positive indication that the transfer functions have potential for use in the control of assistive devices for the retraining of an efficient and effective gait with potential applications in SCI rehabilitation.

  2. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Tuesday 30 March TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR From 9:00 to 12:00 and from 13:00 to 16:00 hrs - Council Chamber, Salle B, Salle des Pas Perdus National Instruments (NI) on Tour 2004 Claudia Jüngel, Evrem Yarkin, Joel Clerc, Hervé Baour / NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS The special event NI on Tour 2004, run in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, will be at CERN on March 30. Technical seminars and free introductory courses will be offered all day long in the Council Chamber, Salle B, and Salle des Pas Perdus (buildings 61 and 503). Technical conferences: 09:00 - 12:00 Data acquisition systems on PCs. Industrial measurement and control techniques. 13:00 - 16:00 Advanced LabVIEW software and PXI instrumentation. Measuring instruments and system components for teststand automation. Introductory courses: 09:00 - 12:00 DIAdem: Data analysis and presentation 13:00 - 16:00 Data acquisition with LabVIEW Language: English and French Free special seminar. Registration is recommended with National Instruments Switzerland (please sp...

  3. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Tuesday 30 March TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR From 9:00 to 12:00 and from 13:00 to 16:00 hrs - Council Chamber, Salle B, Salle des Pas Perdus National Instruments (NI) on Tour 2004 Claudia Jüngel, Evrem Yarkin, Joel Clerc, Hervé Baour / NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS The special event NI on Tour 2004, run in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, will be at CERN on March 30. Technical seminars and free introductory courses will be offered all day long in the Council Chamber, Salle B, and Salle des Pas Perdus (buildings 61 and 503). Technical conferences: 09:00 - 12:00 Data acquisition systems on PCs. Industrial measurement and control techniques. 13:00 - 16:00 Advanced LabVIEW software and PXI instrumentation. Measuring instruments and system components for teststand automation. Introductory courses: 09:00 - 12:00 DIAdem: Data analysis and presentation 13:00 - 16:00 Data acquisition with LabVIEW Language: English and French Free special seminar. Registration is recommended with National Instruments Swi...

  4. Improving powerlifters’ technical preparedness at initial training stage using a device for remote control of competitive exercises technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Власов

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to improve powerlifters’ technical preparedness at the initial training stage using a device for remote control of the competitive exercises technique. Materials and methods. The study relied on the following methods used: theoretical analysis and collation of data of scientific and methodological literature and internet; pedagogical observation; pedagogical experiment; methods of mathematical statistics. Results. We have designed an algorithmic structure for teaching squats with a barbell on shoulders in powerlifting and a device for remote control of the competitive exercises technique. We used the pedagogical experiment and pedagogical observation of the competitive activity to reveal reliable deviations (p > 0.05 in the number of mistakes made by the athletes of the reference and experimental groups during the competitive activity. The reference group powerlifters made the mistake “no straight angle between the knee and the hip joints when performing the third stage” twelve times, while the experimental group athletes — seven times. Conclusions. The results obtained allow to maintain that the experimental group athletes have more rationally mastered the competitive exercises technique and made fewer mistakes compared to the control group powerlifters. This confirms the effectiveness of the designed algorithmic structure for teaching squats with a barbell on shoulders.

  5. Technical improvement and maintainability upgrade of PWR instrumentation and control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashima, Makoto; Saitou, Minoru [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Nuclear Energy Systems Engineering Center; Nishimura, Yukitaka

    1995-05-01

    The digital control technology has been applied step by step to the recent PWR instrumentation and control (I and C) systems, and also it is planned to apply it to the all the I and C systems, including the safety grade systems related to the reactor safety for the Advanced PWR plant. The integrated digital I and C systems have also been updated to enhance the maintenance capabilities of the systems, to optimize maintenance activities and reduce work loads of maintenance personnel. As a result, the integrated digital I and C systems have been established which can be applied to the actual plants, and which can contribute to the enhancement of reliability, hardware reductions and maintenance workload reduction of about 20% in comparison with recent plants. (author).

  6. Genetic control of nitrate assimilation in Klebsiella oxytoca. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Valley J.

    2001-04-01

    Some microorganisms can use nitrate as the sole source of nitrogen for biosynthesis. This project focused on the bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca, an enterobacterium found in soil and water. Mutagenesis and molecular cloning identified the nasFEDCBA operon encoding enzymes for the uptake and reduction of nitrate and nitrite to ammonium, and the adjacent nasR regulatory gene. Analysis of nasF operon expression revealed that transcription is activated by the Ntr (general nitrogen regulation ) system in response to nitrogen limitation. Transcription antitermination control in response to nitrate and nitrite is mediated by the NasR protein. Additional work established that the NasR protein is an RNA-binding protein that interacts with nasF operon leader RNA to control transcription readthrough.

  7. Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Technical Program Plan for 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbert, Bruce [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thomas, Ken [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) Systems Technologies Pathway conducts targeted research and development (R&D) to address aging and reliability concerns with the legacy instrumentation and control and related information systems of the U.S. operating light water reactor (LWR) fleet. This work involves two major goals: (1) to ensure that legacy analog II&C systems are not life-limiting issues for the LWR fleet, and (2) to implement digital II&C technology in a manner that enables broad innovation and business improvement in the nuclear power plant operating model. Resolving long-term operational concerns with the II&C systems contributes to the long-term sustainability of the LWR fleet, which is vital to the nation's energy and environmental security.

  8. Basic Principles for Elaboration of Technical Requirements to Control and Protective TRB Turbine Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Panteley

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers and provides methodology for calculation of maximum over speeding value of a turbine rotor in the case when we face the failure of all its protective systems. It is presented a derivation of main equations required for making the calculation and the paper also cites results of their practical application at an industrial TRB (Turbine of the Republic of Belarus turbine while constructing its protective control systems.

  9. A control-theory model for human decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, W. H.; Tanner, R. B.

    1971-01-01

    A model for human decision making is an adaptation of an optimal control model for pilot/vehicle systems. The models for decision and control both contain concepts of time delay, observation noise, optimal prediction, and optimal estimation. The decision making model was intended for situations in which the human bases his decision on his estimate of the state of a linear plant. Experiments are described for the following task situations: (a) single decision tasks, (b) two-decision tasks, and (c) simultaneous manual control and decision making. Using fixed values for model parameters, single-task and two-task decision performance can be predicted to within an accuracy of 10 percent. Agreement is less good for the simultaneous decision and control situation.

  10. Effects of Retinal Eccentricity on Human Manual Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovici, Alexandru; Zaal, Peter M. T.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of viewing a primary flight display at different retinal eccentricities on human manual control behavior and performance. Ten participants performed a pitch tracking task while looking at a simplified primary flight display at different horizontal and vertical retinal eccentricities, and with two different controlled dynamics. Tracking performance declined at higher eccentricity angles and participants behaved more nonlinearly. The visual error rate gain increased with eccentricity for single-integrator-like controlled dynamics, but decreased for double-integrator-like dynamics. Participants' visual time delay was up to 100 ms higher at the highest horizontal eccentricity compared to foveal viewing. Overall, vertical eccentricity had a larger impact than horizontal eccentricity on most of the human manual control parameters and performance. Results might be useful in the design of displays and procedures for critical flight conditions such as in an aerodynamic stall.

  11. Randomized controlled trials for influenza drugs and vaccines: a review of controlled human infection studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobana Balasingam

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Controlled human infection studies are an important research tool in assessing promising influenza vaccines and antivirals. These studies are performed quickly and are cost-effective and safe, with a low incidence of serious adverse events.

  12. Local control stations: Human engineering issues and insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; O`Hara, J.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate current human engineering at local control stations (LCSs) in nuclear power plants, and to identify good human engineering practices relevant to the design of these operator interfaces. General literature and reports of operating experience were reviewed to determine the extent and type of human engineering deficiencies at LCSs in nuclear power plants. In-plant assessments were made of human engineering at single-function as well as multifunction LCSs. Besides confirming the existence of human engineering deficiencies at LCSs, the in-plant assessments provided information about the human engineering upgrades that have been made at nuclear power plants. Upgrades were typically the result of any of three influences regulatory activity, broad industry initiatives such as INPO, and specific in-plant programs (e.g. activities related to training). It is concluded that the quality of LCSs is quite variable and might be improved if there were greater awareness of good practices and existing human engineering guidance relevant to these operator interfaces, which is available from a variety of sources. To make such human engineering guidance more readily accessible, guidelines were compiled from such sources and included in the report as an appendix.

  13. Feasibility of developing a portable driver performance data acquisition system for human factors research: Technical tasks. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.J.; Barickman, F.S.; Spelt, P.F.; Schmoyer, R.L.; Kirkpatrick, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    A two-phase, multi-year research program entitled ``development of a portable driver performance data acquisition system for human factors research`` was recently completed. The primary objective of the project was to develop a portable data acquisition system for crash avoidance research (DASCAR) that will allow drive performance data to be collected using a large variety of vehicle types and that would be capable of being installed on a given vehicle type within a relatively short-time frame. During phase 1 a feasibility study for designing and fabricating DASCAR was conducted. In phase 2 of the research DASCAR was actually developed and validated. This technical memorandum documents the results from the feasibility study. It is subdivided into three volumes. Volume one (this report) addresses the last five items in the phase 1 research and the first issue in the second phase of the project. Volumes two and three present the related appendices, and the design specifications developed for DASCAR respectively. The six tasks were oriented toward: identifying parameters and measures; identifying analysis tools and methods; identifying measurement techniques and state-of-the-art hardware and software; developing design requirements and specifications; determining the cost of one or more copies of the proposed data acquisition system; and designing a development plan and constructing DASCAR. This report also covers: the background to the program; the requirements for the project; micro camera testing; heat load calculations for the DASCAR instrumentation package in automobile trunks; phase 2 of the research; the DASCAR hardware and software delivered to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; and crash avoidance problems that can be addressed by DASCAR.

  14. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical background document for best available radionuclide control technology demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, A.B.; Skone, S.S.; Rodenhizer, D.G.; Marusich, M.V. (Ebasco Services, Inc., Bellevue, WA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    This report provides the background documentation to support applications for approval to construct and operate new radionuclide emission sources at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) near Richland, Washington. The HWVP is required to obtain permits under federal and state statutes for atmospheric discharges of radionuclides. Since these permits must be issued prior to construction of the facility, draft permit applications are being prepared, as well as documentation to support these permits. This report addresses the applicable requirements and demonstrates that the preferred design meets energy, environmental, and economic criteria for Best Available Radionuclide Control Technology (BARCT) at HWVP. 22 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  15. Intelligent (Autonomous) Power Controller Development for Human Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, James; Raitano, Paul; McNelis, Anne

    2016-01-01

    As NASAs Evolvable Mars Campaign and other exploration initiatives continue to mature they have identified the need for more autonomous operations of the power system. For current human space operations such as the International Space Station, the paradigm is to perform the planning, operation and fault diagnosis from the ground. However, the dual problems of communication lag as well as limited communication bandwidth beyond GEO synchronous orbit, underscore the need to change the operation methodology for human operation in deep space. To address this need, for the past several years the Glenn Research Center has had an effort to develop an autonomous power controller for human deep space vehicles. This presentation discusses the present roadmap for deep space exploration along with a description of conceptual power system architecture for exploration modules. It then contrasts the present ground centric control and management architecture with limited autonomy on-board the spacecraft with an advanced autonomous power control system that features ground based monitoring with a spacecraft mission manager with autonomous control of all core systems, including power. It then presents a functional breakdown of the autonomous power control system and examines its operation in both normal and fault modes. Finally, it discusses progress made in the development of a real-time power system model and how it is being used to evaluate the performance of the controller and well as using it for verification of the overall operation.

  16. A bilateral ankle manipulator to investigate human balance control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Alfred C; Boonstra, Tjitske A; Nieuwenhuis, Frank; Campfens, S Floor; van der Kooij, Herman

    2011-12-01

    The ankles play an important role in human balance. In most studies investigating balance control the contribution of the left and right leg is not separated. However, in certain pathologies such as stroke and Parkinson's disease, balance control can be asymmetric. Here, a bilateral ankle perturbator (BAP) is presented, which applies support surface rotations to both ankles independently. The device consists of two small foot-size support surfaces, which are independently actuated. The BAP device can operate in either angle or torque control mode. The device is able to apply support surface rotations up to 8.6° with a bandwidth of 42 Hz. Additionally the platforms can be replaced by 6-DoF force plates to measure the center of pressure underneath each foot. With the optional force plates the bandwidth decreases to 16 Hz as a result of the additional weight. Two possible applications of the device to investigate human balance control are demonstrated: ankle stiffness by applying minimum jerk profiles and sensory reweighting of the proprioceptive information. In conclusion, we developed a bilateral ankle perturbator which is able to apply support surface rotations to both ankles independently. The major application of the device will be to investigate the contribution of both ankles to human balance control, and the interactions in balance control between both legs.

  17. TECHNICAL PEER REVIEW REPORT - YUCCA MOUNTAIN: WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2005-10-25

    The objective of the Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) project is to assist in the disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and associated high-level wastes (HLW) at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. Materials will be transferred from the casks into a waste package (WP), sealed, and placed into the underground facility. The SNF/HLW transfer and closure operations will be performed in an aboveground facility. The objective of the Control System is to bring together major components of the entire WPCS ensuring that unit operations correctly receive, and respond to, commands and requests for data. Integrated control systems will be provided to ensure that all operations can be performed remotely. Maintenance on equipment may be done using hands-on or remote methods, depending on complexity, exposure, and ease of access. Operating parameters and nondestructive examination results will be collected and stored as permanent electronic records. Minor weld repairs must be performed within the closure cell if the welds do not meet the inspection acceptance requirements. Any WP with extensive weld defects that require lids to be removed will be moved to the remediation facility for repair.

  18. Electric Power Research Institute, Environmental Control Technology Center report to the steering committee. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued with the Pilot High Velocity FGD (PHV) and the Trace Element Removal (TER) test blocks. In the High Velocity test block, SO{sub 2} removal and mist eliminator carryover rates were investigated while operating the absorber unit with various spray nozzle types and vertical mist eliminator sections. During the Trace Element Removal test block, the mercury measurements and control studies involving the EPA Method 29 continued with testing of several impinger capture solutions, and the use of activated carbon injection across the Pulse-Jet Fabric Filter (PJFF) unit. The 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber System was utilized this month in the TER test configuration to inject and transfer activated carbon to the PJFF bags for downstream mercury capture. Work also began in December to prepare the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot Absorber system for receipt of the B and W Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHX) unit to be used in the 1996 DOE/PRDA testing. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit remained in cold-standby this month.

  19. Human-computer interface including haptically controlled interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Thomas G.

    2005-10-11

    The present invention provides a method of human-computer interfacing that provides haptic feedback to control interface interactions such as scrolling or zooming within an application. Haptic feedback in the present method allows the user more intuitive control of the interface interactions, and allows the user's visual focus to remain on the application. The method comprises providing a control domain within which the user can control interactions. For example, a haptic boundary can be provided corresponding to scrollable or scalable portions of the application domain. The user can position a cursor near such a boundary, feeling its presence haptically (reducing the requirement for visual attention for control of scrolling of the display). The user can then apply force relative to the boundary, causing the interface to scroll the domain. The rate of scrolling can be related to the magnitude of applied force, providing the user with additional intuitive, non-visual control of scrolling.

  20. Integrated Human and Animal Disease Control for Tanzanian ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Integrated Human and Animal Disease Control for Tanzanian Pastoralists Facing Settlement. In the drylands of East and Southern African, pastoralists are facing degrading environments due to increased population, climate change, and agricultural policies. Excluded from former grazing areas due to urbanization, wildlife ...

  1. Prosthetic Leg Control in the Nullspace of Human Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Robert D; Martin, Anne E

    2016-07-01

    Recent work has extended the control method of virtual constraints, originally developed for autonomous walking robots, to powered prosthetic legs for lower-limb amputees. Virtual constraints define desired joint patterns as functions of a mechanical phasing variable, which are typically enforced by torque control laws that linearize the output dynamics associated with the virtual constraints. However, the output dynamics of a powered prosthetic leg generally depend on the human interaction forces, which must be measured and canceled by the feedback linearizing control law. This feedback requires expensive multi-axis load cells, and actively canceling the interaction forces may minimize the human's influence over the prosthesis. To address these limitations, this paper proposes a method for projecting virtual constraints into the nullspace of the human interaction terms in the output dynamics. The projected virtual constraints naturally render the output dynamics invariant with respect to the human interaction forces, which instead enter into the internal dynamics of the partially linearized prosthetic system. This method is illustrated with simulations of a transfemoral amputee model walking with a powered knee-ankle prosthesis that is controlled via virtual constraints with and without the proposed projection.

  2. Optogenetic control of human neurons in organotypic brain cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, My; Avaliani, Natalia; Svensson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Optogenetics is one of the most powerful tools in neuroscience, allowing for selective control of specific neuronal populations in the brain of experimental animals, including mammals. We report, for the first time, the application of optogenetic tools to human brain tissue providing a proof-of-c......-of-concept for the use of optogenetics in neuromodulation of human cortical and hippocampal neurons as a possible tool to explore network mechanisms and develop future therapeutic strategies.......Optogenetics is one of the most powerful tools in neuroscience, allowing for selective control of specific neuronal populations in the brain of experimental animals, including mammals. We report, for the first time, the application of optogenetic tools to human brain tissue providing a proof...

  3. Modeling and control in Nissum. Technical report; Wave energy converter Wave Star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, E.V.

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this report is to give a deeper theoretical understanding of the achieved results of the performance tests described in another report. It is documented that the 2nd generation of PTO (Power Take-Off) is able to absorb significantly more energy than the existing PTO. 1) A linear dynamic model of the PTO in Nissum is derived and analogies to the electrical circuits are drawn. 2) A deeper mathematical and physical insight on the control strategy with the 2nd generation of PTO is given. 3) The 2nd generation of PTO is equivalent to create a resistive load which matches the intrinsic resistance of the system (resistance matching). 4) The performed simulations agree with the experiments realized in the actual performance tests where it is concluded that 2nd generation of PTO has a higher performance. (LN)

  4. Utilization of SRS pond ash in controlled low strength material. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.A.; Rajendran, N.

    1995-12-01

    Design mixes for Controlled Low Strength Material (CLSM) were developed which incorporate pond ashes (fly ashes) from the A-Area Ash Pile, the old F-Area Ash Basin and the D-Area Ash Basin. CLSM is a pumpable, flowable, excavatable backfill used in a variety of construction applications at SRS. Results indicate that CLSM which meets all of the SRS design specifications for backfill, can be made with the A-, D-, and F-Area pond ashes. Formulations for the design mixes are provided in this report. Use of the pond ashes may result in a cost savings for CLSM used at SRS and will utilize a by-product waste material, thereby decreasing the amount of material requiring disposal.

  5. Control of automatic processes: A parallel distributed-processing model of the stroop effect. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J.D.; Dunbar, K.; McClelland, J.L.

    1988-06-16

    A growing body of evidence suggests that traditional views of automaticity are in need of revision. For example, automaticity has often been treated as an all-or-none phenomenon, and traditional theories have held that automatic processes are independent of attention. Yet recent empirial data suggests that automatic processes are continuous, and furthermore are subject to attentional control. In this paper we present a model of attention which addresses these issues. Using a parallel distributed processing framework we propose that the attributes of automaticity depend upon the strength of a process and that strength increases with training. Using the Stroop effect as an example, we show how automatic processes are continuous and emerge gradually with practice. Specifically, we present a computational model of the Stroop task which simulates the time course of processing as well as the effects of learning.

  6. Electric Power Research Institute, Environmental Control Technology Center report to the Steering Committee. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued this month with the Trace Element Removal (TER) test block, and a simultaneous testing of the Lime Forced Oxidation process with DBA addition (LDG). At the end of the month, a series of Duct Injection tests began in a study to determine the efficiencies of alkaline injection for removing trace elements (mercury). On the Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, low temperature performance testing continued this month as measurements were taken for NO{sub x} removal efficiency, residual ammonia slip, and SO{sub 3} generation across the catalysts installed in the SCR reactor. This report describes the status of the facilities and test activities at the pilot and mini-pilot plants.

  7. Stability and Control of Burning Tokamak Plasmas with Resistive Walls: Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, George [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States); Brennan, Dylan [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Cole, Andrew [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Finn, John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-02

    This project is focused on theoretical and computational development for quantitative prediction of the stability and control of the equilibrium state evolution in toroidal burning plasmas, including its interaction with the surrounding resistive wall. The stability of long pulse burning plasmas is highly sensitive to the physics of resonant layers in the plasma, sources of momentum and flow, kinetic effects of energetic particles, and boundary conditions at the wall, including feedback control and error fields. In ITER in particular, the low toroidal flow equilibrium state, sustained primarily by energetic alpha particles from fusion reactions, will require the consideration of all of these key elements to predict quantitatively the stability and evolution. The principal investigators on this project have performed theoretical and computational analyses, guided by analytic modeling, to address this physics in realistic configurations. The overall goal has been to understand the key physics mechanisms that describe stable toroidal burning plasmas under active feedback control. Several relevant achievements have occurred during this project, leading to publications and invited conference presentations. In theoretical efforts, with the physics of the resonant layers, resistive wall, and toroidal momentum transport included, this study has extended from cylindrical resistive plasma - resistive wall models with feedback control to toroidal geometry with strong shaping to study mode coupling effects on the stability. These results have given insight into combined tearing and resistive wall mode behavior in simulations and experiment, while enabling a rapid exploration of plasma parameter space, to identify possible domains of interest for large plasma codes to investigate in more detail. Resonant field amplification and quasilinear torques in the presence of error fields and velocity shear have also been investigated. Here it was found, surprisingly, that the Maxwell

  8. Effect of intermittent feedback control on robustness of human-like postural control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Hiroko; Fujii, Keisuke; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Kouzaki, Motoki

    2016-03-01

    Humans have to acquire postural robustness to maintain stability against internal and external perturbations. Human standing has been recently modelled using an intermittent feedback control. However, the causality inside of the closed-loop postural control system associated with the neural control strategy is still unknown. Here, we examined the effect of intermittent feedback control on postural robustness and of changes in active/passive components on joint coordinative structure. We implemented computer simulation of a quadruple inverted pendulum that is mechanically close to human tiptoe standing. We simulated three pairs of joint viscoelasticity and three choices of neural control strategies for each joint: intermittent, continuous, or passive control. We examined postural robustness for each parameter set by analysing the region of active feedback gain. We found intermittent control at the hip joint was necessary for model stabilisation and model parameters affected the robustness of the pendulum. Joint sways of the pendulum model were partially smaller than or similar to those of experimental data. In conclusion, intermittent feedback control was necessary for the stabilisation of the quadruple inverted pendulum. Also, postural robustness of human-like multi-link standing would be achieved by both passive joint viscoelasticity and neural joint control strategies.

  9. Leadership, management and technical lessons learnt from a successful public-private partnership for TB control in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, J N; Pande, S B; Baral, S C; Bam, D S; Malla, P

    2005-09-01

    There is considerable interest in involving private practitioners (PPs) in tuberculosis (TB) control, but little experience. To describe and discuss leadership, management and technical lessons learnt from the successful implementation of a public-private partnership (PPP) for TB control in Nepal. Description and discussion of implementation of the PPP is based on feedback from the working group charged with developing the PPP, PPs involved in diagnosis and referral, NGOs providing direct observation of treatment and tracing of late patients, and members of the Nepal National TB Programme. The process of building the partnership was slow and demoralising, yet with perseverance partners gradually increased their involvement and commitment to the PPP. Leadership was needed to foster communication and openness between partners. It was not necessary to involve all PPs: many patients bypassed PPs and went directly to the free DOTS centres. An understanding of issues that arose during development of the Lalitpur PPP may assist assessment of the feasibility of PPPs in other settings, and increase the likelihood of successful implementation. The wider literature on partnerships may be useful to further inform the development of PPPs for health in developing countries.

  10. When soft controls get slippery: User interfaces and human error

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubler, W.F.; O`Hara, J.M.

    1998-12-01

    Many types of products and systems that have traditionally featured physical control devices are now being designed with soft controls--input formats appearing on computer-based display devices and operated by a variety of input devices. A review of complex human-machine systems found that soft controls are particularly prone to some types of errors and may affect overall system performance and safety. This paper discusses the application of design approaches for reducing the likelihood of these errors and for enhancing usability, user satisfaction, and system performance and safety.

  11. Determinants of human resource investment in internal controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hag Choi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Using the unique reporting environment in Korea, this study investigates the determinants of human resource investment in internal controls for 1352 listed firms disclosing the number of personnel who are in charge of internal control-related tasks (IC personnel from 2005 to 2008. We find that the number of IC personnel within a firm and several key departments increase with firm size, number of employees, complexity and for Chaebols, and decrease in rapidly growing firms. Additional analysis reveals that the factors influencing internal control systems have an accentuated effect on firms with relatively larger firm size.

  12. COMPEREHENSIVE TECHNICAL STUDIES OF FLOOD CONTROL OVER SOLO CITY AREA (CASE STUDY IN DEMANGAN BARRAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Trusharyanto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available City of Surakarta, known as Solo City is one of cities in Central Java Province traversed by Bengawan Solo River. Heavy rainfall in upstream area of Bengawan Solo River causes increase in high water level at downstream. Bengawan Solo River will be higher than water level in drainage system which may induce a backwater flow. Since Colonization era, the government has built dikes and barrages against backwater flow and inundation problem. One of the barrages was Demangan Barrage dividing river flow into Bengawan Solo River and Pepe River. It was equipped with total capacity pump of 12,3 m3/s. The inundation is not only caused by the backwater flow coming from Bengawan Solo River, but also surface runoff as the result of the excess rainfall which cannot be drained gravitationally to the main river if the gate was closed. Therefore, comprehensive study combining hydrology and hydraulics analysis is highly needed in order to achieve more effective flood control management. Hydrology analysis was done to estimate the direct runoff hydrograph from catchment area in Solo City to downstream of Pepe River. While in hydraulics case, hydraulic parameter in downstream of Pepe River influenced by Bengawan Solo River stream was analyzed. Both studies were simulated using software HEC-RAS 4.1.0 version. The simulation considered drainage channel, gate, pump system and dike in Pepe River downstream. Simulation using 10 years of return period in Solo City and average annual water level in Bengawan Solo River showed that Pepe River can flow through the gate, while the highest water level is still below the dike. Simulation considering 10 years of return period, water level hydrograph of Bengawan Solo River, existing pump, and gate operation inferred that Pepe River surpassed top of dike. Capacity of required pump should be more than 168,3 m3/s in order to pass 10 years of return period. By combining operational of existing pump and dike elevated up to +87,63 m

  13. Technical note: Late Pliocene age control and composite depths at ODP Site 982, revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khélifi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocean Drilling Program (ODP Site 982 provided a key sediment section at Rockall Plateau for reconstructing northeast Atlantic paleoceanography and monitoring benthic δ18O stratigraphy over the late Pliocene to Quaternary onset of major Northern Hemisphere glaciation. A renewed hole-specific inspection of magnetostratigraphic reversals and the addition of epibenthic δ18O records for short Pliocene sections in holes 982A, B, and C, crossing core breaks in the δ18O record published for Hole 982B, now imply a major revision of composite core depths. After tuning to the orbitally tuned reference record LR04, the new composite δ18O record results in a hiatus, where the Kaena magnetic subchron might have been lost, and in a significant age reduction for all proxy records by 130 to 20 ky over the time span 3.2–2.7 million years ago (Ma. Our study demonstrates the general significance of reliable composite-depth scales and δ18O stratigraphies in ODP sediment records for generating ocean-wide correlations in paleoceanography. The new concept of age control makes the late Pliocene trends in SST (sea surface temperature and atmospheric pCO2 at Site 982 more consistent with various paleoclimate trends published from elsewhere in the North Atlantic.

  14. Electric Power Research Institute Environmental Control Technology Center final monthly technical report, August 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit this month involved the Trace Element Removal (TER) test block, and the simultaneous testing of the Lime Forced Oxidation process with DBA addition (LDG). Additionally, the second phase of the 1995 Carbon Injection test block began this month with the SDA/PJFF test configuration. At the end of the LDG testing this month, a one-week baseline test was conducted to generate approximately 200 lbs. of magnesium-lime FGD solids for analysis. On the 1.0 MW Post-FGD Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, performance testing was continued this month as measurements were taken for NO{sub x} removal efficiency, residual ammonia slip, and S0{sub 3} generation across the catalysts installed in the reactor. As a result of new directions received from EPRI, this will be the last scheduled month of testing for the SCR unit in 1995. At the completion of this month, the unit will be isolated from the flue gas path and placed in a cold-standby mode for future test activities. This report describes the status of facilities and test facilities at the pilot and mini-pilot plants.

  15. Control of automatic processes: A parallel distributed-processing account of the Stroop effect. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J.D.; Dunbar, K.; McClelland, J.L.

    1989-11-22

    A growing body of evidence suggests that traditional views of automaticity are in need of revision. For example, automaticity has often been treated as an all-or-none phenomenon, and traditional theories have held that automatic processes are independent of attention. Yet recent empirical data suggest that automatic processes are continuous, and furthermore are subject to attentional control. In this paper we present a model of attention which addresses these issues. Using a parallel distributed processing framework we propose that the attributes of automaticity depend upon the strength of a processing pathway and that strength increases with training. Using the Stroop effect as an example, we show how automatic processes are continuous and emerge gradually with practice. Specifically, we present a computational model of the Stroop task which simulates the time course of processing as well as the effects of learning. This was accomplished by combining the cascade mechanism described by McClelland (1979) with the back propagation learning algorithm (Rumelhart, Hinton, Williams, 1986). The model is able to simulate performance in the standard Stroop task, as well as aspects of performance in variants of this task which manipulate SOA, response set, and degree of practice. In the discussion we contrast our model with other models, and indicate how it relates to many of the central issues in the literature on attention, automaticity, and interference.

  16. Advanced in-duct sorbent injection for SO{sub 2} control. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stouffer, M.R.; Withium, J.A.; Rosenhoover, W.A.; Maskew, J.T.

    1994-12-01

    The objective of this research project was to develop a second generation duct sorbent injection technology as a cost-effective compliance option for the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Research and development work was focused on the Advanced Coolside process, which showed the potential for exceeding the original performance targets of 90% SO{sub 2} removal and 60% sorbent utilization. Process development was conducted in a 1000 acfm pilot plant. The pilot plant testing showed that the Advanced Coolside process can achieve 90% SO{sub 2} removal at sorbent utilizations up to 75%. The testing also showed that the process has the potential to achieve very high removal efficiency (90 to >99%). By conducting conceptual process design and economic evaluations periodically during the project, development work was focused on process design improvements which substantially lowered process capital and operating costs, A final process economic study projects capital costs less than one half of those for limestone forced oxidation wet FGD. Projected total SO{sub 2} control cost is about 25% lower than wet FGD for a 260 MWe plant burning a 2.5% sulfur coal. A waste management study showed the acceptability of landfill disposal; it also identified a potential avenue for by-product utilization which should be further investigated. Based on the pilot plant performance and on the above economic projections, future work to scale up the Advanced Coolside process is recommended.

