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Sample records for human chorionic gonadotropin

  1. -Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Production

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    Michael J. Russell

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dedifferentiated liposarcomas may display a variety of “heterologous” lines of differentiation, including osseous, vascular, skeletal, and/or smooth muscular. There have been six previously reported examples of leiomyosarcomas associated with high levels of serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG production, comprised of cases originating from the retroperitoneum, spermatic cord, small intestine, and uterus. This report describes the first example of a dedifferentiated liposarcoma that combined both of the aforementioned features: extensive heterologous (leiomyosarcomatous differentiation and -hCG production (maximum serum levels 1046 mIU/ml, reference <5 mIU/ml. The tumor, which originated in the retroperitoneum in the region of the right kidney, was rapidly progressive and ultimately fatal within three months of its diagnosis. In addition to characteristic morphologic features, lipogenic and smooth muscle differentiation were confirmed with immunohistochemical stains for MDM2 and smooth muscle actin, respectively. The tumor also displayed diffuse immunoreactivity for -hCG in both primary and metastatic sites. This case further expands the clinicopathologic spectrum of lipogenic tumors.

  2. Anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism treated with human chorionic gonadotropin.

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, G. V.

    1998-01-01

    A case is presented of a young competitive body-builder who abused anabolic steroid drugs and developed profound symptomatic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. With the help of prescribed testosterone (Sustanon) he stopped taking anabolic drugs, and later stopped Sustanon also. Hypogonadism returned, but was successfully treated with weekly injections of human chorionic gonadotropin for three months. Testicular function remained normal thereafter on no treatment. The use of human chorionic gonad...

  3. Influence of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin on the Fertility Rate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out on the influence of human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (hCG) on the fertility rate of rabbit does under artificial insemination. The rabbit does (7-8 months old) were used for the trial. The hCG was administered to the rabbit does at varying doses: 0, 50, 100 and 150 I.U representing ...

  4. Thyrotropic action of human chorionic gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, M; Hershman, J M

    1995-10-01

    Hyperthyroidism or increased thyroid function has been reported in many patients with trophoblastic tumors. In these cases, greatly increased human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels and suppressed TSH levels suggest that hCG has thyrotropic activity. Recent investigations have clarified the structural homology not only in the hCG and TSH molecules but also in their receptors, and this homology suggests the basis for the reactivity of hCG with the TSH receptor. The clinical significance of the thyrotropic action of hCG is now also recognized in normal pregnancy and hyperemesis gravidarum. Highly purified hLH binds to recombinant hTSH receptor and is about 10 times as potent as purified hCG in increasing cAMP. The beta-subunits of hCG and hLH share 85% sequence identity in their first 114 amino acids but differ in the carboxy-terminal peptide because hCG beta contains a 31-amino acid extension (beta-CTP). A recombinant mutant hCG that lacks beta-CTP showed almost identical potency to LH on stimulation of recombinant hTSH receptor. If intact hCG were as potent as hLH in regard to its thyrotropic activity, most pregnant women would become thyrotoxic. One of the roles of the beta-CTP may be to prevent overt hyperthyroidism in the first trimester of pregnancy when a large amount of hCG is produced by the placenta. Nicked hCG preparations, obtained from patients with trophoblastic disease or by enzymatic digestion of intact hCG, showed approximately 1.5- to 2-fold stimulation of recombinant hTSH receptor compared with intact hCG. This suggests that the thyrotropic activity of hCG may be influenced by the metabolism of the hCG molecule itself. Deglycosylation and/or desialylation of hCG enhances its thyrotropic potency. Basic hCG isoforms with lower sialic acid content extracted from hydatidiform moles were more potent in activating adenylate cyclase, and showed high bioactivity/immunoactivity (B/I) ratio in CHO cells expressing human TSH receptors. This is consistent

  5. Pattern of human chorionic gonadotropin binding in the polycystic ovary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brawer, J.; Richard, M.; Farookhi, R.

    1989-01-01

    The histologic evolution of polycystic ovaries in the estradiol valerate-treated rat coincides with the development of a unique plasma pattern of luteinizing hormone. To assess the role of luteinizing hormone in polycystic ovaries, it is necessary to evaluate the luteinizing hormone sensitivity of the specific tissues in the polycystic ovary. Therefore, we examined the pattern of luteinizing hormone binding sites in polycystic ovaries. Rats at 4 or 8 weeks after estradiol valerate treatment each received an intrajugular injection of iodine 125-labeled human chorionic gonadotropin. Some rats also received a 1000-fold excess of unlabeled human chorionic gonadotropin in the same injection. Ovaries were prepared for autoradiography. Dense accumulations of grains occurred over the theca of normal and atretic secondary follicles in all ovaries and over clusters of secondary interstitial cells. The iodine label was variable over the typically hypertrophied theca of precystic follicles. The theca of definitive cysts showed little or no label. These results indicate that cyst formation coincides with the loss of luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin binding to the affected follicles

  6. Pattern of human chorionic gonadotropin binding in the polycystic ovary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brawer, J.; Richard, M.; Farookhi, R. (McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

    1989-08-01

    The histologic evolution of polycystic ovaries in the estradiol valerate-treated rat coincides with the development of a unique plasma pattern of luteinizing hormone. To assess the role of luteinizing hormone in polycystic ovaries, it is necessary to evaluate the luteinizing hormone sensitivity of the specific tissues in the polycystic ovary. Therefore, we examined the pattern of luteinizing hormone binding sites in polycystic ovaries. Rats at 4 or 8 weeks after estradiol valerate treatment each received an intrajugular injection of iodine 125-labeled human chorionic gonadotropin. Some rats also received a 1000-fold excess of unlabeled human chorionic gonadotropin in the same injection. Ovaries were prepared for autoradiography. Dense accumulations of grains occurred over the theca of normal and atretic secondary follicles in all ovaries and over clusters of secondary interstitial cells. The iodine label was variable over the typically hypertrophied theca of precystic follicles. The theca of definitive cysts showed little or no label. These results indicate that cyst formation coincides with the loss of luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin binding to the affected follicles.

  7. Human chorionic gonadotropin, angiogenic factors, and preeclampsia risk: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asvold, Bjørn O; Eskild, Anne; Vatten, Lars J

    2014-05-01

    To study whether human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations during pregnancy or combinations of human chorionic gonadotropin and other angiogenic factors, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 and placental growth factor (PlGF), are associated with preeclampsia risk. Nested case-control study. Population cohort of pregnant women. A total of 121 cases of preterm (cases of term preeclampsia (≥37 weeks of gestation) and 356 women without preeclampsia (controls). Women with preeclampsia were identified by linkage to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 and PlGF were measured in maternal serum samples collected in each trimester of pregnancy. Odds ratios of preterm and term preeclampsia. High human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations (highest quartile) in the first trimester were associated with reduced risk for preterm preeclampsia (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.9), compared with low human chorionic gonadotropin (lowest quartile), whereas high human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations in the second trimester were associated with increased risk for preterm preeclampsia (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.8-8.9). High human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations in the third trimester were associated with increased risk for term preeclampsia (OR 4.8, 95% CI 1.8-13.3). Concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin above the median value combined with PlGF below the median in the second trimester were associated with very high risk for preterm preeclampsia (OR 36.9, 95% CI 8.2-165.8). The results suggest an important role of human chorionic gonadotropin in the pathophysiological processes that lead to preeclampsia. The combined association of human chorionic gonadotropin and PlGF indicates a possible synergism between underlying biological pathways. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin: The Pregnancy Hormone and More

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Theofanakis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To thoroughly review the uses of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG related to the process of reproduction and also assess new, non-traditional theories. Review of the international literature and research studies. hCG and its receptor, LH/CGR, are expressed in numerous sites of the reproductive tract, both in gonadal and extra-goanadal tissues, promoting oocyte maturation, fertilization, implantation and early embryo development. Moreover, hCG seems to have a potential role as an anti-rejection agent in solid organ transplantation. Future research needs to focus extensively on the functions of hCG and its receptor LH/CGR, in an effort to reveal known, as well as unknown clinical potentials.

  9. Effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on in vitro oocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... In vitro exposure of Barilius vagra ovarian follicles to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) .... breakdown (GVBD) by treating them with egg clearing solution ..... trihydroxy-5Я-pregnen-20-one, in female plaice (Pleuronectes.

  10. Fertility Rates of Ewes Treated with Medroxyprogesterone and Injected with Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin plus Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Anoestrous Season

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    I. W. Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to investigate the efficiency of the equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG plus human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG associated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP to estrous ewes synchronization. Ninety Texel ewes were investigated during seasonal anoestrous. The ewes received intravaginal sponges containing MAP (60 mg for nine days. At the time of sponges' withdrawal, the ewes were divided into three groups (G: (1 receiving 2 mL of saline i.m. (n=30, (2 receiving eCG 400 IU i.m. (n=30, and (3 receiving eCG 400 IU plus hCG 200 IU i.m. (n=30. Twelve h after sponges' removal, teaser rams were used to estrus check and remained with the ewes for 96 h. The artificial insemination was made with fresh semen 10 h after estrus detection. The effect of the treatment was not significant for the estrous rates among the groups: 73%, 90%, and 86%, respectively. The main effect was observed in the pregnancy and lambing rates among the groups: 70%, 86%, 56%, and 80%, 120%, 56%, respectively. Based on these results from our study, the use of the MAP—eCG is the best choice to improve the fertility rate on ewes.

  11. Primary pulmonary choriocarcinoma after human chorionic gonadotropin normalization following hydatidiform mole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maestá, Izildinha; Leite, Fábio Vicente; Michelin, Odair Carlito

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary pulmonary choriocarcinoma (PPC) is rare and frequently leads to death. CASES: Two young patients presented with previous molar pregnancy and spontaneous serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) normalization. Patient 1 was referred to our center after partial response to chemo...

  12. A review of luteinising hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin when used in assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezcurra, Diego; Humaidan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    to the purification process, thus hCG, mimicking LH action, is added to standardise the product. However, unlike LH, hCG plays a very minor role during the natural human menstrual cycle. It is secreted by the embryo and placenta, and its main role is to support implantation and pregnancy. More recently, recombinant......Gonadotropins extracted from the urine of post-menopausal women have traditionally been used to stimulate folliculogenesis in the treatment of infertility and in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Products, such as human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), consist not only of a mixture...... of the hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), but also other biologically active contaminants, such as growth factors, binding proteins and prions. The actual amount of molecular LH in hMG preparations varies considerably due...

  13. Monoclonal antibodies to human chorionic gonadotropin and their application to two-site sandwich radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuchi, A.; Iio, M.; Miyachi, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were prepared against human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). One monoclonal antibody recognized a conformational determinant expressed only on native HCG molecule and another monoclonal antibody had the specificity for the epitopes located on the β-subunit of HCG. Monoclonal antibodies reacting with different antigenic determinants on the HCG molecule were used to develop a simplified 2-site sandwich radioimmunoassay in which one monoclonal antibody was immobilized and another labeled with 125 iodine. This assay was highly specific for HCG and there was no cross-reactivity with α,β-subunit of HCG, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone. (Auth.)

  14. Predictive value of plasma human chorionic gonadotropin measured 14 days after Day-2 single embryo transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løssl, Kristine; Oldenburg, Anna; Toftager, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Prediction of pregnancy outcome after in vitro fertilization is important for patients and clinicians. Early plasma human chorionic gonadotropin (p-hCG) levels are the best known predictor of pregnancy outcome, but no studies have been restricted to single embryo transfer (SET) of Day......-2 embryos. The aim of the present study was to investigate the predictive value of p-hCG measured exactly 14 days after the most commonly used Day-2 SET on pregnancy, delivery, and perinatal outcome. Material and methods: A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data on 466 women who had...... p-hCG measured exactly 14 days after Day-2 SET during a randomized trial including 1050 unselected women (aged 18–40 years) undergoing their first in vitro fertilization/ intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment. Results: The p-hCG predicted clinical pregnancy [area under the curve (AUC) 0.953; 95...

  15. Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations in cervicovaginal secretions in preterm delivery

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    Talip Gül

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate beta-human corionic gonadotropin (β-hCG levels in cervicovaginal secretions as an early marker for preterm delivery.Methods: The study included 55 patients at 25-36 of gestational weeks with preterm delivery risk factors including a history of preterm labor in a previous pregnancy or history of second trimester abortion. Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG levels of cervicovaginal secretions were measured in all patients by the radioimmunoassay method using a commercial kit.Results: Preterm delivery was observed in 25 patients and 30 patients gave term delivery. No significant differences were found between preterm and term delivery groups in age, gravidity and parity (P>0.05. APGAR scores and anthropometric measurements of newborns were significantly lower in preterm delivery group (P<0.001. Preterm delivery group had significantly higher cervicovaginal β-hCG levels compared with normal controls (94.7±37.7 vs. 35.5±14.8 mIU/ml, respectively, P<0.001. When 75 mIU/ml value of β-hCG level was taken as cut-off value; the sensitivity of the test was found as 76%, specifity 91.6%, positive predictive value 95.0% and negative predictive value as 79.9%.Conclusion: Concentrations of β-hCG in cervicovaginal secretions may be a useful early biochemical marker to detect preterm. Based on β-hCG levels in cervicovaginal secretions a closer follow-up may decrease some complications of preterm delivery. J Clin Exp Invest 2010; 1(1: 16-20

  16. Interaction Of Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles With Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Modifies Secondary And Tertiary Protein Structure

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    Al-Hakeim Hussein K

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaPNP have good biocompatibility and bioactivity inside human body. In this study, the interaction between CaPNP and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG was analyzed to determine the changes in the protein structure in the presence of CaPNP and the quantity of protein adsorbed on the CaPNP surface. The results showed a significant adsorption of hCG on the CaPNP nanoparticle surface. The optimal fit was achieved using the Sips isotherm equation with a maximum adsorption capacity of 68.23 µg/mg. The thermodynamic parameters, including ∆H° and ∆G°, of the adsorption process are positive, whereas ∆S° is negative. The circular dichroism results of the adsorption of hCG on CaPNP showed the changes in its secondary structure; such changes include the decomposition of α-helix strand and the increase in β-pleated sheet and random coil percentages. Fluorescence study indicated minimal changes in the tertiary structure near the microenvironment of the aromatic amino acids such as tyrosine and phenyl alanine caused by the interaction forces between the CaPNP and hCG protein. The desorption process showed that the quantity of the hCG desorbed significantly increases as temperature increases, which indicates the weak forces between hCG and the surface.

  17. Oxygen-Sensitive K+ Channels Modulate Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Secretion from Human Placental Trophoblast

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    Díaz, Paula; Sibley, Colin P.; Greenwood, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a key autocrine/paracrine regulator of placental syncytiotrophoblast, the transport epithelium of the human placenta. Syncytiotrophoblast hCG secretion is modulated by the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and potassium (K+) channels. Here we test the hypothesis that K+ channels mediate the effects of pO2 and ROS on hCG secretion. Placental villous explants from normal term pregnancies were cultured for 6 days at 6% (normoxia), 21% (hyperoxia) or 1% (hypoxia) pO2. On days 3–5, explants were treated with 5mM 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) or tetraethylammonium (TEA), blockers of pO2-sensitive voltage-gated K+ (KV) channels, or ROS (10–1000μM H2O2). hCG secretion and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, a marker of necrosis, were determined daily. At day 6, hCG and LDH were measured in tissue lysate and 86Rb (K+) efflux assessed to estimate syncytiotrophoblast K+ permeability. hCG secretion and 86Rb efflux were significantly greater in explants maintained in 21% pO2 than normoxia. 4-AP/TEA inhibited hCG secretion to a greater extent at 21% than 6% and 1% pO2, and reduced 86Rb efflux at 21% but not 6% pO2. LDH release and tissue LDH/hCG were similar in 6%, 21% and 1% pO2 and unaffected by 4-AP/TEA. H2O2 stimulated 86Rb efflux and hCG secretion at normoxia but decreased 86Rb efflux, without affecting hCG secretion, at 21% pO2. 4-AP/TEA-sensitive K+ channels participate in pO2-sensitive hCG secretion from syncytiotrophoblast. ROS effects on both hCG secretion and 86Rb efflux are pO2-dependent but causal links between the two remain to be established. PMID:26863525

  18. Use of a radioreceptorassay of human chorionic gonadotropin for the diagnosis and management of ectopic pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, B.B.; Landesman, R.

    1975-01-01

    The radioreceptorassay of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), with a sensitivity of 50 pg or 3 mIU/ml of plasma, has provided almost 100 percent reliability in detecting pregnancy after the first missed cycle. This test may be performed within 1 hour and is ideally suited to the clinical detection of ectopic pregnancy, especially in patients who require immediate surgical intervention. Thirteen patients with suspected ectopic pregnancy were evaluated by the radioreceptorassay, one of whom was followed with four separate determinations. The results of the assay were subsequently compared with those of hemagglutination pregnancy tests, clinical symptoms, and pathologic findings. All of the patients were diagnosed accurately by the radioreceptorassay, even when hemagglutination tests yielded a false indication of pregnancy. By this assay, the hCG levels during ectopic pregnancies are generally lower than those found during a normal intrauterine pregnancy; in addition, pregnancy may be detected much earlier (prior to the rupture) than is possible by hemagglutination tests. Furthermore, the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy may be excluded for patients admitted to the hospital with acute abdominal emergencies

  19. Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and alphafeto protein (AFP) in sudanese pregnant women using immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, O. M.; Khalid, M. M.; Hassan, A.; Ali, N. I.; Khalid, A. SH.; Abdelhadi, H. A.; Khair, L. A. M.; Almahi, W. A.; Gaafar, A.; Abdalla, H.; Basheer, H.

    2004-12-01

    In this study 672 pregnant Sudanese women were involved in order to determine the reference values of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and alpha feto protein (AFP). Blood samples were collected from different maternity centers in Khartoum and Omdurman maternity. Sensitive immunoradiometric assay (IRMA), method was used for measuring HCG and AFP in maternal serum. The data collected reveals that, the behavior of both AFP and HCG resemble that of the international one, where the peak concentrations of HCG are reached at 7-9 weeks of pregnancy then decrease, then staying relatively constant during the second trimester and increasing slightly towards term. The maternal serum concentration of AFP increases during pregnancy, reaching its peak during the last trimester. The concentration of AFP and HCG in maternal serum with relative couples was also compared to that of ir relative couples. Relative couples showed significant increase in maternal AFP level in the first and third trimesters (p=0.001and 0.000) respectively. The HCG concentration in both groups was not significantly different throughout the pregnancy (p>0.15). It is recommended that each laboratory establishes its own normal values. Since sudanese obstetrician depends previously on values from abroad, this study may help them to handle their patients depending on our own reference values.(Author)

  20. Effect of Adding Human Chorionic Gonadotropin to The Endometrial Preparation Protocol in Frozen Embryo Transfer Cycles

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    Maryam Eftekhar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG, one of the initial embryonic signals, isprobably a major regulator of the embryo-endometrial relationship. This study aims to assess theadvantage of HCG supplementation during the secretory phase of hormonally prepared cycles forthe transfer of cryopreserved-thawed embryos.Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial. Infertile women who werecandidates for frozen-thawed embryo transfers entered the study and were divided into two groups,HCG and control. The endometrial preparation method was similar in both groups: all women receivedestradiol valerate (6 mg po per day from the second day of the menstrual cycle and progesteronein oil (100 mg intramuscular (I.M. when the endometrial thickness reached 8 mm. Estradiol andprogesterone were continued until the tenth week of gestation. In the HCG group, patients received anHCG 5000 IU injection on the first day of progesterone administration and the day of embryo transfer.Results: In this study, 130 couples participated: 65 in the HCG group and 65 in the control group.There was no statistically significant difference between groups regarding basic characteristics.Implantation rate, chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, and abortion rateswere similar in both groups.Conclusion: Although HCG has some advantages in assisted reproductive technology (ARTcycles, our study did not show any benefit of HCG supplementation during the secretory phase offrozen cycles (Registration Number: IRCT201107266420N4.

  1. [Association of human chorionic gonadotropin level in embryo culture media with early embryo development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiying; Zhang, Renli; Han, Dong; Liu, Caixia; Cai, Jiajie; Bi, Yanling; Wen, Anmin; Quan, Song

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the association of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) level on day 3 of embryo culture with embryo development. Spent culture media were collected from individually cultured embryos on day 3 of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) cycles. HCG concentration in the culture media was measured using an ELISA kit and its association with embryo development was assessed. In the 163 samples of embryo culture media from 60 patients, HCG was positive in 153 sample (93.8%) with a mean level of 0.85 ± 0.43 mIU/ml. The concentration of hCG in the culture media increased gradually as the number of blastomeres increased (F=2.273, P=0.03), and decreased as the morphological grade of the embryo was lowered (F=3.900, P=0.02). ELISA is capable of detecting HCG levels in spent culture media of embryos on day 3 of in vitro culture. The concentration of HCG in spent culture media is positively correlated with the status of early embryo development and implantation rate and thus serves as a useful marker for embryo selection in IVF-ET procedure.

  2. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia after spontaneous human chorionic gonadotropin normalization following molar pregnancy evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Antonio; Maestá, Izildinha; Matos, Michelle; Elias, Kevin M; Rizzo, Julianna; Viggiano, Maurício Guilherme Campos

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the risk of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) after spontaneous human chorionic gonadotropin normalization in postmolar follow-up. Retrospective chart review of 2284 consecutive cases of hydatidiform mole with spontaneous normalization of hCG following uterine evacuation treated at one of five Brazilian reference centers from January 2002 to June 2013. After hCG normalization, GTN occurred in 10/2284 patients (0.4%; 95% CI 0.2%-0.8%). GTN developed in 9/1424 patients (0.6%; 95% CI 0.3%-1.2%) after a complete hydatidiform mole, in 1/849 patients (0.1%; 95% CInormalization was 18months, and no diagnoses were made before six months of postmolar surveillance. Patients who required more than 56days to achieve a normal hCG value had a ten-fold increased risk of developing GTN after hCG normalization (9/1074; 0.8%; 95% CI 0.4%-1.6%) compared to those who reached a normal hCG level in fewer than 56days (1/1210;0.08%; 95% CInormalization following molar pregnancy is exceedingly rare, and the few patients who do develop GTN after achieving a normal hCG value are likely to be diagnosed after completing the commonly recommended six months of postmolar surveillance. Current recommendations for surveillance after hCG normalization should be revisited. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and alphafeto protein (AFP) in Sudanese pregnant women using immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, O. M.; Khalid, M. M.; Hassan, A.; Ali, N. I.; Khalid, A. SH.; Abdelhadi, H. A.; Khair, L. A. M.; Almahi, W. A.; Gaafar, A.; Abdalla, H.; Basheer, H.

    2004-01-01

    In this study 672 pregnant Sudanese women were involved in order to determine the reference values of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) and alpha feto protein (AFP). Blood samples were collected from different maternity centers in Khartoum and Omdurman maternity. Sensitive immunoradiometric assay (IRMA), method was used for measuring HCG and AFP in maternal serum. The data collected reveals that, the behavior of both AFP and HCG resemble that of the international one, where the peak concentrations of HCG are reached at 7-9 weeks of pregnancy then decrease, then staying relatively constant during the second trimester and increasing slightly towards term. The maternal serum concentration of AFP increases during pregnancy, reaching its peak during the last trimester. The concentration of AFP and HCG in maternal serum with relative couples was also compared to that of ir relative couples. Relative couples showed significant increase in maternal AFP level in the first and third trimesters (p= 0.001and 0.000) respectively. The HCG concentration in both groups was not significantly different throughout the pregnancy (p> 0.15). It is recommended that each laboratory establishes its own normal values. Since Sudanese obstetrician depends previously on values from abroad, this study may help them to handle their patients depending on our own reference values. (Authors)

  4. CDK1 inhibition facilitates formation of syncytiotrophoblasts and expression of human Chorionic Gonadotropin

    KAUST Repository

    Ullah, Rahim

    2018-05-17

    Aims The human placental syncytiotrophoblast (STB) cells play essential roles in embryo implantation and nutrient exchange between the mother and the fetus. STBs are polyploid which are formed by fusion of diploid cytotrophoblast (CTB) cells. Abnormality in STBs formation can result in pregnancy-related disorders. While a number of genes have been associated with CTB fusion the initial events that trigger cell fusion are not well understood. Primary objective of this study was to enhance our understanding about the molecular mechanism of placental cell fusion. Methods FACS and microscopic analysis was used to optimize Forskolin-induced fusion of BeWo cells (surrogate of CTBs) and subsequently, changes in the expression of different cell cycle regulator genes were analyzed through Western blotting and qPCR. Immunohistochemistry was performed on the first trimester placental tissue sections to validate the results in the context of placental tissue. Effect of Cyclin Dependent Kinase 1 (CDK1) inhibitor, RO3306, on BeWo cell fusion was studied by microscopy and FACS, and by monitoring the expression of human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) by Western blotting and qPCR. Results The data showed that the placental cell fusion was associated with down regulation of CDK1 and its associated cyclin B, and significant decrease in DNA replication. Moreover, inhibition of CDK1 by an exogenous inhibitor induced placental cell fusion and expression of hCG. Conclusion Here, we report that the placental cell fusion can be induced by inhibiting CDK1. This study has a high therapeutic significance to manage pregnancy related abnormalities.

  5. Hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin does not increase progesterone production by luteinized granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crochet, John R; Shah, Anish A; Schomberg, David W; Price, Thomas M

    2012-09-01

    Trophoblast-derived human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) promotes corpus luteum progesterone (P4) production, and wide ranges of serum P4 levels are noted in various pregnancy outcomes, despite similar hCG concentrations. There are five unique biologically active hCG variants in human pregnancy urine, and previous studies of P4 production in response to hCG have used only preparations containing all isoforms. Understanding exactly which hCG variant is primarily responsible for stimulating corpus luteum steroidogenesis may have great clinical and diagnostic implications, including in the setting of ectopic pregnancy. Our objective was to delineate the role of the standard and hyperglycosylated (H)-hCG isoforms in stimulating P4 production by luteinized granulosa cells. Cell culture, ELISA, and fluorometric-based protein assays were done at Duke University Medical Center. Patients were anonymous oocyte donors. Cultured luteinized granulosa cells were treated with 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 ng/ml total hCG, which contains all isoforms, purified standard hCG (37.1 kDa), and purified H-hCG (42.8 kDa). P4 produced per total cellular protein (nanograms per microgram) was measured via ELISA and fluorometric protein determination kits. Both total hCG (P = 0.0003) and purified standard hCG (P production. Purified H-hCG did not change the P4 produced per total cellular protein response (P value not significant). Standard hCG stimulated P4 production by cultured granulosa cells and likely supports corpus luteum function via interactions with the LH/hCG receptor. In contrast, H-hCG did not increase P4 production, which indicates a nonsteroidogenic role for this protein during early gestation.

  6. Serum human chorionic gonadotropin is associated with angiogenesis in germ cell testicular tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avilés-Salas Alejandro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germ cell testicular tumors have survival rate that diminishes with high tumor marker levels, such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG. hCG may regulate vascular neoformation through vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Our purpose was to determine the relationship between hCG serum levels, angiogenesis, and VEGF expression in germ cell testicular tumors. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 101 patients. Serum levels of hCG, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and lactate dehydrogenase were measured prior to surgery. Vascular density (VD and VEGF tissue expression were determined by immunohistochemistry and underwent double-blind analysis. Results Histologically, 46% were seminomas and 54%, non-seminomas. Median follow-up was 43 ± 27 months. Relapse was present in 7.5% and mortality in 11.5%. Factors associated with high VD included non-seminoma type (p = 0.016, AFP ≥ 14.7 ng/mL (p = 0.0001, and hCG ≥ 25 mIU/mL (p = 0.0001. In multivariate analysis, the only significant VD-associated factor was hCG level (p = 0.04. When hCG levels were stratified, concentrations ≥ 25 mIU/mL were related with increased neovascularization (p Conclusion This is the first study that relates increased serum hCG levels with vascularization in testicular germ cell tumors. Hence, its expression might play a role in tumor angiogenesis, independent of VEGF expression, and may explain its association with poor prognosis. hCG might represent a molecular target for therapy.

  7. False-negative urine human chorionic gonadotropin in molar pregnancy: " The high-dose hook effect" !

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Narendra Datti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Failure to detect pregnancy in the emergency situations can have important consequences. These include missing of ectopic pregnancy (the leading cause of first-trimester pregnancy-related maternal death, administration of medications contraindicated in pregnancy, fetal radiation exposure, and medico legal problems. This in turn has led to the dictum to check for pregnancy in all women of child-bearing age group. Urine pregnancy (human chorionic gonadotropin [hCG] test is the commonly used test to rule out pregnancy and has been reported by Griffey et al. in their study to achieve 100% sensitivity and 99.2% specificity in a clinical setting, resulting in a positive predictive value of 98.3% and a negative predictive value of nearly 100%. However, the sensitivity is influenced not only by the quantity of β hCG but on its variants that vary with different weeks of pregnancy. β hCG is present in several variant forms that change in their concentrations at different stages of pregnancy. In spite of its high sensitivity, in the presence of molar pregnancy that is associated with very high levels of β hCG it fails to detect the antigen (β hCG. This is explained by the phenomenon known as "high-dose hook effect" which further leads to delay in diagnosis and treatment. This can be overcome by dilution of the sample. In such cases, diagnosis will be made by serum β hCG and ultrasound (USG. Here, we present a case of gravida 2 para 1 living 1 with 2΍ months amenorrhea with bleeding p/v and pain abdomen of 20 days duration whose urine β hCG was repeatedly negative and diagnosis was made by serum β hCG and USG.

  8. Late-onset hypogonadism: the advantages of treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin rather than testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vignera, Sandro; Condorelli, Rosita Angela; Cimino, Laura; Russo, Giorgio Ivan; Morgia, Giuseppe; Calogero, Aldo E

    2016-01-01

    The traditional pharmacological treatment of patients with late onset hypogonadism (LOH) is represented by different formulations of testosterone (T) or alternatively by the extractive human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). The hormone replacement treatment (HRT) is associated with the potential increase of hematocrit, serum concentrations of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate volume. Moreover, the gynecomastia represent a condition frequently associated with HRT. Recent evidences showed the role of leydig cells in the 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D and the elevated frequency of hypovitaminosis D among LOH patients. Finally, another important aspect of LOH is represented by the frequency of secondary infertility due to age or to traditional HRT. This study evaluated 40 LOH patients treated for 6 months with extractive HCG (n = 10 patients) and three different formulations of T: transdermal (n = 10 patients), undecaonate (n = 10 patients) and enantate (n = 10 patients). Hormonal, anthropometric, metabolic and sperm parameters were evaluated and compared. Moreover, the main safety parameters and the results of the main questionnaires were evaluated. After treatment, HCG group showed serum concentrations of 25-OH-vitamin D significantly higher (p < 0.05) and serum concentrations of oestrogens significantly lower (p < 0.05) compared with other groups. Moreover, they showed a mean value of hematocrit, PSA and prostate volume significantly lower (p < 0.05) compared with other groups. Finally, all the groups treated with T showed a significant reduction (p < 0.05) of sperm density and of percentage of spermatozoa with progressive motility compared with HCG group.

  9. Significance of radioimmunoassay of human chorionic gonadotropin and alpha fetoprotein in nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kausitz, J.; Hupka, S.; Cerny, V.; Bohunicky, L.; Korec, S.

    1980-01-01

    Radioimmunoassays human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and alpha fetoprotein (AFP) made in 49 patients with nonseminomatous testicular tumors showed that these investigations make the diagnosis more precise, permit to follow up the dynamics of the course of the disease and the effectiveness of treatment and may help to reveal the presence of otherwise undetectable tumorous metastases. The significance of these assays is enhanced if the two tumorous proteins are investigated in parallel. The results proved positive in 43 (87.8%) and false negative in 6 (12.2%) of the patients. The absence of HCG and AFP production in some patients with active disorder has not as yet been elucidated. (author)

  10. Significance of radioimmunoassay of human chorionic gonadotropin and alpha fetoprotein in nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kausitz, J.; Hupka, S. (Institute for Postgradual Training of Physicians and Pharmaceutists, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia)); Cerny, V.; Bohunicky, L.; Korec, S. (Ustav Klinickej Onkologie, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia))

    1980-01-01

    Radioimmunoassays human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and alpha fetoprotein (AFP) made in 49 patients with nonseminomatous testicular tumors showed that these investigations make the diagnosis more precise, permit to follow up the dynamics of the course of the disease and the effectiveness of treatment and may help to reveal the presence of otherwise undetectable tumorous metastases. The significance of these assays is enhanced if the two tumorous proteins are investigated in parallel. The results proved positive in 43 (87.8%) and false negative in 6 (12.2%) of the patients. The absence of HCG and AFP production in some patients with active disorder has not as yet been elucidated.

  11. Elevated human chorionic gonadotropin levels in patients with chronic kidney disease: Case series and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Soni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Women are often subjected to serum human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG testing prior to diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. A positive result leads to further testing to rule out pregnancy and avoid possible fetal teratogenicity. The impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD on HCG testing has not been studied. We report a series of 5 women out of 62 with CKD, who had a positive HCG test on routine pre-transplant screening at a single transplant center. We analyzed their case records retrospectively. Despite aggressive investigation, their elevated HCG levels remained unexplained. The positive test contributed to delays in transplantation and increased overall cost of treatment.

  12. GONAD REMATURATION ON Pangasionodon hypophthalmus FEMALE THROUGH INJECTION OF PREGNANT MARE SERUM GONADOTROPIN AND HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Tahapari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The success of spawning is influenced by internal and external factors. One of the factors that affect the var iabi li ty of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus female reproductive is the change of seasons that cause disrupted continuity of the seed availability, especially in the dry season. In the present study, combination of PMSG (pregnant mare serum gonadotropin + HCG (hormone chorionic gonadotropin hormone injections was done to induce gonad development. The treatments in this study were without hormone injections as control (A, injection of PMSG 10 IU/kg + HCG 10 IU/kg (B, and injection of PMSG 20 IU/kg HCG + 10 IU/kg (C. Injections were conducted at intervals of two weeks as many as six times. The results showed that gonad maturation generally occurs 2-4 weeks after estradiol-17 peak. PMSG + HCG hormone injections gave a significant effect on increasing the quantity and quality of eggs production. The fecundity in the A, B, C treatments, were 233,700±220,676; 300,305±24,581 and 488,433±142,228; respectively. Number of larvae produced from the A, B, C treatments, were 156,979±170,838; 229,997±18,081 and 362,713±101,850; respectively. Combination of PMSG 20 IU/kg + HCG 10 IU/kg hormone injection gave the best result on fecundity and the number of larvae production.

  13. New discoveries on the biology and detection of human chorionic gonadotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole Laurence A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG is a glycoprotein hormone comprising 2 subunits, alpha and beta joined non covalently. While similar in structure to luteinizing hormone (LH, hCG exists in multiple hormonal and non-endocrine agents, rather than as a single molecule like LH and the other glycoprotein hormones. These are regular hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG and the free beta-subunit of hyperglycosylated hCG. For 88 years regular hCG has been known as a promoter of corpus luteal progesterone production, even though this function only explains 3 weeks of a full gestations production of regular hCG. Research in recent years has explained the full gestational production by demonstration of critical functions in trophoblast differentiation and in fetal nutrition through myometrial spiral artery angiogenesis. While regular hCG is made by fused villous syncytiotrophoblast cells, extravillous invasive cytotrophoblast cells make the variant hyperglycosylated hCG. This variant is an autocrine factor, acting on extravillous invasive cytotrophoblast cells to initiate and control invasion as occurs at implantation of pregnancy and the establishment of hemochorial placentation, and malignancy as occurs in invasive hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma. Hyperglycosylated hCG inhibits apoptosis in extravillous invasive cytotrophoblast cells promoting cell invasion, growth and malignancy. Other non-trophoblastic malignancies retro-differentiate and produce a hyperglycosylated free beta-subunit of hCG (hCG free beta. This has been shown to be an autocrine factor antagonizing apoptosis furthering cancer cell growth and malignancy. New applications have been demonstrated for total hCG measurements and detection of the 3 hCG variants in pregnancy detection, monitoring pregnancy outcome, determining risk for Down syndrome fetus, predicting preeclampsia, detecting pituitary hCG, detecting and managing gestational trophoblastic diseases, diagnosing quiescent

  14. The effect of administering equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) post artificial insemination on fertility of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolome, J A; Wallace, S Perez; de la Sota, R L; Thatcher, W W

    2012-09-15

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and hCG post artificial insemination (AI) on fertility of lactating dairy cows. In Experiment 1, cows were either treated with eCG on Day 22 post AI (400 IU; n = 80) or left untreated (n = 84). On Day 29, pregnant cows were either treated with hCG (2500 IU; n = 32) or left untreated (n = 36). Pregnancy and progesterone were evaluated on Days 29 and 45. In Experiment 2, cows (n = 28) were either treated with eCG on Day 22 (n = 13) or left untreated (n = 15) and either treated with hCG on Day 29 (n = 14) or left untreated (n = 14). Blood sampling and ultrasonography were conducted between Days 22 and 45. In Experiment 3, cows were either treated with eCG on Day 22 post AI (n = 229) or left untreated (n = 241). Pregnancy was evaluated on Days 36 and 85. In Experiment 1, eCG on Day 22 increased (P cows on Day 29 (50.0 vs. 33.3%) and on Day 45, the increase was higher (P cows with timed AI (41.2 vs. 6.5%) than in cows AI at detected estrus (50.0 vs. 37.8%). Pregnancy losses were reduced by eCG and hCG, but increased in cows that did not receive eCG but were given hCG (P cows, but not in cows treated with eCG. In Experiment 2, hCG increased (P cows (P cows with low body condition (eCG = 45.6 and 43.5%; Control = 22.9 and 22.9%). In conclusion, eCG at 22 days post insemination increased fertility, primarily in cows with low body condition and reduced pregnancy losses when given 7 days before hCG; hCG induced accessory CLs and slightly increased progesterone, but hCG given in the absence of a prior eCG treatment reduced fertility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. INCREASED MATERNAL SERUM ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN AND HUMAN CHORIONIC-GONADOTROPIN IN COMPROMISED PREGNANCIES OTHER THAN FOR NEURAL-TUBE DEFECTS OR DOWN-SYNDROME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEEKHUIS, [No Value; VANLITH, JMM; DEWOLF, BTHM; MANTINGH, A

    Intrauterine fetal death occurred in four women who were 'screen-positive' in a screening programme for neural tube defects (NTDs) and Down syndrome (DS). These women had very high levels of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) and maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (MShCG). Therefore,

  16. ABNORMAL LEVELS OF MATERNAL SERUM HUMAN CHORIONIC-GONADOTROPIN AND ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN IN THE 2ND-TRIMESTER - RELATION TO FETAL WEIGHT AND PRETERM DELIVERY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MORSSINK, LP; KORNMAN, LH; BEEKHUIS, [No Value; DEWOLF, BTHM; MANTINGH, A

    The aim of this prospective descriptive cross-sectional study was to examine the clinical significance of abnormal maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (MShCG) and alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) in the second trimester of pregnancy. The study group comprised 8892 women with a singleton pregnancy,

  17. A peptide mimic of an antigenic loop of alpha-human chorionic gonadotropin hormone: solution structure and interaction with a llama V-HH domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrat, G.; Renisio, J.G.; Morelli, X.; Slootstra, J.W.; Meloen, R.; Cambillau, C.; Darbon, H.

    2002-01-01

    The X-ray structure of a ternary complex between human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (hCG) and two Fvs recognizing its alpha and beta subunits has been recently determined. The Fvs recognize the elongated hCG molecule by its two ends, one being the Leu-12-Cys-29 loop of the alpha subunit. We have

  18. Effects of human chorionic gonadotropin combined with clomiphene on Serum E2, FSH, LH and PRL levels in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonggang, Huang; Xiaosheng, Lu; Zhaoxia, Huang; Yilu, Chen; Jiqiang, Lv; Huina, Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Effects of human chorionic gonadotropin combined with clomiphene on serum E 2 , FSH, LH and PRL levels in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome were analyzed. 90 patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome treated from January 2015 to March 2016 were randomly and evenly divided into control group and observation group. Patients in the control group were only treated with clomiphene. On the basis of the treatment in control group, human chorionic gonadotropin was added in the treatment of observation group. The changes of E 2 , FSH, LH, PRL levels were compared between two groups before and after the treatment. Clinical curative effects of patients in the two groups was evaluated. Adverse reactions during treatment in two groups were observed and recorded. The incidence of adverse reactions was calculated. Serum E 2 , FSH, LH and PRL levels in the two groups decreased significantly after treatment compared with that before treatment. The difference is statistical significant ( P   0.05). Combined use of human chorionic gonadotropin can significantly reduce serum E 2 , FSH, LH and PRL levels, improve clinical curative effects and reduce the incidence of adverse reactions. Human chorionic gonadotropin has high application value on the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome.

  19. The human chorionic gonadotropin-beta arginine68 to glutamic acid substitution fixes the conformation of the C-terminal peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charrel-Dennis, Marie; Terrazzini, Nadia; McBride, Jeffrey D

    2005-01-01

    Wild-type human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has been used as a contraceptive vaccine. However, extensive sequence homology with LH elicits production of cross-reactive antibodies. Substitution of arginine(68) of the beta-subunit (hCG(beta)) with glutamic acid (R68E) profoundly reduces the cross...

  20. Intrauterine administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for subfertile women undergoing assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciunas, Laurentiu; Tsampras, Nikolaos; Coomarasamy, Arri; Raine-Fenning, Nick

    2016-05-20

    Subfertility affects 15% of couples and represents the inability to conceive naturally following 12 months of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. Assisted reproduction refers to procedures involving the in vitro handling of both human gametes and represents a key option for many subfertile couples. Most women undergoing assisted reproduction treatment will reach the stage of embryo transfer (ET) but the proportion of embryos that successfully implant following ET has remained small since the mid-1990s. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone synthesised and released by the syncytiotrophoblast and has a fundamental role in embryo implantation and the early stages of pregnancy. Intrauterine administration of synthetic or natural hCG via an ET catheter during a mock procedure around the time of ET is a novel approach that has recently been suggested to improve the outcomes of assisted reproduction. To investigate whether the intrauterine administration of hCG around the time of ET improves the clinical outcomes in subfertile women undergoing assisted reproduction. We performed a comprehensive literature search of the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, registers of ongoing trials andreference lists of all included studies and relevant reviews (from inception to 10 November 2015), in consultation with the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Trials Search Co-ordinator. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating intrauterine administration of hCG around the time of ET in this review irrespective of language and country of origin. Two authors independently selected studies, assessed risk of bias, extracted data from studies and attempted to contact the authors where data were missing. We performed statistical analysis using Review Manager 5 in accordance with the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of

  1. Expression of β human chorionic gonadotropin in the placenta of gestational diabetic mothers: an immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Muhammed Erdal; Deveci, Engin; Evsen, Mehmet Siddik; Kalkanhi, Sevgi; Baran, Ozlem; Ozekinci, Selver; Seker, Uğur

    2013-02-01

    To investigate morphologic differences of the placenta in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes compared to nondiabetic pregnancies. This was a comparative morphological study of the placentas from 20 women with gestational diabetes and 20 healthy pregnancies at 28-35 weeks of gestation. The presence of lesions such as fibrinoid necrosis, villous edema, syncytial knot and vascular lesions like chorangiosis was apparent, mainly in the diabetes group. There was an apparent decrease in the intensity of the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) immunostaining in the syncytiotrophoblast from the 28th to 35th weeks of gestation in the placentas of the healthy control group. No hCG immunostaining was observed in the villous or intervillous areas of any of the placentas. In diabetic placentas the expression of hCG was homogeneous with a moderate to intense immunoreactivity in the syncytiotrophoblast. Several syncytiotrophoblast cells showed dilations of both rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum and loss and alteration of microvilli, and large vacuoles were observed just below the plasma membrane, as well as irregularities in the mitochondria. Syncytial cells play an important role in the placental transition. Increased expression of beta-hCG, deterioration, degeneration of organelles and cell structure and the basal membrane disorder in chorionic vessels were seen in placentas with gestational diabetes. These changes can affect placental transfer. However, further studies are needed to clarify this issue.

  2. Induction of puberty with human chorionic gonadotropin and follicle-stimulating hormone in adolescent males with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio, R; de Luis, D; Alonso, M; Lamas, A; Moreno, J C

    1999-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical and hormonal responses of adolescent males with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) in response to gonadotropin replacement with the use of long-term combined hCG and FSH therapy. Prospective clinical study. Clinical pediatric department providing tertiary care. Seven prepubertal males with isolated HH with a mean (+/-SD) age of 15.44+/-1.97 years and seven prepubertal males with panhypopituitarism-associated HH with a mean (+/-SD) age of 18.1+/-3.24 years were studied. Human chorionic gonadotropin (1,000-1,500 IU IM) and FSH (75-100 IU SC) were administered every alternate day of the week until the total induction of puberty and spermatogenesis was achieved. Serum testosterone levels, testicular volume, penis length, and sperm count were evaluated after the administration of hCG and FSH. All patients achieved normal sexual maturation and normal or nearly normal adult male levels of testosterone. The increase in testicular size was significant in both groups. Positive sperm production was assessed in four of five patients with isolated HH and in three of three patients with panhypopituitarism-associated HH. Long-term combined hCG and FSH therapy is effective in inducing puberty, increasing testicular volume, and stimulating spermatogenesis in adolescent males with isolated HH and panhypopituitarism-associated HH.

  3. Features of natural and gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist-induced corpus luteum regression and effects of in vivo human chorionic gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Canto, Felipe; Sierralta, Walter; Kohen, Paulina; Muñoz, Alex; Strauss, Jerome F; Devoto, Luigi

    2007-11-01

    The natural process of luteolysis and luteal regression is induced by withdrawal of gonadotropin support. The objectives of this study were: 1) to compare the functional changes and apoptotic features of natural human luteal regression and induced luteal regression; 2) to define the ultrastructural characteristics of the corpus luteum at the time of natural luteal regression and induced luteal regression; and 3) to examine the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on the steroidogenic response and apoptotic markers within the regressing corpus luteum. Twenty-three women with normal menstrual cycles undergoing tubal ligation donated corpus luteum at specific stages in the luteal phase. Some women received a GnRH antagonist prior to collection of corpus luteum, others received an injection of hCG with or without prior treatment with a GnRH antagonist. Main outcome measures were plasma hormone levels and analysis of excised luteal tissue for markers of apoptosis, histology, and ultrastructure. The progesterone and estradiol levels, corpus luteum DNA, and protein contents in induced luteal regression resembled those of natural luteal regression. hCG treatment raised progesterone and estradiol in both natural luteal regression and induced luteal regression. The increase in apoptosis detected in induced luteal regression by cytochrome c in the cytosol, activated caspase-3, and nuclear DNA fragmentation, was similar to that observed in natural luteal regression. The antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 was significantly lower during natural luteal regression. The proapoptotic proteins Bax and Bak were at a constant level. Apoptotic and nonapoptotic death of luteal cells was observed in natural luteal regression and induced luteal regression at the ultrastructural level. hCG prevented apoptotic cell death, but not autophagy. The low number of apoptotic cells disclosed and the frequent autophagocytic suggest that multiple mechanisms are involved in cell death at luteal

  4. Chorionic gonadotropin regulates the transcript level of VHL, p53, and HIF-2alpha in human granulosa lutein cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, D; Keck, C; Tempfer, C; Pietrowski, Detlef

    2004-12-01

    The ovarian corpus luteum plays a critical role in reproduction being the primary source of circulating progesterone. After ovulation the corpus luteum is build by avascular granulosa lutein cells through rapid vascularization regulated by gonadotropic hormones. The present study was performed to investigate whether this process might be influenced by the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-dependent expression of different tumor suppressor genes and hypoxia dependent transcription factors. RNA was isolated from cultured granulosa lutein cells, transcribed into cDNA, and the transcript level of following genes were determined: RB-1, VHL, NF-1, NF-2, Wt-1, p53, APC, and hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), -2, and -3alpha. Additionally, the influence of hCG on the expression of VHL, p53, and HIf2alpha were investigated. We demonstrate that in human granulosa lutein cells the tumor suppressor genes RB-1, VHL, NF-1, NF-2, Wt-1, p53, and APC and the hypoxia dependent transcription factors HIF-1alpha, -2alpha, and -3alpha are expressed. In addition, we showed that hCG regulates the expression of p53, VHL, and HIF-2alpha. Our results indicate that hCG may determine the growth and development of the corpus luteum by mediating hypoxic and apoptotic pathways in human granulosa lutein cells. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Effects of luteinizing hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin on corpus luteum cells in a spheroid cell culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, A; Keck, C; Weber, H; Kissel, C; Pietrowski, D

    2005-09-01

    The human corpus luteum (CL) is a highly vascularized, temporarily active endocrine gland and consists mainly of granulosa cells (GCs), theca cells (TCs), and endothelial cells (ECs). Its cyclic growth and development takes place under the influence of gonadotropic hormones. If pregnancy does occur, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) takes over the function of luteinizing hormone (LH) and, in contrast to LH, extends the functional life span of the CL. In this study, we investigated the effects of hCG and LH in a spheroidal cell culture model of CL development. Our data indicate that GCs secrete factors under the control of hCG that increase sprout formation of EC-spheroids. We demonstrate that the most prominent of these factors is VEGF-A. Furthermore, we found that both LH and hCG decrease sprout formation of GC-spheroids. After forming EC-GC coculture spheroids and consequently bringing GCs and ECs in close contact, sprouting increased under the influence of hCG, however not under LH. These experiments provide evidence for an hCG dependent functional switch in the GCs after coming in contact with ECs. Moreover, it demonstrates the considerably different effects of hCG and LH on GCs although their signaling is transmitted via the same receptor.

  6. A facile and sensitive peptide-modulating graphene oxide nanoribbon catalytic nanoplasmon analytical platform for human chorionic gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Aihui; Li, Chongning; Li, Dan; Luo, Yanghe; Wen, Guiqing; Jiang, Zhiliang

    2017-01-01

    The nanogold reaction between HAuCl 4 and citrate is very slow, and the catalyst graphene oxide nanoribbon (GONR) enhanced the nanoreaction greatly to produce gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) that exhibited strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption (Abs) at 550 nm and resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) at 550 nm. Upon addition of the peptide of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), the peptide could adsorb on the GONR surface, which inhibited the catalysis. When hCG was added, peptides were separated from the GONR surface due to the formation of stable peptide-hCG complex, which led to the activation of GONR catalytic effect. With the increase in hCG concentration, the RRS and Abs signal enhanced linearly. The enhanced RRS value showed a good linear relationship with hCG concentration in the range of 0.2-20 ng/mL, with a detection limit of 70 pg/mL. Accordingly, two new GONR catalytic RRS/Abs methods were established for detecting hCG in serum samples.

  7. The optimal cutoff serum level of human chorionic gonadotropin for efficacy of methotrexate treatment in women with extrauterine pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagiv, Ron; Debby, Abraham; Feit, Hagit; Cohen-Sacher, Bina; Keidar, Ran; Golan, Abraham

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of methotrexate treatment for extrauterine pregnancy and define criteria for prediction of success. Of 829 patients with an ectopic pregnancy admitted to E. Wolfson Medical Center, Holon, Israel, from January 1997 through December 2009, 238 had asymptomatic tubal pregnancies and increasing serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin (βhCG) levels. These patients were treated with a single intramuscular injection of 50mg of methotrexate (MTX) per square meter of body surface. Success was defined as undetectable βhCG levels without the need for a surgical intervention. The groups of patients successfully treated (n=167 [70%]) and unsuccessfully treated (n=71 [30%]) were compared. They were similar regarding age and gravidity. The initial serum βhCG level was significantly higher in the latter group than in the former (3798 mIU/mL vs. 1601 mIU/mL, Pinitial βhCG levels were less than 1000 mIU/mL, 71% when they were between 1000 and 2000 mIU/mL, and only 59% when they were between 2000 and 3000 mIU/mL. Methotrexate treatment is a safe and effective alternative to surgery. However, patients with initial βhCG levels higher than 2000 mIU/mL should only be offered the surgical approach. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Biological and biochemical properties of human chorionic gonadotropin from urine of patients with hydatidiform mole and its radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Ryuichiro; Hamamoto, Tamotsu; Tanabe, Keizo; Takemori, Masayuki; Ashitaka, Yoshihiko

    1981-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was extracted and purified from the urine of four patients with hydatidiform mole. The immunological activities of the hCG-hydatidiform mole by hCG radioimmunoassay (RIA) ranged from 9,380 to 9,700 IU/mg, and the biological activities measured by the immature rat ovarian weight method ranged from 7,250 to 7,780 IU/mg. The results of the amino acid compositions of all the hCG-hydatidiform moles were practically identical with those of hCG-normal pregnancies. The carbohydrate moiety of the hCG-hydatidiform mole was also suspected to be almost similar to that of hCG-normal pregnancies by the results of their in vitro and in vivo biological activities. It was demonstrated that hCG-hydatidiform mole was composed of α and β subunits (similar to a hCG-normal pregnancy) when hCG-hydatidiform mole was separated into subunits by SDS disc electrophoresis after treatment with mercaptoethanol. The RIA system of hCG-hydatidiform mole can be established. The concentrations of hCG in sera of normal pregnant women and patients with trophoblastic diseases assayed by hCG-hydatidiform mole RIA were equivalent to those obtained by a standard hCG RIA. Hence, a standard hCG-immunoassay method used in the management of trophoblastic diseases is considered reasonable so far as the immunoantigenecity of hCG is concerned. (author)

  9. Commercial radioimmunoassay for beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin: falsely positive determinations due to elevated serum luteinizing hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.E. Jr.; Platoff, G.E.; Kubrock, C.A.; Stuzman, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Among 17 men who had received seemingly curative treatment for unilateral non-seminomatous germ cell tumors for the testis and who had consistently normal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) levels at a reference laboratory, 7 (41%) had at least one falsely positive commercial serum HCG determination. To investigate the cause of these falsely positive determinations the authors measured the cross reactivity of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) standards in the commercial HCG assay, and studied the relationships between commercial HCG levels and serum LH levels, serum FSH levels and gonadal status in men with and without normal gonadal function. The falsely positive HCG determinations appeared to be due to elevated serum LH levels and cross reactivity of LH in the commercial HCG assay because: 1) there was substantial cross reactivity of the LH standards in the commercial assay, 2) the serum LH was elevated in four of six men with solitary testes, 3) there was a striking correlation between elevated serum LH levels and falsely elevated commercial HCG levels in ten men with solitary or absent testes, and 4) there were no falsely positive HCG determinations in 13 normal men but there were falsely positive HCG determinations in seven of ten anorchid men

  10. A simple and sensitive immunoassay for the determination of human chorionic gonadotropin by graphene-based chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jiuqian; Jing, Tao; Zhou, Tingting; Zhou, Yusun; Wu, Wei; Mei, Surong; Zhou, Yikai

    2014-04-15

    In this study, we report a strategy of chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) using graphene as an efficient long-range energy acceptor. Magnetic nanoparticles were also used in CRET for simple magnetic separation and immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled anti-HCG antibody. In the design of CRET system, the sandwich-type immunocomplex was formed between human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG, antigen) and two different antibodies bridged the magnetic nanoparticles and graphene (acceptors), which led to the occurrence of CRET from chemiluminescence light source to graphene. After optimizing the experimental conditions, the quenching of chemiluminescence signal depended linearly on the concentration of HCG in the range of 0.1 mIU mL(-1)-10 mIU mL(-1) and the detection limit was 0.06 mIU mL(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of HCG levels in saliva and serum samples, and the results were in good agreement with the plate ELISA with colorimetric detection. It could also be developed for detection of other antigen-antibody immune complexes by using the corresponding antigens and respective antibodies. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Effects of preventing O-glycosylation on the secretion of human chorionic gonadotropin in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzuk, M.M.; Krieger, M.; Corless, C.L.; Boime, I.

    1987-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a member of a family of heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones that have a common α subunit but differ in their hormone-specific β-subunits. The β subunit of hCG (hCGβ) is unique among the β subunits in that it contains four mucin-like O-linked oligosaccharides attached to a carboxyl-terminal extension. To study the effects of O-glycosylation on the secretion and assembly of hCG, expression vectors containing either hCGβ gene alone or together with the hCGα gene were transfected into a mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell line, 1d1D, which exhibits a reversible defect in O-glycosylation. The results reveal that hCGβ can be secreted normally in the absence of its O-linked oligosaccharides. hCGβ devoid of O-linked carbohydrate can also combine efficiently with hCGα and be secreted as an intact dimer. The authors conclude that in Chinese hamster ovary cells, the hCGβ O-linked chains play no role in the assembly and secretion of hCG. The normal and O-linked oligosaccharide-deficient forms of hCG secreted by these cells should prove useful in examining the role of O-linked chains on the biological function of hCG

  12. B Subunit of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Promotes Tumor Invasion and Predicts Poor Prognosis of Early-Stage Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiali Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: It is well established that many non-trophoblastic tumors secrete HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin and that such secretion is correlated with the poor prognosis of tumor patients. This study aims to analyze the correlation between β-HCG expression and outcome of colorectal cancer (CRC and understand its role in CRC pathology Methods: We detected the mRNA and protein expression of β-HCG in human CRC tissues with RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry, and we compared the clinical-pathological characteristics, prognosis and progression between the β-HCG positive and negative groups. We also generated CRC cell lines with β-HCG over-expression as well as β-HCG stable knockout, and evaluated cell function and mechanism in vitro and in vivo. Results: Fifty out of 136 CRC patients (37% expressed β-HCG at the invasive front. Clinical-pathological data showed that β-HCG was positively correlated with Dukes staging (P=0.031 and lymph node metastasis (P=0.012. Survival analysis suggested that the patients with high expression of β-HCG had poorer prognosis than those with low β-HCG expression (P=0.0289. β-HCG expression level was also positively correlated with tumor invasion in early-stage CRC patient tissues (P=0.0227. Additionally β-HCG promoted the migration and invasion of CRC in vitro and in vivo but had no effect on the proliferation of tumor cells. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that β-HCG was ectopically expressed in the CRC patients and its high expression correlated with poor prognosis of early-stage CRC. Additionally it worked as an oncogene that promotes the migration and invasion of CRC by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT.

  13. A facile and sensitive peptide-modulating graphene oxide nanoribbon catalytic nanoplasmon analytical platform for human chorionic gonadotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang A

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aihui Liang,1,2,* Chongning Li,1,2,* Dan Li,1,2,* Yanghe Luo,1–3 Guiqing Wen,1,2 Zhiliang Jiang1,2 1Key Laboratory of Ecology of Rare and Endangered Species and Environmental Protection, Guangxi Normal University, Ministry of Education, 2Guangxi Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control Theory and Technology, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin, 3School of Food and Bioengineering, Hezhou University, Hezhou, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The nanogold reaction between HAuCl4 and citrate is very slow, and the catalyst graphene oxide nanoribbon (GONR enhanced the nanoreaction greatly to produce gold nanoparticles (AuNPs that exhibited strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR absorption (Abs at 550 nm and resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS at 550 nm. Upon addition of the peptide of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, the peptide could adsorb on the GONR surface, which inhibited the catalysis. When hCG was added, peptides were separated from the GONR surface due to the formation of stable peptide–hCG complex, which led to the activation of GONR catalytic effect. With the increase in hCG concentration, the RRS and Abs signal enhanced linearly. The enhanced RRS value showed a good linear relationship with hCG concentration in the range of 0.2–20 ng/mL, with a detection limit of 70 pg/mL. Accordingly, two new GONR catalytic RRS/Abs methods were established for detecting hCG in serum samples. Keywords: nanocatalysis, graphene oxide nanoribbon, peptide regulation, hCG, RRS

  14. Prospective assessment of early fetal loss using an immunoenzymometric screening assay for detection of urinary human chorionic gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C A; Overstreet, J W; Samuels, S J; Boyers, S P; Canfield, R E; O'Connor, J F; Hanson, F W; Lasley, B L

    1992-06-01

    To develop an economical, nonradiometric immunoenzymometric assay (IEMA) for the detection of urinary human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in studies of early fetal loss. To be effective, the IEMA must have a sensitivity equal to the standard immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) and sufficient specificity to eliminate the need for screening most nonconceptive cycles with the expensive and labor-intensive IRMA. Two different assays were used to measure hCG in daily early morning urine samples from potential conceptive cycles. Women undergoing donor artificial insemination (AI) were evaluated in a prospective study. Ninety-two women volunteers were selected on the basis of apparent normal reproductive health. Artificial insemination with nonfrozen donor semen was performed by cervical cup twice each menstrual cycle at 48-hour intervals, and daily urine samples were self-collected throughout the menstrual cycle. An IEMA was developed to detect urinary hCG using the same antibodies as in the standard IRMA; a study was designed to determine whether this nonradiometric assay could successfully detect the early fetal loss that was detected by the IRMA. Of 224 menstrual cycles analyzed by both assays, a total of six early fetal losses were detected by the IRMA. When the tentative screening rule was set to allow all six of these losses and 95% of future losses to be detected by the IEMA, an additional 34 false-positive results were detected by the IEMA. The specificity of the IEMA with this rule was calculated to be 84%. An IEMA based on the same antibodies used for the standard IRMA can serve as an efficient screening assay for the detection of early fetal loss. When the IEMA is used in this manner, nearly 80% of screened menstrual cycles can be eliminated without further testing by the IRMA.

  15. Effect of human chorionic gonadotropin on luteal function and reproductive performance of high-producing lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J E; Thatcher, W W; Pool, L; Overton, M W

    2001-11-01

    The objectives were to evaluate effects of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (3,300 IU i.m.) administered on d 5 after AI on CL number, plasma progesterone concentration, conception rate, and pregnancy loss in high-producing dairy cows. Following the synchronization of estrus and AI, 406 cows were injected with either hCG or saline on d 5 after AI in a randomized complete block design. Blood sampling and ovarian ultrasonography were conducted once between d 11 and 16 after AI. Pregnancy diagnoses were performed on d 28 by ultrasonography and on d 45 and 90 after AI by rectal palpation. Treatment with hCG on d 5 resulted in 86.2% of the cows with more than one CL compared with 23.2% in controls. Plasma progesterone concentrations were increased by 5.0 ng/mL in hCG-treated cows. The presence of more than one CL increased progesterone concentration in hCG-treated cows but not in controls. Conception rates were higher for hCG-treated cows on d 28 (45.8 > 38.7%), 45 (40.4 > 36.3%), and 90 (38.4 > 31.9%) after AI. Treatment with hCG improved conception rate in cows losing body condition between AI and d 28 after Al. Pregnancy losses were similar between treatment groups. Treatment with hCG on d 5 after AI induces accessory CL, enhances plasma progesterone concentration, and improves conception rate of high-producing dairy cows.

  16. Concentration of carcinoembryonic antigen alpha-fetoprotein and beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin in the serum of coke oven workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snit, M. [Silesian Medical Academy, Zabrze (Poland)

    1993-01-01

    Increased levels of carcinoembryonic antigen and {alpha}-fetoprotein were found in blood serum of coke oven workers, and also to some extent in smokers and in residents of industrial cities. The {beta} subunit of chorionic gonadotropin was barely detectable.

  17. First trimester pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and human chorionic gonadotropin-beta in early and late pre-eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karahasanovic, Azra; Sørensen, Steen; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to compare pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and the β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCGβ) measured in maternal plasma at the first trimester screening, in women who later developed early or late pre-eclampsia (PE) to women...... with normal pregnancies. Methods: In the study were included 161 cases with PE and 88 controls with uncomplicated pregnancies. Plasma PAPP-A and hCGβ were measured between gestational age (GA) 8+2 and 14+0, and cases with early and late onset PE were compared with controls. Results: Median of hCGβ (Mo...

  18. Effect of human chorionic gonadotropin on sexual maturation, sex steroids and thyroid hormone levels in Caspian lamprey (Caspiomyzon wagneri Kessler, 1870)

    OpenAIRE

    Abedi, M.; Mojazi Amiri, B.; Abdoli, A.; Javanshir, A.; Benam, S.; Namdarian, A.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on sexual maturation, plasma sex steroids [17β-estradiol, (E2) and 17α-hydroxy progesterone (17α_OHP)] and thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine, T3 and thyroxin, T4) levels in upstream - migrating Caspian lamprey. During the experiment, 36 fish (24 females and 12 males) in spring 2013 and 36 fish (24 females and 12 males) in fall 2013 were collected from the Shirud River estuary in Mazandaran Province,...

  19. CDK1 inhibition facilitates formation of syncytiotrophoblasts and expression of human Chorionic Gonadotropin

    KAUST Repository

    Ullah, Rahim; Dar, Saira; Ahmad, Tanvir; de Renty, Christelle; Usman, Mohammad; DePamphilis, Melvin L.; Faisal, Amir; Shahzad-ul-Hussan, Syed; Ullah, Zakir

    2018-01-01

    The human placental syncytiotrophoblast (STB) cells play essential roles in embryo implantation and nutrient exchange between the mother and the fetus. STBs are polyploid which are formed by fusion of diploid cytotrophoblast (CTB) cells

  20. Ovarian and Adrenal Androgens and Their Link to High Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Levels: A Prospective Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Rodríguez-Gutiérrez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although the association between human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG and hyperandrogenism was identified more than 40 years ago, relevant questions remain unanswered. Design and Methods. We conducted a prospective, longitudinal, and controlled study in 23 women with a diagnosis of a complete hydatidiform mole (HM. Results. All participants completed the study. Before HM evacuation mean hCG was markedly higher in the cases than in the control group (P≤0.001. Free testosterone (T and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S were found to be higher in the cases (2.78 ± 1.24 pg/mL and 231.50 ± 127.20 μ/dL when compared to the control group (1.50 ± 0.75 pg/mL and 133.59 ± 60.69 μ/dL (P=0.0001 and 0.001, respectively. There was a strong correlation between hCG and free T/total T/DHEA-S concentrations (r=0.78; P≤0.001, r=0.74;  P≤0.001, and r=0.71;  P≤0.001, respectively. In the cases group 48 hours after HM evacuation, hCG levels were found to be significantly lower when compared to initial levels (P=0.001 and free T and DHEA-S declined significantly (P=0.0002 and 0.009. Conclusion. Before uterus evacuation, hCG, free T, and DHEA-S levels were significantly higher when compared with controls finding a strong correlation between hCG and free T/DHEA-S levels. Forty-eight hours after HM treatment hCG levels declined and the difference was lost. A novel finding of our study is that in cases, besides free T, DHEA-S was also found to be significantly higher and both the ovaries and adrenal glands appear to be the sites of this androgen overproduction.

  1. Development of a radioreceptor assay for human chorion gonadotropin: Application in normal and pathological pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, R.

    1978-01-01

    Rats testes were homogenised, and the binding capacity of several dilutions of these were tested with iodine 125 -labelled human choriongonadotropin. Investigations about binding over a period of 36 hrs. with 3 different temperatures, inhibition tests and cross reaction analyses for determining the specificity were carried out. 2 assay systems could be developed. The highly sensitive assay was applied at early pregnancy, at suspected disturbed or ectopic gravidity and allowed to measure the hCG-serum concentration above the physiological basal secretion of hLH. The less sensitive assay was used for measuring hCG in later stages of pregnancy, chorionepitheliomas and other hCG producing tumours. With the highly sensitive and specific assay, hCG was determinable 8 to 10 days post conceptionem. (orig.) [de

  2. Temporal effects of maternal and pregnancy characteristics on serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and free β-human chorionic gonadotropin at 7-14 weeks' gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ball, S; Ekelund, C; Wright, D

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate gestational age-dependent effects of racial origin, smoking status and mode of conception on maternal serum levels of free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) at 7-14 weeks' gestation. METHODS...

  3. First trimester serum placental growth factor and hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin are associated with pre-eclampsia: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keikkala, Elina; Koskinen, Sini; Vuorela, Piia; Laivuori, Hannele; Romppanen, Jarkko; Heinonen, Seppo; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan

    2016-11-25

    To study whether maternal serum hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG-h) improves first trimester prediction of pre-eclampsia when combined with placental growth factor (PlGF), pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and maternal risk factors. Gestational-age-adjusted concentrations of hCG, hCG-h, PlGF and PAPP-A were analysed in serum samples by time-resolved immunofluorometric assays at 8-13 weeks of gestation. The case-control study included 98 women who developed pre-eclampsia, 25 who developed gestational hypertension, 41 normotensive women with small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants and 177 controls. Of 98 women with pre-eclampsia, 24 women developed preterm pre-eclampsia (diagnosis factors.

  4. Birth after human chorionic gonadotropin-primed oocyte in vitro maturation and fertilization with testicular sperm in a normo-ovulatory patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia González-Ortega

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we present a case of in vitro maturation (IVM with surgical retrieved testicular sperm in a normo-ovulatory female. Human chorionic gonadotropin-primed IVM, testicular biopsy for sperm retrieval and intracytoplasmic sperm injection with fresh sperm were performed. Fourteen cumulus-oocyte complexes were obtained in germinal vesicle or metaphase I stage, eight oocytes reached metaphase II, seven presumptive zygotes were obtained, and three cleavage stages embryos in day 2 were transferred producing a singleton pregnancy. A single healthy newborn was obtained. Our results suggest that IVM may be an alternative for in vitro fertilization in normo-ovulatory women even if surgical retrieval of sperm is needed. Further research is required to depict contributing factors to the success of IVM in indications different from polycystic ovaries syndrome and the role of male gamete.

  5. Loss of tumorigenic potential by human lung tumor cells in the presence of antisense RNA specific to the ectopically synthesized alpha subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, R T; Pasion, S G; Wong, D T; Fei, Y B; Biswas, D K

    1989-06-01

    A clonal strain of human lung tumor cells in culture (ChaGo), derived from a bronchogenic carcinoma, synthesizes and secretes large amounts of alpha (alpha) and a comparatively lower level of beta (beta) subunit of the glycoprotein hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). ChaGo cells lost their characteristic anchorage-independent growth phenotype in the presence of anti-alpha-HCG antibody. The effect of the antibody was partially reversed by addition of alpha-HCG to the culture medium. ChaGo cells were transfected with an expression vector (pRSV-anti-alpha-HCG), that directs synthesis of RNA complementary to alpha-HCG mRNA. The transfectants produced alpha-HCG antisense RNA which was associated with the reduced level of alpha-HCG. Transfectants also displayed several altered phenotypic properties, including altered morphology, less mitosis, reduced growth rate, loss of anchorage-independent growth, and loss of tumorigenicity in nude mice. Treatment of transfectants with 8,bromo-cAMP resulted in increased accumulation of alpha-HCG mRNA, no change in the level of alpha-HCG antisense RNA, release of the inhibition of [3H]thymidine incorporation, and restoration of anchorage-independent growth phenotype. The overexpression of c-myc, observed in ChaGo cells, was unaffected by the reduced level of alpha-HCG. These results suggest that ectopic synthesis of the alpha subunit of HCG plays a functional role in the transformation of these human lung cells.

  6. Production of specific antisera for radioimmunoassay of human luteinizing hormone (LH) in the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorell, J.I.; Jeppsson, S.; Holmstrom, B.

    1976-01-01

    A specific radioimmunoassay for LH, which measures plasma LH in the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is described. Rabbits were immunized with highly purified native LH. One of the antisera with a difference in its reactivity against LH and hCG was further purified by affinity chromatography on a column with hCG coupled to Sepharose 4B. The adsorbed antiserum and 125 I-LH was used in a double antibody assay. The LH standard (MRC/68/40) efficiently inhibited the binding of 125 I-LH, and the standard curve showed a sensitivity of 0.5 ng/ml in the sample. hCG up to 10,000 ng/ml did not inhibit the binding of 125 I-LH. The plasma level of LH in pregnant women in the first trimester was low (1.3 +- 0.1 ng/ml). When LH was measured in fertile or menopausal women with or without stimulation with LH/FSH releasing hormone (LH-RH)/sup x/ the results agreed to those found with our conventional LH-assay based on antiserum against hCG

  7. An autopsied case of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)-producing lung cancer accompanied by bilateral radiation pneumonitis due to small doses of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tano, Yoshihiko; Adachi, Michifumi; Kimura, Makoto; Matsushima, Toshiharu; Torii, Takashi

    1990-01-01

    An autopsied case of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)-producing lung cancer accompanied by bilateral radiation pneumonitis is reported. A 68 year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of an abnormal shadow in his chest x-ray. Lung cancer was diagnosed and treated with radiotherapy. The radiotherapy (1,200 cGy) was discontinued, however because his general condition deteriorated. Chest x-rays then showed a pneumonia-like shadow in the projected field of irradiation. The same shadow was observed in the contralateral lung field one month later. Gynecomastia and an elevated level of serum HCG were noticed during hospitalization. The patient died and an autopsy was performed. Histopathological examination upon autopsy confirmed a large cell carcinoma of the lung which stained positively for HCG with an immunoenzyme labelling technique using the PAP method. Marked fibrosis and thickening of the alveolar septae were histologically demonstrated in the projected field of irradiation and the contralateral field where chest x-rays showed the pneumonia-like shadow. (author)

  8. An autopsied case of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)-producing lung cancer accompanied by bilateral radiation pneumonitis due to small doses of irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tano, Yoshihiko; Adachi, Michifumi; Kimura, Makoto; Matsushima, Toshiharu; Torii, Takashi (Kawasaki Medical School, Kawasaki Hospital, Okayama (Japan))

    1990-07-01

    An autopsied case of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)-producing lung cancer accompanied by bilateral radiation pneumonitis is reported. A 68 year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of an abnormal shadow in his chest x-ray. Lung cancer was diagnosed and treated with radiotherapy. The radiotherapy (1,200 cGy) was discontinued, however because his general condition deteriorated. Chest x-rays then showed a pneumonia-like shadow in the projected field of irradiation. The same shadow was observed in the contralateral lung field one month later. Gynecomastia and an elevated level of serum HCG were noticed during hospitalization. The patient died and an autopsy was performed. Histopathological examination upon autopsy confirmed a large cell carcinoma of the lung which stained positively for HCG with an immunoenzyme labelling technique using the PAP method. Marked fibrosis and thickening of the alveolar septae were histologically demonstrated in the projected field of irradiation and the contralateral field where chest x-rays showed the pneumonia-like shadow. (author).

  9. Elevated second-trimester maternal serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin and amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein as indicators of adverse obstetric outcomes in fetal Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Nava, Francisco; Soto, Marisol; Lanes, Roberto; Pons, Hector; Morales-Machin, Alisandra; Bracho, Ana

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the ability of biochemical analytes to identify adverse outcomes in pregnancies with Turner syndrome. Maternal serum and amniotic fluid (AF) marker concentrations were measured in 73 singleton pregnancies with Turner syndrome (10-22 weeks of gestation). Fetal Turner syndrome was definitively established by cytogenetic analysis. Two subgroups, fetuses with hydrops fetalis versus fetuses with cystic hygroma, were compared. Receiver operating characteristic curves and relative risk were established for a cut-off multiples of the median ≥3.5 for β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or AF alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Forty-nine (67%) of 73 pregnant women had an abnormal maternal serum. While levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and free β-subunit (fβ)-hCG were not different to those of the control group, AFP, unconjugated estriol and β-hCG concentrations were significantly different in the study group (P Turner syndrome pregnancies with the highest risk of fetal death. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Label-Free Sensors Based on Graphene Field-Effect Transistors for the Detection of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Cancer Risk Biomarker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Haslam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the development of label-free chemical vapour deposition (CVD graphene field effect transistor (GFET immunosensors for the sensitive detection of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG, a glycoprotein risk biomarker of certain cancers. The GFET sensors were fabricated on Si/SiO2 substrate using photolithography with evaporated chromium and sputtered gold contacts. GFET channels were functionalised with a linker molecule to an immobile anti-hCG antibody on the surface of graphene. The binding reaction of the antibody with varying concentration levels of hCG antigen demonstrated the limit of detection of the GFET sensors to be below 1 pg/mL using four-probe electrical measurements. We also show that annealing can significantly improve the carrier transport properties of GFETs and shift the Dirac point (Fermi level with reduced p-doping in back-gated measurements. The developed GFET biosensors are generic and could find applications in a broad range of medical diagnostics in addition to cancer, such as neurodegenerative (Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s and cardiovascular disorders.

  11. Human chorionic gonadotropin-administered natural cycle versus spontaneous ovulatory cycle in patients undergoing two pronuclear zygote frozen-thawed embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, You-Jung; Kim, Chung-Hoon; Kim, Do-Young; Ahn, Jun-Woo; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Chae, Hee-Dong; Kang, Byung-Moon

    2018-03-01

    To compare human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)-administered natural cycle with spontaneous ovulatory cycle in patients undergoing frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FTET) in natural cycles. In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed the clinical outcome of a total of 166 consecutive FTET cycles that were performed in either natural cycle controlled by HCG for ovulation triggering (HCG group, n=110) or natural cycle with spontaneous ovulation (control group, n=56) in 166 infertile patients between January 2009 and November 2013. There were no differences in patients' characteristics between the 2 groups. The numbers of oocytes retrieved, mature oocytes, fertilized oocytes, grade I or II embryos and frozen embryos in the previous in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle in which embryos were frozen were comparable between the HCG and control groups. Significant differences were not also observed between the 2 groups in clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), embryo implantation rate, miscarriage rate, live birth rate and multiple CPR. However, the number of hospital visits for follicular monitoring was significantly fewer in the HCG group than in the control group ( P cycle reduces the number of hospital visits for follicular monitoring without any detrimental effect on FTET outcome when compared with spontaneous ovulatory cycles in infertile patients undergoing FTET in natural ovulatory cycles.

  12. Maternal and fetal mechanisms of B cell regulation during pregnancy: human Chorionic Gonadotropin stimulates B cells to produce IL-10 while alpha-fetoprotein drives them into apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Fettke

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maternal immune tolerance towards the fetus is an essential requisite for pregnancy. While T cell functions are well documented, little is known about the participation of B cells. We have previously suggested that IL-10 producing B cells are involved in pregnancy tolerance in mice and humans. By employing murine and human systems, we report now that fetal trophoblasts positively regulate the generation of IL-10 producing B cells. We next studied the participation of hormones produced by the placenta as well as the fetal protein alpha-fetoprotein (AFP in B cell modulation. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG, but not progesterone, estrogen or a combination of both, was able to promote changes in B cell phenotype and boost their IL-10 production, which was abolished after blocking hCG. The hCG-induced B cell phenotype was not associated with augmented galactosylation, sialylation or fucosylation of IgG subclasses in their Fc. In vitro, hCG induced the synthesis of asymmetrically glycosylated antibodies in their Fab region. Interestingly, AFP had dual effects depending on the concentration. At concentrations corresponding to maternal serum levels, it did not modify the phenotype or IL-10 secretion of B cells. At fetal concentrations, however, AFP was able to drive B cells into apoptosis, which may indicate a protective mechanism to avoid maternal B cells to reach the fetus.Our data suggests that the fetus secrete factors that promote a pregnancy-friendly B cell phenotype, unraveling interesting aspects of B cell function and modulation by pregnancy hormones and fetal proteins.

  13. Human chorionic gonadotropin triggers angiogenesis via the modulation of endometrial stromal cell responsiveness to interleukin 1: a new possible mechanism underlying embryo implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdiec, Amélie; Shao, Rong; Rao, C V; Akoum, Ali

    2012-09-01

    Deep functional changes occurring within the endometrium during implantation are orchestrated by embryonic and maternal signals. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a major embryonic signal, plays a critical role in the initiation and maintenance of pregnancy. Interleukin (IL) 1, one of the earliest embryonic signals, appears to exert a direct impact on the receptive endometrium and to induce major molecular changes that are essential for embryo implantation. Herein we investigate whether hCG can modulate endometrial stromal cell (ESC) receptivity to IL1 during the implantation window and assess the impact on angiogenesis in vitro. Primary cultures of ESCs from normal fertile women during the implantation window were treated for 24 h with different concentrations of hCG (0-100 ng/ml) and stimulated for 24 h with IL1B (0-0.1 ng/ml). IL1 receptors (IL1Rs), IL1R antagonist (IL1RA), and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP) 1 were analyzed by real-time PCR, ELISA, and Western blotting. The angiogenic activity in vitro was studied using human microvascular endothelial cell line, scratch wound assay, and cell proliferation via BrdU incorporation into DNA. Human CG induced a dose-dependent imbalance in ESC receptivity to IL1 by significantly upregulating the functional signaling IL1R1 and concomitantly downregulating the decoy inhibitory IL1R2 and IL1RA upon subsequent exposure to IL1B. Prior exposure to hCG amplified MCP1 secretion by ESCs in response to IL1B and triggered the release of angiogenic activity in vitro in which MCP1 appeared to play a significant role. Overexpression of IL1R2 using cell transfection inhibited IL1 and hCG/IL1B-mediated MCP1 secretion. These findings suggest that hCG coordinates embryonic signal interaction with the maternal endometrium, and point to a new possible pathway by which it may promote embryonic growth.

  14. The steroidogenic response and corpus luteum expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein after human chorionic gonadotropin administration at different times in the human luteal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohen, Paulina; Castro, Olga; Palomino, Alberto; Muñoz, Alex; Christenson, Lane K; Sierralta, Walter; Carvallo, Pilar; Strauss, Jerome F; Devoto, Luigi

    2003-07-01

    This study was designed 1) to assess corpus luteum (CL) steroidogenesis in response to exogenous human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) at different times during the luteal phase, 2) to examine the effect of hCG on steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression within the CL, 3) to correlate StAR expression and luteal steroidogenic responses to hCG, and 4) to determine whether endogenous LH regulates ovarian steroidogenesis in the early luteal phase. Blood was collected before and after hCG treatment for steroid and hCGbeta determinations. CL were obtained at the time of surgery to assess StAR gene and protein expression. During the early luteal phase various women received the GnRH antagonist for 24-48 h; some of them also received hCG 24 h after the GnRH antagonist. A slight steroidogenic response to hCG was observed in early luteal phase; 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, but not progesterone (P4), levels were significantly increased 8 h post-hCG, indicating a differential response by the granulosa and theca-lutein cells. The 1.6- and 4.4-kb StAR transcripts and the 37-kDa preprotein and 30-kDa mature StAR protein did not change post-hCG administration in early luteal phase CL. In contrast, the StAR 4.4- and 1.6-kb transcripts diminished significantly (P < 0.05) after the antagonist treatment. Immunohistochemical staining for StAR protein was weak, particularly in granulosa-lutein cells. Treatment with hCG restored StAR mRNA and protein and plasma P4 levels within 24 h in antagonist-treated women. hCG stimulated the highest plasma concentrations of P4 and estradiol in the midluteal phase, indicating its greatest steroidogenic capacity. Midluteal tissue StAR gene and protein expression increased by 1.6- and 1.4-fold after 24 h of hCG treatment, respectively. Administration of hCG resulted in the greatest increment in plasma P4 (4-fold) and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (3-fold) levels over baseline in the late luteal phase. This was associated with an increase in

  15. Layer-by-layer assembly of gold nanoparticles and cysteamine on gold electrode for immunosensing of human chorionic gonadotropin at picogram levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roushani, Mahmoud, E-mail: mahmoudroushani@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Ilam University, P.O. Box, 69315-516, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Valipour, Akram [Department of Chemistry, Ilam University, P.O. Box, 69315-516, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Valipour, Mehdi [Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, P.O. Box, 19395-3697, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-01

    The development of an electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is described with a limit of detection as low as 0.3 pg mL{sup −1} in phosphate buffer. In this immunosensor, cysteamine (Cys) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were used to immobilize an anti-hCG monoclonal antibody onto a gold electrode (GE). The structure of AuNPs has been confirmed by EDS, SEM, and TEM analysis. Due to the large specific surface area and excellent electrical conductivity of AuNPs, electron transfer was promoted and the amount of hCG antibody was enhanced significantly. A systematic study on the effects of experimental parameters such as pH, incubation time in the hCG solution and urea solution used for experiments on the binding between the immobilized antibody and hCG has been carried out. Under optimal experimental parameters, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) signal changes of the [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−/4−} are used to detect hCG with two broad linear ranges: 0.001 to 0.2 and 0.2 to 60.7 ng mL{sup −1}. The LOD value proves more sensitive in comparison with previously reported methods. The prepared immunosensor showed high sensitivity and stability. In addition, the immunosensor was successfully used for the determination of hCG in human serum. - Highlights: • AuNPs were used for covalent attachment of anti-body onto GE. • AuNPs joint to GE via Cys, which were similar to electron-transfer tunnel. • A simple method and a sensitive immunosensing for hCG were reported.

  16. The steroid response to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulation in men with Klinefelter syndrome does not change using immunoassay or mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roli, L; Santi, D; Belli, S; Tagliavini, S; Cavalieri, S; De Santis, M C; Baraldi, E; Fanelli, F; Mezzullo, M; Granata, A R; Pagotto, U; Pasquali, R; Rochira, V; Carani, C; Simoni, M; Trenti, T

    2017-08-01

    Liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed in parallel to Immunoassays (IAs) and today is proposed as the "gold standard" for steroid assays. Leydig cells of men with Klinefelter syndrome (KS) are able to respond to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulation, even if testosterone (T) production was impaired. The aim was to evaluate how results obtained by IAs and LC-MS/MS can differently impact on the outcome of a clinical research on gonadal steroidogenesis after hCG stimulation. A longitudinal, prospective, case-control clinical trial. (clinicaltrial.gov NCT02788136) was carried out, enrolling KS men and healthy age-matched controls, stimulated by hCG administration. Serum steroids were evaluated at baseline and for 5 days after intramuscular injection of 5000 IU hCG using both IAs and LC-MS/MS. 13 KS patients (36 ± 9 years) not receiving T replacement therapy and 14 controls (32 ± 8 years) were enrolled. T, progesterone, cortisol, 17-hydroxy-progesterone (17OHP) and androstenedione, were significantly higher using IAs than LC-MS/MS. IAs and LC-MS/MS showed direct correlation for all five steroids, although the constant overestimation detected by IAs. Either methodology found the same 17OHP and T increasing profile after hCG stimulation, with equal areas under the curves (AUCs). Although a linearity between IA and LC-MS/MS is demonstrated, LC-MS/MS is more sensitive and accurate, whereas IA shows a constant overestimation of sex steroid levels. This result suggests the need of reference intervals built on the specific assay. This fundamental difference between these two methodologies opens a deep reconsideration of what is needed to improve the accuracy of steroid hormone assays.

  17. 21 CFR 522.1081 - Chorionic gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... repeated in 14 days if the animal's behavior or examination of the ovaries per rectum indicates retreatment... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1081...

  18. The role of unexplained high serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG levels in the second trimester to determine poor obstetric outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hümeyra Öztürk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the relationship between gestational complications and high levels of maternal serum alfa-fetoprotein (MSAFP and/or beta human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG and to determine whether these markers are effective predictors of poor pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this study, we enrolled a total of 679 women at 15-20 gestational weeks with MSAFP and hCG below or above 2.0 multiples of the median (MoM; of those, 200 women with normal MSAFP and hCG MoM formed the control group. Pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR, preterm labor, preterm delivery, placental abruption, placenta previa, placenta accreta, preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM, intrauterine fetal death, as well as neonatal and perinatal morbidity rates were evaluated. Results: A significant relationship was found between adverse pregnancy outcomes and abnormal elevation of hCG and AFP levels in the second trimester. In cases of isolated elevation of hCG, preeclampsia and preterm labor/spontaneous preterm birth rate were slightly higher than in the control group (p=0.043, p=0.015, while IUGR, PPROM, placental abruption, and intrauterine fetal death rates were all similar (p=0.063, p=0.318, p=1.00, p=0.556. In case having an elevation in both markers, increased rate of obstetric complications have been observed. A significant relationship was found between the high levels of maternal serum AFP and hCG MoM and poor pregnancy outcomes like preeclampsia, IUGR, PPROM, intrauterine fetal death (p=0.003, p=0.001, p=0.040, p=0.006. Conclusion: To our knowledge, up to now, no definitive follow-up and treatment protocols have been established for patients at increased risk. In light of these findings, it is recommended to inform and educate patients about the most likely signs and symptoms of complications, to make more often antenatal visits, to perform more frequent ultrasound examination (fetal growth, AFI, etc., NST, arterial

  19. Chorionic gonadotropin and uterine dialogue in the primate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strakova Zuzana

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Implantation is a complex spatio-temporal interaction between the growing embryo and the mother, where both players need to be highly synchronized to be able to establish an effective communication to ensure a successful pregnancy. Using our in vivo baboon model we have shown that Chorionic Gonadotropin (CG, as the major trophoblast derived signal, not only rescues the corpus luteum but also modulates the uterine environment in preparation for implantation. This response is characterized by an alteration in both the morphological and biochemical activity in the three major cell types: luminal and glandular epithelium and stromal fibroblasts. Furthermore, CG and factors from the ovary have a synergistic effect on the receptive endometrium. Novel local effects of CG which influence the immune system to permit the survival of the fetal allograft and prevent endometrial cell death are also discussed in this review. An alternate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK activation pathway observed in epithelial endometrial cells and the possibility of differential expression of the CG/LH-R isoforms during gestation, open many questions regarding the mechanism of action of CG and its signal transduction pathway within the primate endometrium.

  20. Iodine-123-labeled radiotracers for cardiovascular and testicular imaging studies: labeling of phenyl fatty acids for myocardial studies, fibronectin for thrombus localization, and human chorionic gonadotropin for testicular studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, P.V.; Lewis, S.E.; McConnell, J.; Buja, L.M.; Wilson, J.E. III; Willerson, J.T.; Parkey, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Development and evaluation of iodine-123-labeled compounds for potential applications in certain imaging studies are described. A new method utilizing an organothallium intermediate has been developed to radioiodinate phenyl fatty acids. The method is simple, and consistently high yields (80 to 90%) can be obtained on a routine basis. The biodistribution patterns of the product prepared by this method were found to be very similar to those produced by the direct electrophilic substitution method. Radioiodinated fibronectin (FN) localized in experimental thrombi and pulmonary emboli. In dogs the deep-vein thrombi could be visualized within 3 hr of postinjection of the tracer. Radioiodinated human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) localized in rat testes which permitted the scintigraphic visualization of scrotal as well as abdominal testes in rats. The localization appears to be receptor mediated

  1. Intrauterine human chorionic gonadotropin infusion in oocyte donors promotes endometrial synchrony and induction of early decidual markers for stromal survival: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strug, Michael R; Su, Renwei; Young, James E; Dodds, William G; Shavell, Valerie I; Díaz-Gimeno, Patricia; Ruíz-Alonso, Maria; Simón, Carlos; Lessey, Bruce A; Leach, Richard E; Fazleabas, Asgerally T

    2016-07-01

    Does a single intrauterine infusion of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) at the time corresponding to a Day 3 embryo transfer in oocyte donors induce favorable molecular changes in the endometrium for embryo implantation? Intrauterine hCG was associated with endometrial synchronization between endometrial glands and stroma following ovarian stimulation and the induction of early decidual markers associated with stromal cell survival. The clinical potential for increasing IVF success rates using an intrauterine hCG infusion prior to embryo transfer remains unclear based on previously reported positive and non-significant findings. However, infusion of CG in the non-human primate increases the expression of pro-survival early decidual markers important for endometrial receptivity, including α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and NOTCH1. Oocyte donors (n=15) were randomly assigned to receive an intrauterine infusion of 500 IU hCG (n=7) or embryo culture media vehicle (n=8) 3 days following oocyte retrieval during their donor stimulation cycle. Endometrial biopsies were performed 2 days later, followed by either RNA isolation or tissue fixation in formalin and paraffin embedding. Reverse transcription of total RNA from endometrial biopsies generated cDNA, which was used for analysis in the endometrial receptivity array (ERA; n = 5/group) or quantitative RT-PCR to determine relative expression of ESR1, PGR, C3 and NOTCH1. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin followed by blinded staging analysis for dating of endometrial glands and stroma. Immunostaining for ESR1, PGR, α-SMA, C3 and NOTCH1 was performed to determine their tissue localization. Intrauterine hCG infusion was associated with endometrial synchrony and reprograming of stromal development following ovarian stimulation. ESR1 and PGR were significantly elevated in the endometrium of hCG-treated patients, consistent with earlier staging. The ERA did not predict an overall positive impact of

  2. Elevated levels of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and human placental lactogen between 11-13 week's gestation and subsequent pregnancy complications in Oman i women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolikowski, Andrzej; Al-Busaidi, Fikra; Al-Wahaibi, Adil

    2004-01-01

    The association between abnormal levels of maternal serum b-human chorionic gonadotrophin (b-HCG) and human placental lactogen (HPL) measured in early pregnancy and future poor pregnancy outcome is fairly well established. Little is known on how such prognostic information can be used to avoid future complications of pregnancy and improve their outcome. We undertook a prospective study, which was designed to assess the efficiency of maternal serum biochemical markers b-HCG and HPL for the detection of different pregnancy and labor complications. The blood samples were taken from pregnant patients who attended the antenatal clinic at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman, from December 2001 to October 2002. These patients were selected randomly. A total of 200 Omani women, none diabetic, with singleton pregnancies between 11 and 13 weeks gestation were recruited into the study. Gestational age was calculated from the first day of the last menstrual period, unless ultrasonography showed a discrepancy of more than 14 days. Excluded from the study were pregnancies with fetal anomalies, multiple gestations and insulin dependent maternal diabetes. Biochemical analysis of both maternal serum markers was performed in the clinical biochemistry laboratory using an automated immunometric technique supplied by Beckman Coulter for b-HCG and manual radioimmunoassay utilizing a gamma radiation scintillation counter for HPL. Both assays underwent internal, trilevel quality controls. The selected patients were monitored for the following complications: pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), gestational diabetes, polyhydramnios, antepartum hemorrhage, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) (birth weight <10th per centile for gestation), low Apgar score (7 or less) and emergency cesarean section. 75 patients did not develop any pregnancy complications and delivered vaginally. This was our control group. 85 patients developed one of the above mentioned problems

  3. Analysis of recombinant and native human lutropin/luteotrophin and human chorionic gonadotropin by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Beatriz Elane de

    2009-01-01

    Specific RP-HPLC conditions for the analysis of recombinant and native hLH and hCG preparations and of their subunits were set up. Heterodimeric hLH and hCG and their alpha and beta subunits all migrated with significantly different retention times (t R ) in the following order of increasing hydrophobicity: alpha-hCG R = 38.35 +- 0.42 min; RSD = 1.1 %; n = 4 preparations), while the hCG main peak ran about 4 % faster when compared to this average value. Human LH, hFSH and hCG peaks could also be identified in the heterogeneous urinary preparations. Quantitative analysis could be validated for the seven homogeneous preparations and accuracy, precision and sensitivity were calculated on the basis of a highly linear dose-response curve (r=0.99998; p<0.0001; n=20). Quantification of the different gonadotropins in the heterogeneous urinary preparations was also carried out, though with clear accuracy limitations. (author)

  4. Comparative effects of sub-stimulating concentrations of non-human versus human Luteinizing Hormones (LH) or chorionic gonadotropins (CG) on adenylate cyclase activation by forskolin in MLTC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi-Mong Diep; Filliatreau, Laura; Klett, Danièle; Combarnous, Yves

    2018-05-15

    We have compared various Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Chorionic Gonadotropin (CG) preparations from non-human and human species in their ability to synergize with 10 µM forskolin (FSK) for cyclic AMP intracellular accumulation, in MLTC cells. LH from rat pituitary as well as various isoforms of pituitary ovine, bovine, porcine, equine and human LHs and equine and human CG were studied. In addition, recombinant human LH and CG were also compared with the natural human and non-human hormones. Sub-stimulating concentrations of all LHs and CGs (2-100 pM) were found to stimulate cyclic AMP accumulation in MLTC cells in the presence of an also non-stimulating FSK concentration (10 µM). Like rat LH, the most homologous available hormone for mouse MLTC cells, all non-human LHs and CG exhibit a strong potentiating effect on FSK response. The human, natural and recombinant hLH and hCG also do so but in addition, they were found to elicit a permissive effect on FSK stimulation. Indeed, when incubated alone with MLTC cells at non-stimulating concentrations (2-70 pM) hLH and hCG permit, after being removed, a dose-dependent cyclic AMP accumulation with 10 µM FSK. Our data show a clearcut difference between human LH and CG compared to their non-human counterparts on MLTC cells adenylate cyclase activity control. This points out the risk of using hCG as a reference ligand for LHR in studies using non-human cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Central hypogonadism due to a giant, "silent" FSH-secreting, atypical pituitary adenoma: effects of adenoma dissection and short-term Leydig cell stimulation by luteinizing hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Daniele; Spaggiari, Giorgia; Casarini, Livio; Fanelli, Flaminia; Mezzullo, Marco; Pagotto, Uberto; Granata, Antonio R M; Carani, Cesare; Simoni, Manuela

    2017-06-01

    We present a case report of an atypical giant pituitary adenoma secreting follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). A 55-year-old patient presented for erectile dysfunction, loss of libido and fatigue. The biochemical evaluation showed very high FSH serum levels in the presence of central hypogonadism. Neither testicular enlargement nor increased sperm count was observed, thus a secretion of FSH with reduced biological activity was supposed. The histological examination after neuro-surgery showed an atypical pituitary adenoma with FSH-positive cells. Hypogonadism persisted and semen analyses impaired until azoospermia in conjunction with the reduction in FSH levels suggesting that, at least in part, this gonadotropin should be biologically active. Thus, we hypothesized a concomitant primary testicular insufficiency. The patient underwent short-term treatment trials with low doses of either recombinant luteinizing hormone (LH) or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in three consecutive treatment schemes, showing an equal efficacy in stimulating testosterone (T) increase. This is the first case of atypical, giant FSH-secreting pituitary adenoma with high FSH serum levels without signs of testicular hyperstimulation, in presence of hypogonadism with plausible combined primary and secondary etiology. Hypophysectomized patients may represent a good model to assess both pharmacodynamics and effective dose of LH and hCG in the male.

  6. Application of radioreceptor assay for chorionic gonadotropin in diagnosis of normal and disturbed pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, R.; Schmidt-Gollwitzer, M.; Nevinny-Stickel, J.

    1977-01-01

    For diagnoses of normal and disturbed pregnancy, a radioreceptor assay (RRA) for the detection of chorionic gonadotropin (HLG) has been developed. The hormone was labelled with 125 I. Compared with biological and immunological methods, the RRA has a higher sensitivity and a shorter evaluation time. (orig./VJ) [de

  7. Ultrasensitive immunoradiometric assay for chorionic gonadotropin which does not cross-react with luteinizing hormone nor free β chain of hCG and which detects hCG in blood of non-pregnant humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, J.; Odell, W.D.

    1987-01-01

    A sensitive, non-competitive, two-monoclonal antibody, sandwich-type or immunoradiometric assay has been developed for human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) which shows no cross-reaction with the free β chain of hCG nor with human luteinizing hormone (LH). In the assay procedure, two, highly selected monoclonal antibodies reacted in solution with hCG to be quantified. One antibody was covalently conjugated to biotin. This antibody was specific for the β subunit of hCG, and showed no reaction with LH nor the α subunit. The second antibody was labelled with 125 I and was specific for intact hCG and LH, showing no cross-reaction with βhCG nor the α subunit. The separation system was a polystyrene ball conjugated with biotin. This ball bound via an avidin bridge the monoclonal 'sandwich' containing hCG. Counts per minute bound to the ball were directly proportional to the amount of hCG present. The assay was specific for whole hCG and showed no reaction with βhCG, βLH, intact LH nor the free α subunit. Sensitivity was adequate to detect 'hCG-like' material in all post menopausal women and, when single samples were obtained, in over 2/3 of normal men. When multiple samples were obtained, 'hCG-like' material was detectable in all eugonadal adults studied. 27 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 table

  8. Anticuerpos monoclonales contra la gonadotropina coriónica humana (hCG para su uso en la detección de embarazo Monoclonal antibodies against human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG for their use in pregnancy detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha V. Rodríguez Pendás

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta la generación de 2 anticuerpos monoclonales (AcM de ratón dirigidos contra la hormona gonadotropina coriónica humana (hCG, a partir de la inmunización de ratones BALB/c con hCG humana, purificada en el Instituto Nacional de Endocrinología (INEN. Los AcM obtenidos son de la clase IgG y fueron purificados a partir de líquido ascítico, mediante cromatografía de afinidad en proteína G Sepharosa. El estudio de afinidad y especificidad demostró que estos anticuerpos podían ser útiles en ensayos inmunoenzimáticos, con el uso de uno de ellos en el sistema microELISA, de nuestra institución, para la detección cualitativa de embarazo en orina.The generation of 2 mouse monoclonal antibodies directed against the human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (CGh, starting from the immunization of BALB/c mice with human CGh purified at the National Institute of Endocrinology (NIEN is reported. IgG monoclonal antibodies were obtained. They were purified starting from the ascitic fluid by affinity chromatography in protein G Sepharose. The affinity and specificity study showed that these antibodies could be useful in immunoenzimatic assays, using one of them in the microELISA system of our institution for the qualitative detection of pregnancy in urine.

  9. Voltammetric immunosensor for human chorionic gonadotropin using a glassy carbon electrode modified with silver nanoparticles and a nanocomposite composed of graphene, chitosan and ionic liquid, and using riboflavin as a redox probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushani, Mahmoud; Valipour, Akram

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an electrochemical immunoassay system to detect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The immunosensor was constructed by covalent immobilization of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) onto a nanocomposite containing graphene, chitosan (Chit) and 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate as ionic liquid (IL). Silver nanoparticles were used as a linker to immobilize hCG antibody onto the modified electrode. The amino groups of the antibody were covalently attached to an AgNP/g-IL-Chit nanocomposite. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were employed to characterize the assembly process of the immunosensor. Riboflavin was used as the redox probe. Differential pulse voltammetry demonstrated that the formation of antibody–antigen complexes decreases the peak current of redox pair at the AgNP/Gr-IL-Chit/GCE (at a working potential of −0.38 V). The signal changes of riboflavin are used to detect hCG with broad response ranges from 0.0212 to 530 mIU.mL −1 and a low detection limit of 0.0066 ± 0.02 mIU.mL −1 . (author)

  10. Physical-chemical and biological characterization of different preparations of equine chorionic gonadotropin

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Rafael Herrera; Natal, Fabio Luis Nogueira; Ribela, Maria Teresa Carvalho Pinto; de Almeida, Beatriz Elane; de Oliveira, Jo?o Ezequiel; Bartolini, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian stimulation with commercial preparations of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) produces extremely variable responses in domestic animals, ranging from excessive stimulation to practically no stimulation, when applied on the basis of their declared unitage. This study was conducted to analyze four commercial preparations from different manufacturers via reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) in comparison with a reference preparation and an official International Standard from the World Health...

  11. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Has Anti-Inflammatory Effects at the Maternal-Fetal Interface and Prevents Endotoxin-Induced Preterm Birth, but Causes Dystocia and Fetal Compromise in Mice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furcron, Amy-Eunice; Romero, Roberto; Mial, Tara N.; Balancio, Amapola; Panaitescu, Bogdan; Hassan, Sonia S.; Sahi, Aashna; Nord, Claire; Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy

    2016-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is implicated in the maintenance of uterine quiescence by down-regulating myometrial gap junctions during pregnancy, and it was considered as a strategy to prevent preterm birth after the occurrence of preterm labor. However, the effect of hCG on innate and adaptive immune cells implicated in parturition is poorly understood. Herein, we investigated the immune effects of hCG at the maternal-fetal interface during late gestation, and whether this hormone can safely prevent endotoxin-induced preterm birth. Using immunophenotyping, we demonstrated that hCG has immune effects at the maternal-fetal interface (decidual tissues) by: 1) increasing the proportion of regulatory T cells; 2) reducing the proportion of macrophages and neutrophils; 3) inducing an M1 → M2 macrophage polarization; and 4) increasing the proportion of T helper 17 cells. Next, ELISAs were used to determine whether the local immune changes were associated with systemic concentrations of progesterone, estradiol, and/or cytokines (IFNgamma, IL1beta, IL2, IL4, IL5, IL6, IL10, IL12p70, KC/GRO, and TNFalpha). Plasma concentrations of IL1beta, but not progesterone, estradiol, or any other cytokine, were increased following hCG administration. Pretreatment with hCG prevented endotoxin-induced preterm birth by 44%, proving the effectiveness of this hormone as an anti-inflammatory agent. However, hCG administration alone caused dystocia and fetal compromise, as proven by Doppler ultrasound. These results provide insight into the mechanisms whereby hCG induces an anti-inflammatory microenvironment at the maternal-fetal interface during late gestation, and demonstrate its effectiveness in preventing preterm labor/birth. However, the deleterious effects of this hormone on mothers and fetuses warrant caution. PMID:27146032

  12. Evaluation of a second trimester triple marker screening test for fetal status using alpha-fetoprotein (aFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and unconjugated estriol (uE3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi, Seong Young; Kim, Jong Ho; Choi, Seung Hun

    1997-01-01

    Our purpose was to assess the utility of maternal serum triple-marker screening test using alpha-fetoprotein (aFP), human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) and unconjugated Estriol (uE 3 ) for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. 1,767 venous blood samples (4ml) between 15 and 20 week's gestation for maternal serum screening from January to October 1996, were tested with Kodak Amerix-M triple marker radioimmunoassay kits. Risk analysis was achieved with interpretive software such as Alpha (LMS, Kodak Clinical Diagnostics). Marker levels are transformed into multiples of median (MOM), which represent an interpretation of (weight regressed) patient marker levels relative to regressed median levels for stated gestation. By multivariate anaysis, the three MOM values are combined to generate a liklihood ratio. Calculation of a patient, risk is the product of liklihood ratio and age-related risk. Risk assessment is weight for maternal age. The median values of aFP, hCG and uE 3 were well correlated with gestational age, respectively (r=0.94, p=0.003; r=-0.97, p=0.029; r=0.99, p 3 weren't (r=-0.17, p=0.22; r=0.36, p=0.09, respectively). The values of aFP, CG and uE 3 between pregnancy younger than 35 years-old (n=87) and older than that (n=1640) were 51.67±27.44, vs 54.65±126.36, 46.45±30.08 vs 51.33±38.50 and 8.01±11.01 vs 6.68±7.23, respectively but all of them failed to show significant differences. A second-trimester risk for trisomy 21 > or = 1:270 was considered screen positive. Patients were screen positive for trisomy 21 if aFP or 2.1 MOM and E 3 2.5 MOM. The initial screen-positive rate for both Down' syndrome and neural tube defect were 1.46% (26/1767); 0.73% (13/1767) with each other. Among screen positive 26 patients, three and nine were normal karyotype and normal phenotype, respectively and five patients had still births. Reamining 9 patients underwent terminations. In conclusion, compared with the other group's data even in Koreans (Whang et al, and Song et al

  13. Ovarian reaction and estrus manifestation in delayed puberty gilts after treatment with equine chorionic gonadotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stančić Ivan B

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolonged pre-insemination anestrus (i.e. delayed puberty is a major contributing factor for culling up to 30% of the replacement gilts at large breeding farm units in Vojvodina. It is imperative to determine if these gilts are acyclic (prepubertal or cyclic, but just fail to exhibit behavioural estrus. Recent investigations demonstrate that treatment with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG can increase the diestrous phase duration in sexually mature gilts. Based on these finding, the aim of the present studies was to determine the reproductive status of delayed puberty gilts following injection with eCG. Methods Two experiments were conducted on a swine breeding farm in Vojvodina. In Exp. 1, 20 prepubertal (acyclic gilts, and 120 sexually mature (cyclic gilts were injected with a single injection of 400 IU eCG + 200 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG or with 1000 IU eCG (cyclic gilts, at d5, d11 or d17 after spontaneous estrus detection, to determine their ovarian reaction and induced estrus manifestation. In Exp. 2, sixty delayed puberty gilts (estrus not detected until 8 month of age, av. 258 days were culled from breeding herd and slaughtered to determine their reproductive status based on ovarian anatomical features. The second group of gilts (n = 60 was treated with a single 1000 IU eCG injection to determine their reproductive status, based on the interval between eCG injection to estrus detection and duration. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test, analysis of variance and Duncan’s test in the software package Statistics 10th. Results Ovulations were induced in 90% of acyclic (sexually immature and, on average, 93.3% of cyclic (sexually mature gilts after the eCG injection. On average, 4 days after the eCG injection, estrus was detected in 85% of the treated acyclic (sexually immature gilts and in 95% (19/20 of the cyclic (sexually mature gilts, treated with eCG on day 17

  14. Evaluation of a second trimester triple marker screening test for fetal status using alpha-fetoprotein (aFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and unconjugated estriol (uE{sub 3})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi, Seong Young; Kim, Jong Ho; Choi, Seung Hun [Chung Ang Gil Hospital, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Our purpose was to assess the utility of maternal serum triple-marker screening test using alpha-fetoprotein (aFP), human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) and unconjugated Estriol (uE{sub 3}) for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. 1,767 venous blood samples (4ml) between 15 and 20 week's gestation for maternal serum screening from January to October 1996, were tested with Kodak Amerix-M triple marker radioimmunoassay kits. Risk analysis was achieved with interpretive software such as Alpha (LMS, Kodak Clinical Diagnostics). Marker levels are transformed into multiples of median (MOM), which represent an interpretation of (weight regressed) patient marker levels relative to regressed median levels for stated gestation. By multivariate anaysis, the three MOM values are combined to generate a liklihood ratio. Calculation of a patient, risk is the product of liklihood ratio and age-related risk. Risk assessment is weight for maternal age. The median values of aFP, hCG and uE{sub 3} were well correlated with gestational age, respectively (r=0.94, p=0.003; r=-0.97, p=0.029; r=0.99, p<0.001, respectively). The median value of hCG were correlated withmateral age (r=0.13, p=0.04) but those of aFP and eU{sub 3} weren't (r=-0.17, p=0.22; r=0.36, p=0.09, respectively). The values of aFP, CG and uE{sub 3} between pregnancy younger than 35 years-old (n=87) and older than that (n=1640) were 51.67{+-}27.44, vs 54.65{+-}126.36, 46.45{+-}30.08 vs 51.33{+-}38.50 and 8.01{+-}11.01 vs 6.68{+-}7.23, respectively but all of them failed to show significant differences. A second-trimester risk for trisomy 21 > or = 1:270 was considered screen positive. Patients were screen positive for trisomy 21 if aFP < or 0.7 multiples of median (MOM), hCG> or 2.1 MOM and E{sub 3} < or 0.7 MOM. Patients were screen positive for neural tube defect if aFP >2.5 MOM. The initial screen-positive rate for both Down' syndrome and neural tube defect were 1.46% (26/1767); 0.73% (13/1767) with each other

  15. The relationship between the variants in the 5′-untranslated regions of equine chorionic gonadotropin genes and serum equine chorionic gonadotropin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ShuQin Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective An experiment was conducted to study the association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 5′-untranslated regions (5′-UTR of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG genes and the serum eCG levels. Methods SNPs in 5′-UTR of eCG genes were screened across 10 horse breeds, including 7 Chinese indigenous breeds and 3 imported breeds using iPLEX chemistry, and the association between the serum eCG levels of 174 pregnant Da’an mares and their serum eCG levels (determined with ELISA was analyzed. Results Four SNPs were identified in the 5′-UTR of the eCGα gene, and one of them was unique in the indigenous breeds. There were 2 SNPs detected at the 5′ end of the eCGβ subunit gene, and one of them was only found in the Chinese breeds. The SNP g.39948246T>C at the 5′-UTR of eCGα was associated significantly with eCG levels of 75-day pregnant mare serum (pC mutation causes appearance of the specific binding site of hepatocyte nuclear factor 3 forkhead homolog 2 (HFH-2, which is a transcriptional repressor belonging to the forkhead protein family of transcription factors. Conclusion The SNP g.39948246T>C at the 5′-UTR of eCGα is associated with eCG levels of 75-day pregnant mare serum (p<0.05.

  16. Human endometrial milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFGE8) is up regulated by estradiol at the transcriptional level, and its secretion via microvesicles is stimulated by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

    KAUST Repository

    Sarhan, Abbaa

    2013-10-17

    Objective: We have recently showed that MFGE8, a novel epithelial cell protein in the human endometrium, upregulated during the window of implantation. We hypothesized that MFGE8 may act as a key modulator of endometrial remodeling and trophoblast invasion. The aims of this study were (i) to investigate the in vitro regulation of human endometrial epithelial cells MFGE8 transcription, translation, and secretion by sex steroids and hCG; and (ii) to examine the possibility of MFGE8 secretion via microvesicles. Design: Experimental in vitro study using Ishikawa cells. Setting: University center. Interventions: Treatment with estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and human chorionic gonatropin (hCG). Main outcome measures: MFGE8 mRNA and protein expression, and identification of secreted microvesicles by mass spectrometry (MS) and immunoblotting. Results: E2, but not P4 or hCG, significantly upregulated MFGE8 mRNA expression. hCG significantly increased MFGE8 secretion. Microvesicels obtained after ultracentrifugation were visualized with atomic force microscopy ranging from ~100 to 200 nm. In addition to the expected 46 kD protein, the microvesicles contained a second form of secreted MFGE8 measuring ~30 kD which was confirmed by MS. Conclusions: We demonstrated (i) dual effects of E2 and hCG on the regulation of MFGE8, and (ii) MFGE8 protein secretion in association with microvesicles. MFGE8 has the potential to modulate endometrial function and implantation via exocrine and/ or paracrine-autocrine effects. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of microvesicular secretion of any regulatory protein by endometrial epithelial cells, providing initial evidence suggestive of microvesicular participation in cellular trafficking information in the non-pregnant and pregnant endometrium.

  17. Formas moleculares da gonadotrofina coriônica humana: características, ensaios e uso clínico Molecular forms of human chorionic gonadotropin: characteristics, assays and clinical use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Freitas de Medeiros

    2006-04-01

    aplicação mais universal destes marcadores hormonais.The human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG results from a non-covalent linkage of two subunits, alpha (alphahCG and beta (betahCG, separately synthesized by normal trophoblastic tissue, hydatiform mole, choriocarcinoma, pituitary cells, and tumoral tissues of different histologic types. The peptide chain and its further glycosylation in the secretory cell involves the complex action of different enzymes. This complexity results in the secretion of heterogeneous molecular forms. The different molecules might be found in serum, urine and amniotic fluid of pregnant women; serum, urine, and vesicles of patients with hydatiform mole or choriocarcinoma and in other biological fluids of normal non-pregnant women and men or patients with different embryonary types of cancer. Both the intact hCG molecule and its free subunits and the hyperglycosylated (H-hCG, nicked (N-hCG and core fragment of betahCG (CF- betahCG variant forms have relevant clinical use. Depending on the prevalent molecular form or the proportion of the variant form to the intact hCG in a determined clinical situation the measurement of a specific molecule is chosen. This review analyzes the clinical use of hCG and its related molecules in the early detection of ectopic pregnancy or patients with higher risk of abortion, in the identification of an embryo or fetus with chromosomal abnormalities, and in the evaluation of risk for preeclampsia or fetal growth restriction. The review also examines the use of hCG and variant forms as tumor markers. It is concluded that it is useful to measure hCG and/or related molecules in clinical practice, but difficulties in developing and achievement of more sensitive and specific new assays limit their use.

  18. Human chorionic ganodotropin binding sites in the human endometrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, S.; Banerjee, J.; Sen, S.; Manna, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    The existence of high-affinity and low-capacity specific binding sites for luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has been reported in porcine, rabbit and rat uteri. The authors have identified the hCG binding sites in the human endometrium collected from 35-42-year-old ovulatory and anovulatory women. The binding characteristics of hCG to endometrial tissue preparations from ovulatory and anovulatory women showed saturability with high affinity and low capacity. Scatchard plot analysis showed the dissociation constant of specific binding sites in the ovulatory women to be 3.5x10 -10 mol/l and in anovulatory women to be 3.1x10 -10 mol/l. The maximum binding capacity varied considerably between ovulatory and anovulatory endometrium. Among the divalent metal ions tested Zn 2+ effected a remarkable increase in [ 125 I]hCG binding to the endometrium, whereas Mn 2+ showed a marginal increase and other metal ions did not have any effect. Data obtained with human endometrium indicate an influence of the functional state of the ovary on [ 125 I]hCG binding to endometrium. 14 refs., 3 figs

  19. Thyrotropin-luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor extracellular domain chimeras as probes for thyrotropin receptor function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagayama, Yuji; Wadsworth, H.L.; Chazenbalk, G.D.; Russo, D.; Seto, Pui; Rapoport, B.