  17. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Technology Control Center, report to the Steering committee. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This report describes test for air pollution control of flue gas and mercury as a result of coal combustion. The NYSEG Kintigh Station provided flue gas to the Center 100% of the time during this performance period. As the Kintigh Station operated with a variety of coals, fluctuations in the Center`s inlet SO{sub 2} concentrations were experienced. Safety training for the month was conducted by the O&M Superintendent, Maintenance Supervisor and Shift Supervisors. {open_quotes}Personal Protective Equipment{close_quotes} was the topic of the month. Inspections of the ECTC Facility and safety equipment (SCR air-packs, fire extinguishers, etc.) were completed and recorded this month. All systems were found to be in good condition. By continuing to emphasize safe work habits at the Center, we have raised the total number of days without a lost time injury to 1426 as of 4/30/96. The monthly safety meeting with the NYSEG Kintigh Station was held on April 30, 1996 with both NYSEG and ECTC representatives. The topics of discussion included an overview of NYSEG`s upcoming alternate fuel burn, an update on plant staffing changes, and a discussion of future safety training activities.

  18. Model-based hierarchical reinforcement learning and human action control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvinick, Matthew; Weinstein, Ari

    2014-11-05

    Recent work has reawakened interest in goal-directed or 'model-based' choice, where decisions are based on prospective evaluation of potential action outcomes. Concurrently, there has been growing attention to the role of hierarchy in decision-making and action control. We focus here on the intersection between these two areas of interest, considering the topic of hierarchical model-based control. To characterize this form of action control, we draw on the computational framework of hierarchical reinforcement learning, using this to interpret recent empirical findings. The resulting picture reveals how hierarchical model-based mechanisms might play a special and pivotal role in human decision-making, dramatically extending the scope and complexity of human behaviour.

  19. International Guidelines on Human Rights and Drug Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Luciana

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Discrimination and inequality shape women’s experiences of drug use and in the drug trade and the impact of drug control efforts on them, with disproportionate burdens faced by poor and otherwise marginalized women. In recent years, UN member states and UN drug control and human rights entities have recognized this issue and made commitments to integrate a ‘gender perspective’ into drug control policies, with ‘gender’ limited to those conventionally deemed women. But the concept of gender in international law is broader, rooted in socially constructed and culturally determined norms and expectations around gender roles, sex, and sexuality. Also, drug control policies often fail to meaningfully address the specific needs and circumstances of women (inclusively defined), leaving them at risk of recurrent violations of their rights in the context of drugs. This article explores what it means to ‘mainstream’ this narrower version of gender into drug control efforts, using as examples various women’s experiences as people who use drugs, in the drug trade, and in the criminal justice system. It points to international guidelines on human rights and drug control as an important tool to ensure attention to women’s rights in drug control policy design and implementation. PMID:28630557

  20. Technical support for digital systems technology development. Task order 1: ISP contention analysis and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehle, Roy H.; Ogier, Richard G.

    1993-01-01

    Alternatives for realizing a packet-based network switch for use on a frequency division multiple access/time division multiplexed (FDMA/TDM) geostationary communication satellite were investigated. Each of the eight downlink beams supports eight directed dwells. The design needed to accommodate multicast packets with very low probability of loss due to contention. Three switch architectures were designed and analyzed. An output-queued, shared bus system yielded a functionally simple system, utilizing a first-in, first-out (FIFO) memory per downlink dwell, but at the expense of a large total memory requirement. A shared memory architecture offered the most efficiency in memory requirements, requiring about half the memory of the shared bus design. The processing requirement for the shared-memory system adds system complexity that may offset the benefits of the smaller memory. An alternative design using a shared memory buffer per downlink beam decreases circuit complexity through a distributed design, and requires at most 1000 packets of memory more than the completely shared memory design. Modifications to the basic packet switch designs were proposed to accommodate circuit-switched traffic, which must be served on a periodic basis with minimal delay. Methods for dynamically controlling the downlink dwell lengths were developed and analyzed. These methods adapt quickly to changing traffic demands, and do not add significant complexity or cost to the satellite and ground station designs. Methods for reducing the memory requirement by not requiring the satellite to store full packets were also proposed and analyzed. In addition, optimal packet and dwell lengths were computed as functions of memory size for the three switch architectures.

  1. Final Technical Report: Genetic and Molecular Analysis of a new control pathway in assimilate partitioning.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Daniel, R.

    2009-03-10

    Assimilate partitioning refers to the systemic distribution of photoassimilate from sites of primary assimilation (source tissue) to import-dependent tissues and organs (sinks). One of the defining questions in this area is how plants balance source productivity with sink demand. We discovered a sucrose-sensing signal transduction pathway that controls the activity of BvSUT1, a proton-sucrose symporter in sugar beet leaf tissue. Sucrose symporters are responsible for sucrose accumulation in the phloem of many plants and, therefore, they mediate the pivotal step in the long-distance transport of photoassimilate to non-photosynthetic tissues, such as roots and seed. We previously showed that sucrose transport activity is directly proportional to the transcription rate of BvSUT1 and that symporter mRNA and protein have high rates of turnover with half-lives on the order of 2 h. We further demonstrated that symporter transcription is regulated by sucrose levels in the leaf and that sucrose-dependent regulation of BvSUT1 transcription is mediated, at least in part, by a protein phosphorylation relay pathway. The goal of the experiments during this current grant were to use genetic and molecular approaches to identify essential components of this vital regulatory system. The initial objectives were to: (1) to characterize Arabidopsis mutants we've isolated that are resistant to growth inhibition by sucrose analogues that are recognized by the sucrose-sensor, (2) to screen for loss of function mutants in BvSUT1-promoter:luciferase transgenic plants that no longer respond to sucrose accumulation in the leaf using non-destructive visualization of luciferase activity, (3) to use gel mobility-shift assays and nuclease protection experiments to identify cis elements in the symporter promoter and DNA-binding proteins that are involved in sucrose regulation of symporter expression.

  2. Improving the technical preparation of football players on the basis of the control of discriminative characteristics when performing combinations of techniques during a game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitova Olena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the issue of improving the technical preparation of football players during initial basic training. A special attention is paid to the development and experimental substantiation of the methods of technical preparation of young football players in an annual cycle at the stage of initial basic training on the basis of the control of discriminative characteristics when performing inseparable combinations of techniques during a game. An attempt was made to uncover the underlying causes of a low technical preparedness of football players at different stages of multi-year training and to implement an integrated scientific approach to improvement of the process of technical preparation of 10-11 years old football players in an annual cycle at the stage of initial basic training on the basis of the control of discriminative characteristics when performing inseparable combinations of techniques during competitive activity, along with the peculiarities of psychophysical condition and a level of development of physical qualities. This approach in teaching technical skills will be of interest to specialists and coaches in football, since the pedagogical experiment has determined the effectiveness of the developed methodology.

  3. Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Danko

    2007-09-30

    This report contains a detailed description of the work conducted for the project on Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations at University of Nevada, Reno. This project combines human operator control with robotic control concepts to create a hybrid control architecture, in which the strengths of each control method are combined to increase machine efficiency and reduce operator fatigue. The kinematics reconfiguration type differential control of the excavator implemented with a variety of 'software machine kinematics' is the key feature of the project. This software re-configured excavator is more desirable to execute a given digging task. The human operator retains the master control of the main motion parameters, while the computer coordinates the repetitive movement patterns of the machine links. These repetitive movements may be selected from a pre-defined family of trajectories with different transformations. The operator can make adjustments to this pattern in real time, as needed, to accommodate rapidly-changing environmental conditions. A working prototype has been developed using a Bobcat 435 excavator. The machine is operational with or without the computer control system depending on whether the computer interface is on or off. In preparation for emulated mining tasks tests, typical, repetitive tool trajectories during surface mining operations were recorded at the Newmont Mining Corporation's 'Lone Tree' mine in Nevada. Analysis of these working trajectories has been completed. The motion patterns, when transformed into a family of curves, may serve as the basis for software-controlled machine kinematics transformation in the new human-robot control system. A Cartesian control example has been developed and tested both in simulation and on the experimental excavator. Open-loop control is robustly stable and free of short-term dynamic problems, but it allows for drifting away from the desired motion kinematics of the

  4. Evaluation of the Relationship between Critical Thinking Skills and Affective Control in Child Training Students of the Female Technical and Vocational College in the City of Broujerd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Zohreh; Bagheri, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    This study is a descriptive-correlational study with the purpose of evaluating the relationship between critical thinking skills and affective control in child training students of the female technical and Vocational College in the city of Broujerd. Statistical population of this study consisted of all students in the field of child training of…

  5. Implementing Selective Waste Collection: The Articulation between Pedagogical Theory and Practice in the Pollution and Ecology Class in the Environmental Control Technical Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocas, Giselle; Gonzalez, Wania R. Coutinho; Araujo, Flavia Monteiro de Barros

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the implementation of selective waste collection in a school located on the outskirts of the city of Rio de Janeiro. The participants consisted mainly of 64 students taking an Environmental Control technical course during 2007 and 2008. By addressing selective waste collection, the pedagogical proposal aimed at: a) enabling…

  6. Human Systems Integration: Unmanned Aircraft Control Station Certification Plan Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This document provides guidance to the FAA on important human factors considerations that can be used to support the certification of a UAS Aircraft Control Station (ACS). This document provides a synopsis of the human factors analysis, design and test activities to be performed to provide a basis for FAA certification. The data from these analyses, design activities, and tests, along with data from certification/qualification tests of other key components should be used to establish the ACS certification basis. It is expected that this information will be useful to manufacturers in developing the ACS Certification Plan,, and in supporting the design of their ACS.

  7. Metabolic control of muscle blood flow during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2003-01-01

    to exert control of muscle vasodilation. Adenosine, nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin (PGI2), and endothelial-derived hyperpolarization factor (EDHF) are possible mediators of muscle vasodilation during exercise. In humans, adenosine has been shown to contribute to functional hyperemia as blood flow...... that combined blockade of NOS and PGI2, and NOS and cytochrome P450, both attenuate exercise-induced hyperemia in humans. Combined vasodilator blockade studies offer the potential to uncover important interactions and compensatory vasodilator responses. The signaling pathways that link metabolic events evoked...

  8. Reflex control of robotic gait using human walking data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Macleod

    Full Text Available Control of human walking is not thoroughly understood, which has implications in developing suitable strategies for the retraining of a functional gait following neurological injuries such as spinal cord injury (SCI. Bipedal robots allow us to investigate simple elements of the complex nervous system to quantify their contribution to motor control. RunBot is a bipedal robot which operates through reflexes without using central pattern generators or trajectory planning algorithms. Ground contact information from the feet is used to activate motors in the legs, generating a gait cycle visually similar to that of humans. Rather than developing a more complicated biologically realistic neural system to control the robot's stepping, we have instead further simplified our model by measuring the correlation between heel contact and leg muscle activity (EMG in human subjects during walking and from this data created filter functions transferring the sensory data into motor actions. Adaptive filtering was used to identify the unknown transfer functions which translate the contact information into muscle activation signals. Our results show a causal relationship between ground contact information from the heel and EMG, which allows us to create a minimal, linear, analogue control system for controlling walking. The derived transfer functions were applied to RunBot II as a proof of concept. The gait cycle produced was stable and controlled, which is a positive indication that the transfer functions have potential for use in the control of assistive devices for the retraining of an efficient and effective gait with potential applications in SCI rehabilitation.

  9. A control theory model for human decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    The optimal control model for pilot-vehicle systems has been extended to handle certain types of human decision tasks. The model for decision making incorporates the observation noise, optimal estimation, and prediction concepts that form the basis of the model for control behavior. Experiments are described for the following task situations: (1) single decision tasks; (2) two decision tasks; and (3) simultaneous manual control and decision tasks. Using fixed values for model parameters, single-task and two-task decision performance scores to within an accuracy of 10 percent can be predicted. The experiment on simultaneous control and decision indicates the presence of task interference in this situation, but the results are not adequate to allow a conclusive test of the predictive capability of the model.

  10. Human Computer Interaction in the ALMA Control Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, M.; Primet, R.; Pietriga, E.; Schwarz, J.

    2012-09-01

    The article describes the ALMA Operations Monitoring and Control (OMC) software and its next generation user interfaces, used by operators and astronomers to monitor and control the observing facility. These user interfaces bring state-of-the-art Human Computer Interaction (HCI) techniques to the ALMA Control Room: map visualisation, semantic zooming, navigation gestures, multiple coordinated views, and decrease of time-to-point. They enable users to stay in control of dozens of antennas, hundreds of devices, and thousands of baselines. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international radio-astronomy facility, is a partnership of North America, Europe and East Asia in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. It is located at the Altiplano de Chajnantor and is being operated from the Operations Support Facilities (OSF) near San Pedro de Atacama.

  11. Human eye visual hyperacuity: Controlled diffraction for image resolution improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagunas, A.; Domínguez, O.; Martinez-Conde, S.; Macknik, S. L.; Del-Río, C.

    2017-09-01

    The Human Visual System appears to be using a low number of sensors for image capturing, and furthermore, regarding the physical dimensions of cones—photoreceptors responsible for the sharp central vision—we may realize that these sensors are of a relatively small size and area. Nonetheless, the human eye is capable of resolving fine details thanks to visual hyperacuity and presents an impressive sensitivity and dynamic range when set against conventional digital cameras of similar characteristics. This article is based on the hypothesis that the human eye may be benefiting from diffraction to improve both image resolution and acquisition process. The developed method involves the introduction of a controlled diffraction pattern at an initial stage that enables the use of a limited number of sensors for capturing the image and makes possible a subsequent post-processing to improve the final image resolution.

  12. Human Factors in Command-and-Control System Procurement,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    Information Flow Diagrams 15 2.6 Operational Sequence Diagrams 20 2.7 Network Digrams 23 2.8 HIPO Charts 26 2.9 Job Process Charts 28 2.10 Process Control...diagrams (e) Operational sequence diagrams (f) Network diagrams (g) HIPO charts (h) Job process charts (I) Process control diagrams TABLE 2 - Types of...modelling of the effects of both stimulus uncertainty and consequence-of-action uncertainty on human performaInce. 2.8 HIPO Charts Hierarchical input

  13. Human-computer interface controlled by the lip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Marcelo Archajo; de Deus Lopes, Roseli

    2015-01-01

    Lip control system is an innovative human-computer interface specially designed for people with tetraplegia. This paper presents an evaluation of the lower lip potential to control an input device, according to Fitts' law (ISO/TS 9241-411:2012 standard). The results show that the lower lip throughput is comparable with the thumb throughput using the same input device under the same conditions. These results establish the baseline for future research studies about the lower lip capacity to operate a computer input device.

  14. Studies in the Human Use of Controlled English

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Controlled English (CE) is intended to aid human problem solving processes when analysing data and generating high-value conclusions in collaboration...state of affairs. The second approach is to guide a user face-to-face to formulate free English sentences into CE to solve a logic problem. The paper describes both approaches and provides an informal analysis of the results to date.

  15. Humane killing of animals for disease control purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornber, P M; Rubira, R J; Styles, D K

    2014-04-01

    Killing for disease control purposes is an emotional issue for everyone concerned. Large-scale euthanasia or depopulation of animals may be necessary for the emergency control or eradication of animal diseases, to remove animals from a compromised situation (e.g. following flood, storm, fire, drought or a feed contamination event), to effect welfare depopulation when there is an oversupply due to a dysfunctional or closed marketing channel, or to depopulate and dispose of animals with minimal handling to decrease the risk of a zoonotic disease infecting humans. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) developed international standards to provide advice on humane killing for various species and situations. Some fundamental issues are defined, such as competency of animal handling and implementation of humane killing techniques. Some of these methods have been used for many years, but novel approaches for the mass killing of particular species are being explored. Novel vaccines and new diagnostic techniques that differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals will save many animals from being killed as part of biosecurity response measures. Unfortunately, the destruction of affected livestock will still be required to control diseases whilst vaccination programmes are activated or where effective vaccines are not available. This paper reviews the principles of humane destruction and depopulation and explores available techniques with their associated advantages and disadvantages. It also identifies some current issues that merit consideration, such as legislative conflicts (emergency disease legislation versus animal welfare legislation, occupational health and safety), media issues, opinions on the future approaches to killing for disease control, and animal welfare.

  16. Controlled human exposures to ambient pollutant particles in susceptible populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghio Andrew J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epidemiologic studies have established an association between exposures to air pollution particles and human mortality and morbidity at concentrations of particles currently found in major metropolitan areas. The adverse effects of pollution particles are most prominent in susceptible subjects, including the elderly and patients with cardiopulmonary diseases. Controlled human exposure studies have been used to confirm the causal relationship between pollution particle exposure and adverse health effects. Earlier studies enrolled mostly young healthy subjects and have largely confirmed the capability of particles to cause adverse health effects shown in epidemiological studies. In the last few years, more studies involving susceptible populations have been published. These recent studies in susceptible populations, however, have shown that the adverse responses to particles appear diminished in these susceptible subjects compared to those in healthy subjects. The present paper reviewed and compared control human exposure studies to particles and sought to explain the "unexpected" response to particle exposure in these susceptible populations and make recommendations for future studies. We found that the causes for the discrepant results are likely multifactorial. Factors such as medications, the disease itself, genetic susceptibility, subject selection bias that is intrinsic to many controlled exposure studies and nonspecificity of study endpoints may explain part of the results. Future controlled exposure studies should select endpoints that are more closely related to the pathogenesis of the disease and reflect the severity of particle-induced health effects in the specific populations under investigation. Future studies should also attempt to control for medications and genetic susceptibility. Using a different study design, such as exposing subjects to filtered air and ambient levels of particles, and assessing the improvement in

  17. APPLICATION OF EYE TRACKING FOR MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN HUMAN FACTORS STUDIES IN CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, C.; Spielman, Z.; LeBlanc, K.; Rice, B.

    2017-05-01

    An important element of human factors engineering (HFE) pertains to measurement and evaluation (M&E). The role of HFE-M&E should be integrated throughout the entire control room modernization (CRM) process and be used for human-system performance evaluation and diagnostic purposes with resolving potential human engineering deficiencies (HEDs) and other human machine interface (HMI) design issues. NUREG-0711 describes how HFE in CRM should employ a hierarchical set of measures, particularly during integrated system validation (ISV), including plant performance, personnel task performance, situation awareness, cognitive workload, and anthropometric/ physiological factors. Historically, subjective measures have been primarily used since they are easier to collect and do not require specialized equipment. However, there are pitfalls with relying solely on subjective measures in M&E such that negatively impact reliability, sensitivity, and objectivity. As part of comprehensively capturing a diverse set of measures that strengthen findings and inferences made of the benefits from emerging technologies like advanced displays, this paper discusses the value of using eye tracking as an objective method that can be used in M&E. A brief description of eye tracking technology and relevant eye tracking measures is provided. Additionally, technical considerations and the unique challenges with using eye tracking in full-scaled simulations are addressed. Finally, this paper shares preliminary findings regarding the use of a wearable eye tracking system in a full-scale simulator study. These findings should help guide future full-scale simulator studies using eye tracking as a methodology to evaluate human-system performance.

  18. Human regulatory B cells control the TFH cell response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achour, Achouak; Simon, Quentin; Mohr, Audrey; Séité, Jean-François; Youinou, Pierre; Bendaoud, Boutahar; Ghedira, Ibtissem; Pers, Jacques-Olivier; Jamin, Christophe

    2017-07-01

    Follicular helper T (TFH) cells support terminal B-cell differentiation. Human regulatory B (Breg) cells modulate cellular responses, but their control of TFH cell-dependent humoral immune responses is unknown. We sought to assess the role of Breg cells on TFH cell development and function. Human T cells were polyclonally stimulated in the presence of IL-12 and IL-21 to generate TFH cells. They were cocultured with B cells to induce their terminal differentiation. Breg cells were included in these cultures, and their effects were evaluated by using flow cytometry and ELISA. B-cell lymphoma 6, IL-21, inducible costimulator, CXCR5, and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) expressions increased on stimulated human T cells, characterizing TFH cell maturation. In cocultures they differentiated B cells into CD138(+) plasma and IgD(-)CD27(+) memory cells and triggered immunoglobulin secretions. Breg cells obtained by Toll-like receptor 9 and CD40 activation of B cells prevented TFH cell development. Added to TFH cell and B-cell cocultures, they inhibited B-cell differentiation, impeded immunoglobulin secretions, and expanded Foxp3(+)CXCR5(+)PD-1(+) follicular regulatory T cells. Breg cells modulated IL-21 receptor expressions on TFH cells and B cells, and their suppressive activities involved CD40, CD80, CD86, and intercellular adhesion molecule interactions and required production of IL-10 and TGF-β. Human Breg cells control TFH cell maturation, expand follicular regulatory T cells, and inhibit the TFH cell-mediated antibody secretion. These novel observations demonstrate a role for the Breg cell in germinal center reactions and suggest that deficient activities might impair the TFH cell-dependent control of humoral immunity and might lead to the development of aberrant autoimmune responses. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The bilingual brain: Flexibility and control in the human cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchweitz, Augusto; Prat, Chantel

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the present review is to discuss recent cognitive neuroscientific findings concerning bilingualism. Three interrelated questions about the bilingual brain are addressed: How are multiple languages represented in the brain? how are languages controlled in the brain? and what are the real-world implications of experience with multiple languages? The review is based on neuroimaging research findings about the nature of bilingual processing, namely, how the brain adapts to accommodate multiple languages in the bilingual brain and to control which language should be used, and when. We also address how this adaptation results in differences observed in the general cognition of bilingual individuals. General implications for models of human learning, plasticity, and cognitive control are discussed.

  20. Characterizing the human postural control system using detrended fluctuation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresa Blázquez, M.; Anguiano, Marta; de Saavedra, Fernando Arias; Lallena, Antonio M.; Carpena, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Detrended fluctuation analysis is used to study the behaviour of the time series of the position of the center of pressure, output from the activity of a human postural control system. The results suggest that these trajectories present a crossover in their scaling properties from persistent (for high frequencies, short-range time scale) to anti-persistent (for low frequencies, long-range time scale) behaviours. The values of the scaling exponent found for the persistent parts of the trajectories are very similar for all the cases analysed. The similarity of the results obtained for the measurements done with both eyes open and both eyes closed indicate either that the visual system may be disregarded by the postural control system, while maintaining quiet standing, or that the control mechanisms associated with each type of information (visual, vestibular and somatosensory) cannot be disentangled with this technique.

  1. Divided attention impairs human motor adaptation but not feedback control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jordan A; Thoroughman, Kurt A

    2007-07-01

    When humans experience externally induced errors in a movement, the motor system's feedback control compensates for those errors within the movement. The motor system's predictive control then uses information about those errors to inform future movements. The role of attention in these two distinct motor processes is unclear. Previous experiments have revealed a role for attention in motor learning over the course of many movements; however, these experimental paradigms do not determine how attention influences within-movement feedback control versus across-movement adaptation. Here we develop a dual-task paradigm, consisting of movement and audio tasks, which can differentiate and expose attention's role in these two processes of motor control. Over the course of several days, subjects performed horizontal reaching movements, with and without the audio task; movements were occasionally subjected to transient force perturbations. On movements with a force perturbation, subjects compensated for the force-induced movement errors, and on movements immediately after the force perturbation subjects exhibited adaptation. On every movement trial, subjects performed a two-tone frequency-discrimination task. The temporal specificity of the frequency-discrimination task allowed us to divide attention within and across movements. We find that divided attention did not impair the within-movement feedback control of the arm, but did reduce subsequent movement adaptation. We suggest that the secondary task interfered with the encoding and transformation of errors into changes in predictive control.

  2. Control of human parasitic diseases: Context and overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, David H

    2006-01-01

    The control of parasitic diseases of humans has been undertaken since the aetiology and natural history of the infections was recognized and the deleterious effects on human health and well-being appreciated by policy makers, medical practitioners and public health specialists. However, while some parasitic infections such as malaria have proved difficult to control, as defined by a sustained reduction in incidence, others, particularly helminth infections can be effectively controlled. The different approaches to control from diagnosis, to treatment and cure of the clinically sick patient, to control the transmission within the community by preventative chemotherapy and vector control are outlined. The concepts of eradication, elimination and control are defined and examples of success summarized. Overviews of the health policy and financing environment in which programmes to control or eliminate parasitic diseases are positioned and the development of public-private partnerships as vehicles for product development or access to drugs for parasite disease control are discussed. Failure to sustain control of parasites may be due to development of drug resistance or the failure to implement proven strategies as a result of decreased resources within the health system, decentralization of health management through health-sector reform and the lack of financial and human resources in settings where per capita government expenditure on health may be less than $US 5 per year. However, success has been achieved in several large-scale programmes through sustained national government investment and/or committed donor support. It is also widely accepted that the level of investment in drug development for the parasitic diseases of poor populations is an unattractive option for pharmaceutical companies. The development of partnerships to specifically address this need provides some hope that the intractable problems of the treatment regimens for the trypanosomiases and

  3. Controlled human infection models for vaccine development: Zika virus debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad

    2017-10-31

    An ethics panel, convened by the National Institute of Health and other research bodies in the USA, disallowed researchers from the Johns Hopkins University and University of Vermont from performing controlled human infection of healthy volunteers to develop a vaccine against Zika virus infection. The members published their ethical analysis and recommendations in February 2017. They have elaborated on the risks posed by human challenge with Zika virus to the volunteers and other uninvolved third parties and have systematically analysed the social value of such a human challenge experiment. They have also posited some mandatory ethical requirements which should be met before allowing the infection of healthy volunteers with the Zika virus. This commentary elaborates on the debate on the ethics of the human challenge model for the development of a Zika virus vaccine and the role of systematic ethical analysis in protecting the interests of research participants. It further analyses the importance of this debate to the development of a Zika vaccine in India.

  4. Are Children with Autism More Responsive to Animated Characters? A Study of Interactions with Humans and Human-Controlled Avatars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Elizabeth J.; Williams, Diane L.; Hodgins, Jessica K.; Lehman, Jill F.

    2014-01-01

    Few direct comparisons have been made between the responsiveness of children with autism to computer-generated or animated characters and their responsiveness to humans. Twelve 4-to 8-year-old children with autism interacted with a human therapist; a human-controlled, interactive avatar in a theme park; a human actor speaking like the avatar; and…

  5. Controlled Delivery of Human Cells by Temperature Responsive Microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, W.C.; Olesen, K.; Sivlér, P.; Lee, C.J.; Moreno-Jimenez, I.; Edin, J.; Courtman, D.; Skog, M.; Griffith, M.

    2015-01-01

    Cell therapy is one of the most promising areas within regenerative medicine. However, its full potential is limited by the rapid loss of introduced therapeutic cells before their full effects can be exploited, due in part to anoikis, and in part to the adverse environments often found within the pathologic tissues that the cells have been grafted into. Encapsulation of individual cells has been proposed as a means of increasing cell viability. In this study, we developed a facile, high throughput method for creating temperature responsive microcapsules comprising agarose, gelatin and fibrinogen for delivery and subsequent controlled release of cells. We verified the hypothesis that composite capsules combining agarose and gelatin, which possess different phase transition temperatures from solid to liquid, facilitated the destabilization of the capsules for cell release. Cell encapsulation and controlled release was demonstrated using human fibroblasts as model cells, as well as a therapeutically relevant cell line—human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). While such temperature responsive cell microcapsules promise effective, controlled release of potential therapeutic cells at physiological temperatures, further work will be needed to augment the composition of the microcapsules and optimize the numbers of cells per capsule prior to clinical evaluation. PMID:26096147

  6. Controlled Delivery of Human Cells by Temperature Responsive Microcapsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.C. Mak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cell therapy is one of the most promising areas within regenerative medicine. However, its full potential is limited by the rapid loss of introduced therapeutic cells before their full effects can be exploited, due in part to anoikis, and in part to the adverse environments often found within the pathologic tissues that the cells have been grafted into. Encapsulation of individual cells has been proposed as a means of increasing cell viability. In this study, we developed a facile, high throughput method for creating temperature responsive microcapsules comprising agarose, gelatin and fibrinogen for delivery and subsequent controlled release of cells. We verified the hypothesis that composite capsules combining agarose and gelatin, which possess different phase transition temperatures from solid to liquid, facilitated the destabilization of the capsules for cell release. Cell encapsulation and controlled release was demonstrated using human fibroblasts as model cells, as well as a therapeutically relevant cell line—human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. While such temperature responsive cell microcapsules promise effective, controlled release of potential therapeutic cells at physiological temperatures, further work will be needed to augment the composition of the microcapsules and optimize the numbers of cells per capsule prior to clinical evaluation.

  7. Human tails: ownership and control of extended humanoid avatars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, William; Steed, Anthony; Slater, Mel

    2013-04-01

    This paper explores body ownership and control of an 'extended' humanoid avatar that features a distinct and flexible tail-like appendage protruding from its coccyx. Thirty-two participants took part in a between-groups study to puppeteer the avatar in an immersive CAVE™ -like system. Participants' body movement was tracked, and the avatar's humanoid body synchronously reflected this motion. However, sixteen participants experienced the avatar's tail moving around randomly and asynchronous to their own movement, while the other participants experienced a tail that they could, potentially, control accurately and synchronously through hip movement. Participants in the synchronous condition experienced a higher degree of body ownership and agency, suggesting that visuomotor synchrony enhanced the probability of ownership over the avatar body despite of its extra-human form. Participants experiencing body ownership were also more likely to be more anxious and attempt to avoid virtual threats to the tail and body. The higher task performance of participants in the synchronous condition indicates that people are able to quickly learn how to remap normal degrees of bodily freedom in order to control virtual bodies that differ from the humanoid form. We discuss the implications and applications of extended humanoid avatars as a method for exploring the plasticity of the brain's representation of the body and for gestural human-computer interfaces.

  8. Human intestinal dendritic cells as controllers of mucosal immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bernardo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells are the most potent, professional antigen-presenting cells in the body; following antigen presentation they control the type (proinflammatory/regulatory of immune response that will take place, as well as its location. Given their high plasticity and maturation ability in response to local danger signals derived from innate immunity, dendritic cells are key actors in the connection between innate immunity and adaptive immunity responses. In the gut dendritic cells control immune tolerance mechanisms against food and/or commensal flora antigens, and are also capable of initiating an active immune response in the presence of invading pathogens. Dendritic cells are thus highly efficient in controlling the delicate balance between tolerance and immunity in an environment so rich in antigens as the gut, and any factor involving these cells may impact their function, ultimately leading to the development of bowel conditions such as celiac disease or inflammatory bowel disease. In this review we shall summarize our understanding of human intestinal dendritic cells, their ability to express and induce migration markers, the various environmental factors modulating their properties, their subsets in the gut, and the problems entailed by their study, including identification strategies, differences between humans and murine models, and phenotypical variations along the gastrointestinal tract.