    1991-01-01

    To define the sites in the extracellular domain of the human thyrotropin (TSH) receptor that are involved in TSH binding and signal transduction the authors constructed chimeric thyrotropin-luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin (TSH-LH/CG) receptors. The extracellular domain of the human TSH receptor was divided into five regions that were replaced, either singly or in various combinations, with homologous regions of the rat LH/CG receptor. The chimeric receptors were stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The data obtained suggest that the carboxyl region of the extracellular domain (amino acid residues 261-418) and particularly the middle region (residues 171-260) play a role in signal transduction. The possibility is also raised of an interaction between the amino and carboxyl regions of the extracellular domain in the process of signal transduction. In summary, these studies suggest that the middle region and carboxyl half of the extracellular domain of the TSH receptor are involved in signal transduction and that the TSH-binding region is likely to span the entire extracellular domain, with multiple discontinuous contact sites

  20. Use of equine chorionic gonadotropin to control reproduction of the dairy cow: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rensis, F; López-Gatius, F

    2014-04-01

    Equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) is a member of the glycoprotein family of hormones along with LH, FSH and thyroid-stimulating hormone. In non-equid species, eCG shows high LH- and FSH-like activities and has a high affinity for both FSH and LH receptors in the ovaries. On the granulosa and thecal cells of the follicle, eCG has long-lasting LH- and FSH-like effects that stimulate oestradiol and progesterone secretion. Thus, eCG administration in dairy cattle results in fewer atretic follicles, the recruitment of more small follicles showing an elevated growth rate, the sustained growth of medium and large follicles and improved development of the dominant and pre-ovulatory follicle. In consequence, the quality of the ensuing CL is improved, and thereby progesterone secretion increased. Based on these characteristics, eCG treatment is utilized in veterinary medicine to control the reproductive activity of the cow by i) improving reproductive performance during early post-partum stages; ii) increasing ovulation and pregnancy rates in non-cyclic cows; iii) improving the conception rate in cows showing delayed ovulation; and finally, iv) eCG is currently included in protocols for fixed-time artificial insemination since after inducing the synchrony of ovulation using a progesterone-releasing device, eCG has beneficial effects on embryo development and survival. The above effects are not always observed in cyclic animals, but they are evident in animals in which LH secretion and ovarian activity are reduced or compromised, for instance, during the early post-partum period, under seasonal heat stress, in anoestrus animals or in animals with a low body condition score. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Association of luteinizing hormone chorionic gonadotropin receptor gene polymorphism (rs2293275) with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thathapudi, Sujatha; Kodati, Vijayalakshmi; Erukkambattu, Jayashankar; Addepally, Uma; Qurratulain, Hasan

    2015-03-01

    Polycystic ovaries and irregular menstruation/anovulation are important diagnostic criteria along with hyperandrogenism as per the Androgen Excess Society-2006 criteria for polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). In the etiopathogenesis of PCOS, one of the candidate genes causing ovarian failure is the luteinizing hormone (LH) chorionic gonadotropin hormone receptor (LHCGR). Our aim was to study the association of LHCGR polymorphism (rs2293275) with PCOS in our study population. Genetic case-control study from multiple gynecological centers from Hyderabad, a cosmopolitan city in South India. The study involved 204 women with PCOS and 204 healthy, sex-, and age-matched controls. Anthropometric and biochemical profiles were taken in a well-designed pro forma. Isolation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and genotype analysis were done for the entire study population using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method followed by 12% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In this study, we have demonstrated an association between LHCGR (rs2293275) polymorphism and PCOS. The frequency of the G allele was 0.60 in PCOS and 0.49 in controls (odds ratio [OR] 1.531, confidence interval [CI] 1.16-2.01, and p-value=0.0026), which indicates that the G allele is associated with PCOS in our population. The GG genotype conferred a significant risk of developing PCOS (OR 3.36, CI 1.96-5.75, and p-value<0.0001). We found a significant association of the GG allele with body-mass index, waist to hip ratio, insulin resistance, LH, and LH/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratio in PCOS when compared with controls. The AA allele showed high basal FSH levels. This study suggests that LHCGR (rs2293275) polymorphism is associated with PCOS and could be used as a relevant molecular marker to identify women with the risk of developing PCOS in our population and may provide an understanding about the etiology of PCOS.

  2. Polyunsaturated fatty acids combined with equine chorionic gonadotropin to enhance reproductive performance in aged rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa E. Elkomy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sixty low-conception rate does aged 18 to 24 months (in four groups were used to determine the effect of replacement of prostaglandin (PG F2α (PGF2α injection by oral administration with sunflower oil (Sun (rich in omega 6 or linseed oil (Lin (rich in omega 3 on reproductive and productive performance. Group 1 was injected with 20 U of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG, 54 h before artificial insemination (AI and used as reference group. Group 2 was injected with 20 U of eCG+0.5 mg of PGF2α, 54 h before AI. Group 3 was orally given 3 mL of Sun/doe/day, for seven consecutive days before AI+20 U of eCG, 54 h before AI. Group 4 was treated like Group 3 except that the oil was Lin. Aged does treated with eCG+Sun had elevated blood 17-β estradiol concentration (P≤0.01 accompanied with a decrease of progesterone concentrations compared to the other experimental groups. Contrarily, no significant differences were found between eCG+Lin and eCG+PGF2α treatments on the previous two hormones. Likewise, aged does treated with eCG+Sun and eCG+Lin were statistically similar to those injected with ECG+synthetic PGF2α on blood prostaglandin profile, but still significantly higher than the control group. Treatment with eCG+Sun increased the percentage of fertile does (P≤0.01 and the litter size at birth compared to the other experimental groups. In conclusion, replacement of the PGF2α injection by oral administration of Sun or Lin to aged does improved sexual hormone synthesis and secretion, litter size and bunny body weight at birth.

  3. Abrogation by human menopausal gonadotropin on testicular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of cancer cells including testicular cancer. Human Menopausal Gonadotropin (HMG) is a natural hormone necessary for human reproduction. This hormone is a leading modality of treatment for infertility as it contains equal amount of ...

  4. Designing a Long Acting Erythropoietin by Fusing Three Carboxyl-Terminal Peptides of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin β Subunit to the N-Terminal and C-Terminal Coding Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad Fares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new analog of EPO was designed by fusing one and two CTPs to the N-terminal and C-terminal ends of EPO (EPO-(CTP3, respectively. This analog was expressed and secreted efficiently in CHO cells. The in vitro test shows that the activity of EPO-(CTP3 in TFI-1 cell proliferation assay is similar to that of EPO-WT and commercial rHEPO. However, in vivo studies indicated that treatment once a week with EPO-(CTP3 (15 μg/kg dramatically increased (~8 folds haematocrit as it was compared to rHuEPO. Moreover, it was found that EPO-(CTP3 is more effective than rHuEPO and Aranesp in increasing reticulocyte number in mice blood. The detected circulatory half-lives of rHuEPO, Aranesp, and EPO-(CTP3 following IV injection of 20 IU were 4.4, 10.8, and 13.1 h, respectively. These data established the rational for using this chimera as a long-acting EPO analog in clinics. The therapeutic efficacy of EPO-CTP analog needs to be established in higher animals and in human clinical trials.

  5. Analysis of human chorionic gonadotropin-monoclonal antibody ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    mAb)] dissociation is insigni- ficant and the sensogram data cannot be used to measure the equilibrium and kinetic parameters. At low con- .... No loss of binding capacity was observed ... pad prism and the error at each point of time was calcu-.

  6. The use of equine chorionic gonadotropin in the treatment of anestrous dairy cows in gonadotropin-releasing hormone/progesterone protocols of 6 or 7 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, M A; Bó, G; Mapletoft, R J; Emslie, F R

    2013-01-01

    In seasonally calving, pasture-based dairy farm systems, the interval from calving to first estrus is a critical factor affecting reproductive efficiency. This study evaluated the effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) on the reproductive response of lactating, seasonally calving dairy cows diagnosed with anovulatory anestrus by rectal palpation. Cows on 15 commercial dairy farms were selected for initial inclusion based on nonobserved estrus by 7 d before the planned start of mating. All cows were palpated rectally and evaluated for body condition score and ovary score, and were included for treatment according to the trial protocol if diagnosed with anovulatory anestrus. All cows received a standard anestrous treatment protocol consisting of insertion of a progesterone device, injection of 100 µg of GnRH at the time of device insertion, and injection of PGF(2α) at device removal (GPG/P4). Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups (6 d or 7 d) for duration of progesterone device insertion. Within each of these groups, cows were further randomly assigned to receive either 400 IU of eCG at device removal or to remain untreated as controls, resulting in a 2×2 arrangement of treatment groups: (1) 6-d device and no eCG (n=484); (2) 6-d device and eCG (n=462); (3) 7-d device and no eCG (n=546); and (4) 7-d device and eCG (n=499). Cows were detected for estrus from the time of progesterone device removal and were inseminated; those not detected in estrus within 60 h after progesterone device removal received 100 µg of GnRH and were inseminated at 72 h. The primary outcomes considered were proportion of cows conceiving within 7 d of the beginning of breeding (7-d conception rate; 7-d CR), proportion pregnant within 28 d (28-d in calf rate; 28-d ICR), and days to conception (DTC). We found no significant differences between the 6- and 7-d insertion periods and found no 6- or 7-d insertion period × eCG treatment interactions. Inclusion of eCG into either

  7. A curva de regressão da gonadotrofina coriônica humana é útil no diagnóstico precoce da neoplasia trofoblástica gestacional pós-molar? Are curves of human chorionic gonadotropin useful in the early diagnosis of post-molar trophoblastic neoplasia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Regina Marques Gomes Delmanto

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a utilidade da curva de regressão normal da gonadotrofina coriônica humana (hCG no diagnóstico precoce de neoplasia trofoblástica gestacional pós-molar (NTG. MÉTODOS: estudo longitudinal, incluindo 105 pacientes com mola hidatiforme completa (MHC acompanhadas no Centro de Doenças Trofoblásticas de Botucatu, entre 1998 e 2005. Os títulos da hCG sérica foram mensurados quinzenalmente em todas as pacientes. Curvas individuais de regressão da hCG das 105 pacientes foram estabelecidas. A comparação entre a curva de regressão normal estabelecida em nosso serviço com as curvas individuais da hCG foi usada no rastreamento e diagnóstico (platô/ascensão de NTG. O número de semanas pós-esvaziamento quando a hCG excedeu o limite normal foi comparado com o número semanas em que a hCG apresentou platô/ascensão. RESULTADOS: das 105 pacientes com MHC, 80 apresentaram remissão espontânea (RE e 25 desenvolveram NTG. Das 80 pacientes com RE, 7 (8,7% apresentaram, inicialmente, dosagem da hCG acima do normal, mas, no devido tempo, alcançaram a remissão. Todas as 25 pacientes com NTG apresentaram desvio da curva normal da hCG em 3,8±2,5 semanas e mostraram platô ou ascensão em 8,4±2,9 semanas (pPURPOSE: to evaluate the usefulness of the normal human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG regression curve in the early diagnosis of post-molar trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN. METHODS: a longitudinal study including 105 patients with complete hydatidiform mole (CHM followed up at the Botucatu Center of Trophoblastic Diseases from 1998 to 2005. Serial serum hCG titers were measured fortnightly in all patients. Individual curves of the 105 patients were built. Comparison between the normal regression curve established at our center with individual hCG curves was used to screen and diagnose (plateau/rise GTN. The number of weeks postevacuation when hCG levels exceeded the normal limits was compared with the number of weeks when h

  8. Validación de un juego de reactivos (CUALINEN-HCG para la detección cualitativa de gonadotropina coriónica humana en el embarazo Validation of a kit of reagents (CUALINEN-HCG for the qualitative detection of human chorionic gonadotropin in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema E. García Dafonte

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentaron los resultados de la estandarización de un juego de reactivos (CUALINEN-HCG para la detección de la gonadotropina coriónica humana (HCG en muestras de orina de mujeres embarazadas y de su validación diagnóstica en el nivel primario. CUALINEN-HCG es un microELISA de doble captura, que cuenta con un anticuerpo monoclonal específico para la subunidad b de la hCG (AcM-b hCG-IG1 y de conjugados enzimáticos con el sustrato colorimétrico correspondiente, obtenido y purificado en el Instituto Nacional de Endocrinología. Los resultados de la validación analítica del CUALINEN-HCG mostraron que era capaz de distinguir entre muestras de orinas positivas y negativas con una relación positivo/negativo de 10 veces; se obtuvieron coeficientes de variación del 6 % en estudios de precisión (interensayos e intraensayos realizados para el control positivo. Se procesaron 91 muestras de orina matutina de mujeres con amenorrea de entre 4 y 16 sem a partir de la última fecha de menstruación. En las que el embarazo fue diagnosticado posteriormente. Se logró la validación en el nivel primario del CUALINEN-HCG con una sensibilidad y especificidad diagnóstica de 85 y 95 %, respectivamente y una exactitud diagnóstica del 90 %. Se recomendó su uso como herramienta auxiliar para el diagnóstico del embarazo en nivel primario a partir de la primera semana de ausencia de la menstruación (5 sem de amenorrea.The results of the standardization of a Kit of reagents (CUALINEN-HCG, for the detection of the Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG in urine and their diagnostic validation at primary level are presented. CUALINEN-HCG is a double capture micro ELISA that involves the participation of a specific monoclonal antibody for the b subunit of the hCG (AcM-bhCG-IG1 and the enzymatic conjugated with the corresponding colorimetric substrate, obtained and purified in the National Institute of Endocrinology. The results of the analytic validation of the

  9. Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin as a Possible Mediator of Leiomyoma Growth during Pregnancy: Molecular Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarais, Veronica; Cermisoni, Greta Chiara; Schimberni, Matteo; Alteri, Alessandra; Papaleo, Enrico; Somigliana, Edgardo; Vigano', Paola

    2017-09-20

    Uterine fibroids are the most common gynecologic benign tumors. Studies supporting a strong pregnancy-related growth of leiomyomas generally claimed a crucial role of sex steroid hormones. However, sex steroids are unlikely the unique actors involved as estrogen and progesterone achieve a pick serum concentration in the last trimester while leiomyomas show a typical increase during the first trimester. Given the rapid exponential raise in serum human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG) at the beginning of gestation, we conducted a review to assess the potential role of hCG in the striking growth of leiomyomas during initial pregnancy. Fibroid growth during initial pregnancy seems to correlate to the similar increase of serum hCG levels until 12 weeks of gestation. The presence of functional Luteinizing Hormone/human Chorionic Gonadotropin (LH/hCG) receptors was demonstrated on leiomyomas. In vitro treatment of leiomyoma cells with hCG determines an up to 500% increase in cell number after three days. Expression of cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 was significantly increased in leiomyoma cells by hCG treatment. Moreover, upon binding to the receptor, hCG stimulates prolactin secretion in leiomyoma cells, promoting cell proliferation via the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. Fibroid enlargement during initial pregnancy may be regulated by serum hCG.

  10. Follicle-stimulating hormone to substitute equine chorionic gonadotropin in the synchronization of ovulation in Santa Inês ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianor Matias Cardoso Neto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The substitution of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH in protocols for synchronization of ovulation in Santa Inês ewes was assessed. Ten females were submitted to the insertion of intravaginal sponges containing 60 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate for 10 days; after this period sponges were withdrawn and the animals were randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 (n = 5: intramuscular injection of 0.5 mL d-cloprostenol and 300 UI eCG; Group 2 (n = 5: intramuscular injection of 0.5 mL d-cloprostenol and 20 mg FSH. Interval between sponge withdrawal and estrus beginning was 27.7 h and 35.9 h for eCG and FSH, respectively. Interval between sponge withdrawal and the end of estrus was 55.8 h for eCG treatment and 55.6 h for FSH treatment. Estrus length was 29.3 h and 19.6 h, for eCG and FSH treatments, respectively. The biggest follicle and the second in size measured 0.74 cm and 0.54 cm for eCG treatment, whereas for the FSH treatment they measured 0.73 and 0.50 cm. The interval between the beginning of estrus and ovulation was similar within all groups: 21.0 h for eCG treated ewes and 25.2 h for the ones treated with FSH. Ewes treated with eCG presented an interval of 47.5 h between sponge withdrawal and ovulation, while the ones treated with FSH presented a 61.1 h interval. Ovulation occurred 8.3 h before the end of estrus in the eCG group. On the other hand, ewes treated with FSH ovulated 5.5 h after the end of estrus. Estrus and ovulation were efficiently synchronized in Santa Inês ewes by using long-term progestogen protocol associated to the administration of 20 mg FSH, along with Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α at the moment of sponge withdrawal, thus substituting the use of eCG.

  11. Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin Modulates the Expression of Genes Related to the Structure and Function of the Bovine Corpus Luteum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Liza Margareth Medeiros de Carvalho; Mendes, Gabriela Pacheco; Campos, Danila Barreiro; Baruselli, Pietro Sampaio; Papa, Paula de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that stimulatory and superovulatory treatments, using equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), modulate the expression of genes related to insulin, cellular modelling and angiogenesis signaling pathways in the bovine corpus luteum (CL). Therefore, we investigated: 1-the effect of these treatments on circulating insulin and somatomedin C concentrations and on gene and protein expression of INSR, IGF1 and IGFR1, as well as other insulin signaling molecules; 2-the effects of eCG on gene and protein expression of INSR, IGF1, GLUT4 and NFKB1A in bovine luteal cells; and 3-the effect of stimulatory and superovulatory treatments on gene and protein expression of ANG, ANGPT1, NOS2, ADM, PRSS2, MMP9 and PLAU. Serum insulin did not differ among groups (P = 0.96). However, serum somatomedin C levels were higher in both stimulated and superovulated groups compared to the control (P = 0.01). In stimulated cows, lower expression of INSR mRNA and higher expression of NFKB1A mRNA and IGF1 protein were observed. In superovulated cows, lower INSR mRNA expression, but higher INSR protein expression and higher IGF1, IGFR1 and NFKB1A gene and protein expression were observed. Expression of angiogenesis and cellular modelling pathway-related factors were as follows: ANGPT1 and PLAU protein expression were higher and MMP9 gene and protein expression were lower in stimulated animals. In superovulated cows, ANGPT1 mRNA expression was higher and ANG mRNA expression was lower. PRSS2 gene and protein expression were lower in both stimulated and superovulated animals related to the control. In vitro, eCG stimulated luteal cells P4 production as well as INSR and GLUT4 protein expression. In summary, our results suggest that superovulatory treatment induced ovarian proliferative changes accompanied by increased expression of genes providing the CL more energy substrate, whereas stimulatory treatment increased lipogenic activity, angiogenesis and plasticity of the extracellular matrix

  12. Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin Modulates the Expression of Genes Related to the Structure and Function of the Bovine Corpus Luteum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza Margareth Medeiros de Carvalho Sousa

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that stimulatory and superovulatory treatments, using equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG, modulate the expression of genes related to insulin, cellular modelling and angiogenesis signaling pathways in the bovine corpus luteum (CL. Therefore, we investigated: 1-the effect of these treatments on circulating insulin and somatomedin C concentrations and on gene and protein expression of INSR, IGF1 and IGFR1, as well as other insulin signaling molecules; 2-the effects of eCG on gene and protein expression of INSR, IGF1, GLUT4 and NFKB1A in bovine luteal cells; and 3-the effect of stimulatory and superovulatory treatments on gene and protein expression of ANG, ANGPT1, NOS2, ADM, PRSS2, MMP9 and PLAU. Serum insulin did not differ among groups (P = 0.96. However, serum somatomedin C levels were higher in both stimulated and superovulated groups compared to the control (P = 0.01. In stimulated cows, lower expression of INSR mRNA and higher expression of NFKB1A mRNA and IGF1 protein were observed. In superovulated cows, lower INSR mRNA expression, but higher INSR protein expression and higher IGF1, IGFR1 and NFKB1A gene and protein expression were observed. Expression of angiogenesis and cellular modelling pathway-related factors were as follows: ANGPT1 and PLAU protein expression were higher and MMP9 gene and protein expression were lower in stimulated animals. In superovulated cows, ANGPT1 mRNA expression was higher and ANG mRNA expression was lower. PRSS2 gene and protein expression were lower in both stimulated and superovulated animals related to the control. In vitro, eCG stimulated luteal cells P4 production as well as INSR and GLUT4 protein expression. In summary, our results suggest that superovulatory treatment induced ovarian proliferative changes accompanied by increased expression of genes providing the CL more energy substrate, whereas stimulatory treatment increased lipogenic activity, angiogenesis and plasticity of the

  13. A MALE CASE OF KALLMANN'S SYNDROME : FERTILITY INDUCED BY GONADOTROPIN (hCG/hMG) THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, Shingo; Mayumi Mimura, Mayumi; Moch, Tadao; Sakamoto, Takemi; Izumi, Yukiko; Matzui, Yuhji; Hosokawa, Akiko; Kuriyama, Shigeki; Fukui, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    A 24-year-old male patient with Kallmann's syndrome who fathered two children after gonadotropin therapy is reported here. He was diagnosed with Kallmann's syndrome because of hypothalamic hypogonadism associated with anosmia. The gonadotropin therapy was initiated which involved treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG). After 3 years of treatment, his secondary sexual characteristics developed to near the adult level and sperm were detected in...

  14. Syndecan expressions in the human amnion and chorionic plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lorenzi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The syndecan family consists of four distinct membrane glycoproteins in mammals. Syndecans control cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion and migration through participation in cell-cell interactions, anchorage of cells to the extracellular environment, and modulation of multiple growth factors. Therefore, syndecans may play a pivotal role in the regulation of cell behaviour depending on the cellular microenvironment. Here, we demonstrate that syndecan-1, syndecan-2 and syndecan-4 are expressed in fetal membrane tissue with different immunolocalizations. Syndecan-1 is expressed in the amniotic epithelium, localizing at basolateral cell surfaces. Syndecan-2 and syndecan-4, in contrast, are mostly localized in intracellular compartments, in the extravillous cytotrophoblastic cells and in some fibroblasts of the chorionic plate as well as in the amniotic epithelial cells. In the latter, syndecan-4 is mainly localized in the apical part of the cells. Our results strongly suggest a key role of syndecan-1, syndecan-2 and syndecan-4 in the determination of structural and functional characteristics of human amnion and chorionic plate. Since the solute exchanges between fetus and mother take place in fetal membranes, our data suggest that syndecans are important players in the placenta for the establishment of the fetal-maternal inter-communication.

  15. Analysis of recombinant and native human lutropin/luteotrophin and human chorionic gonadotropin by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography; Analise de luteotrofina humana e de gonadotrofina corionica humana, recombinante e natural, por cromatografia liquida de alta eficiencia em fase reversa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Beatriz Elane de

    2009-07-01

    Specific RP-HPLC conditions for the analysis of recombinant and native hLH and hCG preparations and of their subunits were set up. Heterodimeric hLH and hCG and their alpha and beta subunits all migrated with significantly different retention times (t{sub R}) in the following order of increasing hydrophobicity: alpha-hCG < alpha-hLH < hCG < hLH < -beta-hCG < beta-hLH. With basis on these conditions, a total of eleven preparations were studied: the International Standard of recombinant hLH-WHO 96/602, a commercial recombinant and two highly purified pituitary hLH, a recombinant and two urinary hCG preparations and four heterogeneous urinary products containing hLH + hFSH. All hLH preparations showed very similar retention times for the main peak (t{sub R} = 38.35 +- 0.42 min; RSD = 1.1 %; n = 4 preparations), while the hCG main peak ran about 4 % faster when compared to this average value. Human LH, hFSH and hCG peaks could also be identified in the heterogeneous urinary preparations. Quantitative analysis could be validated for the seven homogeneous preparations and accuracy, precision and sensitivity were calculated on the basis of a highly linear dose-response curve (r=0.99998; p<0.0001; n=20). Quantification of the different gonadotropins in the heterogeneous urinary preparations was also carried out, though with clear accuracy limitations. (author)

  16. Mesenchymal stem cells in human placental chorionic villi reside in a vascular Niche

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castrechini, N. M.; Murthi, P.; Gude, N. M.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; Gronthos, S.; Zannettino, A.; Brennecke, S. R.; Kalionis, B.; Brennecke, S.P.

    The chorionic villi of human term placentae are a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs) The stem cell "niche" within the chorionic villi regulates how PMSCs participate in placental tissue generation, maintenance and repair, but the anatomic location of the niche has not been defined A

  17. Partial hydatidiform mole with false-negative urine human chorionic gonadatropin test in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundangepfupfu, Tichaendepi; Waseem, Muhammad

    2014-03-01

    Hydatidiform mole (molar pregnancy) is a benign tumor of placental trophoblastic cells, which release human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Several case reports have described complete hydatidiform moles with false-negative urine qualitative hCG tests. These negative pregnancy tests have been attributed to the hook effect. We report an unusual presentation of a partial mole and review an alternative explanation for the negative hCG test. As partial moles are usually not associated with a large proliferation of trophoblastic cells, levels of hCG are commonly negative and serum quantitative hCG was 1,094,950 mIU/mL. Pelvic ultrasonography showed a uterine cavity containing a soft-tissue mass with multiple cystic lesions and the hydatidiform mole was extracted with suction curettage. Tissue pathology confirmed partial hydatidiform mole. In addition to the hook effect, we present another possible explanation for the false-negative test; namely the inability of some assays to detect hCG-degradation products, which may be higher in clinical samples from patients with hydatidiform mole. This case underscores the importance of knowing the limitations of the commonly used hCG assays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist versus HCG for oocyte triggering in antagonist assisted reproductive technology cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Youssef, Mohamed A. F. M.; van der Veen, Fulco; Al-Inany, Hesham G.; Griesinger, Georg; Mochtar, Monique H.; Aboulfoutouh, Ismail; Khattab, Sherif M.; van Wely, Madelon

    2011-01-01

    Background Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocols for pituitary down regulation in in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) allow the use of GnRH agonists for triggering final oocyte maturation. Currently, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is

  19. [The diagnostic value of human chorionic gonadotrophin ratio compared to single measurements of S-human chorionic gonadotrophin on the outcome of pregnancy of unknown location].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Huda Galib; Lyngsø, Julie; Bor, Pinar

    2014-10-13

    Pregnancy of unknown location is defined by a positive pregnancy test, without visualizing of the intrauterine or extrauterine pregnancy by transvaginal sonography. We present the advantages of using human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) ratio instead of single measurements of S-hCG for predicting the outcomes of pregnancies of unknown location.

  20. Some biological properties of human chorionic follicle stimulating hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tojo, Shimpei; Ashitaka, Yoshihiko; Maruo, Takeshi; Nishimoto, Hiroyuki

    1975-01-01

    The biological properties of human chorionic FSH (hCFSH) for rat ovaries were investigated. Highly purified hCFSH had similar response to the ovarian augmentation test as bovine FSH and significantly enhanced 3 H-thymidine uptake by granulosa cells and theca cells in the ovary of hypophysectomized rat. In contrast, highly purified hCG little responded to the ovarian augmentation test and had no effect on 3 H-thymidine uptake by the ovary. These results indicate that hCFSH may promote the follicular growth of ovary resulting from granulosa cell proliferation and its enlargement. In addition, freshly harvested porcine granulosa cells were employed in an in vitro system to investigate specific binding of hCFSH to ovarian receptor. Radioiodinated hCFSH ( 125 I-hCFSH) and hCG ( 125 I-hCG) were respectively incubated with cell suspensions. Binding of these hormone preparations was proportional to the cell number and increased with the time of incubation through 120 minutes. The binding ability of 125 I-hCFSH to the cells was greater than that of 125 I-hCG. Increasing concentrations of unlabeled hCFSH in the incubation mixture progressively inhibited the uptake of 125 I-hCFSH by granulosa cells. Unlabeled hCG was not able to compete with 125 I-hCFSH binding. The similar phenomenon to inhibit the binding of 125 I-hCG to the cells was also recognized in the presence of unlabeled hCG. These findings suggest that granulosa cell has at least two different types of receptor sites: one for hCFSH and the other for hCG. (auth.)

  1. Single-dose pharmacokinetic study comparing the pharmacokinetics of recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin in healthy Japanese and Caucasian women and recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin and urinary human chorionic gonadotropin in healthy Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchus, Wilhelmina; Wolna, Peter; Uhl, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    Recombinant hCG (r-hCG) was approved in Japan in 2016. As a prerequisite for a Phase III study in Japan related to this approval, the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of r-hCG was investigated. An open-label, partly randomized, single-center, single-dose, group-comparison, Phase I PK-bridging study was done that compared a single 250 μg dose of r-hCG with a single 5000 IU dose of urinary hCG (u-hCG) in healthy Japanese women, as well as comparing a single 250 μg dose of r-hCG in Japanese and Caucasian women. The Japanese participants were randomized 1:1 to receive either r-hCG or u-hCG, while the Caucasian participants were weight-matched to the Japanese participants who were receiving r-hCG in a 1:1 fashion. The primary PK parameters were the area under the serum concentration-time curve from time 0 extrapolated to infinity (AUC 0-∞ ) and the maximum serum concentration (C max ). The mean serum hCG concentration-time profiles of r-hCG in the Japanese and Caucasian participants were a similar shape, but the level of overall exposure was ~20% lower in the Japanese participants. For the Japanese participants, r-hCG resulted in an 11% lower C max but a 19% higher AUC 0-∞ compared with u-hCG. No new safety signal was identified. This study cannot exclude a potential difference in the PK profile of r-hCG between Japanese and Caucasian participants. However, this study does not indicate that there are clinically relevant differences in the serum PK of r-hCG and u-hCG in the Japanese participants.

  2. Manipulation of reproductive seasonality using melatonin implantation in Anglo-Nubian does treated with controlled internal drug release and equine chorionic gonadotropin during the nonbreeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mokadem, M Y; El-Din, A N M Nour; Ramadan, T A; Rashad, A M A; Taha, T A; Samak, M A

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of hormonal treatments on ovarian activity and reproductive performance in anestrous Anglo-Nubian does during the nonbreeding season (February to May). A total of 48 multiparous does were divided into 2 groups (24 lactating does and 24 dry does). In each group, animals were allocated randomly into 2 equal subgroups (12 does each). In the first subgroup, does received a single 18-mg melatonin implant for 42 d followed by a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device for 19 d in conjunction with 500 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) i.m. on the day of CIDR device removal. The second subgroup received CIDR combined with eCG in parallel with the first subgroup. Melatonin implantation induced a luteotrophic effect, expressed as an increasing number of corpora lutea, increased serum progesterone concentration, and reduced estradiol concentration. Regardless of treatment, dry does showed greater value of progesterone concentration. With the advancement of day of treatment, number of total follicles, small follicles, and medium follicles tended to increase to the greatest values at the day of CIDR device insertion. Furthermore, at day of mating, the numbers of large follicles reached the greatest value, which was associated with the lowest value of the number of corpora lutea. At day of mating, serum progesterone concentration achieved the lowest value, which increased until d 56 of pregnancy. The estradiol:progesterone ratio showed the opposite trend. The detrimental effect of reproductive seasonality, expressed as cessation of estrus behavior and fertile mating during the nonbreeding season, was successfully alleviated by the CIDR-eCG protocol. Furthermore, melatonin implantation in conjunction with the CIDR-eCG protocol enhanced conception rate and fecundity at d 28 of pregnancy and prolificacy at d 56 of pregnancy compared with does that were not implanted. Interestingly, does that failed to conceive

  3. Localization of gonadotropin binding sites in human ovarian neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, R.; Kitayama, S.; Yamoto, M.; Shima, K.; Ooshima, A.

    1989-01-01

    The binding of human luteinizing hormone and human follicle-stimulating hormone to ovarian tumor biopsy specimens from 29 patients was analyzed. The binding sites for human luteinizing hormone were demonstrated in one tumor of epithelial origin (mucinous cystadenoma) and in one of sex cord-stromal origin (theca cell tumor). The binding sites for human follicle-stimulating hormone were found in three tumors of epithelial origin (serous cystadenoma and mucinous cystadenoma) and in two of sex cord-stromal origin (theca cell tumor and theca-granulosa cell tumor). The surface-binding autoradiographic study revealed that the binding sites for gonadotropins were localized in the stromal tissue. The results suggest that gonadotropic hormones may play a role in the growth and differentiation of a certain type of human ovarian neoplasms

  4. Extending the duration of treatment with progesterone and equine chorionic gonadotropin improves fertility in suckled beef cows with low body condition score subjected to timed artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao, M G; Massara, N; Ramos, S; Zapata, L O; Farcey, M F; Pesoa, J; Turic, E; Vázquez, M I; Bartolome, J A

    2016-07-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an extended progesterone treatment on follicular development and fertility in postpartum, suckled beef cows subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI). In experiment 1, cows (n = 24) with body condition score (BCS) ≥4.5 received either a 2-g progesterone intravaginal device on Day -23 or a 0.558-g progesterone intravaginal device on Day -9. Then, all cows received 2 mg of estradiol benzoate on Day -9; removal of the device, 1-mg estradiol cypionate, and PGF2α on Day -2; and TAI on Day 0. Metabolic status was assessed between Days -9 and -2. Ovarian structures and plasma progesterone were determined weekly from Day -23 to -9, daily from Day -9 to 0, and weekly until Day 28. In experiment 2, cows (n = 302) with BCS ≥4.5 received identical treatment to cows in experiment 1, but on Day -2, cows received 400 IU of two different commercial preparations of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG). Ovarian structures were determined on Days -23 and -9 on a subset of cows (n = 40). Pregnancy was determined 39 days after TAI. In experiment 3, multiparous cows (n = 244) with BCS cows in experiment 1 initiated on Day -18, and on Day -2, cows received 400 IU of eCG or no treatment. Ovarian structures were determined in a subset of cows (n = 31) on Days -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, and on Day 10. Pregnancy was determined 39 days after TAI. The results indicated that in experiment 1, plasma progesterone was higher in treated than nontreated (control cows) during the first 14 days (P = 0.0001). The extended progesterone treatment increased the size of the largest follicle between Days -23 and Day -5 (Group by Day, P = 0.04) and tended to increase the size of the dominant follicle from Day -5 to Day -1 (Group by Day, P = 0.06). There was no effect of metabolic status or interaction between metabolic status and day on follicular growth. In experiment 2, extended progesterone treatment tended to increase the

  5. Generation of iPSC lines from primary human chorionic villi cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Lichtner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Primary human chorionic villi (CV cells were used to generate the iPSC line by retroviral transduction of the four Yamanaka-factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC. Pluripotency was confirmed both in vivo and in vitro. The transcriptomes of the CV-derived iPSC lines and the human embryonic stem cell lines—H1 and H9 have a Pearson correlation of 0.929 and 0.943 respectively.

  6. Triggering ovulation with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist versus human chorionic gonadotropin in polycystic ovarian syndrome. A randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Hassaan Farag

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare GnRH agonist to hCG for triggering ovulation in polycystic ovarian syndrome treated with clomiphene citrate. Study design: Prospective randomized study. Materials & methods: Eighty five infertile women with PCOS participated in a randomized allocation concealed prospective trial and had induction of ovulation with clomiphene citrate. GnRH agonist 0.2 mg subcutaneously (group 1 or hCG 10,000 IU intramuscularly (group 2 was given to trigger ovulation. Primary outcome was mid-luteal serum progesterone, while secondary outcomes were ovulation rates and clinical pregnancy rates along 3 cycles. Results: No difference was found between group 1 and group 2 regarding mean serum progesterone and clinical pregnancy rates in each cycle. Cumulative pregnancy rates were similar (17.14% versus 20% respectively; P = 0.332. Ovulation rates were 80% versus 68.6% (P = 0.413; 94.3% versus 90.9% (P = 0.669; 97.1% versus 93.7% (P = 0.603 in the two groups respectively. However, a significant rise in number of patients with mid-luteal serum progesterone >10 ng/mL was noted in the 3rd cycle between both groups, (P < 0.0001 for group 1 while P = 0.007 for group 2. Conclusion: Triggering ovulation with GnRH-a after treatment with clomiphene citrate in PCOS, in view of its known protective effect against OHSS, may be an effective physiological alternative to conventional hCG without compromising luteal function and pregnancy rates after repeated cycles of treatment.

  7. Competitive enzyme immunoassay for human chorionic somatomammotropin using the avidin-biotin system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappuoli, R.; Leoncini, P.; Tarli, P.; Neri, P.

    1981-01-01

    Human chorionic somatomammotropin (HCS) is determined by an enzyme immunoassay where HCS competes with biotin-labeled HCS for insolubilized anti-HCS antibodies. Enzyme-labeled avidin is then used to reveal the amount of bound HCS. The system proves to be sensitive (1 ng/ml of HCS can be detected) and results agree with radioimmunoassay determinations (correlation coefficient = 0.979). Kinetics of the avidin-biotin reaction and coating of polystyrene wells are also investigated

  8. The Effect of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Treatment Before Testicular Sperm Extraction in Non-Obstructive Azoospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Gul

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate our experience on empirical hCG treatment of patients with idiopathic non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA. Material and Method: hCG group consisted of 34 patients who were empirically treated with hCG despite normal serum FSH and LH levels and normal testicular volumes. hCG was administered as 2500 IU twice weekly subcutaneous injections for 10 to 14 weeks prior to testicular sperm extraction (TESE. Control group consisted of 49 age and spouse age matched patients who underwent TESE in the same time period. Sperm retrieval rate (SRR, and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, lutenizing hormone (LH and testosterone levels, volume of testicles, fertilization rate (FR, implantation rate (IR, pregnancy rate (PR, live birth rate (LBR and cancel rate (CR and surgical technique were compared between the two groups. Results: Conventional technique was used in 14 of the 17 patients (82.3% with successful sperm retrieval in the hCG group, and 18 of the 28 patients (64.3% in the control group (p=0.170. There were no differences between groups in terms of SRR (p=0.338. There were no significant differences in patient age, mean infertility period, mean values of FSH, LH, testosterone, estradiol levels, and testis volume between the two groups (p>0.05. There were no statistically significant differences for FR, IR, PR, LBR between the two groups (p>0.05. Discussion: Empirical hCG treatment in patients with idiopathic NOA did not result in improved SRR. hCG treatment did not have any effect on the success of ICSI.

  9. Midtrimester serum B-subunit human chorionic gonadotropin levels and the subsequent development of preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghaddami Tabrizi N

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The pre-eclampsia/eclampsia is one of the commonest conditions peculiar to pregnancy, to describe the occurrence of hypertension, proteinuria and edema in pregnancy. It is about seven times more frequent in first gestation and uncommon before 20 week's gestation. Serum BhCG levels were prospectively determined in 260 midtrimester singleton pregnancies where admitted from October 1999 until September 2000 at Mirza Kouchak Khan hospital, prenatal clinic. Obstetric chart review was undertaken after delivery to identify cases in which pre eclampsia developed. The median maternal age was 26.0 years, and the median gestational age at the time of blood collection was 19.0 weeks. Of these, 17 cases (6.5 percent had pre eclampsia. The median level of the BhCG was 35060.5 mlu/ml in those with pre eclampsia, whereas that in those without pre eclampsia was 33755.1 mlu/ml. The difference was not significant (P=0.28. Although elevated midtrimester serum BhCG levels in clinically normal patients was reported in severaly pre eclampsia women, this is not a good test for early detection of mild pre eclampsia.

  10. Myth vs. Fact: The Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too little of any hormone can result in health problems. For this reason, doctors must keep a close watch on treatments that ... and other health problems. Some people with health problems related to their ... Weight Safely Doctors agree that the best way to lose extra ...

  11. Maternal hyperthyroidism after intrauterine insemination due to hypertrophic action of human chorionic gonadotropin: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakas, P; Tzouma, C; Creatsa, M; Boutas, I; Hassiakos, D

    2016-01-01

    To report a rare case of maternal hyperthyroidism after intrauterine insemination due to hypertrophic action of hCG. A 36-year-old woman after successful intrauterine insemination and triplet pregnancy, developed hyperthyroidism with resistance to medical treatment. All signs of hyperthyroidism resolved and the results of thyroid function tests returned to normal without any medication after embryo meiosis. De novo maternal hyperthyroidism may develop during pregnancy as a result of pathological stimulation of the thyroid gland from the high levels of hCG hormone that can be seen in multiple pregnancies. The risk of hyperthyroidism is related to the number of fetuses. Reversibility of symptomatology can be seen after fetal reduction of multiple pregnancies.

  12. Endocrine dysfunction in Taiwanese children with human chorionic gonadotropin-secreting germ cell tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ming Lin

    2014-02-01

    Conclusion: Taiwanese children with HCG-secreting GCTs often have clinical manifestations related to endocrine dysfunction. High index of suspicion is important to avoid delayed diagnosis in these children.

  13. Graded hyperthyroidism and serum human chorionic gonadotropin concentration in patients with trophoblastic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajatanavin, R.

    1989-11-01

    Serum thyroid hormone and basal and post TRH stimulated levels of TSH were measured in 48 female subjects of mean age 29.3 ± 9.2 and mean gravida 2.9 ± 2.6 with trophoblastic disease (TD), both benign and malignant. Normal pregnant women (n=21) served as controls. Twenty-five patients showed a normal response to TRH (Group i) while the rest (Group ii) had subnormal response while thyroid hormone levels were increased. Two subgroups iiA and iiB were formed within Group ii on the basis of the free T 4 levels (measured by equilibrium dialysis) falling below or above the 25th percentile. hCG levels were higher in Group ii than in Group i and a stepwise significant increase in the mean level of this hormone was observed in Group i to iiA and iiB. Significant correlation between hCG levels and those of thyroxine, free thyroxine, and triiodothyronine were found in TD patients as a whole, but not within the different subgroups. Clinical signs were minimal, with proximal muscle weakness and fine finger tumours observed in 10 patients in Group iiB. The study shows that the incidence of biochemical hyperthyroidism is higher than was reported before sensitive methods for TSH measurement were available, and postulates that increased hCG concentrations in themselves and/or abnormal metabolic variants of hCG produced by trophoblastic tumours may act as thyroid stimulators in this condition. 64 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs

  14. Regulation of human renin expression in chorion cell primary cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, K.G.; Haidar, M.A.; Baxter, J.D.; Reudelhuber, T.L.

    1990-01-01

    The human renin gene is expressed in the kidney, placenta, and several other sites. The release of renin or its precursor, prorenin, can be affected by several regulatory agents. In this study, primary cultures of human placental cells were used to examine the regulation of prorenin release and renin mRNA levels and of the transfected human renin promoter linked to chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter sequences. Treatment of the cultures with a calcium ionophore alone, calcium ionophore plus forskolin (that activates adenylate cyclase), or forskolin plus a phorbol ester increased prorenin release and renin mRNA levels 1.3 endash to 6 endash fold, but several classes of steroids did not affect prorenin secretion or renin RNA levels. These results suggest that (i) the first 584 base pairs of the renin gene 5'endash flanking DNA do not contain functional glucocorticoid or estrogen response elements, (ii) placental prorenin release and renin mRNA are regulated by calcium ion and by the combinations of cAMP with either C kinase or calcium ion, and (iii) the first 100 base pairs of the human renin 5'endash flanking DNA direct accurate initiation of transcription and can be regulated by cAMP. Thus, some control of renin release in the placenta (and by inference in other tissues) occurs via transcriptional influences on its promoter

  15. Effects and mechanisms of action of sildenafil citrate in human chorionic arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch Tadhg

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Sildenafil citrate, a specific phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, is increasingly used for pulmonary hypertension in pregnancy. Sildenafil is also emerging as a potential candidate for the treatment of intra-uterine growth retardation and for premature labor. Its effects in the feto-placental circulation are not known. Our objectives were to determine whether phosphodiesterase-5 is present in the human feto-placental circulation, and to characterize the effects and mechanisms of action of sildenafil citrate in this circulation. Study Design Ex vivo human chorionic plate arterial rings were used in all experiments. The presence of phosphodiesterase-5 in the feto-placental circulation was determined by western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. In a subsequent series of pharmacologic studies, the effects of sildenafil citrate in pre-constricted chorionic plate arterial rings were determined. Additional studies examined the role of cGMP and nitric oxide in mediating the effects of sildenafil. Results Phosphodiesterase-5 mRNA and protein was demonstrated in human chorionic plate arteries. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated phosphodiesterase-5 within the arterial muscle layer. Sildenafil citrate produced dose dependent vasodilatation at concentrations at and greater than 10 nM. Both the direct cGMP inhibitor methylene blue and the cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS significantly attenuated the vasodilation produced by sildenafil citrate. Inhibition of NO production with L-NAME did not attenuate the vasodilator effects of sildenafil. In contrast, sildenafil citrate significantly enhanced the vasodilation produced by the NO donor sodium nitroprusside. Conclusion Phosphodiesterase-5 is present in the feto-placental circulation. Sildenafil citrate vasodilates the feto-placental circulation via a cGMP dependent mechanism involving increased responsiveness to NO.

  16. Effects and mechanisms of action of sildenafil citrate in human chorionic arteries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maharaj, Chrisen H

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Sildenafil citrate, a specific phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, is increasingly used for pulmonary hypertension in pregnancy. Sildenafil is also emerging as a potential candidate for the treatment of intra-uterine growth retardation and for premature labor. Its effects in the feto-placental circulation are not known. Our objectives were to determine whether phosphodiesterase-5 is present in the human feto-placental circulation, and to characterize the effects and mechanisms of action of sildenafil citrate in this circulation. STUDY DESIGN: Ex vivo human chorionic plate arterial rings were used in all experiments. The presence of phosphodiesterase-5 in the feto-placental circulation was determined by western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. In a subsequent series of pharmacologic studies, the effects of sildenafil citrate in pre-constricted chorionic plate arterial rings were determined. Additional studies examined the role of cGMP and nitric oxide in mediating the effects of sildenafil. RESULTS: Phosphodiesterase-5 mRNA and protein was demonstrated in human chorionic plate arteries. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated phosphodiesterase-5 within the arterial muscle layer. Sildenafil citrate produced dose dependent vasodilatation at concentrations at and greater than 10 nM. Both the direct cGMP inhibitor methylene blue and the cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS significantly attenuated the vasodilation produced by sildenafil citrate. Inhibition of NO production with L-NAME did not attenuate the vasodilator effects of sildenafil. In contrast, sildenafil citrate significantly enhanced the vasodilation produced by the NO donor sodium nitroprusside. CONCLUSION: Phosphodiesterase-5 is present in the feto-placental circulation. Sildenafil citrate vasodilates the feto-placental circulation via a cGMP dependent mechanism involving increased responsiveness to NO.

  17. Inhibition of septic shock in mice by an oligopeptide from the beta-chain of human chorionic gonadotrophin hormone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N.A.; Khan, A.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Benner, R.

    2002-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) is a heterodimeric placental glycoprotein hormone required in pregnancy. In human pregnancy urine and in commercial hCG preparations (c-hCG) it occurs in a variety of forms, including breakdown products. Several reports have suggested modulation of the immune

  18. Mechanism of Trypanosoma cruzi Placenta Invasion and Infection: The Use of Human Chorionic Villi Explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo E. Fretes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital Chagas disease, a neglected tropical disease, endemic in Latin America, is associated with premature labor and miscarriage. During vertical transmission the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi crosses the placental barrier. However, the exact mechanism of the placental infection remains unclear. We review the congenital transmission of T. cruzi, particularly the role of possible local placental factors that contribute to the vertical transmission of the parasite. Additionally, we analyze the different methods available for studying the congenital transmission of the parasite. In that context, the ex vivo infection with T. cruzi trypomastigotes of human placental chorionic villi constitutes an excellent tool for studying parasite infection strategies as well as possible local antiparasitic mechanisms.

  19. Differential responsiveness of luteinized human granulosa cells to gonadotropins and insulin-like growth factor I for induction of aromatase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christman, G.M.; Randolph, J.F. Jr.; Peegel, H.; Menon, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro responsiveness of cultured luteinized human granulosa cells over time to insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), human follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for the induction of aromatase activity. Granulosa cells were retrieved from preovulatory follicles in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization. Cells were cultured for a period of 72 hours or 10 days. The ability of hCG, human FSH, and/or IGF-I to induce aromatase activity was assayed by the stereospecific release of tritium from [1B-3H]androstenedione. Short-term cultures (72 hours) demonstrated a marked rise in aromatase activity in response to human FSH and IGF-I, whereas a smaller response to hCG was observed. In contrast, 10-day cultures demonstrated responsiveness predominantly to hCG rather than human FSH for the induction of aromatase activity with no remarkable effect of IGF-I. Luteinized human granulosa cells undergo a transformation from an initial human FSH and IGF-I responsive state to an hCG responsive state in long-term cultures

  20. Gonadotropin binding sites in human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shima, K.; Kitayama, S.; Nakano, R.

    1987-05-01

    Gonadotropin binding sites were localized by autoradiography after incubation of human ovarian sections with /sup 125/I-labeled gonadotropins. The binding sites for /sup 125/I-labeled human follicle-stimulating hormone (/sup 125/I-hFSH) were identified in the granulosa cells and in the newly formed corpora lutea. The /sup 125/I-labeled human luteinizing hormone (/sup 125/I-hLH) binding to the thecal cells increased during follicular maturation, and a dramatic increase was preferentially observed in the granulosa cells of the large preovulatory follicle. In the corpora lutea, the binding of /sup 125/I-hLH increased from the early luteal phase and decreased toward the late luteal phase. The changes in 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in the corpora lutea corresponded to the /sup 125/I-hLH binding. Thus, the changes in gonadotropin binding sites in the follicles and corpora lutea during the menstrual cycle may help in some important way to regulate human ovarian function.

  1. Transplantation of Human Chorion-Derived Cholinergic Progenitor Cells: a Novel Treatment for Neurological Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Alireza; Maleki-Jamshid, Ali; Sanooghi, Davood; Milan, Peiman Brouki; Rahmani, Arash; Sefat, Farshid; Shahpasand, Koorosh; Soleimani, Mansoureh; Bakhtiari, Mehrdad; Belali, Rafie; Faghihi, Faezeh; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Perry, George; Mozafari, Masoud

    2018-03-16

    A neurological disorder is any disorder or abnormality in the nervous system. Among different neurological disorders, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is recognized as the sixth leading cause of death globally. Considerable research has been conducted to find pioneer treatments for this devastating disorder among which cell therapy has attracted remarkable attentions over the last decade. Up to now, targeted differentiation into specific desirable cell types has remained a major obstacle to clinical application of cell therapy. Also, potential risks including uncontrolled growth of stem cells could be disastrous. In our novel protocol, we used basal forebrain cholinergic progenitor cells (BFCN) derived from human chorion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hC-MSCs) which made it possible to obtain high-quality population of cholinergic neurons and in vivo in much shorter time period than previous established methods. Remarkably, the transplanted progenitors fully differentiated to cholinergic neurons which in turn integrated in higher cortical networks of host brains, resulting in significant improvement in cognitive assessments. This method may have profound implications in cell therapies for any other neurodegenerative disorders. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  2. Association Between Progesterone Elevation on the Day of Human Chronic Gonadotropin Trigger and Pregnancy Outcomes After Fresh Embryo Transfer in In Vitro Fertilization/Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Sandro C; Khastgir, Gautam; Shah, Jatin; Murdia, Kshitiz; Gupta, Shweta Mittal; Rao, Durga G; Dash, Soumyaroop; Ingale, Kundan; Patil, Milind; Moideen, Kunji; Thakor, Priti; Dewda, Pavitra

    2018-01-01

    Progesterone elevation (PE) during the late follicular phase of controlled ovarian stimulation in fresh embryo transfer in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles has been claimed to be associated with decreased pregnancy rates. However, the evidence is not unequivocal, and clinicians still have questions about the clinical validity of measuring P levels during the follicular phase of stimulated cycles. We reviewed the existing literature aimed at answering four relevant clinical questions, namely (i) Is gonadotropin type associated with PE during the follicular phase of stimulated cycles? (ii) Is PE on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) associated with negative fresh embryo transfer IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles outcomes in all patient subgroups? (iii) Which P thresholds are best to identify patients at risk of implantation failure due to PE in a fresh embryo transfer? and (iv) Should a freeze all policy be adopted in all the cycles with PE on the day of hCG? The existing evidence indicates that late follicular phase progesterone rise in gonadotropin releasing analog cycles is mainly caused by the supraphysiological stimulation of granulosa cells with exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone. Yet, the type of gonadotropin used for stimulation seems to play no significant role on progesterone levels at the end of stimulation. Furthermore, PE is not a universal phenomenon with evidence indicating that its detrimental consequences on pregnancy outcomes do not affect all patient populations equally. Patients with high ovarian response to control ovarian stimulation are more prone to exhibit PE at the late follicular phase. However, in studies showing an overall detrimental effect of PE on pregnancy rates, the adverse effect of PE on endometrial receptivity seems to be offset, at least in part, by the availability of good quality embryo for transfer in women with a high ovarian response. Given the limitations of

  3. Association Between Progesterone Elevation on the Day of Human Chronic Gonadotropin Trigger and Pregnancy Outcomes After Fresh Embryo Transfer in In Vitro Fertilization/Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro C. Esteves

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Progesterone elevation (PE during the late follicular phase of controlled ovarian stimulation in fresh embryo transfer in vitro fertilization (IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles has been claimed to be associated with decreased pregnancy rates. However, the evidence is not unequivocal, and clinicians still have questions about the clinical validity of measuring P levels during the follicular phase of stimulated cycles. We reviewed the existing literature aimed at answering four relevant clinical questions, namely (i Is gonadotropin type associated with PE during the follicular phase of stimulated cycles? (ii Is PE on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG associated with negative fresh embryo transfer IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles outcomes in all patient subgroups? (iii Which P thresholds are best to identify patients at risk of implantation failure due to PE in a fresh embryo transfer? and (iv Should a freeze all policy be adopted in all the cycles with PE on the day of hCG? The existing evidence indicates that late follicular phase progesterone rise in gonadotropin releasing analog cycles is mainly caused by the supraphysiological stimulation of granulosa cells with exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone. Yet, the type of gonadotropin used for stimulation seems to play no significant role on progesterone levels at the end of stimulation. Furthermore, PE is not a universal phenomenon with evidence indicating that its detrimental consequences on pregnancy outcomes do not affect all patient populations equally. Patients with high ovarian response to control ovarian stimulation are more prone to exhibit PE at the late follicular phase. However, in studies showing an overall detrimental effect of PE on pregnancy rates, the adverse effect of PE on endometrial receptivity seems to be offset, at least in part, by the availability of good quality embryo for transfer in women with a high ovarian response. Given the

  4. Association Between Progesterone Elevation on the Day of Human Chronic Gonadotropin Trigger and Pregnancy Outcomes After Fresh Embryo Transfer in In Vitro Fertilization/Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Sandro C.; Khastgir, Gautam; Shah, Jatin; Murdia, Kshitiz; Gupta, Shweta Mittal; Rao, Durga G.; Dash, Soumyaroop; Ingale, Kundan; Patil, Milind; Moideen, Kunji; Thakor, Priti; Dewda, Pavitra

    2018-01-01

    Progesterone elevation (PE) during the late follicular phase of controlled ovarian stimulation in fresh embryo transfer in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles has been claimed to be associated with decreased pregnancy rates. However, the evidence is not unequivocal, and clinicians still have questions about the clinical validity of measuring P levels during the follicular phase of stimulated cycles. We reviewed the existing literature aimed at answering four relevant clinical questions, namely (i) Is gonadotropin type associated with PE during the follicular phase of stimulated cycles? (ii) Is PE on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) associated with negative fresh embryo transfer IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles outcomes in all patient subgroups? (iii) Which P thresholds are best to identify patients at risk of implantation failure due to PE in a fresh embryo transfer? and (iv) Should a freeze all policy be adopted in all the cycles with PE on the day of hCG? The existing evidence indicates that late follicular phase progesterone rise in gonadotropin releasing analog cycles is mainly caused by the supraphysiological stimulation of granulosa cells with exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone. Yet, the type of gonadotropin used for stimulation seems to play no significant role on progesterone levels at the end of stimulation. Furthermore, PE is not a universal phenomenon with evidence indicating that its detrimental consequences on pregnancy outcomes do not affect all patient populations equally. Patients with high ovarian response to control ovarian stimulation are more prone to exhibit PE at the late follicular phase. However, in studies showing an overall detrimental effect of PE on pregnancy rates, the adverse effect of PE on endometrial receptivity seems to be offset, at least in part, by the availability of good quality embryo for transfer in women with a high ovarian response. Given the limitations of

  5. Comparative Gene Expression Profiling in Human Cumulus Cells according to Ovarian Gonadotropin Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Assou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In in vitro fertilization cycles, both HP-hMG and rFSH gonadotropin treatments are widely used to control human follicle development. The objectives of this study are (i to characterize and compare gene expression profiles in cumulus cells (CCs of periovulatory follicles obtained from patients stimulated with HP-hMG or rFSH in a GnRH antagonist cycle and (ii to examine their relationship with in vitro embryo development, using Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays. Genes that were upregulated in HP-hMG-treated CCs are involved in lipid metabolism (GM2A and cell-to-cell interactions (GJA5. Conversely, genes upregulated in rFSH-treated CCs are implicated in cell assembly and organization (COL1A1 and COL3A1. Interestingly, some genes specific to each gonadotropin treatment (NPY1R and GM2A for HP-hMG; GREM1 and OSBPL6 for rFSH were associated with day 3 embryo quality and blastocyst grade at day 5, while others (STC2 and PTX3 were related to in vitro embryo quality in both gonadotropin treatments. These genes may prove valuable as biomarkers of in vitro embryo quality.

  6. [Spermatogenesis of pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone infusion versus gonadotropin therapy in male idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bingkun; Mao, Jiangfeng; Xu, Hongli; Wang, Xi; Liu, Zhaoxiang; Nie, Min; Wu, Xueyan

    2015-05-26

    To compare the efficacies of pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) versus human chorionic gonadotropin/human menopausal gonadotropin (HCG/HMG) for spermatogenesis in male idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH). For this retrospective study, a total of 92 male IHH outpatients from May 2010 to October 2014 were recruited and categorized into GnRH (n = 40) and HCG/HMG (n = 52) groups. Each subject selected one specific therapy voluntarily. The gonadotropin levels were measured in the first week and monthly post-treatment in GnRH group. And serum total testosterone (TT), testicular volume (TV) and rate of spermatogenesis were observed monthly post-treatment in two groups. Spermatogenesis, TT and TV were compared between two groups. All IHH patients were treated for over 3 months. The median follow-up periods in GnRH and HCG/HMG groups was 8.2 (3.0-18.4) and 9.2 (3.0-18.6) months respectively (P = 0.413). In GnRH group, LH ((0.5 ± 0.6) vs (3.4 ± 2.4) U/L, P treatment. In GnRH group, at the end of follow-up, TT ((1.0 ± 1.0) vs (7.4 ± 5.2) nmol/L, P treatment time for initial sperm appearance than HCG/HMG group ((6.5 ± 3.1) vs (10.8 ± 3.7) months, P = 0.001). Pulsatile GnRH requires a shorter time for initiation of spermatogenesis than gonadotropin therapy in IHH male patients.

  7. Triggering of final oocyte maturation with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist or human chorionic gonadotropin. Live birth after frozen-thawed embryo replacement cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griesinger, Georg; Kolibianakis, E M; Papanikolaou, E G

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report the outcome of frozen-thawed embryo replacement cycles after GnRH-agonist triggering of final oocyte maturation in the collecting cycle with GnRH-antagonist. DESIGN: Prospective, observational, multicentric clinical study. SETTING: Tertiary university-affiliated IVF centers...... a total of 228 participants. Surplus embryos or oocytes at the pronuclear stage were cryopreserved in 53 patients after hCG administration and 32 patients after GnRH-agonist administration on the basis of patient choice, pronuclear/embryo availability, and local laws. INTERVENTION(S): Transfer of frozen......-thawed embryos. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Live birth rate. RESULT(S): Thirty-one and 23 patients after administration of hCG and GnRH-agonist, respectively, started a frozen-embryo replacement cycle by September 2005, with 25 and 16 patients eventually undergoing at least one frozen-thawed ET. Live birth rate per...

  8. Comparison of gene expression profiles in granulosa and cumulus cells after ovulation induction with either human chorionic gonadotropin or a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgbo, Tanni; Povlsen, Betina Boel; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2013-01-01

    To explore differences in follicle transcriptomes in patients having oocyte maturation with either a bolus of hCG or GnRHa.......To explore differences in follicle transcriptomes in patients having oocyte maturation with either a bolus of hCG or GnRHa....

  9. 1,500 IU human chorionic gonadotropin administered at oocyte retrieval rescues the luteal phase when gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist is used for ovulation induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humaidan, Peter; Bredkjær, Helle Ejdrup; Westergaard, Lars Grabow

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prospectively assess the reproductive outcome with a small bolus of hCG administered on the day of oocyte retrieval after ovulation induction with a GnRH agonist (GnRHa). DESIGN: Prospective, randomized trial. SETTING: Three hospital-based IVF clinics. PATIENT(S): Three hundred five...... IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection patients after a GnRH antagonist protocol. INTERVENTION(S): Ovulation induction was performed with either 10,000 IU hCG or 0.5 mg GnRHa (buserelin) supplemented with 1,500 IU hCG on the day of oocyte retrieval. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Reproductive outcome...... bolus of hCG in the GnRHa group secured the luteal phase, resulting in a comparable reproductive outcome in the two groups. However, a nonsignificant difference of 7% in delivery rates justifies further studies to refine the use of GnRHa for ovulation induction....

  10. Age and duration of testosterone therapy predict time to return of sperm count after human chorionic gonadotropin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Taylor P; Louis, Matthew R; Pickett, Stephen M; Lindgren, Mark C; Kohn, Jaden R; Pastuszak, Alexander W; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2017-02-01

    To determine factors that influence sperm recovery after T-associated infertility. Clinical retrospective study. Academic male-infertility urology clinic. Sixty-six men who presented with infertility after T use. T cessation and combination high-dose hCG and selective estrogen modulator (SERM) therapy. Whether patients successfully achieved or failed to achieve a total motile count (TMC) of greater than 5 million sperm within 12 months of T cessation and initiation of therapy. A TMC of greater than 5 million sperm was achieved by 46 men (70%). Both increased age and duration of T use directly correlated with time to sperm recovery at both 6 and 12 months of hCG/SERM therapy. Age more consistently limited sperm recovery, while duration of T use had less influence at 12 months than at 6 months. Only 64.8% of azoospermic men achieved a TMC greater than 5 million sperm at 12 months, compared with 91.7% of cryptozoospermic men, yet this did not predict a failure of sperm recovery. Increasing age and duration of T use significantly reduce the likelihood of recovery of sperm in the ejaculate, based on a criterion of a TMC of 5 million sperm, at 6 and 12 months. Physicians should be cautious in pursuing long-term T therapy, particularly in men who still desire fertility. Using these findings, physicians can counsel men regarding the likelihood of recovery of sperm at 6 and 12 months. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Serum inhibin B, FSH, LH and testosterone levels before and after human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation in prepubertal boys with cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, P; Andersson, A-M; Skakkebaek, N E

    2002-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that cryptorchidism is associated with degenerative changes in both Sertoli cells and germ cells. The gonadal peptide hormone inhibin B reflects Sertoli cell function. Low inhibin B levels are found in a large portion of formerly cryptorchid men who show compromised...

  12. SDS-PAGE Electrophoretic Property of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) and its β-subunit

    OpenAIRE

    Gam, Lay-Harn; Latiff, Aishah

    2005-01-01

    The microheterogeneity property of hCG with regards to its sialic acid contents resulted in variable mobility of the glycoprotein in SDS-PAGE. The intact hCG molecule is composed of two dissimilar subunits, namely α- and β-subunits. The identification of hCG bands in SDS-PAGE was accomplished by the immunoblotting experiment, whereby the antibody directed toward the specific region of β-subunit of hCG was used. The data shows that the different mobility of intact hCG was attributed to the dif...

  13. Semen quality in men with disseminated testicular cancer : relation with human chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunit and pituitary gonadal hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, Daphne; de Jong, Igle J.; Arts, Eugene G. J. M.; Nuver, Janine; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Sluiter, Willem J.; Hoekstra, Harald J.; Sleijfer, Dirk T.; Gietema, Jourik A.

    Objective: To compare the semen quality and hormonal status between patients with testicular cancer and normal versus increased serum levels of beta-hCG. Design: Retrospective study. Setting: Academic research environment. Patient(s): All 203 patients with testicular cancer who required chemotherapy

  14. A case of hypopituitarism accompanying Kearns-Sayre syndrome treated with human chorionic gonadotropin: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Y-X; Wang, Y-J; Zhang, Q; Pang, X-H; Gu, W

    2017-10-01

    Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS) is a disorder caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA. Here, we report an unusual case of Kearns-Sayre syndrome accompanied by hypopituitarism (deficiencies in reproductive and growth hormones). A 20-year-old male presented with growth retardation for the last 8 years, as well as the following findings: short stature, delayed puberty, myasthenia, an extraocular movement deficit, drooping eyelids, pectus carinatum and scoliosis. Cerebral enhanced magnetic resonance imaging revealed dysplasias of the pituitary, white matter and cerebellum. Laboratory work-up showed subnormal testosterone and growth hormone levels, a subnormal testicular volume, sensorineural deafness, pigmentary retinopathy, complete right bundle branch block and left anterior bundle branch block. Pathological examination revealed ragged red muscle fibres. Thus, this rare case involved the coexistence of Kearns-Sayre syndrome and hypopituitarism in a patient. Administration of coenzyme Q10 for the KSS and hormone replacement therapy for the endocrinopathies were performed for treatment of this patient. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Effect of high doses of equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... Key words: Equine chorionic gonadotrophin, follicular, ovulation, pregnancy, estrus synchronization, goat. ... This requires that the management practices take into account .... MOET, multiple ovulation and embryo transfer; PASW®, predictive analytics software; PMSG, pregnant mare serum gonadotropin.

  16. Human pituitary and placental hormones control human insulin-like growth factor II secretion in human granulosa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramasharma, K.; Li, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    Human granulosa cells cultured with calf serum actively proliferated for 18-20 generations and secreted progesterone into the medium; progesterone levels appeared to decline with increase in generation number. Cells cultured under serum-free conditions secreted significant amounts of progesterone and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). The progesterone secretion was enhanced by the addition of human follitropin, lutropin, and chorionic gonadotropin but not by growth hormone. These cells, when challenged to varying concentrations of human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, human prolactin, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin, secreted IGF-II into the medium as measured by specific IGF-II RIA. Among these human hormones, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin were most effective in inducing IGF-II secretion from these cells. When synthetic lutropin-releasing hormone and α-inhibin-92 were tested, only lutropin-releasing hormone was effective in releasing IGF-II. The results described suggest that cultured human granulosa cells can proliferate and actively secrete progesterone and IGF-II into the medium. IGF-II production in human granulosa cells was influenced by a multi-hormonal complex including human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, and prolactin

  17. A Label-Free and Ultrasensitive Immunosensor for Detection of Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin Based on Graphene FETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Kamrul; Suhail, Ahmed; Pan, Genhua

    2017-07-12

    We report on a label-free immunosensor based on graphene field effect transistors (G-FETs) for the ultrasensitive detection of Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG), as an indicator of pregnancy and related disorders, such as actopic pregnancy, choriocarcinoma and orchic teratoma. Pyrene based bioactive ester was non-covalently anchored onto the graphene channel in order to retain the sp² lattice. The G-FET transfer characteristics showed repeatable and reliable responses in all surface modifying steps using a direct current (DC) readout system. The hCG concentration gradient showed a detection limit of ~1 pg·mL -1 . The proposed method facilitates the cost-effective and viable production of graphene point-of-care devices for clinical diagnosis.

  18. A Label-Free and Ultrasensitive Immunosensor for Detection of Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin Based on Graphene FETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamrul Islam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on a label-free immunosensor based on graphene field effect transistors (G-FETs for the ultrasensitive detection of Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG, as an indicator of pregnancy and related disorders, such as actopic pregnancy, choriocarcinoma and orchic teratoma. Pyrene based bioactive ester was non-covalently anchored onto the graphene channel in order to retain the sp2 lattice. The G-FET transfer characteristics showed repeatable and reliable responses in all surface modifying steps using a direct current (DC readout system. The hCG concentration gradient showed a detection limit of ~1 pg·mL−1. The proposed method facilitates the cost-effective and viable production of graphene point-of-care devices for clinical diagnosis.

  19. Chorionic villus sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003406.htm Chorionic villus sampling To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is a test some pregnant women have ...

  20. The Prenatal Environment in Twin Studies: A Review on Chorionicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marceau, K.; McMaster, M.T.; Smith, T.F.; Daams, J.G.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Boomsma, D.I.; Knopik, V.S.

    2016-01-01

    A literature search was conducted to identify articles examining the association of chorionicity (e.g., whether twins share a single chorion and thus placenta or have separate chorions/placentas) and genetics, psychiatry/behavior, and neurological manifestations in humans twins and higher-order

  1. Development of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone-Secreting Neurons from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Lund

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons regulate human puberty and reproduction. Modeling their development and function in vitro would be of interest for both basic research and clinical translation. Here, we report a three-step protocol to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs into GnRH-secreting neurons. Firstly, hPSCs were differentiated to FOXG1, EMX2, and PAX6 expressing anterior neural progenitor cells (NPCs by dual SMAD inhibition. Secondly, NPCs were treated for 10 days with FGF8, which is a key ligand implicated in GnRH neuron ontogeny, and finally, the cells were matured with Notch inhibitor to bipolar TUJ1-positive neurons that robustly expressed GNRH1 and secreted GnRH decapeptide into the culture medium. The protocol was reproducible both in human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, and thus provides a translational tool for investigating the mechanisms of human puberty and its disorders.

  2. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone immunoreactivity in the adult and fetal human olfactory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K H; Patel, L; Tobet, S A; King, J C; Rubin, B S; Stopa, E G

    1999-05-01

    Studies in fetal brain tissue of rodents, nonhuman primates and birds have demonstrated that cells containing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) migrate from the olfactory placode across the nasal septum into the forebrain. The purpose of this study was to examine GnRH neurons in components of the adult and fetal human olfactory system. In the adult human brain (n=4), immunoreactive GnRH was evident within diffusely scattered cell bodies and processes in the olfactory bulb, olfactory nerve, olfactory cortex, and nervus terminalis located on the anterior surface of the gyrus rectus. GnRH-immunoreactive structures showed a similar distribution in 20-week human fetal brains (n=2), indicating that the migration of GnRH neurons is complete at this time. In 10-11-week fetal brains (n=2), more cells were noted in the nasal cavity than in the brain. Our data are consistent with observations made in other species, confirming olfactory derivation and migration of GnRH neurons into the brain from the olfactory placode. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  3. Regenerative and Antibacterial Properties of Acellular Fish Skin Grafts and Human Amnion/Chorion Membrane: Implications for Tissue Preservation in Combat Casualty Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Skuli; Baldursson, Baldur Tumi; Kjartansson, Hilmar; Rolfsson, Ottar; Sigurjonsson, Gudmundur Fertram

    2017-03-01

    Improvised explosive devices and new directed energy weapons are changing warfare injuries from penetrating wounds to large surface area thermal and blast injuries. Acellular fish skin is used for tissue repair and during manufacturing subjected to gentle processing compared to biologic materials derived from mammals. This is due to the absence of viral and prion disease transmission risk, preserving natural structure and composition of the fish skin graft. The aim of this study was to assess properties of acellular fish skin relevant for severe battlefield injuries and to compare those properties with those of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane. We evaluated cell ingrowth capabilities of the biological materials with microscopy techniques. Bacterial barrier properties were tested with a 2-chamber model. The microstructure of the acellular fish skin is highly porous, whereas the microstructure of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane is mostly nonporous. The fish skin grafts show superior ability to support 3-dimensional ingrowth of cells compared to dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane (p fish skin is a bacterial barrier for 24 to 48 hours. The unique biomechanical properties of the acellular fish skin graft make it ideal to be used as a conformal cover for severe trauma and burn wounds in the battlefield. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  4. Predictive value of early serum beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin for the successful outcome in women undergoing in vitro fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Pregnancies achieved by in vitro fertilization (IVF are at increased risk of adverse outcome. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-HCG and age of the patient for the successful outcome in IVF. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was done in 139 pregnancies after IVF at single IVF center from June 2007 to July 2012. The age of the patient and initial serum values of β-HCG on day 14 of embryo transfer were correlated with ongoing pregnancy (>12 weeks gestation. Results: The β-HCG level on day 14 of more than 347 mIU/ml has a sensitivity of 72.2% and specificity of 73.6% in prediction of pregnancy beyond 12 weeks period of gestation. Positive likelihood ratio (LR is 2.74 and negative LR is 0.37, (receiver operating characteristic area = 0.79. Discussion: In IVF cycles, there is a lot of stress on the couples while the cycle is going on. There was a positive correlation between the higher values of early serum β-HCG levels and ongoing pregnancy. Hence, it can be used as an independent predictor of a successful outcome of IVF cycle. Conclusion: We concluded from our study that early serum β-HCG can be used as a predictor of a successful outcome in IVF.

  5. Differential gene expression in human granulosa cells from recombinant FSH versus human menopausal gonadotropin ovarian stimulation protocols

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    Bietz Mandi G

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study was designed to test the hypothesis that granulosa cell (GC gene expression response differs between recombinant FSH and human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG stimulation regimens. Methods Females Results After exclusions, 1736 genes exhibited differential expression between groups. Over 400 were categorized as signal transduction genes, ~180 as transcriptional regulators, and ~175 as enzymes/metabolic genes. Expression of selected genes was confirmed by RT-PCR. Differentially expressed genes included A kinase anchor protein 11 (AKAP11, bone morphogenetic protein receptor II (BMPR2, epidermal growth factor (EGF, insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP-4, IGFBP-5, and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1 alpha. Conclusions Results suggest that major differences exist in the mechanism by which pure FSH alone versus FSH/LH regulate gene expression in preovulatory GC that could impact oocyte maturity and developmental competence.

  6. Development of Some Organs Derived from the Three Embryonic Germ Layer in a Degus Ectopic Pregnancy and Presence of a Cytotrophoblast That Mimics Human Chorionic Placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bosco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a case of abdominal pregnancy in an adult female degu from which we recovered two large tissular masses from the peritoneal cavity. The bigger one showed a number of thin vascular connections to the serosa layer of the small intestine. It was also directly connected to the smaller mass by a thin membranous process. The surface of the bigger mass facing the small intestine wall showed the presence of chorionic villous that resembled a villous human chorionic placenta, rather than the hemomonochorial labyrinthine placenta, characteristic of this species. This unusual finding leads us to postulate that in the degu’s uterus the cytotrophoblast is exposed to a number of factors that will activate cascades of cellular and molecular events that ultimately will be signaling the cytotrophoblast to develop into a labyrinthine hemomonochorial placenta. In absence of the proper uterine environment, as is the case of the abdominal pregnancy in the peritoneal cavity reported here, the lack of signaling will lead the cytotrophoblast to develop into a villous chorionic placenta, similar to that observed in human.

  7. The laparoscopic ovarian electrocautery versus gonadotropin therapy in infertile women with clomiphene citrate-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome; a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabian, Ferdous; Eessaei, Fatemeh

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to compare two methods of treatment of infertility with gonadotropin with laparoscopic ovarian electrocauterization in patients with clomiphene citrate-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A number of 104 nulipara patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, who were resistant to clomiphene citrate were randomly assigned to two groups. One group received gonadotropin; after the bleeding withdrawal and from the third day of the cycle, the injection of human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) was started with 10 mg medroxy progesterone. The patients were followed with serial trans-vaginal sonographies. When the diameter of follicles reached to 18 mm, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) was prescribed. The other group was treated with laparoscopic ovarian electrocauterization under general anesthesia. If after 3 cycles, the anovulation was established with progesterone measurement, the clomiphene citrate was prescribed. Gonadotropin was administered, if the lack of ovulation persisted. No significant difference was documented between the two groups in terms of the obesity indexes, duration of infertility, age, sonographic and laboratory findings. In the gonadotropin group, 37 cases (71%) of pregnancy occurred. The rate of pregnancy was the same in the other group consisting of 18 cases treated by electrocautery, 9 cases with cautery + clomiphene, and 10 cases with clomiphene + cautery + gonadotropin. In the group treated with gonadotropin, there were 1 triple and 4 twins pregnancies. In the group treated with ovarian electrocautery, one twin pregnancy was observed. In the group treated with gonadotropin, 2 cases of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, 1 case of ectopic pregnancy and 6 cases of miscarriage occurred; the corresponding figure in the ovarian electrocautery group consisted of 5 cases of miscarriage. Our findings suggest that ovarian electrocauterization is an appropriate method with good efficacy and low complication rate for infertility

  8. Efficacy and Outcome Predictors of Gonadotropin Treatment for Male Congenital Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoxiang; Mao, Jangfeng; Wu, Xueyan; Xu, Hongli; Wang, Xi; Huang, Bingkun; Zheng, Junjie; Nie, Min; Zhang, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gonadotropin induces masculinization and spermatogenesis in men with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH). However, large cohort studies for the efficacy and reliable predictors of this therapy need to be conducted. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of gonadotropin treatment in a large cohort of male CHH patients and analyze putative predictors for successful spermatogenesis. This retrospective study included 223 CHH azoospermic patients without puberty development treated between 2005 and 2014. All patients received combined human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) and were followed up for >6 months (5109 person-months). Serum total testosterone level, testicular size, spermatogenesis, and pregnancy outcome were recorded at each visit. After gonadotropin therapy, testicular size was enlarged from 2.1 ± 1.6 to 8.1 ± 4.6 mL (P 0/mL) occurred at a median period of 15 months (95% confidence interval 13.5–16.5). Larger basal testicular volume (P = 0.012) and noncryptorchidism history (P = 0.028) are independent predictors for earlier sperm appearance. Sixty four percent (143/223) of patients succeeded in producing sperms and the average time for initial sperm detection was 14 ± 8 months. However, their sperm concentrations (11.7 [2.1, 24.4] million/mL) and sperm progressive motility (A + B 36.9% ± 20.2%) are significantly lower than World Health Organization standards. Of the 34 patients who desired for fathering children, 19 patients impregnanted their partners during the treatment. Gonadotropin therapy induces spermatogenesis in male CHH patients. A larger basal testicular size and noncryptorchidism history are favorable indicators for earlier spermatogenesis. PMID:26945370

  9. A Comparative Study to Evaluate Myogenic Differentiation Potential of Human Chorion versus Umbilical Cord Blood-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bana, Nikoo; Sanooghi, Davood; Soleimani, Mansoureh; Hayati Roodbari, Nasim; Alavi Moghaddam, Sepideh; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Sayahpour, Forough Azam; Faghihi, Faezeh

    2017-08-01

    Musculodegenerative diseases threaten the life of many patients in the world. Since drug administration is not efficient in regeneration of damaged tissues, stem cell therapy is considered as a good strategy to restore the lost cells. Since the efficiency of myogenic differentiation potential of human Chorion- derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (C-MSCs) has not been addressed so far; we set out to evaluate myogenic differentiation property of these cells in comparison with Umbilical Cord Blood- derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (UCB-MSCs) in the presence of 5-azacytidine. To do that, neonate placenta Umbilical Cord Blood were transferred to the lab. After characterization of the isolated cells using flowcytometry and multilineage differentiation capacity, the obtained Mesenchymal Stem Cells were cultured in DMEM/F12 supplemented with 2% FBS and 10μM of 5-azacytidine to induce myogenic differentiation. Real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry were used to assess the myogenic properties of the cells. Our data showed that C-MSCs and UCB-MSCs were spindle shape in morphology. They were positive for CD90, CD73 and CD44 antigens, and negative for hematopoietic markers. They also differentiated into osteoblast and adipoblast lineages. Real-time PCR results showed that the cells could express MyoD, desmin and α-MHC at the end of the first week (P<0.05). No significant upregulation was detected in the expression of GATA-4 in both groups. Immunocytochemical staining revealed the expression of Desmin, cTnT and α-MHC. Results showed that these cells are potent to differentiate into myoblast- like cells. An upregulation in the expression of some myogenic markers (desmin, α- MHC) was observed in C-MSCs in comparison with UCB-MSCs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone therapy is associated with earlier spermatogenesis compared to combined gonadotropin therapy in patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

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    Jiang-Feng Mao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Both pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH infusion and combined gonadotropin therapy (human chorionic gonadotropin and human menopausal gonadotropin [HCG/HMG] are effective to induce spermatogenesis in male patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH. However, evidence is lacking as to which treatment strategy is better. This retrospective cohort study included 202 patients with CHH: twenty had received pulsatile GnRH and 182 had received HCG/HMG. Patients had received therapy for at least 12 months. The total follow-up time was 15.6 ± 5.0 months (range: 12-27 months for the GnRH group and 28.7 ± 13.0 months (range: 12-66 months for the HCG/HMG group. The median time to first sperm appearance was 6 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6-10.4 in the GnRH group versus 18 months (95% CI: 16.4-20.0 in the HCG/HMG group (P 1 × 10 6 ml−1 was 43.7% ± 20.4% (16 samples in the GnRH group versus 43.2% ± 18.1% (153 samples in the HCG/HMG group (P = 0.921. Notably, during follow-up, the GnRH group had lower serum testosterone levels than the HCG/HMG group (8.3 ± 4.6 vs 16.2 ± 8.2 nmol l−1 , P < 0.001. Our study found that pulsatile GnRH therapy was associated with earlier spermatogenesis and larger testicular size compared to combined gonadotropin therapy. Additional prospective randomized studies would be required to confirm these findings.

  11. Differentiation Potential of Human Chorion-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Motor Neuron-Like Cells in Two- and Three-Dimensional Culture Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Faezeh; Mirzaei, Esmaeil; Ai, Jafar; Lotfi, Abolfazl; Sayahpour, Forough Azam; Barough, Somayeh Ebrahimi; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi

    2016-04-01

    Many people worldwide suffer from motor neuron-related disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal cord injuries. Recently, several attempts have been made to recruit stem cells to modulate disease progression in ALS and also regenerate spinal cord injuries. Chorion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (C-MSCs), used to be discarded as postpartum medically waste product, currently represent a class of cells with self renewal property and immunomodulatory capacity. These cells are able to differentiate into mesodermal and nonmesodermal lineages such as neural cells. On the other hand, gelatin, as a simply denatured collagen, is a suitable substrate for cell adhesion and differentiation. It has been shown that electrospinning of scaffolds into fibrous structure better resembles the physiological microenvironment in comparison with two-dimensional (2D) culture system. Since there is no report on potential of human chorion-derived MSCs to differentiate into motor neuron cells in two- and three-dimensional (3D) culture systems, we set out to determine the effect of retinoic acid (RA) and sonic hedgehog (Shh) on differentiation of human C-MSCs into motor neuron-like cells cultured on tissue culture plates (2D) and electrospun nanofibrous gelatin scaffold (3D).

  12. Fresh versus frozen embryo transfer after gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger in gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist cycles among high responder women: A randomized, multi-center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Aflatoonian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of embryo cryopreservation excludes the possible detrimental effects of ovarian stimulation on the endometrium, and higher reproductive outcomes following this policy have been reported. Moreover, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH antagonist cycles as a substitute for standard human chorionic gonadotropin trigger, minimizes the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS in fresh as well as frozen embryo transfer cycles (FET. Objective: To compare the reproductive outcomes and risk of OHSS in fresh vs frozen embryo transfer in high responder patients, undergoing in vitro fertilization triggered with a bolus of GnRH agonist. Materials and Methods: In this randomized, multi-centre study, 121 women undergoing FET and 119 women undergoing fresh ET were investigated as regards clinical pregnancy as the primary outcome and the chemical pregnancy, live birth, OHSS development, and perinatal data as secondary outcomes. Results: There were no significant differences between FET and fresh groups regarding chemical (46.4% vs. 40.2%, p=0.352, clinical (35.8% vs. 38.3%, p=0.699, and ongoing (30.3% vs. 32.7%, p=0.700 pregnancy rates, also live birth (30.3% vs. 29.9%, p=0.953, perinatal outcomes, and OHSS development (35.6% vs. 42.9%, p=0.337. No woman developed severe OHSS and no one required admission to hospital. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that GnRHa trigger followed by fresh transfer with modified luteal phase support in terms of a small human chorionic gonadotropin bolus is a good strategy to secure good live birth rates and a low risk of clinically relevant OHSS development in in vitro fertilization patients at risk of OHSS.

  13. Efficacy and Outcome Predictors of Gonadotropin Treatment for Male Congenital Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism: A Retrospective Study of 223 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoxiang; Mao, Jangfeng; Wu, Xueyan; Xu, Hongli; Wang, Xi; Huang, Bingkun; Zheng, Junjie; Nie, Min; Zhang, Hongbing

    2016-03-01

    Gonadotropin induces masculinization and spermatogenesis in men with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH). However, large cohort studies for the efficacy and reliable predictors of this therapy need to be conducted. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of gonadotropin treatment in a large cohort of male CHH patients and analyze putative predictors for successful spermatogenesis. This retrospective study included 223 CHH azoospermic patients without puberty development treated between 2005 and 2014. All patients received combined human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) and were followed up for >6 months (5109 person-months). Serum total testosterone level, testicular size, spermatogenesis, and pregnancy outcome were recorded at each visit. After gonadotropin therapy, testicular size was enlarged from 2.1 ± 1.6 to 8.1 ± 4.6 mL (P 0/mL) occurred at a median period of 15 months (95% confidence interval 13.5-16.5). Larger basal testicular volume (P = 0.012) and noncryptorchidism history (P = 0.028) are independent predictors for earlier sperm appearance. Sixty four percent (143/223) of patients succeeded in producing sperms and the average time for initial sperm detection was 14 ± 8 months. However, their sperm concentrations (11.7 [2.1, 24.4] million/mL) and sperm progressive motility (A + B 36.9% ± 20.2%) are significantly lower than World Health Organization standards. Of the 34 patients who desired for fathering children, 19 patients impregnanted their partners during the treatment. Gonadotropin therapy induces spermatogenesis in male CHH patients. A larger basal testicular size and noncryptorchidism history are favorable indicators for earlier spermatogenesis.

  14. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in gonadotropin-treated laboratory South African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sherril L; Parker, John; Davis, Corrine; Bouley, Donna M

    2007-05-01

    Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHS) is a rare but sometimes fatal iatrogenic complication of ovarian stimulation associated with the administration of exogenous gonadotropins to women undergoing treatment for infertility. Laboratory Xenopus spp are commonly treated with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to stimulate ovulation and optimize the number of oocytes harvested for use in biomedical research. Here we report cases of OHS in 2 gonadotropin-treated laboratory Xenopus laevis. After receiving hCG, the frogs developed severe subcutaneous accumulation of fluid, coelomic distention, and whole-body edema and were unable to dive, although they continued to eat and swim. At postmortem examination, extensive subcutaneous edema was present; ascites and massive numbers of free-floating eggs were found in the coelomic cavity and in aberrant locations: around the heart-sac and adhered to the liver capsule. Whole-body edema, gross enlargement of the ovaries, ascites, and abdominal distention are findings comparable to those observed in women with OHS. The pathophysiology of OHS is thought to be related to hormonally induced disturbances of vasoactive mediators, one of which may be vascular endothelial growth factor secreted by theca and granulosa cells. We know of no other report describing OHSlike symptoms in gonadotropin-treated frogs, and the cases described here are 2 of the 3 we have observed at our respective institutions over the last 6 y. According to these results, OHS appears to be rare in gonadotropin-treated laboratory Xenopus. However, the condition should be included in the differential diagnosis for the bloated frog.

  15. Regulation of P450 oxidoreductase by gonadotropins in rat ovary and its effect on estrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uesaka Miki

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background P450 oxidoreductase (POR catalyzes electron transfer to microsomal P450 enzymes. Its deficiency causes Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS, and about half the patients with ABS have ambiguous genitalia and/or impaired steroidogenesis. POR mRNA expression is up-regulated when mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs differentiate into steroidogenic cells, suggesting that the regulation of POR gene expression is important for steroidogenesis. In this context we examined the regulation of POR expression in ovarian granulosa cells by gonadotropins, and its possible role in steroidogenesis. Methods Changes in gene expression in MSCs during differentiation into steroidogenic cells were examined by DNA microarray analysis. Changes in mRNA and protein expression of POR in the rat ovary or in granulosa cells induced by gonadotropin treatment were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Effects of transient expression of wild-type or mutant (R457H or V492E POR proteins on the production of estrone in COS-7 cells were examined in vitro. Effects of POR knockdown were also examined in estrogen producing cell-line, KGN cells. Results POR mRNA was induced in MSCs following transduction with the SF-1 retrovirus, and was further increased by cAMP treatment. Expression of POR mRNA, as well as Cyp19 mRNA, in the rat ovary were induced by equine chorionic gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin. POR mRNA and protein were also induced by follicle stimulating hormone in primary cultured rat granulosa cells, and the induction pattern was similar to that for aromatase. Transient expression of POR in COS-7 cells, which expressed a constant amount of aromatase protein, greatly increased the rate of conversion of androstenedione to estrone, in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of mutant POR proteins (R457H or V492E, such as those found in ABS patients, had much less effect on aromatase activity than expression of wild

  16. Afferent neuronal control of type-I gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH neurons in the human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik eHrabovszky

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the regulation of the human menstrual cycle represents an important ultimate challenge of reproductive neuroendocrine research. However, direct translation of information from laboratory animal experiments to the human is often complicated by strikingly different and unique reproductive strategies and central regulatory mechanisms that can be present in even closely related animal species. In all mammals studied so far, type-I gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH synthesizing neurons form the final common output way from the hypothalamus in the neuroendocrine control of the adenohypophysis. Under various physiological and pathological conditions, hormonal and metabolic signals either regulate GnRH neurons directly or act on upstream neuronal circuitries to influence the pattern of pulsatile GnRH secretion into the hypophysial portal circulation. Neuronal afferents to GnRH cells convey important metabolic-, stress-, sex steroid-, lactational- and circadian signals to the reproductive axis, among other effects. This article gives an overview of the available neuroanatomical literature that described the afferent regulation of human GnRH neurons by peptidergic, monoaminergic and amino acidergic neuronal systems. Recent studies of human genetics provided evidence that central peptidergic signaling by kisspeptins and neurokinin B play particularly important roles in puberty onset and later, in the sex steroid-dependent feedback regulation of GnRH neurons. This review article places special emphasis on the topographic distribution, sexual dimorphism, aging-dependent neuroanatomical changes and plastic connectivity to GnRH neurons of the critically important human hypothalamic kisspeptin and neurokinin B systems.

  17. A Case of Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia, Hemorrhagic Anemia-Induced Fetal Hydrops, Maternal Mirror Syndrome, and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin–Induced Thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venu Jain

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT can be a cause of severe fetal thrombocytopenia, with the common presentation being intracranial hemorrhage in the fetus, usually in the third trimester. A very unusual case of fetal anemia progressed to hydrops. This was further complicated by maternal Mirror syndrome and human chorionic gonadotropin–induced thyrotoxicosis. Without knowledge of etiology, and possibly due to associated cardiac dysfunction, fetal transfusion resulted in fetal demise. Subsequent testing revealed FNAIT as the cause of severe hemorrhagic anemia. In cases with fetal anemia without presence of red blood cell antibodies, FNAIT must be ruled out as a cause prior to performing fetal transfusion. Fetal heart may adapt differently to acute hemorrhagic anemia compared with a more subacute hemolytic anemia.

  18. Enhanced urothelial expression of human chorionic gonadotropin beta (hCGβ) in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalenberg, Thilo; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Ho, Thi Phuc; Mallock, Tobias; Hartenstein, Siegurd; Alexander, Henry; Zimmermann, Gerolf; Hohenfellner, Rudolf; Denzinger, Stefan; Burger, Maximilian; Horn, Lars-Christian; Neuhaus, Jochen

    2012-06-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is associated with urothelial lesions. Pathomechanisms of urothelial damage and factors for urothelial restoration are unknown. hCG is a factor for cellular differentiation, angiogenesis and immune competence of the endometrium during pregnancy. Clinical observations demonstrate improvement of BPS/IC symptoms during pregnancy or during infertility treatment with hCG. Our research aims were to examine the expression of hCG and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) in the urothelium of BPS/IC patients and compare the levels of hCGβ with healthy controls. Bladder biopsies of BPS/IC (CLSM: n = 10; qPCR: n = 15); Tumour-free control tissue from cystectomies (n = 12). hCGα, hCGβ and LHR expression were examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and hCGβ expression was quantified. hCGβ5 and hCGβ7 mRNA splice variants were quantified in real-time polymerase chain reaction. We found constitutive expression of hCGα, hCGβ and LHR in healthy controls. HCGβ was significantly upregulated in BPS/IC patients in CLSM. PCR analysis revealed higher levels of hCGβ7 than hCGβ5 in controls and BPS/IC patients. The constitutive expression of hCG and LHR speaks in favour for a functional signalling in urothelial cells without any association with either pregnancy or tumour. We show for the first time that hCGβ is upregulated in BPS/IC urothelium and that hCGβ7 is the dominant splice variant in those cells. Our findings imply a major role of hCG for urothelial integrity and a disturbance of hCG signalling in case of BPS/IC. We conclude that hCG could gain therapeutical relevance in the future.

  19. Occult abnormal pregnancies after first post-embryo transfer serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin levels of 1.0-5.0 mIU/mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Bat-Sheva L; Bartolucci, Alison; Sueldo, Carolina; Engmann, Lawrence; Benadiva, Claudio; Nulsen, John C

    2016-04-01

    To assess the occult pregnancy rate after "negative" first post-embryo transfer (ET) serum β-hCG results. Two-part retrospective cohort study and nested case series. University-based fertility center. A total of 1,571 negative first post-ET serum β-hCG results were included in the study; 1,326 results (primary cohort, June 2009-December 2013) were initially reported as <5 mIU/mL and 245 results (secondary cohort, January 2014-March 2015) were reported as discrete values from 1.0 to 5.0 mIU/mL. None. Rates of occult pregnancy, ectopic pregnancy, and complications after negative first post-ET serum β-hCG results. A total of 88.8% (1,178/1,326) of the negative first post-ET results reported as <5 were actually <1.0 mIU/mL. Occult pregnancy was incidentally identified in 1.2% (12/1,041) of subjects with follow-up. Six had ectopic pregnancies, and seven experienced serious complications; 11 (91.7%) of the 12 occult pregnancies had a first post-ET serum β-hCG level of 1.0-5.0 mIU/mL and 1 (8.3%) <1.0 mIU/mL. All pregnancies with serious complications had initial β-hCG levels of 1.0-5.0 mIU/mL. Of the 245 results reported as discreet values, occult pregnancies were diagnosed in 5.5% (9/163) of subjects with follow-up. One had an ectopic pregnancy, which was treated with methotrexate. There were no serious complications in the secondary cohort. The majority of negative first post-ET serum β-hCG levels are <1.0 mIU/mL. Results from 1.0 to 5.0 mIU/mL may fail to exclude abnormal pregnancy and are associated with poor outcomes compared with β-hCG levels <1.0 mIU/mL. Serial serum β-hCG may be warranted in this population. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Activation of silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 by human chorionic gonadotropin exerts a therapeutic effect on hepatic injury and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinmetz, Caroline; Kashyap, Anubha; Zhivkova, Nataliya; Alizor, Henry; Ernst, Isabell; Gottfried-Brand, Daniela; Janssen, Henning; Teufel, Andreas; Schulze-Bergkamen, Henning; Lotz, Johannes; Kuball, Jürgen; Theobald, Matthias; Heise, Michael; Lang, Hauke; Galle, Peter R; Strand, Dennis; Strand, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Incidence and prevalence of inflammatory liver diseases has increased over the last years, but therapeutic options are limited. Pregnancy induces a state of immune tolerance, which can result in spontaneous improvement of clinical symptoms of certain autoimmune diseases including autoimmune

  1. Effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) administration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pregnancy rate in group F was more than the control group (p < 0.05). Twinning rates and kid crops in groups E+F and F were significantly higher than control group (p < 0.05). Time of onset of estrus decreased in groups with eCG administration (E and E+F). Therefore, it is concluded that the flushing especially coupled with ...

  2. Effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) administration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... inappropriate BCS nursing their kids, were unable give a proper response to ... in diet causes negative balance of energy for physiolo- gical activities like ..... trations of hormones and glucose in plasma and follicular fluid.

  3. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone radioimmunoassay and its measurement in normal human plasma, secondary amenorrhea, and postmenopausal syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenblum, N.G.; Schlaff, S.

    1976-01-01

    A sensitive and specific double antibody radioimmunoassay for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has been developed for measurement in ethanol extracts of human plasma. Iodinated hormone was prepared with the use of the chloramine-T method, and antibodies were developed in rabbits over a six-month period with a GnRH synthetic copolymer immunogen. A Scatchard plot revealed at least three species of antibody. The assay can measure conservatively at the 5 pg. per milliliter level and shows no cross-reactivity with other available hypothalamic and pituitary hormones. The releasing hormone was quantitatively recovered from human plasma with immunologic identity to native hormone. Unextracted plasma could not be used because of nonspecific displacement. The measurement of GnRH in individuals receiving 100 μg of intravenous bolus infusions of the synthetic decapeptide show extremely elevated values with two half-lives: one of two to four minutes and another of 35 to 40 minutes. In our experiments, we have found measurable GnRH in patients with secondary amenorrhea and at the midcycle in normal women. In the normal cycling woman during the follicular and luteal phases, GnRH was undetectable. In postmenopausal women with extreme hypoestrogenism and markedly elevated luteinizing hormone values, GnRH was also undetectable. No bursts of GnRH could be detected in normal men when sampled every ten minutes over a two-hour period and every two hours throughout the day

  4. Supplementation with a recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin microdose leads to similar outcomes in ovarian stimulation with recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone using either a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist or antagonist for pituitary suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagna, Mario; Maldonado, Luiz Guilherme Louzada; de Souza Bonetti, Tatiana Carvalho; de Almeida Ferreira Braga, Daniela Paes; Iaconelli, Assumpto; Borges, Edson

    2010-06-01

    To compare the outcomes of protocols for ovarian stimulation with recombinant hCG microdose, with GnRH agonists and antagonists for pituitary suppression. Prospective nonrandomized clinical trial. A private assisted reproduction center. We studied 182 patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles, allocated into two groups: GnRH agonist group, in which patients received a GnRH agonist (n = 73), and a GnRH antagonist group, in which patients were administered a GnRH antagonist for pituitary suppression (n = 109). Pituitary suppression with GnRH agonist or GnRH antagonist. Ovarian stimulation carried out with recombinant FSH and supplemented with recombinant hCG microdose. Total dose of recombinant FSH and recombinant hCG administered; E(2) concentrations and endometrial width on the day of hCG trigger; number of follicles aspirated, oocytes and mature oocytes retrieved; fertilization, pregnancy (PR), implantation, and miscarriage rates. The total dose of recombinant FSH and recombinant hCG administered were similar between groups, as were the E(2) concentrations and endometrial width. The number of follicles aspirated, oocytes, and metaphase II oocytes collected were also comparable. There were no statistically significant differences in fertilization, PR, implantation, and miscarriage rates in the GnRH agonist and GnRH antagonist groups. When using recombinant hCG microdose supplementation for controlled ovarian stimulation (COS), there are no differences in laboratory or clinical outcomes with the use of either GnRH antagonist or agonist for pituitary suppression. Copyright (c) 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Neonatal outcomes and congenital malformations in children born after human menopausal gonadotropin and medroxyprogesterone acetate treatment cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Mao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yun; Chen, Qiuju; Lu, Xuefeng; Hong, Qingqing; Kuang, Yanping

    2017-12-01

    To investigate neonatal outcomes and congenital malformations in children born after in vitro fertilization (IVF) and vitrified embryo transfer cycles using human menopausal gonadotrophin and medroxyprogesterone acetate (hMG + MPA) treatment. We performed a retrospective cohort study including 4596 live born babies. During January 2014-June 2016, children born after either hMG + MPA treatment, gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist short protocol, or mild ovarian stimulation were included. The main outcome measures were neonatal outcomes and congenital malformations. Neonatal outcomes both for singletons and twins such as mean birth weight and length, gestational age, the frequency of preterm birth were comparable between groups. Rate of stillbirth and perinatal death were also similar. No significant differences were found in the overall incidence of congenital malformations between the three groups. Multivariable logistic regression indicated that hMG + MPA regimen did not significantly increase the risk of congenital malformations compared with short protocol and mild ovarian stimulation, with adjusted odds ratio of 1.22 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61-2.44] and 1.38 (CI 0.65-2.93), respectively, after adjusting for confounding factors. Our data suggested that compared with conventional ovarian stimulations, hMG + MPA treatment neither compromised neonatal outcomes of IVF newborns, nor did increase the prevalence of congenital malformations.

  6. A COMPARISON OF CLOMIPHENE CITRATE AND SEQUENTIAL CLOMIPHENE CITRATE PLUS HUMAN MENOPAUSAL GONADOTROPIN FOR USE IN CONJUNCTION WITH INTRAUTERINE INSEMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Rashidi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available There are currently ‎many different protocols in use for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH, but the optimal method has ‎not yet been determined. To compare the outcome of COH using ‎clomiphene citrate (CC versus CC plus human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG in conjunction with intrauterine insemination (IUI, we studied 117 infertile couples‎. IUI with CC was used in 92 cycles ‎(group A and IUI with CC plus hMG was used in 66 cycles (group B. ‎Data analysis demonstrated no significant difference between the two ‎groups with respect to patients’ age, duration and type of infertility, prior COH and endometrial thickness and pattern. Group A had a little ‎longer follicular phase length than group B. ‎Pregnancy rate for group A and B were 6.52% and 12.12%, respectively (P= 0.22. ‎Endometrial pattern and thickness had no impact on pregnancy rate. ‎There were no multiple gestation and obvious hyperstimulation syndrome. ‎For patients undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with IUI, ‎CC plus hMG protocol yields higher pregnancy rate than one using CC, although this ‎difference was not statistically significant because of limitation of number of ‎cycles.

  7. Adrenal hormones in human follicular fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimena, P; Castilla, J A; Peran, F; Ramirez, J P; Vergara, F; Molina, R; Vergara, F; Herruzo, A

    1992-11-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that adrenal hormones may affect gonadal function. To assess the role of some adrenal hormones in human follicular fluid and their relationship with the ability of the oocyte to be fertilized and then to cleave in vitro, cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were measured in follicular fluid obtained at the time of oocyte recovery for in vitro fertilization from cycles stimulated by clomiphene citrate, human menopausal gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin. Thirty-six follicular fluid containing mature oocyte-corona-cumulus complexes and free of visible blood contamination were included in this study. There was no significant difference in follicular fluid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentration between follicles with oocytes which did or did not fertilize (5.1 +/- 1.1 vs 5.8 +/- 2.0 mumol/l). However, follicular fluid from follicles whose oocytes were not fertilized had levels of cortisol significantly higher than those in follicular fluid from follicles containing successfully fertilized oocytes (406.0 +/- 75.9 vs 339.2 +/- 37.0 nmol/l; p < 0.005). No significant correlations were found between rates of embryo cleavage and cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone levels in follicular fluid. We conclude that cortisol levels in follicular fluid may provide an index of fertilization outcome, at least in stimulated cycles by clomiphene citrate, human menopausal gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin.

  8. Contribution of aquaporin 9 and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 to differential sensitivity to arsenite between primary cultured chorion and amnion cells prepared from human fetal membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshino, Yuta [Department of Clinical Molecular Genetics, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Yuan, Bo, E-mail: yuanbo@toyaku.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Molecular Genetics, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California San Francisco, 1550 4th St, RH584E Box 2911 San Francisco, CA 94158-2911 (United States); Kaise, Toshikazu [Laboratory of Environmental Chemodynamics, School of Life Sciences, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Takeichi, Makoto [Yoneyama Maternity Hospital, 2-12 Shin-machi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0065 (Japan); Tanaka, Sachiko; Hirano, Toshihiko [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Kroetz, Deanna L. [Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California San Francisco, 1550 4th St, RH584E Box 2911 San Francisco, CA 94158-2911 (United States); Toyoda, Hiroo [Department of Clinical Molecular Genetics, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Arsenic trioxide (arsenite, As{sup III}) has shown a remarkable clinical efficacy, whereas its side effects are still a serious concern. Therefore, it is critical to understand the effects of As{sup III} on human-derived normal cells for revealing the mechanisms underlying these side effects. We examined the effects of As{sup III} on primary cultured chorion (C) and amnion (A) cells prepared from human fetal membranes. A significant dose-dependent As{sup III}-mediated cytotoxicity was observed in the C-cells accompanied with an increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Higher concentrations of As{sup III} were required for the A-cells to show cytotoxicity and LDH release, suggesting that the C-cells were more sensitive to As{sup III} than the A-cells. The expression levels of aquaporin 9 (AQP9) were approximately 2 times higher in the C-cells than those in the A-cells. Both intracellular arsenic accumulation and its cytotoxicity in the C-cells were significantly abrogated by sorbitol, a competitive AQP9 inhibitor, in a dose-dependent manner. The protein expression levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2 were downregulated by As{sup III} in the C-cells, but not in the A-cells. No significant differences in the expression levels of MRP1 were observed between C- and A-cells. The protein expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was hardly detected in both cells, although a detectable amount of its mRNA was observed. Cyclosporine A, a broad-spectrum inhibitor for ABC transporters, and MK571, a MRP inhibitor, but not PGP-4008, a P-gp specific inhibitor, potently sensitized both cells to As{sup III}-mediated cytotoxicity. These results suggest that AQP9 and MRP2 are involved in controlling arsenic accumulation in these normal cells, which then contribute to differential sensitivity to As{sup III} cytotoxicity between these cells. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examination of effect of As{sup III} on primary cultured chorion (C) and amnion

  9. Contribution of aquaporin 9 and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 to differential sensitivity to arsenite between primary cultured chorion and amnion cells prepared from human fetal membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Yuta; Yuan, Bo; Kaise, Toshikazu; Takeichi, Makoto; Tanaka, Sachiko; Hirano, Toshihiko; Kroetz, Deanna L.; Toyoda, Hiroo

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (arsenite, As III ) has shown a remarkable clinical efficacy, whereas its side effects are still a serious concern. Therefore, it is critical to understand the effects of As III on human-derived normal cells for revealing the mechanisms underlying these side effects. We examined the effects of As III on primary cultured chorion (C) and amnion (A) cells prepared from human fetal membranes. A significant dose-dependent As III -mediated cytotoxicity was observed in the C-cells accompanied with an increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Higher concentrations of As III were required for the A-cells to show cytotoxicity and LDH release, suggesting that the C-cells were more sensitive to As III than the A-cells. The expression levels of aquaporin 9 (AQP9) were approximately 2 times higher in the C-cells than those in the A-cells. Both intracellular arsenic accumulation and its cytotoxicity in the C-cells were significantly abrogated by sorbitol, a competitive AQP9 inhibitor, in a dose-dependent manner. The protein expression levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2 were downregulated by As III in the C-cells, but not in the A-cells. No significant differences in the expression levels of MRP1 were observed between C- and A-cells. The protein expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was hardly detected in both cells, although a detectable amount of its mRNA was observed. Cyclosporine A, a broad-spectrum inhibitor for ABC transporters, and MK571, a MRP inhibitor, but not PGP-4008, a P-gp specific inhibitor, potently sensitized both cells to As III -mediated cytotoxicity. These results suggest that AQP9 and MRP2 are involved in controlling arsenic accumulation in these normal cells, which then contribute to differential sensitivity to As III cytotoxicity between these cells. -- Highlights: ► Examination of effect of As III on primary cultured chorion (C) and amnion (A) cells. ► Dose-dependent As III -mediated cytotoxicity in C

  10. Negative Effects of High Glucose Exposure in Human Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Morelli, Annamaria; Comeglio, Paolo; Sarchielli, Erica; Cellai, Ilaria; Vignozzi, Linda; Vannelli, Gabriella B.; Maggi, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic disorders are often associated with male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, suggesting that hypothalamic defects involving GnRH neurons may impair the reproductive function. Among metabolic factors hyperglycemia has been implicated in the control of the reproductive axis at central level, both in humans and in animal models. To date, little is known about the direct effects of pathological high glucose concentrations on human GnRH neurons. In this study, we investigated the high glucose...

  11. Human chorionic gonadotrophin regression rate as a predictive factor of postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasm in high-risk hydatidiform mole: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo Wook; Cho, Hanbyoul; Kim, Hyunki; Nam, Eun Ji; Kim, Sang Wun; Kim, Sunghoon; Kim, Young Tae; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was early prediction of postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasm (GTN) after evacuation of high-risk mole, by comparison of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) regression rates. Fifty patients with a high-risk mole initially and spontaneously regressing after molar evacuation were selected from January 1, 1996 to May 31, 2010 (spontaneous regression group). Fifty patients with a high-risk mole initially and progressing to postmolar GTN after molar evacuation were selected (postmolar GTN group). hCG regression rates represented as hCG/initial hCG were compared between the two groups. The sensitivity and specificity of these rates for prediction of postmolar GTN were assessed using receiver operating characteristic curves. Multivariate analyses of associations between risk factors and postmolar GTN progression were performed. The mean regression rate of hCG between the two groups was compared. hCG regression rates represented as hCG/initial hCG (%) were 0.36% in the spontaneous regression group and 1.45% in the postmolar GTN group in the second week (p=0.003). Prediction of postmolar GTN by hCG regression rate revealed a sensitivity of 48.0% and specificity of 89.5% with a cut-off value of 0.716% and area under the curve (AUC) of 0.759 in the 2nd week (pfactor for postmolar GTN. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone for infertility in women with primary hypothalamic amenorrhea. Toward a more-interventional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesrouani, A; Abdallah, M A; Attieh, E; Abboud, J; Atallah, D; Makhoul, C

    2001-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a protocol of pulsatile gonadotropin releasing-hormone (GnRH) in treating infertility in women with primary hypothalamic amenorrhea. Retrospective analysis of 44 cycles treated at an infertility center. Twenty-four patients with primary hypothalamic amenorrhea were treated intravenously with pulsatile GnRH using 5 micrograms per bolus every 90 minutes. Ultrasound monitoring and cervical assessment by Insler's scoring system allowed timed injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and intrauterine insemination if needed. Luteal support was provided with hCG. The ovulation rate was 95% with the 5-microgram dose. A single follicle was produced in 91% of cycles. The overall pregnancy rate per ovulatory cycle was 45%, and the pregnancy rate per patient was 83%. In patients treated previously with exogenous gonadotropins, poor results were observed. Only one case of mild overstimulation was reported. Pulsatile GnRH is an effective and safe method of treating infertility in women with primary hypothalamic amenorrhea, thus simulating normal ovulation; however, more-interventional management, including the qualitative estrogenic response, may lead to optimal results and increase the pregnancy rate.

  13. Negative Effects of High Glucose Exposure in Human Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Morelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders are often associated with male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, suggesting that hypothalamic defects involving GnRH neurons may impair the reproductive function. Among metabolic factors hyperglycemia has been implicated in the control of the reproductive axis at central level, both in humans and in animal models. To date, little is known about the direct effects of pathological high glucose concentrations on human GnRH neurons. In this study, we investigated the high glucose effects in the human GnRH-secreting FNC-B4 cells. Gene expression profiling by qRT-PCR, confirmed that FNC-B4 cells express GnRH and several genes relevant for GnRH neuron function (KISS1R, KISS1, sex steroid and leptin receptors, FGFR1, neuropilin 2, and semaphorins, along with glucose transporters (GLUT1, GLUT3, and GLUT4. High glucose exposure (22 mM; 40 mM significantly reduced gene and protein expression of GnRH, KISS1R, KISS1, and leptin receptor, as compared to normal glucose (5 mM. Consistent with previous studies, leptin treatment significantly induced GnRH mRNA expression at 5 mM glucose, but not in the presence of high glucose concentrations. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate a deleterious direct contribution of high glucose on human GnRH neurons, thus providing new insights into pathogenic mechanisms linking metabolic disorders to reproductive dysfunctions.

  14. Chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambati, Bruno; Tului, Lucia

    2005-04-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of common invasive methods for prenatal diagnosis are presented in light of new investigations. Several aspects of first-trimester chorionic villus sampling and mid-trimester amniocentesis remain controversial, especially fetal loss rate, feto-maternal complications, and the extension of both sampling methods to less traditional gestational ages (early amniocentesis, late chorionic villus sampling), all of which complicate genetic counseling. A recent randomized trial involving early amniocentesis and late chorionic villus sampling has confirmed previous studies, leading to the unquestionable conclusion that transabdominal chorionic villus sampling is safer. The old dispute over whether limb reduction defects are caused by chorionic villus sampling gains new vigor, with a paper suggesting that this technique has distinctive teratogenic effects. The large experience involving maternal and fetal complications following mid-trimester amniocentesis allows a better estimate of risk for comparison with chorionic villus sampling. Transabdominal chorionic villus sampling, which appears to be the gold standard sampling method for genetic investigations between 10 and 15 completed weeks, permits rapid diagnosis in high-risk cases detected by first-trimester screening of aneuploidies. Sampling efficiency and karyotyping reliability are as high as in mid-trimester amniocentesis with fewer complications, provided the operator has the required training, skill and experience.

  15. Amphiregulin mediates hCG-induced StAR expression and progesterone production in human granulosa cells

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Lanlan; Yu, Yiping; Zhang, Ruizhe; He, Jingyan; Sun, Ying-Pu

    2016-01-01

    Progesterone plays critical roles in maintaining a successful pregnancy at the early embryonic stage. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) rapidly induces amphiregulin (AREG) expression. However, it remains unknown whether AREG mediates hCG-induced progesterone production. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the role of AREG in hCG-induced progesterone production and the underlying molecular mechanism in human granulosa cells; primary cells were used as the experimental model. ...

  16. Chromosomal localization of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene to human chromosome 4q13. 1-q21. 1 and mouse chromosome 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, U.B.; Dushkin, H.; Beier, D.R.; Chin, W.W. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)); Altherr, M.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1994-04-01

    The gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GRHR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor on the cell surface of pituitary gonadotropes, where it serves to transduce signals from the extracellular ligand, the hypothalamic factor gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and to modulate the synthesis and secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. The authors have localized the GRHR gene to the q13.1-q21.1 region of the human chromosome 4 using mapping panels of human/rodent somatic cell hybrids containing different human chromosomes or different regions of human chromosome 4. Furthermore, using linkage analysis of single-strand conformational polymorphisms, the murine GRHR gene was localized to mouse chromosome 5, linked to the endogenous retroviral marker Pmv-11. This is consistent with the evolutionary conservation of homology between these two regions, as has been previously suggested from comparative mapping of several other loci. The localization of the GRHR gene may be useful in the study of disorders of reproduction. 22 refs., 2 figs.

  17. The binding patterns of antisera to sex steroids and human gonadotropins on human and rhesus monkey spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allag, I S; Das, R P; Roy, S

    1983-01-01

    The presence of different hormones on the surface of ejaculated spermatozoa was determined by immunofluorescence studies of the binding patterns of specific antisera to these hormones. There were striking similarities in the binding pattern of antisera to steroid hormones found on human and monkey spermatozoa. Assuming the intensity of fluorescence is proportional to the concentration of the hormone, concentrations of testosterone on the acrosomal and the postacrosomal regions were higher than levels of progesterone and estrogens. Spermatozoa with a "tapering head" had more hCG bound on the acrosomal and postacrosomal regions than spermatozoa with "normal head" (oval shaped). Correlating these findings to the functions of spermatozoa will require further studies.

  18. Gonadotropins in Infertile Men with Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Abbasi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stimulatory therapy with gonadotrpins is an effective treatment to inducespermatogenesis in men with idiopathic hypogonadotroptic hypogonadism (IHH. The aim ofthis study was to assess the effectiveness of human chorionic gonadotropin / human menopausalgonadotropin on hypogonadotropic infertile men.Materials and Methods: This study included fifty-six azoospermic infertile men with IHH treatedwith hCG / hMG. All patients received hCG (5000 IU, IM3 times /week for three months. Afterthat, treatment was continued combined with hMG (75 IU, IM 3 times/week. Semen analysis wasperformed every 3 months. After 15 months, fine needle aspiration was performed if the patientswere azoospermic. Treatment continued if mature spermatozoa were present in FNA, otherwisetreatment was discontinued. In the former cases, semen analysis was requested 24months afterthebeginning of treatment.Results: In this study, spermatozoa were present in the ejaculate in 50 out of 56 patients (89.2%after combined treatment. Average time of sperm appearance was 9.2 months. Mean spermconcentration was 9.12 x 106/ml. FNA carried out after 15 months of treatment in 23(41% ofpatients with persistent azoospermia, 91.3% of these latter patients had mature spermatozoa on fineneedle aspiration. Pregnancy occurred in 23 (41% cases.The mean sperm concentration in patients whose spouses became pregnant was 15.56x 10.6Conclusion: hCG/ hMG combination therapy is effective treatment for fertility in patients withIHH. FNA can be used as a safe and suitable tool to evaluate patients that remains azoospermicafter 15 month of treatment.