  9. Control of the risk of human toxoplasmosis transmitted by meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijlstra, Aize; Jongert, Erik

    2008-10-01

    One-third of the human world population is infected with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Recent calculations of the disease burden of toxoplasmosis rank this foodborne disease at the same level as salmonellosis or campylobacteriosis. The high disease burden in combination with disappointing results of the currently available treatment options have led to a plea for more effective prevention. In this review we describe Toxoplasma as a hazard associated with the consumption of undercooked meat or meat products and provide an analysis of the various options to control the risk of human toxoplasmosis via this source. Monitoring and surveillance programs may be implemented for pre-harvest control of Toxoplasma infection of farm animals, with the reduction of environmental oocyst load as the most important milestone. Alternatively, Toxoplasma safe meat can be obtained through simple post-harvest decontamination procedures, whereby freezing the meat may currently be the best option, although new technologies using irradiation or high-pressure treatment may offer promising alternatives. Influence of culture, religion and food handling customs may predispose a certain type of meat as an important source of infection, indicating that prevention needs to be tailored according to social habits in different regions in the world. The rationale for more stringent control measures to prevent toxoplasmosis both from disease and economic points of view is emphasized.

  10. 76 FR 27648 - World Trade Center (WTC) Health Program Scientific/Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... establishment of the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Program Scientific/Technical Advisory Committee. The WTC... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention World Trade Center (WTC) Health Program Scientific/Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Establishment Pursuant to Public Law 111-347 (The James...

  11. Taxonomy of Means and Ends in Aquaculture Production—Part 2: The Technical Solutions of Controlling Solids, Dissolved Gasses and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjorgvin Vilbergsson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In engineering design, knowing the relationship between the means (technique and the end (desired function or outcome is essential. The means in Aquaculture are technical solutions like airlifts that are used to achive desired functionality (an end like controlling dissolved gasses. In previous work, the authors identified possible functions by viewing aquaculture production systems as transformation processes in which inputs are transformed by treatment techniques (means and produce outputs (ends. The current work creates an overview of technical solutions of treatment functions for both design and research purposes. A comprehensive literature review of all areas of technical solutions is identified and categorized into a visual taxonomy of the treatment functions for controlling solids, controlling dissolved gasses and controlling pH alkalinity and hardness. This article is the second in a sequence of four and partly presents the treatments functions in the taxonomy. The other articles in this series present complementary aspects of this research: Part 1, A transformational view on aquaculture and functions divided into input, treatment and output functions; Part 2, The current taxonomy paper; Part 3, The second part of the taxonomy; and Part 4, Mapping of the means (techniques for multiple treatment functions.

  12. Human movement data for malaria control and elimination strategic planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindolia, Deepa K; Garcia, Andres J; Wesolowski, Amy; Smith, David L; Buckee, Caroline O; Noor, Abdisalan M; Snow, Robert W; Tatem, Andrew J

    2012-06-18

    Recent increases in funding for malaria control have led to the reduction in transmission in many malaria endemic countries, prompting the national control programmes of 36 malaria endemic countries to set elimination targets. Accounting for human population movement (HPM) in planning for control, elimination and post-elimination surveillance is important, as evidenced by previous elimination attempts that were undermined by the reintroduction of malaria through HPM. Strategic control and elimination planning, therefore, requires quantitative information on HPM patterns and the translation of these into parasite dispersion. HPM patterns and the risk of malaria vary substantially across spatial and temporal scales, demographic and socioeconomic sub-groups, and motivation for travel, so multiple data sets are likely required for quantification of movement. While existing studies based on mobile phone call record data combined with malaria transmission maps have begun to address within-country HPM patterns, other aspects remain poorly quantified despite their importance in accurately gauging malaria movement patterns and building control and detection strategies, such as cross-border HPM, demographic and socioeconomic stratification of HPM patterns, forms of transport, personal malaria protection and other factors that modify malaria risk. A wealth of data exist to aid filling these gaps, which, when combined with spatial data on transport infrastructure, traffic and malaria transmission, can answer relevant questions to guide strategic planning. This review aims to (i) discuss relevant types of HPM across spatial and temporal scales, (ii) document where datasets exist to quantify HPM, (iii) highlight where data gaps remain and (iv) briefly put forward methods for integrating these datasets in a Geographic Information System (GIS) framework for analysing and modelling human population and Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection movements.

  13. Human movement data for malaria control and elimination strategic planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pindolia Deepa K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent increases in funding for malaria control have led to the reduction in transmission in many malaria endemic countries, prompting the national control programmes of 36 malaria endemic countries to set elimination targets. Accounting for human population movement (HPM in planning for control, elimination and post-elimination surveillance is important, as evidenced by previous elimination attempts that were undermined by the reintroduction of malaria through HPM. Strategic control and elimination planning, therefore, requires quantitative information on HPM patterns and the translation of these into parasite dispersion. HPM patterns and the risk of malaria vary substantially across spatial and temporal scales, demographic and socioeconomic sub-groups, and motivation for travel, so multiple data sets are likely required for quantification of movement. While existing studies based on mobile phone call record data combined with malaria transmission maps have begun to address within-country HPM patterns, other aspects remain poorly quantified despite their importance in accurately gauging malaria movement patterns and building control and detection strategies, such as cross-border HPM, demographic and socioeconomic stratification of HPM patterns, forms of transport, personal malaria protection and other factors that modify malaria risk. A wealth of data exist to aid filling these gaps, which, when combined with spatial data on transport infrastructure, traffic and malaria transmission, can answer relevant questions to guide strategic planning. This review aims to (i discuss relevant types of HPM across spatial and temporal scales, (ii document where datasets exist to quantify HPM, (iii highlight where data gaps remain and (iv briefly put forward methods for integrating these datasets in a Geographic Information System (GIS framework for analysing and modelling human population and Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection movements.

  14. Human and environmental controls over aboveground carbon storage in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asner Gregory P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate, high-resolution mapping of aboveground carbon density (ACD, Mg C ha-1 could provide insight into human and environmental controls over ecosystem state and functioning, and could support conservation and climate policy development. However, mapping ACD has proven challenging, particularly in spatially complex regions harboring a mosaic of land use activities, or in remote montane areas that are difficult to access and poorly understood ecologically. Using a combination of field measurements, airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR and satellite data, we present the first large-scale, high-resolution estimates of aboveground carbon stocks in Madagascar. Results We found that elevation and the fraction of photosynthetic vegetation (PV cover, analyzed throughout forests of widely varying structure and condition, account for 27-67% of the spatial variation in ACD. This finding facilitated spatial extrapolation of LiDAR-based carbon estimates to a total of 2,372,680 ha using satellite data. Remote, humid sub-montane forests harbored the highest carbon densities, while ACD was suppressed in dry spiny forests and in montane humid ecosystems, as well as in most lowland areas with heightened human activity. Independent of human activity, aboveground carbon stocks were subject to strong physiographic controls expressed through variation in tropical forest canopy structure measured using airborne LiDAR. Conclusions High-resolution mapping of carbon stocks is possible in remote regions, with or without human activity, and thus carbon monitoring can be brought to highly endangered Malagasy forests as a climate-change mitigation and biological conservation strategy.

  15. Cost-Sensitive Bayesian Control Policy in Human Active Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheeraz eAhmad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An important but poorly understood aspect of sensory processing is the role of active sensing, the use of self-motion such as eye or head movements to focus sensing resources on the most rewarding or informative aspects of the sensory environment. Here, we present behavioral data from a visual search experiment, as well as a Bayesian model of within-trial dynamics of sensory processing and eye movements. Within this Bayes-optimal inference and control framework, which we call C-DAC (Context-Dependent Active Controller, various types of behavioral costs, such as temporal delay, response error, and sensor repositioning cost, are explicitly minimized. This contrasts with previously proposed algorithms that optimize abstract statistical objectives such as anticipated information gain (Infomax (Butko and Movellan, 2010 and one-step look-ahead accuracy (greedy MAP (Najemnik and Geisler, 2005. We find that C-DAC captures human visual search dynamics better than previous models, in particular a certain form of confirmation bias apparent in the way human subjects utilize prior knowledge about the spatial distribution of the search target to improve search speed and accuracy. We also examine several computationally efficient approximations to C-DAC that may present biologically more plausible accounts of the neural computations underlying active sensing, as well as practical tools for solving active sensing problems in engineering applications. To summarize, this paper makes several key contributions: human visual search behavioral data, a context-sensitive Bayesian active sensing model, a comparative study between different models of human active sensing, and a family of efficient approximations to the optimal model.

  16. Dental devices: classification of dental amalgam, reclassification of dental mercury, designation of special controls for dental amalgam, mercury, and amalgam alloy; technical amendment. Final rule; technical amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a final rule in the Federal Register of August 4, 2009 (74 FR 38686) which classified dental amalgam as a class II device, reclassified dental mercury from class I to class II, and designated special controls for dental amalgam, mercury, and amalgam alloy. The effective date of the rule was November 2, 2009. The final rule was published with an inadvertent error in the codified section. This document corrects that error. This action is being taken to ensure the accuracy of the agency's regulations.

  17. TECHNICAL AND ENERGY PARAMETERS IMPROVEMENT OF DIESEL LOCOMOTIVES THROUGH THE INTRODUCTION OF AUTOMATED CONTROL SYSTEMS OF A DIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Kapitsa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Today the issue, connected with diesel traction remains relevant for the majority of industrial enterprises and Ukrainian railways and diesel engine continues to be the subject of extensive research and improvements. Despite the intensive process of electrification, which accompanies Railway Transport of Ukraine the last few years, diesel traction continues to play an important role both in the main and in the industrial railway traction rolling stock. Anyway, all kinds of maneuvering and chores are for locomotives, they are improved and upgraded relentlessly and hourly. This paper is focused on finding the opportunities to improve technical and energy parameters of diesels due to the development of modern control method of the fuel equipment in the diesel engine. Methodology. The proposed method increases the power of locomotives diesel engines in the range of crankshaft rotation (from idle running to maximum one. It was based on approach of mixture ignition timing up to the top «dead» center of piston position. Findings. The paper provides a brief historical background of research in the area of operating cycle in the internal combustion engine (ICE. The factors affecting the process of mixing and its quality were analyzed. The requirements for fuel feed system in to the cylinder and the «weak points» of the process were presented. A variant of the modification the fuel pump drive, which allows approaching to the regulation of fuel feed system from the other hand and to improve it was proposed. Represents a variant of embodiment of the complex system with specification of mechanical features and control circuits. The algorithm of the system operation was presented and its impact on the performance of diesel was made. Originality. The angle regulating system of fuel supply allows automating the process of fuel injection advance angle into the cylinder. Practical value. At implementation the angle regulating system of fuel supply

  18. A thermal manikin with human thermoregulatory control: implementation and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Ehab; Sirén, Kai

    2012-09-01

    Tens of different sorts of thermal manikins are employed worldwide, mainly in the evaluation of clothing thermal insulation and thermal environments. They are regulated thermally using simplified control modes. This paper reports on the implementation and validation of a new thermoregulatory control mode for thermal manikins. The new control mode is based on a multi-segmental Pierce (MSP) model. In this study, the MSP control mode was implemented, using the LabVIEW platform, onto the control system of the thermal manikin 'Therminator'. The MSP mode was then used to estimate the segmental equivalent temperature (t(eq)) along with constant surface temperature (CST) mode under two asymmetric thermal conditions. Furthermore, subjective tests under the same two conditions were carried out using 17 human subjects. The estimated segmental t(eq) from the experiments with the two modes and from the subjective assessment were compared in order to validate the use of the MSP mode for the estimation of t(eq). The results showed that the t(eq) values estimated by the MSP mode were closer to the subjective mean votes under the two test conditions for most body segments and compared favourably with values estimated by the CST mode.

  19. Materials Science Laboratory - Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in Solidification Processing and Microstructure Formation in Casting of Technical Alloys under Diffusive and Magnetically Controlled Convective Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandin, Charles-Andre; Ratke, Lorenz

    2008-01-01

    The Materials Science Laboratory - Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in Solidification Processing and Microstructure Formation in Casting of Technical Alloys under Diffusive and Magnetically Controlled Convective Conditions (MSL-CETSOL and MICAST) are two investigations which supports research into metallurgical solidification, semiconductor crystal growth (Bridgman and zone melting), and measurement of thermo-physical properties of materials. This is a cooperative investigation with the European Space Agency (ESA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for accommodation and operation aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Research Summary: Materials Science Laboratory - Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in Solidification Processing (CETSOL) and Microstructure Formation in Casting of Technical Alloys under Diffusive and Magnetically Controlled Convective Conditions (MICAST) are two complementary investigations which will examine different growth patterns and evolution of microstructures during crystallization of metallic alloys in microgravity. The aim of these experiments is to deepen the quantitative understanding of the physical principles that govern solidification processes in cast alloys by directional solidification.

  20. Effects of External Loads on Human Head Movement Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, M. H.; Choi, O. M.

    1984-01-01

    The central and reflexive control strategies underlying movements were elucidated by studying the effects of external loads on human head movement control systems. Some experimental results are presented on dynamic changes weigh the addition of aviation helmet (SPH4) and lead weights (6 kg). Intended time-optimal movements, their dynamics and electromyographic activity of neck muscles in normal movements, and also in movements made with external weights applied to the head were measured. It was observed that, when the external loads were added, the subject went through complex adapting processes and the head movement trajectory and its derivatives reached steady conditions only after transient adapting period. The steady adapted state was reached after 15 to 20 seconds (i.e., 5 to 6 movements).

  1. Pubertal control mechanisms as revealed from human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipman, J J

    1980-05-15

    Human puberty is thought to be regulated by a central nervous system (CNS) program. Strong presumptive evidence for this thesis has been drawn from the augmented gonadotropin secretion that occurs synchronously with sleep in early puberty and serves as a biologic index to CNS puberty. In response to wake/sleep gonadotropin patterns, sex steroids are also secreted in circadian-like patterns during puberty. In disorders such as precocious puberty, anorexia nervosa, and gonadal dysgenesis, the physiological mechanisms that control wake/sleep differences in gonadotropin secretion appear to be intact. Studies in such patients suggest that the primary sex hormones have a quantitative but not qualitative modulating effect on the CNS program. Possible additional control mechanisms include adrenal androgen secretion and body composition.

  2. Human benefits of animal interventions for zoonosis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther; Roth, Felix; Bonfoh, Bassirou; de Savigny, Don; Tanner, Marcel

    2007-04-01

    Although industrialized countries have been able to contain recent outbreaks of zoonotic diseases, many resource-limited and transitioning countries have not been able to react adequately. The key for controlling zoonoses such as rabies, echinococcosis, and brucellosis is to focus on the animal reservoir. In this respect, ministries of health question whether the public health sector really benefits from interventions for livestock. Cross-sectoral assessments of interventions such as mass vaccination for brucellosis in Mongolia or vaccination of dogs for rabies in Chad consider human and animal health sectors from a societal economic perspective. Combining the total societal benefits, the intervention in the animal sector saves money and provides the economic argument, which opens new approaches for the control of zoonoses in resource-limited countries through contributions from multiple sectors.

  3. A HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING PROCESS TO SUPPORT HUMAN-SYSTEM INTERFACE DESIGN IN CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, C.; Joe, J.; Boring, R.

    2017-05-01

    The primary objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program is to sustain operation of the existing commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) through a multi-pathway approach in conducting research and development (R&D). The Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) System Technologies pathway conducts targeted R&D to address aging and reliability concerns with legacy instrumentation and control (I&C) and other information systems in existing U.S. NPPs. Control room modernization is an important part following this pathway, and human factors experts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been involved in conducting R&D to support migration of new digital main control room (MCR) technologies from legacy analog and legacy digital I&C. This paper describes a human factors engineering (HFE) process that supports human-system interface (HSI) design in MCR modernization activities, particularly with migration of old digital to new digital I&C. The process described in this work is an expansion from the LWRS Report INL/EXT-16-38576, and is a requirements-driven approach that aligns with NUREG-0711 requirements. The work described builds upon the existing literature by adding more detail around key tasks and decisions to make when transitioning from HSI Design into Verification and Validation (V&V). The overall objective of this process is to inform HSI design and elicit specific, measurable, and achievable human factors criteria for new digital technologies. Upon following this process, utilities should have greater confidence with transitioning from HSI design into V&V.

  4. Potential applications of gut microbiota to control human physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umu, Ozgün Candan Onarman; Oostindjer, Marije; Pope, Phillip B; Svihus, Birger; Egelandsdal, Bjørg; Nes, Ingolf F; Diep, Dzung B

    2013-11-01

    The microorganisms living in our gut have been a black box to us for a long time. However, with the recent advances in high throughput DNA sequencing technologies, it is now possible to assess virtually all microorganisms in our gut including non-culturable ones. With the use of powerful bioinformatics tools to deal with multivariate analyses of huge amounts of data from metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, metabolomics, we now start to gain some important insights into these tiny gut inhabitants. Our knowledge is increasing about who they are, to some extent, what they do and how they affect our health. Gut microbiota have a broad spectrum of possible effects on health, from preventing serious diseases, improving immune system and gut health to stimulating the brain centers responsible for appetite and food intake control. Further, we may be on the verge of being capable of manipulating the gut microbiota by diet control to possibly improve our health. Diets consisting of different components that are fermentable by microbiota are substrates for different kinds of microbes in the gut. Thus, diet control can be used to favor the growth of some selected gut inhabitants. Nowadays, the gut microbiota is taken into account as a separate organ in human body and their activities and metabolites in gut have many physiological and neurological effects. In this mini-review, we discuss the diversity of gut microbiota, the technologies used to assess them, factors that affect microbial composition and metabolites that affect human physiology, and their potential applications in satiety control via the gut-brain axis.

  5. Final Technical Report on Quantifying Dependability Attributes of Software Based Safety Critical Instrumentation and Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smidts, Carol [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Huang, Funqun [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Li, Boyuan [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Li, Xiang [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2016-03-25

    elicitation for each of the software dependability attributes. The measures extracted are presented in this chapter. Stage 4 (Chapter 5): Assessment of the coverage of the causal maps via measures. Coverage was assessed to determine whether the measures obtained were sufficient to quantify software dependability, and what measures are further required. Stage 5 (Chapter 6): Identification of “missing” measures and measurement approaches for concepts not covered. New measures, for concepts that had not been covered sufficiently as determined in Stage 4, were identified using supplementary expert opinion elicitation as well as literature reviews. Stage 6 (Chapter 7): Building of a detailed quantification model based on the causal maps and measurements obtained. Ability to derive such a quantification model shows that the causal models and measurements derived from the previous stages (Stage 1 to Stage 5) can form the technical basis for developing dependability quantification models. Scope restrictions have led us to prioritize this demonstration effort. The demonstration was focused on a critical system, i.e. the reactor protection system. For this system, a ranking of the software dependability attributes by nuclear stakeholders was developed. As expected for this application, the stakeholder ranking identified safety as the most critical attribute to be quantified. A safety quantification model limited to the requirements phase of development was built. Two case studies were conducted for verification. A preliminary control gate for software safety for the requirements stage was proposed and applied to the first case study. The control gate allows a cost effective selection of the duration of the requirements phase.

  6. The Effect of Degraded Digital Instrumentation and Control systems on Human-system Interfaces and Operator Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OHara, J.M.; Gunther, B.; Martinez-Guridi, G. (BNL); Xing, J.; Barnes, V. (NRC)

    2010-11-07

    Integrated digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in new and advanced nuclear power plants (NPPs) will support operators in monitoring and controlling the plants. Even though digital systems typically are expected to be reliable, their potential for degradation or failure significantly could affect the operators performance and, consequently, jeopardize plant safety. This U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) research investigated the effects of degraded I&C systems on human performance and on plant operations. The objective was to develop technical basis and guidance for human factors engineering (HFE) reviews addressing the operator's ability to detect and manage degraded digital I&C conditions. We reviewed pertinent standards and guidelines, empirical studies, and plant operating experience. In addition, we evaluated the potential effects of selected failure modes of the digital feedwater control system of a currently operating pressurized water reactor (PWR) on human-system interfaces (HSIs) and the operators performance. Our findings indicated that I&C degradations are prevalent in plants employing digital systems, and the overall effects on the plant's behavior can be significant, such as causing a reactor trip or equipment to operate unexpectedly. I&C degradations may affect the HSIs used by operators to monitor and control the plant. For example, deterioration of the sensors can complicate the operators interpretation of displays, and sometimes may mislead them by making it appear that a process disturbance has occurred. We used the findings as the technical basis upon which to develop HFE review guidance.

  7. Control of Human Error and comparison Level risk after correction action With the SHERPA Method in a control Room of petrochemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zakerian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims Today in many jobs like nuclear, military and chemical industries, human errors may result in a disaster. Accident in different places of the world emphasizes this subject and we indicate for example, Chernobyl disaster in (1986, tree Mile accident in (1974 and Flixborough explosion in (1974.So human errors identification especially in important and intricate systems is necessary and unavoidable for predicting control methods.   Methods Recent research is a case study and performed in Zagross Methanol Company in Asalouye (South pars.   Walking –Talking through method with process expert and control room operators, inspecting technical documents are used for collecting required information and completing Systematic Human Error Reductive and Predictive Approach (SHERPA worksheets.   Results analyzing SHERPA worksheet indicated that, were accepting capable invertebrate errors % 71.25, % 26.75 undesirable errors, % 2 accepting capable(with change errors, % 0 accepting capable errors, and after correction action forecast Level risk to this arrangement, accepting capable invertebrate errors % 0, % 4.35 undesirable errors , % 58.55 accepting capable(with change errors, % 37.1 accepting capable errors .   ConclusionFinally this result is comprehension that this method in different industries especially in chemical industries is enforceable and useful for human errors identification that may lead to accident and adventures.

  8. Gaze-and-brain-controlled interfaces for human-computer and human-robot interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishkin S. L.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human-machine interaction technology has greatly evolved during the last decades, but manual and speech modalities remain single output channels with their typical constraints imposed by the motor system’s information transfer limits. Will brain-computer interfaces (BCIs and gaze-based control be able to convey human commands or even intentions to machines in the near future? We provide an overview of basic approaches in this new area of applied cognitive research. Objective. We test the hypothesis that the use of communication paradigms and a combination of eye tracking with unobtrusive forms of registering brain activity can improve human-machine interaction. Methods and Results. Three groups of ongoing experiments at the Kurchatov Institute are reported. First, we discuss the communicative nature of human-robot interaction, and approaches to building a more e cient technology. Specifically, “communicative” patterns of interaction can be based on joint attention paradigms from developmental psychology, including a mutual “eye-to-eye” exchange of looks between human and robot. Further, we provide an example of “eye mouse” superiority over the computer mouse, here in emulating the task of selecting a moving robot from a swarm. Finally, we demonstrate a passive, noninvasive BCI that uses EEG correlates of expectation. This may become an important lter to separate intentional gaze dwells from non-intentional ones. Conclusion. The current noninvasive BCIs are not well suited for human-robot interaction, and their performance, when they are employed by healthy users, is critically dependent on the impact of the gaze on selection of spatial locations. The new approaches discussed show a high potential for creating alternative output pathways for the human brain. When support from passive BCIs becomes mature, the hybrid technology of the eye-brain-computer (EBCI interface will have a chance to enable natural, fluent, and the

  9. Gaze-and-brain-controlled interfaces for human-computer and human-robot interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishkin S. L.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human-machine interaction technology has greatly evolved during the last decades, but manual and speech modalities remain single output channels with their typical constraints imposed by the motor system’s information transfer limits. Will brain-computer interfaces (BCIs and gaze-based control be able to convey human commands or even intentions to machines in the near future? We provide an overview of basic approaches in this new area of applied cognitive research. Objective. We test the hypothesis that the use of communication paradigms and a combination of eye tracking with unobtrusive forms of registering brain activity can improve human-machine interaction. Methods and Results. Three groups of ongoing experiments at the Kurchatov Institute are reported. First, we discuss the communicative nature of human-robot interaction, and approaches to building a more e cient technology. Specifically, “communicative” patterns of interaction can be based on joint attention paradigms from developmental psychology, including a mutual “eye-to-eye” exchange of looks between human and robot. Further, we provide an example of “eye mouse” superiority over the computer mouse, here in emulating the task of selecting a moving robot from a swarm. Finally, we demonstrate a passive, noninvasive BCI that uses EEG correlates of expectation. This may become an important lter to separate intentional gaze dwells from non-intentional ones. Conclusion. The current noninvasive BCIs are not well suited for human-robot interaction, and their performance, when they are employed by healthy users, is critically dependent on the impact of the gaze on selection of spatial locations. The new approaches discussed show a high potential for creating alternative output pathways for the human brain. When support from passive BCIs becomes mature, the hybrid technology of the eye-brain-computer (EBCI interface will have a chance to enable natural, fluent, and the

  10. Simulation-Based Training of Non-Technical Skills in Colonoscopy: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rishad; Scaffidi, Michael A; Walsh, Catharine M; Lin, Peter; Al-Mazroui, Ahmed; Chana, Barinder; Kalaichandran, Ruben; Lee, Woojin; Grantcharov, Teodor P; Grover, Samir C

    2017-08-04

    Non-technical skills (NTS), such as communication and professionalism, contribute to the safe and effective completion of procedures. NTS training has previously been shown to improve surgical performance. Moreover, increases in NTS have been associated with improved clinical endoscopic performance. Despite this evidence, NTS training has not been tested as an intervention in endoscopy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a simulation-based training (SBT) curriculum of NTS on novice endoscopists' performance of clinical colonoscopy. Novice endoscopists were randomized to 2 groups. The control group received 4 hours of interactive didactic sessions on colonoscopy theory and 6 hours of SBT. Hours 5 and 6 of the SBT were integrated scenarios, wherein participants interacted with a standardized patient and nurse, while performing a colonoscopy on the virtual reality (VR) simulator. The NTS (intervention) group received the same teaching sessions but the last hour was focused on NTS teaching. The NTS group also reviewed a checklist of tasks relevant to NTS concepts prior to each integrated scenario case and was provided with dedicated feedback on their NTS performance during the integrated scenario practice. All participants were assessed at baseline, immediately after training, and 4 to 6 weeks post-training. The primary outcome measure is colonoscopy-specific performance in the clinical setting. In total, 42 novice endoscopists completed the study. Data collection and analysis is ongoing. We anticipate completion of all assessments by August 2017. Data analysis, manuscript writing, and subsequent submission for publication is expected to be completed by December 2017. Results from this study may inform the implementation of NTS training into postgraduate gastrointestinal curricula. NTS curricula may improve attitudes towards patient safety and self-reflection among trainees. Moreover, enhanced NTS may lead to superior clinical performance and

  11. Technical Update: Johnson Space Center system using a solid electrolytic cell in a remote location to measure oxygen fugacities in CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurewicz, A. J. G.; Williams, R. J.; Le, L.; Wagstaff, J.; Lofgren, G.; Lanier, A.; Carter, W.; Roshko, A.

    1993-01-01

    Details are given for the design and application of a (one atmosphere) redox-control system. This system differs from that given in NASA Technical Memorandum 58234 in that it uses a single solid-electrolytic cell in a remote location to measure the oxygen fugacities of multiple CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnaces. This remote measurement extends the range of sample-furnace conditions that can be measured using a solid-electrolytic cell, and cuts costs by extending the life of the sensors and by minimizing the number of sensors in use. The system consists of a reference furnace and an exhaust-gas manifold. The reference furnace is designed according to the redox control system of NASA Technical Memorandum 58234, and any number of CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnaces can be attached to the exhaust-gas manifold. Using the manifold, the exhaust gas from individual CO/CO2 controlled atmosphere furnaces can be diverted through the reference furnace, where a solid-electrolyte cell is used to read the ambient oxygen fugacity. The oxygen fugacity measured in the reference furnace can then be used to calculate the oxygen fugacity in the individual CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnace. A BASIC computer program was developed to expedite this calculation.

  12. Human-centered headway control for adaptive cruise-controlled vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhai Gao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Driving characteristics of human drivers, such as driving safety, comfort, handiness, and efficiency, which are interrelated and contradictory, are synthetically considered to maintain a safe inter-vehicle distance in this article. For the multi-objective coordination control problem, the safety, handiness, comfort, and efficiency indicators are established via driving states and manipulated variable. Furthermore, a multi-performance indicator coordination mechanism is proposed via the invariant set and quadratic boundedness theory. A headway control algorithm for adaptive cruise control is established under the dynamic output feedback control framework. Finally, feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm are verified via closed-loop simulations under the following, cut-out, and cut-in typical operating conditions.

  13. Three-dimensional modular control of human walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jessica L; Neptune, Richard R

    2012-08-09

    Recent studies have suggested that complex muscle activity during walking may be controlled using a reduced neural control strategy organized around the co-excitation of multiple muscles, or modules. Previous computer simulation studies have shown that five modules satisfy the sagittal-plane biomechanical sub-tasks of 2D walking. The present study shows that a sixth module, which contributes primarily to mediolateral balance control and contralateral leg swing, is needed to satisfy the additional non-sagittal plane demands of 3D walking. Body support was provided by Module 1 (hip and knee extensors, hip abductors) in early stance and Module 2 (plantarflexors) in late stance. In early stance, forward propulsion was provided by Module 4 (hamstrings), but net braking occurred due to Modules 1 and 2. Forward propulsion was provided by Module 2 in late stance. Module 1 accelerated the body medially throughout stance, dominating the lateral acceleration in early stance provided by Modules 4 and 6 (adductor magnus) and in late stance by Module 2, except near toe-off. Modules 3 (ankle dorsiflexors, rectus femoris) and 5 (hip flexors and adductors except adductor magnus) accelerated the ipsilateral leg forward in early swing whereas Module 4 decelerated the ipsilateral leg prior to heel-strike. Finally, Modules 1, 4 and 6 accelerated the contralateral leg forward prior to and during contralateral swing. Since the modules were based on experimentally measured muscle activity, these results provide further evidence that a simple neural control strategy involving muscle activation modules organized around task-specific biomechanical functions may be used to control complex human movements. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Point Beach Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laudenbach, D.H.

    1979-03-01

    The technical evaluation is presented for the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Point Beach nuclear power plant, Units 1 and 2. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system included operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria. This report is supplied as part of the Selected Electrical, Instrumentation, and Control Systems Issues Support Program being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory.

  15. Future Performance Trend Indicators: A Current Value Approach to Human Resources Accounting. Report V: The Value Attribution Process. Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Jean B.; And Others

    The development of future performance trend indicators is based on the current value approach to human resource accounting. The value attribution portion of the current value approach is used to estimate the dollar value of observed changes in the state of the human organization. The procedure for value attribution includes: prediction of changes…

  16. Dynamic regulation of sensorimotor integration in human postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterka, Robert J; Loughlin, Patrick J

    2004-01-01

    Upright stance in humans is inherently unstable, requiring corrective action based on spatial-orientation information from sensory systems. One might logically predict that environments providing access to accurate orientation information from multiple sensory systems would facilitate postural stability. However, we show that, after a period in which access to accurate sensory information was reduced, the restoration of accurate information disrupted postural stability. In eyes-closed trials, proprioceptive information was altered by rotating the support surface in proportion to body sway (support surface "sway-referencing"). When the support surface returned to a level orientation, most subjects developed a transient 1-Hz body sway oscillation that differed significantly from the low-amplitude body sway typically observed during quiet stance. Additional experiments showed further enhancement of the 1-Hz oscillation when the surface transitioned from a sway-referenced to a reverse sway-referenced motion. Oscillatory behavior declined with repetition of trials, suggesting a learning effect. A simple negative feedback-control model of the postural control system predicted the occurrence of this 1-Hz oscillation in conditions where too much corrective torque is generated in proportion to body sway. Model simulations were used to distinguish between two alternative explanations for the excessive corrective torque generation. Simulation results favor an explanation based on the dynamic reweighting of sensory contributions to postural control rather than a load-compensation mechanism that scales torque in proportion to a fixed combination of sensory-orientation information.