  19. Ultrastructure of the human preovulatory oocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szöllösi, D; Mandelbaum, J; Plachot, M; Salat-Baroux, J; Cohen, J

    1986-08-01

    The ultrastructure of preovulatory human oocyte-cumulus complexes was described after inducing maturation by clomiphene, human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatment. The majority of the oocytes was at metaphase II of meiosis, with a radially orientated spindle. The oocyte surface was covered by a multitude of microvilli. Cortical granules were nonuniformly distributed along the cortex. A cytoplasmic polarization was observed. The cytoplasmic organelles were in general uniformly dispersed, with the exception of a narrow segment within which cytoplasmic membranes and mitochondria formed clusters. The spindle was usually found at the borderline between the two regions of the cytoplasm. The functional significance of this polarization is not yet known.

  20. Human endometrial milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFGE8) is up regulated by estradiol at the transcriptional level, and its secretion via microvesicles is stimulated by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

    KAUST Repository

    Sarhan, Abbaa; Bocca, Silvina; Yu, Liang; Anderson, Sandra; Jacot, Terry; Burch, Tanya; Nyalwidhe, Julius O; Sullivan, Claretta; Kaur, Mandeep; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Oehninger, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: We demonstrated (i) dual effects of E2 and hCG on the regulation of MFGE8, and (ii) MFGE8 protein secretion in association with microvesicles. MFGE8 has the potential to modulate endometrial function and implantation via exocrine and/ or paracrine-autocrine effects. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of microvesicular secretion of any regulatory protein by endometrial epithelial cells, providing initial evidence suggestive of microvesicular participation in cellular trafficking information in the non-pregnant and pregnant endometrium.

  1. Effects of a single administration of different gonadotropins on day 7 post-insemination on pregnancy outcomes of rabbit does.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, N M; Aboul-Ezz, Z R

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of a single administration of one of three different gonadotropins on Day 7 post-insemination on ovarian activity, progesterone (P 4 ) concentration and pregnancy outcomes of rabbit does. Multiparous, non-lactating, V-line does were artificially inseminated after synchronization and ovulation induction with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG; 25 IU im) and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH; 0.8  μg buserelin im) 48 h later. On Day 7 post-inseminarion, does were randomly allocated into four groups (n = 40/group). Does of each group were intramuscularly injected with a single dose of one of physiological saline (placebo; control), GnRH (0.8  μg buserelin), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; 25 IU) or eCG (25 IU). Concentration of serum P 4 was determined on Days 6, 9, 11 and 18 post-insemination. On Day 14 post-insemination, the ovaries and reproductive tracts of pregnant does were removed and weighed. Also, numbers of visible follicles, hemorrhagic follicles, corpora lutea of pregnancy (pCLs), new CLs (nCLs; formed after Day 7 post-insemination) and implantation sites were recorded. Conception rate, parturition rate, abortion rate, litter size/weight and litter viability were recorded. The highest (P reproductive tract and ovary weights were for eCG. The highest (P rate of fetal loss was in does treated with GnRH. The concentration of serum P 4 decreased (P conception and parturition rates by 24 and 22%; respectively, while GnRH and hCG treatments decreased (P < 0.05) them by 57 and 47.6%; respectively. Litter size and litter weight at birth were improved by eCG, but were adversely affectd by GnRH and hCG. In conclusion, a single administration of eCG 7 Days post-insemination could be recommended for improving pregnancy outcomes in rabbits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Chorionicity and adverse perinatal outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Isabel; Laureano, Carla; Branco, Miguel; Nordeste, Ana; Fonseca, Margarida; Pinheiro, Adelaide; Silva, Maria Isabel; Almeida, Maria Céu

    2005-01-01

    Considering the highest rate of morbidity and mortality in diamniotic monochorionic twins, the authors evaluated and compared the adverse obstetric and perinatal outcome in twin pregnancies according to chorionicity. A retrospective study was conducted in all twin deliveries that occurred in the Obstetric Unit of Maternidade Bissaya-Barreto, for a period of tree years (from the 1st of January 1999 until the 31st of December 2001). From de 140 diamniotic twin pregnancies studied, we considered two groups according to the chorionicity: monochorionic and dichorionic. We compared multiple parameters as, epidemiologic data, adverse obstetric outcome, gestacional delivery age, type of delivery and the morbidity, the mortality and the follow-up of the newborn. The statistic tests used were the X2 and the t student. From the 140 twin pregnancies included in the study, 66% (92 cases) presented dichorionic placentation and 34% (48 cases) were monochorionic. In the group of monochorionic pregnancies, we observed highly difference related to pathology of amniotic fluid (14.5% vs 2.2%), discordant fetal growth (41.6% vs 22.8%) and rate of preterm delivery (66.6% vs 32.6%). Related to the newborn we verified that they had a lower average birth weight (1988g vs 2295g), a highly rate of weight discordancy (23% vs 15.3%), intraventricular haemorrhage (2.2% vs 0%) and IUGR (6.6% vs 1.6%), statistically significant in the monochorionic group. Also the perinatal mortality rate was significantly higher in the monochorionic pregnancies (93.7 per thousand vs 21.7 per thousand). The high rate of morbidity and mortality related to the monochorionic twin pregnancies, implies the need of a correct identification of the type of chorionicity and also a high standard of prenatal surveillance in prenatal specialised health centers.

  3. Myocytes of chorionic vessels from placentas with meconium-associated vascular necrosis exhibit apoptotic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Erin L; Redline, Raymond W; Smith, Steven D; Kraus, Frederick T; Sadovsky, Yoel; Nelson, D Michael

    2004-04-01

    Meconium-associated vascular necrosis (MAVN) is a histological abnormality of human placental chorionic vessels that is associated with poor neonatal outcome. We tested the hypothesis that MAVN shows apoptosis in the walls of chorionic vessels. Archival placental specimens with MAVN (n = 5) were compared with specimens from uncomplicated pregnancies at term (n = 5) and from placentas with intense chorionic vasculitis associated with acute chorioamnionitis with (n = 5) or without (n = 5) a clinical history of meconium in the amniotic fluid. Sections from all placentas were processed by the TUNEL method, and 2 observers who were blinded to specimen diagnosis quantified the immunofluorescent TUNEL staining in both the amnion-facing and villous-facing walls of the larger chorionic vessels in each specimen. Compared with the other 3 groups, only the amnion-facing wall of chorionic vessels in MAVN showed a significantly greater number of apoptotic cells. This was verified by morphological criteria and caspase 3 staining. There were limited or no detectable TUNEL-stained cells in either the villous-facing walls of vessels in the MAVN specimens or in any of the vessels of the placentas from uncomplicated pregnancies. There was a negligible level of apoptosis in chorionic vessels of placentas with intense chorionic vasculitis, with or without meconium, despite the inflammatory response or presence of meconium. We conclude that apoptosis contributes to the pathophysiology of MAVN.

  4. Effects of letrozole in combination with low-dose intramuscular injection of human menopausal gonadotropin on ovulation and pregnancy of 156 patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhihua; Zhang, Mengzhen; Qiao, Yuhuan; Yang, Junjuan

    2016-01-01

    To explore the effects of letrozole (LE) in combination with low-dose intramuscular injection of human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) on the ovulation induction and pregnancy of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A total of 156 patients with PCOS infertility were randomly divided into an LE group, a clomiphene citrate (CC) group and an LE + HMG group (n= 52). LE and CC were orally taken according to the prescribed dosage on the 3rd-5th days of menstruation respectively, and 75 IU HMG was given through intramuscular injection. The ovulation induction parameters and pregnancy outcomes were observed. The number of ovulation cycle of LE + HMG group was significantly higher than that of LE group (χ 2 =8.451, Pmedication cycle of clinically pregnant patients was (2.9 ± 0.3) weeks, which was significantly shorter than those of CC and LE groups (F=17.241, Pmedication cycle and high clinical pregnancy rate, which is promising for treating patients with PCOS infertility.

  5. Subcutaneously administered Menopur(R, a new highly purified human menopausal gonadotropin, causes significantly fewer injection site reactions than Repronex(R in subjects undergoing in vitro fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somkuti Stephen

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The safety and tolerability of a new highly purified, urine-derived human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG preparation [Menopur(R] was compared with a currently available hMG [Repronex (R] in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF. Methods This was a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multicenter study conducted in subjects undergoing IVF. Women (N = 125, 18–39 years of age, underwent pituitary down-regulation with leuprolide acetate beginning 7 days prior to onset of menses and continuing up to the day before hCG administration. Subjects were randomized to receive subcutaneous (SC Menopur (R (n = 61 or Repronex (R SC (n = 64 for a maximum of 12 days. All adverse events (AEs were recorded and subject self-assessments of injection site reactions were recorded in a daily diary. Results Significantly fewer subjects in the Menopur (R group reported injection site reactions (P Conclusion Menopur (R SC offers a greater safety and tolerability profile compared to Repronex (R SC.

  6. Transabdominal Chorionic Villous Sampling in Nigeria: Correlation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: transabdominal chorionic villous sampling is generally preferred to the transvaginal approach. The procedure may, however, be associated with complcations due to a number of factors. OBJECTIVES: to review the relationship between the number of cases and other variables in transabdominal chorionic ...

  7. Use of letrozole and clomiphene citrate combined with gonadotropins in clomiphene-resistant infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi W

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wenyan Xi,1 Shankun Liu,2 Hui Mao,1 Yongkang Yang,1 Xiang Xue,1 Xiaoning Lu1 1The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an City, Shaanxi, 2Taian City Central Hospital, Shandong, Taian, People’s Republic of China Background: Gonadotropin has been used to stimulate ovulation in clomiphene-resistant infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, but it is associated with overstimulated cycles with the development of many follicles. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness and efficacy of letrozole and clomiphene citrate combined with human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG in CC-resistant infertile women with PCOS.Methods: Ninety-four women received the letrozole + HMG, 90 women received CC + HMG, and 71 women received HMG only. All women received one treatment regimen in one treatment cycle. All patients were given HMG 75 IU on alternate days daily starting on day 3 or day 7 until the day of administration of human chorionic gonadotropin.Results: The rate of monofollicular development was 80.2% in the letrozole + HMG group, 65.3% in the CC + HMG group, and 54.7% in the HMG-only group (P<0.05 for letrozole + HMG vs the other two groups. The number of developing follicles (≥14 mm follicles and the cycle cancellation rate due to ovarian hyperresponse were the lowest in the letrozole + HMG group, but the difference was not significant. The ovulation and pregnancy rate were similar among the three protocols. The HMG dose needed and the mean duration of treatment were significantly lower in the letrozole + HMG and CC + HMG groups compared with the HMG-only group.Conclusion: Letrozole in combination with HMG is an effective protocol for reducing the risks of hyperstimulation for ovarian induction in CC-resistant women with PCOS. This combination may be more appropriate in patients who are particularly sensitive to gonadotropin. Keywords: letrozole, clomiphene citrate, human menopausal gonadotropin

  8. Induction of Gonadotropins for Reproductive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Ibrahim Auerkari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Much of the recent research on gonadotropin – related control processes of reproduction and reproductive maturation has concentrated on the neuronal and molecular biology of gonadotropin release. The reproductive development of healthy mammals requires appropriate fetal develompment and migration of the neural network controlling and including the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH – producing neurons that are needed to regulate GnRH and luteinizing hormone (LH release. GnRH is also necessary for the development of the gonadotropin – producing pituitary gland. The fetal gonads respon to GnRH – induced LH production by producing the gonadal steroids required for further reproductive differentiation. Pubertal maturation is characterised by increases in LH levels, representing the corresponding pulsatile release of GnRH. This GnRH pulse generator appears to be an intrinsic property of the arcuate nucleus at the medial basal hypothalamus. The generator activity can be mediated by the neurotransmitter aspartate which activates neurons of the hypothalamus, inducing acuate releases of GnRH and hence initiates puberty. A major factor in human reproductive maturation is the decrease in the age of puberty, caused by improvement of nutritional conditions due to the socio – economic development. This implies that the pubertal activation of GnRH secretion depends on metabolic conditions. Of the substances that mediate the metabolic condition to the neuronal network regulating GnRH secretion, the role of the neuropeptide Y (NPY appears instrumental : for healthy mammals less food means more NPY, and accumulated NPY makes food to become sex. NPY does this by regulating the appropriate hypothalamic functions including the neuroendocrine control of gonadotropin release.

  9. High-performance liquid chromatography of human glycoprotein hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlenov, M A; Kandyba, E I; Nagornaya, L V; Orlova, I L; Volgin, Y V

    1993-02-12

    The chromatographic behavior of the glycoprotein hormones from human pituitary glands and of placental origin [thyroid-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and chorionic gonadotropin (CG)] was studied. It was shown that hydrophobic interaction chromatography on a microparticulate packing and anion-exchange HPLC can be applied for the purification of these hormones. Reversed-phase HPLC on wide-pore C4-bonded silica at neutral pH can be applied for the determination of the above hormones and for the isolation of pure CG and its subunits.

  10. Diagnostics of trophoblast disease and the control of therapeutic efficiency based on definition of chorionic gonadotrapin and trophoblastic beta1-glycoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yugrinova, L.G.; Olefirenko, G.A.; Dotsenko, Yu.S.

    1982-01-01

    A comparative estimation of markers of trophoblast disease, chorionic gonadotropin (CG) and trophoblastic beta 1 -glycoprotein defined by different methods is given. It is found that diagnostics and control of therapeutic efficiency for patients having trophoblast disease based on CG definition are possible. In 86% of cases the clinical diagnosis was confirmed by the immunoradioautography, and in 33% - by the immunodiffusion method. The dependence of marker detection frequency on the therapeutic efficiency is found

  11. A multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial evaluating the use of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane allografts and multilayer compression therapy vs. multilayer compression therapy alone in the treatment of venous leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serena, Thomas E; Carter, Marissa J; Le, Lam T; Sabo, Matthew J; DiMarco, Daniel T

    2014-01-01

    Venous leg ulcers produce significant clinical and economic burdens on society and often require advanced wound therapy. The purpose of this multicenter, randomized, controlled study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of one or two applications of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane allograft and multilayer compression therapy vs. multilayer compression therapy alone in the treatment of venous leg ulcers. The primary study outcome was the proportion of patients achieving 40% wound closure at 4 weeks. Of the 84 participants enrolled, 53 were randomized to receive allograft and 31 were randomized to the control group of multilayer compression therapy alone. At 4 weeks, 62% in the allograft group and 32% in the control group showed a greater than 40% wound closure (p = 0.005), thus showing a significant difference between the allograft-treated groups and the multilayer compression therapy alone group at the 4-week surrogate endpoint. After 4 weeks, wounds treated with allograft had reduced in size a mean of 48.1% compared with 19.0% for controls. Venous leg ulcers treated with allograft had a significant improvement in healing at 4 weeks compared with multilayer compression therapy alone. © 2014 by the Wound Healing Society.

  12. Human reproduction functions: Evaluation with radiobioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hassan, N.D.

    1983-01-01

    Many studies reveal that the ovary is capable of responding to an adequate gonadotropic stimulus long before menarche. Similarly, the pituitary is capable of producing gonadotropins in response to an adequate hypothalamic signal before menarche. Recent studies in the primate confirm that the hypothalamus signals are temporarily different before menarche as compared to the reproductive years, so that if the luteotropic hormone (LRH) stimulus is pulsed to the pituitary at the required time sequence, the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and the luteinizing hormone (LH) as well as ovulation can be achieved even in the immature monkey. HPL is another hormone produced by the syncytiotrophoblast that is also used to identify pregnancies at a higher risk of fetal demise. It shares structural similarities with the human growth hormone (hGH) and PRL. HPL is diabetogenic. Its effect is mediated through glucose metabolism. Circulating HPL is elevated during multiple gestations. Its circulating levels in fact correlate with the fetoplacental mass. It has a short half-life and the larger the fetoplacental mass, the higher the HPL level. Hyperglycemic states are associated with a decrease in HPL levels, and hypoglycemia is associated with elevated levels of HPL. RIA through the measurement of HPL has helped in the management of the high-risk fetus and its mother. Through RIA other fetoplacental hormones are identifiable and their levels are obtainable. There is a human chorionic ACTH, a human chorionic TSH, and a human chorionic PRL. These can be involved in health and disease

  13. Prenatal diagnosis of chorionicity in twins.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hassan, T

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this audit was to assess the accuracy of transabdominal ultrasound scan in predicting chorionicity in twin pregnancies in our unit. The presence or absence of lambda sign, T-sign, dividing membrane thickness and number of placentae were used to determine chorionicity. We retrospectively analysed these antenatal markers in 268 sets of twins delivered over a 5 year period and compared it with the postpartum placental histology and neonatal gender. Of 268 twin deliveries, 204 (76%) had both chorionicity and placental histology to compare. 67 of 84 (80%) were correctly diagnosed antenatally as monochorionic and 137 of 151 (91%) as dichorionic. In 31 cases (15%) the ultrasound diagnosis of chorionicity didn\\'t match placental histology. Seventeen were thought to be monochorionic antenatally but were confirmed dichorionic on placental histology. Overall chorionicity was correctly diagnosed in 171\\/204 (84%) using transabdominal ultrasound scan (USS) in all trimesters. However the sensitivity and specificity of USS was much higher for dichorionic twins when carried out before 14 weeks of gestation.

  14. Endometrial cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 is inhibited by human chorionic gonadotrophin, and is increased in the decidua of tubal ectopic pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horne, A W; Duncan, W C; King, A E

    2009-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy (EP) remains a considerable cause of morbidity and occasional mortality. Currently, there is no reliable test to differentiate ectopic from intrauterine gestation. We have previously used array technology to demonstrate that differences in gene expression in decidualized...... was inversely proportional to serum hCG concentrations (P caused a reduction in CRISP-3 expression (P pregnancy of unknown...... gestation-matched women undergoing surgical termination of pregnancy (n = 8), evacuation of uterus for miscarriage (n = 6) and surgery for EP (n = 11) was subjected to quantitative RT-PCR, morphological assessment, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Sera were analysed for progesterone and human...

  15. 76 FR 17927 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Chorionic Gonadotropin; Cuprimyxin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... Drug) Labeler Code) Roche Vitamins, Inc., 45 Waterview NADA 093-029 524.520 Blvd., Parsippany, NJ 07054... phosphate/ sulfamethazine). Pegasus Laboratories, Inc., 8809 Ely NADA 102-824 520.1720a Rd., Pensacola, FL 32514. Phenylbutazone Tablets........ (055246) (phenylbutazone) Wendt Laboratories, Inc., 100 Nancy NADA...

  16. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist triggering of oocyte maturation in assisted reproductive technology cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Türkgeldi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa have gained increasing attention in the last decade as an alternative trigger for oocyte maturation in patients at high risk for ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS. They provide a short luteinizing hormone (LH peak that limits the production of vascular endothelial growth factor, which is the key mediator leading to increased vascular permeability, the hallmark of OHSS. Initial studies showed similar oocyte yield and embryo quality compared with conventional human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG triggering; however, lower pregnancy rates and higher miscarriage rates were alarming in GnRHa triggered groups. Therefore, two approaches have been implemented to rescue the luteal phase in fresh transfers. Intensive luteal phase support (iLPS involves administiration of high doses of progesterone and estrogen and active patient monitoring. iLPS has been shown to provide satisfactory fertilization and clinical pregnancy rates, and to be especially useful in patients with high endogenous LH levels, such as in polycystic ovary syndrome. The other method for luteal phase rescue is low-dose hCG administiration 35 hours after GnRHa trigger. Likewise, this method results in statistically similar ongoing pregnancy rates (although slightly lower than to those of hCG triggered cycles. GnRHa triggering decreased OHSS rates dramatically, however, none of the rescue methods prevent OHSS totally. Cases were reported even in patients who underwent cryopreservation and did not receive hCG. GnRH triggering induces a follicle stimulating hormone (FSH surge, similar to natural cycles. Its possible benefits have been investigated and dual triggering, GnRHa trigger accompanied by a simultaneous low-dose hCG injection, has produced promising results that urge further exploration. Last of all, GnRHa triggering is useful in fertility preservation cycles in patients with hormone sensitive tumors. In conclusion, GnRHa triggering

  17. Gonadotropin-dependent oocyte maturational competence requires activation of the protein kinase A pathway and synthesis of RNA and protein in ovarian follicles of Nibe, Nibea mitsukurii (Teleostei, Sciaenidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizaki, G.; Shusa, M.; Takeuchi, T.; Patino, R.

    2002-01-01

    Luteinizing hormone- (LH)-dependent ovarian follicle maturation has been recently described in two stages for teleost fishes. The oocyte's ability to respond to the steroidal maturation-inducing hormone (MIH), also known as oocyte maturational competence (OMC), is acquired during the first stage; whereas the MIH-dependent resumption of meiosis occurs during the second stage. However, studies directly addressing OMC have been performed with a limited number of species and therefore the general relevance of the two-stage model and its mechanisms remain uncertain. In this study, we examined the hormonal regulation of OMC and its basic transduction mechanisms in ovarian follicles of the sciaenid teleost, Nibe (Nibea mitsukurii). Exposure to MIH [17,20??-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one or 17,20??,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one] stimulated germinal vesicle breakdown (index of meiotic resumption) in full-grown follicles primed with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG, an LH-like gonadotropin) but not in those pre-cultured in plain incubation medium. The induction of OMC by HCG was mimicked by protein kinase A (PKA) activators (forskolin and dibutyryl cyclic AMP), and blocked by specific inhibitors of PKA (H89 and H8) as well as inhibitors of RNA (actinomycin D) and protein (cycloheximide) synthesis. Forskolin-induced OMC was also inhibited by actinomycin D and cycloheximide. A strong activator of protein kinase C, PMA, inhibited HCG-dependent OMC. In conclusion, OMC in Nibe ovarian follicles is gonadotropin-dependent and requires activation of the PKA pathway followed by gene transcription and translation events. These observations are consistent with the two-stage model of ovarian follicle maturation proposed for other teleosts, and suggest that Nibe can be used as new model species for mechanistic studies of ovarian follicle differentiation and maturation in fishes.

  18. Nonsupplemented luteal phase characteristics after the administration of recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin, recombinant luteinizing hormone, or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist to induce final oocyte maturation in in vitro fertilization patients after ovarian stimulation with recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone and GnRH antagonist cotreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.S. Macklon (Nick); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); M. Ludwig (Michael); R.E. Felberbaum; K. Diedrich; S. Bustion; E. Loumaye; B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart); N.G.M. Beckers (Nicole)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractReplacing GnRH agonist cotreatment for the prevention of a premature rise in LH during ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization (IVF) by the late follicular phase administration of GnRH antagonist may render supplementation of the luteal phase redundant, because

  19. Gonadotropin Regulation of Retinoic Acid Activity in the Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedmehdi Nourashrafeddin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Initiation of spermatogenesis in primates is triggered at puberty by an increase in gonadotropins; i.e., follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH. Prior to puberty, testis of the monkey contains only undifferentiated germ cells. However, sermatogonial differentiation and spermatogenesis may be initiated prior to puberty after stimulation with exogenous LH and FSH. Retinoic acid (RA signaling is considered to be a major component that drives spermatogonial differentiation. We were interested in evaluating the relative role of LH and FSH, either alone or in combination, in regulating the retinoic acid signaling in monkey testis. Sixteen juvenile male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta were infused with intermittent recombinant single chain human LH (schLH or recombinant human FSH (rhFSH or a combination of both for 11 days. We then analyzed the expression of the several putative RA signaling pathway related genes; i.e. RDH10, RDH11, ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, CYP26B1, CRABP1, CRABP2, STRA6, STRA8 in the testis after 11 days of stimulation with vehicle, LH, FSH and combination LH/FSH using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR. The qPCR results analysis showed that administration of gonadotropins affected a significant change in expression of some RA signaling related genes in the monkey testis. The gonadotropins, either alone or in combination dramatically increased expression of CRABP2 (p≤0.001, whereas there was a decrease in ALDH1A2 expression (p≤0.001. Moreover, combined gonadotropin treatment led to the significant decrease in CRABP1 expression (p≤0.05. These findings are the first evidence that the activity of retinoic acid signaling in the monkey testis is regulated through gonadotropins (LH/FSH levels.

  20. New trends in combined use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists with gonadotropins or pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone in ovulation induction and assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, K; Danforth, D R; Williams, R F; Hodgen, G D

    1992-10-01

    The use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists as adjunctive therapy with gonadotropins for ovulation induction in in vitro fertilization and other assisted reproductive technologies has become common clinical practice. With the recent advent of potent gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists free from the marked histamine-release effects that stymied earlier compounds, an attractive alternative method may be available. We have established the feasibility of combining gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist-induced inhibition of endogenous gonadotropins with exogenous gonadotropin therapy for ovulation induction in a nonhuman primate model. Here, the principal benefits to be gained from using the gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist rather than the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist are the immediate inhibition of pituitary gonadotropin secretion without the "flare effect," which brings greater safety and convenience for patients and the medical team and saves time and money. We have also recently demonstrated the feasibility of combining gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist with pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone therapy for the controlled restoration of gonadotropin secretion and gonadal steroidogenesis culminating in apparently normal (singleton) ovulatory cycles. This is feasible only with gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists because, unlike gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, they achieve control of the pituitary-ovarian axis without down regulation of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor system. This capacity to override gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist-induced suppression of pituitary-ovarian function may allow new treatment modalities to be employed for women who suffer from chronic hyperandrogenemia with polycystic ovarian disease.

  1. DNA Extraction from Chorionic Villi for Prenatal Diagnosis of Foetal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Extraction of DNA from the chorionic villi is the first major step in the molecular determination of foetal haemoglobin genotype. There are few reports on DNA extraction from the chorionic villi. A desired method should be simple to conduct, reliable and cost effective. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to ...

  2. Clinical and laboratory experience of chorionic villous sampling in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chorionic villous sampling is a first trimester invasive diagnosis procedure that was introduced in Nigeria <2 decades ago. Objective: The objective of the following study is to review experience with chorionic villous sampling in relation to clinical and laboratory procedures, including general characteristics of ...

  3. Review of chorionic Villus sampling in prenatal diagnosis | Oloyede ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Invasive prenatal diagnosis continues to be gold standard in pregnancies at increased risk of congenital abnormalities with chorionic villus sampling being one of the principal methods of prenatal diagnosis. Although not widely available in most developing countries, chorionic villus sampling is the procedure of choice for ...

  4. Function and failure of the fetal membrane: Modelling the mechanics of the chorion and amnion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefaan W Verbruggen

    Full Text Available The fetal membrane surrounds the fetus during pregnancy and is a thin tissue composed of two layers, the chorion and the amnion. While rupture of this membrane normally occurs at term, preterm rupture can result in increased risk of fetal mortality and morbidity, as well as danger of infection in the mother. Although structural changes have been observed in the membrane in such cases, the mechanical behaviour of the human fetal membrane in vivo remains poorly understood and is challenging to investigate experimentally. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop simplified finite element models to investigate the mechanical behaviour and rupture of the fetal membrane, particularly its constituent layers, under various physiological conditions. It was found that modelling the chorion and amnion as a single layer predicts remarkably different behaviour compared with a more anatomically-accurate bilayer, significantly underestimating stress in the amnion and under-predicting the risk of membrane rupture. Additionally, reductions in chorion-amnion interface lubrication and chorion thickness (reported in cases of preterm rupture both resulted in increased membrane stress. Interestingly, the inclusion of a weak zone in the fetal membrane that has been observed to develop overlying the cervix would likely cause it to fail at term, during labour. Finally, these findings support the theory that the amnion is the dominant structural component of the fetal membrane and is required to maintain its integrity. The results provide a novel insight into the mechanical effect of structural changes in the chorion and amnion, in cases of both normal and preterm rupture.

  5. Suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis by TAK-385 (relugolix), a novel, investigational, orally active, small molecule gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist: studies in human GnRH receptor knock-in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Daisuke; Masaki, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Akira; Yoshimatsu, Mie; Akinaga, Yumiko; Asada, Mari; Sasada, Reiko; Takeyama, Michiyasu; Miwa, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Tatsuya; Kusaka, Masami

    2014-01-15

    TAK-385 (relugolix) is a novel, non-peptide, orally active gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist, which builds on previous work with non-peptide GnRH antagonist TAK-013. TAK-385 possesses higher affinity and more potent antagonistic activity for human and monkey GnRH receptors compared with TAK-013. Both TAK-385 and TAK-013 have low affinity for the rat GnRH receptor, making them difficult to evaluate in rodent models. Here we report the human GnRH receptor knock-in mouse as a humanized model to investigate pharmacological properties of these compounds on gonadal function. Twice-daily oral administration of TAK-013 (10mg/kg) for 4 weeks decreased the weights of testes and ventral prostate in male knock-in mice but not in male wild-type mice, demonstrating the validity of this model to evaluate antagonists for the human GnRH receptor. The same dose of TAK-385 also reduced the prostate weight to castrate levels in male knock-in mice. In female knock-in mice, twice-daily oral administration of TAK-385 (100mg/kg) induced constant diestrous phases within the first week, decreased the uterus weight to ovariectomized levels and downregulated GnRH receptor mRNA in the pituitary after 4 weeks. Gonadal function of TAK-385-treated knock-in mice began to recover after 5 days and almost completely recovered within 14 days after drug withdrawal in both sexes. Our findings demonstrate that TAK-385 acts as an antagonist for human GnRH receptor in vivo and daily oral administration potently, continuously and reversibly suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. TAK-385 may provide useful therapeutic interventions in hormone-dependent diseases including endometriosis, uterine fibroids and prostate cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Adjuvant Growth Hormone for Ovulation Induction with Gonadotropins in the Treatment of a Woman with Hypopituitarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadne Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To report the prestimulation use of adjuvant GH for gonadotropin ovulation induction in a woman with hypopituitarism and GH deficiency who previously failed to respond. Design, Patients, and Measurements. A 31-year-old nulliparous woman presented with hypopituitarism and GH deficiency after failing ovulation induction with high dose gonadotropins. A trial of GH was undertaken for 5 months prior to ovulation induction resulting in normalization of IGF-I levels. Results. Women with hypopituitarism are known to have lower pregnancy rates after ovulation induction with need for higher doses of gonadotropins. A small subset of these patients do not ovulate. This patient had successful ovulation induction and pregnancy with prestimulation GH. Conclusions. This case suggests that the use of adjuvant GH in a GH-deficient patient several months before the use of human menopausal gonadotropin results in ovulation and pregnancy.

  7. Effect of gonadotropin secretion rate on the radiosensitivity of the rat luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neuron and gonadotroph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterer, J.; Barnes, K.M.; Lichter, A.S.; Deluca, A.M.; Loriaux, D.L.; Cutler, G.B. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that the functional state of hypothalamic LHRH neurons and pituitary gonadotrophs might alter their radiosensitivity, we determined the experimental conditions under which the gonadotropin response to castration could be impaired by a single dose of cranial irradiation. Single doses of cranial irradiation greater than 2000 rads were lethal to unshielded rats. Shielding of the oropharynx and esophagus allowed the animals to survive doses up to 5000 rads. Doses between 2000 and 5000 rads had no effect on basal gonadotropin levels for as long as 3 months after irradiation. Irradiation caused a dose- and time-dependent impairment, however, in the gonadotropin response to castration. Impairment of the gonadotropin levels of castrate animals occurred in animals that were irradiated either before or after castration. However, rats irradiated in the castrate state showed a decreased susceptibility to irradiation damage. Additionally, stimulation of the pituitary by LHRH agonist (LHRHa) 3 h before irradiation significantly reduced the impairment of gonadotropin secretion 12-20 weeks after irradiation (P less than 0.05). Thus, increased functional activity of the rat hypothalamus or pituitary at the time of irradiation, induced by either castration or acute LHRHa administration, was associated with some protection against the gonadotropin-lowering effect of irradiation. Based upon these data, we hypothesize that stimulation of gonadotropin secretion at the time of therapeutic cranial irradiation in humans might protect against subsequent impairment of gonadotropin secretion

  8. Differences in gene expression of granulosa cells from women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with either recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone or highly purified human menopausal gonadotropin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøndahl, Marie Louise; Borup, Rehannah; Lee, Young Bae

    2009-01-01

    randomized study. SETTING: University-based facilities for clinical services and research. PATIENT(S): Thirty women undergoing treatment with vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI). INTERVENTION(S): Patients were randomly allocated to receive recombinant FSH or human (hMG) COH...

  9. Expression of Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and their ligands in human Granulosa lutein cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Zagoura, D; Keck, C; Pietrowski, D

    2006-11-01

    Corpus luteum development is regulated by gonadotropins and accompanied by extremely rapid vascularization of the avascular granulosa cell compartiment by endothelial cells (EC). The proliferation of Granulosa cells (GC) and EC is a complex interplay and takes place in a spatially and temporarily coordinated manner. The erythropoietin-producing hepatoma amplified sequence (Eph) receptors and their ligands-the ephrins- are a recently detected family of membrane located protein tyrosine kinases which play a crucial role in the growth and development of nerve and blood vessel network. We report about the mRNA expression pattern of Ephs and their ligands in human GC, in human EC, and in carcinoma cell lines OvCar-3 and Hela. The mRNA of EphA4, EphA7, ephrinA4, ephrinB1 and ephrinB2 was detected in GC and EC, while EphA2 was expressed only in GC. The expression of various Ephs and ephrins did not change in GC after stimulation with human chorion gonadotropin. Our study analyzes for the first time the expression of the complete human Eph/ephriny-system in GC and in EC. The remarkable similarity between these two cell types supports the theory of a functional relationship of EC and GC. In addition, it was shown that hCG is not a major determinant of Eph/ephrin regulation in GC.

  10. Rapid elimination kinetics of free PSA or human kallikrein-related peptidase 2 after initiation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-antagonist treatment of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulmert, David; Vickers, Andrew J; Scher, Howard I

    2012-01-01

    The utility of conventional prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements in blood for monitoring rapid responses to treatment for prostate cancer is limited because of its slow elimination rate. Prior studies have shown that free PSA (fPSA), intact PSA (iPSA) and human kallikrein-related peptidase...... of tPSA, fPSA, iPSA and hK2 after rapid induction of castration with degarelix (Firmagon(®)), a novel GnRH antagonist....

  11. Clinical experience in humans with radiolabeled antibody for tumor detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.T.; Lyster, D.M.; Szasz, I.; Alcorn, L.N.; Huckell, V.F.; Rhodes, B.; Breslow, K.; Burchiel, S.

    1982-01-01

    I-131 and Tc-99m labeled polyclonal or monoclonal antibody and fragments of antibody, specific to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or to a melanoma cell surface antigen (MCSA) were injected into proven cancer patients. Using standard homeostasis parameters, and scanning techniques, the safety and efficacy of each antibody was evaluated. Antibody fragments were expected to clear faster from the circulation allowing for earlier imaging and a better target-to-non-target ratio. The technetium label may perturb the antiboby's kinetics so that clearance is more rapid for both whole antibody and fragments. After a statistical evaluation of all parameters measured pre and post injection it was concluded that no acute toxicity reactions were present in any patient studied. Scan results were not acceptable for a tumor detecting procedure used in routine practice. Tumor upake was seen in less than 10% of scans

  12. Evaluating the ovarian cancer gonadotropin hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Alice W; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Doherty, Jennifer A

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ovarian cancer is a hormone-related disease with a strong genetic basis. However, none of its high-penetrance susceptibility genes and GWAS-identified variants to date are known to be involved in hormonal pathways. Given the hypothesized etiologic role of gonadotropins, an assessment...... of how variability in genes involved in the gonadotropin signaling pathway impacts disease risk is warranted. METHODS: Genetic data from 41 ovarian cancer study sites were pooled and unconditional logistic regression was used to evaluate whether any of the 2185 SNPs from 11 gonadotropin signaling pathway...... genes was associated with ovarian cancer risk. A burden test using the admixture likelihood (AML) method was also used to evaluate gene-level associations. RESULTS: We did not find any genome-wide significant associations between individual SNPs and ovarian cancer risk. However, there was some...

  13. Effect of gonadotropins on oocyte maturation in vitro: an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Wei; Xu, Bao-Zeng; Li, Mo; Liu, Di; Feng, Huai L; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2010-03-15

    Analysis of the effects of human-derived gonadotropin drugs, FSH and LH (Repronex) and hCG (Novarel), on oocyte maturation, using a porcine oocyte in vitro maturation system as a culture model. Randomized research experimental study. Academic basic research laboratory. Prepubertal gilts that were slaughtered in the local slaughter house. Oocytes will be exposed to immunofluorescent staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy: Western blot analysis on cumulus-oocyte-complexes following treatment with different concentrations of the gonadotropin drugs Repronex, Novarel, and a Repronex and Novarel combination. Analysis of porcine oocyte spindle and chromosomal configuration with alpha-tubulin-fluorescein isothiocyanate antibody and propidium iodide staining. Porcine oocyte mitochondrial distribution and aggregation pattern staining was assessed with Mito Tracker Red CMXRox probe. Porcine oocyte cortical granule distribution was observed via peanut agglutinin-fluorescein isothiocyannate staining; Western blot analysis detected extra-cellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation in cumulus cells. An increase of gonadotropin concentration in the culture medium resulted in an increase in the following: the percentage of oocytes reaching metaphase II, normal configuration of the spindle, normal chromosomal alignment, cortical granule migration, and mitochondrial aggregation. Levels of nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation peaked as the concentration of gonadotropins approached its threshold level. Addition of a threshold concentration of the gonadotropin drugs Repronex, Novarel, and a combination of the two can significantly improve porcine oocyte maturation in vitro. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A new approach to enhance reproductive performance in sheep using royal jelly in comparison with equine chorionic gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husein, M Q; Haddad, S G

    2006-06-01

    The objective was to compare the effects of royal jelly (RJ) and eCG treatments on reproductive performance of ewes synchronized using intravaginal progesterone-releasing devices. Forty-two cycling Awassi ewes were treated intramuscularly (i.m.) with 15 mg PGF2alpha. On the following day, all ewes were administered with CIDR-G for 12 days and were randomly allocated to three (RJ, eCG and control) groups of 14 ewes each. Ewes in the RJ-treated group received daily i.m. treatments of 400mg RJ during the period of CIDR-treatment. Each ewe in the eCG-treated group received an i.m. treatment of 500 IU eCG at the time of CIDR-G removal (day 0) and no further treatment was given to ewes in the control group. Ewes were exposed to four fertile rams for 72 h, from the time of CIDR-G removal, and checked for breeding marks at 6-h intervals. Blood samples were collected from day -13 until day 0 and thereafter until day 19 for progesterone analysis. Royal jelly treatment resulted in a greater rate of decline and lower (Pprogesterone concentrations between days -10 and 0 than eCG-treated and control ewes. Expression of estrus was similar among the three groups and intervals to onset of estrus were shorter (P<0.01) in RJ-treated (31.3h) and eCG-treated (29.8h) than control (41.3h) ewes. First-cycle pregnancy and lambing rates were greater (P<0.05) in RJ-treated (71.4 and 71.4%) and eCG-treated (85.7 and 78.6%) than in control (42.9 and 35.7%) ewes, respectively. Results demonstrate that the treatments of RJ and eCG in conjunction with CIDR-G were similarly effective in induction of estrus and improvement of pregnancy and lambing rates.

  15. Biological variation of free β chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A in first trimester pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Henriette P; Jørgensen, Finn Stener; Sørensen, Steen

    2011-01-01

    protein A (PAPP-A). However, little knowledge exists regarding the biological variation of hCGβ and PAPP-A when the time interval between sampling increases. Methods: We estimated these variations from double mea-surements of hCGβ and PAPP-A in first trimester pregnancies in 167 women. Data were divided...... into three groups based on the number of days between sampling. The correlation coefficients and biological variation were estimated for each group. Results: The correlation coefficient between the first and second samples was 0.841 for hCGβ, and 0.706 for PAPP-A. The ranges for biological variation were 11.......9%-48.5% for hCGβ and 31.6%-63.3% for PAPP-A, increasing with time between sampling. The average overall biological variation for hCGβ was 29%, and 49.7% for PAPP-A. Conclusions: We found high biological variation for plasma concentrations of hCGβ and PAPP-A, increasing with longer time intervals between...

  16. Biological variation of free β chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A in first trimester pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Henriette P; Jørgensen, Finn Stener; Sørensen, Steen

    2011-01-01

    protein A (PAPP-A). However, little knowledge exists regarding the biological variation of hCGß and PAPP-A when the time interval between sampling increases. Methods: We estimated these variations from double mea-surements of hCGß and PAPP-A in first trimester pregnancies in 167 women. Data were divided...... into three groups based on the number of days between sampling. The correlation coefficients and biological variation were estimated for each group. Results: The correlation coefficient between the first and second samples was 0.841 for hCGß, and 0.706 for PAPP-A. The ranges for biological variation were 11.......9%-48.5% for hCGß and 31.6%-63.3% for PAPP-A, increasing with time between sampling. The average overall biological variation for hCGß was 29%, and 49.7% for PAPP-A. Conclusions: We found high biological variation for plasma concentrations of hCGß and PAPP-A, increasing with longer time intervals between...

  17. Expression and localization of the progesterone receptor in mouse and human reproductive organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Stefan Cuoni; Clement, Christian Alexandro; Thorup, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    examined, primary granulosa cell cilia lacked PR staining. SDS-PAGE and western blotting analysis of tissues from oviduct, uterus, and ovary confirmed antibody specificity, and identified two bands corresponding to the PR isoforms PR-A and PR-B. Upon hCG stimulation, a new band cross-reacting with anti......-PR emerged above the PR-A form in oviduct fractions, suggesting LH-induced phosphorylation of PR-A. We suggest that ciliary PR in the oviduct plays a role in progesterone signaling after ovulation, possibly via non-genomic events. These novel findings warrant further studies of oviduct and postovulatory...... were unstained or faintly stained. Pubertal female mice were further studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy and western blotting before and after injection with FSH and LH followed by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injection after a 48-h period. PR immunolocalization to the oviduct cilia...

  18. Interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha sensitize primarily resistant human endometrial stromal cells to Fas-mediated apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fluhr, Herbert; Krenzer, Stefanie; Stein, Gerburg M

    2007-01-01

    The subtle interaction between the implanting embryo and the maternal endometrium plays a pivotal role during the process of implantation. Human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) express Fas and the implanting trophoblast cells secrete Fas ligand (FASLG, FasL), suggesting a possible role for Fas......-mediated signaling during early implantation. Here we show that ESCs are primarily resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis independently of their state of hormonal differentiation. Pre-treatment of ESCs with interferon (IFN)-gamma and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha sensitizes them to become apoptotic upon stimulation...... of Fas by an agonistic anti-Fas antibody. Incubation of ESCs with the early embryonic signal human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, CGB) does not influence their reaction to Fas stimulation. The sensitizing effect of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha was accompanied by a significant upregulation of Fas and FLICE...

  19. The effect of smoking on early chorionic villous vascularisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oppenraaij, R. H. F.; Koning, A. H. J.; van den Hoff, M. J. B.; van der Spek, P. J.; Steegers, E. A. P.; Exalto, N.

    2012-01-01

    The aim aim of the study was to investigate whether first trimester chorionic villous vascularisation is different in women who smoked cigarettes before and during pregnancy in comparison with women who did not smoke. Placentas of smoking (>10 cigarettes/day, n = 13) and non-smoking women (n = 13),

  20. Cost-saving treatment strategies in in vitro fertilization: a combined economic evaluation of two large randomized clinical trials comparing highly purified human menopausal gonadotropin and recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechowski, Jaroslaw; Connolly, Mark; Schneider, Dirk; McEwan, Philip; Kennedy, Richard

    2009-04-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of two gonadotropin treatments that are available in the United Kingdom in light of limited public funding and the fundamental role of costs in IVF treatment decisions. An economic evaluation based on two large randomized clinical trials in IVF patients using a simulation model. Fifty-three fertility clinics in 13 European countries and Israel. Women indicated for treatment with IVF (N = 986), aged 18-38, participating in double-blind, randomized controlled trials. Highly purified menotropin (HP-hMG, Menopur) or recombinant follitropin alpha (rFSH, Gonal-F). Cost per IVF cycle and cost per live birth for HP-hMG and rFSH alpha. HP-hMG was more effective and less costly versus rFSH for both IVF cost per live birth and for IVF cost per baby (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was negative). The mean costs per IVF treatment for HP-hMG and rFSH were 2408 pounds (95% confidence interval [CI], 2392 pounds, 2421 pounds) and 2660 pounds (95% CI 2644 pounds, 2678 pounds), respectively. The mean cost saving of 253 pounds per cycle using HP-hMG allows one additional cycle to be delivered for every 9.5 cycles. Treatment with HP-hMG was dominant compared with rFSH in the United Kingdom. Gonadotropin costs should be considered alongside live-birth rates to optimize outcomes using scarce health-care resources.

  1. Expression and regulation of the tumor suppressor, SEF, during folliculogenesis in humans and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutwak, Ela; Price, Christopher A; Abramovich, Sagit-Sela; Rabinovitz, Shiri; Granot, Irit; Dekel, Nava; Ron, Dina

    2014-11-01

    Similar expression to FGF (Sef or IL17-RD), is a tumor suppressor and an inhibitor of growth factors as well as of pro-inflammatory cytokine signaling. In this study, we examined the regulation of Sef expression by gonadotropins during ovarian folliculogenesis. In sexually immature mice, in situ hybridization (ISH) localized Sef gene expression to early developing oocytes and granulosa cells (GC) but not to theca cells. Sef was also expressed in mouse ovarian endothelial cells, in the fallopian tube epithelium as well as in adipose tissue venules. SEF protein expression, determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC), correlated well with Sef mRNA expression in GC, while differential expression was noticed in oocytes. High Sef mRNA but undetectable SEF protein levels were observed in the oocytes of primary/secondary follicles, while an inverse correlation was found in the oocytes of preantral and small antral follicles. Sef mRNA expression dropped after pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG) administration, peaked at 6-8 h after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatment, and declined by 12 h after this treatment. ISH and IHC localized the changes to oocytes and mural GC following PMSG treatment, whereas Sef expression increased in mural GC and declined in granulosa-lutein cells upon hCG treatment. The ovarian expression of SEF was confirmed using human samples. ISH localized SEF transcripts to human GC of antral follicles but not to corpora lutea. Furthermore, SEF mRNA was detected in human GC recovered from preovulatory follicles. These results are the first to demonstrate SEF expression in a healthy ovary during folliculogenesis. Hormonal regulation of its expression suggests that SEF may be an important factor involved in intra-ovarian control mechanisms. © 2014 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  2. General Information about Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumor markers are used to detect testicular cancer: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). Tumor ... tumor markers are used in staging testicular cancer : Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). Lactate ...

  3. The dynamics of connexin expression, degradation and localisation are regulated by gonadotropins during the early stages of in vitro maturation of swine oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Santiquet

    Full Text Available Gap junctional communication (GJC plays a primordial role in oocyte maturation and meiotic resumption in mammals by directing the transfer of numerous molecules between cumulus cells and the oocyte. Gap junctions are made of connexins (Cx, proteins that regulate GJC in numerous ways. Understanding the dynamic regulation of connexin arrangements during in vitro maturation (IVM could provide a powerful tool for controlling meiotic resumption and consequently in vitro development of fully competent oocytes. However, physiological events happening during the early hours of IVM may still be elucidated. The present study reports the dynamic regulation of connexin expression, degradation and localization during this stage. Cx43, Cx45 and Cx60 were identified as the main connexins expressed in swine COC. Cx43 and Cx45 transcripts were judged too static to be a regulator of GJC, while Cx43 protein expression was highly responsive to gonadotropins, suggesting that it might be the principal regulator of GJC. In addition, the degradation of Cx43 expressed after 4.5 h of IVM in response to equine chorionic gonadotropin appeared to involve the proteasomal complex. Cx43 localisation appeared to be associated with GJC. Taken together, these results show for the first time that gonadotropins regulate Cx43 protein expression, degradation and localisation in porcine COC during the first several hours of IVM. Regulation of Cx43 may in turn, via GJC, participate in the development of fully competent oocytes.

  4. Bisphenol A Alters β-hCG and MIF Release by Human Placenta: An In Vitro Study to Understand the Role of Endometrial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mannelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A proper fetomaternal immune-endocrine cross-talk in pregnancy is fundamental for reproductive success. This might be unbalanced by exposure to environmental chemicals, such as bisphenol A (BPA. As fetoplacental contamination with BPA originates from the maternal compartment, this study investigated the role of the endometrium in BPA effects on the placenta. To this end, in vitro decidualized stromal cells were exposed to BPA 1 nM, and their conditioned medium (diluted 1 : 2 was used on chorionic villous explants from human placenta. Parallel cultures of placental explants were directly exposed to 0.5 nM BPA while, control cultures were exposed to the vehicle (EtOH 0.1%. After 24–48 h, culture medium from BPA-treated and control cultures was assayed for concentration of hormone human Chorionic Gonadotropin (β-hCG and cytokine Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF. The results showed that direct exposure to BPA stimulated the release of both MIF and β-hCG. These effects were abolished/diminished in placental cultures exposed to endometrial cell-conditioned medium. GM-MS analysis revealed that endometrial cells retain BPA, thus reducing the availability of this chemical for the placenta. The data obtained highlight the importance of in vitro models including the maternal component in reproducing the effects of environmental chemicals on human fetus/placenta.

  5. Chorionic villi derived mesenchymal like stem cells and expression of embryonic stem cells markers during long-term culturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsiani, E; Garas, A; Skentou, C; Tsezou, A; Messini, C I; Dafopoulos, K; Daponte, A; Messinis, I E

    2016-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be obtained from a variety of human tissues. MSCs derived from placental chorionic villi of the first trimester are likely to resemble, biologically, embryonic stem cells (ESC), due to the earlier development stage of placenta. In the present study long-term cultures of MSC-like cells were assessed in order to evaluate MSCs multipotent characteristics and molecular features during the period of culture. CV-cells obtained from 10 samples of chorionic villus displayed typical fibroblastoid morphology, undergone 20 passages during a period of 120 days, maintaining a stable karyotype throughout long term expansion. The cells were positive, for CD90, CD73, CD105, CD29, CD44, HLA ABC antigens and negative for CD14, CD34, AC133, and HLA DR antigens as resulted from the flow cytometry analysis. CV-cells were differentiated in adipocytes, osteoblasts, chondrocytes and neuronal cells under specific culture conditions. The expression of the ESC-gene markers POU5F1 (Oct-4) and NANOG was observed at earliest stages (4-12 passages) and not at the late stages (14-20 passages) by RT-PCR analysis. ZFP42 and SOX2 expression were not detected. Moreover, CV-cells were found to express GATA4 but not NES (Nestin). Chorionic villi-derived cells possess multipotent properties, display high proliferation rate and self-renew capacity, share common surface antigens with adult MSCs and express certain embryonics stem cells gene markers. These characteristics highlight chorionic villi as an attractive source of MSCs for the needs of regenerative medicine.

  6. Subcutaneous injection of kisspeptin-54 acutely stimulates gonadotropin secretion in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea, but chronic administration causes tachyphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Channa N; Nijher, Gurjinder M K; Chaudhri, Owais B; Murphy, Kevin G; Ranger, Amita; Lim, Adrian; Patel, Daksha; Mehta, Amrish; Todd, Catriona; Ramachandran, Radha; Salem, Victoria; Stamp, Gordon W; Donaldson, Mandy; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R; Dhillo, Waljit S

    2009-11-01

    Kisspeptin is a critical regulator of normal reproductive function. A single injection of kisspeptin in healthy human volunteers potently stimulates gonadotropin release. However, the effects of kisspeptin on gonadotropin release in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA) and the effects of repeated administration of kisspeptin to humans are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of acute and chronic kisspeptin administration on gonadotropin release in women with HA. We performed a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, parallel design study. Women with HA received twice-daily sc injections of kisspeptin (6.4 nmol/kg) or 0.9% saline (n = 5 per group) for 2 wk. Changes in serum gonadotropin and estradiol levels, LH pulsatility, and ultrasound measurements of reproductive activity were assessed. On the first injection day, potent increases in serum LH and FSH were observed after sc kisspeptin injection in women with HA (mean maximal increment from baseline within 4 h after injection: LH, 24.0 +/- 3.5 IU/liter; FSH, 9.1 +/- 2.5 IU/liter). These responses were significantly reduced on the 14th injection day (mean maximal increment from baseline within 4 h postinjection: LH, 2.5 +/- 2.2 IU/liter, P < 0.05; FSH, 0.5 +/- 0.5 IU/liter, P < 0.05). Subjects remained responsive to GnRH after kisspeptin treatment. No significant changes in LH pulsatility or ultrasound measurements of reproductive activity were observed. Acute administration of kisspeptin to women with infertility due to HA potently stimulates gonadotropin release, but chronic administration of kisspeptin results in desensitization to its effects on gonadotropin release. These data have important implications for the development of kisspeptin as a novel therapy for reproductive disorders in humans.

  7. Small GTPases are involved in sprout formation in human granulosa lutein cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Maximilian B; Daube, Stefanie; Keck, Christoph; Sator, Michael; Pietrowski, Detlef

    2013-04-01

    The corpus luteum (CL), develops from the ruptured follicle after gonadotropin stimulation. Based on intracellular reorganization of the cytoskeleton an human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) dependent sprouting and migration of luteinizing granulosa cells (LGCs) and endothelial cells is observed. Rho-GTPases are shown to be key regulators of cytoskeletal restructuring. In the present study we analyzed the role of Rho-GTPases in the sprouting activity of LGCs. We used the Rho-GTPase-inhibitors Toxin A and -B and the Cdc42-activator Bradykinin in a LGC-spheroid sprouting assay to determine the effect of these modulators in LGCs. Toxin A and Toxin B reduces sprout formation in LGC spheroids. However, the reduction is less than in hCG treated cells. The usage of Bradykinin demonstrates both, a reduction of sprouts in untreated spheroids and an increase of sprouting in previous hCG treated spheroids. The presented results let us suggest that small Rho-GTPases may regulate the sprouting activity of LGCs after stimulation by hCG and that this mechanism may play a role in CL formation.

  8. Ovulation induction with pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) or gonadotropins in a case of hypothalamic amenorrhea and diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, N A; Markou, K B; Pappas, A P; Protonatariou, A; Vagenakis, G A; Sykiotis, G P; Dimopoulos, P A; Tzingounis, V A

    2001-12-01

    Hypothalamic amenorrhea is a treatable cause of infertility. Our patient was presented with secondary amenorrhea and diabetes insipidus. Cortisol and prolactin responded normally to a combined insulin tolerance test (ITT) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) challenge, while thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) response to TRH was diminished, and no response of growth hormone to ITT was detected. Both luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels increased following gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge. No response of LH to clomiphene citrate challenge was detected. Magnetic resonance imaging findings demonstrated a midline mass occupying the inferior hypothalamus, with posterior lobe not visible and thickened pituitary stalk. Ovulation induction was carried out first with combined human menopausal gonadotropins (hMG/LH/FSH) (150 IU/day) and afterwards with pulsatile GnRH (150 ng/kg/pulse). Ovulation was achieved with both pulsatile GnRH and combine gonadotropin therapy. Slightly better results were achieved with the pulsatile GnRH treatment.

  9. Development of a radioimmunoassay for circulating levels of gonadotropin releasing hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moodbidri, S.B.; Joshi, L.R.; Sheth, A.R.; Rao, S.S.

    1976-01-01

    A specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay system has been developed for measuring gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in unextracted human serum. Circulating levels of GnRH, LH and FSH were determined in 37 serum samples obtained from twenty normal healthy women on different days of the menstrual cycle. GnRH and LH but not FSH exhibited similar patterns during the menstrual cycle. 125 I-labelled GnRH was used in the RIA system. (author)

  10. Comparison of clinical outcome and costs with CC + gonadotropins and gnrha + gonadotropins during Ivf/ICSI cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Peter; Matyas, Szabolcs; Bernard, l Artur; Kaali, Steven G

    2004-06-01

    To compare clinical outcome and costs of CC + gonadotropins with GnRHa + gonadotropins during IVF/ICSI cycles. Clinical outcome and expenses of 382 CC + gonadotropin and 964 GnRHa + gonadotropin cycles were compared. Medication costs were calculated on the basis of the mean number of ampoules and the proportion of various gonadotropins. Costs per clinical pregnancy were calculated on the basis of expenses and clinical pregnancy rates. Women in the CC + gonadotropin group were younger, and had fewer follicles, oocytes, embryos, and embryos transferred. Clinical pregnancy rates were higher in the GnRHa group (35.9 % vs 26.2%, p costs per cycle were higher in the GnRHa group (US dollars 357 vs 248). Expenses per pregnancy however were lower in the GnRHa group (USdollars 4197 vs 5335 with IVF; USdollars 5590 vs 7244 with ICSI). When different age subgroups with similar baseline characteristics and stimulation parameters were compared, pregnancy rates were significantly higher in the GnRHa groups. Medication cost per cycle was higher in the GnRHa subgroups, and the expense per pregnancy was lower with GnRHa protocol. Cost per cycle is higher with GnRHa + gonadotropin. However, because of the better performance of the GnRHa + gonadotropin stimulation, the cumulative costs are reduced by the time a clinical pregnancy is achieved.