  17. From human factors to HSI and beyond: operation centers and control rooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronkhorst, A.W.; Post, W.M.; Brake, G.M. te

    2014-01-01

    Currently, Human Factors does not just cover human performance and human centred design but also the evaluation and influencing of human behaviour in complex environments. In particular in the design of operations centres and control rooms, the functioning of humans and systems must be considered in

  18. Technical Network

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimise the management of the Technical Network (TN), to facilitate understanding of the purpose of devices connected to the TN and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive e-mails from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database at "network-cern-ch". Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  19. Technical Network

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimize the management of the Technical Network (TN), to ease the understanding and purpose of devices connected to the TN, and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive email notifications from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database. Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  20. Imagining Technicities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liboriussen, Bjarke; Plesner, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    to the elements of taste and skill. In the final analysis those references were synthesized as five imagined technicities: the architect, the engineer, the client, the Chinese, and the Virtual World native. Because technicities are often assumed and rarely discussed as actants who influence practice, their role......, this article focuses on innovative uses of virtual worlds in architecture. We interviewed architects, industrial designers and other practitioners. Conceptually supported by an understanding of technicity found in Cultural Studies, the interviews were then coded with a focus on interviewees’ references...

  1. Technical guidance for the development of a solid state image sensor for human low vision image warping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderspiegel, Jan

    1994-01-01

    This report surveys different technologies and approaches to realize sensors for image warping. The goal is to study the feasibility, technical aspects, and limitations of making an electronic camera with special geometries which implements certain transformations for image warping. This work was inspired by the research done by Dr. Juday at NASA Johnson Space Center on image warping. The study has looked into different solid-state technologies to fabricate image sensors. It is found that among the available technologies, CMOS is preferred over CCD technology. CMOS provides more flexibility to design different functions into the sensor, is more widely available, and is a lower cost solution. By using an architecture with row and column decoders one has the added flexibility of addressing the pixels at random, or read out only part of the image.

  2. Impact of Personal Characteristics and Technical Factors on Quantification of Sodium 18F-Fluoride Uptake in Human Arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Björn Alexander; Thomassen, Anders; de Jong, Pim A

    2015-01-01

    Sodium (18)F-fluoride ((18)F-NaF) PET/CT imaging is a promising imaging technique for assessment of atherosclerosis, but is hampered by a lack of validated quantification protocols. Both personal characteristics and technical factors can affect quantification of arterial (18)F-NaF uptake....... This study investigated if blood activity, renal function, injected dose, circulating time, and PET/CT system affect quantification of arterial (18)F-NaF uptake. METHODS: Eighty-nine healthy subjects were prospectively examined by (18)F-NaF PET/CT imaging. Arterial (18)F-NaF uptake was quantified...... at the level of the ascending aorta, aortic arch, descending thoracic aorta, and coronary arteries by calculating the maximum (18)F-NaF activity (NaFmax), the maximum target-to-background ratio (TBRmax/mean), and the maximum blood subtracted (18)F-NaF activity (bsNaFmax). Multivariable linear regression...

  3. Prokineticins in central and peripheral control of human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traboulsi, Wael; Brouillet, Sophie; Sergent, Frederic; Boufettal, Houssine; Samouh, Naima; Aboussaouira, Touria; Hoffmann, Pascale; Feige, Jean Jacques; Benharouga, Mohamed; Alfaidy, Nadia

    2015-11-01

    Prokineticin 1 (PROK1) and (PROK2), are two closely related proteins that were identified as the mammalian homologs of their two amphibian homologs, mamba intestinal toxin (MIT-1) and Bv8. PROKs activate two G-protein linked receptors (prokineticin receptor 1 and 2, PROKR1 and PROKR2). Both PROK1 and PROK2 have been found to regulate a stunning array of biological functions. In particular, PROKs stimulate gastrointestinal motility, thus accounting for their family name "prokineticins". PROK1 acts as a potent angiogenic mitogen, thus earning its other name, endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial factor. In contrast, PROK2 signaling pathway has been shown to be a critical regulator of olfactory bulb morphogenesis and sexual maturation. During the last decade, strong evidences established the key roles of prokineticins in the control of human central and peripheral reproductive processes. PROKs act as main regulators of the physiological functions of the ovary, uterus, placenta, and testis, with marked dysfunctions in various pathological conditions such as recurrent pregnancy loss, and preeclampsia. PROKs have also been associated to the tumor development of some of these organs. In the central system, prokineticins control the migration of GnRH neurons, a key process that controls reproductive functions. Importantly, mutations in PROK2 and PROKR2 are associated to the development of Kallmann syndrome, with direct consequences on the reproductive system. This review describes the finely tuned actions of prokineticins in the control of the central and peripheral reproductive processes. Also, it discusses future research directions for the use of these cytokines as diagnostic markers for several reproductive diseases.

  4. Collaborative human-machine analysis using a controlled natural language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, David H.; Shemanski, Donald R.; Giammanco, Cheryl; Braines, Dave

    2015-05-01

    A key aspect of an analyst's task in providing relevant information from data is the reasoning about the implications of that data, in order to build a picture of the real world situation. This requires human cognition, based upon domain knowledge about individuals, events and environmental conditions. For a computer system to collaborate with an analyst, it must be capable of following a similar reasoning process to that of the analyst. We describe ITA Controlled English (CE), a subset of English to represent analyst's domain knowledge and reasoning, in a form that it is understandable by both analyst and machine. CE can be used to express domain rules, background data, assumptions and inferred conclusions, thus supporting human-machine interaction. A CE reasoning and modeling system can perform inferences from the data and provide the user with conclusions together with their rationale. We present a logical problem called the "Analysis Game", used for training analysts, which presents "analytic pitfalls" inherent in many problems. We explore an iterative approach to its representation in CE, where a person can develop an understanding of the problem solution by incremental construction of relevant concepts and rules. We discuss how such interactions might occur, and propose that such techniques could lead to better collaborative tools to assist the analyst and avoid the "pitfalls".

  5. Ataxin-2: From RNA Control to Human Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A. Ostrowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available RNA-binding proteins play fundamental roles in the regulation of molecular processes critical to cellular and organismal homeostasis. Recent studies have identified the RNA-binding protein Ataxin-2 as a genetic determinant or risk factor for various diseases including spinocerebellar ataxia type II (SCA2 and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, amongst others. Here, we first discuss the increasingly wide-ranging molecular functions of Ataxin-2, from the regulation of RNA stability and translation to the repression of deleterious accumulation of the RNA-DNA hybrid-harbouring R-loop structures. We also highlight the broader physiological roles of Ataxin-2 such as in the regulation of cellular metabolism and circadian rhythms. Finally, we discuss insight from clinically focused studies to shed light on the impact of molecular and physiological roles of Ataxin-2 in various human diseases. We anticipate that deciphering the fundamental functions of Ataxin-2 will uncover unique approaches to help cure or control debilitating and lethal human diseases.

  6. Alternative control technologies: Technologies de contrôle non conventionnelles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hudgins, Bernard

    1998-01-01

    .... Through different chapters, the various human factors issues related to the introduction of alternative control technologies into military cockpits are reviewed, in conjunction with more technical...

  7. Validation of a structured training and assessment curriculum for technical skill acquisition in minimally invasive surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palter, Vanessa N; Orzech, Neil; Reznick, Richard K; Grantcharov, Teodor P

    2013-02-01

    : To develop and validate an ex vivo comprehensive curriculum for a basic laparoscopic procedure. : Although simulators have been well validated as tools to teach technical skills, their integration into comprehensive curricula is lacking. Moreover, neither the effect of ex vivo training on learning curves in the operating room (OR), nor the effect on nontechnical proficiency has been investigated. : This randomized single-blinded prospective trial allocated 20 surgical trainees to a structured training and assessment curriculum (STAC) group or conventional residency training. The STAC consisted of case-based learning, proficiency-based virtual reality training, laparoscopic box training, and OR participation. After completion of the intervention, all participants performed 5 sequential laparoscopic cholecystectomies in the OR. The primary outcome measure was the difference in technical performance between the 2 groups during the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Secondary outcome measures included differences with respect to learning curves in the OR, technical proficiency of each sequential laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and nontechnical skills. : Residents in the STAC group outperformed residents in the conventional group in the first (P = 0.004), second (P = 0.036), third (P = 0.021), and fourth (P = 0.023) laparoscopic cholecystectomies. The conventional group demonstrated a significant learning curve in the OR (P = 0.015) in contrast to the STAC group (P = 0.032). Residents in the STAC group also had significantly higher nontechnical skills (P = 0.027). : Participating in the STAC shifted the learning curve for a basic laparoscopic procedure from the operating room into the simulation laboratory. STAC-trained residents had superior technical proficiency in the OR and nontechnical skills compared with conventionally trained residents. (The study registration ID is NCT01560494.).

  8. The human genome project: Information management, access, and regulation. Technical progress report, 1 April--31 August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, J.D.; Micikas, L.B.

    1993-09-10

    Efforts are described to prepare educational materials including computer based as well as conventional type teaching materials for training interested high school and elementary students in aspects of Human Genome Project.

  9. Culture in great apes: using intricate complexity in feeding skills to trace the evolutionary origin of human technical prowess

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Richard W.

    2007-01-01

    Geographical cataloguing of traits, as used in human ethnography, has led to the description of ‘culture’ in some non-human great apes. Culture, in these terms, is detected as a pattern of local ignorance resulting from environmental constraints on knowledge transmission. However, in many cases, the geographical variations may alternatively be explained by ecology. Social transmission of information can reliably be identified in many other animal species, by experiment or distinctive patterns...

  10. Human strongyloidiasis: identifying knowledge gaps, with emphasis on environmental control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor MJ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Taylor, Tara A Garrard, Francis J O'Donahoo, Kirstin E Ross Health and Environment, School of the Environment, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: Strongyloides is a human parasitic nematode that is poorly understood outside a clinical context. This article identifies gaps within the literature, with particular emphasis on gaps that are hindering environmental control of Strongyloides. The prevalence and distribution of Strongyloides is unclear. An estimate of 100–370 million people infected worldwide has been proposed; however, inaccuracy of diagnosis, unreliability of prevalence mapping, and the fact that strongyloidiasis remains a neglected disease suggest that the higher figure of more than 300 million cases is likely to be a more accurate estimate. The complexity of Strongyloides life cycle means that laboratory cultures cannot be maintained outside of a host. This currently limits the range of laboratory-based research, which is vital to controlling Strongyloides through environmental alteration or treatment. Successful clinical treatment with antihelminthic drugs has meant that controlling Strongyloides through environmental control, rather than clinical intervention, has been largely overlooked. These control measures may encompass alteration of the soil environment through physical means, such as desiccation or removal of nutrients, or through chemical or biological agents. Repeated antihelminthic treatment of individuals with recurrent strongyloidiasis has not been observed to result in the selection of resistant strains; however, this has not been explicitly demonstrated, and relying on such assumptions in the long-term may prove to be shortsighted. It is ultimately naive to assume that continued administration of antihelminthics will be without any negative long-term effects. In Australia, strongyloidiasis primarily affects Indigenous communities, including communities from arid central Australia. This

  11. Controlled Human Malaria Infection: Applications, Advances, and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisic, Danielle I; McCarthy, James S; Good, Michael F

    2018-01-01

    Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) entails deliberate infection with malaria parasites either by mosquito bite or by direct injection of sporozoites or parasitized erythrocytes. When required, the resulting blood-stage infection is curtailed by the administration of antimalarial drugs. Inducing a malaria infection via inoculation with infected blood was first used as a treatment (malariotherapy) for neurosyphilis in Europe and the United States in the early 1900s. More recently, CHMI has been applied to the fields of malaria vaccine and drug development, where it is used to evaluate products in well-controlled early-phase proof-of-concept clinical studies, thus facilitating progression of only the most promising candidates for further evaluation in areas where malaria is endemic. Controlled infections have also been used to immunize against malaria infection. Historically, CHMI studies have been restricted by the need for access to insectaries housing infected mosquitoes or suitable malaria-infected individuals. Evaluation of vaccine and drug candidates has been constrained in these studies by the availability of a limited number of Plasmodium falciparum isolates. Recent advances have included cryopreservation of sporozoites, the manufacture of well-characterized and genetically distinct cultured malaria cell banks for blood-stage infection, and the availability of Plasmodium vivax -specific reagents. These advances will help to accelerate malaria vaccine and drug development by making the reagents for CHMI more widely accessible and also enabling a more rigorous evaluation with multiple parasite strains and species. Here we discuss the different applications of CHMI, recent advances in the use of CHMI, and ongoing challenges for consideration. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. [Human technical enhancement: an introduction to the currents of the debate as well as their fracture lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frippiat, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to suggest a panel of the different positions active in the human enhancement's debate, to analyze their arguments and to point out the dividing zones. The transhumanist movement is therefore presented in order to highlight the principal thematic of its philosophy, its means of action and the plurality of its subgroups. The purpose is to reassess its complexity in an introductory manner far from the usual, excessive simplifications. In a second time, the "bioconservative" movement is also examined in its foundations to emphasize the norms and principles that are undoubtedly shared by the opponents to the human being's modification. Then, the thinkers of the "liberal ethics" are exemplified as a more moderate alternative, although not flawless. Generally open-minded towards the application of enhancement technologies, they protect as an ultimate guardian, the harm principle, as well as the absolute respect of individual freedom. Once the protagonists are introduced, the true meaning of these positions is replaced in the context of the three main fracture lines: the human nature, the normality criterion and the equality principle. A complex debate indeed that we could summarize by a simple question: what will human do about the human in the 21st century?

  13. Human-Robot Interface Controller Usability for Mission Planning on the Move

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki /Game_controller (accessed 4 April 2006). Gianaros, P. J.; Muth , E. R.; Mordkoff, J. T.; Levine, M. E.; Stern, R. M. A...COPIES ORGANIZATION 28 1 DEFENSE TECHNICAL (PDF INFORMATION CTR only) DTIC OCA 8725 JOHN J KINGMAN RD STE 0944 FORT BELVOIR VA

  14. Tracking the mutual shaping of the technical and social dimensions of solar-powered mosquito trapping systems (SMoTS) for malaria control on Rusinga Island, western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oria, Prisca A; Hiscox, Alexandra; Alaii, Jane; Ayugi, Margaret; Mukabana, Wolfgang Richard; Takken, Willem; Leeuwis, Cees

    2014-11-18

    There has been increasing effort in recent years to incorporate user needs in technology design and re-design. This project employed a bottom-up approach that engaged end users from the outset. Bottom-up approaches have the potential to bolster novel interventions and move them towards adaptive and evidence-based strategies. The present study concerns an innovative use of solar-powered mosquito trapping systems (SMoTS) to control malaria in western Kenya. Our paper highlights the co-dependence of research associated with the development of the SMoTS technology on one hand and research for enhancing the sustainable uptake of that very same intervention within the community on the other. During the pre-intervention year, we examined the design, re-design and piloting of a novel technology to generate lessons for malaria elimination on Rusinga Island. Initial ideas about many technological necessities were evaluated and re-designed following feedback from various sources, including technical and social research as well as broader interactions with the social environment. We documented the interlocking of the multiple processes and activities that took place through process observation and document reviews. We analysed the data within the conceptual framework of system innovation by identifying mutual shaping between technical and social factors. Our findings illustrate how various project stakeholders including project staff, collaborators, donor, and community members simultaneously pursued interdependent technological transformations and social interests. In the ongoing process, we observed how partial outcomes in the technological domain influenced social events at a later phase and vice versa. Looking at malaria intervention projects employing novel technologies as niches that may evolve towards system innovation, helps to reveal interrelations between the various technical and social aspects. Revealing these interrelations requires a different role for research

  15. Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnih, Volodymyr; Kavukcuoglu, Koray; Silver, David; Rusu, Andrei A; Veness, Joel; Bellemare, Marc G; Graves, Alex; Riedmiller, Martin; Fidjeland, Andreas K; Ostrovski, Georg; Petersen, Stig; Beattie, Charles; Sadik, Amir; Antonoglou, Ioannis; King, Helen; Kumaran, Dharshan; Wierstra, Daan; Legg, Shane; Hassabis, Demis

    2015-02-26

    The theory of reinforcement learning provides a normative account, deeply rooted in psychological and neuroscientific perspectives on animal behaviour, of how agents may optimize their control of an environment. To use reinforcement learning successfully in situations approaching real-world complexity, however, agents are confronted with a difficult task: they must derive efficient representations of the environment from high-dimensional sensory inputs, and use these to generalize past experience to new situations. Remarkably, humans and other animals seem to solve this problem through a harmonious combination of reinforcement learning and hierarchical sensory processing systems, the former evidenced by a wealth of neural data revealing notable parallels between the phasic signals emitted by dopaminergic neurons and temporal difference reinforcement learning algorithms. While reinforcement learning agents have achieved some successes in a variety of domains, their applicability has previously been limited to domains in which useful features can be handcrafted, or to domains with fully observed, low-dimensional state spaces. Here we use recent advances in training deep neural networks to develop a novel artificial agent, termed a deep Q-network, that can learn successful policies directly from high-dimensional sensory inputs using end-to-end reinforcement learning. We tested this agent on the challenging domain of classic Atari 2600 games. We demonstrate that the deep Q-network agent, receiving only the pixels and the game score as inputs, was able to surpass the performance of all previous algorithms and achieve a level comparable to that of a professional human games tester across a set of 49 games, using the same algorithm, network architecture and hyperparameters. This work bridges the divide between high-dimensional sensory inputs and actions, resulting in the first artificial agent that is capable of learning to excel at a diverse array of challenging tasks.

  16. Operative control of human microflora in confined habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viacheslav, Ilyin; Solovieva, Zoya; Panina, Jana

    The problem of operative control and transmission of information on microbial state of humans in artificial environment is much actual especially in conditions of long-term space missions and in perspective mission to Mars. There was revealed that in long-term missions there is a periodical accumulation of pathogenicity potential in the system "human-microbes" which lead to possible development of opportunistic infections of crew members in spaceflight. To investigate covering tissues microflora of volunteers participated in 14 and 105 days isolation in confined habitat the new non-culture method was elaborated, based on computer treatment of native swab, equally distributed on total surface of microscopy glass and Gram stained. It allows to obtain information on 3 basic indices -morphology, tinctorial and quantitative, thus it could detect increasing of total microbial amount, growth of staphylococci which is important for early diagnostics of microbial disbalance on covering tissues of volunteers. The analysis is performed with the aid of authomatized system of digital microscopy dedicated to recognition of microbial images on the preparate and for further transmission of these digital images via telecommunication network, thus making possibility of remote consultancies. The data of 14-day experiment reveals increasing of potential pathogens on 7th day of isolation with further decrease on 14th day, changes of microflora in 105-day isolation has the tendency of periodical accumulation. In general, the results were compatible with ones obtained by classical bacteriological studies. The results are significant under the microbial quantity of 104 CFU/swab and higher, which is important for analyzing of microbial groups if they grow in quantities, increasing normal values.

  17. Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnih, Volodymyr; Kavukcuoglu, Koray; Silver, David; Rusu, Andrei A.; Veness, Joel; Bellemare, Marc G.; Graves, Alex; Riedmiller, Martin; Fidjeland, Andreas K.; Ostrovski, Georg; Petersen, Stig; Beattie, Charles; Sadik, Amir; Antonoglou, Ioannis; King, Helen; Kumaran, Dharshan; Wierstra, Daan; Legg, Shane; Hassabis, Demis

    2015-02-01

    The theory of reinforcement learning provides a normative account, deeply rooted in psychological and neuroscientific perspectives on animal behaviour, of how agents may optimize their control of an environment. To use reinforcement learning successfully in situations approaching real-world complexity, however, agents are confronted with a difficult task: they must derive efficient representations of the environment from high-dimensional sensory inputs, and use these to generalize past experience to new situations. Remarkably, humans and other animals seem to solve this problem through a harmonious combination of reinforcement learning and hierarchical sensory processing systems, the former evidenced by a wealth of neural data revealing notable parallels between the phasic signals emitted by dopaminergic neurons and temporal difference reinforcement learning algorithms. While reinforcement learning agents have achieved some successes in a variety of domains, their applicability has previously been limited to domains in which useful features can be handcrafted, or to domains with fully observed, low-dimensional state spaces. Here we use recent advances in training deep neural networks to develop a novel artificial agent, termed a deep Q-network, that can learn successful policies directly from high-dimensional sensory inputs using end-to-end reinforcement learning. We tested this agent on the challenging domain of classic Atari 2600 games. We demonstrate that the deep Q-network agent, receiving only the pixels and the game score as inputs, was able to surpass the performance of all previous algorithms and achieve a level comparable to that of a professional human games tester across a set of 49 games, using the same algorithm, network architecture and hyperparameters. This work bridges the divide between high-dimensional sensory inputs and actions, resulting in the first artificial agent that is capable of learning to excel at a diverse array of challenging tasks.

  18. Potential roles of force cues in human stance control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cnyrim, Christian; Mergner, Thomas; Maurer, Christoph

    2009-04-01

    sensory feedback model. For the trials in which the extra torque tended to endanger stance control, predictions in normals were better when the model included force cues than without these cues. This supports our notion that force cues provide an automatic 'gravitational load compensation' upon changes in body mass in normals. The findings in the patients support our notion that the presumed force cue mechanism provides furthermore vestibular loss compensation. Patients showed a body-space stabilization that cannot be explained by ankle angle proprioception, but must involve graviception, most likely by force cues. Our findings suggest that force cues contribute considerably to the redundancy and robustness of the human stance control system.

  19. An empirical study on the basic human error probabilities for NPP advanced main control room operation using soft control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Inseok, E-mail: nuclear82@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ar Ryum, E-mail: arryum@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Harbi, Mohamed Ali Salem Al, E-mail: 100035556@kustar.ac.ae [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, P.O. Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Lee, Seung Jun, E-mail: sjlee@kaeri.re.kr [Integrated Safety Assessment Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150-1, Dukjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun Gook, E-mail: hyungook@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Poong Hyun, E-mail: phseong@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► The operation environment of MCRs in NPPs has changed by adopting new HSIs. ► The operation action in NPP Advanced MCRs is performed by soft control. ► Different basic human error probabilities (BHEPs) should be considered. ► BHEPs in a soft control operation environment are investigated empirically. ► This work will be helpful to verify if soft control has positive or negative effects. -- Abstract: By adopting new human–system interfaces that are based on computer-based technologies, the operation environment of main control rooms (MCRs) in nuclear power plants (NPPs) has changed. The MCRs that include these digital and computer technologies, such as large display panels, computerized procedures, soft controls, and so on, are called Advanced MCRs. Among the many features in Advanced MCRs, soft controls are an important feature because the operation action in NPP Advanced MCRs is performed by soft control. Using soft controls such as mouse control, touch screens, and so on, operators can select a specific screen, then choose the controller, and finally manipulate the devices. However, because of the different interfaces between soft control and hardwired conventional type control, different basic human error probabilities (BHEPs) should be considered in the Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) for advanced MCRs. Although there are many HRA methods to assess human reliabilities, such as Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP), Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP), Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART), Human Event Repository and Analysis (HERA), Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR), Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method (CREAM), and so on, these methods have been applied to conventional MCRs, and they do not consider the new features of advance MCRs such as soft controls. As a result, there is an insufficient database for assessing human reliabilities in advanced

  20. A cognitive intersensory interaction mechanism in human postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blümle, A; Maurer, C; Schweigart, G; Mergner, T

    2006-08-01

    Human control of upright body posture involves inputs from several senses (visual, vestibular, proprioceptive, somatosensory) and their central interactions. We recently studied visual effects on posture control and their intersensory interactions and found evidence for the existence of an indirect and presumably cognitive mode of interaction, in addition to a direct interaction (we found, e.g., that a 'virtual reality' visual stimulus has a weaker postural effect than a 'real world' scene, because of its illusory character). Here we focus on the presumed cognitive interaction mechanism. We report experiments in healthy subjects and vestibular loss patients. We investigated to what extent a postural response to lateral platform tilt is modulated by tilt of a visual scene in an orthogonal rotational plane (anterior-posterior, a-p, direction). The a-p visual stimulus did not evoke a lateral postural response on its own. But it enhanced the response to the lateral platform tilt (i.e., it increased the evoked body excursion). The effect was related to the velocity of the visual stimulus, showed a threshold at 0.31 degrees /s, and increased monotonically with increasing velocity. These characteristics were similar in normals and patients, but body excursions were larger in patients. In conclusion, the orthogonal stimulus arrangement in our experiments allowed us to selectively assess a cognitive intersensory interaction that upon co-planar stimulation tends to be merged with direct interaction. The observed threshold corresponds to the conscious perceptual detection threshold of the visual motion, which is clearly higher than the visual postural response threshold. This finding is in line with our notion of a cognitive phenomenon. We postulate that the cognitive mechanism in normals interferes with a central visual-vestibular interaction mechanism. This appears to be similar in vestibular loss patients, but patients use less effective somatosensory instead of vestibular

  1. S-Chip Technical Assistance

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The page will provide access to reports and other published products designed to assist states with complicated S-Chip technical issues. The reports and products...

  2. Metagenomic Investigation of Plasma in Individuals with ME/CFS Highlights the Importance of Technical Controls to Elucidate Contamination and Batch Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth R Miller

    Full Text Available Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS is a debilitating disease causing indefinite fatigue. ME/CFS has long been hypothesised to have an infectious cause; however, no specific infectious agent has been identified. We used metagenomics to analyse the RNA from plasma samples from 25 individuals with ME/CFS and compare their microbial content to technical controls as well as three control groups: individuals with alternatively diagnosed chronic Lyme syndrome (N = 13, systemic lupus erythematosus (N = 11, and healthy controls (N = 25. We found that the majority of sequencing reads were removed during host subtraction, thus there was very low microbial RNA content in the plasma. The effects of sample batching and contamination during sample processing proved to outweigh the effects of study group on microbial RNA content, as the few differences in bacterial or viral RNA abundance we did observe between study groups were most likely caused by contamination and batch effects. Our results highlight the importance of including negative controls in all metagenomic analyses, since there was considerable overlap between bacterial content identified in study samples and control samples. For example, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteriodes were found in both study samples and plasma-free negative controls. Many of the taxonomic groups we saw in our plasma-free negative control samples have previously been associated with diseases, including ME/CFS, demonstrating how incorrect conclusions may arise if controls are not used and batch effects not accounted for.

  3. Control of human papillomavirus gene expression by alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Sheila V; Faizo, Arwa Ali A

    2017-03-02

    Human papillomaviruses possess circular double stranded DNA genomes of around 8kb in size from which multiple mRNAs are synthesized during an infectious life cycle. Although at least three viral promoters are used to initiate transcription, viral mRNAs are largely the product of processing of pre-mRNAs by alternative splicing and polyadenylation. The HPV life cycle and viral gene expression are tightly linked to differentiation of the epithelium the virus infects: there is an orchestrated production of viral mRNAs and proteins. In this review we describe viral mRNA expression and the roles of the SR and hnRNP proteins that respectively positively and negatively regulate splicing. We discuss HPV regulation of splicing factors and detail the evidence that the papillomavirus E2 protein has splicing-related activities. We highlight the possibility that HPV-mediated control of splicing in differentiating epithelial cells may be necessary to accomplish the viral replication cycle. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Neural contributions to the motivational control of appetite in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Elanor C; Parkinson, John A; Holland, Anthony J; Arana, F Sergio; Roberts, Angela C; Owen, Adrian M

    2004-09-01

    The motivation to eat in humans is a complex process influenced by intrinsic mechanisms relating to the hunger and satiety cascade, and extrinsic mechanisms based on the appetitive incentive value of individual foods, which can themselves induce desire. This study was designed to investigate the neural basis of these two factors contributing to the control of motivation to eat within the same experimental design using positron emission tomography. Using a novel counterbalanced approach, participants were scanned in two separate sessions, once after fasting and once after food intake, in which they imagined themselves in a restaurant and considered a number of items on a menu, and were asked to choose their most preferred. All items were tailored to each individual and varied in their incentive value. No actual foods were presented. In response to a hungry state, increased activation was shown in the hypothalamus, amygdala and insula cortex as predicted, as well as the medulla, striatum and anterior cingulate cortex. Satiety, in contrast, was associated with increased activation in the lateral orbitofrontal and temporal cortex. Only activity in the vicinity of the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex was observed in response to the processing of extrinsic appetitive incentive information. These results suggest that the contributions of intrinsic homeostatic influences, and extrinsic incentive factors to the motivation to eat, are somewhat dissociable neurally, with areas of convergence in the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex. The findings of this study have implications for research into the underlying mechanisms of eating disorders.

  5. Dynamic control of strand excision during human DNA mismatch repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yongmoon; Kim, Daehyung; Martín-López, Juana V; Lee, Ryanggeun; Oh, Jungsic; Hanne, Jeungphill; Fishel, Richard; Lee, Jong-Bong

    2016-03-22

    Mismatch repair (MMR) is activated by evolutionarily conserved MutS homologs (MSH) and MutL homologs (MLH/PMS). MSH recognizes mismatched nucleotides and form extremely stable sliding clamps that may be bound by MLH/PMS to ultimately authorize strand-specific excision starting at a distant 3'- or 5'-DNA scission. The mechanical processes associated with a complete MMR reaction remain enigmatic. The purified human (Homo sapien or Hs) 5'-MMR excision reaction requires the HsMSH2-HsMSH6 heterodimer, the 5' → 3' exonuclease HsEXOI, and the single-stranded binding heterotrimer HsRPA. The HsMLH1-HsPMS2 heterodimer substantially influences 5'-MMR excision in cell extracts but is not required in the purified system. Using real-time single-molecule imaging, we show that HsRPA or Escherichia coli EcSSB restricts HsEXOI excision activity on nicked or gapped DNA. HsMSH2-HsMSH6 activates HsEXOI by overcoming HsRPA/EcSSB inhibition and exploits multiple dynamic sliding clamps to increase tract length. Conversely, HsMLH1-HsPMS2 regulates tract length by controlling the number of excision complexes, providing a link to 5' MMR.

  6. Gesture controlled human-computer interface for the disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniak, Oskar M; Sawicki, Dariusz J

    2017-02-28

    The possibility of using a computer by a disabled person is one of the difficult problems of the human-computer interaction (HCI), while the professional activity (employment) is one of the most important factors affecting the quality of life, especially for disabled people. The aim of the project has been to propose a new HCI system that would allow for resuming employment for people who have lost the possibility of a standard computer operation. The basic requirement was to replace all functions of a standard mouse without the need of performing precise hand movements and using fingers. The Microsoft's Kinect motion controller had been selected as a device which would recognize hand movements. Several tests were made in order to create optimal working environment with the new device. The new communication system consisted of the Kinect device and the proper software had been built. The proposed system was tested by means of the standard subjective evaluations and objective metrics according to the standard ISO 9241-411:2012. The overall rating of the new HCI system shows the acceptance of the solution. The objective tests show that although the new system is a bit slower, it may effectively replace the computer mouse. The new HCI system fulfilled its task for a specific disabled person. This resulted in the ability to return to work. Additionally, the project confirmed the possibility of effective but nonstandard use of the Kinect device. Med Pr 2017;68(1):1-21.