  11. Human Endometrial CD98 Is Essential for Blastocyst Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Francisco; Simón, Carlos; Quiñonero, Alicia; Ramírez, Miguel Ángel; González-Muñoz, Elena; Burghardt, Hans; Cervero, Ana; Martínez, Sebastián; Pellicer, Antonio; Palacín, Manuel; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Yáñez-Mó, María

    2010-01-01

    Background Understanding the molecular basis of embryonic implantation is of great clinical and biological relevance. Little is currently known about the adhesion receptors that determine endometrial receptivity for embryonic implantation in humans. Methods and Principal Findings Using two human endometrial cell lines characterized by low and high receptivity, we identified the membrane receptor CD98 as a novel molecule selectively and significantly associated with the receptive phenotype. In human endometrial samples, CD98 was the only molecule studied whose expression was restricted to the implantation window in human endometrial tissue. CD98 expression was restricted to the apical surface and included in tetraspanin-enriched microdomains of primary endometrial epithelial cells, as demonstrated by the biochemical association between CD98 and tetraspanin CD9. CD98 expression was induced in vitro by treatment of primary endometrial epithelial cells with human chorionic gonadotropin, 17-β-estradiol, LIF or EGF. Endometrial overexpression of CD98 or tetraspanin CD9 greatly enhanced mouse blastocyst adhesion, while their siRNA-mediated depletion reduced the blastocyst adhesion rate. Conclusions These results indicate that CD98, a component of tetraspanin-enriched microdomains, appears to be an important determinant of human endometrial receptivity during the implantation window. PMID:20976164

  12. Neuroendocrine regulation of gonadotropin secretion in seasonally breeding birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayoshi eUbuka

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Seasonally breeding birds detect environmental signals, such as light, temperature, food availability and presence of mates to time reproduction. Hypothalamic neurons integrate external and internal signals, and regulate reproduction by releasing neurohormones to the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland synthesizes and releases gonadotropins which in turn act on the gonads to stimulate gametogenesis and sex steroid secretion. Accordingly, how gonadotropin secretion is controlled by the hypothalamus is key to our understanding of the mechanisms of seasonal reproduction. A hypothalamic neuropeptide, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, activates reproduction by stimulating gonadotropin synthesis and release. Another hypothalamic neuropeptide, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH, inhibits gonadotropin synthesis and release directly by acting on the pituitary gland or indirectly by decreasing the activity of GnRH neurons. Therefore, the next step to understand seasonal reproduction is to investigate how the activities of GnRH and GnIH neurons in the hypothalamus and their receptors in the pituitary gland are regulated by external and internal signals. It is possible that locally-produced triiodothyronine resulting from the action of type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase on thyroxine stimulates the release of gonadotropins, perhaps by action on GnRH neurons. The function of GnRH neurons is also regulated by transcription of the GnRH gene. Melatonin, a nocturnal hormone, stimulates the synthesis and release of GnIH and GnIH may therefore regulate a daily rhythm of gonadotropin secretion. GnIH may also temporally suppress gonadotropin secretion when environmental conditions are unfavorable. Environmental and social milieus fluctuate seasonally in the wild. Accordingly, complex interactions of various neuronal and hormonal systems need to be considered if we are to understand the mechanisms underlying seasonal reproduction.

  13. Bacteria Localization and Chorion Thinning among Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Kimberly B.; Grotegut, Chad A.; Ransom, Carla E.; Bentley, Rex C.; Feng, Liping; Lan, Lan; Heine, R. Phillips; Seed, Patrick C.; Murtha, Amy P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Bacterial colonization of the fetal membranes and its role in pathogenesis of membrane rupture is poorly understood. Prior retrospective work revealed chorion layer thinning in preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) subjects. Our objective was to prospectively examine fetal membrane chorion thinning and to correlate to bacterial presence in PPROM, preterm, and term subjects. Study Design Paired membrane samples (membrane rupture and membrane distant) were prospectively collected from: PPROM = 14, preterm labor (PTL = 8), preterm no labor (PTNL = 8), term labor (TL = 10), and term no labor (TNL = 8), subjects. Sections were probed with cytokeratin to identify fetal trophoblast layer of the chorion using immunohistochemistry. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed using broad range 16 s ribosomal RNA probe. Images were evaluated, chorion and choriodecidua were measured, and bacterial fluorescence scored. Chorion thinning and bacterial presence were compared among and between groups using Student's t-test, linear mixed effect model, and Poisson regression model (SAS Cary, NC). Results In all groups, the fetal chorion cellular layer was thinner at rupture compared to distant site (147.2 vs. 253.7 µm, prupture site compared to distant sites. In PPROM fetal chorion, we demonstrated pronounced global thinning. Although cause or consequence is uncertain, bacterial presence is greatest and inversely correlated with chorion thinning among PPROM subjects. PMID:24421883

  14. Use of various gonadotropin and biosimilar formulations for in vitro fertilization cycles: results of a worldwide Web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Mindy S; Shoham, Gon; Tobler, Kyle J; Zhao, Yulian; Monseur, Brent; Leong, Milton; Shoham, Zeev

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify trends in gonadotropin therapy in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment worldwide. Retrospective evaluation utilizing the results of a Web-based survey, IVF-Worldwide ( www.IVF-worldwide.com ) was performed. Three hundred fourteen centers performing a total of 218,300 annual IVF cycles were evaluated. Respondents representing 62.2% of cycles (n = 135,800) did not believe there was a difference between urinary and recombinant gonadotropins in terms of efficacy and live birth rate. Of the respondents, 67.3% (n = 146,800) reported no difference between recombinant and urinary formulations in terms of short-term safety and risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. In terms of long-term safety using human urinary gonadotropins, 50.6% (n = 110,400) of respondents believe there are potential long-term risks including prion disease. For 95.3% of units (n = 208,000), the clinician was the decision maker determining which specific gonadotropins are used for IVF. Of the units, 62.6% (n = 136,700) identified efficacy as the most important factor in deciding which gonadotropin to prescribe. While most (67.3%, n = 146,800) were aware of new biosimilar recombinant FSH products entering the market, 92% (n = 201,000) reported they would like more information. A fraction of respondents (25.6%, n = 55,900) reported having experience with these new products, and of these, 80.3% (n = 46,200) reported that they were similar in efficacy as previously used gonadotropins in a similar patient group. Respondents representing the majority of centers do not believe a difference exists between urinary and recombinant gonadotropins with respect to efficacy and live birth rates. While many are aware of new biosimilar recombinant FSH products entering the market, over 90% desire more information on these products.

  15. Bacteria localization and chorion thinning among preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly B Fortner

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Bacterial colonization of the fetal membranes and its role in pathogenesis of membrane rupture is poorly understood. Prior retrospective work revealed chorion layer thinning in preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM subjects. Our objective was to prospectively examine fetal membrane chorion thinning and to correlate to bacterial presence in PPROM, preterm, and term subjects. STUDY DESIGN: Paired membrane samples (membrane rupture and membrane distant were prospectively collected from: PPROM = 14, preterm labor (PTL = 8, preterm no labor (PTNL = 8, term labor (TL = 10, and term no labor (TNL = 8, subjects. Sections were probed with cytokeratin to identify fetal trophoblast layer of the chorion using immunohistochemistry. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed using broad range 16 s ribosomal RNA probe. Images were evaluated, chorion and choriodecidua were measured, and bacterial fluorescence scored. Chorion thinning and bacterial presence were compared among and between groups using Student's t-test, linear mixed effect model, and Poisson regression model (SAS Cary, NC. RESULTS: In all groups, the fetal chorion cellular layer was thinner at rupture compared to distant site (147.2 vs. 253.7 µm, p<0.0001. Further, chorion thinning was greatest among PPROM subjects compared to all other groups combined, regardless of site sampled [PPROM(114.9 vs. PTL(246.0 vs. PTNL(200.8 vs. TL(217.9 vs. TNL(246.5]. Bacteria counts were highest among PPROM subjects compared to all other groups regardless of site sampled or histologic infection [PPROM(31 vs. PTL(9 vs. PTNL(7 vs. TL(7 vs. TNL(6]. Among all subjects at both sites, bacterial counts were inversely correlated with chorion thinning, even excluding histologic chorioamnionitis (p<0.0001 and p = 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Fetal chorion was uniformly thinner at rupture site compared to distant sites. In PPROM fetal chorion, we demonstrated pronounced global thinning

  16. Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists: Expanding vistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Magon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonists are derived from native GnRH by amino acid substitution which yields the agonist resistant to degradation and increases its half-life. The hypogonadotropic hypogonadal state produced by GnRH agonists has been often dubbed as "pseudomenopause" or "medical oophorectomy," which are both misnomers. GnRH analogues (GnRH-a work by temporarily "switching off" the ovaries. Ovaries can be "switched off" for the therapy and therapeutic trial of many conditions which include but are not limited to subfertility, endometriosis, adenomyosis, uterine leiomyomas, precocious puberty, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, chronic pelvic pain, or the prevention of menstrual bleeding in special clinical situations. Rapidly expanding vistas of usage of GnRH agonists encompass use in sex reassignment of male to female transsexuals, management of final height in cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and preserving ovarian function in women undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy. Hypogonadic side effects caused by the use of GnRH agonists can be tackled with use of "add-back" therapy. Goserelin, leuprolide, and nafarelin are commonly used in clinical practice. GnRH-a have provided us a powerful therapeutic approach to the treatment of numerous conditions in reproductive medicine. Recent synthesis of GnRH antagonists with a better tolerability profile may open new avenues for both research and clinical applications. All stakeholders who are partners in women′s healthcare need to join hands to spread awareness so that these drugs can be used to realize their full potential.

  17. Expression and Role of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone 2 and Its Receptor in Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy T. Desaulniers

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1 and its receptor (GnRHR1 drive mammalian reproduction via regulation of the gonadotropins. Yet, a second form of GnRH (GnRH2 and its receptor (GnRHR2 also exist in mammals. GnRH2 has been completely conserved throughout 500 million years of evolution, signifying high selection pressure and a critical biological role. However, the GnRH2 gene is absent (e.g., rat or inactivated (e.g., cow and sheep in some species but retained in others (e.g., human, horse, and pig. Likewise, many species (e.g., human, chimpanzee, cow, and sheep retain the GnRHR2 gene but lack the appropriate coding sequence to produce a full-length protein due to gene coding errors; although production of GnRHR2 in humans remains controversial. Certain mammals lack the GnRHR2 gene (e.g., mouse or most exons entirely (e.g., rat. In contrast, old world monkeys, musk shrews, and pigs maintain the coding sequence required to produce a functional GnRHR2. Like GnRHR1, GnRHR2 is a 7-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptor that interacts with Gαq/11 to mediate cell signaling. However, GnRHR2 retains a cytoplasmic tail and is only 40% homologous to GnRHR1. A role for GnRH2 and its receptor in mammals has been elusive, likely because common laboratory models lack both the ligand and receptor. Uniquely, both GnRH2 and GnRHR2 are ubiquitously expressed; transcript levels are abundant in peripheral tissues and scarcely found in regions of the brain associated with gonadotropin secretion, suggesting a divergent role from GnRH1/GnRHR1. Indeed, GnRH2 and its receptor are not physiological modulators of gonadotropin secretion in mammals. Instead, GnRH2 and GnRHR2 coordinate the interaction between nutritional status and sexual behavior in the female brain. Within peripheral tissues, GnRH2 and its receptor are novel regulators of reproductive organs. GnRH2 and GnRHR2 directly stimulate steroidogenesis within the porcine testis. In the female, GnRH2 and

  18. Pengaruh Penambahan Chorionic Gonadotrophin pada Medium Maturasi terhadap Kemampuan Maturasi, Fertilisasi, dan Perkembangan Embrio secara In Vitro Kambing Peranakan Ettawa (The Effect of Chorionic Gonadotrophin Addition Into Maturation Medium on The Abili

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurvina Septi Adifa

    2012-02-01

    the values of 40.8%, 11.4%, and 12.2% respectively. Based on the result it could be concluded that chorionic gonadotrophin addition into maturation medium had not increased ettawa crossbred oocytes maturation, fertilization, and in vitro cleavage rate. The best maturation, fertilization, and in vitro cleavage rate were found using maturation medium without any addition of chorionic gonadotrophin. (Key words: Does oocyte, Chorionic gonadotrophin, In vitro maturation, In vitro fertilization, In vitro embryo development

  19. Cell and genetic predictors of human blastocyst hatching success in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrkasheva, Anastasiya G; Dolgushina, Nataliya V; Romanov, Andrey Yu; Burmenskaya, Olga V; Makarova, Nataliya P; Ibragimova, Espet O; Kalinina, Elena A; Sukhikh, Gennady T

    2017-10-01

    The aim was to identify cell and genetic predictors of human blastocyst hatching success in assisted reproduction programmes via a prospective case-control study. Blastocysts, donated by couples in assisted reproduction programmes were used. Hatching success assessment was performed after 144-146 h post-fertilization. The mRNA expression levels of cathepsin V (CTSV), GATA-binding protein 3 (GATA3) and human chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit 3, 5, 7 and 8 (CGB) genes were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The odds ratio (OR) of hatching due to zona pellucida (ZP) thickness, oocyte and sperm quality, embryo quality and mRNA expression of CTSV, GATA3 and CGB genes in blastocysts was determined. From 62 blastocysts included in the study, 47 (75.8%) were unable to hatch spontaneously. The ZP thickening, and oocyte and sperm quality did not affect human blastocyst ability to hatch, except the combination of cytoplasmic and extracytoplasmic oocyte dysmorphisms (OR = 1.25; 95% confidence interval = 1.08, 1.45). Hatching-capable blastocysts had higher Gardner scale grade and mRNA expression of CTSV, GATA3 and CGB genes than hatching-incapable blastocysts. The human blastocyst hatching success depends on the blastocyst Gardner grade, but not on ZP and gamete quality. Blastocyst development was regulated by CTSV, GATA3 and CGB gene expression.

  20. Comparison of Complications of Chorionic Villus Sampling and Amniocentesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Shahbazian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A significant number of pregnancies are associated with the cytogenetic abnormalities of the fetus. Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS are procedures used for prenatal genetic diagnosis. In this study, we compare the safety and complications of mid-trimester amniocentesis and transabdominal CVS.Materials and Methods: This analytic cross-sectional study was performed in 308 patients from2.11.2007 to 26.10.2009. We had 155 cases of amniocentesis, which we performed in weeks 15-23 of pregnancy; and 153 cases of CVS, which we performed during weeks 10-14 of pregnancy.Results: There were 2 cases (1.2% of premature rupture of membrane (PROM in amniocentesis which occurred 1 and 10 days after the procedure and caused pregnancy loss before 20 weeks. We had 1 case (0.7% of abortion in CVS, which occurred 10 days after the procedure. Additionally, there was 1 case of amniotic fluid leakage (0.7% in which, after admission to the hospital and observation, leakage was stopped and the pregnancy continued normally.Conclusion: In this study, we had more complications with amniocentesis cases than CVS. CVS is a procedure performed in the earlier stages of pregnancy and its complications are less than amniocentesis. We suggest CVS to be the procedure of choice for genetic diagnosis.

  1. Microdose gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in the absence of exogenous gonadotropins is not sufficient to induce multiple follicle development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Karine; Fogle, Robin; Bendikson, Kristin; Christenson, Kamilee; Paulson, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Because the effectiveness of the "microdose flare" stimulation protocol often is attributed to the dramatic endogenous gonadotropin release induced by the GnRH agonist, the aim of this study was to determine whether use of microdose GnRH agonist alone could induce multiple ovarian follicle development in normal responders. Based on these data, the duration of gonadotropin rise is approximately 24 to 48 hours and is too brief to sustain continued multiple follicle growth. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Transient expression of progesterone receptor and cathepsin-l in human granulosa cells during the periovulatory period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Víctor; Kohen, Paulina; Maldonado, Carola; Sierralta, Walter; Muñoz, Alex; Villarroel, Claudio; Strauss, Jerome F; Devoto, Luigi

    2012-03-01

    To study in vivo the progesterone receptor (PR) expression levels in human granulosa cells (GCs) during the periovulatory period and the affect of the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway on PR expression and cathepsin-L expression-activation. Experimental study. University research unit. Twenty-five women of reproductive age. Follicular fluid and GCs obtained from spontaneous cycles before and during the normal luteinizing hormone surge, and samples obtained 36 hours after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization. To determine PR, cathepsin-L messenger RNA (mRNA) analysis via real-time polymerase chain reaction, and protein of PR, cathepsin-L, and PKA in human GCs. The Western blot analysis revealed that bands of PR (isoform A) were the most abundant and that mRNA (PR-A and PR-B) have a temporal pattern of expression throughout the periovulatory period. The protein levels of PR and cathepsin-L were up-regulated by hCG. The abundance of PR was diminished in the presence of PKA inhibitor, and cathepsin-L with PR receptor antagonist. The transient expression of PR in human GCs of the preovulatory follicle suggests that PR and its ligand play a role in the activation of cathepsin-L, which is presumably involved in the degradation of the follicular extracellular matrix during human ovulation. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. The Forkhead Transcription Factor, FOXP3, Is Required for Normal Pituitary Gonadotropin Expression in Mice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Deborah O.; Jasurda, Jake S.; Egashira, Noboru; Ellsworth, Buffy S.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is central to normal reproductive function. This pathway begins with the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in systematic pulses by the hypothalamus. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone is bound by receptors on gonadotroph cells in the anterior pituitary gland and stimulates the synthesis and secretion of luteinizing hormone and, to some extent, follicle-stimulating hormone. Once stimulated by these glycoprotein hormones, the gonads begin gametogenesis and the synthesis of sex hormones. In humans, mutations of the forkhead transcription factor, FOXP3, lead to an autoimmune disorder known as immunodysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, and enteropathy, X-linked syndrome. Mice with a mutation in the Foxp3 gene have a similar autoimmune syndrome and are infertile. To understand why FOXP3 is required for reproductive function, we are investigating the reproductive phenotype of Foxp3 mutant mice (Foxp3sf/Y). Although the gonadotroph cells appear to be intact in Foxp3sf/Y mice, luteinizing hormone beta (Lhb) and follicle-stimulating hormone beta (Fshb) expression are significantly decreased, demonstrating that these mice exhibit a hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Hypothalamic expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone is not significantly decreased in Foxp3sf/Y males. Treatment of Foxp3sf/Y males with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor agonist does not rescue expression of Lhb or Fshb. Interestingly, we do not detect Foxp3 expression in the pituitary or hypothalamus, suggesting that the infertility seen in Foxp3sf/Y males is a secondary effect, possibly due to loss of FOXP3 in immune cells. Pituitary expression of glycoprotein hormone alpha (Cga) and prolactin (Prl) are significantly reduced in Foxp3sf/Y males, whereas the precursor for adrenocorticotropic hormone, pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc), is increased. Human patients diagnosed with IPEX often exhibit thyroiditis due to destruction of the thyroid gland by

  4. Peritoneal Adhesion and Angiogenesis in Ovarian Carcinoma Are Inversely Regulated by Hyaluronan: The Role of Gonadotropins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Chagit Tzuman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian carcinoma is the leading cause of death among gynecologic cancers. Although transformation of the outer ovarian epithelium was linked with ovulation, the disease is significantly more prevalent and severe in postmenopausal women. We postulated that menopause could augment ovarian cancer progression through the effects of gonadotropins on multifocal seeding to the mesothelial layer lining the peritoneum. This seeding is mediated by integrins as well as by CD44 interaction with hyaluronan (HA. Here, we report the effect of gonadotropins on HA synthesis and degradation and on peritoneal adhesion. A significant concentration- and time-dependent induction in expression levels of HA synthases (HASs and hyaluronidases (Hyals was observed in vitro on stimulation of human epithelial ovarian carcinoma cells by gonadotropins. Hormonal regulation of HA-mediated adhesion was manifested in vivo as well, by fluorescence microscopy of stained MLS multicellular tumor spheroids. The number of spheroids adhered to the mesothelium of ovariectomized CD-1 nude mice 9.5 hours after intraperitoneal insertion was significantly higher than in nonovariectomized mice. Inhibition of HA synthesis by 6-diazo-5-oxo-1-norleucine (DON both in spheroids and ovariectomized mice significantly reduced the number of adhered spheroids. Thus, the change in the hormonal environment during menopause assists in HA-dependent adherence of ovarian cancer spheroids onto the peritoneum. However, HA is antiangiogenic and it can significantly suppress tumor progression. Accordingly, angiogenesis of the adhered spheroids was significantly elevated in DON-treated tumors. These results can explain the selective pressure that can lead to simultaneously increased tumor expression of both HASs and Hyals.

  5. hCG-dependent regulation of angiogenic factors in human granulosa lutein cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, B; Rakenius, A; Pietrowski, D; Bettendorf, H; Keck, C; Herr, D

    2006-07-01

    As prerequisite for development and maintenance of many diseases angiogenesis is of particular interest in medicine. Pathologic angiogenesis takes place in chronic arthritis, collagen diseases, arteriosclerosis, retinopathy associated with diabetes, and particularly in cancers. However, angiogenesis as a physiological process regularly occurs in the ovary. After ovulation the corpus luteum is formed by rapid vascularization of initially avascular granulosa lutein cell tissue. This process is regulated by gonadotropic hormones. In order to gain further insights in the regulatory mechanisms of angiogenesis in the ovary, we investigated these mechanisms in cell culture of human granulosa lutein cells. In particular, we determined the expression and production of several angiogenic factors including tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), Leptin, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), meningioma-associated complimentary DNA (Mac25), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and Midkine. In addition, we showed that human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has distinct effects on their expression and production. hCG enhances the expression and production of TIMP-1, whereas it downregulates the expression of CTGF and Mac25. Furthermore it decreases the expression of Leptin. Our results provide evidence that hCG determines growth and development of the corpus luteum by mediating angiogenic pathways in human granulosa lutein cells. Hence we describe a further approach to understand the regulation of angiogenesis in the ovary.

  6. Is there a role for contraceptive vaccines in fertility control?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    (LH), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and gonadal steroids. In addition, the antigens of trophoblasts and early embryo, egg surface antigens and sperm surface antigens have also ... glycolytic enzyme that is found only in male germ cells.

  7. A Case of Post Obstructive Pneumonia Complicating Mature Teratoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mediastinal teratomas are rare germ cell tumors in children accounting for only 4.3% of all germ cell tumours.[1] Mature ... from two or more embryonic layers. Patients ... dehydrogenase and beta human chorionic gonadotropins were normal.

  8. Animal Research International: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tables should be comprehensible without reference to the text and numbered ... format and pictures in photo shop format) should be comprehensible without reference to ... Effects of in vivo Crude Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (cHCG) on ...

  9. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analysis of human chorionic gonadotropin-monoclonal anti- body interaction in ... Heat stress response in plants: a complex game with chape- rones and more .... 359. Morris R D. Sexual selection, redundancy and survival of the most beautiful.

  10. Breast enlargement in Malawian males on the standard first-line ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hospital in June 2014 from a health center with a presenting complaint of .... ART side effects and may not be aware that the gynaecomastia they experience is .... Heroin. Human chorionic gonadotropins. Isoniazid. Ketoconazole. Marijuana.

  11. Effects of progesterone and its metabolites on human granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrowski, D; Gong, Y; Mairhofer, M; Gessele, R; Sator, M

    2014-02-01

    The corpus luteum (CL) is under control of gonadotrophic hormones and produces progesterone, which is necessary for endometrial receptivity. Recent studies have shown that progesterone and its metabolites are involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis of cancer cells. Here weanalyzed the role of progesterone and its meta-bolites on luteinized granulosa cells (LGC) by FACS analysis and quantitative Real-Time PCR. We detected the mRNA of the progesterone metabolizing genes SRD5A1, AKR1C1, and AKR1C2 in LGC. The stimulation of LGC with progesterone or progesterone metabolites did not show any effect on the mRNA expression of these genes. However, a downregulation of Fas expression was found to be accomplished by progesterone and human chorionic gonadotropin. Our findings do not support the concept of an effect of progesterone metabolites on LGCs. However, it suggests an antiapoptotic effect of hCG and progesterone during corpus luteum development by downregulation of Fas. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Effect of Mifepristone on the Telomerase Activity in Chorion and Decidua during Early Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge-qing XIA; Ya-li XIONG; Yong-hong SUN

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate telomerase activity in chorion and decidua from abortion induced by mifepristone incorporated with misoprostol at early pregnancy Methods TRAP-SYBR Green assay was used to detect the expression of telomerase. Forty specimen were obtained from medicinal abortion (experiment group) and forty were from normal induced abortion (control group).Results Positive expression, of chorion telomerase was significantly different between the experimental group (28%, 11/40) and the control group (73%, 29/40) (P<0. 05).While in decidua, the positive rate was 28% (11/40) in the experimental group and 20% (9/40) in the control group, there was no significant difference (P>0. 05).Conclusion It is suggested that miferistone may significantly decrease the telomerase activity in chorion but not in decidua.

  13. False-positive pregnancy test after transfusion of solvent/detergent-treated plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilma-Stohlawetz, Petra; Wreford-Bush, Tim; Mills, Francesca; Davidson, Fiona; Kursten, Friedrich W; Jilma, Bernd; Birchall, Janet

    2017-12-01

    The transmission of pathogens, antibodies, and proteins is a possible consequence of blood product transfusion. A female patient had an unexpected positive serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin result, indicative of pregnancy, after she had received a transfusion with 1 unit of platelet concentrate, 4 units of red blood cells, and 4 units of pooled solvent/detergent-treated plasma (Octaplas). To investigate the possibility of passive transfusion of β-human chorionic gonadotropin from the plasma transfusion, one additional unit from the same batch was thawed and analyzed. To validate the β-human chorionic gonadotropin assay for use in solvent/detergent-treated plasma and to investigate any interference in the assay, dilution experiments were performed using the implicated plasma batch diluted with male and non-pregnant female sera. Also, plasma from a known pregnant woman was diluted with Octaplas (tested negative for β-human chorionic gonadotropin) and with a male serum to validate the assay for use in solvent/detergent-treated plasma. The implicated solvent/detergent-treated plasma had a mean β-human chorionic gonadotropin level of 91.5 mIU/mL. Results from the dilution experiments revealed an excellent correlation (r > 0.99) between β-human chorionic gonadotropin measurement in solvent/detergent-treated plasma and male serum and no over or under recovery of the expected results. Further measurements of β-human chorionic gonadotropin levels in the female recipient revealed an estimated half-life of 6 hours. This case demonstrates the importance of considering the possibility of passive transmission of analytes to a patient from the transfusion of blood products. Furthermore, the measurement of β-human chorionic gonadotropin is valid in solvent/detergent-treated plasma using a Roche Cobas analyzer. © 2017 AABB.

  14. De novo frameshift mutation in fibroblast growth factor 8 in a male patient with gonadotropin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Erina; Yatsuga, Shuichi; Igarashi, Maki; Miyado, Mami; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Hayashi, Keiko; Hata, Kenichirou; Umezawa, Akihiro; Yamada, Gen; Ogata, Tsutomu; Fukami, Maki

    2014-01-01

    Missense, nonsense, and splice mutations in the Fibroblast Growth Factor 8(FGF8) have recently been identified in patients with hypothalamo-pituitary dysfunction and craniofacial anomalies. Here, we report a male patient with a frameshift mutation in FGF8. The patient exhibited micropenis, craniofacial anomalies, and ventricular septal defect at birth. Clinical evaluation at 16 years and 8 months of age revealed delayed puberty, hyposmia, borderline mental retardation, and mild hearing difficulty. Endocrine findings included gonadotropin deficiency and primary hypothyroidism. Molecular analysis identified a de novo heterozygous p.S192fsX204 mutation in the last exon of FGF8. RT-PCR analysis of normal human tissues detected FGF8 expression in the genital skin, and whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis of mouse embryos revealed Fgf8 expression in the anlage of the penis. The results indicate that frameshift mutations in FGF8 account for a part of the etiology of hypothalamo-pituitary dysfunction. Micropenis in patients with FGF8 abnormalities appears to be caused by gonadotropin deficiency and defective outgrowth of the anlage of the penis.

  15. Amphiregulin mediates hCG-induced StAR expression and progesterone production in human granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lanlan; Yu, Yiping; Zhang, Ruizhe; He, Jingyan; Sun, Ying-Pu

    2016-04-26

    Progesterone plays critical roles in maintaining a successful pregnancy at the early embryonic stage. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) rapidly induces amphiregulin (AREG) expression. However, it remains unknown whether AREG mediates hCG-induced progesterone production. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the role of AREG in hCG-induced progesterone production and the underlying molecular mechanism in human granulosa cells; primary cells were used as the experimental model. We demonstrated that the inhibition of EGFR and the knockdown of AREG abolished hCG-induced steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression and progesterone production. Importantly, follicular fluid AREG levels were positively correlated with progesterone levels in the follicular fluid and serum. Treatment with AREG increased StAR expression and progesterone production, and these stimulatory effects were abolished by EGFR inhibition. Moreover, activation of ERK1/2, but not PI3K/Akt, signaling was required for the AREG-induced up-regulation of StAR expression and progesterone production. Our results demonstrate that AREG mediates hCG-induced StAR expression and progesterone production in human granulosa cells, providing novel evidence for the role of AREG in the regulation of steroidogenesis.

  16. Effects of pelvic telecobalt irradiation on gonadotropin secretin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfenninger, R.

    1978-01-01

    The pitnitary reaction in women operated according to Wertheim who had menstruated regularly was investigated during telecobalt irradiation. The pitnitary reaction was observed with the aid of the gonadotropin releasing factor. A dose of 25 mcg RH-LH was applied. Releasing factor examinations were carried out before exposure with functioning ovaries, after a dose of 2000 R (i.e., after 10 exposures), and after 6000 R. In the meantime, separate gonadotropin examinations were carried out continuously. A FSH reaction was observed already after 14 days, and the values were raised to almost menopause values. After this, the FSH increased further, while the LH reaction was not observed until much later. The investigation suggests an interrelation between follicle apparatus and FSH, oestrogens and LH. (orig./AJ) [de

  17. Effect of continuous recombinant human endostatin pumping combined with TP chemotherapy on serum malignant molecules and angiogenesis molecules in patients with advanced ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Dong Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of continuous recombinant human endostatin pumping combined with TP chemotherapy on serum malignant molecules and angiogenesis molecules in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Methods: 78 patients with advanced ovarian cancer who were treated in our hospital between July 2011 and December 2015 were selected and divided into observation group and control group (n=39 according to the single-blind randomized control method. Before treatment and after 4 cycles of treatment, electrochemical luminescence immunity analyzer was used to detect serum tumor marker levels; RIA method was used to determine serum apoptosis molecule levels; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to detect the serum angiogenesis molecule levels. Results: Before treatment, differences in serum levels of tumor markers, apoptosis molecules and angiogenesis molecules were not statistically significant between two groups of patients (P>0.05. After 4 cycles of treatment, serum carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125, carbohydrate antigen 153 (CA153, human epididymis protein 4 (HE4, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG, Bcl-2, Survivin, Bag-1, angiogenin-2 (Ang-2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF levels of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.05 while Bax level was significantly higher than that of control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Continuous recombinant human endostatin pumping combined with TP chemotherapy can decrease the malignant degree of advanced ovarian cancer and inhibit angiogenesis.

  18. Roles of CDX2 and EOMES in human induced trophoblast progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying, E-mail: ying.chen@hc.msu.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Wang, Kai [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Gong, Yun Guo; Khoo, Sok Kean [Genomic Microarray Core Facility, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Leach, Richard, E-mail: Richard.Leach@hc.msu.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women’s Health, Spectrum Health Medical Group, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States)

    2013-02-08

    Highlights: ► CDX2 and EOMES play critical roles in human induced trophoblast progenitors (iTP). ► iTP cells directly transformed from fibroblasts. ► Differentiation of iTP cells into extravillous trophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts. -- Abstract: Abnormal trophoblast lineage proliferation and differentiation in early pregnancy have been associated with the pathogenesis of placenta diseases of pregnancy. However, there is still a gap in understanding the molecular mechanisms of early placental development due to the limited primary trophoblast cultures and fidelity of immortalized trophoblast lines. Trophoblasts stem (TS) cells, an in vitro model of trophectoderm that can differentiate into syncytiotrophoblasts and extravillous trophoblasts, can be an attractive tool for early pregnancy research. TS cells are well established in mouse but not in humans due to insufficient knowledge of which trophoblast lineage-specific transcription factors are involved in human trophectoderm (TE) proliferation and differentiation. Here, we applied induced pluripotent stem cell technique to investigate the human trophoblast lineage-specific transcription factors. We established human induced trophoblast progenitor (iTP) cells by direct reprogramming the fibroblasts with a pool of mouse trophoblast lineage-specific transcription factors consisting of CDX2, EOMES, and ELF5. The human iTP cells exhibit epithelial morphology and can be maintained in vitro for more than 2 months. Gene expression profile of these cells was tightly clustered with human trophectoderm but not with human neuron progenitor cells, mesenchymal stem cells, or endoderm cells. These cells are capable of differentiating into cells with an invasive capacity, suggesting extravillous trophoblasts. They also form multi-nucleated cells which secrete human chorionic gonadotropin and estradiol, consistent with a syncytiotrophoblast phenotype. Our results provide the evidence that transcription factors CDX2 and

  19. Highly purified human-derived follicle-stimulating hormone (Bravelle® has equivalent efficacy to follitropin-beta (Follistim ® in infertile women undergoing in vitro fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster Bobby W

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background These data compare the efficacy and safety of highly purified human-derived follicle-stimulating hormone (Bravelle(R and recombinant follitropin-β (Follistim(R in women undergoing in vitro fertilization. Methods This report describes the pooled data from two, nearly identical, randomized, controlled, parallel-group, multicenter studies conducted in a total of 19 academic and private IVF-ET centers in the United States. Infertile premenopausal women underwent pituitary down-regulation using leuprolide acetate followed by a maximum of 12 days of subcutaneous Bravelle(R (n = 120 or Follistim(R (n = 118, followed by administration of human chorionic gonadotropin, oocyte retrieval and embryo transfer. The primary efficacy measure was the mean number of oocytes retrieved; secondary efficacy measures included the total dose and duration of gonadotropin treatment; peak serum estradion levels; embryo transfer and implantation rates; chemical, clinical and continuing pregnancies; and live birth rates. All adverse events were recorded and injection site pain was recorded daily using a patient, self-assessment diary. Results Similar efficacy responses were observed for all outcome parameters in the two treatment groups. Although patients receiving Bravelle(R consistently reported a greater number of chemical, clinical and continuing pregnancies, as well as an increased rate of live birth, the data did not attain statistical significance (P > 0.05. The overall incidence of adverse events was similar in both groups, but compared to Follistim(R, injections of Bravelle(R were reported by patients to be significantly less painful (P Conclusions Bravelle(R and Follistim(R had comparable efficacy in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in women undergoing IVF-ET. There were no differences in the nature or number of adverse events between the treatment groups although Bravelle(R injections were reported to be significantly less painful.

  20. Toll-like receptor activation enhances cell-mediated immunity induced by an antibody vaccine targeting human dendritic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Marc A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previously, we have successfully targeted the mannose receptor (MR expressed on monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs using a fully human MR-specific antibody, B11, as a vehicle to deliver whole protein tumor antigens such as the human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (hCGβ. Since MRs play a role in bridging innate immunity with adaptive immunity we have explored several toll-like receptor (TLR-specific ligands that may synergize with MR targeting and be applicable as adjuvants in the clinic. We demonstrate that antigen-specific helper and cytolytic T cells from both healthy donors and cancer patients were effectively primed with B11-hCGβ-treated autologous DCs when a combination of one or several TLR ligands is used. Specifically, concomitant signaling of DCs via TLR3 with dsRNA (poly I:C and DC TLR 7/8 with Resiquimod (R-848, respectively, elicited efficient antigen presentation-mediated by MR-targeting. We demonstrate that MR and TLRs contribute towards maturation and activation of DCs by a mechanism that may be driven by a combination of adjuvant and antibody vaccines that specifically deliver antigenic targets to DCs.

  1. Cell Adhesion Minimization by a Novel Mesh Culture Method Mechanically Directs Trophoblast Differentiation and Self-Assembly Organization of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeyo, Kennedy Omondi; Kurosawa, Osamu; Yamazaki, Satoshi; Oana, Hidehiro; Kotera, Hidetoshi; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Washizu, Masao

    2015-10-01

    Mechanical methods for inducing differentiation and directing lineage specification will be instrumental in the application of pluripotent stem cells. Here, we demonstrate that minimization of cell-substrate adhesion can initiate and direct the differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into cyst-forming trophoblast lineage cells (TLCs) without stimulation with cytokines or small molecules. To precisely control cell-substrate adhesion area, we developed a novel culture method where cells are cultured on microstructured mesh sheets suspended in a culture medium such that cells on mesh are completely out of contact with the culture dish. We used microfabricated mesh sheets that consisted of open meshes (100∼200 μm in pitch) with narrow mesh strands (3-5 μm in width) to provide support for initial cell attachment and growth. We demonstrate that minimization of cell adhesion area achieved by this culture method can trigger a sequence of morphogenetic transformations that begin with individual hiPSCs attached on the mesh strands proliferating to form cell sheets by self-assembly organization and ultimately differentiating after 10-15 days of mesh culture to generate spherical cysts that secreted human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) hormone and expressed caudal-related homeobox 2 factor (CDX2), a specific marker of trophoblast lineage. Thus, this study demonstrates a simple and direct mechanical approach to induce trophoblast differentiation and generate cysts for application in the study of early human embryogenesis and drug development and screening.

  2. Estradiol potentiation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone responsiveness in the anterior pituitary is mediated by an increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.; Peegel, H.; Katta, V.

    1985-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism by which 17 beta-estradiol potentiates the action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone on the anterior pituitary in vitro, cultured pituitary cells from immature female rats were used as the model system. Cultures exposed to estradiol at concentrations ranging from 10(-10) to 10(-6) mol/L exhibited a significant augmentation of luteinizing hormone release in response to a 4-hour gonadotropin-releasing hormone (10 mumol/L) challenge at a dose of 10(-9) mol/L compared to that of control cultures. The estradiol augmentation of luteinizing hormone release was also dependent on the duration of estradiol exposure. When these cultures were incubated with tritium-labeled L-leucine, an increase in incorporation of radiolabeled amino acid into total proteins greater than that in controls was observed. A parallel stimulatory effect of estradiol on iodine 125-labeled D-Ala6 gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding was observed. Cultures incubated with estradiol at different concentrations and various lengths of time showed a significant increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding capacity and this increase was abrogated by cycloheximide. Analysis of the binding data showed that the increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding activity was due to a change in the number of gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding sites rather than a change in the affinity. These results suggest that (1) estradiol treatment increases the number of pituitary receptors for gonadotropin-releasing hormone, (2) the augmentary effect of estradiol on luteinizing hormone release at the pituitary level might be mediated, at least in part, by the increase in the number of binding sites of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and (3) new protein synthesis may be involved in estradiol-mediated gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor induction

  3. Effects of equine chorionic gonadotrophin on follicular, luteal and conceptus development of non-lactating Bos indicus beef cows subjected to a progesterone plus estradiol-based timed artificial insemination protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Pitaluga Costa e Silva Filho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG on ovarian follicular responses, corpus luteum (CL development and conceptus length on day 16 after timed artificial insemination (TAI. A total of 124 cows at day 0 (D0 received 2 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB and the insertion of a progesterone (P4 intravaginal device. Eight days later, the device was removed, and cows received 0.15 mg of prostaglandin and 0.5 mg of estradiol cypionate (EC, and were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: eCG (n=60, in which cows received 300 U of eCG; and control (n=64. Cows were TAI 48 h after P4 device removal. The diameter of the largest follicle (LF present on D8 and D10 and of CL on D15 and D26 were measured. Conceptus recovered rate, conceptus length, CL diameter and weight were determined at slaughter on D26. Plasma P4 concentration was determined on D15 and D26. Follicular growth from D8 to D10 (P=0.03, the diameter of CL at D15 (P=0.03 and D26 (P=0.003 and the CL weight at day 26 (P=0.04 were greater in the eCG group than the control. However, there was no effect of eCG treatment on oestrus occurrence, conceptus recovery rate and length, or P4 concentrations on either D15 or D26. In conclusion, although eCG increases follicular responses and the diameter of the CL, this gonadotropin treatment does not influence the length of the conceptus or the P4 concentration on the subsequent oestrus cycle.

  4. High gonadotropin dosage does not affect euploidy and pregnancy rates in IVF PGS cycles with single embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barash, Oleksii O; Hinckley, Mary D; Rosenbluth, Evan M; Ivani, Kristen A; Weckstein, Louis N

    2017-11-01

    number of eggs retrieved. Ongoing pregnancy rates were similar, not only within particular age groups, but also between different age groups regardless of the total dosage of gonadotropins used: ranging from to 63.6% (5000 IU, ≥41 y.o) (OR = 0.696, 95% CI 0.310-1.565, P = 0.38). Retrospective study and heterogeneity of patients included. These data are reassuring for the common practice of increasing gonadotropin dosages in PGS cycles, particularly in older woman. No formal funding has been received for this study. N/A. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. 77 FR 4227 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Gonadotropin Releasing Factor Analog...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... Factor Analog-Diphtheria Toxoid Conjugate AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule... extends the slaughter interval for intact male swine injected with gonadotropin releasing factor analog...-322 for IMPROVEST (gonadotropin releasing factor analog-diphtheria toxoid conjugate) Sterile Solution...

  6. 76 FR 27888 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Gonadotropin Releasing Factor-Diphtheria...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Factor-Diphtheria Toxoid Conjugate AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. [[Page... veterinary prescription use of gonadotropin releasing factor-diphtheria toxoid conjugate by subcutaneous... provides for the veterinary prescription use of IMPROVEST (gonadotropin releasing factor-diphtheria toxoid...

  7. Expression and role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone 2 and its receptor in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH1) and its receptor (GnRHR1) drive mammalian reproduction via regulation of the gonadotropins. Yet, a second form of GnRH (GnRH2) and its receptor (GnRHR2) also exist in some mammals. GnRH2 has been completely conserved throughout 500 million years of evolution, s...

  8. Human steroidogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Y; Ezcurra, Diego

    2014-01-01

    In the menstrual cycle, the mid-cycle surge of gonadotropins (both luteinising hormone [LH] and follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH]) signals the initiation of the periovulatory interval, during which the follicle augments progesterone production and begins to luteinise, ultimately leading to the r......In the menstrual cycle, the mid-cycle surge of gonadotropins (both luteinising hormone [LH] and follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH]) signals the initiation of the periovulatory interval, during which the follicle augments progesterone production and begins to luteinise, ultimately leading...... reviews current knowledge of the regulation of progesterone in the human ovary during the follicular phase and highlights areas where knowledge remains limited. In this review, we provide in-depth information outlining the regulation and function of gonadotropins in the complicated area of steroidogenesis...

  9. Elevation of plasma gonadotropin concentration in response to mammalian gonadotropin releasing hormone (GRH) treatment of the male brown trout as determined by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crim, L.W.; Cluett, D.M.

    1974-01-01

    Rapid increase of the plasma gonadotropin concentration as measured by radioimmunoassay has been demonstrated in response to GRH treatment of the sexually mature male brown trout. Peak gonadotropin values were observed within 15 minutes of GRH treatment, however, the return to baseline values was prolonged compared with the mammalian response. These data support the concept that the brain, operating via releasing hormones, plays a role in the control of pituitary hormone secretion in fish

  10. The role of abnormal fetal heart rate in scheduling chorionic villus sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagel, S; Anteby, E; Ron, M; Hochner-Celnikier, D; Achiron, R

    1992-09-01

    To assess the value of fetal heart rate (FHR) measurements in predicting spontaneous fetal loss in pregnancies scheduled for chorionic villus sampling (CVS). A prospective descriptive study. Two hospital departments of obstetrics and gynaecology in Israel. 114 women between 9 and 11 weeks gestation scheduled for chorionic villus sampling (CVS). Fetal heart rate was measured by transvaginal Doppler ultrasound and compared with a monogram established from 75 fetuses. Whenever a normal FHR was recorded, CVS was performed immediately. 106 women had a normal FHR and underwent CVS; two of these pregnancies ended in miscarriage. In five pregnancies no fetal heart beats could be identified and fetal death was diagnosed. In three pregnancies an abnormal FHR was recorded and CVS was postponed; all three pregnancies ended in miscarriage within 2 weeks. Determination of FHR correlated with crown-rump length could be useful in predicting spontaneous miscarriage before performing any invasive procedure late in the first trimester.

  11. Tissue-specific expression of silkmoth chorion genes in vivo using Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus as a transducing vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatrou, K; Meidinger, R G

    1990-01-01

    A pair of silkmoth chorion chromosomal genes, HcA.12-HcB.12, was inserted into a baculovirus transfer vector, pBmp2, derived from the nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Bombyx mori. This vector, which permits the insertion of foreign genetic material in the vicinity of a mutationally inactivated polyhedrin gene, was used to acquire the corresponding recombinant virus. Injection of mutant silkmoth pupae that lack all Hc chorion genes with the recombinant virus resulted in the infection of all internal organs including follicular tissue. Analysis of RNA from infected tissues has demonstrated that the two chorion genes present in the viral genome are correctly transcribed under the control of their own promoter in follicular cells, the tissue in which chorion genes are normally expressed. The chorion primary transcripts are also correctly processed in the infected follicular cells and yield mature mRNAs indistinguishable from authentic chorion mRNAs present in wild-type follicles. These results demonstrate that recombinant nuclear polyhedrosis viruses can be used as transducing vectors for introducing genetic material of host origin into the cells of the organism and that the transduced genes are transiently expressed in a tissue-specific manner under the control of their resident regulatory sequences. Thus we show the in vivo expression of cloned genes under cellular promoter control in an insect other than Drosophila melanogaster. The approach should be applicable to all insect systems that are subject to nuclear polyhedrosis virus infection. Images PMID:2187186

  12. Congenital gonadotropin deficiency in boys: management during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adan, L; Couto-Silva, A C; Trivin, C; Metz, C; Brauner, R

    2004-02-01

    To analyze the features of boys with congenital gonadotropin deficiency (CGD), and to determine the value of plasma inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) for predicting testicular function and the effect of testosterone treatment. We followed 19 boys for CGD, including five with Kallmann syndrome. The boys were seen before 14 years of age for micropenis (9 boys) or later for delayed puberty (10 boys). No testis was palpable in the scrotum in 13 patients, bilaterally in seven of them. Luteinizing hormone (LH) peak after a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) test was between 0.5 and 5.6 U/l. Plasma inhibin B was low in the four patients evaluated at less than 1 year old. AMH was low in one of them and normal in four others. Of the older patients, three lad low plasma inhibin B and four had normal concentrations; plasma AMH was low in three of them and increased in four. Testosterone treatment restored penis length to normal in all patients. Low plasma inhibin B and AMH concentrations may indicate testicular damage in boys with CGD.

  13. Early serum interleukin-8 evaluation may prove useful in localizing abnormally implanted human gestations after in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Sara S; Keegan, Debbra A; Krey, Lewis C; Katz, Joseph; Liu, Mengling; Noyes, Nicole

    2008-12-01

    To determine whether early measurement of the serum cytokines interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R), IL-6, and IL-8 along with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and progesterone (P(4)) can differentiate an ectopic from an intrauterine gestation. Retrospective analysis. University-based fertility center. 75 women who underwent treatment with in vitro fertilization (IVF) and subsequently had an ectopic gestation (n = 15), spontaneous abortion (SAB) (n = 30), or term delivery (TD) (n = 30). Serum samples were obtained 14 (day 28) and 21 (day 35) days after oocyte retrieval. Serum concentrations of IL-2R, IL-6, IL-8, P(4), and hCG. Median hCG readings on day 28 and day 35 were statistically significantly lower in the ectopic gestation group than in those with spontaneous abortion or term delivery. On day 28, median IL-8 levels were lower in the ectopic gestation group when compared with all intrauterine gestations combined. No statistically significant differences in IL-2R or IL-6 levels were noted between groups. Despite P(4) supplementation, median day-35 P(4) levels were lower in ectopic gestation than in the spontaneous abortion and term delivery cycles. In the setting of a rise or plateau in hCG levels, low day-28 IL-8 and day-35 P(4) levels suggested an extrauterine implantation. This assay combination may facilitate earlier diagnosis of an ectopic gestation when pregnancy location is unclear.

  14. Distinct responses of human granulosa lutein cells after hCG or LH stimulation in a spheroidal cell culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Julia; Walz, Andrea; Daube, Stefanie; Keck, Christoph; Pietrowski, Detlef

    2007-10-01

    The growth and development of the corpus luteum (CL) is regulated by gonadotropic hormones. It is formed by granulosa cells (GCs), theca cells, and endothelial cells, and is the primary source of circulating progesterone. During early pregnancy only human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) but not luteinizing hormone (LH) extends the life span of the CL, although hCG and LH interact with the same receptor and have similar actions on the CL. In this study a recently by our group established spheroidal GC culture assay served as a model of CL development on which we compared the actions of the gonadotropic hormones LH and hCG. To find out which signal pathways take part in the hormonal regulation of GC we stimulated GC-spheroids with modulators of protein kinases A and C dependent signaling cascades and determined their impact on sprout forming activity in GC. Our results indicate that PKA-dependent signaling pathways play a major role in mediating the hormonal-induced signaling cascades leading to sprouting in GC. Furthermore, this study strongly indicates that the different effects of hCG and LH in the maintenance of the CL may be reasoned in different signal transduction pathways triggered by hCG or LH. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. [Transabdominal chorionic villus sampling using biopsy forceps or needle: pregnancy outcomes by technique used].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallina, J; Anselem, O; Haddad, B; Touboul, C; Tsatsaris, V; Le Ray, C

    2014-11-01

    To compare pregnancy outcomes after transabdominal chorionic villus sampling using biopsy forceps or needle. Retrospective bicentric study including all women who had a transabdominal chorionic villus sampling between 2005 and 2009 (172 using biopsy forceps and 160 using needle). The primary endpoint was the rate of fetal loss, after excluding medical abortion due to the result of the biopsy. The secondary endpoint was the rate of premature rupture of the membrane. All cases were reviewed to try to determine the responsibility of the biopsy. The pregnancy outcomes were not different between the two groups: 4 (4.4%) fetal losses in the biopsy forceps group and 6 (7.4%) in the needle group (P=0.52). Only one case (1.2%) of fetal loss can be attributed to the biopsy, using a needle, and none (0%) following a forceps biospy (P=0.29). The rate of premature rupture of the membrane was comparable in the two groups. The pregnancy outcomes following chorionic villus sampling using a biopsy forceps or a needle seem comparable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Radioimmunoassay of β sub unit HCG following hydatidiform mole or chorionic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tscherne, G.; Puerstner, P.

    1979-01-01

    The radioimmunoassay of Beta Sub Unit HCG in the serum heralds a marked improvement in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic disease. In nine cases of hydatidiform mole and three cases of chorionic carcinoma serial examinations of the Beta Sub Unit HCG were performed. When the immunologic pregnancy test became negative following a hydatidiform mole or following treatment of chorionic carcinoma, the HCG excretion remained above detectable values for several more weeks. The decrease of Beta Sub Unit serum HCG was either linear or in fluctuations. The detection of fluctuations or a secondary rise in the Beta Sub Unit HCG titre permits the early diagnosis of invasive trophoblastic disease following hydatidiform mole or of insufficient treatment or recurrence in cases of chorionic carcinoma. Our results suggest that the optimal follow-up with Beta Sub Unit serum HCG is by weekly determinations until four consecutive determinations remained negative. This is followed by two determinations at bi-weekly intervals and thereafter monthly follow-up examinations. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 BRE [de

  17. Coordinated Regulation Among Progesterone, Prostaglandins, and EGF-Like Factors in Human Ovulatory Follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yohan; Wilson, Kalin; Hannon, Patrick R; Rosewell, Katherine L; Brännström, Mats; Akin, James W; Curry, Thomas E; Jo, Misung

    2017-06-01

    In animal models, the luteinizing hormone surge increases progesterone (P4) and progesterone receptor (PGR), prostaglandins (PTGs), and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like factors that play essential roles in ovulation. However, little is known about the expression, regulation, and function of these key ovulatory mediators in humans. To determine when and how these key ovulatory mediators are induced after the luteinizing hormone surge in human ovaries. Timed periovulatory follicles were obtained from cycling women. Granulosa/lutein cells were collected from in vitro fertilization patients. The in vivo and in vitro expression of PGR, PTG synthases and transporters, and EGF-like factors were examined at the level of messenger RNA and protein. PGR binding to specific genes was assessed. P4 and PTGs in conditioned media were measured. PGR, PTGS2, and AREG expressions dramatically increased in ovulatory follicles at 12 to 18 hours after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). In human granulosa/lutein cell cultures, hCG increased P4 and PTG production and the expression of PGR, specific PTG synthases and transporters, and EGF-like factors, mimicking in vivo expression patterns. Inhibitors for P4/PGR and EGF-signaling pathways reduced hCG-induced increases in PTG production and the expression of EGF-like factors. PGR bound to the PTGS2, PTGES, and SLCO2A1 genes. This report demonstrated the time-dependent induction of PGR, AREG, and PTGS2 in human periovulatory follicles. In vitro studies indicated that collaborative actions of P4/PGR and EGF signaling are required for hCG-induced increases in PTG production and potentiation of EGF signaling in human periovulatory granulosa cells. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  18. Human corpus luteum: presence of epidermal growth factor receptors and binding characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyagari, R.R.; Khan-Dawood, F.S.

    1987-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptors are present in many reproductive tissues but have not been demonstrated in the human corpus luteum. To determine the presence of epidermal growth factor receptors and its binding characteristics, we carried out studies on the plasma cell membrane fraction of seven human corpora lutea (days 16 to 25) of the menstrual cycle. Specific epidermal growth factor receptors were present in human corpus luteum. Insulin, nerve growth factor, and human chorionic gonadotropin did not competitively displace epidermal growth factor binding. The optimal conditions for corpus luteum-epidermal growth factor receptor binding were found to be incubation for 2 hours at 4 degrees C with 500 micrograms plasma membrane protein and 140 femtomol 125 I-epidermal growth factor per incubate. The number (mean +/- SEM) of epidermal growth factor binding sites was 12.34 +/- 2.99 X 10(-19) mol/micrograms protein; the dissociation constant was 2.26 +/- 0.56 X 10(-9) mol/L; the association constant was 0.59 +/- 0.12 X 10(9) L/mol. In two regressing corpora lutea obtained on days 2 and 3 of the menstrual cycle, there was no detectable specific epidermal growth factor receptor binding activity. Similarly no epidermal growth factor receptor binding activity could be detected in ovarian stromal tissue. Our findings demonstrate that specific receptors for epidermal growth factor are present in the human corpus luteum. The physiologic significance of epidermal growth factor receptors in human corpus luteum is unknown, but epidermal growth factor may be involved in intragonadal regulation of luteal function

  19. Gonadotropin suppression in men leads to a reduction in claudin-11 at the Sertoli cell tight junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, M J; Tarulli, G A; Laven-Law, G; Matthiesson, K L; Meachem, S J; McLachlan, R I; Dinger, M E; Stanton, P G

    2016-04-01

    Are Sertoli cell tight junctions (TJs) disrupted in men undergoing hormonal contraception? Localization of the key Sertoli cell TJ protein, claudin-11, was markedly disrupted by 8 weeks of gonadotropin suppression, the degree of which was related to the extent of adluminal germ cell suppression. Sertoli cell TJs are vital components of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) that sequester developing adluminal meiotic germ cells and spermatids from the vascular compartment. Claudin-11 knockout mice are infertile; additionally claudin-11 is spatially disrupted in chronically gonadotropin-suppressed rats coincident with a loss of BTB function, and claudin-11 is disorganized in various human testicular disorders. These data support the Sertoli cell TJ as a potential site of hormonal contraceptive action. BTB proteins were assessed by immunohistochemistry (n = 16 samples) and mRNA (n = 18 samples) expression levels in available archived testis tissue from a previous study of 22 men who had undergone 8 weeks of gonadotropin suppression and for whom meiotic and post-meiotic germ cell numbers were available. The gonadotropin suppression regimens were (i) testosterone enanthate (TE) plus the GnRH antagonist, acyline (A); (ii) TE + the progestin, levonorgestrel, (LNG); (iii) TE + LNG + A or (iv) TE + LNG + the 5α-reductase inhibitor, dutasteride (D). A control group consisted of seven additional men, with three archived samples available for this study. Immunohistochemical localization of claudin-11 (TJ) and other junctional type markers [ZO-1 (cytoplasmic plaque), β-catenin (adherens junction), connexin-43 (gap junction), vinculin (ectoplasmic specialization) and β-actin (cytoskeleton)] and quantitative PCR was conducted using matched frozen testis tissue. Claudin-11 formed a continuous staining pattern at the BTB in control men. Regardless of gonadotropin suppression treatment, claudin-11 localization was markedly disrupted and was broadly associated with the extent of meiotic

  20. Development of New Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone-Modified Dendrimer Platforms with Direct Antiproliferative and Gonadotropin Releasing Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varamini, Pegah; Rafiee, Amirreza; Giddam, Ashwini Kumar; Mansfeld, Friederike M; Steyn, Frederik; Toth, Istvan

    2017-10-26

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists (e.g., triptorelin) are used for androgen suppression therapy. They possess improved stability as compared to the natural GnRH, yet they suffer from a poor pharmacokinetic profile. To address this, we used a GnRH peptide-modified dendrimer platform with and without lipidation strategy. Dendrimers were synthesized on a polylysine core and bore either native GnRH (1, 2, and 5) or lipid-modified GnRH (3 and 4). Compound 3, which bore a lipidic moiety in a branched tetramer structure, showed approximately 10-fold higher permeability and metabolic stability and 39 times higher antitumor activity against hormone-resistant prostate cancer cells (DU145) relative to triptorelin. In gonadotropin-release experiments, dendrimer 3 was shown to be the most potent construct. Dendrimer 3 showed similar luteinizing hormone (LH)-release activity to triptorelin in mice. Our findings indicate that dendrimer 3 is a promising analog with higher potency for the treatment of hormone-resistant prostate cancer than the currently available GnRH agonists.

  1. Extended Culture of Encapsulated Human Blastocysts in Alginate Hydrogel Containing Decidualized Endometrial Stromal Cells in the Presence of Melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjmand, Fatemeh; Khanmohammadi, Manijeh; Arasteh, Shaghayegh; Mohammadzadeh, Afsaneh; Kazemnejad, Somaieh; Akhondi, Mohammad-Mehdi

    2016-10-01

    Extended in vitro culture of human embryos beyond blastocyst stage could serve as a tool to explore the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying embryo development and to identify factors regulating pregnancy outcomes. This study presents the first report on the maintenance of human embryo in vitro by alginate co-encapsulation of human blastocyst and decidualized endometrial stromal cells (EnSCs) under melatonin-fortified culture conditions. The effectiveness of the 3D culture system was studied through monitoring of embryo development in terms of survival time, viability, morphological changes, and production of the two hormones of 17b-oestradiol and human chorionic gonadotropin. The embryo structural integrity was preserved during alginate encapsulation; however, only 23 % of the encapsulated embryos could retain in the hydrogels over time and survived until day 4 post-encapsulation. The culture medium fortification with melatonin significantly elevated the maintenance rate of expanded embryos in alginate beads by 65 % and prolonged survival time of human embryos to day 5. Furthermore, embryo co-culture with EnSCs using melatonin-fortified medium increased the survival time of encapsulated embryos to 44 %. The levels of two measured hormones significantly rose at day 4 in comparison with day 2 post-encapsulation especially in the group co-encapsulated with EnSCs and cultivated in melatonin-fortified culture medium. These data are the first evidence representing in vitro development of human embryos until day 10 post-fertilization. This achievement can facilitate the investigation of the mechanisms regulating human embryo development.