  7. [Heteroplasmy in human mtDNA control region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Wan, Li-Hua; Gu, Lin-Gang; Huang, Ying-Xue; Xiu, Cong-Xian; Hu, Shu-Hui; Mi, Can

    2006-06-01

    To observe the length heteroplasmy and point heteroplasmy in human mtDNA control region. The peripheral blood, buccal cell, and single hair shaft from 50 individuals and 16 family members, related in their maternallineage were analyzed by direct sequencing, and clones from 20 individuals whose mtDNA sequences have a T-C transition at 16189 nt were sequenced. No point heteroplasmy were observed in peripheral blood, buccal cell, single hair shaft from the same individual, neither in maternally related individuals. Length heteroplasmy was observed in those individuals with a homopolymeric tract and the different clones from the same individual has different proportions of length variants, but the hair shafts from the same individual were very similar to the measurements made from blood DNA. No length heteroplasmy was observed between different tissues from the same individual. mtDNA sequences have a characteristic of high consistency and genetic stability, mtDNA sequencing is a suitable tool for forensic applications such as individual identification.

  8. Human factors considerations in the design and evaluation of flight deck displays and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this effort is to have a single source document for human factors regulatory and guidance material for flight deck displays and controls, in the interest of improving aviation safety. This document identifies guidance on human factor...

  9. Analysis of a display and control system man-machine interface concept. Volume 1: Final technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    An evaluation was made of the feasibility of utilizing a simplified man machine interface concept to manage and control a complex space system involving multiple redundant computers that control multiple redundant subsystems. The concept involves the use of a CRT for display and a simple keyboard for control, with a tree-type control logic for accessing and controlling mission, systems, and subsystem elements. The concept was evaluated in terms of the Phase B space shuttle orbiter, to utilize the wide scope of data management and subsystem control inherent in the central data management subsystem provided by the Phase B design philosophy. Results of these investigations are reported in four volumes.

  10. [The effect of glass wool filtration on human spermatozoa--a comparison with the swim-up technic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguhl, F; Fliess, F R; Bernt, W D

    1989-01-01

    20 fresh human ejaculates (6X normozoospermia, 7X oligozoospermia and 7X asthenozoospermia) were prepared either with the swim-up-method as with the glass wool filtration. After both techniques the motility of the spermatozoa improved markedly. In cases of asthenozoospermia and oligozoospermia the motility increased significantly compared with the value of the ejaculate. From the motile spermatozoa of the ejaculate 45-60% were detectable in the filtrat after glass wool filtration or in the upper fluid after swim-up-procedure.

  11. Nucleic acid-based assays for the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus: a technical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jane S

    2014-09-01

    Nucleic acid-based high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing is essential to contemporary cervical cancer screening. The numbers of commercially available assays approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for HPV nucleic acid detection have increased, each offering various approaches to analysis. An understanding of the methodologies associated with HPV testing is important to the practice of laboratory medicine. An overview of instruments, chemistries, laboratory workflows, and test limitations associated with current US Food and Drug Administration-approved assays is provided. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  12. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    2010-01-01

    Operational Experience At the end of the first full-year running period of LHC, CMS is established as a reliable, robust and mature experiment. In particular common systems and infrastructure faults accounted for <0.6 % CMS downtime during LHC pp physics. Technical operation throughout the entire year was rather smooth, the main faults requiring UXC access being sub-detector power systems and rack-cooling turbines. All such problems were corrected during scheduled technical stops, in the shadow of tunnel access needed by the LHC, or in negotiated accesses or access extensions. Nevertheless, the number of necessary accesses to the UXC averaged more than one per week and the technical stops were inevitably packed with work packages, typically 30 being executed within a few days, placing a high load on the coordination and area management teams. It is an appropriate moment for CMS Technical Coordination to thank all those in many CERN departments and in the Collaboration, who were involved in CMS techni...

  13. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    2010-01-01

    Operational Experience Since the closure of the detector in February, the technical operation of CMS has been quite smooth and reliable. Some minor interventions in UXC were required to cure failures of power supplies, fans, readout boards and rack cooling connections, but all these failures were repaired in scheduled technical stops or parasitically during access dedicated to fixing LHC technical problems. The only occasion when CMS had to request an access between fills was to search for the source of an alarm from the leak-detection cables mounted in the DT racks. After a few minutes of diagnostic search, a leaking air-purge was found. Replacement was complete within 2 hours. This incident demonstrated once more the value of these leak detection cables; the system will be further extended (during the end of year technical stop) to cover more racks in UXC and the floor beneath the detector. The magnet has also been operating reliably and reacted correctly to the 14s power cut on 29 May (see below). In or...

  14. Dynamic Monitoring Reveals Motor Task Characteristics in Prehistoric Technical Gestures

    OpenAIRE

    Radu Iovita; Jonas Buchli; Johannes Pfleging

    2015-01-01

    Reconstructing ancient technical gestures associated with simple tool actions is crucial for understanding the co-evolution of the human forelimb and its associated control-related cognitive functions on the one hand, and of the human technological arsenal on the other hand. Although the topic of gesture is an old one in Paleolithic archaeology and in anthropology in general, very few studies have taken advantage of the new technologies from the science of kinematics in order to improve repli...

  15. Chemotherapy in the treatment, control, and elimination of human onchocerciasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higazi TB

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tarig B Higazi,1 Timothy G Geary,2 Charles D Mackenzie3,41Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University Zanesville, Zanesville, OH, USA; 2Institute of Parasitology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; 3Center for Neglected Tropical Diseases, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK; 4Department of Pathobiology & Diagnostic Investigation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USAAbstract: Onchocerciasis treatment is one of the most positive stories in tropical medicine although major challenges remain to reaching the ultimate goal of disease elimination. Such challenges are to be expected when the therapeutic goal is to kill and safely remove a large multistage, efficient, metazoan infectious agent such as Onchocerca volvulus that has an exceptionally complicated relationship with its host. Successful control of onchocerciasis has often been hampered by host reactions following chemotherapy, that can sometimes cause significant tissue pathology. Presence of other filariae, particularly Loa loa, in endemic onchocerciasis-treatment areas also poses severe problems due to adverse reactions caused by drug-induced death of the coincident microfilariae of this usually clinically benign species. Although ivermectin has been very successful, there is a need to enhance the progress toward elimination of onchocerciasis; new drugs and their efficient use are keys to this. The permanent absence of Onchocerca microfilaridermia, defined as the lack of resurgence of skin microfilarial loads after treatment, is the ultimate characteristic of a useful new chemotherapeutic agent. Several drugs are under investigation to achieve this, including the reassessment of currently available and previously tested agents, such as the antibiotic, doxycycline, which targets the adult parasites through its anti-Wolbachia endosymbiont activity. Flubendazole, a benzimidazole derivative approved for treatment of human gastrointestinal nematodes, is

  16. Developing and utilizing controlled human models of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Chad K; Louis Bourgeois, A; Frenck, Robert W; Prouty, Michael; Maier, Nicole; Riddle, Mark S

    2017-12-14

    The controlled human infection model (CHIM) to assess the efficacy of vaccines against Shigella and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) has several unique features that could significantly enhance the ability to test candidate vaccines. Despite increasing interest in these models, questions remain as to how to best incorporate them into vaccine development and how to maximize results. We designed a workshop focused on CHIM as part of the Vaccines Against Shigella and ETEC (VASE) Conference. The workshop, using the World Café method, focused on; clinical outcomes, nonclinical outcomes and model standardization. Researchers with a variety of expertise and experience rotated through each focus area and discussed relevant sub-topics. The results of these discussions were presented and questions posed to guide future workshops. Clinical endpoint discussions focused on the need for harmonized definitions; optimized attack rates; difficulties of sample collection and a need for non-stool based endpoints. Nonclinical discussions centered on evolving omics-based opportunities, host predictors of susceptibility and novel characterizations of the immune response. Model standardization focused on the value of shared procedures across institutions for clinical and non-clinical endpoints as well as for strain preparation and administration and subject selection. Participants agreed CHIMs for Shigella and ETEC vaccine development could accelerate vaccine development of a promising candidate; however, it was also appreciated that variability in the model and our limited understand of the host-pathogen interaction may yield results that could negatively impact a suitable candidate. Future workshops on CHIM are needed to ensure the optimal application of these models moving forward. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Conceptual aspects: analyses law, ethical, human, technical, social factors of development ICT, e-learning and intercultural development in different countries setting out the previous new theoretical model and preliminary findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kommers, Petrus A.M.; Smyrnova-Trybulska, Eugenia; Morze, Natalia; Issa, Tomayess; Issa, Theodora

    2015-01-01

    This paper, prepared by an international team of authors focuses on the conceptual aspects: analyses law, ethical, human, technical, social factors of ICT development, e-learning and intercultural development in different countries, setting out the previous and new theoretical model and preliminary

  18. KSC Technical Capabilities Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nufer, Brian; Bursian, Henry; Brown, Laurette L.

    2010-01-01

    This document is the website pages that review the technical capabilities that the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has for partnership opportunities. The purpose of this information is to make prospective customers aware of the capabilities and provide an opportunity to form relationships with the experts at KSC. The technical capabilities fall into these areas: (1) Ground Operations and Processing Services, (2) Design and Analysis Solutions, (3) Command and Control Systems / Services, (4) Materials and Processes, (5) Research and Technology Development and (6) Laboratories, Shops and Test Facilities.

  19. MicroRNAs: control and loss of control in human physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Marin-Muller, Christian; Bharadwaj, Uddalak; Chow, Kwong-Hon; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi

    2009-04-01

    Analysis of the human genome indicates that a large fraction of the genome sequences are RNAs that do not encode any proteins, also known as non-coding RNAs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small non-coding RNA molecules 20-22 nucleotides (nt) in length that are predicted to control the activity of approximately 30% of all protein-coding genes in mammals. miRNAs play important roles in many diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and immune disorders. The expression of miRNAs can be regulated by epigenetic modification, DNA copy number change, and genetic mutations. miRNAs can serve as a valuable therapeutic target for a large number of diseases. For miRNAs with oncogenic capabilities, potential therapies include miRNA silencing, antisense blocking, and miRNA modifications. For miRNAs with tumor suppression functions, overexpression of those miRNAs might be a useful strategy to inhibit tumor growth. In this review, we discuss the current progress of miRNA research, regulation of miRNA expression, prediction of miRNA targets, and regulatory role of miRNAs in human physiology and diseases, with a specific focus on miRNAs in pancreatic cancer, liver cancer, colorectal cancer, cardiovascular disease, the immune system, and infectious disease. This review provides valuable information for clinicians and researchers who want to recognize the newest advances in this new field and identify possible lines of investigation in miRNAs as important mediators in human physiology and diseases.

  20. Human-FES cooperative control for wrist movement: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Gui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional electrical stimulation (FES sometimes applies to patients with partial paralysis, so human voluntary control and FES control both exist. Our study aims to build a cooperative controller to achieve human-FES cooperation. This cooperative controller is formed by a classical FES controller and an impedance controller. The FES controller consists of a back propagation (BP neural network-based feedforward controller and a PID-based feedback controller. The function of impedance controller is to convert volitional force/torque, which is estimated from a three-stage filter based on EMG, into additional angle. The additional angle can reduce the FES intensity in our cooperative controller, comparing to that in classical FES controller. Some assessment experiments are designed to test the performance of the cooperative controller.

  1. Guidelines for Controlling Indoor Air Quality Problems Associated with Kilns, Copiers, and Welding in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Ronald W.; And Others

    Guidelines for controlling indoor air quality problems associated with kilns, copiers, and welding in schools are provided in this document. Individual sections on kilns, duplicating equipment, and welding operations contain information on the following: sources of contaminants; health effects; methods of control; ventilation strategies; and…

  2. 78 FR 40152 - World Trade Center Health Program Scientific/Technical Advisory Committee; Nominations of Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention World Trade Center Health Program Scientific... Nominations of Candidates to Serve on the World Trade Center Health Program Scientific/Technical Advisory... Health and Human Services. The CDC is soliciting nominations for membership on the World Trade Center...

  3. Final Technical Report: Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Turbulent Transport Control via Shaping of Radial Plasma Flow Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, Eugenio

    2014-05-02

    The strong coupling between the different physical variables involved in the plasma transport phenomenon and the high complexity of its dynamics call for a model-based, multivariable approach to profile control where those predictive models could be exploited. The overall objective of this project has been to extend the existing body of work by investigating numerically and experimentally active control of unstable fluctuations, including fully developed turbulence and the associated cross-field particle transport, via manipulation of flow profiles in a magnetized laboratory plasma device. Fluctuations and particle transport can be monitored by an array of electrostatic probes, and Ex B flow profiles can be controlled via a set of biased concentric ring electrodes that terminate the plasma column. The goals of the proposed research have been threefold: i- to develop a predictive code to simulate plasma transport in the linear HELCAT (HELicon-CAThode) plasma device at the University of New Mexico (UNM), where the experimental component of the proposed research has been carried out; ii- to establish the feasibility of using advanced model-based control algorithms to control cross-field turbulence-driven particle transport through appropriate manipulation of radial plasma flow profiles, iii- to investigate the fundamental nonlinear dynamics of turbulence and transport physics. Lehigh University (LU), including Prof. Eugenio Schuster and one full-time graduate student, has been primarily responsible for control-oriented modeling and model-based control design. Undergraduate students have also participated in this project through the National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) program. The main goal of the LU Plasma Control Group has been to study the feasibility of controlling turbulence-driven transport by shaping the radial poloidal flow profile (i.e., by controlling flow shear) via biased concentric ring electrodes.

  4. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2011-01-01

    In this report we will review the main achievements of the Technical Stop and the progress of several centrally-managed projects to support CMS operation and maintenance and prepare the way for upgrades. Overview of the extended Technical Stop  The principal objectives of the extended Technical Stop affecting the detector itself were the installation of the TOTEM T1 telescopes on both ends, the readjustment of the alignment link-disk in YE-2, the replacement of the light-guide sleeves for all PMs of both HFs, and some repairs on TOTEM T2 and CASTOR. The most significant tasks were, however, concentrated on the supporting infrastructure. A detailed line-by-line leak search was performed in the C6F14 cooling system of the Tracker, followed by the installation of variable-frequency drives on the pump motors of the SS1 and SS2 tracker cooling plants to reduce pressure transients during start-up. In the electrical system, larger harmonic filters were installed in ...

  5. Fuel Element Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burley, H.H. [ed.

    1956-08-01

    It is the purpose of the Fuel Element Technical Manual to Provide a single document describing the fabrication processes used in the manufacture of the fuel element as well as the technical bases for these processes. The manual will be instrumental in the indoctrination of personnel new to the field and will provide a single data reference for all personnel involved in the design or manufacture of the fuel element. The material contained in this manual was assembled by members of the Engineering Department and the Manufacturing Department at the Hanford Atomic Products Operation between the dates October, 1955 and June, 1956. Arrangement of the manual. The manual is divided into six parts: Part I--introduction; Part II--technical bases; Part III--process; Part IV--plant and equipment; Part V--process control and improvement; and VI--safety.

  6. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 37: The impact of political control on technical communications: A comparative study of Russian and US aerospace engineers and scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Flammia, Madelyn; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Until the recent dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Communist Party exerted a strict control of access to and dissemination of scientific and technical information (STI). This article presents models of the Soviet-style information society and the Western-style information society and discusses the effects of centralized governmental control of information on Russian technical communication practices. The effects of political control on technical communication are then used to interpret the results of a survey of Russian and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists concerning the time devoted to technical communication, their collaborative writing practices and their attitudes toward collaboration, the kinds of technical documents they produce and use, and their use of computer technology, and their use of and the importance to them of libraries and technical information centers. The data are discussed in terms of tentative conclusions drawn from the literature. Finally, we conclude with four questions concerning government policy, collaboration, and the flow of STI between Russian and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists.

  7. Addressing the human factors issues associated with control room modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.; Stubler, W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Kramer, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    1998-03-01

    Advanced human-system interface (HSI) technology is being integrated into existing nuclear plants as part of plant modifications and upgrades. The result of this trend is that hybrid HSIs are created, i.e., HSIs containing a mixture of conventional (analog) and advanced (digital) technology. The purpose of the present research is to define the potential effects of hybrid HSIs on personnel performance and plant safety and to develop human factors guidance for safety reviews of them where necessary. In support of this objective, human factors issues associated with hybrid HSIs were identified. The issues were evaluated for their potential significance to plant safety, i.e., their human performance concerns have the potential to compromise plant safety. The issues were then prioritized and a subset was selected for design review guidance development.

  8. Human benefits of animal interventions for zoonosis control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther; Roth, Felix; Bonfoh, Bassirou; de Savigny, Don; Tanner, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    .... Cross-sectoral assessments of interventions such as mass vaccination for brucellosis in Mongolia or vaccination of dogs for rabies in Chad consider human and animal health sectors from a societal economic perspective...

  9. [A new human machine interface in neurosurgery: The Leap Motion(®). Technical note regarding a new touchless interface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Tommaso, L; Aubry, S; Godard, J; Katranji, H; Pauchot, J

    2016-06-01

    Currently, cross-sectional imaging viewing is used in routine practice whereas the surgical procedure requires physical contact with an interface (mouse or touch-sensitive screen). This type of contact results in a risk of lack of aseptic control and causes loss of time. The recent appearance of devices such as the Leap Motion(®) (Leap Motion society, San Francisco, USA) a sensor which enables to interact with the computer without any physical contact is of major interest in the field of surgery. However, its configuration and ergonomics produce key challenges in order to adapt to the practitioner's requirements, the imaging software as well as the surgical environment. This article aims to suggest an easy configuration of the Leap Motion(®) in neurosurgery on a PC for an optimized utilization with Carestream(®) Vue PACS v11.3.4 (Carestream Health, Inc., Rochester, USA) using a plug-in (to download at: https://drive.google.com/?usp=chrome_app#folders/0B_F4eBeBQc3ybElEeEhqME5DQkU) and a video tutorial (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yVPTgxg-SIk). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Talking with a Virtual Human : Controlling the Human Experience and Behavior in a Virtual Conversation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, C.

    2014-01-01

    Virtual humans are often designed to replace real humans in virtual reality applications for e.g., psychotherapy, education and entertainment. In general, applications with virtual humans are created for modifying a person's knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, emotions or behaviors. Reaching these

  11. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Technical Program Plan for FY 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbert, Bruce Perry [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thomas, Kenneth David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.

  12. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Technical Program Plan for 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbert, Bruce [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thomas, Ken [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.

  13. [Prospects in getting accordance between chemical analytic control means and medical technical requirements to safety system concerning chemical weapons destruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembovskiĭ, V R; Mogilenkova, L A; Savel'eva, E I

    2005-01-01

    The major unit monitoring chemical weapons destruction objects is a system of chemical analyticcontrol over the technologic process procedures and possibility of environment and workplace pollution withtoxicchemicals and their destruction products. At the same time, physical and chemical control means meet sanitary and hygienic requirements incompletely. To provide efficient control, internationally recognized approaches should be adapted to features of Russian system monitoring pollution of chemical weapons destruction objects with toxic chemicals.

  14. TECHNICAL NOTE: Temperature control of an automotive engine cooling system utilizing a magneto-rheological fan clutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Seok; Choi, Seung-Bok; Park, Young-Gee; Lee, Soojin

    2010-10-01

    In this note, the temperature control of an automotive engine cooling system is undertaken using a magneto-rheological (MR) fluid-based fan clutch (MR fan clutch in short). In order to achieve this goal, an appropriate size of controllable fan clutch using an MR fluid is firstly devised by considering the design parameters of a conventional fan clutch to reflect the practical application. Then, the principal design parameters of the MR fan clutch such as the length of the disc are optimally determined through finite element analysis. The drum-type MR fan clutch is manufactured and its time response to input current is experimentally evaluated. A robust sliding mode controller is then formulated by treating the time constant of the fan clutch system as an uncertain parameter. After identifying the relationship between angular velocity of the MR fan clutch and the temperature of the cooling system, the sliding mode controller is experimentally realized for the cooling system. It has been clearly demonstrated that the proposed sliding mode controller follows well the desired temperature with a small regulating error. It is expected from this feasibility work that the proposed control system associated with an MR fan clutch can be effectively utilized for the automotive cooling system to improve the fuel efficiency.

  15. Identifying Driver Nodes in the Human Signaling Network Using Structural Controllability Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueming; Pan, Linqiang

    2015-01-01

    Cell signaling governs the basic cellular activities and coordinates the actions in cell. Abnormal regulations in cell signaling processing are responsible for many human diseases, such as diabetes and cancers. With the accumulation of massive data related to human cell signaling, it is feasible to obtain a human signaling network. Some studies have shown that interesting biological phenomenon and drug-targets could be discovered by applying structural controllability analysis to biological networks. In this work, we apply structural controllability to a human signaling network and detect driver nodes, providing a systematic analysis of the role of different proteins in controlling the human signaling network. We find that the proteins in the upstream of the signaling information flow and the low in-degree proteins play a crucial role in controlling the human signaling network. Interestingly, inputting different control signals on the regulators of the cancer-associated genes could cost less than controlling the cancer-associated genes directly in order to control the whole human signaling network in the sense that less drive nodes are needed. This research provides a fresh perspective for controlling the human cell signaling system.

  16. The Role of Inhibitory Control in the Development of Human Figure Drawing in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Kevin J.; Jolley, Richard P.; Simpson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of inhibitory control in young children's human figure drawing. We used the Bear-Dragon task as a measure of inhibitory control and used the classification system devised by Cox and Parkin to measure the development of human figure drawing. We tested 50 children aged between 40 and 64 months. Regression analysis showed…

  17. An empirical framework of control methods of victims of human trafficking for sexual exploitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ioannou, Maria; Oostinga, Miriam Sharon Daniëlle

    2015-01-01

    Although human trafficking for sexual exploitation is a frequently discussed area in current research, especially on the way that human traffickers control their victims, a recurrent problem is the lack of empirical basis. The present study examines control methods (or conditions) used against 137

  18. Toward experimental validation of a model for human sensorimotor learning and control in teleoperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Eatai; Howell, Darrin; Beckwith, Cydney; Burden, Samuel A.

    2017-05-01

    Humans, interacting with cyber-physical systems (CPS), formulate beliefs about the system's dynamics. It is natural to expect that human operators, tasked with teleoperation, use these beliefs to control the remote robot. For tracking tasks in the resulting human-cyber-physical system (HCPS), theory suggests that human operators can achieve exponential tracking (in stable systems) without state estimation provided they possess an accurate model of the system's dynamics. This internalized inverse model, however, renders a portion of the system state unobservable to the human operator—the zero dynamics. Prior work shows humans can track through observable linear dynamics, thus we focus on nonlinear dynamics rendered unobservable through tracking control. We propose experiments to assess the human operator's ability to learn and invert such models, and distinguish this behavior from that achieved by pure feedback control.

  19. A review of technical aspects of T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in human brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamino, M; Bonzano, L; Levrero, F; Mancardi, G L; Roccatagliata, L

    2014-09-01

    In the last few years, several imaging methods, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography, have been used to investigate the degree of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in patients with neurological diseases including multiple sclerosis, ischemic stroke, and brain tumors. One promising MRI method for assessing the BBB permeability of patients with neurological diseases in vivo is T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI. Here we review the technical issues involved in DCE-MRI in the study of human brain tumors. In the first part of this paper, theoretical models for the DCE-MRI analysis will be described, including the Toft-Kety models, the adiabatic approximation to the tissue homogeneity model and the two-compartment exchange model. These models can be used to estimate important kinetic parameters related to BBB permeability. In the second part of this paper, details of the data acquisition, issues related to the arterial input function, and procedures for DCE-MRI image analysis are illustrated. Copyright © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The influence of biological and technical factors on quantitative analysis of amyloid PET: Points to consider and recommendations for controlling variability in longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Mark E; Chiao, Ping; Klein, Gregory; Matthews, Dawn; Thurfjell, Lennart; Cole, Patricia E; Margolin, Richard; Landau, Susan; Foster, Norman L; Mason, N Scott; De Santi, Susan; Suhy, Joyce; Koeppe, Robert A; Jagust, William

    2015-09-01

    In vivo imaging of amyloid burden with positron emission tomography (PET) provides a means for studying the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's and related diseases. Measurement of subtle changes in amyloid burden requires quantitative analysis of image data. Reliable quantitative analysis of amyloid PET scans acquired at multiple sites and over time requires rigorous standardization of acquisition protocols, subject management, tracer administration, image quality control, and image processing and analysis methods. We review critical points in the acquisition and analysis of amyloid PET, identify ways in which technical factors can contribute to measurement variability, and suggest methods for mitigating these sources of noise. Improved quantitative accuracy could reduce the sample size necessary to detect intervention effects when amyloid PET is used as a treatment end point and allow more reliable interpretation of change in amyloid burden and its relationship to clinical course. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. New functions for technical supervision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herkommer, E.; Kressel, E.; Wollenschlaeger, M.

    1988-07-01

    The discussion concerns the foundation of a new Institution namely an 'Environmental Technical Inspection Board', in order to implement faster the technical and scientific findings in conservation and to control more efficiently the adherence to safety regulations. The article presents a review of the legal regulations in conservation, describes their constitutional status, tasks and legal status of the experts in the technical control societies, tasks and legal position of an environmental technical inspection board as well as its financing. It is stated that the execution deficit in pollution control can be decreased by better participation of experts and permanent control of all potentially dangerous installations. In order to realize this concept, the extension of already available structures presents itself, especially the consultation of officially approved experts, without a new administrative machinery having to be created. (orig./HSCH).

  2. UK quantitative WB-DWI technical workgroup: consensus meeting recommendations on optimisation, quality control, processing and analysis of quantitative whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Anna; Alonzi, Roberto; Blackledge, Matthew; Charles-Edwards, Geoff; Collins, David J; Cook, Gary; Coutts, Glynn; Goh, Vicky; Graves, Martin; Kelly, Charles; Koh, Dow-Mu; McCallum, Hazel; Miquel, Marc E; O'Connor, James; Padhani, Anwar; Pearson, Rachel; Priest, Andrew; Rockall, Andrea; Stirling, James; Taylor, Stuart; Tunariu, Nina; van der Meulen, Jan; Walls, Darren; Winfield, Jessica; Punwani, Shonit

    2018-01-01

    Application of whole body diffusion-weighted MRI (WB-DWI) for oncology are rapidly increasing within both research and routine clinical domains. However, WB-DWI as a quantitative imaging biomarker (QIB) has significantly slower adoption. To date, challenges relating to accuracy and reproducibility, essential criteria for a good QIB, have limited widespread clinical translation. In recognition, a UK workgroup was established in 2016 to provide technical consensus guidelines (to maximise accuracy and reproducibility of WB-MRI QIBs) and accelerate the clinical translation of quantitative WB-DWI applications for oncology. A panel of experts convened from cancer centres around the UK with subspecialty expertise in quantitative imaging and/or the use of WB-MRI with DWI. A formal consensus method was used to obtain consensus agreement regarding best practice. Questions were asked about the appropriateness or otherwise on scanner hardware and software, sequence optimisation, acquisition protocols, reporting, and ongoing quality control programs to monitor precision and accuracy and agreement on quality control. The consensus panel was able to reach consensus on 73% (255/351) items and based on consensus areas made recommendations to maximise accuracy and reproducibly of quantitative WB-DWI studies performed at 1.5T. The panel were unable to reach consensus on the majority of items related to quantitative WB-DWI performed at 3T. This UK Quantitative WB-DWI Technical Workgroup consensus provides guidance on maximising accuracy and reproducibly of quantitative WB-DWI for oncology. The consensus guidance can be used by researchers and clinicians to harmonise WB-DWI protocols which will accelerate clinical translation of WB-DWI-derived QIBs.

  3. SCHEME (Soft Control Human error Evaluation MEthod) for advanced MCR HRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Inseok; Jung, Wondea [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP), Korean Human Reliability Analysis (K-HRA), Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART), A Technique for Human Event Analysis (ATHEANA), Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method (CREAM), and Simplified Plant Analysis Risk Human Reliability Assessment (SPAR-H) in relation to NPP maintenance and operation. Most of these methods were developed considering the conventional type of Main Control Rooms (MCRs). They are still used for HRA in advanced MCRs even though the operating environment of advanced MCRs in NPPs has been considerably changed by the adoption of new human-system interfaces such as computer-based soft controls. Among the many features in advanced MCRs, soft controls are an important feature because the operation action in NPP advanced MCRs is performed by soft controls. Consequently, those conventional methods may not sufficiently consider the features of soft control execution human errors. To this end, a new framework of a HRA method for evaluating soft control execution human error is suggested by performing the soft control task analysis and the literature reviews regarding widely accepted human error taxonomies. In this study, the framework of a HRA method for evaluating soft control execution human error in advanced MCRs is developed. First, the factors which HRA method in advanced MCRs should encompass are derived based on the literature review, and soft control task analysis. Based on the derived factors, execution HRA framework in advanced MCRs is developed mainly focusing on the features of soft control. Moreover, since most current HRA database deal with operation in conventional type of MCRs and are not explicitly designed to deal with digital HSI, HRA database are developed under lab scale simulation.

  4. Infection prevention and control during prolonged human space travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermel, Leonard A

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged human spaceflight to another planet or an asteroid will introduce unique challenges of mitigating the risk of infection. During space travel, exposure to microgravity, radiation, and stress alter human immunoregulatory responses, which can in turn impact an astronaut's ability to prevent acquisition of infectious agents or reactivation of latent infection. In addition, microgravity affects virulence, growth kinetics, and biofilm formation of potential microbial pathogens. These interactions occur in a confined space in microgravity, providing ample opportunity for heavy microbial contamination of the environment. In addition, there is the persistence of aerosolized, microbe-containing particles. Any mission involving prolonged human spaceflight must be carefully planned to minimize vulnerabilities and maximize the likelihood of success.

  5. Sympathetic reflex control of blood flow in human peripheral tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O

    1991-01-01

    sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes are blocked. Blood flow has been measure by the local 133Xe-technique. The results indicate the presence of spinal as well as supraspinal sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes to human peripheral tissues. Especially is emphasized the presence of a local sympathetic veno......Sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes are essential for the maintenance of arterial blood pressure in upright position. It has been generally believed that supraspinal sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes elicited by changes in baroreceptor activity play an important role. Recent studies on human...

  6. Associative learning and the control of human dietary behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2007-07-01

    Most of our food likes and disliked are learned. Relevant forms of associative learning have been identified in animals. However, observations of the same associative processes are relatively scarce in humans. The first section of this paper outlines reasons why this might be the case. Emphasis is placed on recent research exploring individual differences and the importance or otherwise of hunger and contingency awareness. The second section briefly considers the effect of learning on meal size, and the author revisits the question of how learned associations might come to influence energy intake in humans.