  2. Luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotrophin receptor overexpressed in granulosa cells from polycystic ovary syndrome ovaries is functionally active.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu; Gordon, Uma D; López Bernal, Andrés

    2016-06-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is associated with anovulatory infertility. Luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotrophin receptor (LHCGR), which is critical for ovulation, has been suggested to be expressed prematurely in the ovarian follicles of women with PCOS. This study aimed to analyse the expression and activity of LHCGR in ovarian granulosa cells from PCOS patients and the involvement of ARF6 small GTPase in LHCGR internalization. Granulosa cells (GC) isolated from follicular fluid collected during oocyte retrieval from normal women (n = 19) and women with PCOS (n = 17) were used to study differences in LHCGR protein expression and activity between normal and PCOS patients. LHCGR expression is up-regulated in GC from PCOS women. LHCGR in PCOS GC is functionally active, as shown by increased cAMP production upon human gonadotrophin (HCG)-stimulation. Moreover, ARF6 is highly expressed in GC from PCOS patients and HCG-stimulation increases the concentrations of active ARF6. The inhibition of ARF6 activation attenuates HCG-induced LHCGR internalization in both normal and PCOS GC, indicating that there are no alterations in LHCGR internalisation in GC from PCOS. In conclusion, the expression and activation of LHCGR and ARF6 are up-regulated in GC from PCOS women but the mechanism of agonist-induced LHCGR internalization is unaltered. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mathematical modeling of gonadotropin-releasing hormone signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratap, Amitesh; Garner, Kathryn L; Voliotis, Margaritis; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; McArdle, Craig A

    2017-07-05

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) acts via G-protein coupled receptors on pituitary gonadotropes to control reproduction. These are G q -coupled receptors that mediate acute effects of GnRH on the exocytotic secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), as well as the chronic regulation of their synthesis. GnRH is secreted in short pulses and GnRH effects on its target cells are dependent upon the dynamics of these pulses. Here we overview GnRH receptors and their signaling network, placing emphasis on pulsatile signaling, and how mechanistic mathematical models and an information theoretic approach have helped further this field. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons by glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Alison V.; Moenter, Suzanne M.

    2011-01-01

    Reproduction is influenced by energy balance, but the physiological pathways mediating their relationship have not been fully elucidated. As the central regulators of fertility, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons integrate numerous physiological signals, including metabolic cues. Circulating glucose levels regulate GnRH release and may in part mediate the effects of negative energy balance on fertility. Existing evidence suggests that neural pathways originating in the hindbrain, as well as in the hypothalamic feeding nuclei, transmit information concerning glucose availability to GnRH neurons. Here we review recent evidence suggesting that GnRH neurons may directly sense changes in glucose availability by a mechanism involving adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). These findings expand our understanding of how metabolic signaling in the brain regulates reproduction. PMID:21855365

  5. Conversion of human choriogonadotropin into a follitropin by protein engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, R.K.; Dean-Emig, D.M.; Moyle, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    Human reproduction is dependent upon the action of follicle-stimulating hormone (hFSH), luteinizing hormone (hLH), and chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). While the α subunits of these heterodimeric proteins can be interchanged without effect on receptor-binding specificity, their β subunits differ and direct hormone binding to either LH/CG or FSH receptors. Previous studies employing chemical modifications of the hormones, monoclonal antibodies, or synthetic peptides have implicated hCG β-subunit residues between Cys-38 and Cys-57 and corresponding regions of hLHβ and hFSHβ in receptor recognition and activation. Since the β subunits of hCG or hLH and hFSH exhibit very little sequence similarity in this region, the authors postulated that these residues might contribute to hormone specificity. To test this hypothesis the authors constructed chimeric hCG/hFSH β subunits, coexpressed them with the human α subunit, and examined their ability to interact with LH and FSH receptors and hormone-specific monoclonal antibodies. Surprisingly, substitution of hFSHβ residues 33-52 for hCGβ residues 39-58 had no effect on receptor binding or stimulation. However, substitution of hFSHβ residues 88-108 in place of the carboxyl terminus of hCGβ (residues 94-145) resulted in a hormone analog identical to hFSH in its ability to bind and stimulate FSH receptors. The altered binding specificity displayed by this analog is not attributable solely to the replacement of hCGβ residues 108-145 or substitution of residues in the determinant loop located between hCDβ residues 93 and 100

  6. Cyclic AMP regulation of the human glycoprotein hormone α-subunit gene is mediated by an 18-base-pair element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, B.J.; Bokar, J.A.; Virgin, J.B.; Vallen, E.A.; Milsted, A.; Nilson, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    cAMP regulates transcription of the gene encoding the α-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in the choriocarcinoma cells (BeWo). To define the sequences required for regulation by cAMP, the authors inserted fragments from the 5' flanking region of the α-subunit gene into a test vector containing the simian virus 40 early promoter (devoid of its enhancer) linked to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene. Results from transient expression assays in BeWo cells indicated that a 1500-base-pair (bp) fragment conferred cAMP responsiveness on the CAT gene regardless of position or orientation of the insert relative to the viral promoter. A subfragment extending from position -169 to position -100 had the same effect on cAMP-induced expression. Furthermore, the entire stimulatory effect could be achieved with an 18-bp synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide corresponding to a direct repeat between position -146 and -111. In the absence of cAMP, the α-subunit 5' flanking sequence also enhanced transcription from the simian virus 40 early promoter. They localized this enhancer activity to the same -169/-100 fragment containing the cAMP response element. The 18-bp element alone, however, had no effect on basal expression. Thus, this short DNA sequence serves as a cAMP response element and also functions independently of other promoter-regulatory elements located in the 5' flanking sequence of the α-subunit gene

  7. Total renin after gonadotropin stimulation in polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matinlauri, I; Anttila, L; Jaatinen, T A; Koskinen, P; Aalto, M; Irjala, K; Nikkanen, V

    1995-02-01

    To examine the influence of polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) on the levels of total renin in plasma and follicular fluid (FF) after stimulation with hMG. Comparative study of the plasma and FF concentrations of total renin in women with and without PCOD after stimulation with hMG. In vitro fertilization-embryo transfer program at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the University Central Hospital of Turku, Finland. Thirty-six women undergoing IVF-ET for infertility with (n = 10) or without (n = 26) ultrasonographically diagnosed PCOD. Of the latter group, 15 women had tubal infertility, and the rest suffered from an anovulatory infertility and reacted with PCO-like ovarian response to stimulation. The concentrations of total renin in plasma and FF, serum E2, and protein in FF. The concentrations of plasma total renin after the gonadotropin stimulation were significantly higher in the PCOD and PCO-like groups when compared with the tubal group. The concentration of total renin in FF and the ratio of total renin per protein in FF were higher in the PCOD and PCO-like groups than in the tubal group, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Positive correlations were found between the plasma total renin and serum E2 concentrations in the PCO-like and in the tubal group and between plasma total renin concentrations and the number of mature follicles in all groups. Follicular fluid total renin did not correlate with FF protein in any group. All findings were independent of the total hMG dosage used and the body mass index of the patients. In the present study the concentrations of total renin in plasma were enhanced markedly after gonadotropin stimulation in women with PCOD compared with women having tubal infertility. The pattern of the hormonal secretions revealed a group of infertile patients reacting biochemically like women with PCOD.

  8. Altered neuroendocrine regulation of gonadotropin secretion in women distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, J D; Evans, W S; Demers, L M; Thorner, M O; Wakat, D; Rogol, A D

    1985-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the neuroendocrine control of gonadotropin secretion is altered in certain women distance runners with secondary amenorrhea. To this end, we quantitated the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous pulsatile LH secretion during a 24-h interval in nine such women. The ability of the pituitary gland to release LH normally was assessed by administration of graded bolus doses of GnRH during the subsequent 8 h. Compared to normally menstruating women, six of nine amenorrheic distance runners had a distinct reduction in spontaneous LH pulse frequency, with one, three, six, five, four, or two pulses per 24 h (normal, 8-15 pulses/24 h). This reduction in LH pulse frequency occurred without any significant alterations in plasma concentrations of estradiol and free testosterone or 24-h integrated serum concentrations of LH, FSH, or PRL. Moreover, in long-distance runners, the capacity of the pituitary gland to release LH was normal or accentuated in response to exogenous pulses of GnRH. In the six women athletes with diminished spontaneous LH pulsatility, acute ovarian responsiveness also was normal, since serum estradiol concentrations increased normally in response to the GnRH-induced LH pulses. Although long-distance runners had significantly lower estimated percent body fat compared to control women, specific changes in pulsatile gonadotropin release did not correlate with degree of body leanness. In summary, certain long-distance runners with secondary amenorrhea or severe oligomenorrhea have unambiguously decreased spontaneous LH pulse frequency with intact pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. This neuroendocrine disturbance may be relevant to exercise-associated amenorrhea, since pulsatile LH release is a prerequisite for cyclic ovarian function. We speculate that such alterations in pulsatile LH release in exercising women reflect an adaptive response of the hypothalamic pulse generator controlling the intermittent GnRH signal to the

  9. Gonadotropins, their receptors, and the regulation of testicular functions in fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, Rüdiger W; Vischer, H F; Cavaco, J E; Dos Santos Rocha, M.E.; Tyler, R.C.; Goos, H.J.; Bogerd, J.

    The pituitary gonadotropins luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) regulate steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis by activating receptors expressed by Leydig cells (LH receptor) and Sertoli cells (FSH receptor), respectively. This concept is also valid in fish, although the

  10. Antimüllerian hormone in gonadotropin releasing-hormone antagonist cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arce, Joan-Carles; La Marca, Antonio; Mirner Klein, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationships between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and ovarian response and treatment outcomes in good-prognosis patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol....

  11. Zebrafish adult-derived hypothalamic neurospheres generate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Cortés-Campos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH is a hypothalamic decapeptide essential for fertility in vertebrates. Human male patients lacking GnRH and treated with hormone therapy can remain fertile after cessation of treatment suggesting that new GnRH neurons can be generated during adult life. We used zebrafish to investigate the neurogenic potential of the adult hypothalamus. Previously we have characterized the development of GnRH cells in the zebrafish linking genetic pathways to the differentiation of neuromodulatory and endocrine GnRH cells in specific regions of the brain. Here, we developed a new method to obtain neural progenitors from the adult hypothalamus in vitro. Using this system, we show that neurospheres derived from the adult hypothalamus can be maintained in culture and subsequently differentiate glia and neurons. Importantly, the adult derived progenitors differentiate into neurons containing GnRH and the number of cells is increased through exposure to either testosterone or GnRH, hormones used in therapeutic treatment in humans. Finally, we show in vivo that a neurogenic niche in the hypothalamus contains GnRH positive neurons. Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that neurospheres can be derived from the hypothalamus of the adult zebrafish and that these neural progenitors are capable of producing GnRH containing neurons.

  12. Amnion and Chorion Membranes: Potential Stem Cell Reservoir with Wide Applications in Periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akanksha; Kedige, Suresh D; Jain, Kanu

    2015-01-01

    The periodontal therapy usually aims at elimination of disease causing bacteria and resolution of inflammation. It involves either resective or regenerative surgery to resolve the inflammation associated defects. Over the years, several methods have been used for achievement of periodontal regeneration. One of the oldest biomaterials used for scaffolds is the fetal membrane. The amniotic membranes of developing embryo, that is, amnion (innermost lining) and chorion (a layer next to it), have the properties with significant potential uses in dentistry. This paper reviews the properties, mechanism of action, and various applications of these placental membranes in general and specifically in Periodontics.

  13. Prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis after transabdominal chorionic villus sampling in the first trimester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkelsen, A J; Jensen, P K; Hertz, Jens Michael

    1988-01-01

    First trimester prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis was attempted in 350 pregnancies after transabdominal chorionic villus sampling. The cytogenetic investigation was performed using both a short-term method (24 h incubation) and cell culture. Adequate samples were obtained in 99.1 per cent and in all...... of 181 cases where the 24 h incubation revealed a male karyotype. Studies of culture morphology showed that colonies of convoluted cells may serve as a marker for contamination with maternal cells in culture. For the present, we recommend using a short-term method as well as cell culture for cytogenetic...

  14. The Influence of Chorion Type on Health Measures at Birth and Dental Development in Australian and Dutch Twins: A Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihailidis, S.; Bockmann, M.; McConnell, E.; Hughes, T.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Boomsma, D.I.; McMaster, M.T.; Townsend, G.

    2015-01-01

    Chorion type may significantly influence the prenatal environment of twins. This study explored the associations between chorion type and gestational age, birth weight, birth length, and the timing of emergence of the first primary tooth in two populations of twins, Australian and Dutch.

  15. HCG-Activated Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC Promote Trophoblast Cell Invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Yu

    Full Text Available Successful embryo implantation and placentation depend on appropriate trophoblast invasion into the maternal endometrial stroma. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG is one of the earliest embryo-derived secreted signals in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC that abundantly expresses hCG receptors. The aims of this study were to estimate the effect of human embryo-secreted hCG on PBMC function and investigate the role and underlying mechanisms of activated PBMC in trophoblast invasion. Blood samples were collected from women undergoing benign gynecological surgery during the mid-secretory phase. PBMC were isolated and stimulated with or without hCG for 0 or 24 h. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF expressions in PBMC were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The JAR cell line served as a model for trophoblast cells and was divided into four groups: control, hCG only, PBMC only, and PBMC with hCG. JAR cell invasive and proliferative abilities were detected by trans-well and CCK8 assays and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 (MMP-2, MMP-9, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 expressions in JAR cells were detected by western blotting and real-time PCR analysis. We found that hCG can remarkably promote IL-1β and LIF promotion in PBMC after 24-h culture. PBMC activated by hCG significantly increased the number of invasive JAR cells in an invasion assay without affecting proliferation, and hCG-activated PBMC significantly increased MMP-2, MMP-9, and VEGF and decreased TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 expressions in JAR cells in a dose-dependent manner. This study demonstrated that hCG stimulates cytokine secretion in human PBMC and could stimulate trophoblast invasion.

  16. Internal dose-effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in gonadotropin-primed weanling rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirota, Mariko [Food and Drug Safety Center, Hatano Research Institute, Kanagawa (Japan); Kaneko, Toyozo [National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Okuyama, Mitsunobu [Food and Drug Safety Center, Hatano Research Institute, Kanagawa (Japan); TEIZO Medical Co., Ltd., Kawasaki (Japan); Sakurada, Yosuke; Shirota, Kinji [Azabu University, Research Institute of Biosciences, Kanagawa (Japan); Matsuki, Yasuhiko [Food and Drug Safety Center, Hatano Research Institute, Kanagawa (Japan); Japan Food Hygiene Association, Tokyo (Japan)

    2007-04-15

    Single sc injection of 5 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) induces ovulation in weanling female rats 3 days later. It has been shown that treatment with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) 24 h before eCG injection reduces eCG-stimulated ovarian hypertrophy and inhibits ovulation. The present study intended to compare internal dose-effects of TCDD between these endpoints and representative endpoints for TCDD toxicity, such as weights of the liver and thymus, in weanling female rats given orally 0, 1, 4 or 16 {mu}g/kg TCDD 24 h before eCG injection on postnatal day 25. Measurement of plasma TCDD concentrations by ELISA at 6, 72 and 96 h after TCDD revealed that significant levels of TCDD were maintained in systemic circulation until 96 h (on the day of induced ovulation) with the highest level at 6 h after TCDD treatment. Ovarian TCDD concentrations varied similarly and tended to be higher than those in the thymus at all time points, whereas hepatic concentrations of TCDD were the highest among the tissues. Although {>=} 4 {mu}g/kg TCDD affected the weights of the thymus and liver, no differences were observed in ovarian weights at any time point or in ovulation between corn oil-treated and TCDD-treated groups. Furthermore, ovarian levels of representative mRNAs in follicles were not affected by TCDD treatment. Since TCDD increased the amount of cytochrome P450 1A1 mRNA in the ovary, the administered TCDD stimulated the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-signaling pathway. From these results, we concluded that thymus weights of weanling female rats responded to TCDD at a lower internal dose as compared with that ovarian hypertrophy and follicular growth from early antral stage to ovulation would respond to. (orig.)

  17. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Regulates Expression of the DNA Damage Repair Gene, Fanconi anemia A, in Pituitary Gonadotroph Cells1

    OpenAIRE

    Larder, Rachel; Chang, Lynda; Clinton, Michael; Brown, Pamela

    2004-01-01

    Gonadal function is critically dependant on regulated secretion of the gonadotropin hormones from anterior pituitary gonadotroph cells. Gonadotropin biosynthesis and release is triggered by the binding of hypothalamic GnRH to GnRH receptor expressed on the gonadotroph cell surface. The repertoire of regulatory molecules involved in this process are still being defined. We used the mouse LβT2 gonadotroph cell line, which expresses both gonadotropin hormones, as a model to investigate GnRH regu...

  18. A survey of Sertoli cell differentiation in men after gonadotropin suppression and in testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarulli, Gerard A; Stanton, Peter G; Loveland, Kate L

    2013-01-01

    It is widely held that the somatic cell population that is responsible for sperm development and output (Sertoli cells) is terminally differentiated and unmodifiable in adults. It is postulated, with little evidence, that Sertoli cells are not terminally differentiated in some phenotypes of infer...... tubules with CIS and the emergence of strong JAM-A reactivity in seminoma. These findings indicate that adult human Sertoli cells exhibit characteristics of an undifferentiated state in oligospermic men and patients with CIS and seminoma in the presence of germ cell neoplasia....... of infertility and testicular cancer. This study sought to compare markers of Sertoli cell differentiation in normospermic men, oligospermic men (undergoing gonadotropin suppression) and testicular carcinoma in situ (CIS) and seminoma samples. Confocal microscopy was used to assess the expression of markers...... of proliferation (PCNA and Ki67) and functional differentiation (androgen receptor). As additional markers of differentiation, the organization of Sertoli cell tight junction and associated proteins were assessed in specimens with carcinoma in situ. In normal men, Sertoli cells exhibited a differentiated phenotype...

  19. Targeting Gonadotropins: An Alternative Option for Alzheimer Disease Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Casadesus

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence indicates that, alongside oxidative stress, dysregulation of the cell cycle in neurons susceptible to degeneration in Alzheimer disease may play a crucial role in the initiation of the disease. As such, the role of reproductive hormones, which are closely associated with the cell cycle both during development and after birth, may be of key import. While estrogen has been the primary focus, the protective effects of hormone replacement therapy on cognition and dementia only during a “crucial period” led us to expand the study of hormonal influences to other members of the hypothalamic pituitary axis. Specifically, in this review, we focus on luteinizing hormone, which is not only increased in the sera of patients with Alzheimer disease but, like estrogen, is modulated by hormone replacement therapy and also influences cognitive behavior and pathogenic processing in animal models of the disease. Targeting gonadotropins may be a useful treatment strategy for disease targeting multiple pleiotropic downstream consequences.

  20. Function of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirsig-Wiechmann, C R

    2001-06-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is present within neurons of the nervus terminalis, the zeroeth cranial nerve. In all vertebrate species, except in sharks where it is a separate nerve, the nervus terminalis consists of a chain of neurons embedded within olfactory or vomeronasal nerves in the nasal cavity. The function of the GnRH component of the nervus terminalis is thought to be neuromodulatory. Our research on GnRH effects on olfaction confirms this hypothesis. The processes of GnRH neural cell bodies located within chemosensory nerves project centrally into the ventral forebrain and peripherally into the lamina propria of the nasal chemosensory mucosa. GnRH receptors are expressed by chemosensory neurons as shown by RT-PCR/Southern blotting and GnRH agonist binding studies. Patch-clamp studies have shown that GnRH alters the responses of isolated chemosensory neurons to natural or electrophysiological stimulation through the modulation of voltage-gated and receptor-gated channels. Behavioral experiments demonstrate that interfering with the nasal GnRH system leads to deficits in mating behavior. These studies suggest that the function of the intranasal GnRH system is to modify olfactory information, perhaps at reproductively auspicious times. We speculate that the purpose of this altered olfactory sense is to make pheromones more detectable and salient.

  1. Gonadotropins studies in female egyptian subjects under different physiological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nabarawy, F.S.; Megahed, Y.M.; Ibrahim, M.

    2002-01-01

    This study is concerned with the role of the hypothalamic hypophyseal regulatory hormonal mechanisms in the control of gonadal secretions in a selected normal egyptian female subjects with varying ages under different physiological conditions. The study allowed precise definition of the modulator influence of a number of key factors triggering appropriate alteration in circulating serum levels of FSH and LH determined by IRMA technique in pre-pubertal female children (9-11), post-pubertal adolescents females (13-16). Adult married females (27-33) and post-menopausal (58-63). The levels of FSH and LH were increased markedly with age but children less than 11 years old had only nocturnal increase in levels of FSH (p.O.I) and LH(P< 0.001). post-pubertal aged girls had significant nocturnal elevation only of LH levels (P< 0.001), adult married females did not exhibit significant difference in gonadotropin concentrations. whereas significant elevation in FSH and LH levels (P<0.001) in post-menopausal females were observed

  2. Paternally expressed, imprinted insulin-like growth factor-2 in chorionic villi correlates significantly with birth weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalambos Demetriou

    Full Text Available Fetal growth involves highly complex molecular pathways. IGF2 is a key paternally expressed growth hormone that is critical for in utero growth in mice. Its role in human fetal growth has remained ambiguous, as it has only been studied in term tissues. Conversely the maternally expressed growth suppressor, PHLDA2, has a significant negative correlation between its term placental expression and birth weight.The aim of this study is to address the role in early gestation of expression of IGF1, IGF2, their receptors IGF1R and IGF2R, and PHLDA2 on term birth weight.Real-time quantitative PCR was used to investigate mRNA expression of IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, IGF2R and PHLDA2 in chorionic villus samples (CVS (n = 260 collected at 11-13 weeks' gestation. Expression was correlated with term birth weight using statistical package R including correction for several confounding factors.Transcript levels of IGF2 and IGF2R revealed a significant positive correlation with birth weight (0.009 and 0.04, respectively. No effect was observed for IGF1, IGF1R or PHLDA2 and birth weight. Critically, small for gestational age (SGA neonates had significantly lower IGF2 levels than appropriate for gestational age neonates (p = 3.6 × 10(-7.Our findings show that IGF2 mRNA levels at 12 weeks gestation could provide a useful predictor of future fetal growth to term, potentially predicting SGA babies. SGA babies are known to be at a higher risk for type 2 diabetes. This research reveals an imprinted, parentally driven rheostat for in utero growth.

  3. Comparative study of regenerative effects of mesenchymal stem cells derived from placental amnion, chorion and umbilical cord on dermal wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Juliane; Pichlsberger, Melanie; Tuca, Alexandru-Cristian; Wurzer, Paul; Fuchs, Jakob; Geyer, Stefan H; Maurer-Gesek, Barbara; Weninger, Wolfgang J; Pfeiffer, Dagmar; Bubalo, Vladimir; Parvizi, Daryousch; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Lang, Ingrid

    2018-05-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells derived from human term placentas (PMSCs) are novel therapeutic agents and more topical than ever. Here we evaluated the effects of three types of PMSCs on wound healing in an in vivo mouse model: Amnion-derived MSCs (AMSCs), blood vessel-derived MSCs (BV-MSCs) from the chorionic plate and Wharton's jelly-derived MSCs (WJ-MSCs) from the umbilical cord. We topically applied PMSCs onto skin wounds in mice using the dermal substitute Matriderm ® as carrier and evaluated wound healing parameters. In addition, we investigated the effects of all PMSC types under co-application with placental endothelial cells (PLECs). After 8 days, we compared the percent of wound closure and the angiogenic potential between all groups. AMSCs, BV-MSCs and WJ-MSCs significantly induced a faster healing and a higher number of blood vessels in the wound when compared to controls (Matriderm ® -alone). PLECs did not further improve the advantageous effects of PMSC-treatment. Quantitative data and 3D analysis by high resolution episcopic microscopy confirmed a lower density of vessels in Matriderm ® /PMSCs/PLECs co-application compared to Matriderm ® /PMSCs treatment. Results indicate that all three PMSC types exert similar beneficial effects on wound closure and neovascularization in our mouse model. Using Matriderm ® as carrier for PMSCs propagates rapid cell migration towards the wound area that allows a fast and clinically practicable method for stem cell application. These promising effects warrant further investigation in clinical trials. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Morphologic alterations and immunohistochemical analysis of alpha-fetoprotein and CD34 in chorionic villi of anembryonic pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, S.; Yenilmez, E.; Yulug, E.; Arvas, H.; Ozeren, M.; Cobanoglu, U.

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the morphology of chorionic villi using light and electron microscopy, especially the expression of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in trophoblastic cells and the process of maturation and margination vasculogenesis proper using CD34 immunohistochemistry in tissues from the first trimester of pregnancy loss due to anembryonic pregnancy in comparison with embryonic pregnancy. The study consisted of 2 groups: 9 patients with anembryonic pregnancies and 9 patients with embryonic pregnancies between 6 and 10 weeks of gestational age registered at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital of Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey, from March 2003 to December 2004. We examined the chorionic villi using light and electron microscopy. For immunohistochemical staining, we used AFP and CD 34. Microscopically, pathologic changes were shown in syncytiotrophoblast cells of anembryonic pregnancies and AFP was strongly expressed by villous trophoblastic cells compared to embryonic pregnancies. We determined the CD34 positivity in both groups. In anembryonic pregnancies, vascular elements were much fewer in number compared with embryonic pregnancies (p<0.001) and were located in the formed of hemangioblastic cords. Placental vasculogenesis is a basic feature in all types of pregnancy and a relationship exists between trophoblast cells and vessels in the chorionic villi with the potential to influence each other's functions. Defective chorionic villus vascularization is associated with embryonic death. This study may support the hypothesis, as suggested by previous studies, that anembryonic pregnancy results from early embryonic death and subsequent reabsorption rather than from the nondevelopment of an embryo. (author)

  5. A 3D co-culture microtissue model of the human placenta for nanotoxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muoth, Carina; Wichser, Adrian; Monopoli, Marco; Correia, Manuel; Ehrlich, Nicky; Loeschner, Katrin; Gallud, Audrey; Kucki, Melanie; Diener, Liliane; Manser, Pius; Jochum, Wolfram; Wick, Peter; Buerki-Thurnherr, Tina

    2016-10-06

    There is increasing evidence that certain nanoparticles (NPs) can overcome the placental barrier, raising concerns on potential adverse effects on the growing fetus. But even in the absence of placental transfer, NPs may pose a risk to proper fetal development if they interfere with the viability and functionality of the placental tissue. The effects of NPs on the human placenta are not well studied or understood, and predictive in vitro placenta models to achieve mechanistic insights on NP-placenta interactions are essentially lacking. Using the scaffold-free hanging drop technology, we developed a well-organized and highly reproducible 3D co-culture microtissue (MT) model consisting of a core of placental fibroblasts surrounded by a trophoblast cell layer, which resembles the structure of the in vivo placental tissue. We could show that secretion levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) were significantly higher in 3D than in 2D cell cultures, which indicates an enhanced differentiation of trophoblasts grown on 3D MTs. NP toxicity assessment revealed that cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper oxide (CuO) NPs but not titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) NPs decreased MT viability and reduced the release of hCG. NP acute toxicity was significantly reduced in 3D co-culture MTs compared to 2D monocultures. Taken together, 3D placental MTs provide a new and promising model for the fast generation of tissue-relevant acute NP toxicity data, which are indispensable for the safe development of NPs for industrial, commercial and medical applications.

  6. Downregulation of SPARC expression inhibits the invasion of human trophoblast cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahong Jiang

    Full Text Available Successful pregnancy depends on the precise regulation of extravilloustrophoblast (EVT invasion into the uterine decidua. SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine is a matricellular glycoprotein that plays critical roles in the pathologies associated with obesity and diabetes, as well as tumorigenesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of SPARC in the process of trophoblast invasion which shares many similarities with tumor cell invasion. By Western blot, higher expression of SPARC was observed in mouse brain, ovary and uterus compared to other mouse tissues. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed a spatio-temporal expression of SPARC in mouse uterus in the periimplantation period. At the implantation site of d8 pregnancy, SPARC mainly accumulated in the secondary decidua zone (SDZ, trophoblast cells and blastocyst. The expression of SPARC was also detected in human placental villi and trophoblast cell lines. In a Matrigel invasion assay, we found SPARC-specific RNA interference significantly reduced the invasion of human extravilloustrophoblast HTR8/SVneo cells. Microarray analysis revealed that SPARC depletion upregulated the expression of interleukin 11 (IL11, KISS1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4 (IGFBP4, collagen type I alpha 1 (COLIA1, matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9, and downregulated the expression of the alpha polypeptide of chorionic gonadotropin (CGA, MMP1, gap junction protein alpha 1 (GJA1, et al. The gene array result was further validated by qRT-PCR and Western blot. The present data indicate that SPARC may play an important role in the regulation of normal placentation by promoting the invasion of trophoblast cells into the uterine decidua.

  7. DNA-methylation profiling of fetal tissues reveals marked epigenetic differences between chorionic and amniotic samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Eckmann-Scholz

    Full Text Available Epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation are supposed to play a key role in fetal development. Here we have investigated fetal DNA-methylation levels of 27,578 CpG loci in 47 chorionic villi (CVS and 16 amniotic cell (AC samples. Methylation levels differed significantly between karyotypically normal AC and CVS for 2,014 genes. AC showed more extreme DNA-methylation levels of these genes than CVS and the differentially methylated genes are significantly enriched for processes characteristic for the different cell types sampled. Furthermore, we identified 404 genes differentially methylated in CVS with trisomy 21. These genes were significantly enriched for high CG dinucleotid (CpG content and developmental processes associated with Down syndrome. Our study points to major tissue-specific differences of fetal DNA-methylation and gives rise to the hypothesis that part of the Down syndrome phenotype is epigenetically programmed in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  8. Determination of chorionic gonadotrophin. Comparison of biological, immunological and radioimmunological methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munier, M.-P.

    1978-07-01

    Three types of analysis were used to quantify chorionic gonadotrophic hormone: biological determination (rana-reaction); immunological determination (simplified pregnosticon test of the Organon Teknika laboratories); radioimmunological determination (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique - CEA kits). While the immunochemical technique is specially suited to analysis of the urine, the radioimmunological measurement is carried out on the plasma. This method is extremely sensitive; when traditional biological and immunological methods are used the quantity of CGH detectable is of the order of some hundreds or at best a few tens of international units. The radioimmunological method is a thousand times more sensitive and can therefore measure CGH in amounts of the milli-unit order. Until recently it was not specific enough to differentiate between CGH and LH, but not long ago a β CGH-specific antibody was discovered and it is now possible to detect small amounts of CGH in the presence of LH [fr

  9. Isolation and characterization of gonadotropin isohormones from the pituitary gland of pike eel (Muraenesox cinereus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.-L.; Huang, C.-J.; Lin, S.-H.; Lo, T.-B.; Papkoff, H.

    1981-01-01

    Pike eel gonadotropins were isolated from pituitary glands by 40% alcohol-6% ammonium acetate, pH 5.1 extraction and were purified by DEAE-cellulose chromatography and electrophoresis into four electrophoretically homogeneous forms. These four isohormones were biologically identified as gonadotropins by the stimulation of 32 P-uptake in 1-day-old chick testes, by the induction of ovulation in catfish, and by the in vitro production of testosterone from isolated rat Leydig cells and of androgen from carp testes. The amino acid composition of the isohormones were similar to other known piscine gonadotropins (carp and salmon) and were composed of two non-identical subunits with Tyr and Ser as N-terminal amino acid residues. The molecular weights of two subunits were 15000 and 10500, respectively, as estimated by SDS-gel disc electrophoresis. (author)

  10. Seasonal relationship between gonadotropin, growth hormone, and estrogen receptor mRNA expression in the pituitary gland of largemouth bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Kroll, Kevin J; Porak, Wesley F; Steward, Cheree; Grier, Harry J; Denslow, Nancy D

    2009-09-15

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the seasonal changes in pituitary gonadotropins, growth hormone (GH), and estrogen receptor (ER) isoform mRNA in wild female and male largemouth bass (LMB) (Micropterus salmoides) from an unpolluted habitat to better understand reproductive physiology in this ecologically important species. Female pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) beta subunit and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) beta subunit mRNA showed significant seasonal variation with levels peaking from January to April and were lowest from May to August. Male LMB showed more variation in gonadotropin subunit expression from month to month. Females had approximately 2-3 times higher gonadotropin mRNA levels in the pituitary when compared to males. All three gonadotropin mRNAs in females were positively correlated to gonadosomatic index (GSI), but only LHbeta mRNA was correlated to GSI in males. Gonadotropin mRNA expression also increased with increasing oocyte and sperm maturation. Gonadotropin beta subunit mRNA expression was positively correlated to GH mRNA in both sexes. The expression of all three ER isoforms was significantly correlated to each other in both sexes. The concurrent increase in all three ER mRNA isoforms with increasing gonadotropin mRNA in females and males suggests a prominent role for E2 feedback on pituitary gonadotropin synthesis in both sexes and that each of the three ER isoforms are likely to play a role in the pituitary during teleost reproduction.

  11. Radioiodinated nondegradable gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs: new probes for the investigation of pituitary gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, R N; Shakespear, R A; Duncan, J A; Marshall, J C; Munson, P J; Rodbard, D

    1979-12-01

    Studies of pituitary plasma membrane gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors using [125I]-iodo-GnRH suffer major disadvantages. Only a small (less than 25%) proportion of specific tracer binding is to high affinity sites, with more than 70% bound to low affinity sites (Ka = 1 x 10(6) M-1). [125I]Iodo-GnRH is also inactivated during incubation with pituitary plasma membrane preparations. Two superactive analongs of GnRH, substituted in positions 6 and 10, were used as the labeled ligand to overcome these problems. Both analogs bound to the same high affinity sites as GnRH on bovine pituitary plasma membranes, though the affinity of the analogs was higher than that of the natural decapeptide (Ka = 2.0 x 10(9), 6.0 x 10(9), and 3.0 x 10(8) M-1 for [D-Ser(TBu)6]des-Gly10-GnRH ethylamide, [D-Ala6]des-Gly10-GnRH ethylamide, and GnRH, respectively. The labeled analogs bound to a single class of high affinity sites with less than 15% of the specific binding being to low affinity sites (Ka approximately equal to 1 x 10(6) M-1). The labeled analogs were not inactivated during incubation with the pituitary membrane preparations. Using the analogs as tracer, a single class of high affinity sites (K1 = 4.0 x 10(9) M-1) was also demonstrated on crude 10,800 x g rat pituitary membrane preparations. Use of these analogs as both the labeled and unlabeled ligand offers substantial advantages over GnRH for investigation of GnRH receptors, allowing accurate determination of changes in their numbers and affinities under various physiological conditions.

  12. Low dosing of gonadotropins in in vitro fertilization cycles for women with poor ovarian reserve: systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Youssef, Mohamed Abdel-Fattah; van Wely, Madelon; Mochtar, Monique; Fouda, Usama Mohamed; Eldaly, Ashraf; El Abidin, Eman Zein; Elhalwagy, Ahmed; Mageed Abdallah, Ahmed Abdel; Zaki, Sherif Sameh; Abdel Ghafar, Mohamed Sayed; Mohesen, Mohamed Nagi; van der Veen, Fulco

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of low doses of gonadotropins and gonadotropins combined with oral compounds compared with high doses of gonadotropins in ovarian stimulation regimens in terms of ongoing pregnancy per fresh IVF attempt in women with poor ovarian reserve undergoing

  13. Structural and functional analysis of rare missense mutations in human chorionic gonadotrophin β-subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagirnaja, Liina; Venclovas, Česlovas; Rull, Kristiina

    2012-01-01

    Heterodimeric hCG is one of the key hormones determining early pregnancy success. We have previously identified rare missense mutations in hCGβ genes with potential pathophysiological importance. The present study assessed the impact of these mutations on the structure and function of hCG by appl...... of intact hCG as also supported by an in silico analysis. In summary, the accumulated data indicate that only mutations with neutral or mild functional consequences might be tolerated in the major hCGβ genes CGB5 and CGB8.......Heterodimeric hCG is one of the key hormones determining early pregnancy success. We have previously identified rare missense mutations in hCGβ genes with potential pathophysiological importance. The present study assessed the impact of these mutations on the structure and function of h......CG by applying a combination of in silico (sequence and structure analysis, molecular dynamics) and in vitro (co-immunoprecipitation, immuno- and bioassays) approaches. The carrier status of each mutation was determined for 1086 North-Europeans [655 patients with recurrent miscarriage (RM)/431 healthy controls...

  14. The olfactory gonadotropin-releasing hormone immunoreactive system in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennes, L

    1986-10-29

    The olfactory gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) system in mice was studied with immunofluorescence in combination with lesions of the olfactory bulb and retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) which was administered intravascularly, intranasally or into the subarachnoid space. GnRH-positive neurons were located in the two major branches forming the septal roots of the nervus terminalis, in the ganglion terminale, within the fascicles of the nervus terminalis throughout its extent, in a conspicuous band which connects the ventral neck of the caudal olfactory bulb with the accessory olfactory bulb and in the nasal mucosa. GnRH-positive fibers were seen in all areas in which neurons were found, i.e. in the rostral septum, the ganglion and nervus terminalis and in the nasal subepithelium. In addition, a broad bundle of fibers was observed to surround the entire caudal olfactory bulb, connecting the rostral sulcus rhinalis with the ventrocaudal olfactory bulb. Fibers were seen in close association with the main and accessory olfactory bulb, with the fila olfactoria and with the nasal mucosa. Throughout the olfactory bulb and the nasal epithelium, an association of GnRH fibers with blood vessels was apparent. Intravascular and intranasal injection of HRP resulted in labeling of certain GnRH neurons in the septal roots of the nervus terminalis, the ganglion terminale, the nervus terminalis, the caudal ventrodorsal connection and in the accessory olfactory bulb. After placement of HRP into the subarachnoid space dorsal to the accessory olfactory bulb, about 50% of the GnRH neurons in the accessory olfactory bulb and in the ventrodorsal connection were labeled with HRP. Also, a few GnRH neurons in the rostral septum, the ganglion terminale and in the fascicles of the nervus terminalis had taken up the enzyme. Lesions of the nervus terminalis caudal to the ganglion terminale resulted in sprouting of GnRH fibers at both sites of the knife cut. Lesions rostral

  15. Outpatient endometrial aspiration: an alternative to methotrexate for pregnancy of unknown location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insogna, Iris G; Farland, Leslie V; Missmer, Stacey A; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S; Brady, Paula C

    2017-08-01

    Pregnancies of unknown location with abnormal beta-human chorionic gonadotropin trends are frequently treated as presumed ectopic pregnancies with methotrexate. Preliminary data suggest that outpatient endometrial aspiration may be an effective tool to diagnose pregnancy location, while also sparing women exposure to methotrexate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of an endometrial sampling protocol for the diagnosis of pregnancies of unknown location after in vitro fertilization. A retrospective cohort study of 14,505 autologous fresh and frozen in vitro fertilization cycles from October 2007 to September 2015 was performed; 110 patients were diagnosed with pregnancy of unknown location, defined as a positive beta-human chorionic gonadotropin without ultrasound evidence of intrauterine or ectopic pregnancy and an abnormal beta-human chorionic gonadotropin trend (location, failed intrauterine pregnancy was diagnosed in 46 patients (42%), and ectopic pregnancy was diagnosed in 64 patients (58%). Clinical variables that included fresh or frozen embryo transfer, day of embryo transfer, serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin at the time of sampling, endometrial thickness, and presence of an adnexal mass were not significantly different between patients with failed intrauterine pregnancy or ectopic pregnancy. In patients with failed intrauterine pregnancy, 100% demonstrated adequate postsampling beta-human chorionic gonadotropin declines; villi were identified in just 46% (n=21 patients). Patients with failed intrauterine pregnancy had significantly shorter time to resolution (negative serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin) after sampling compared with patients with ectopic pregnancy (12.6 vs 26.3 days; Plocation are spared methotrexate, with a shorter time to pregnancy resolution than those who receive methotrexate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Expression pattern of G protein‑coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER) in human cumulus granulosa cells (CGCs) of patients with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Lili; Zhang, Quan; Zhou, Yi; Zhao, Yan; Lu, Linlin; Jiang, Zhou; Peng, Zhen; Zou, Shuhua

    2016-06-01

    Estradiol mediates its actions by binding to classical nuclear receptors, estrogen receptor α (ER-α) and estrogen receptor β (ER-β), and the non-classical G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1(GPER). Several gene knockdown models have shown the importance of the receptors for growth of the oocyte and for ovulation. The aim of our study was to identify the pattern of GPER expression in human cumulus granulosa cells (CGCs) from ovarian follicles at different stages of oocyte maturation, and the differences of GPER expression between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients and non-PCOS women. Thirty-eight cases of PCOS patients and a control group of thirty-two infertile women without PCOS were used in this study. GPER's location in CGCs was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Quantitative RT-PCR and western blot were used to identify the quantify GPER expression. Here we demonstrated that GPER was expressed in CGCs of both PCOS patients and non-PCOS women, and the expression of GPER was decreased significantly during oocyte maturation. But the expression levels of GPER in CGCs of PCOS patients and non-PCOS women were not significantly different. The data indicate that GPER may play a role during human oocyte maturation through its action in cumulus granulosa cells. AMHRIIs: anti-Mullerian hormone type II receptors; BMI: body mass index; CGCs: cumulus granulosa cells; COH: controlled ovarian hyperstimulation; E2: estradiol; EGFR: epidermal growth factor receptor; ER-α: estrogen receptor; ER-β: estrogen receptor β; FF: follicular fluid; FSH: follicle-stimulating hormone; GCs: granulosa cells; GPER: G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1; GV: germinal vesicle; GVBD: germinal vesicle breakdown; HCG: human chorionic gonadotropin; IRS: immunoreactive score; IVF-ET: in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer; MI: metaphase I; MII: metaphase II; MAPK: mitogen-activated protein kinase; OCCCs: oocyte corona cumulus complexes; PCOS: polycystic ovarian syndrome; q

  17. Growth inhibition of tumor cells in vitro by using monoclonal antibodies against gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gregory; Ge, Bixia

    2010-07-01

    As the continuation of a previous study, synthetic peptides corresponding to the extracellular domains of human gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor were used to generate additional monoclonal antibodies which were further characterized biochemically and immunologically. Among those identified to recognize GnRH receptor, monoclonal antibodies designated as GHR-103, GHR-106 and GHR-114 were found to exhibit high affinity (Kd L37), when cancer cells were incubated with GnRH or GHR-106. The widespread expressions of GnRH receptor in almost all of the studied human cancer cell lines were also demonstrated by RT-PCR and Western blot assay, as well as indirect immunofluorescence assay with either of these monoclonal antibodies as the primary antibody. In view of the longer half life of antibodies as compared to that of GnRH or its analogs, anti-GnRH receptor monoclonal antibodies in humanized forms could function as GnRH analogs and serve as an ideal candidate of anti-cancer drugs for therapeutic treatments of various cancers in humans as well as for fertility regulations.

  18. Chorion gene activation and repression is dependent on BmC/EBP expression and binding to cognate cis-elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papantonis, Argyris; Sourmeli, Sissy; Lecanidou, Rena

    2008-05-09

    From the different cis-elements clustered on silkmoth chorion gene promoters, C/EBP binding sites predominate. Their sequence composition and dispersal vary amongst promoters of diverse developmental specificity. Occupancy of these sites by BmC/EBP was examined through Southwestern and ChIP assays modified to suit ovarian follicular cells. For the genes studied, binding of BmC/EBP coincided with the respective stages of transcriptional activation. However, the factor was reloaded on promoter sequences long after individual gene repression. Furthermore, suppression of BmC/EBP transcription in developing follicles resulted in de-regulation of chorion gene expression. A biphasic function of BmC/EBP, according to which it may act as both an activator and a repressor during silkmoth choriogenesis, is considered under the light of the presented data.

  19. First-trimester risk calculation for trisomy 13, 18, and 21: comparison of the screening efficiency between 2 locally developed programs and commercial software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Steen; Momsen, Günther; Sundberg, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Reliable individual risk calculation for trisomy (T) 13, 18, and 21 in first-trimester screening depends on good estimates of the medians for fetal nuchal translucency thickness (NT), free β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCGβ), and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in mate......Reliable individual risk calculation for trisomy (T) 13, 18, and 21 in first-trimester screening depends on good estimates of the medians for fetal nuchal translucency thickness (NT), free β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCGβ), and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP...

  20. Identification of Fetal Inflammatory Cells in Eosinophilic/T-cell Chorionic Vasculitis Using Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, Philip J; Li, LiQiong; Wang, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic/T-cell chorionic vasculitis (ETCV) is an inflammatory lesion of placental fetal vessels. In contrast to acute chorionic vasculitis, inflammation in ETCV is seen in chorionic vessel walls opposite the amnionic surface. It is not known whether inflammation in ETCV consists of maternal cells from the intervillous space or fetal cells migrating from the vessel. We used fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to differentiate fetal versus maternal cells in ETCV. Placentas with ETCV, previously identified for a published study, were used. Infant sex in each case was identified using the electronic medical record. For male infants, 3-μm sections were cut from archived tissue blocks from placentas involving ETCV and stained with fluorescent X- and Y-chromosome centromeric probes. A consecutive hematoxylin/eosin-stained section was used for correlation. FISH analysis was performed on 400 interphase nuclei at the site of ETCV to determine the proportion of XX, XY, X, and Y cells. Of 31 ETCV cases, 20 were female and 10 were male (1 sex not recorded). Six of 10 cases with male infants had recuts with visible ETCV. In these 6 cases the average percentages (ranges) of XY cells, X-only cells, and Y-only cells in the region of inflammation were 81 (70-90), 11 (6-17), and 8 (2-14), respectively. There was a 2:1 female:male infant ratio in ETCV. Similar to acute chorionic vasculitis, the inflammation in ETCV is of fetal origin. It is still unknown, however, whether the stimulus for ETCV is of fetal or maternal origin.

  1. Identification and characterization of Ca2+-activated K+ channels in granulosa cells of the human ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg Ulrike

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Granulosa cells (GCs represent a major endocrine compartment of the ovary producing sex steroid hormones. Recently, we identified in human GCs a Ca2+-activated K+ channel (KCa of big conductance (BKCa, which is involved in steroidogenesis. This channel is activated by intraovarian signalling molecules (e.g. acetylcholine via raised intracellular Ca2+ levels. In this study, we aimed at characterizing 1. expression and functions of KCa channels (including BKCa beta-subunits, and 2. biophysical properties of BKCa channels. Methods GCs were obtained from in vitro-fertilization patients and cultured. Expression of mRNA was determined by standard RT-PCR and protein expression in human ovarian slices was detected by immunohistochemistry. Progesterone production was measured in cell culture supernatants using ELISAs. Single channels were recorded in the inside-out configuration of the patch-clamp technique. Results We identified two KCa types in human GCs, the intermediate- (IK and the small-conductance KCa (SK. Their functionality was concluded from attenuation of human chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated progesterone production by KCa blockers (TRAM-34, apamin. Functional IK channels were also demonstrated by electrophysiological recording of single KCa channels with distinctive features. Both, IK and BKCa channels were found to be simultaneously active in individual GCs. In agreement with functional data, we identified mRNAs encoding IK, SK1, SK2 and SK3 in human GCs and proteins of IK and SK2 in corresponding human ovarian cells. Molecular characterization of the BKCa channel revealed the presence of mRNAs encoding several BKCa beta-subunits (beta2, beta3, beta4 in human GCs. The multitude of beta-subunits detected might contribute to variations in Ca2+ dependence of individual BKCa channels which we observed in electrophysiological recordings. Conclusion Functional and molecular studies indicate the presence of active IK and SK

  2. Chorionic villus sampling for beta-thalassemia: the first report of experience in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghpoor, Shahram

    2006-12-01

    Beta-thalassemia is one of the most common hereditary disorders in Iran. The prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassemia is part of a control program in our country and it began 13 years ago. During the past 8 years the number of procedures has increased significantly as also the legal abortions. This is the first report made on the CVS program in Iran. One thousand six hundred and sixty-one cases of transabdominal Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS) have been retrospectively evaluated. Among them 1381 cases had inclusion criteria. CVS results, complications and fetal loss rate were evaluated. The distributions of the population at risk were divided between eight regions that have been proposed for beta-thalassemia mapping previously. The mean age of the patients was 26.2 +/- 5.2 years with mean gestational age of 11.4 +/- 1.4 weeks. CVS was successful in all the patients (100%) although 1% required a second procedure. Post CVS fetal loss was 1.45%. Other minor complications were bleeding or spotting (1.81%), amniotic fluid leak (0.5%), small sub-chorionic hematoma (0.58%), severe abdominal pain (0.6%) and severe vasovagal reaction (0.14%). Late complications were seen in 0.21% (oligohydraminos). Approximately 2/3 of the patients were referred from three regions of the country, North (26.8%), South West (22.4%), Central (19.5%) and the remainder (31.3%) were from the other five regions. CVS is a safe and effective method for prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassemia in countries with a high prevalence as in Iran. The overall complication rate is quite low and acceptable. Fortunately the recent acceptance of legal abortion with respect to Muslim rules has increased the effectiveness of the procedure and made great advances in its application in Iran. Correspondingly, social knowledge has also improved but still there is a gap between the population at risk and the required prenatal diagnosis laboratories and sampling centers. 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Changes of serum and chorion-villi contents of EGF in early pregnant women undergone artificial abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Suping; Wu Xiaohua; Li Hui

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum and chorion-villi contents of EGF in pregnant women undergone artificial abortion with drug (mifepristone) or surgery (curettage). Methods: Serum epidermal growth factor (EGF), E 2 , progesterone levels changes as well as chorion-villi EGF contents were measured with RIA in 36 pregnant women with drug abortion (before and after mifepristone 25mg bid x 3 days), 30 pregnant women undergone curettage (determined twice, 3 days apart) and 32 controls (serum only). Results: Serum EGF, E 2 , and progesterone contents in all pregnant women were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). The chorion-villi contents of EGF in patients undergone drug abortion were significantly lower than those in patients undergone curettage (P<0.05). Both serum EGF and progesterone contents dropped after 3 days treatment with mifepristone (vs those in curettage group, P<0.05). Conclusion: Mifepristone might exert the effect of abortion through decrease of EGF levels, which was detrimental to fetus growth. (authors)

  4. Dimeric ligands for GPCRs involved in human reproduction : synthesis and biological evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonger, Kimberly Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Dimeric ligands for G-protein coupled receptors that are involved in human reproduction, namely the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor, the luteinizing hormone receptor and the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, were synthesized and biologically evaluated.

  5. Modern Technologies In Ectopic Pregnancy Diagnostics On Hospital Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Kaushanskaya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research provides analysis of results of preoperative examination of 680 patients with ectopic pregnancy depending on the range of surgical treatment. It has been shown that in case of progressive ectopic pregnancy the diagnostic significance of concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin, transvaginal examination and laparos-copy depends on the duration of pregnancy. When the term of ectopic pregnancy is 3-4 weeks monitoring of p chorionic gonadotropin in blood serum (99.5%, transvaginal examination (58% and laparoscopy (78.5% are more informative. When the term of ectopic pregnancy is more than 4 weeks there is a high diagnostic value of monitoring p-subunit of chorionic gonadotropin (99.5%, transvaginal examination (68% and laparoscopy (99,5%. The research has proved that pregnancy period of 3-4 weeks is optimal for laparoscopy and other operations

  6. Low dosing of gonadotropins in in vitro fertilization cycles for women with poor ovarian reserve: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Mohamed Abdel-Fattah; van Wely, Madelon; Mochtar, Monique; Fouda, Usama Mohamed; Eldaly, Ashraf; El Abidin, Eman Zein; Elhalwagy, Ahmed; Mageed Abdallah, Ahmed Abdel; Zaki, Sherif Sameh; Abdel Ghafar, Mohamed Sayed; Mohesen, Mohamed Nagi; van der Veen, Fulco

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of low doses of gonadotropins and gonadotropins combined with oral compounds compared with high doses of gonadotropins in ovarian stimulation regimens in terms of ongoing pregnancy per fresh IVF attempt in women with poor ovarian reserve undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies that evaluate the effectiveness of low dosing of gonadotropins alone or combined with oral compounds compared with high doses of gonadotropins in women with poor ovarian reserve undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment. Not applicable. Subfertile women with poor ovarian reserve undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and the Clinical Trials Registry using medical subject headings and free text terms up to June 2016, without language or year restrictions. We included randomized controlled studies (RCTs) enrolling subfertile women with poor ovarian reserve undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment and comparing low doses of gonadotropins and gonadotropins combined with oral compounds versus high doses of gonadotropins. We assessed the risk of bias using the criteria recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration. We pooled the results by meta-analysis using the fixed and random effects model. The primary outcome was ongoing pregnancy rate (PR) per woman randomized. We retrieved 787 records. Fourteen RCTs (N = 2,104 women) were included in the analysis. Five studies (N = 717 women) compared low doses of gonadotropins versus high doses of gonadotropins. There was no evidence of a difference in ongoing PR (2 RCTs: risk rate 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.62-1.57, I 2 = 0). Nine studies (N = 1,387 women) compared ovarian stimulation using gonadotropins combined with the oral compounds letrozole (n = 6) or clomiphene citrate (CC) (n = 3) versus high doses of gonadotropins. There was no evidence of a difference in ongoing PR (3 RCTs: risk

  7. Identification and localization of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) orthologs in the hypothalamus of the red-eared slider turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukena, Kazuyoshi; Iwakoshi-Ukena, Eiko; Osugi, Tomohiro; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) was discovered in 2000 as a novel hypothalamic neuropeptide that inhibited gonadotropin release in the Japanese quail. GnIH and its orthologs have a common C-terminal LPXRFamide (X=L or Q) motif, and have been identified in vertebrates from agnathans to humans, apart from reptiles. In the present study, we characterized a cDNA encoding GnIH orthologs in the brain of the red-eared slider turtle. The deduced precursor protein consisted of 205 amino-acid residues, encoding three putative peptide sequences that included the LPXRFamide motif at their C-termini. In addition, the precursor sequence was most similar to those of avian species. Immunoaffinity purification combined with mass spectrometry confirmed that three mature peptides were produced in the brain. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry showed that turtle GnIH-containing cells were restricted to the periventricular hypothalamic nucleus. Immunoreactive fibers were densely distributed in the median eminence. Thus, GnIH and related peptides may act on the pituitary to regulate pituitary hormone release in turtles as well as other vertebrates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Luteinizing hormone (LH)-responsive Cushing's syndrome: the demonstration of LH receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in hyperplastic adrenal cells, which respond to chorionic gonadotropin and serotonin agonists in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Feelders (Richard); W.W. de Herder (Wouter); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven); L.J. Hofland (Leo); P.M. van Koetsveld (Peter); M. Verhoef-Post (Miriam); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel); F.H. de Jong (Frank); H.J. Bonjer (Jaap); A.J. Clark (Adrian); A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn a substantial part of adrenal adenomas and hyperplasias from patients with Cushing's syndrome, cortisol production is controlled by the expression of aberrant hormone receptors on adrenocortical cells. We present in vivo and in vitro data of two patients with a

  9. Efficacy of extended clomifene citrate regimen in comparison with gonadotropins in clomifene citrate-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Fathy Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gonadotropins are successful treatment for women with clomifene citrate (CC)-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that extended CC treatment may be an alternative to gonadotropins in the management of CC-resistant women with PCOS. Methods: A randomized controlled trial comprised 200 women with CC-resistant PCOS were allocated to two equal treatment groups. Patients in the CC group were given 100 mg of CC daily starting fr...

  10. Current diagnostic efficacy of Tc-99m-labeled antitumor antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.T.; Lyster, D.M.; Szasz, I.; Alcorn, L.N.; Rhodes, B.A.; Breslow, K.; Burchiel, S.W.

    1983-01-01

    The authors have recently evaluated technetium 99 labeled antibodies specific to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for the in vivo detection of a variety of human tumors. Both mouse monoclonal and sheep polyclonal antibodies were evaluated in this study. Another antibody specific to hCG studied, is an antigen-agglutinating monoclonal F(ab') 2 fragment. Some preliminary results are reported

  11. Ontogenic studies of the neural control of adenohypophyseal hormones in the rat: gonadotropins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becú-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M; Libertun, C

    1990-12-01

    1. Serotonergic, dopaminergic, and opioid systems controlling luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion develop with particular characteristics in the male and female prepubertal rats. 2. Serotonergic pathways evoke a maximal release of LH and FSH in female rats from day 12 to day 20 of age, but not in males of the same age. 3. Antidopaminergic drugs increase LH and FSH levels only in the female infantile rats. This effect is absent at birth and disappears after 20 days of age. 4. Naloxone markedly increases gonadotropins in 12-day-old females. 5. On the other hand, in 12-day-old male rats some neurotropic drugs such as diazepam could enhance LH levels, the effect being absent at other ages or in female littermates. 6. A period of high sensitivity of gonadotropins to neurotropic drugs is present during the second and third weeks of life of the rat and it is related to the sexual differentiation of the brain.