  7. Activated macrophages control human adipocyte mitochondrial bioenergetics via secreted factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuper, Michaela; Sachs, Stephan; Walheim, Ellen; Berti, Lucia; Raedle, Bernhard; Tews, Daniel; Fischer-Posovszky, Pamela; Wabitsch, Martin; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Tschöp, Matthias H; Jastroch, Martin; Staiger, Harald; Hofmann, Susanna M

    2017-10-01

    Obesity-associated WAT inflammation is characterized by the accumulation and local activation of macrophages (MΦs), and recent data from mouse studies suggest that macrophages are modifiers of adipocyte energy metabolism and mitochondrial function. As mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome in humans, herein we aimed to delineate how human macrophages may affect energy metabolism of white adipocytes. Human adipose tissue gene expression analysis for markers of macrophage activation and tissue inflammation (CD11c, CD40, CD163, CD206, CD80, MCP1, TNFα) in relationship to mitochondrial complex I (NDUFB8) and complex III (UQCRC2) was performed on subcutaneous WAT of 24 women (BMI 20-61 kg/m 2 ). Guided by these results, the impact of secreted factors of LPS/IFNγ- and IL10/TGFβ-activated human macrophages (THP1, primary blood-derived) on mitochondrial function in human subcutaneous white adipocytes (SGBS, primary) was determined by extracellular flux analysis (Seahorse technology) and gene/protein expression. Stepwise regression analysis of human WAT gene expression data revealed that a linear combination of CD40 and CD163 was the strongest predictor for mitochondrial complex I (NDUFB8) and complex III (UQCRC2) levels, independent of BMI. IL10/TGFβ-activated MΦs displayed high CD163 and low CD40 expression and secreted factors that decreased UQCRC2 gene/protein expression and ATP-linked respiration in human white adipocytes. In contrast, LPS/IFNγ-activated MΦs showed high CD40 and low CD163 expression and secreted factors that enhanced adipocyte mitochondrial activity resulting in a total difference of 37% in ATP-linked respiration of white adipocytes (p = 0.0024) when comparing the effect of LPS/IFNγ- vs IL10/TGFβ-activated MΦs. Our data demonstrate that macrophages modulate human adipocyte energy metabolism via an activation-dependent paracrine mechanism. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier

  8. Sensory feedback in artificial control of human mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, Petrus H.

    1999-01-01

    Artificial motor control systems may reduce the handicap of motor impaired individuals. Sensors are essential components in feedback control of these systems and in the information exchange with the user. The objective of this paper is to give an overview of the applications of sensors in the

  9. 78 FR 38983 - World Trade Center Health Program Scientific/Technical Advisory Committee (WTCHP-STAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention World Trade Center Health Program Scientific... Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC) and the name of the Committee should read World Trade Center Health Program Scientific/Technical Advisory...

  10. Controlling simulations of human-artifact interaction with scenario bundles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegte, W.F.; Rusák, Z.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a methodology for modeling and simulating fully virtual human-artifact systems, aiming to resolve two issues in virtual prototyping: (i) integration of distinct modeling and simulation approaches, and (ii) extending the deployability of simulations towards conceptual design. We are

  11. Relating Eye Activity Measures to Human Controller Remnant Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popovici, A; Zaal, P.M.T.; Pool, D.M.; Mulder, M.; Sawaragi, T

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to partially explain the characteristics of the human perceptual remnant, following Levison’s representation of the remnant as an equivalent observation noise. Eye activity parameters are recorded using an eye tracker in two compensatory tracking tasks in which the visual

  12. Control of the risk of human toxoplasmosis transmitted by meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Jongert, E.

    2008-01-01

    One-third of the human world population is infected with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Recent calculations of the disease burden of toxoplasmosis rank this foodborne disease at the same level as salmonellosis or campylobacteriosis. The high disease burden in combination with

  13. Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination for Control of Cervical Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Pub Med search was done; key words included Human papilloma virus, HPV vaccine and sub-Saharan Africa. Other resources included locally-published articles and additional internet resources. The potential benefit of mass HPV vaccination appears enormous. However, the challenges of competing health demands, ...

  14. Campylobacter: animal reservoirs, human infections, and options for control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, Jaap; Newell, D.G.; Kalupahana, R.S.; Mughini Gras, Lapo

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is a frequently diagnosed disease in humans. Most infections are considered food-borne and are caused by Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli. The animal reservoirs of these Campylobacter, and the sources and routes of transmission, are described and discussed. Most warm-blooded

  15. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2013-01-01

    For the reporting period, the CMS common systems and infrastructure worked well, without failures that caused significant data losses. One more disconnection of the magnet cold box occurred in the shadow of interruptions in data taking, caused by a series of technical faults. The recognition during 2012 that re-connection can only safely be done at around 2 T implies a minimum magnet recovery time of 12 hours and raises serious concerns about the number of ramping cycles of the magnet these incidents cause. This has triggered studies of how to make the cryo-system of the magnet more robust against failures. The proton-proton run ended just before the end-of-year CERN closure, during which CASTOR was installed on the negative end of CMS and both ZDC calorimeters were installed in TAN absorbers the LHC tunnel, in preparation for the heavy-ion run. The installation of CASTOR was an excellent “engineering test” of procedures for working in an activated environment. Despite some technical pr...

  16. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2011-01-01

      Operational experience 2011 CMS is approaching the end of a very successful year of operation. Proton- proton running ended in the late afternoon of 30th October with a stunning 5.73 fb–1 delivered by LHC, of which CMS recorded 5.22 fb–1. During heavy-ion operation, which continues until 7th December, both the accelerator and the CMS detector have also performed very well. Despite the encouraging overall reliability of technical operation, several infrastructure failures which occurred since the last Bulletin are worthy of mention, with one leading for the first time to significant data-loss. On 10th July, a CERN-wide power failure brought down essentially all services including the magnet, due to an MCS setting being left in “manual” after the recent technical stop, but there was no significant damage and the detector was operational before the LHC, despite a slow and tortuous recovery (one of several indications this year that there is room for improve...

  17. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Austin Ball

    Summary of progress since last CMS week. Ten years of construction work have been completed. CMS is closed, in very close to the ideal low luminosity configuration, and performed well in the first tests with LHC beam. Behind this encouraging news is the story of a summer of intense commitment by many teams (from the collaboration and 3 CERN departments) working together, against the clock and despite many minor setbacks, to ensure that the experiment was ready to play a leading role in the excitement of September 10. Following beampipe bakeout and refill with pure neon, a magnificent effort by the ECAL group and the pt 5 technical crew made it possible to install and commission all 4 ECAL endcap Dees before the end of August. In the shadow of this activity, the barrel and forward pixel trackers and part of the beam monitoring were installed within the vac tank. The pt 5 technical teams then succeeded in safely removing the 20t installation tables and their support blocks from beneath the already installed ...

  18. Technical Note: Controlled experimental aquarium system for multi-stressor investigation of carbonate chemistry, oxygen saturation, and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Bockmon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As the field of ocean acidification has grown, researchers have increasingly turned to laboratory experiments to understand the impacts of increased CO2 on marine organisms. However, other changes such as ocean warming and deoxygenation are occurring concurrently with the increasing CO2 concentrations, complicating the understanding of the impacts of anthropogenic changes on organisms. This experimental aquarium design allows for independent regulation of CO2 concentration, O2 levels, and temperature in a controlled environment to study the impacts of multiple stressors. The system has the flexibility for a wide range of treatment chemistry, seawater volumes, and study organisms. Control of the seawater chemistry is achieved by equilibration of a chosen gas mixture with seawater using a Liqui-Cel® membrane contactor. Included as examples, two experiments performed using the system have shown control of CO2 at values between approximately 500 and 1400 μatm and O2 at values from 80 to 240 μmol kg−1. Temperature has been maintained to 0.5 °C or better in the range of 10–17 °C. On a weeklong timescale, the system has achieved variability in pH of less than 0.007 pH units and in oxygen concentration of less than 3.5 μmol kg−1. Longer experiments, over a month in duration, have been completed with control to better than 0.08 pH units and 13 μmol kg−1 O2. The ability to study the impacts of multiple stressors in the laboratory simultaneously, as well as independently, will be an important part of understanding the response of marine organisms to a high-CO2 world.

  19. Technical Note: Controlled experimental aquarium system for multi-stressor investigation of carbonate chemistry, oxygen saturation, and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockmon, E. E.; Frieder, C. A.; Navarro, M. O.; White-Kershek, L. A.; Dickson, A. G.

    2013-09-01

    As the field of ocean acidification has grown, researchers have increasingly turned to laboratory experiments to understand the impacts of increased CO2 on marine organisms. However, other changes such as ocean warming and deoxygenation are occurring concurrently with the increasing CO2 concentrations, complicating the understanding of the impacts of anthropogenic changes on organisms. This experimental aquarium design allows for independent regulation of CO2 concentration, O2 levels, and temperature in a controlled environment to study the impacts of multiple stressors. The system has the flexibility for a wide range of treatment chemistry, seawater volumes, and study organisms. Control of the seawater chemistry is achieved by equilibration of a chosen gas mixture with seawater using a Liqui-Cel® membrane contactor. Included as examples, two experiments performed using the system have shown control of CO2 at values between approximately 500 and 1400 μatm and O2 at values from 80 to 240 μmol kg-1. Temperature has been maintained to 0.5 °C or better in the range of 10-17 °C. On a weeklong timescale, the system has achieved variability in pH of less than 0.007 pH units and in oxygen concentration of less than 3.5 μmol kg-1. Longer experiments, over a month in duration, have been completed with control to better than 0.08 pH units and 13 μmol kg-1 O2. The ability to study the impacts of multiple stressors in the laboratory simultaneously, as well as independently, will be an important part of understanding the response of marine organisms to a high-CO2 world.

  20. Design and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of mucoadhesive microcapsules of glipizide for oral controlled release: A technical note

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdary, K. P. R.; Rao, Y. Srinivasa

    2003-01-01

    Thus, large spherical microcapsules with a coat consisting of alginate and a mucoadhesive polymer (sodium CMC, methylcellulose, Carbopol, or HPMC) could be prepared by an orifice-ionic gelation process. The microcapsules exhibited good mucoadhesive properties in an in vitro test. Glipizide release from these mucoadhesive microcapsules was slow and extended over longer periods of time and depended on composition of the coat. Drug release was diffusion controlled and followed zero-order kinetic...

  1. ARRA FEMP Technical Assistance -- Federal Aviation Administration Project 209 -- Control Tower and Support Building, Palm Springs, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-03-31

    This report represents findings of a design review team that evaluated construction documents (at the 100% level) and operating specifications for a new control tower and support building that will be built in Palm Springs, California by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The focus of the review was to identify measures that could be incorporated into the final design and operating specifications that would result in additional energy savings for the FAA that would not have otherwise occurred.

  2. Human factors dimensions in the evolution of increasingly automated control rooms for near-earth satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center is responsible for the control and ground support for all of NASA's unmanned near-earth satellites. Traditionally, each satellite had its own dedicated mission operations room. In the mid-seventies, an integration of some of these dedicated facilities was begun with the primary objective to reduce costs. In this connection, the Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC) was designed. MSOCC represents currently a labor intensive operation. Recently, Goddard has become increasingly aware of human factors and human-machine interface issues. A summary is provided of some of the attempts to apply human factors considerations in the design of command and control environments. Current and future activities with respect to human factors and systems design are discussed, giving attention to the allocation of tasks between human and computer, and the interface for the human-computer dialogue.

  3. Feedback-controlled stimulation enhances human paralyzed muscle performance

    OpenAIRE

    Shields, Richard K.; Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna; Cole, Keith R.

    2006-01-01

    Chronically paralyzed muscle requires extensive training before it can deliver a therapeutic dose of repetitive stress to the musculoskeletal system. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation, under feedback control, may subvert the effects of fatigue, yielding more rapid and extensive adaptations to training. The purposes of this investigation were to 1) compare the effectiveness of torque feedback-controlled (FDBCK) electrical stimulation with classic open-loop constant-frequency (CONST) stimula...

  4. Technical Study on Improvement of Endurance Capability of Limit Short-circuit Current of Charge Control SMART Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W. W.; Du, Z. Z.; Yuan, R. m.; Xiong, D. Z.; Shi, E. W.; Lu, G. N.; Dai, Z. Y.; Chen, X. Q.; Jiang, Z. Y.; Lv, Y. G.

    2017-10-01

    Smart meter represents the development direction of energy-saving smart grid in the future. The load switch, one of the core parts of smart meter, should be of high reliability, safety and endurance capability of limit short-circuit current. For this reason, this paper discusses the quick simulation of relationship between attraction and counterforce of load switch without iteration, establishes dual response surface model of attraction and counterforce and optimizes the design scheme of load switch for charge control smart meter, thus increasing electromagnetic attraction and spring counterforce. In this way, this paper puts forward a method to improve the withstand capacity of limit short-circuit current.

  5. Integrating autonomous distributed control into a human-centric C4ISR environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2017-05-01

    This paper considers incorporating autonomy into human-centric Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) environments. Specifically, it focuses on identifying ways that current autonomy technologies can augment human control and the challenges presented by additive autonomy. Three approaches to this challenge are considered, stemming from prior work in two converging areas. In the first, the problem is approached as augmenting what humans currently do with automation. In the alternate approach, the problem is approached as treating humans as actors within a cyber-physical system-of-systems (stemming from robotic distributed computing). A third approach, combines elements of both of the aforementioned.

  6. New techniques for the analysis of manual control systems. [mathematical models of human operator behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekey, G. A.

    1971-01-01

    Studies are summarized on the application of advanced analytical and computational methods to the development of mathematical models of human controllers in multiaxis manual control systems. Specific accomplishments include the following: (1) The development of analytical and computer methods for the measurement of random parameters in linear models of human operators. (2) Discrete models of human operator behavior in a multiple display situation were developed. (3) Sensitivity techniques were developed which make possible the identification of unknown sampling intervals in linear systems. (4) The adaptive behavior of human operators following particular classes of vehicle failures was studied and a model structure proposed.

  7. An Integrated Gait and Balance Analysis System to Define Human Locomotor Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-29

    by the person with transfemoral amputation to prevent a stumble while using microprocessor controlled knee joints with different types of stumble... prosthesis , etc.). In addition, research in control of locomotion (walking, running, or cycling, etc.) is particularly challenging because this control...projects involving Human-machine interaction (for example, powered exo-skeletons, prosthesis , etc.) Specific Aim: Acquire and install a GRAIL from

  8. Technical presentation

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department

    2009-01-01

    07 April 2009 Technical presentation by Leuze Electronics: 14.00 – 15.00, Main Building, Room 61-1-017 (Room A) Photoelectric sensors, data identification and transmission systems, image processing systems. We at Leuze Electronics are "the sensor people": we have been specialising in optoelectronic sensors and safety technology for accident prevention for over 40 years. Our dedicated staff are all highly customer oriented. Customers of Leuze Electronics can always rely on one thing – on us! •\tFounded in 1963 •\t740 employees •\t115 MEUR turnover •\t20 subsidiaries •\t3 production facilities in southern Germany Product groups: •\tPhotoelectric sensors •\tIdentification and measurements •\tSafety devices

  9. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2010-01-01

    Overview Once again, the bulk of this article reviews the intense activity of a recently completed shutdown, which, although quite unforeseeable until a few weeks before it started, proved by its success that our often advertised capability to conduct major maintenance within a two month period is real. Although safely completed, on-time to remarkable precision, the activity was not without incident, and highlighted our dependence on many experienced, specialist teams and their precise choreography. Even after the yoke was safely closed, magnet re-commissioning and beampipe pumpdown showed new and thought-provoking behaviour. The struggle to maintain adequate technical resources will be a pre-occupation over the coming months, in parallel with the start of truly sustained operation, for which various procedures are still being put in place. Planning for future shutdowns must now become a high priority, with many working groups and task forces already in existence to prepare infrastructure improvements and to...

  10. Technical presentation

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    RADIOSPARES, the leading catalogue distributor of components (electronic, electrical, automation, etc.) and industrial supplies will be at CERN on Friday 3 October 2008 (Main Building, Room B, from 9.00 a.m. to 3.00 p.m.) to introduce its new 2008/2009 catalogue. This will be the opportunity for us to present our complete range of products in more detail: 400 000 part numbers available on our web site (Radiospares France, RS International, extended range of components from other manufacturers); our new services: quotations, search for products not included in the catalogue, SBP products (Small Batch Production: packaging in quantities adapted to customers’ requirements); partnership with our focus manufacturers; demonstration of the on-line purchasing tool implemented on our web site in conjunction with CERN. RADIOSPARES will be accompanied by representatives of FLUKE and TYCO ELECTRONICS, who will make presentations, demonstrate materials and answer any technical questio...

  11. Technical presentation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    10 March 2010 DYNEOS 10:00 – 12:00 - Main Building, Room B, 61-1-009 Dyneos AG is active in the fields of photonics, laser and high-precision positioning. Our highly qualified engineer team has more than 30 years of experience in electro-optical solutions sales. The engineers are supported by a technical and administrative team. We are focused on the Swiss market and represent six suppliers (Coherent, PI Physik Instrumente, SIOS, Nanonics Imaging, APE, Ekspla) in order to give a qualified sales and service support to our customers. Our products are dedicated to the research field as well as to industry. In addition to standard catalog products, we offer custom designs to fulfill the specific needs of OEM customers or specific applications.

  12. Treatment of children with protein - losing enteropathy after fontan and other complex congenital heart disease procedures in condition with limited human and technical resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejiqi, Ramush; Retkoceri, Ragip; Zeka, Naim; Bejiqi, Hana; Vuqiterna, Armend; Maloku, Arlinda

    2014-02-01

    Protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) is a disorder characterized by abnormal and often profound enteric protein loss. It's relatively uncommon complication of Fontan and other complex congenital heart disease (CCHD) procedures. Because of the complexity and rarity of this disease process, the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of protein-losing enteropathy remain poorly understood, and attempts at treatment seldom yield long-term success. is to describe single centre experience in diagnosis, evaluation, management and treatment of children with protein-losing enteropathy after Fontan and other CCHD procedures in the current era and in centre with limited human and technical resources, follows with a comprehensive review of protein-losing enteropathy publications, and concludes with suggestions for prevention and treatment. Retrospectively we analyzed patients with CCHD and protein-losing enteropathy in our institution, starting from January 2000 to December 2012. The including criteria were age between two and 17 years, to have a complex congenital heart disease and available complete documentation of cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass. Of all patients we evaluated 18 cases with protein-losing enteropathy, aged 6 to 19 years (mean 14±9); there were three children who had undergone screening procedure for D-transposition, one Tetralogy of Fallot, and remaining 14 patients had undergone Fontan procedures; (anatomic diagnosis are: six with tricuspid atresia, seven with d-transposition, double outlet right ventricle and pulmonary atresia and two with hypoplastic left heart syndrome). The diagnosis of protein-losing enteropathy was made at median age of 5.6 years, ranging from 13 months to 15 years. Diagnosis was made using alpha 1-antitrypsin as a gold marker in stool. By physical examination in 14 patients edema was found, in three ascites, and six patients had pleural effusion. Laboratory findings at the time of diagnosis are: abnormal enteric protein loss was

  13. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch Tuesday 3 February 2004 From 09:00 to 13:30 - Training Centre Auditorium - bldg. 593, room 11 USB (Universal Serial Bus) CYPRESS Seminar Claudia Colombini, Field Application Engineer CYPRESS ActiveComp Electronic GmbH D-85077 MANCHING, Germany As a pioneer in USB, CYPRESS sets the standard for cost-effective solutions without sacrificing functionality, performance or reliability. Having shipped over 200 million USB devices, Cypress is the undisputed market leader and demonstrates unmatched USB expertise. With the industry's broadest selection of USB solutions, Cypress has the right silicon, software and support for every USB application, from Low-speed to High-Speed and USB On-The-Go (OTG). 9:00 - 10:30 Overview of USB systems. USB CYPRESS product overview. Peripherals: Low Speed, Full Speed, High Speed (1.1 and 2.0). Hub Solutions, Embedded Host Solutions, On-The-Go (OTG) and wireless USB. USB Development Tools (first part) 10:30 -...

  14. Correlacional study among locus of control and human values

    OpenAIRE

    Saulo Santos Menezes Almeida

    2008-01-01

    O presente estudo teve como objetivo central analisar as relações entre locus de controle e valores. Participaram 355 universitários de Sergipe, a maioria do sexo feminino (62,8%) e solteiros (80%), com média de idade de 25,68 anos (amplitude de 17 a 56 anos). Os estudantes responderam à escala de locus de controle de Reyes e a escala de valores de Schwartz. Os resultados indicaram ser os instrumentos aptos a mensurar o proposto pelo objetivo, apresentando índices psicométricos satisfatórios....

  15. Efficiency analysis of voluntary control of human's EEG spectral characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiroy, Valery N; Aslanyan, Elena V; Lazurenko, Dmitry M; Minyaeva, Nadezhda R; Bakhtin, Oleg M

    2016-03-01

    Spectral power (SP) of EEG alpha and beta-2 frequencies in different cortical areas has been used for neurofeedback training to control a graphic interface in different scenarios. The results show that frequency range and brain cortical areas are associated with high or low efficiency of voluntary control. Overall, EEG phenomena observed in the course of training are largely general changes involving extensive brain areas and frequency bands. Finally, we have demonstrated EEG patterns that dynamically switch with a specific feature in different tasks within one training, after a relatively short period of training.

  16. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Control Technology Center: Report to the Steering Committee, March 1996. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued this month with the Carbon Injection System for the Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) test block. With this testing, the mercury measurement (Method 29) studies also continued with various impinger capture solutions. Also, the installation of the B&W/CHX Heat Exchanger unit was completed in March. The 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber System (Carbon Injection System) and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD Unit and were utilized in the HAP test configuration this month. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit remained idle this month in a cold- standby mode. Monthly inspections were conducted for all equipment in cold-standby, as well as for the fire safety systems, and will continue to be conducted by the ECTC Operations and Maintenance staff.

  17. Verification and validation of human factors issues in control room design and upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, M.; Collier, S. [Inst. for Energiteknikk, Halden (Norway). OECD Halden Reactor Project

    1999-12-01

    Systems, facilities and equipment are periodically updated during a power plant's lifetime. This has human factors implications, especially if the central control room is involved. Human factors work may therefore be required. There is an extensive literature on human factors itself, but not so much on how it is verified and validated. Therefore, HRP and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate commissioned a study. The objective was to review the literature and establish a knowledge base on verification and validation (V and V) of human factors issues. The report first discusses verification and validation as applied to human factors work. It describes a design process and the typical human factors topics involved. It then presents a generic method for V and V of human factors. This is built on a review of standards, guidelines and other references given in an annotated bibliography. The method is illustrated by application to some human factors topics.

  18. A PET study on brain control of micturition in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, BFM; Willemsen, ATM; Holstege, G

    Although the brain plays a crucial role in the control of micturition, little is known about the structures involved. Identification of these areas is important because their dysfunction is thought to cause urge incontinence, a major problem in the elderly. In the cat, three areas in the brainstem

  19. The prevalence, pathogenesis and control of canine and human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dog faecal contamination of soils was observed to be higher in the same unfenced playgrounds than in the fenced. While all playgrounds are recommended for fencing, veterinarians are also challenged to intensify control efforts on dogs by using larvicidal anthelminthics to reduce environmental contamination. Children ...

  20. Homeostasis lighting control based on relationship between lighting environment and human behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Risa; Mita, Akira

    2015-03-01

    Although each person has own preferences, living spaces which can respond to various preferences and needs have not become reality. Focusing on the lighting environments which influence on the impression of living spaces, this research aims to offer comfortable lighting environments for each resident by a flexible control. This research examines the relationship between lighting environments and human behaviors considering colored lights. In accord with the relationship, this research proposes an illuminance-color control system which flexibly changes spatial environments responding to human conditions. Firstly, the psychological evaluation was conducted in order to build human models for various environments. As a result, preferred lighting environments for each examinee were determined for particular behaviors. Moreover, satisfaction levels of lighting environments were calculated by using seven types of impression of the environments as parameters. The results were summarized as human models. Secondly, this research proposed "Homeostasis Lighting Control System", which employs the human models. Homeostasis lighting control system embodies the algorithm of homeostasis, which is one of the functions of the physiological adaptation. Human discomfort feelings are obtained automatically by the sensor agent robot. The system can offer comfortable lighting environments without controlling environments by residents autonomously based on the information from the robot. This research takes into accounts both illuminance and color. The robot communicates with the server which contains human models, then the system corresponds to individuals. Combining these three systems, the proposed system can effectively control the lighting environment. At last, the feasibility of the proposed system was verified by simulation experiments.

  1. A Formal Investigation of Human Spatial Control Skills: Mathematical Formalization, Skill Development, and Skill Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin

    Spatial control behaviors account for a large proportion of human everyday activities from normal daily tasks, such as reaching for objects, to specialized tasks, such as driving, surgery, or operating equipment. These behaviors involve intensive interactions within internal processes (i.e. cognitive, perceptual, and motor control) and with the physical world. This dissertation builds on a concept of interaction pattern and a hierarchical functional model. Interaction pattern represents a type of behavior synergy that humans coordinates cognitive, perceptual, and motor control processes. It contributes to the construction of the hierarchical functional model that delineates humans spatial control behaviors as the coordination of three functional subsystems: planning, guidance, and tracking/pursuit. This dissertation formalizes and validates these two theories and extends them for the investigation of human spatial control skills encompassing development and assessment. Specifically, this dissertation first presents an overview of studies in human spatial control skills encompassing definition, characteristic, development, and assessment, to provide theoretical evidence for the concept of interaction pattern and the hierarchical functional model. The following, the human experiments for collecting motion and gaze data and techniques to register and classify gaze data, are described. This dissertation then elaborates and mathematically formalizes the hierarchical functional model and the concept of interaction pattern. These theories then enables the construction of a succinct simulation model that can reproduce a variety of human performance with a minimal set of hypotheses. This validates the hierarchical functional model as a normative framework for interpreting human spatial control behaviors. The dissertation then investigates human skill development and captures the emergence of interaction pattern. The final part of the dissertation applies the hierarchical

  2. Does a combined technical and didactical training program improve the acceptance of student tutors in the dissection course? A prospective controlled randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozawa, Thomas; Hirt, Bernhard; Celebi, Nora; Werner, Anne; Weyrich, Peter; Lammerding-Koeppel, Maria

    2010-12-20

    student tutors in the dissection course are expected to meet high demands on their job. We developed a combined technical and didactical training on the basis of literature review and needs assessment. The three-week training program comprised dissection as well as presentation techniques, group dynamics and activating teaching methods. A randomized, controlled, single-blind study was set up to test whether there is a difference between the tutee's perception of the tutor competences, comparing trained and untrained tutors. a total of 10 trained and 10 untrained tutors (control group) were enlisted in the study. The acceptance of the training program was measured with a questionnaire (11 items, 5-point Likert scale) where the tutees rated the competences of the tutors. The tutees were assigned randomly to their tutor and blinded to his/her training. the tutees assessed the trained tutors better in all categories compared to the untrained tutors. A significantly better score (pcompetencies, is well accepted by the tutees and tutors. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Physics-based analysis and control of human snoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Yaselly; Wang, Junshi; Han, Pan; Xi, Jinxiang; Dong, Haibo

    2017-11-01

    In order to advance the understanding of biological fluid dynamics and its effects on the acoustics of human snoring, the study pursued a physics-based computational approach. From human magnetic resonance image (MRI) scans, the researchers were able to develop both anatomically and dynamically accurate airway-uvula models. With airways defined as rigid, and the uvula defined as flexible, computational models were created with various pharynx thickness and geometries. In order to determine vortex shedding with prescribed uvula movement, the uvula fluctuation was categorized by its specific parameters: magnitude, frequency, and phase lag. Uvula vibration modes were based on one oscillation, or one harmonic frequency, and pressure probes were located in seven different positions throughout the airway-uvula model. By taking fast Fourier transforms (FFT) from the pressure probe data, it was seen that four harmonics were created throughout the simulation within one oscillation of uvula movement. Of the four harmonics, there were two pressure probes which maintained high amplitudes and led the researcher to believe that different vortices formed with different snoring frequencies. This work is supported by the NSF Grant CBET-1605434.

  4. Intermittent Feedback-Control Strategy for Stabilizing Inverted Pendulum on Manually Controlled Cart as Analogy to Human Stick Balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Naoya; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Kiyono, Ken; Nomura, Taishin

    2016-01-01

    The stabilization of an inverted pendulum on a manually controlled cart (cart-inverted-pendulum; CIP) in an upright position, which is analogous to balancing a stick on a fingertip, is considered in order to investigate how the human central nervous system (CNS) stabilizes unstable dynamics due to mechanical instability and time delays in neural feedback control. We explore the possibility that a type of intermittent time-delayed feedback control, which has been proposed for human postural control during quiet standing, is also a promising strategy for the CIP task and stick balancing on a fingertip. Such a strategy hypothesizes that the CNS exploits transient contracting dynamics along a stable manifold of a saddle-type unstable upright equilibrium of the inverted pendulum in the absence of control by inactivating neural feedback control intermittently for compensating delay-induced instability. To this end, the motions of a CIP stabilized by human subjects were experimentally acquired, and computational models of the system were employed to characterize the experimental behaviors. We first confirmed fat-tailed non-Gaussian temporal fluctuation in the acceleration distribution of the pendulum, as well as the power-law distributions of corrective cart movements for skilled subjects, which was previously reported for stick balancing. We then showed that the experimental behaviors could be better described by the models with an intermittent delayed feedback controller than by those with the conventional continuous delayed feedback controller, suggesting that the human CNS stabilizes the upright posture of the pendulum by utilizing the intermittent delayed feedback-control strategy.

  5. On the evidence for human use and control of fire at Schöningen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlschmidt, Mareike C; Miller, Christopher E; Ligouis, Bertrand; Hambach, Ulrich; Goldberg, Paul; Berna, Francesco; Richter, Daniel; Urban, Brigitte; Serangeli, Jordi; Conard, Nicholas J

    2015-12-01

    When and how humans began to control fire has been a central debate in Paleolithic archaeology for decades. Fire plays an important role in technology, social organization, subsistence, and manipulation of the environment and is widely seen as a necessary adaptation for the colonization of northern latitudes. Many researchers view purported hearths, burnt wooden implements, and heated flints from Schöningen as providing the best evidence for the control of fire in the Lower Paleolithic of Northern Europe. Here we present results of a multianalytical study of the purported hearths along with a critical examination of other possible evidence of human use or control of fire at Schöningen. We conclude that the analyzed features and artifacts present no convincing evidence for human use or control of fire. Our study also shows that a multianalytical, micro-contextual approach is the best methodology for evaluating claims of early evidence of human-controlled fire. We advise caution with macroscopic, qualitative identification of combustion features, burnt flint, and burnt wood without the application of such techniques as micromorphology, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, organic petrology, luminescence, and analysis of mineral magnetic parameters. The lack of evidence for the human control of fire at Schöningen raises the possibility that fire control was not a necessary adaptation for the human settlement of northern latitudes in the Lower Paleolithic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Control Technology Center report to the Steering Committee. Final technical monthly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued this month with the Trace Element Removal test block (TER) as the Pilot was operated under forced oxidation conditions. With this testing, the mercury measurement (Method 29) studies also continued as investigations into various activated carbons, metal amalgams, and impinger capture solutions were conducted. Following these studies, a brief test of the Pilot High Velocity FGD configuration (PHV) was conducted. This test block will be continued at the end of the month after the Fall outage is completed. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode. During this month`s outage, the inlet and outlet damper plates were sealed to isolate the SCR system from flue gas. Also, the internals of the heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHE) and catalyst reactor tower were inspected and cleaned so that the system could be available for future test activities. Monthly inspections of all SCR system equipment placed in this cold-standby mode, as well as the fire safety systems in the SCR building, will continue to be conducted by the ECTC maintenance department and will include manual rotation of the booster fan.

  7. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Control Technology Center. Report to the Steering Committee, November 1995. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued this month with the Pilot High Velocity (PHV) and the Trace Element Removal (TER) test blocks. In the High Velocity test block, SO{sub 2} removal and mist eliminator carryover rates were investigated while operating the absorber unit with various spray nozzle types and vertical mist eliminator sections. During the Trace Element Removal test block, the mercury measurement studies involving the EPA Draft Method 29 continued with testing of several impinger solutions. The 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber system was utilized in the TER test configuration this month while the 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit and the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot Absorber unit remained in a state of cold-standby. A monthly inspection was conducted for all equipment in cold-standby, as well as for the fire safety systems in the SCR building. These inspections will continue to be conducted by the ECTC Operations and Maintenance staff each month.

  8. Novel Trajectory Control for Human Cooperation Robot Based on Behavior Mode Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Kazuki; Tadakuma, Susumu

    This paper describes a novel trajectory control system for human cooperation robots based on behavior mode switching. Human cooperation robots have the great possibility to serve as useful support systems for elderly people and physically handicapped people and it is expected to realize the smooth and human-friendly support movements. This study defines three behavior modes in human cooperation motion and their respective trajectory control system are designed. In the trajectory design, minimum jerk model is introduced to realize the smooth and human-friendly cooperation movements. In addition, the initial value compensation at the mode switching is also developed. Some experiments on two-axis plane robot and performance evaluation by trial subjects show the effectiveness of the proposed trajectory control system.

  9. A mathematical model for incorporating biofeedback into human postural control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersal Tulga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biofeedback of body motion can serve as a balance aid and rehabilitation tool. To date, mathematical models considering the integration of biofeedback into postural control have represented this integration as a sensory addition and limited their application to a single degree-of-freedom representation of the body. This study has two objectives: 1 to develop a scalable method for incorporating biofeedback into postural control that is independent of the model’s degrees of freedom, how it handles sensory integration, and the modeling of its postural controller; and 2 to validate this new model using multidirectional perturbation experimental results. Methods Biofeedback was modeled as an additional torque to the postural controller torque. For validation, this biofeedback modeling approach was applied to a vibrotactile biofeedback device and incorporated into a two-link multibody model with full-state-feedback control that represents the dynamics of bipedal stance. Average response trajectories of body sway and center of pressure (COP to multidirectional surface perturbations of subjects with vestibular deficits were used for model parameterization and validation in multiple perturbation directions and for multiple display resolutions. The quality of fit was quantified using average error and cross-correlation values. Results The mean of the average errors across all tactor configurations and perturbations was 0.24° for body sway and 0.39 cm for COP. The mean of the cross-correlation value was 0.97 for both body sway and COP. Conclusions The biofeedback model developed in this study is capable of capturing experimental response trajectory shapes with low average errors and high cross-correlation values in both the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions for all perturbation directions and spatial resolution display configurations considered. The results validate that biofeedback can be modeled as an additional

  10. Human glioblastoma-associated microglia/monocytes express a distinct RNA profile compared to human control and murine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulzewsky, Frank; Arora, Sonali; de Witte, Lot; Ulas, Thomas; Markovic, Darko; Schultze, Joachim L; Holland, Eric C; Synowitz, Michael; Wolf, Susanne A; Kettenmann, Helmut

    2016-08-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive brain tumor in adults. It is strongly infiltrated by microglia and peripheral monocytes that support tumor growth. In the present study we used RNA sequencing to compare the expression profile of CD11b(+) human glioblastoma-associated microglia/monocytes (hGAMs) to CD11b(+) microglia isolated from non-tumor samples. Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis showed a clear separation of the two sample groups and we identified 334 significantly regulated genes in hGAMs. In comparison to human control microglia hGAMs upregulated genes associated with mitotic cell cycle, cell migration, cell adhesion, and extracellular matrix organization. We validated the expression of several genes associated with extracellular matrix organization in samples of human control microglia, hGAMs, and the hGAMs-depleted fraction via qPCR. The comparison to murine GAMs (mGAMs) showed that both cell populations share a significant fraction of upregulated transcripts compared with their respective controls. These genes were mostly related to mitotic cell cycle. However, in contrast to murine cells, human GAMs did not upregulate genes associated to immune activation. Comparison of human and murine GAMs expression data to several data sets of in vitro-activated human macrophages and murine microglia showed that, in contrast to mGAMs, hGAMs share a smaller overlap to these data sets in general and in particular to cells activated by proinflammatory stimulation with LPS + INFγ or TNFα. Our findings provide new insights into the biology of human glioblastoma-associated microglia/monocytes and give detailed information about the validity of murine experimental models. GLIA 2016 GLIA 2016;64:1416-1436. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Automated work packages architecture: An initial set of human factors and instrumentation and controls requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Oxstrand, Johanna H. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Le Blanc, Katya L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The work management process in current fleets of national nuclear power plants is so highly dependent on large technical staffs and quality of work instruction, i.e., paper-based, that this puts nuclear energy at somewhat of a long-term economic disadvantage and increase the possibility of human errors. Technologies like mobile portable devices and computer-based procedures can play a key role in improving the plant work management process, thereby increasing productivity and decreasing cost. Automated work packages are a fundamentally an enabling technology for improving worker productivity and human performance in nuclear power plants work activities because virtually every plant work activity is accomplished using some form of a work package. As part of this year’s research effort, automated work packages architecture is identified and an initial set of requirements identified, that are essential and necessary for implementation of automated work packages in nuclear power plants.

  12. Humans, 'things' and space: costing hospital infection control interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, K; Graves, N; Halton, K; Barnett, A G

    2013-07-01

    Previous attempts at costing infection control programmes have tended to focus on accounting costs rather than economic costs. For studies using economic costs, estimates tend to be quite crude and probably underestimate the true cost. One of the largest costs of any intervention is staff time, but this cost is difficult to quantify and has been largely ignored in previous attempts. To design and evaluate the costs of hospital-based infection control interventions or programmes. This article also discusses several issues to consider when costing interventions, and suggests strategies for overcoming these issues. Previous literature and techniques in both health economics and psychology are reviewed and synthesized. This article provides a set of generic, transferable costing guidelines. Key principles such as definition of study scope and focus on large costs, as well as pitfalls (e.g. overconfidence and uncertainty), are discussed. These new guidelines can be used by hospital staff and other researchers to cost their infection control programmes and interventions more accurately. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Human-Inspired Eigenmovement Concept Provides Coupling-Free Sensorimotor Control in Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mergner

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Control of a multi-body system in both robots and humans may face the problem of destabilizing dynamic coupling effects arising between linked body segments. The state of the art solutions in robotics are full state feedback controllers. For human hip-ankle coordination, a more parsimonious and theoretically stable alternative to the robotics solution has been suggested in terms of the Eigenmovement (EM control. Eigenmovements are kinematic synergies designed to describe the multi DoF system, and its control, with a set of independent, and hence coupling-free, scalar equations. This paper investigates whether the EM alternative shows “real-world robustness” against noisy and inaccurate sensors, mechanical non-linearities such as dead zones, and human-like feedback time delays when controlling hip-ankle movements of a balancing humanoid robot. The EM concept and the EM controller are introduced, the robot's dynamics are identified using a biomechanical approach, and robot tests are performed in a human posture control laboratory. The tests show that the EM controller provides stable control of the robot with proactive (“voluntary” movements and reactive balancing of stance during support surface tilts and translations. Although a preliminary robot-human comparison reveals similarities and differences, we conclude (i the Eigenmovement concept is a valid candidate when different concepts of human sensorimotor control are considered, and (ii that human-inspired robot experiments may help to decide in future the choice among the candidates and to improve the design of humanoid robots and robotic rehabilitation devices.

  14. An indirect sensing technique for diesel fuel quantity control. Technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCarley, C.A.

    1999-01-26

    Work has proceeded intensely with the objective of completing the commercial prototype system prior to the end of the contract period. At the time of this report, testing and refinement of the commercial version of the system has not been completed. During this reporting period, several major milestones were reached and many significant lessons were learned. These are described. The experimental retrofit system has achieved all performance objectives in engine dynamometer tests. The prototype commercial version of the system will begin demonstration service on the first of several Santa Maria Area Transit (SMAT) transit buses on February 1, 1999. The commercial system has been redesignated the Electronic Diesel Smoke Reduction System (EDSRS) replacing the original internal pseudonym ADSC. The focus has been narrowed to a retrofit product suitable for installation on existing mechanically-governed diesel engines. Included in this potential market are almost all diesel-powered passenger cars and light trucks manufactured prior to the introduction of the most recent clean diesel engines equipped with particulate traps and electronic controls. Also included are heavy-duty trucks, transit vehicles, school buses, and agricultural equipment. This system is intended to prevent existing diesel engines from overfueling to the point of visible particulate emissions (smoke), while allowing maximum smoke-limited torque under all operating conditions. The system employs a microcontroller and a specialized exhaust particulate emission sensor to regulate the maximum allowable fuel quantity via an adaptive throttle-limit map. This map specifies a maximum allowable throttle position as a function of engine speed, turbocharger boost pressure and engine coolant temperature. The throttle position limit is mechanized via a servo actuator inserted in the throttle cable leading to the injection pump.

  15. Dopaminergic control of cognitive flexibility in humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klanker, Marianne; Feenstra, Matthijs; Denys, Damiaan

    2013-11-05

    Striatal dopamine (DA) is thought to code for learned associations between cues and reinforcers and to mediate approach behavior toward a reward. Less is known about the contribution of DA to cognitive flexibility-the ability to adapt behavior in response to changes in the environment. Altered reward processing and impairments in cognitive flexibility are observed in psychiatric disorders such as obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Patients with this disorder show a disruption of functioning in the frontostriatal circuit and alterations in DA signaling. In this review we summarize findings from animal and human studies that have investigated the involvement of striatal DA in cognitive flexibility. These findings may provide a better understanding of the role of dopaminergic dysfunction in cognitive inflexibility in psychiatric disorders, such as OCD.

  16. Dopaminergic control of cognitive flexibility in humans and animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne eKlanker

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Striatal dopamine is thought to code for learned associations between cues and reinforcers and to mediate approach behavior towards a reward. Less is known about the contribution of dopamine to cognitive flexibility – the ability to adapt behavior in response to changes in the environment. Altered reward processing and impairments in cognitive flexibility are observed in psychiatric disorders such as obsessive compulsive disorder. Patients with this disorder show a disruption of functioning in the frontostriatal circuit and alterations in dopamine signaling. In this review we summarize findings from animal and human studies that have investigated the involvement of striatal dopamine in cognitive flexibility. These findings may provide a better understanding of the role of dopaminergic dysfunction in cognitive inflexibility in psychiatric disorders, such as OCD.

  17. The Effect Of Human Resource Investment In Internal Accounting Control On Cost Stickiness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soo-Joon Chae; Kiwi Chung

    2015-01-01

      This study examined the characteristics of internal accounting control system based on size of human resources assigned to the system to verify whether downward stickiness of total cost and selling...

  18. Review of Methods Related to Assessing Human Performance in Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katya L Le Blanc; Ronald L Boring; David I Gertman

    2001-11-01

    With the increased use of digital systems in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) control rooms comes a need to thoroughly understand the human performance issues associated with digital systems. A common way to evaluate human performance is to test operators and crews in NPP control room simulators. However, it is often challenging to characterize human performance in meaningful ways when measuring performance in NPP control room simulations. A review of the literature in NPP simulator studies reveals a variety of ways to measure human performance in NPP control room simulations including direct observation, automated computer logging, recordings from physiological equipment, self-report techniques, protocol analysis and structured debriefs, and application of model-based evaluation. These methods and the particular measures used are summarized and evaluated.

  19. Prevention of Leptospirosis Infected Vector and Human Population by Multiple Control Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Altaf Khan; Saeed Islam; Sher Afzal Khan; Ilyas Khan; Sharidan Shafie; Taza Gul

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an infectious disease that damages the liver and kidneys, found mainly in dogs and farm animals and caused by bacteria. In this paper, we present the optimal control problem applied to a dynamical leptospirosis infected vector and human population by using multiple control variables. First, we show the existence of the control problem and then use analytical and numerical techniques to investigate the existence cost effective control efforts for prevention of indirect and dir...

  20. Advanced control rooms and crew performance issues: Implications for human reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J.M.; Hall, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Recent trends in advanced control room (ACR) design are considered with respect to their impact on human performance. It is concluded that potentially negative influences exist, however, a variety of factors make it difficult to model, analyze, and quantify these effects for human reliability analyses (HRAs).

  1. Dissecting Daily and Circadian Expression Rhythms of Clock-Controlled Genes in Human Blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Lech (Karolina); K. Ackermann (Katrin); V.L. Revell (Victoria); O.S.C.A.R. Lao; D.J. Skene (Debra); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe identification and investigation of novel clock-controlled genes (CCGs) has been conducted thus far mainly in model organisms such as nocturnal rodents, with limited information in humans. Here, we aimed to characterize daily and circadian expression rhythms of CCGs in human

  2. The Power of Malaria Vaccine Trials Using Controlled Human Malaria Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffeng, L.E.; Hermsen, C.C.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Vlas, S.J. de

    2017-01-01

    Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) in healthy human volunteers is an important and powerful tool in clinical malaria vaccine development. However, power calculations are essential to obtain meaningful estimates of protective efficacy, while minimizing the risk of adverse events. To optimize

  3. The Power of Malaria Vaccine Trials Using Controlled Human Malaria Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.E. Coffeng (Luc); C.C. Hermsen (Cornelus); R.W. Sauerwein (Robert); S.J. de Vlas (Sake)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractControlled human malaria infection (CHMI) in healthy human volunteers is an important and powerful tool in clinical malaria vaccine development. However, power calculations are essential to obtain meaningful estimates of protective efficacy, while minimizing the risk of adverse events.

  4. Advanced control rooms and crew performance issues: Implications for human reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.M.; Hall, R.E.

    1991-12-31

    Recent trends in advanced control room (ACR) design are considered with respect to their impact on human performance. It is concluded that potentially negative influences exist, however, a variety of factors make it difficult to model, analyze, and quantify these effects for human reliability analyses (HRAs).

  5. A Model-based Framework for Risk Assessment in Human-Computer Controlled Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Iwao

    2000-01-01

    The rapid growth of computer technology and innovation has played a significant role in the rise of computer automation of human tasks in modem production systems across all industries. Although the rationale for automation has been to eliminate "human error" or to relieve humans from manual repetitive tasks, various computer-related hazards and accidents have emerged as a direct result of increased system complexity attributed to computer automation. The risk assessment techniques utilized for electromechanical systems are not suitable for today's software-intensive systems or complex human-computer controlled systems. This thesis will propose a new systemic model-based framework for analyzing risk in safety-critical systems where both computers and humans are controlling safety-critical functions. A new systems accident model will be developed based upon modem systems theory and human cognitive processes to better characterize system accidents, the role of human operators, and the influence of software in its direct control of significant system functions. Better risk assessments will then be achievable through the application of this new framework to complex human-computer controlled systems.

  6. Nonhomeostatic control of human appetite and physical activity in regulation of energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borer, Katarina T

    2010-07-01

    Ghrelin and leptin, putative controllers of human appetite, have no effect on human meal-to-meal appetite but respond to variations in energy availability. Nonhomeostatic characteristics of appetite and spontaneous activity stem from inhibition by leptin and ghrelin of brain reward circuit that is responsive to energy deficit, but refractory in obesity, and from the operation of a meal-timing circadian clock.

  7. Growth hormone secretion is diminished and tightly controlled in humans enriched for familial longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Spoel, Evie; Jansen, Steffy W; Akintola, Abimbola A

    2016-01-01

    Reduced growth hormone (GH) signaling has been consistently associated with increased health and lifespan in various mouse models. Here, we assessed GH secretion and its control in relation with human familial longevity. We frequently sampled blood over 24 h in 19 middle-aged offspring of long...... and more tight control. These data imply that the highly conserved GH signaling pathway, which has been linked to longevity in animal models, is also associated with human longevity....

  8. Robust control of dielectric elastomer diaphragm actuator for human pulse signal tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhihang; Chen, Zheng; Asmatulu, Ramazan; Chan, Hoyin

    2017-08-01

    Human pulse signal tracking is an emerging technology that is needed in traditional Chinese medicine. However, soft actuation with multi-frequency tracking capability is needed for tracking human pulse signal. Dielectric elastomer (DE) is one type of soft actuating that has great potential in human pulse signal tracking. In this paper, a DE diaphragm actuator was designed and fabricated to track human pulse pressure signal. A physics-based and control-oriented model has been developed to capture the dynamic behavior of DE diaphragm actuator. Using the physical model, an H-infinity robust control was designed for the actuator to reject high-frequency sensing noises and disturbances. The robust control was then implemented in real-time to track a multi-frequency signal, which verified the tracking capability and robustness of the control system. In the human pulse signal tracking test, a human pulse signal was measured at the City University of Hong Kong and then was tracked using DE actuator at Wichita State University in the US. Experimental results have verified that the DE actuator with its robust control is capable of tracking human pulse signal.

  9. Technical infrastructure monitoring at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Stowisek, Jan; Suwalska, Anna

    2006-01-01

    The Technical Infrastructure Monitoring system (TIM) is used to monitor and control CERN's technical services from the CERN Control Centre (CCC). The system's primary function is to provide CCC operators with reliable real-time information about the state of the laboratory's extensive and widely distributed technical infrastructure. TIM is also used to monitor all general services required for the operation of CERN's accelerator complex and the experiments. A flexible data acquisition mechanism allows TIM to interface with a wide range of technically diverse installations, using industry standard protocols wherever possible and custom designed solutions where needed. The complexity of the data processing logic, including persistence, logging, alarm handling, command execution and the evaluation of datadriven business rules is encapsulated in the system's business layer. Users benefit from a suite of advanced graphical applications adapted to operations (synoptic views, alarm consoles, data analysis tools etc....

  10. Neural control of computer cursor velocity by decoding motor cortical spiking activity in humans with tetraplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Phil; Simeral, John D.; Hochberg, Leigh R.; Donoghue, John P.; Black, Michael J.

    2008-12-01

    Computer-mediated connections between human motor cortical neurons and assistive devices promise to improve or restore lost function in people with paralysis. Recently, a pilot clinical study of an intracortical neural interface system demonstrated that a tetraplegic human was able to obtain continuous two-dimensional control of a computer cursor using neural activity recorded from his motor cortex. This control, however, was not sufficiently accurate for reliable use in many common computer control tasks. Here, we studied several central design choices for such a system including the kinematic representation for cursor movement, the decoding method that translates neuronal ensemble spiking activity into a control signal and the cursor control task used during training for optimizing the parameters of the decoding method. In two tetraplegic participants, we found that controlling a cursor's velocity resulted in more accurate closed-loop control than controlling its position directly and that cursor velocity control was achieved more rapidly than position control. Control quality was further improved over conventional linear filters by using a probabilistic method, the Kalman filter, to decode human motor cortical activity. Performance assessment based on standard metrics used for the evaluation of a wide range of pointing devices demonstrated significantly improved cursor control with velocity rather than position decoding. Disclosure. JPD is the Chief Scientific Officer and a director of Cyberkinetics Neurotechnology Systems (CYKN); he holds stock and receives compensation. JDS has been a consultant for CYKN. LRH receives clinical trial support from CYKN.

  11. Intelligent Systems Approach for Automated Identification of Individual Control Behavior of a Human Operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaychik, Kirill B.; Cardullo, Frank M.

    2012-01-01

    Results have been obtained using conventional techniques to model the generic human operator?s control behavior, however little research has been done to identify an individual based on control behavior. The hypothesis investigated is that different operators exhibit different control behavior when performing a given control task. Two enhancements to existing human operator models, which allow personalization of the modeled control behavior, are presented. One enhancement accounts for the testing control signals, which are introduced by an operator for more accurate control of the system and/or to adjust the control strategy. This uses the Artificial Neural Network which can be fine-tuned to model the testing control. Another enhancement takes the form of an equiripple filter which conditions the control system power spectrum. A novel automated parameter identification technique was developed to facilitate the identification process of the parameters of the selected models. This utilizes a Genetic Algorithm based optimization engine called the Bit-Climbing Algorithm. Enhancements were validated using experimental data obtained from three different sources: the Manual Control Laboratory software experiments, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle simulation, and NASA Langley Research Center Visual Motion Simulator studies. This manuscript also addresses applying human operator models to evaluate the effectiveness of motion feedback when simulating actual pilot control behavior in a flight simulator.

  12. Feedback-controlled stimulation enhances human paralyzed muscle performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Richard K; Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna; Cole, Keith R

    2006-11-01

    Chronically paralyzed muscle requires extensive training before it can deliver a therapeutic dose of repetitive stress to the musculoskeletal system. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation, under feedback control, may subvert the effects of fatigue, yielding more rapid and extensive adaptations to training. The purposes of this investigation were to 1) compare the effectiveness of torque feedback-controlled (FDBCK) electrical stimulation with classic open-loop constant-frequency (CONST) stimulation, and 2) ascertain which of three stimulation strategies best maintains soleus torque during repetitive stimulation. When torque declined by 10%, the FDBCK protocol modulated the base stimulation frequency in three ways: by a fixed increase, by a paired pulse (doublet) at the beginning of the stimulation train, and by a fixed decrease. The stimulation strategy that most effectively restored torque continued for successive contractions. This process repeated each time torque declined by 10%. In fresh muscle, FDBCK stimulation offered minimal advantage in maintaining peak torque or mean torque over CONST stimulation. As long-duration fatigue developed in subsequent bouts, FDBCK stimulation became most effective ( approximately 40% higher final normalized torque than CONST). The high-frequency strategy was selected approximately 90% of the time, supporting that excitation-contraction coupling compromise and not neuromuscular transmission failure contributed to fatigue of paralyzed muscle. Ideal stimulation strategies may vary according to the site of fatigue; this stimulation approach offered the advantage of online modulation of stimulation strategies in response to fatigue conditions. Based on stress-adaptation principles, FDBCK-controlled stimulation may enhance training effects in chronically paralyzed muscle.

  13. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Austin Ball

    2013-01-01

      Since the last report, much visible progress has been made, as the LS1 programme approaches the halfway point. From early October, technical and safety shift-crew have been present around the clock, allowing detectors to stay switched on overnight, ensuring that safety systems are operational and instructions for non-expert shift-crew are clear. LS1 progress Throughout the summer, whilst the solenoid vacuum tank and YB0 surfaces were accessible, an extensive installation programme took place to prepare for Tracker colder operation and the PLT installation, in 2014, the Phase 1 Pixel Tracker installation, in 2016–’17, and the HCAL Phase 1 upgrade completion, ending in LS2. This included pipework for N2 or dry air to flush the Tracker bulkhead region, many sensors to monitor temperature and dew point in the Tracker and its service channels, heating wires outside the Tracker cooling bundles, supports for the new vacuum-jacketed, concentric, CO2 Pixel cooling lines, the PLT cool...

  14. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2012-01-01

      UXC + detectors As explained in detail in the November 2011 bulletin, the bellows unit at −18.5 m from the CMS interaction point was identified as a prime candidate for the regularly occurring pressure spikes which occasionally led to sustained severe background conditions in 2011, affecting dead time and data quality. Similar regions in LHC with vacuum instabilities were observed to be close to bellows, which radiography showed to have distorted RF-fingers — on removal, they proved to have been severely overheated. The plans for the Year-End Technical Stop were adapted to prioritise radiography of the bellows at 16 m to 18 m either end of CMS. Excellent work by the beam pipe, survey and heavy mechanical teams allowed the X-rays to be taken as planned on 20th December, showing that the bellow at −18.5m had an obvious non-conformity. The RF-fingers were found inside the end of the opposing flared pipe instead of outside. In addition, the overlap between fingers and...

  15. Human-computer interaction in distributed supervisory control tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Christine M.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of activities concerned with the development and applications of the Operator Function Model (OFM) is presented. The OFM is a mathematical tool to represent operator interaction with predominantly automated space ground control systems. The design and assessment of an intelligent operator aid (OFMspert and Ally) is particularly discussed. The application of OFM to represent the task knowledge in the design of intelligent tutoring systems, designated OFMTutor and ITSSO (Intelligent Tutoring System for Satellite Operators), is also described. Viewgraphs from symposia presentations are compiled along with papers addressing the intent inferencing capabilities of OFMspert, the OFMTutor system, and an overview of intelligent tutoring systems and the implications for complex dynamic systems.

  16. The Effectiveness of Problem-based Learning Approach on Students’ Skills in Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) Specifically on Programming Course Using a Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamad, Hasim Bin; de Graaff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    using a Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) simulator. The study will use data from the German-Malaysian Institute in Malaysia. The findings of this study will provide a general guideline for educators in Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) institutions in implementing Problem...

  17. Amplitude Demodulation of Entrained Sway to Analyze Human Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatkar, Viprali V.; Pilkar, Rakesh B.; Storey, Christopher M.; Robinson, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative technique to study postural control. Our translating platform, the Sliding Linear Investigative Platform For Analyzing Lower Limb Stability and Simultaneous Tracking, EMG and Pressure mapping (SLIP-FALLS-STEPm), makes precise, vibration movements under controlled conditions. We look at the psychophysical thresholds to the perception of a sinusoidally induced sway. In the Sine Lock experiments described, an induced sinusoidal perturbation locks the subject's natural sway pattern at the frequency of the perturbation. The input / output system is treated as an Amplitude Shift Key (ASK) modulated signal modulating a carrier frequency (at or about a subject's natural sway frequency). The Position signal (input) and the Anterior-Posterior Center of Pressure (APCOP) signal (output) or the ankle angle are demodulated by mixing them with the pure sine wave carrier at the frequency of underlying oscillation and then low-pass filtering it to detect the amplitude envelope. These detected envelopes elucidate that the square pulse increase in the position sine wave amplitude yields a triangular increase in APCOP demodulated signal. PMID:18003110

  18. The Human Eye Position Control System in a Rehabilitation Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Nolan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Our work at Ireland’s National Rehabilitation Hospital involves designing communication systems for people suffering from profound physical disabilities. One such system uses the electro-oculogram, which is an (x,y system of voltages picked up by pairs of electrodes placed, respectively, above and below and on either side of the eyes. The eyeball has a dc polarisation between cornea and back, arising from the photoreceptor rods and cones in the retina. As the eye rotates, the varying voltages projected onto the electrodes drive a cursor over a mimic keyboard on a computer screen. Symbols are selected with a switching action derived, for example, from a blink. Experience in using this mode of communication has given us limited facilities to study the eye position control system. We present here a resulting new feedback model for rotation in either the vertical or the horizontal plane, which involves the eyeball controlled by an agonist-antagonist muscle pair, modelled by a single equivalent bidirectional muscle with torque falling off linearly with angular velocity. We have incorporated muscle spindles and have tuned them by pole assignment associated with an optimum stability criterion.

  19. Technical Summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johansson, Thomas B.; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Patwardhan, Anand; Gomez-Echeverri, Luis; Turkenburg, W.C.

    2012-01-01

    Energy is essential for human development and energy systems are a crucial entry point for addressing the most pressing global challenges of the 21st century, including sustainable economic, and social development, poverty eradication, adequate food production and food security, health for all,

  20. Integration of an adaptive swing control into a neuromuscular human walking model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Seungmoon; Desai, Ruta; Geyer, Hartmut

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the neuromuscular control underlying human locomotion has the potential to deliver practical controllers for humanoid and prosthetic robots. However, neurocontrollers developed in forward dynamic simulations are seldom applied as practical controllers due to their lack of robustness and adaptability. A key element for robust and adaptive locomotion is swing leg placement. Here we integrate a previously identified robust swing leg controller into a full neuromuscular human walking model and demonstrate that the integrated model has largely improved behaviors including walking on very rough terrain (±10 cm) and stair climbing (15 cm stairs). These initial results highlight the potential of the identified robust swing control. We plan to generalize it to a range of human locomotion behaviors critical in rehabilitation robotics.

  1. Independent technical review, handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    Purpose Provide an independent engineering review of the major projects being funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The independent engineering review will address questions of whether the engineering practice is sufficiently developed to a point where a major project can be executed without significant technical problems. The independent review will focus on questions related to: (1) Adequacy of development of the technical base of understanding; (2) Status of development and availability of technology among the various alternatives; (3) Status and availability of the industrial infrastructure to support project design, equipment fabrication, facility construction, and process and program/project operation; (4) Adequacy of the design effort to provide a sound foundation to support execution of project; (5) Ability of the organization to fully integrate the system, and direct, manage, and control the execution of a complex major project.

  2. Evaluation Of Investments In Science, Technology And Innovation: Applying Scientific and Technical Human Capital Framework For Assessment of Doctoral Students In Cooperative Research Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonchuk, Olena

    This dissertation builds on an alternative framework for evaluation of science, technology and innovation (STI) outcomes - the scientific & technical (S&T) human capital which was developed by Bozeman, Dietz and Gaughan (2001). At its core, this framework looks beyond simple economic and publication metrics and instead focuses on scientists' social capital. The premise of the framework is that science does not happen in vacuum and that resources embedded in scientists' social networks are important and enduring outcomes of the scientific process that were not being captured by traditional metrics. This dissertation examines social capital of science and engineering (S&E) graduate students, an underrepresented group of stakeholders in STI evaluations. S&E graduate students are unique for several reasons. In comparison with students in other disciplines, S&E graduate students have a greater proportion of international students; are widely employed by industry in numbers exceeded only by business graduates. And, most importantly, S&E graduates pursue education in fields that contribute the most to the US innovation capacity. This dissertation introduces a multidimensional measure of social capital based on the network theory of social capital proposed by Nan Lin (1999). According to Lin, social capital consists of three components: availability of resources and social embeddedness in one's network and mobilization of these resources. In order to address these elements, the dissertation employs two studies that focus on different components of social capital. Study 1 looks at accessibility of resources in students' social networks and whether students would be likely to mobilize them by using a proxy measure of norms and values about collaborations. The study also addresses the effect of social capital on students' experiences and outcomes, specifically, on their satisfaction and perceived career preparedness. The researcher investigates the mechanisms that explain

  3. Inverse Optimal Control as a Tool to Understand Human Yoyo Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombaur, Katja; Sreenivasa, Manish

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents an inverse optimal control approach to identify objective functions of human motion from motion capture measurements. We apply it to analyze human yoyo playing. Yoyo playing may seem easy to us to learn but it is a challenging problem from a mechanical point of view involving a hybrid dynamics model. We recorded vertical yoyo playing of humans measuring yoyo height and rotation angle as well as the corresponding hand motions. Results of inverse optimal control are presented showing a mixed criterion of cycle time and terms depending on yoyo and hand acceleration and velocity.

  4. Fuzzy variable impedance control based on stiffness identification for human-robot cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Dachao; Yang, Wenlong; Du, Zhijiang

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a dynamic fuzzy variable impedance control algorithm for human-robot cooperation. In order to estimate the intention of human for co-manipulation, a fuzzy inference system is set up to adjust the impedance parameter. Aiming at regulating the output fuzzy universe based on the human arm’s stiffness, an online stiffness identification method is developed. A drag interaction task is conducted on a 5-DOF robot with variable impedance control. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is superior.

  5. 76 FR 67465 - Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Reopening of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal...), entitled ``Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Request for Comments.'' In that document, FDA opened a docket and requested information about preventive controls and...

  6. The Great Diversion: Danube Delta under Human Control (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giosan, L.

    2009-12-01

    Many deltas around the world are suffering from sediment deficits that render them unstable to current and predicted rates of sea level rise. One solution proposed to alleviate the complete or partial drowning of such deltas is the use of river diversions to increase the quantity of sediment supplied to the delta plain to support marsh accretion. We examine the results of a half century old program of diversion in the Danube delta that led to the creation of an extensive diversion channel network akin in scope and size to a natural deltaic network. Danube’s importance as a shipping route increased after the Crimean War in the 1850s; the European Danube Commission was charged with maintaining the Sulina distributary as a shipping channel until 1940s. In the same period, several canals were dug to aid fishing in lakes and bring freshwater to brackish lagoons. After World War II, Communist authorities dramatically increased the number of canals for fishing, fish-farming and reed harvesting. New data on sedimentation rates and estimates of sediment fluxes suggest that the intensive canalization in the second half of the 20th Century led to increased sediment deposition that compensated the decreasing sediment discharge linked to damming within the internal fluvial part of the delta; however, the external marine delta has become increasingly sediment starved during the same interval. We emphasize the similarities and contrasts between the “human-controlled” and natural deltaic channel networks of the Danube delta and discuss the sustainability of the delta as a sediment budget problem within a sea level rise context.

  7. Use of the Nintendo Wii Balance Board for Studying Standing Static Balance Control: Technical Considerations, Force-Plate Congruency, and the Effect of Battery Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Tyler B; Ma, Christine; Laing, Andrew C

    2017-02-01

    The Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB) has become popular as a low-cost alternative to research-grade force plates. The purposes of this study were to characterize a series of technical specifications for the WBB, to compare balance control metrics derived from time-varying center of pressure (COP) signals collected simultaneously from a WBB and a research-grade force plate, and to investigate the effects of battery life. Drift, linearity, hysteresis, mass accuracy, uniformity of response, and COP accuracy were assessed from a WBB. In addition, 6 participants completed an eyes-closed quiet standing task on the WBB (at 3 battery life levels) mounted on a force plate while sway was simultaneously measured by both systems. Characterization results were all associated with less than 1% error. R(2) values reflecting WBB sensor linearity were > .99. Known and measured COP differences were lowest at the center of the WBB and greatest at the corners. Between-device differences in quiet stance COP summary metrics were of limited clinical significance. Lastly, battery life did not affect WBB COP accuracy, but did influence 2 of 8 quiet stance WBB parameters. This study provides general support for the WBB as a low-cost alternative to research-grade force plates for quantifying COP movement during standing.

  8. Human Factors and Data Fusion as Part of Control Systems Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David I. Gertman

    2009-05-01

    Human performance and human decision making is counted upon as a crucial aspect of overall system resilience. Advanced control systems have the potential to provide operators and asset owners a wide range of data, deployed at different levels that can be used to support operator situation awareness. However, the sheer amount of data available can make it challenging for operators to assimilate information and respond appropriately. This paper reviews some of the challenges and issues associated with providing operators with actionable state awareness and argues for the over arching importance of integrating human factors as part of intelligent control systems design and implementation. It is argued that system resilience is improved by implementing human factors in operations and maintenance. This paper also introduces issues associated with resilience and data fusion and highlights areas in which human factors including field studies hold promise.

  9. Bioprocess development for mass production of size-controlled human pluripotent stem cell aggregates in stirred suspension bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasalizadeh, Saeed; Larijani, Mehran Rezaei; Samadian, Azam; Baharvand, Hossein

    2012-11-01

    Current protocols for the scalable suspension culture of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are limited by multiple biological and technical challenges that need to be addressed before their use in clinical trials. To overcome these challenges, we have developed a novel bioprocess platform for large-scale expansion of human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell lines as three-dimensional size-controlled aggregates. This novel bioprocess utilizes the stepwise optimization of both static and dynamic suspension culture conditions. After screening eight xeno-free media in static suspension culture and optimizing single-cell passaging in dynamic conditions, the scale-up from a static to a dynamic suspension culture in the stirred bioreactor resulted in a two- to threefold improvement in expansion rates, as measured by cell counts and metabolic activity. We successfully produced size-specific aggregates through optimization of bioreactor hydrodynamic conditions by using combinations of different agitation rates and shear protectant concentrations. The expansion rates were further improved by controlling oxygen concentration at normoxic conditions, and reached a maximum eightfold increase for both types of hPSCs. Subsequently, we demonstrated a simple and rapid scale-up strategy that produced clinically relevant numbers of hPSCs (∼2×10(9) cells) over a 1-month period by the direct transfer of "suspension-adapted frozen cells" to a stirred suspension bioreactor. We omitted the required preadaptation passages in the static suspension culture. The cells underwent proliferation over multiple passages in the demonstrated xeno-free dynamic suspension culture while maintaining their self-renewal capabilities, as determined by marker expressions and in vitro spontaneous differentiation. In conclusion, suspension culture protocols of hPSCs could be used to mass produce homogenous and pluripotent undifferentiated cells by identification and optimization of key bioprocess

  10. Active controlled muscles in numerical model of human arm for movement in two degrees of freedom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budziszewski, P.; Nunen, E. van; Mordaka, J.K.; Kȩdzior, K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development of numerical model of human upper extremity able to perform movements and stabilization tasks in two degrees of freedom as a result of muscle activation controlled by a PID-based controller. These tasks are defined by functions of specified angle for every degree

  11. Human-in-the-loop Control of Multi-agent Aerial Systems Under Intermittent Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-08

    evident. Therefore, intentional intermittent feedback and its repercussions need to be investigated in more detail. To the best of our knowledge, to...in-the-loop control, human machine interaction, multi-agent systems, decentralized control, supervised autonomy 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17... feedback . . . . . . . . . . 13 WP 4Aerial manipulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 T 4.1

  12. Bilateral human-robot control for semi-autonomous UAV navigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wopereis, Han Willem; Fumagalli, Matteo; Stramigioli, Stefano; Carloni, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a semi-autonomous bilateral control architecture for unmanned aerial vehicles. During autonomous navigation, a human operator is allowed to assist the autonomous controller of the vehicle by actively changing its navigation parameters to assist it in critical situations, such as

  13. The central nervous system control of micturition in cats and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, BFM; Holstege, G

    Recent findings concerning the central control of micturition in cats are compared to findings obtained from dynamic imaging studies in humans. In the cat, three areas in the brainstem and diencephalon are specifically implicated in the control of micturition: (1) Barrington's nucleus or the pontine

  14. Optimal control predicts human performance on objects with internal degrees of freedom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne J Nagengast

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available On a daily basis, humans interact with a vast range of objects and tools. A class of tasks, which can pose a serious challenge to our motor skills, are those that involve manipulating objects with internal degrees of freedom, such as when folding laundry or using a lasso. Here, we use the framework of optimal feedback control to make predictions of how humans should interact with such objects. We confirm the predictions experimentally in a two-dimensional object manipulation task, in which subjects learned to control six different objects with complex dynamics. We show that the non-intuitive behavior observed when controlling objects with internal degrees of freedom can be accounted for by a simple cost function representing a trade-off between effort and accuracy. In addition to using a simple linear, point-mass optimal control model, we also used an optimal control model, which considers the non-linear dynamics of the human arm. We find that the more realistic optimal control model captures aspects of the data that cannot be accounted for by the linear model or other previous theories of motor control. The results suggest that our everyday interactions with objects can be understood by optimality principles and advocate the use of more realistic optimal control models for the study of human motor neuroscience.

  15. Human kinematics and event control: On-line movement registration as a means for experimental manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudejans, R.R.D.; Coolen, H.

    2003-01-01

    In human movement and sports science, manipulations of perception and action are common and often comprise the control of events, such as opening or closing liquid crystal goggles. Most of these events are externally controlled, independent of the actions of the participants. Less common, although

  16. International Guidelines on Human Rights and Drug Control: A Tool for Securing Women's Rights in Drug Control Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleifer, Rebecca; Pol, Luciana

    2017-06-01

    Discrimination and inequality shape women's experiences of drug use and in the drug trade and the impact of drug control efforts on them, with disproportionate burdens faced by poor and otherwise marginalized women. In recent years, UN member states and UN drug control and human rights entities have recognized this issue and made commitments to integrate a 'gender perspective' into drug control policies, with 'gender' limited to those conventionally deemed women. But the concept of gender in international law is broader, rooted in socially constructed and culturally determined norms and expectations around gender roles, sex, and sexuality. Also, drug control policies often fail to meaningfully address the specific needs and circumstances of women (inclusively defined), leaving them at risk of recurrent violations of their rights in the context of drugs. This article explores what it means to 'mainstream' this narrower version of gender into drug control efforts, using as examples various women's experiences as people who use drugs, in the drug trade, and in the criminal justice system. It points to international guidelines on human rights and drug control as an important tool to ensure attention to women's rights in drug control policy design and implementation.

  17. A review: Motor rehabilitation after stroke with control based on human intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Xu, Guanghua; Xie, Jun; Chen, Chaoyang

    2018-02-01

    Strokes are a leading cause of acquired disability worldwide, and there is a significant need for novel interventions and further research to facilitate functional motor recovery in stroke patients. This article reviews motor rehabilitation methods for stroke survivors with a focus on rehabilitation controlled by human motor intent. The review begins with the neurodevelopmental principles of motor rehabilitation that provide the neuroscientific basis for intuitively controlled rehabilitation, followed by a review of methods allowing human motor intent detection, biofeedback approaches, and quantitative motor rehabilitation assessment. Challenges for future advances in motor rehabilitation after stroke using intuitively controlled approaches are addressed.

  18. Measuring Human Performance in Simulated Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms Using Eye Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, Casey Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Brandon Charles [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bower, Gordon Ross [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spielman, Zachary Alexander [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hill, Rachael Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); LeBlanc, Katya Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Control room modernization will be an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. As part of modernization efforts, personnel will need to gain a full understanding of how control room technologies affect performance of human operators. Recent advances in technology enables the use of eye tracking technology to continuously measure an operator’s eye movement, which correlates with a variety of human performance constructs such as situation awareness and workload. This report describes eye tracking metrics in the context of how they will be used in nuclear power plant control room simulator studies.

  19. Autotuning of PID controller by means of human machine interface device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Awtoniuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available More and more control systems are based on industry microprocessors like PLC controllers (Programmable Logic Controller. The most commonly used control algorithm is PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative algorithm. Autotuning procedure is not available in every PLC. These controllers are typically used in cooperation with HMI (Human Machine Interface devices. In the study two procedures of autotuning of the PID controller were implemented in the HMI device: step method and relay method. Six tuning rules for step methods and one for relay method were chosen. The autotuning procedures on simulated controlled object and PLC controller without build-in autotuning were tested. The object of control was first order system plus time delay.

  20. To reduce the global burden of human schistosomiasis, use ‘old fashioned’ snail control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolow, Susanne H.; Wood, Chelsea L.; Jones, Isabel J.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand; Hsieh, Michael H.; De Leo, Giulio A.

    2018-01-01

    Control strategies to reduce human schistosomiasis have evolved from ‘snail picking’ campaigns, a century ago, to modern wide-scale human treatment campaigns, or preventive chemotherapy. Unfortunately, despite the rise in preventive chemotherapy campaigns, just as many people suffer from schistosomiasis today as they did 50 years ago. Snail control can complement preventive chemotherapy by reducing the risk of transmission from snails to humans. Here, we present ideas for modernizing and scaling up snail control, including spatiotemporal targeting, environmental diagnostics, better molluscicides, new technologies (e.g., gene drive), and ‘outside the box’ strategies such as natural enemies, traps, and repellants. We conclude that, to achieve the World Health Assembly’s stated goal to eliminate schistosomiasis, it is time to give snail control another look.

  1. Recovery Act: Federspiel Controls (now Vigilent) and State of California Department of General Services Data Center Energy Efficient Cooling Control Demonstration. Final technical project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federspiel, Clifford; Evers, Myah

    2011-09-30

    Eight State of California data centers were equipped with an intelligent energy management system to evaluate the effectiveness, energy savings, dollar savings and benefits that arise when powerful artificial intelligence-based technology measures, monitors and actively controls cooling operations. Control software, wireless sensors and mesh networks were used at all sites. Most sites used variable frequency drives as well. The system dynamically adjusts temperature and airflow on the fly by analyzing real-time demands, thermal behavior and historical data collected on site. Taking into account the chaotic interrelationships of hundreds to thousands of variables in a data center, the system optimizes the temperature distribution across a facility while also intelligently balancing loads, outputs, and airflow. The overall project will provide a reduction in energy consumption of more than 2.3 million kWh each year, which translates to $240,000 saved and a reduction of 1.58 million pounds of carbon emissions. Across all sites, the cooling energy consumption was reduced by 41%. The average reduction in energy savings across all the sites that use VFDs is higher at 58%. Before this case study, all eight data centers ran the cooling fans at 100% capacity all of the time. Because of the new technology, cooling fans run at the optimum fan speed maintaining stable air equilibrium while also expending the least amount of electricity. With lower fan speeds, the life of the capital investment made on cooling equipment improves, and the cooling capacity of the data center increases. This case study depicts a rare technological feat: The same process and technology worked cost effectively in eight very different environments. The results show that savings were achieved in centers with diverse specifications for the sizes, ages and types of cooling equipment. The percentage of cooling energy reduction ranged from 19% to 78% while keeping temperatures substantially within the

  2. The 14th Annual Conference on Manual Control. [digital simulation of human operator dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Human operator dynamics during actual manual control or while monitoring the automatic control systems involved in air-to-air tracking, automobile driving, the operator of undersea vehicles, and remote handling are examined. Optimal control models and the use of mathematical theory in representing man behavior in complex man machine system tasks are discussed with emphasis on eye/head tracking and scanning; perception and attention allocation; decision making; and motion simulation and effects.

  3. 75 FR 5536 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors, Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ...PHMSA is correcting a Final Rule that appeared in the Federal Register on December 3, 2009. That final rule amended the Federal Pipeline Safety Regulations to address human factors and other aspects of control room management for pipelines where controllers use supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems, but contained errors regarding certain dates, both in the preamble and the amendments. This document corrects those errors.

  4. Technical advance: ascorbic acid induces development of double-positive T cells from human hematopoietic stem cells in the absence of stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijskens, Mirelle J A J; Walczak, Mateusz; Koller, Nicole; Briedé, Jacob J; Senden-Gijsbers, Birgit L M G; Schnijderberg, Melanie C; Bos, Gerard M J; Germeraad, Wilfred T V

    2014-12-01

    The efficacy of donor HSCT is partly reduced as a result of slow post-transplantation immune recovery. In particular, T cell regeneration is generally delayed, resulting in high infection-related mortality in the first years post-transplantation. Adoptive transfer of in vitro-generated human T cell progenitors seems a promising approach to accelerate T cell recovery in immunocompromised patients. AA may enhance T cell proliferation and differentiation in a controlled, feeder-free environment containing Notch ligands and defined growth factors. Our experiments show a pivotal role for AA during human in vitro T cell development. The blocking of NOS diminished this effect, indicating a role for the citrulline/NO cycle. AA promotes the transition of proT1 to proT2 cells and of preT to DP T cells. Furthermore, the addition of AA to feeder cocultures resulted in development of DP and SP T cells, whereas without AA, a preT cell-stage arrest occurred. We conclude that neither DLL4-expressing feeder cells nor feeder cell conditioned media are required for generating DP T cells from CB and G-CSF-mobilized HSCs and that generation and proliferation of proT and DP T cells are greatly improved by AA. This technology could potentially be used to generate T cell progenitors for adoptive therapy. © 2014 Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  5. Microorganisms human control pathological of aerial transport; Control de microorganismos patogenos humanos de transmision aerea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascual, L.; Moreno, C.; Amo, A.; Luz, S.P.; Apraiz, D.; Catalan, V.

    1999-05-01

    The search of methods of display and effective analysis in order to could detect and carry out a recount of human pathological microorganisms of aerial transmission has been one of the fields that more has worried to the micro biologists from beginnings of the XX century. (Author) 14 refs.

  6. Availability verification of information for human system interface in automatic SG level control using activity diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuraslinda, Anuar; Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Jong Hyun [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Uljugun (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Steam Generator (SG) level control system in OPR 1000 is one of representative automatic systems that falls under the Supervisory Control level in Endsley's taxonomy. Supervisory control of automated systems is classified as a form of out of the loop (OOTL) performance due to passive involvement in the systems operation, which could lead to loss of situation awareness (SA). There was a reported event, which was caused by inadequate human automation communication that contributed to an unexpected reactor trip in July 2005. A high SG level trip occurred in Yeonggwang (YGN) Unit 6 Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) due to human operator failure to recognize the need to change the control mode of the economizer valve controller (EVC) to manual mode during swap over (the transition from low power mode to high power mode) after the loss of offsite power (LOOP) event was recovered. This paper models the human system interaction in NPP SG level control system using Unified Modeling Language (UML) Activity Diagram. Then, it identifies the missing information for operators in the OPR1000 Main Control Room (MCR) and suggests some means of improving the human system interaction.

  7. Force/position control of a robot manipulator for human-robot interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neranon Paramin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With regard to both human and robot capabilities, human-robot interaction provides several benefits, and this will be significantly developed and implemented. This work focuses on the development of real-time external force/position control used for human-robot interaction. The force-controlled robotic system integrated with proportional integral control was performed and evaluated to ensure its reliably and timely operational characteristics, in which appropriate proportional integral gains were experimentally adopted using a set of virtual crank-turning tests. The designed robotic system is made up of a robot manipulator arm, an ATI Gamma multi-axis force/torque sensor and a real-time external PC based control system. A proportional integral controller has been developed to provide stable and robust force control on unknown environmental stiffness and motion. To quantify its effectiveness, the robotic system has been verified through a comprehensive set of experiments, in which force measurement and ALTER real-time path control systems were evaluated. In summary, the results indicated satisfactorily stable performance of the robot force/position control system. The gain tuning for proportional plus integral control algorithm was successfully implemented. It can be reported that the best performance as specified by the error root mean square method of the radial force is observed with proportional and integral gains of 0.10 and 0.005 respectively.

  8. FLAMMABLE GAS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2005-03-03

    This document describes the qualitative evaluation of frequency and consequences for DST and SST representative flammable gas accidents and associated hazardous conditions without controls. The evaluation indicated that safety-significant structures, systems and components (SSCs) and/or technical safety requirements (TSRs) were required to prevent or mitigate flammable gas accidents. Discussion on the resulting control decisions is included. This technical basis document was developed to support WP-13033, Tank Farms Documented Safety Analysis (DSA), and describes the risk binning process for the flammable gas representative accidents and associated represented hazardous conditions. The purpose of the risk binning process is to determine the need for safety-significant structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls for a given representative accident or represented hazardous condition based on an evaluation of the event frequency and consequence.

  9. Technical approach document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs.

  10. Designing for flexible interaction between humans and automation: delegation interfaces for supervisory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher A; Parasuraman, Raja

    2007-02-01

    To develop a method enabling human-like, flexible supervisory control via delegation to automation. Real-time supervisory relationships with automation are rarely as flexible as human task delegation to other humans. Flexibility in human-adaptable automation can provide important benefits, including improved situation awareness, more accurate automation usage, more balanced mental workload, increased user acceptance, and improved overall performance. We review problems with static and adaptive (as opposed to "adaptable") automation; contrast these approaches with human-human task delegation, which can mitigate many of the problems; and revise the concept of a "level of automation" as a pattern of task-based roles and authorizations. We argue that delegation requires a shared hierarchical task model between supervisor and subordinates, used to delegate tasks at various levels, and offer instruction on performing them. A prototype implementation called Playbook is described. On the basis of these analyses, we propose methods for supporting human-machine delegation interactions that parallel human-human delegation in important respects. We develop an architecture for machine-based delegation systems based on the metaphor of a sports team's "playbook." Finally, we describe a prototype implementation of this architecture, with an accompanying user interface and usage scenario, for mission planning for uninhabited air vehicles. Delegation offers a viable method for flexible, multilevel human-automation interaction to enhance system performance while maintaining user workload at a manageable level. Most applications of adaptive automation (aviation, air traffic control, robotics, process control, etc.) are potential avenues for the adaptable, delegation approach we advocate. We present an extended example for uninhabited air vehicle mission planning.

  11. Summary of the Centers for Disease Control human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) performance evaluation surveys for 1985 and 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R N; Przybyszewski, V A

    1988-01-01

    During 1985 and 1986, the Centers for Disease Control conducted eight surveys to evaluate laboratory performance in testing for antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (Other names for this virus include "human T-lymphotropic virus type III" and "lymphadenopathy associated virus.") The first survey was conducted with ten samples and 50 laboratories; the remaining surveys used six samples, but enrollment increased to as many as 475 laboratories. The purpose of these surveys was to measure test performance by the laboratories under the actual conditions of use. The surveys contained duplicate samples to permit measurement of within- and between-survey reproducibility. One survey included positive and negative reference materials as evaluation samples. Results of the Western blot (WB) test were not always positive on samples that were positive by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and sometimes they were positive on samples that had negative results by EIA. The percentage of positive results reported by laboratories using Electronucleonics tests was lower than that reported by users of Abbott and of Litton tests. positive results on the negative reference material were reported by 13.7% of the Abbott EIA test users. The tests do not seem to be calibrated against an equivalent standard. Within-survey reproducibility was usually above 95% for EIA and WB methods and for the major manufacturers of EIA tests. Between-survey reproducibility was usually above 90%. Reproducibility was below 75% for some combinations of samples, method, and manufacturer. The test performance observed in these surveys may be lower than is actually achieved on patient samples because the samples were selected to measure technical competence and contain a higher frequency of samples with low reactivity than would be encountered with clinical samples. Stratification and weighting of the results in these surveys to estimate performance parameters for a blood bank population indicate that the tests

  12. Human-machine interface (HMI) report for 241-SY-101 data acquisition [and control] system (DACS) upgrade study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truitt, R.W.

    1997-10-22

    This report provides an independent evaluation of information for a Windows based Human Machine Interface (HMI) to replace the existing DOS based Iconics HMI currently used in the Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) used at Tank 241-SY-101. A fundamental reason for this evaluation is because of the difficulty of maintaining the system with obsolete, unsupported software. The DACS uses a software operator interface (Genesis for DOS HMI) that is no longer supported by its manufacturer, Iconics. In addition to its obsolescence, it is complex and difficult to train additional personnel on. The FY 1997 budget allocated $40K for phase 1 of a software/hardware upgrade that would have allowed the old DOS based system to be replaced by a current Windows based system. Unfortunately, budget constraints during FY 1997 has prompted deferral of the upgrade. The upgrade needs to be performed at the earliest possible time, before other failures render the system useless. Once completed, the upgrade could alleviate other concerns: spare pump software may be able to be incorporated into the same software as the existing pump, thereby eliminating the parallel path dilemma; and the newer, less complex software should expedite training of future personnel, and in the process, require that less technical time be required to maintain the system.

  13. Incorporating a disturbance observer with direct velocity feedback for control of human-induced vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyawako, Donald; Reynolds, Paul; Hudson, Emma

    2016-04-01

    Feedback control strategies are desirable for disturbance rejection of human-induced vibrations in civil engineering structures as human walking forces cannot easily be measured. In relation to human-induced vibration control studies, most past researches have focused on floors and footbridges and the widely used linear controller implemented in the trials has been the direct velocity feedback (DVF) scheme. With appropriate compensation to enhance its robustness, it has been shown to be effective at damping out the problematic modes of vibration of the structures in which the active vibration control systems have been implemented. The work presented here introduces a disturbance observer (DOB) that is used with an outer-loop DVF controller. Results of analytical studies presented in this work based on the dynamic properties of a walkway bridge structure demonstrate the potential of this approach for enhancing the vibration mitigation performance offered by a purely DVF controller. For example, estimates of controlled frequency response functions indicate improved attenuation of vibration around the dominant frequency of the walkway bridge structure as well as at higher resonant frequencies. Controlled responses from three synthesized walking excitation forces on a walkway bridge structure model show that the inclusion of the disturbance observer with an outer loop DVF has potential to improve on the vibration mitigation performance by about 3.5% at resonance and 6-10% off-resonance. These are realised with hard constraints being imposed on the low frequency actuator displacements.

  14. Trends in control and decision-making for human-robot collaboration systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Fumin

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview of recent research developments in the automation and control of robotic systems that collaborate with humans. A measure of human collaboration being necessary for the optimal operation of any robotic system, the contributors exploit a broad selection of such systems to demonstrate the importance of the subject, particularly where the environment is prone to uncertainty or complexity. They show how such human strengths as high-level decision-making, flexibility, and dexterity can be combined with robotic precision, and ability to perform task repetitively or in a dangerous environment. The book focuses on quantitative methods and control design for guaranteed robot performance and balanced human experience. Its contributions develop and expand upon material presented at various international conferences. They are organized into three parts covering: one-human–one-robot collaboration; one-human–multiple-robot collaboration; and human–swarm collaboration. Individual topic ar...

  15. The Development of Human Factor Guidelines for Unmanned Aircraft System Control Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Despite being referred to as unmanned some of the major challenges confronting unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) relate to human factors. NASA is conducting research to address the human factors relevant to UAS access to non-segregated airspace. This work covers the issues of pilot performance, interaction with ATC, and control station design. A major outcome of this research will be recommendations for human factors design guidelines for UAS control stations to support routine beyond-line-of-sight operations in the US national airspace system (NAS). To be effective, guidelines must be relevant to a wide range of systems, must not be overly prescriptive, and must not impose premature standardization on evolving technologies. In developing guidelines, we recognize that existing regulatory and guidance material may already provide adequate coverage of certain issues. In other cases suitable guidelines may be found in existing military or industry human factors standards. In cases where appropriate existing standards cannot be identified, original guidelines will be proposed.

  16. Human Factors Guidance for Control Room and Digital Human-System Interface Design and Modification, Guidelines for Planning, Specification, Design, Licensing, Implementation, Training, Operation and Maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Fink, D. Hill, J. O' Hara

    2004-11-30

    Nuclear plant operators face a significant challenge designing and modifying control rooms. This report provides guidance on planning, designing, implementing and operating modernized control rooms and digital human-system interfaces.

  17. A control system formulation of the mechanism that controls the secretions of serum group hormone in humans during sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, J. C.; Young, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    Plasma growth hormone concentrations during sleep were determined experimentally. An elevated level of plasma growth hormone was observed during the initial phase of sleep and remained elevated for approximately 3 hr before returning to the steady-state level. Moreover, subsequent to a prolonged interruption of sleep, of the order of 2-3 hr, an elevated level of plasma growth hormone was again observed during the initial phase of resumed sleep. A control system formulation of the mechanism that controls the secretions of serum growth hormone in humans was used to account for the growth hormone responses observed.

  18. Reframing violence against women as a human rights violation: Evan Stark's Coercive Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libal, Kathryn; Parekh, Serena

    2009-12-01

    Evan Stark claims that partner-perpetrated physical abuse and other forms of violence against women ought to be understood as a human rights violation. The authors engage Stark's rhetorically powerful political and analytical innovation by outlining one theoretical and one practical challenge to shifting the paradigm that researchers, advocates, and policy makers use to describe, explain, and remedy the harms of coercive control from misdemeanor assault to human rights violation. The theoretical challenge involves overcoming the public/ private dichotomy that underpins liberal conceptions of human rights.The practical challenge involves using the human rights framework in the United States, given public indifference to human rights rhetoric or law, reluctance of U.S. policy makers to submit to scrutiny or justice-oriented processes under international law on issues of human rights and especially war crimes, and the consequent U.S. legacy of refusal to participate meaningfully in the international human rights process. The authors conclude that employing a human rights framework holds potential in the United States, but the paradigm shift Stark advocates will not materialize without widespread mobilization of interest in and understanding of human rights among domestic violence advocates and the society in general.

  19. The influence of humanities on the teaching of technical vocabulary = La influencia de las humanidades en la enseñanza del vocabulario técnico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Vivanco Cervero

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A part of research in education is related to innovation. This means trying to create new approaches or teaching techniques to the object or process being taught. It has always being said that there is a gap between science/technology and arts/humanities. For this reason, this paper tries to show some examples of how to link and apply these branches of knowledge among them, as part of an innovative and creative teaching/learning process. As lexis and languages apply to everything, because all the objects and concepts need significant to express their significations, the terms of study are coupled in Spanish/English pairs. This way, students can learn vocabulary through contrast, comparison and semantic connections which trace the evolution of meanings. The complement of visuals and images helps capture the attention of students who can see the language class as a complete mosaic that links humanistic and technical knowledge. Both similarities and differences may act as a mental trigger to store vocabulary in the memory. The study has focused three war terms such as bayoneta/bayonet, bazuca/bazooka and cañón/cannon to see what type of historical, musical or cultural implications could make students preserve the meaning of these words in their mental reservoir. In addition, the complement of visuals and images helps capture the attention of students who can see the language class as a more complete approximation to knowledge. This approach to teaching tries to capture attention in a way that makes students not forget the contents of the class in their long-term memory. Resumen Una parte de la investigación en educación se relaciona con la investigación. Lo anterior implica que se han de intentar crear nuevos enfoques o métodos de enseñanza para el objeto o proceso que se estudia. Siempre se ha dicho que hay un hueco entre la ciencia y la tecnología, por un lado, y, las humanidades, por otro. Por tal motivo, este artículo intenta

  20. Human Performance Time Model of Spacecraft Control Panel Operation in Simulated Microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shi; Zhang, Yijing; Guo, Yunhuan; Chen, Shanguang

    2017-08-01

    Human performance modeling plays an important role in the design and management of human spaceflight missions. Previous studies reported that manual control task time increased in microgravity conditions. The current study aimed to find a modeling method that can quantify and predict the task time of spacecraft control panel operation in the simulated microgravity condition. We proposed the application of a predetermined elemental task method together with an information processing time model to quantify both physical motion time and cognitive time. The time increment due to microgravity was hypothesized to be proportional to physical motion time. The total task time in the microgravity condition could be calculated as the model time from the normal ground condition plus the predicted time increment. Human data were collected from an experiment asking participants to perform six emergency operating procedure tasks in both normal ground and simulated microgravity conditions. The proposed method resulted in good fitness to human data in both conditions, as shown by both regression fitness (R2 values = 0.99) and modeling error measures (root mean square error ≤ 3.3 s; mean absolute percentage error ≤ 16.1%). Although the method has its limitations, the current findings suggest that it has value in aerospace human factors and ergonomics applications.Cao S, Zhang Y, Guo Y, Chen S. Human performance time model of spacecraft control panel operation in simulated microgravity. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(8):743-751.