  12. Evaluation of puberty by verifying spontaneous and stimulated gonadotropin values in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Vivian L; Cai, Ziyong; Lam, Leslie; Shah, Bina; Zhou, Ping

    2015-03-01

    Changes in pharmacological agents and advancements in laboratory assays have changed the gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog stimulation test. To determine the best predictive model for detecting puberty in girls. Thirty-five girls, aged 2 years 7 months to 9 years 3 months, with central precocious puberty (CPP) (n=20) or premature thelarche/premature adrenarche (n=15). Diagnoses were based on clinical information, baseline hormones, bone age, and pelvic sonogram. Gonadotropins and E2 were analyzed using immunochemiluminometric assay. Logistic regression for CPP was performed. The best predictor of CPP is the E2-change model based on 3- to 24-h values, providing 80% sensitivity and 87% specificity. Three-hour luteinizing hormone (LH) provided 75% sensitivity and 87% specificity. Basal LH lowered sensitivity to 65% and specificity to 53%. The E2-change model provided the best predictive power; however, 3-h LH was more practical and convenient when evaluating puberty in girls.

  13. Consensus statement on the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carel, Jean-Claude; Eugster, Erica A; Rogol, Alan

    2009-01-01

    , an equal male/female ratio, and a balanced spectrum of professional seniority and expertise. EVIDENCE: Preference was given to articles written in English with long-term outcome data. The US Public Health grading system was used to grade evidence and rate the strength of conclusions. When evidence......OBJECTIVE: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs revolutionized the treatment of central precocious puberty. However, questions remain regarding their optimal use in central precocious puberty and other conditions. The Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society and the European Society...... for Pediatric Endocrinology convened a consensus conference to review the clinical use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs in children and adolescents. PARTICIPANTS: When selecting the 30 participants, consideration was given to equal representation from North America (United States and Canada) and Europe...

  14. The transabdominal chorionic villus sampling puncture guided by color Doppler ultrasound during early pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Weixiang; Chen Zhiyi; Yuan Wenlin; Cai Kuan; Zhu Junlin; Wang Weiqun; Chen Xia

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the operation of chorionic villus sampling (CVS) guided by color Doppler ultrasound (CDU) via abdomen puncture during early pregnancy and investigate the advertences during the operation. Methods: CVS guided by CDU probe via abdomen puncture were operated on 28 pregnant women who had the indications of antenatal diagnosis. CDU was used to observe the implantation position of the fo1iaceous villis and help setting mark of the puncture point and puncture range on body surface before operation. The needle was punctured under real-time ultrasound guidance and villis were aspirated during the operation: The choice of the right time of puncture and the operation skills were emphasized in the study. Results: The CVS puncture approach should be set through CDU ob servation, which attend to avoid the surrounding blood vessels, intestinal canal and surrounding important organs. The puncture point should be chosen in a point where lobif0rmed villis distributed wider and with a larger scope. The operations were performed from 10 to13 weeks of pregnancy, with an average of 11 weeks. Among these 28 cases, 9.6 were successfully drawn materials in one time, 1 in twice and l failure, with the total ratio of achievement was 96.4%. For all the cases, fetal heart pulsating could be seen by real-time CDU observation fight after the operation, and no larger hematoma echo in the placental site occurred. Ultrasound reexamined one week after the operation, fetal heart pulsation could be found in all cases, and no abortion cases occurred after regular follow-up in 25 continued pregnant patients. Conclusion: Abdominal CVS puncture guided by CDU probe is conveniently operated, safe and available in clinic. It is an important method for antenatal diagnosis during early pregnancy. The puncture localization, skills and the time are the key points for the success in obtaining the materials. (authors)

  15. Risk of miscarriage following amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beta, Jaroslaw; Lesmes-Heredia, Cristina; Bedetti, Chiara; Akolekar, Ranjit

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to estimate the risk of miscarriage after amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS) based on a systematic review of the literature. A search of Medline, Embase, and The Cochrane Library (2000-2017) was carried out to identify studies reporting complications following CVS or amniocentesis. The inclusion criteria for the systematic review were studies reporting results from large controlled studies (N.≥1000 invasive procedures) and those reporting data for pregnancy loss prior to 24 weeks' gestation. Data for cases that had invasive procedure and controls were inputted in contingency tables and risk of miscarriage was estimated for each study. Summary statistics were calculated after taking into account the weighting for each study included in the systematic review. Procedure-related risk of miscarriage was estimated as a weighted risk difference from the summary statistics for cases and controls. The electronic search from the databases yielded 2465 potential citations of which 2431 were excluded, leaving 34 studies for full-text review. The final review included 10 studies for amniocentesis and 6 studies for CVS, which were used to estimate risk of miscarriage in pregnancies that had an invasive procedure and the control pregnancies that did not. The procedure-related risk of miscarriage following amniocentesis was 0.35% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.07 to 0.63) and that following CVS was 0.35% (95% CI: -0.31 to 1.00). The procedure-related risks of miscarriage following amniocentesis and CVS are lower than currently quoted to women.

  16. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: new identification of testicular blood flow and varicocele after treatment with gonadotropins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ur Rehman, Khaleeq; Shahid, Khubaib; Humayun, Hina

    2014-09-01

    To investigate testicular changes in patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) after treatment with gonadotropins. Patients with HH were investigated and followed before and after treatment. Urology and andrology clinic of a teaching hospital. Consecutive male patients with diagnosed HH. All patients were treated with gonadotropins during the study period and later. The hormonal status and scrotal color Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) of patients was recorded before and after treatment. Twenty-six patients with HH (ages 18-43 years) were followed for 8-29 months. After treatment, serum T and secondary sex characters improved in all and spermatogenesis developed in 61.5% of patients. Before treatment, testicular (intraparenchymal blood flow) was undetectable in all and barely detectable in three patients. This improved significantly to 4.53±5.44 and 4.27±4.97 cm/second, respectively, after treatment. Subcapsular arterial flow and testicular size also improved significantly. Similarly, after treatment, transverse epididymal diameter (TED) increased significantly. At baseline, no patient had detectable varicocele on CDUS. After treatment, varicocele was demonstrable in 23% of patients. This finding was further evaluated retrospectively from our 76 HH patient files. None of them had varicocele before treatment, but after treatment 19.73% were found to have varicocele. Patients with HH responded to gonadotropins by improvement in testicular blood flow and increase in TED. In some patients, varicocele was found to develop after treatment. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Developmental Regulation of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Gene Expression by the MSX and DLX Homeodomain Protein Families*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Marjory L.; Rave-Harel, Naama; Goonewardena, Vinodha D.; Kurotani, Reiko; Berdy, Sara E.; Swan, Christo H.; Rubenstein, John L. R.; Robert, Benoit; Mellon, Pamela L.

    2010-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the central regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, controlling sexual maturation and fertility in diverse species from fish to humans. GnRH gene expression is limited to a discrete population of neurons that migrate through the nasal region into the hypothalamus during embryonic development. The GnRH regulatory region contains four conserved homeodomain binding sites (ATTA) that are essential for basal promoter activity and cell-specific expression of the GnRH gene. MSX and DLX are members of the Antennapedia class of non-Hox homeodomain transcription factors that regulate gene expression and influence development of the craniofacial structures and anterior forebrain. Here, we report that expression patterns of the Msx and Dlx families of homeodomain transcription factors largely coincide with the migratory route of GnRH neurons and co-express with GnRH in neurons during embryonic development. In addition, MSX and DLX family members bind directly to the ATTA consensus sequences and regulate transcriptional activity of the GnRH promoter. Finally, mice lacking MSX1 or DLX1 and 2 show altered numbers of GnRH-expressing cells in regions where these factors likely function. These findings strongly support a role for MSX and DLX in contributing to spatiotemporal regulation of GnRH transcription during development. PMID:15743757

  18. Developmental regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene expression by the MSX and DLX homeodomain protein families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Marjory L; Rave-Harel, Naama; Goonewardena, Vinodha D; Kurotani, Reiko; Berdy, Sara E; Swan, Christo H; Rubenstein, John L R; Robert, Benoit; Mellon, Pamela L

    2005-05-13

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the central regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, controlling sexual maturation and fertility in diverse species from fish to humans. GnRH gene expression is limited to a discrete population of neurons that migrate through the nasal region into the hypothalamus during embryonic development. The GnRH regulatory region contains four conserved homeodomain binding sites (ATTA) that are essential for basal promoter activity and cell-specific expression of the GnRH gene. MSX and DLX are members of the Antennapedia class of non-Hox homeodomain transcription factors that regulate gene expression and influence development of the craniofacial structures and anterior forebrain. Here, we report that expression patterns of the Msx and Dlx families of homeodomain transcription factors largely coincide with the migratory route of GnRH neurons and co-express with GnRH in neurons during embryonic development. In addition, MSX and DLX family members bind directly to the ATTA consensus sequences and regulate transcriptional activity of the GnRH promoter. Finally, mice lacking MSX1 or DLX1 and 2 show altered numbers of GnRH-expressing cells in regions where these factors likely function. These findings strongly support a role for MSX and DLX in contributing to spatiotemporal regulation of GnRH transcription during development.

  19. Comparative study of P19 EC stem cell differentiation in between conventional hanging drop and the zebrafish chorion as a bio-derived material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dae Seok Na; Lee, Hwang; Sun Uk Kim; Chang Nam Hwang; Sang Ho Lee; Ji Yoon Kang; Jai Kyeong Kim; James Jungho Pak

    2008-07-01

    Various materials including glass and polymers have been widely used for stem cell culture due to their biocompatibility. However, the roles of these materials are fundamentally limited because they cannot realize or imitate the complex biological functions of living tissues, except in very simple cases. Here, the development of a bio-derived material suitable for stem cell culture and improvement of differentiation efficiency to specific cell lineages with no stimulating agents by using a chorion obtained from a fertilized zebrafish egg through the removal of the yolk and embryonic cell mass from the egg is reported. Mouse P19 EC stem cells introduced into the empty chorion form a uniform embryoid body (EB) without addition of any inducing agent. It is demonstrated that the zebrafish chorion with nanopores improves efficiencies greatly in the EB formation, cell proliferation, and lineage-specific differentiations compared to those of the conventional hanging drop culture method.

  20. The human leukocyte antigen G promotes trophoblast fusion and β-hCG production through the Erk1/2 pathway in human choriocarcinoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ji-meng [School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Zhao, Hong-xi [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710038 (China); Wang, Li [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, General Hospital of Chinese People’s Liberation Army, Beijing 100853 (China); Gao, Zhi-ying, E-mail: gaozy301@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, General Hospital of Chinese People’s Liberation Army, Beijing 100853 (China); Yao, Yuan-qing, E-mail: yqyao@126.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, General Hospital of Chinese People’s Liberation Army, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •HLA-G expression promotes BeWo cells fusion and fusogenic gene expression. •HLA-G is capable of inducing β-hCG production in human choriocarcinoma cell lines. •Up-regulation of β-hCG production by HLA-G is mediated via the Erk1/2 pathway. -- Abstract: The human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) is expressed on the fetal–maternal interface and plays a role in protecting fetal-derived trophoblasts from the maternal immune response, allowing trophoblasts to invade the uterus. However, HLA-G also possesses immune suppressing-independent functions. We found that HLA-G expressing BeWo choriocarcinoma cells increased cell–cell fusion compared to control BeWo cells under forskolin treatment. Regardless of forskolin treatment, the expression of fusogenic gene mRNAs, including syncytin-1, the transcription factor glial cell missing 1 (Gcm1), and beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) were elevated. HLA-G up-regulates β-hCG production in human choriocarcinoma cells because HLA-G knockdown in JEG-3 cells induces a dramatic decrease in β-hCG compared with control cells. The defect in β-hCG production in HLA-G knocked-down cells could not be completely overcome by stimulating hCG production through increasing intracellular cAMP levels. HLA-G expressing cells have increased phosphorylation levels for extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (Erk1/2) in BeWo cells. The Erk1/2 pathway is inactivated after the inhibition of HLA-G expression in JEG-3 cells. Finally, Erk1/2 inhibition was able to suppress the increased hCG production induced by HLA-G expression. Together, these data suggest novel roles for HLA-G in regulating β-hCG production via the modulation of the Erk1/2 pathway and by inducing trophoblast cell fusion.

  1. In Vitro Effects of the Endocrine Disruptor p,p’-DDT on Human Follitropin Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier, Mathilde; Grouleff, Julie; Gourdin, Louis; Fauchard, Mathilde; Chantreau, Vanessa; Henrion, Daniel; Coutant, Régis; Schiøtt, Birgit; Chabbert, Marie; Rodien, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    Background: 1-chloro-4-[2,2,2-trichloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]benzene (p,p′-DDT) is a persistent environmental endocrine disruptor (ED). Several studies have shown an association between p,p′-DDT exposure and reproductive abnormalities. Objectives: To investigate the putative effects of p,p′-DDT on the human follitropin receptor (FSHR) function. Methods and Results: We used Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing human FSHR to investigate the impact of p,p′-DDT on FSHR activity and its interaction with the receptor. At a concentration of 5 μM p,p′-DDT increased the maximum response of the FSHR to follitropin by 32 ± 7.45%. However, 5 μM p,p′-DDT decreased the basal activity and did not influence the maximal response of the closely related LH/hCG receptor to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The potentiating effect of p,p′-DDT was specific for the FSHR. Moreover, in cells that did not express FSHR, p,p′-DDT had no effect on cAMP response. Thus, the potentiating effect of p,p′-DDT was dependent on the FSHR. In addition, p,p′-DDT increased the sensitivity of FSHR to hCG and to a low molecular weight agonist of the FSHR, 3-((5methyl)-2-(4-benzyloxy-phenyl)-5-{[2-[3-ethoxy-4-methoxy-phenyl)-ethylcarbamoyl]-methyl}-4-oxo-thiazolidin-3-yl)-benzamide (16a). Basal activity in response to p,p′-DDT and potentiation of the FSHR response to FSH by p,p′-DDT varied among FSHR mutants with altered transmembrane domains (TMDs), consistent with an effect of p,p′-DDT via TMD binding. This finding was corroborated by the results of simultaneously docking p,p′-DDT and 16a into the FSHR transmembrane bundle. Conclusion: p,p′-DDT acted as a positive allosteric modulator of the FSHR in our experimental model. These findings suggest that G protein–coupled receptors are additional targets of endocrine disruptors. Citation: Munier M, Grouleff J, Gourdin L, Fauchard M, Chantreau V, Henrion D, Coutant R, Schiøtt B, Chabbert M, Rodien P. 2016

  2. A regulator of G Protein signaling, RGS3, inhibits gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH-stimulated luteinizing hormone (LH secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musgrove Lois C

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Luteinizing hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland regulates gonadal function. Luteinizing hormone secretion is regulated both by alterations in gonadotrope responsiveness to hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone and by alterations in gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion. The mechanisms that determine gonadotrope responsiveness are unknown but may involve regulators of G protein signaling (RGSs. These proteins act by antagonizing or abbreviating interaction of Gα proteins with effectors such as phospholipase Cβ. Previously, we reported that gonadotropin releasing hormone-stimulated second messenger inositol trisphosphate production was inhibited when RGS3 and gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor cDNAs were co-transfected into the COS cell line. Here, we present evidence for RGS3 inhibition of gonadotropin releasing hormone-induced luteinizing hormone secretion from cultured rat pituitary cells. Results A truncated version of RGS3 (RGS3T = RGS3 314–519 inhibited gonadotropin releasing hormone-stimulated inositol trisphosphate production more potently than did RSG3 in gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor-bearing COS cells. An RSG3/glutathione-S-transferase fusion protein bound more 35S-Gqα than any other member of the G protein family tested. Adenoviral-mediated RGS3 gene transfer in pituitary gonadotropes inhibited gonadotropin releasing hormone-stimulated luteinizing hormone secretion in a dose-related fashion. Adeno-RGS3 also inhibited gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulated 3H-inositol phosphate accumulation, consistent with a molecular site of action at the Gqα protein. Conclusions RGS3 inhibits gonadotropin releasing hormone-stimulated second messenger production (inositol trisphosphate as well as luteinizing hormone secretion from rat pituitary gonadotropes apparently by binding and suppressing the transduction properties of Gqα protein function. A version of RGS3 that is amino

  3. Evidence that obesity and androgens have independent and opposing effects on gonadotropin production from puberty to maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Robert L; Bordini, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Optimal fat mass is necessary for normal gonadotropin levels in adults, and both undernutrition and overnutrition suppress gonadotropins: thus, the gonadotropin response to relative adipose mass is biphasic. Adult obesity is associated with blunted luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse amplitude that is partially attributable to increased LH clearance rate. Testosterone appears to have a biphasic effect on gonadotropin production in females. Moderate elevations of testosterone appear to stimulate LH production at both the hypothalamic and pituitary level, while very high levels of testosterone suppress LH. Thus, obesity per se appears to suppress gonadotropin production, and moderate hyperandrogenemia in women appears to stimulate LH. The ordinary hypergonadotropic hyperandrogenism of obese women appears to be an exception to this model because it is usually due to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition in which intrinsic functional ovarian hyperandrogenism and excess adiposity share a common origin that involves insulin-resistant hyperinsulinemia. LH elevation seems to be secondary to hyperandrogenemia and is absent in the most obese cases. Overweight early pubertal girls have significant blunting of sleep-related LH production, which is the first hormonal change of puberty. The data are compatible with the possibility that excess adiposity may paradoxically subtly suppress hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal function in early puberty although it is known to contribute to the early onset of puberty. PMID:20816944

  4. Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make hormones. Yolk sac tumors make the hormone alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Mixed germ cell tumors are made of ... used to diagnose some CNS germ cell tumors: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). Blood ...

  5. Treatment Options for Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumors: Yolk sac tumors make a hormone called alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). They can form in the ovary, testicle, ... are used to detect extracranial germ cell tumors: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). For ...

  6. The HELLP syndrome : Its association with unexplained elevation of MSAFP and MShCG in the second trimester

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morssink, LP; Heringa, MP; Beekhuis, [No Value; DeWolf, BTHM; Mantingh, A

    In this study, we examined the relationship between concentrations of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) and maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (MShCG) in the second trimester and the 'haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelet count' (HELLP) syndrome. The concentrations of both

  7. Stages of Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumors: Yolk sac tumors make a hormone called alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). They can form in the ovary, testicle, ... are used to detect extracranial germ cell tumors: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). For ...

  8. General Information about Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumors: Yolk sac tumors make a hormone called alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). They can form in the ovary, testicle, ... are used to detect extracranial germ cell tumors: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). For ...

  9. A Testicular Leydig Cell Tumor with Azoospermia; Re-visited

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mubeen

    of lump in right sided testis for 4 years. On physical examination, both the testes were normal in consistency, but a hard mass was palpable in the right testis. Semen analysis revealed azoospermia. He had no gynecomastia. Tumor markers such as -feto protein ( FP), human chorionic gonadotropin ( -hCG), and lactate ...

  10. Pre-evacuation hCG glycoforms in uneventful complete hydatidiform mole and persistent trophoblastic disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, C.M.G.; Kerkmeijer, L.G.W.; Ariaens, H.J.; Steen, R. van der; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Sweep, F.C.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the glycoform distribution patterns of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) obtained by chromatofocusing in pre-evacuation serum are different for patients who will eventually develop into persistent trophoblastic disease in case of complete hydatidiform mole

  11. Surgical pathology of urologic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javadpour, N.; Barsky, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    This text details recent advances in methods for detecting, diagnosing, and managing genitourinary diseases. Included are chapters on imaging techniques (including magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and ultrasound; tumor markers (such as alphafetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, prostatic specific antigen, and T-antigens); immunocytochemistry; pediatric urologic pathology; and other key topics

  12. A pipeline to quantify serum and cerebrospinal fluid microRNAs for diagnosis and detection of relapse in paediatric malignant germ-cell tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Murray (Matthew); E. Bell (Emma); K.L. Raby (Katie L.); M.A. Rijlaarsdam (Martin); A.J.M. Gillis (Ad); L.H.J. Looijenga (Leendert); H. Brown (Helen); B. Destenaves (Benoit); J.C. Nicholson (James); N. Coleman (Nicholas)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground:The current biomarkers alpha-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotropin have limited sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing malignant germ-cell tumours (GCTs). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) from the miR-371-373 and miR-302/367 clusters are overexpressed in all malignant GCTs, and

  13. Identification of patients with persistent trophoblastic disease after complete hydatidiform mole by using a normal 24-hour urine hCG regression curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cromvoirt, S.M. van; Thomas, C.M.G.; Quinn, M.A.; McNally, O.M.; Bekkers, R.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to establish a reference 24-hour urine human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) regression curve in patients with complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) as diagnostic tool in the prediction of persistent trophoblastic disease (PTD). METHODS: From 2004 to 2011, 312 cases

  14. Case presentation: community acquired pneumonia or βhcg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paraneoplastic syndromes are common complications of lung cancer and may be the manifestation of the disease or its recurrence. β- human chorionic gonadotropin (βhCG) is commonly produced by germ cell tumors and seldom produced by other tumors. We describe the case of a 28-year old woman who was admitted ...

  15. Thyrotoxicosis in pregnancy:: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kamath, Bola R; Rao, Kamla J; Mayadunne, Adikari AK

    2001-01-01

    There are various causes of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy such as Graves’ disease and gestational thyrotoxicosis. The thyroid stimulation results from the excessive levels of circulating human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) produced by the trophoblastic tissue in both hydatidiform moles and choriocarcinoma. We present a pregnant patient with hydatidiform mole who presented with hyperthyroidism that resolved after evacuation of the mole.

  16. Improved first-trimester Down syndrome screening performance by lowering the false-positive rate: a prospective study of 9941 low-risk women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wøjdemann, K R; Shalmi, A C; Christiansen, M

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the performance of screening for Down syndrome (DS) and other major chromosomal abnormalities using nuchal translucency (NT), free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in a prospective study of a non...

  17. A prospective study evaluating the performance of first trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 using repeated sampling of the maternal serum markers PAPP-A and free β-hCG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte Kvist; Wright, Dave; Ball, Susan

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prospectively evaluate the performance of first-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 using the biochemical markers pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (free β-hCG) obtained before and at the time of the nuchal translucency...

  18. Luteal phase support for assisted reproduction cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, M. van der; Buckingham, K.; Farquhar, C.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Metwally, M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Progesterone prepares the endometrium for pregnancy by stimulating proliferation in response to human chorionic gonadotropin(hCG) produced by the corpus luteum. This occurs in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. In assisted reproduction techniques(ART), progesterone and/or hCG

  19. Luteal phase support for assisted reproduction cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, M. Van der; Buckingham, K.; Farquhar, C.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Metwally, M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Progesterone prepares the endometrium for pregnancy by stimulating proliferation in response to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which is produced by the corpus luteum. This occurs in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. In assisted reproduction techniques (ART) the progesterone

  20. Inhibition of diabetes in NOD mice by human pregnancy factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N.A.; Khan, A.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Benner, R.

    2001-01-01

    Clinical symptoms of Th1 mediated autoimmune diseases regress in many patients during pregnancy. A prominent feature of pregnancy is the presence of human chorionic gonadotrophin hormone (hCG) in blood and urine. In this report we tested the effect of clinical grade hCG (c-hCG) on the development of

  1. Negative feedback governs gonadotrope frequency-decoding of gonadotropin releasing hormone pulse-frequency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Lim

    Full Text Available The synthesis of the gonadotropin subunits is directed by pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH from the hypothalamus, with the frequency of GnRH pulses governing the differential expression of the common alpha-subunit, luteinizing hormone beta-subunit (LHbeta and follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit (FSHbeta. Three mitogen-activated protein kinases, (MAPKs, ERK1/2, JNK and p38, contribute uniquely and combinatorially to the expression of each of these subunit genes. In this study, using both experimental and computational methods, we found that dual specificity phosphatase regulation of the activity of the three MAPKs through negative feedback is required, and forms the basis for decoding the frequency of pulsatile GnRH. A fourth MAPK, ERK5, was shown also to be activated by GnRH. ERK5 was found to stimulate FSHbeta promoter activity and to increase FSHbeta mRNA levels, as well as enhancing its preference for low GnRH pulse frequencies. The latter is achieved through boosting the ultrasensitive behavior of FSHbeta gene expression by increasing the number of MAPK dependencies, and through modulating the feedforward effects of JNK activation on the GnRH receptor (GnRH-R. Our findings contribute to understanding the role of changing GnRH pulse-frequency in controlling transcription of the pituitary gonadotropins, which comprises a crucial aspect in regulating reproduction. Pulsatile stimuli and oscillating signals are integral to many biological processes, and elucidation of the mechanisms through which the pulsatility is decoded explains how the same stimulant can lead to various outcomes in a single cell.

  2. In vitro fertilization (IVF) versus gonadotropins followed by IVF as treatment for primary infertility: a cost-based decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansal-Kalra, Suleena; Milad, Magdy P; Grobman, William A

    2005-09-01

    To compare the economic consequences of proceeding directly to IVF to those of proceeding with gonadotropins followed by IVF in patients cost and success of each infertility regimen as well as the pregnancy-associated costs of singleton or multiple gestations and the risk and cost of cerebral palsy. Cost per live birth. Both treatment arms resulted in a >80% chance of birth. The gonadotropin arm was over four times more likely to result in a high-order multiple pregnancy (HOMP). Despite this, when the base case estimates were utilized, immediate IVF emerged as more costly per live birth. In sensitivity analysis, immediate IVF became less costly per live birth when IVF was more likely to achieve birth (55.1%) or cheaper (11,432 dollars) than our base case assumptions. After considering the risk and cost of HOMP, immediate IVF is more costly per live birth than a trial of gonadotropins prior to IVF.

  3. Effects of X-irradiation on gonadotropin secretion in rat anterior pituitary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinmin; Liu Shuzheng

    1988-01-01

    The dispersed rat anterior pituitary cells cultured in 3 days was exposed to single doses of X-irradiation in the range of 0.5-8.0 Gy. LH and FSH contents in both the supernatant and the cells were measured. The LH secretion was significantly increased at the doses greater than 0.5 Gy and FSH secretion was also significantly enhanced at the dose of 4.0 Gy. The cellular contents of both LH and FSH remained near the control levels. It is concluded that gonadotropin secretion can be stimulated by single doses of X-rays in the range of 0.5-8.0 Gy

  4. Calcium-independent phosphatidylinositol response in gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-stimulated pituitary cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Naor, Z; Molcho, J; Zakut, H; Yavin, E

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, gonadoliberin) on phospholipid metabolism in cultured rat pituitary cells. The cells were incubated with [32P]Pi to label endogenous phospholipids (10-60 min) and then stimulated with GnRH for up to 60 min. Cellular phospholipids were separated by two-dimensional t.l.c. and the radioactivity was determined. Phosphatidylinositol (PI), a minor constituent of cellular phospholipids (7.7%), was the major labelled phospholipi...

  5. Bilateral undescended testes classified according to preoperative and postoperative status of gonadotropins and inhibin B in relation to testicular histopathology at bilateral orchiopexy in infant boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Petersen, Bodil Laub; Kvist, Kolja

    2012-01-01

    In recent series of boys with cryptorchidism gonadotropin levels have been higher and serum inhibin B levels have been lower than normal. To some extent the serum values of inhibin B reflect the state of germinative epithelium in cryptorchid testes. We evaluated whether blood samples of gonadotro...... of gonadotropins and inhibin B as well as histopathology could be used to classify undescended testes....

  6. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist protocol--the protocol of choice for the polycystic ovary syndrome patient undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kol, Shahar; Homburg, Roy; Alsbjerg, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients are prone to develop ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), a condition which can be minimized or completely eliminated by the use of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) trigger. In this commentary paper, we maintain that the gonadotropin-...... ongoing pregnancy rates in the subsequent frozen-thawed transfer cycles....

  7. The effect of chorionicity and twin-to-twin delivery time interval on short-term outcome of the second twin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortø, Sofie; Nickelsen, Carsten; Petersen, Janne

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To investigate the effect of chorionicity and twin-to-twin delivery time interval on short-term outcome in the second twin. Additionally, to investigate predictors of adverse outcome in both twins. Methods: Data included vaginally delivered twins (≥ 36 weeks) from Copenhagen ...

  8. Intérêt pronostique de l’infiltration du chorion dans les tumeurs vésicales pT1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zakhama

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Le classement des ces tumeurs en fonction de l’importance d’envahissement du chorion et de l’infiltration de la musculaire muqueuse a prouvé son efficacité à travers les taux de récidive et de progression tumorale chez nos malades.

  9. Low-dose gonadotropin induction of ovulation in anovulatory women - still needed in the age of IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Davinia; Hardy, Kate; Lovelock, Suzannah; Franks, Stephen

    2018-02-19

    Low-dose, step-up gonadotropin is the treatment of choice for women with PCOS who have not conceived after anti-estrogen treatment, and as an effective alternative to pulsatile GnRH in women with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). There has been, however, no large-scale, comparative study between the two groups using low-dose gonadotropins. Here we performed a retrospective, comparative analysis, in a single clinic database, of efficacy and safety of induction of ovulation using low-dose gonadotropins in 364 Women with PCOS and 80 women with HH. The rate of ovulation was high in both PCOS (83%) and HH (84%) but mono-follicular, ovulatory cycles were more prevalent in PCOS than in HH (77% vs 53%, p<0.0001) and the proportion of cycles that were abandoned was higher in HH than in PCOS (25% vs 15%, p<0.0001). The median threshold dose of gonadotropin required to induce ovulation was 75iu/day in PCOS and 113iu/day in HH (p<0.001) and the range of doses was greater in HH women. Forty-nine percent of women with PCOS and 65% of those with HH conceived (more than 90% within 6 cycles of treatment) and had a least one pregnancy. Multiple pregnancies (all twins) occurred in only 4% of women with PCOS and 5% of those with HH. These findings emphasise the efficacy and safety of low-dose gonadotropin treatment for both clomiphene-resistant women with PCOS and those with HH. These results highlight the importance of choosing the more physiological approach of gonadotropin induction of ovulation in both groups as the most appropriate treatment, in preference to IVF.

  10. Use of fertility drugs and risk of uterine cancer: results from a large Danish population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Allan; Sharif, Heidi; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2009-12-01

    Some epidemiologic studies have indicated that uterine cancer risk may be increased after use of fertility drugs. To further assess this association, the authors used data from a large cohort of 54,362 women diagnosed with infertility who were referred to Danish fertility clinics between 1965 and 1998. In a case-cohort study, rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the effects of 4 groups of fertility drugs on overall risk of uterine cancer after adjustment for potentially confounding factors. Through mid-2006, 83 uterine cancers were identified. Ever use of any fertility drug was not associated with uterine cancer risk (rate ratio (RR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69, 1.76). However, ever use of gonadotropins (follicle-stimulating hormone and human menopausal gonadotropin) increased uterine cancer risk (RR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.08, 4.50); the risk was primarily observed after 10 years of follow-up. Furthermore, uterine cancer risk increased with number of cycles of use for clomiphene (for > or =6 cycles, RR = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.03, 3.72) and human chorionic gonadotropin (for > or =6 cycles, RR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.16, 4.08) but not for other gonadotropins. Use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs was not associated with risk. Gonadotropins, and possibly clomiphene and human chorionic gonadotropin, may increase the risk of uterine cancer, with higher doses and longer follow-up leading to greater risk.

  11. Ameliorative effects of exogenous gonadotropins on reproductive profiles of replacement gilts with delayed puberty in a farm in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Am-In, Nutthee; Roongsitthichai, Atthaporn

    2017-01-01

    This study was to investigate the effect of gonadotropins on reproductive profiles of replacement gilts with delayed puberty. Totally, 136 Landrace × Yorkshire crossbred gilts, were categorized into control (n = 58) and treatment (n = 78) groups. Gonadotropins (400 U eCG plus 200 IU hCG) were administered in treatment group only. The results revealed that gilts in treatment group had higher number of gilts with estrus (92.3 vs 25.9%, P < 0.001), shorter onset to estrus (4.7 ± 0.3 vs 9.0 ± 0.8...

  12. Effect of cortisol on gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH) in the cinnamon clownfish, Amphiprion melanopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Jae; Habibi, Hamid R; Kil, Gyung-Suk; Jung, Min-Min; Choi, Cheol Young

    2017-04-01

    Hypothalamic peptides, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH), play pivotal roles in the control of reproduction and gonadal maturation in fish. In the present study we tested the possibility that stress-mediated reproductive dysfunction in teleost may involve changes in GnRH and GnIH activity. We studied expression of brain GnIH, GnIH-R, seabream GnRH (sbGnRH), as well as circulating levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) in the cinnamon clownfish, Amphiprion melanopus. Treatment with cortisol increased GnIH mRNA level, but reduced sbGnRH mRNA and circulating levels of LH and FSH in cinnamon clownfish. Using double immunofluorescence staining, we found expression of both GnIH and GnRH in the diencephalon region of cinnamon clownfish brain. These findings support the hypothesis that cortisol, an indicator of stress, affects reproduction, in part, by increasing GnIH in cinnamon clownfish which contributes to hypothalamic suppression of reproductive function in A. melanopus, a protandrous hermaphroditic fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Stimulate Aldosterone Production in a Subset of Aldosterone-Producing Adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Rui; Oki, Kenji; Yoneda, Masayasu; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E.; Ohno, Haruya; Kobuke, Kazuhiro; Itcho, Kiyotaka; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to detect novel genes associated with G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and elucidate the mechanisms underlying aldosterone production. Microarray analysis targeting GPCR-associated genes was conducted using APA without known mutations (APA-WT) samples (n = 3) and APA with the KCNJ5 mutation (APA-KCNJ5; n = 3). Since gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GNRHR) was the highest expression in APA-WT by microarray analysis, we investigated the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation on aldosterone production. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay results revealed higher GNRHR expression levels in APA-WT samples those in APA-KCNJ5 samples (P APA-WT samples, and there was a significant and positive correlation between GNRHR and LHCGR expression in all APA samples (r = 0.476, P APA-WT (n = 9), which showed higher GNRHR and LHCGR levels, had significantly higher GnRH-stimulated aldosterone response than those with APA-KCNJ5 (n = 13) (P APA-WT, and the molecular analysis including the receptor expression associated with clinical findings of GnRH stimulation. PMID:27196470

  14. Laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy of endometriomas does not affect the ovarian response to gonadotropin stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, Guillermo; Vilela, Martín; Quintana, Ramiro; Sueldo, Carlos

    2002-10-01

    To evaluate the ovarian response cycles of IVF-ET in patients who previously underwent laparoscopic cystectomy for endometriomas. Retrospective study with prospective selection of participants and controls. Instituto de Ginecología y Fertilidad Buenos Aires, Argentina. Thirty-nine patients underwent an operation for ovarian endometriomas by atraumatic removal of the pseudocapsule with minimal bipolar cauterization of small bleeders and an IVF-ET cycle (group A) and 39 control patients of similar age underwent an IVF-ET cycle for tubal factor infertility (group B). Laparoscopic endometrioma cystectomy, IVF-ET cycle. E(2) levels, number of gonadotropin ampoules, follicles, oocytes retrieved, number and quality of embryos transferred, and clinical pregnancy rate. There were no differences in all the parameters studied (E(2) levels, number of follicles, oocytes retrieved, number and quality of embryos transferred, and clinical pregnancy rate) except for the number of gonadotropin ampoules needed for ovarian hyperstimulation, which was significantly higher in group A than in group B. Our results indicate that laparoscopic cystectomy for endometriomas is an appropriate treatment since it did not negatively affect the ovarian response for IVF-ET.

  15. Possible role of serum testosterone, gonadotropins and prolactin in patients with premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Hamd, M; Farah, A

    2018-02-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common male sexual dysfunction. This study aimed to investigate the role of serum testosterone, gonadotropins and prolactin in patients with PE. In a prospective a case-controlled study, it was conducted on 90 male patients with PE and 90 male healthy participants as controls. Patients were evaluated by Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) and intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). Patients with mean IELT values ≤60 s and PEDT total scores ≥11 were considered to have PE. Serum levels of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and prolactin (PL) were investigated in patients with PE and controls. There was no statistically significant difference between patients with PE and controls regarding the serum levels of TT, FT, FSH, LH and PL (p value ˃.05). There was no significant correlation between the sex hormones levels (TT, FT, FSH, LH and PL) and (age, body mass index (BMI), IELTS and total PEDT scores of the patients; p value ˃.05). This study concluded that there was no disturbance in serum levels of testosterone, gonadotropins and prolactin in patients with PE and controls. These hormones could not relate to pathogenesis of PE. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Gonadotropin stimulates oocyte translation by increasing magnesium activity through intracellular potassium-magnesium exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, S.B.; Tluczek, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    We previously showed that gonadotropin increases the K + activity in Xenopus oocytes and that this is a signal for increased translation. However, K + need not act to control synthesis directly but may act through an unidentified downstream effector. Using microinjection to vary the salt content of oocytes and concomitantly measuring [ 3 H]leucine incorporation, we found that small changes in Mg 2+ greatly affect translation rates. (Ca 2+ had little influence.) By measuring intracellular ion activities, we found that oocyte cations existed in a buffer-like (ion-exchange) equilibrium in which K + and Mg 2+ are the preponderant monovalent and divalent cations. Hence, increasing cellular K + activity might increase translation by causing Mg 2+ activity to rise. If so, the increased translation rates produced by hormone treatment or K + injection would be prevented by EDTA, a Mg 2+ chelating agent. This prediction was tested and confirmed. We conclude that, when gonadotropin increases K + activity, the cell's internal ion-exchange equilibrium is altered thereby increasing Mg 2+ activity and this up-regulates translation

  17. Neurokinin B and serum albumin limit copper binding to mammalian gonadotropin releasing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Ahmad Samir; Tran, Kevin K; Jones, Christopher E

    2018-02-26

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) triggers secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone from gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland. GnRH is able to bind copper, and both in vitro and in vivo studies have suggested that the copper-GnRH complex is more potent at triggering gonadotropin release than GnRH alone. However, it remains unclear whether copper-GnRH is the active species in vivo. To explore this we have estimated the GnRH-copper affinity and have examined whether GnRH remains copper-bound in the presence of serum albumin and the neuropeptide neurokinin B, both copper-binding proteins that GnRH will encounter in vivo. We show that GnRH has a copper dissociation constant of ∼0.9 × 10 -9  M, however serum albumin and neurokinin B can extract metal from the copper-GnRH complex. It is therefore unlikely that a copper-GnRH complex will survive transit through the pituitary portal circulation and that any effect of copper must occur outside the bloodstream in the absence of neurokinin B. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell line from chorionic villi of a Turner syndrome spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Shagufta; Panicker, M M; Gupta, Pawan Kumar

    2017-03-01

    A major cause of spontaneous abortions is chromosomal abnormality of foetal cells. We report the generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell line from the fibroblasts isolated from chorionic villi of an early spontaneously aborted foetus with Turner syndrome. The Turner syndrome villus induced pluripotent stem cell line is transgene free, retains the original XO karyotype, expresses pluripotency markers and undergoes trilineage differentiation. This pluripotent stem cell model of Turner syndrome should serve as a tool to study the developmental abnormalities of foetus and placenta that lead to early embryo lethality and profound symptoms like infertility in 45 XO survivors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of peripubertal gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist on brain development in sheep--a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuruddin, Syed; Bruchhage, Muriel; Ropstad, Erik; Krogenæs, Anette; Evans, Neil P; Robinson, Jane E; Endestad, Tor; Westlye, Lars T; Madison, Cindee; Haraldsen, Ira Ronit Hebold

    2013-10-01

    In many species sexual dimorphisms in brain structures and functions have been documented. In ovine model, we have previously demonstrated that peri-pubertal pharmacological blockade of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) action increased sex-differences of executive emotional behavior. The structural substrate of this behavioral alteration however is unknown. In this magnetic resonance image (MRI) study on the same animals, we investigated the effects of GnRH agonist (GnRHa) treatment on the volume of total brain, hippocampus and amygdala. In total 41 brains (17 treated; 10 females and 7 males, and 24 controls; 11 females and 13 males) were included in the MRI study. Image acquisition was performed with 3-T MRI scanner. Segmentation of the amygdala and the hippocampus was done by manual tracing and total gray and white matter volumes were estimated by means of automated brain volume segmentation of the individual T2-weighted MRI volumes. Statistical comparisons were performed with general linear models. Highly significant GnRHa treatment effects were found on the volume of left and right amygdala, indicating larger amygdalae in treated animals. Significant sex differences were found for total gray matter and right amygdala, indicating larger volumes in male compared to female animals. Additionally, we observed a significant interaction between sex and treatment on left amygdala volume, indicating stronger effects of treatment in female compared to male animals. The effects of GnRHa treatment on amygdala volumes indicate that increasing GnRH concentration during puberty may have an important impact on normal brain development in mammals. These novel findings substantiate the need for further studies investigating potential neurobiological side effects of GnRHa treatment on the brains of young animals and humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Active immunization against gonadotropin-releasing hormone : an effective tool to block the fertility axis in mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkstra, Jouwert Anne

    2005-01-01

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) plays a pivotal role in fertility and reproduction in mammals. It induces the release of luteinising hormone (LH) en follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) from the pituitary. These hormones are responsible for gonadal steroid production and indirectly for

  1. OVULATION INDUCTION IN PREMATURE OVARIAN FAILURE - A PLACEBO-CONTROLLED RANDOMIZED TRIAL COMBINING PITUITARY SUPPRESSION WITH GONADOTROPIN STIMULATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANKASTEREN, YM; HOEK, A; SCHOEMAKER, J

    Objectives: To determine the effect of pituitary suppression with a GnRH agonist (GnRH-a) on the success of ovulation induction with exogenous gonadotropins in patients with premature ovarian failure (POF). Design: Placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study. The data were analyzed with a

  2. Impact of different colours of artificial light at night on melatonin rhythm and gene expression of gonadotropins in European perch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüning, Anika; Hölker, Franz; Franke, Steffen; Kleiner, Wibke; Kloas, Werner

    2016-02-01

    The distribution and intensity of artificial light at night, commonly referred to as light pollution, is consequently rising and progressively also ecological implications come to light. Low intensity light is known to suppress nocturnal melatonin production in several fish species. This study aims to examine the least suppressive light colour for melatonin excreted into the holding water and the influence of different light qualities and quantities in the night on gene expression of gonadotropins in fish. European perch (Perca fluviatilis) were exposed to light of different wavelengths during the night (blue, green, and red). Melatonin concentrations were measured from water samples every 3h during a 24h period. Gene expression of gonadotropins was measured in perch exposed to different light colours and was additionally examined for perch subjected to different intensities of white light (0 lx, 1 lx, 10 lx, 100 lx) during the night. All different light colours caused a significant drop of melatonin concentration; however, blue light was least suppressive. Gene expression of gonadotropins was not influenced by nocturnal light of different light colours, but in female perch gonadotropin expression was significantly reduced by white light already at the lowest level (1 lx). We conclude that artificial light with shorter wavelengths at night is less effective in disturbing biological rhythms of perch than longer wavelengths, coinciding with the light situation in freshwater habitats inhabited by perch. Different light colours in the night showed no significant effect on gonadotropin expression, but white light in the night can disturb reproductive traits already at very low light intensities. These findings indicate that light pollution has not only the potential to disturb the melatonin cycle but also the reproductive rhythm and may therefore have implications on whole species communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Review: Regulatory mechanisms of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH synthesis and release in photoperiodic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi eTsutsui

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH is a novel hypothalamic neuropeptide that was discovered in quail as an inhibitory factor for gonadotropin release. GnIH inhibits gonadotropin synthesis and release in birds through actions on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons and gonadotropes, mediated via the GnIH receptor (GnIH-R, GPR147. Subsequently, GnIH was identified in mammals and other vertebrates. As in birds, mammalian GnIH inhibits gonadotropin secretion, indicating a conserved role for this neuropeptide in the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis across species. Identification of the regulatory mechanisms governing GnIH expression and release is important in understanding the physiological role of the GnIH system. A nocturnal hormone, melatonin, appears to act directly on GnIH neurons through its receptor to induce expression and release of GnIH in quail, a photoperiodic bird. Recently, a similar, but opposite, action of melatonin on the inhibition of expression of mammalian GnIH was shown in hamsters and sheep, photoperiodic mammals. These results in photoperiodic animals demonstrate that GnIH expression is photoperiodically modulated via a melatonin-dependent process. Recent findings indicate that GnIH may be a mediator of stress-induced reproductive disruption in birds and mammals, pointing to a broad role for this neuropeptide in assessing physiological state and modifying reproductive effort accordingly. This paper summarizes the advances made in our knowledge regarding the regulation of GnIH synthesis and release in photoperiodic birds and mammals. This paper also discusses the neuroendocrine integration of environmental signals, such as photoperiods and stress, and internal signals, such as GnIH, melatonin and glucocorticoids, to control avian and mammalian reproduction.

  4. The hormone level of both the testosterone and the gonadotropin. Chapter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Concentration of testosterone and gonadotropin hormones in blood serum was studied at 120 examined sick persons. It is shown that the statistically reliable (P<0.5) decrease of testosterone level is exhibiting under influence of radiation doses over 0.25 Gy. During radiation doses action increasing the legible tendency to of testosterone level reduction is noted. Results of pituitary gland-gonad system study in dependence of sexual dysfunctions are presented. Data evident that sexual dysfunction does not depend from suppression of hormone activity of gonads. It is revealed, that common testosterone level in sicks suffered from low radiation action was reduced. Differences in testosterone content at sicks with sexual dysfunction and without its have not been revealed

  5. Effect of temperature on the concentration of plasma gonadotropine and spermatogenesis of the goldfish Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillet, C.; Billard, R.; Breton, B.

    1977-01-01

    Concentrations of immunoreactive plasma gonadotropin (c-GtH) were measured for goldfish kept at conditions of temperature held constant or increasing between 10 and 30/sup 0/C, between February and July. At temperatures of 17/sup 0/C or above the levels of plasma c-GtH were significantly (P < 0.005) higher during April and May than at 10/sup 0/C. In April the pituitary concentration of c-GtH was maximum for fish held at 17/sup 0/C or above and the minimum for fish held below 17/sup 0/C, but in June the situation was reversed. A study of the gonads showed that spermatogenesis is faster at 17--24/sup 0/C than at 10/sup 0/C, but at 30/sup 0/C spermatogenic activity was inhibited.

  6. Influence of Anthropometric Measurements on Abnormal Gonadotropin Secretion in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, S.; Mannan, N.; Qureshi, M. A.; Khan, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of anthropometric measurements on abnormal gonadotropin secretion in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The Institute of Basic Medical Sciences (IBMS), DUHS in collaboration with Gynae/infertility clinics of the Civil Hospital and Lady Dufferin Hospital, Karachi, from October 2010 to February 2011. Methodology: One hundred and sixty three oligomenorrhic PCOS women of reproductive age (18 - 40 years) fulfilling the revised Rotterdam 2003 criteria were studied. The data recorded on a prescribed proforma included current age, age at menarche, menstrual irregularities, presence of hirsuitism, acne, infertility, familial nature, blood pressure, BMI and waisthip ratio. Blood samples for gonadotropin assay were taken randomly on day 6th to 30th of menstrual cycle, in a gel tube. Hormonal assay was performed using chemiluminescent immunoassay. Kruskul Wallis test was used to assess the influence of BMI levels on LH:FSH values. Results: The mean weight was 66.14 +- 11.02 kg and mean BMI was 27.03 +- 4.42 kg/m2. There was no significant difference in mean LH/FSH ratio (p=.575) among BMI groups. However, there was a positive correlation between BMI and LH:FSH ratio (p=0.04, r=0.155). Conclusion: There was high frequency of obesity (69%) in women with PCOS. Although no significant difference was found between mean LH:FSH ratio among different BMI groups levels but significant correlation between BMI levels and LH: FSH suggested that there was positive relation between BMI and LH: FSH. (author)

  7. A Journey through the Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone System of Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Muñoz-Cueto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that belongs to the RFamide peptide family and was first identified in the quail brain. From the discovery of avian GnIH, orthologous GnIH peptides have been reported in a variety of vertebrates, including mammals, amphibians, teleosts and agnathans, but also in protochordates. It has been clearly established that GnIH suppresses reproduction in avian and mammalian species through its inhibitory actions on brain GnRH and pituitary gonadotropins. In addition, GnIH also appears to be involved in the regulation of feeding, growth, stress response, heart function and social behavior. These actions are mediated via G protein-coupled GnIH receptors (GnIH-Rs, of which two different subtypes, GPR147 and GPR74, have been described to date. With around 30,000 species, fish represent more than one-half of the total number of recognized living vertebrate species. In addition to this impressive biological diversity, fish are relevant because they include model species with scientific and clinical interest as well as many exploited species with economic importance. In spite of this, the study of GnIH and its physiological effects on reproduction and other physiological processes has only been approached in a few fish species, and results obtained are in some cases conflicting. In this review, we summarize the information available in the literature on GnIH sequences identified in fish, the distribution of GnIH and GnIH-Rs in central and peripheral tissues, the physiological actions of GnIH on the reproductive brain-pituitary-gonadal axis, as well as other reported effects of this neuropeptide, and existing knowledge on the regulatory mechanisms of GnIH in fish.

  8. Exaggerated gonadotropin response to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in amenorrheic runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahiro, J; Glass, A R; Fears, W B; Ferguson, E W; Vigersky, R A

    1987-03-01

    Most studies of exercise-induced amenorrhea have compared amenorrheic athletes (usually runners) with sedentary control subjects. Such comparisons will identify hormonal changes that develop as a result of exercise training but cannot determine which of these changes play a role in causing amenorrhea. To obviate this problem, we assessed reproductive hormone status in a group of five amenorrheic runners and compared them to a group of six eumenorrheic runners matched for body fatness, training intensity, and exercise performance. Compared to the eumenorrheic runners, the amenorrheic runners had lower serum estradiol concentrations, similar basal serum luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations, and exaggerated responses of serum gonadotropins after administration of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (100 micrograms intravenous bolus). Serum prolactin levels, both basally and after thyrotropin-releasing hormone administration (500 micrograms intravenous bolus) or treadmill exercise, was similar in the two groups, as were serum thyroid function tests (including thyrotropin response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone). Changes in serum cortisol levels after short-term treadmill exercise were similar in both groups, and serum testosterone levels increased after exercise only in the eumenorrheic group. In neither group did such exercise change serum luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, or thyrotropin levels. We concluded that exercise-induced amenorrhea is not solely related to the development of increased prolactin output after exercise training. The exaggerated gonadotropin response to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone seen in amenorrheic runners in comparison with matched eumenorrheic runners is consistent with a hypothalamic etiology for the menstrual dysfunction, analogous to that previously described in "stress-induced" or "psychogenic" amenorrhea.

  9. Brief communication: sliding displacement of amnion and chorion following controlled laser wounding suggests a mechanism for short-term sealing of ruptured membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, F; Dickinson, M R; Charlton, A; Aplin, J D

    1994-10-01

    The Erbium-YAG laser was used to produce narrow wounds of defined depth in term amniochorion. The charring effect of the laser meant that sites could be readily localized in histological sections. During brief post-wounding incubations, sliding displacement of the amnion relative to the chorion occurred through the plane of the spongy layer. This suggests a possible short-term mechanism whereby a spontaneous rupture could be sealed in vivo.

  10. Correction to: Transplantation of Human Chorion-Derived Cholinergic Progenitor Cells: a Novel Treatment for Neurological Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Alireza; Maleki-Jamshid, Ali; Sanooghi, Davood; Milan, Peiman Brouki; Rahmani, Arash; Sefat, Farshid; Shahpasand, Koorosh; Soleimani, Mansoureh; Bakhtiari, Mehrdad; Belali, Rafie; Faghihi, Faezeh; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Perry, George; Mozafari, Masoud

    2018-04-26

    The original version of this article unfortunately contained mistake in the affiliation. Affiliation 1 should be read as "Neuroscience Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran". The original article has been corrected.

  11. Ewes carrying the Booroola and Vacaria prolificacy alleles respond differently to ovulation induction with equine chorionic gonadotrophin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, J C F; Souza, C J H

    2017-09-21

    The magnitude of ovulation rate (OR) after hormonal induction in sheep should be considered when prolific genotypes are used. We investigated for the first time the effect of the Vacaria allele and its combined effect with the Booroola prolificacy mutation on OR after hormonal treatment during breeding and anoestrous season. A hundred forty-nine Ile de France crossbred ewes, raised in natural pastures in South Brazil, were used to evaluate the OR after treatment with progestagen (MAP) followed or not by equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) treatment (MAP + eCG). During the breeding season, 96% MAP-treated ewes ovulated in comparison to 97% of MAP + eCG-treated females. The double heterozygous carriers (BNVN) presented the higher OR, followed by the single Vacaria (NNVN) and Booroola (BNNN) heterozygous females and least the wild-type (NNNN) ewes. During anoestrus, 96% eCG-treated ewes ovulated, in contrast to 6% treated with MAP alone. The OR of the gonadotrophin-treated females was higher in BNVN and BNNN than NNVN and NNNN ewes. An additive effect in the OR of the two mutations was observed since OR in double heterozygous ewes was similar to the sum of the effects of the alleles of the single heterozygous carrier ewes.

  12. Hydrodynamic properties of the gonadotropin receptor from a murine Leydig tumor cell line are altered by desensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebois, R.V.; Bradley, R.M.; Titlow, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    The murine Leydig tumor cell line 1 (MLTC-1) contains gonadotropin receptors (GR) that are coupled to adenylate cyclase through the stimulatory guanine nucleotide binding protein (G/sub s/). The binding of human choriogonadotropin (hGC) causes MLTC-1 cells to accumulate cAMP. With time, the ability of MLTC-1 cells to respond to hCG is attenuated by a process called desensitization. The hydrodynamic properties of GR from control and desensitized MLTC-1 cells were studied. Sucrose density gradient sedimentation in H 2 O and D 2 O and gel filtration chromatography were used to estimate the Stokes radius (a), partial specific volume (v/sub c/), sedimentation coefficient (s/sub 20,w/), and molecular weight (M/sub r/) of the detergent-solubilized hormone-receptor complex (hCG-GR). [ 125 I]hCG was bound to MLTC-1 cells under conditions that allow (37 0 C) or prevent (0 0 C) desensitization, and hCG-GR was solubilized in Triton X-100. In the absence of desensitization, control hCG-GR had a M/sub r/ of 213,000, whereas desensitized hCG-GR had a M/sub r/ of 158,000. Deglycosylated hCG (DG-HCG) is an antagonist that binds to GR with high affinity but fails to stimulate adenylate cyclase or cause desensitization. [ 125 I]DG-hCG was bound to MLTC-1 cells and DG-hCG-GR solubilized in Triton X-100. The hydrodynamic properties of DG-hCG-GR were the same as that for control hCG-GR. There was no evidence for the association of adenylate cyclase or G/sub s/ with GR in Triton X-100 solubilized preparations. When hCG was cross-linked to GR and solubilized with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), the M/sub r/ was found to be 116,000, which was similar to that determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and less than that of the Triton X-100 solubilized control hCG-GR

  13. Effect of stage of development and sex on gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion in in vitro hypothalamic perifusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacau-Mengido, I M; González Iglesias, A; Díaz-Torga, G; Thyssen-Cano, S; Libertun, C; Becú-Villalobos, D

    1998-04-01

    Marked sexual and ontogenic differences have been described in gonadotropin regulation in the rat. These could arise from events occurring both at the hypothalamic or hypophyseal levels. The present experiments were designed to evaluate the capacity of the hypothalamus in releasing GnRH in vitro, basally and in response to depolarization with KCl, during ontogeny in the rat. To that end we chose two well-defined developmental ages that differ markedly in sexual and ontogenic characteristics of gonadotropin regulation, 15 and 30 days. We compared GnRH release from hypothalami of females, neonatal androgenized females and males. Mediobasal hypothalami were perifused in vitro, and GnRH measured in the effluent. Basal secretion of the decapeptide increased with age in the three groups with no sexual differences encountered. When studying GnRH release induced by membrane depolarization, no differences within sex or age were encountered. On the other hand FSH serum levels decreased with age in females and increased in males, and in neonatal androgenized females followed a similar pattern to that of females. LH levels were higher in infantile females than in age-matched males or androgenized females. Such patterns of gonadotropin release were therefore not correlated to either basal or K+-induced GnRH release from the hypothalamus. We conclude that sexual and ontogenic differences in gonadotropin secretion in the developing rat are not dependent on the intrinsic capability of the hypothalamus to release GnRH in response to membrane depolarization. The hormonal differences observed during development and between sexes are probably related to differences in the sensitivity of the GnRH neuron to specific secretagogue and neurotransmitter regulation, and/or to differences in hypophyseal GnRH receptors and gonadotrope sensitivity.

  14. Dual effect of melatonin on gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-induced Ca(2+) signaling in neonatal rat gonadotropes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemková, Hana; Vaněček, Jiří

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 4 (2001), s. 262-269 ISSN 0028-3835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/99/0213; GA ČR GA309/99/0215; GA AV ČR IAA5011103; GA AV ČR IAA5011105 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : melatonin * gonadotropin-release hormone * calcium Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 2.144, year: 2001

  15. Seasonal Relationship between Gonadotropin, Growth Hormone, and Estrogen Receptor mRNA Expression in the Pituitary Gland of Largemouth Bass

    OpenAIRE

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Kroll, Kevin J.; Porak, Wesley F.; Steward, Cheree; Grier, Harry J.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the seasonal changes in pituitary gonadotropins, growth hormone (GH), and estrogen receptor (ER) isoform mRNA in wild female and male largemouth bass (LMB) (Micropterus salmoides) from an unpolluted habitat to better understand reproductive physiology in this ecologically important species. Female pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) β subunit and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) β subunit mRNA showed significant seasonal variation with levels ...

  16. Prenatal exposure to vinclozolin disrupts selective aspects of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal system of the rabbit

    OpenAIRE

    Wadas, B.C.; Hartshorn, C.A.; Aurand, E.R.; Palmer, J.S.; Roselli, C.E.; Noel, M.L.; Gore, A.C.; Veeramachaneni, D.N.R.; Tobet, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental exposure to the agricultural fungicide vinclozolin can impair reproductive function in male rabbits and was previously found to decrease the number of immunoreactive-gonadotropin-releasing hormone (ir-GnRH) neurons in the region of the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) and rostral preoptic area (rPOA) by postnatal week (PNW) 6. To further examine the disruption of GnRH neurons by fetal vinclozolin exposure, in the current study, pregnant rabbits were dosed orall...

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE RECEPTOR FOR GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE IN THE PITUITARY OF THE AFRICAN CATFISH, CLARIAS-GARIEPINUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, R.; Conn, P. M.; van't Veer, C.; Goos, H. J.; van Oordt, P. G.

    1988-01-01

    Receptors for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) were characterized using a radioligand prepared from a superactive analog of salmon GnRH (sGnRH), D-Arg(6)-Pro(9)-sGnRH-NEt (sGnRHa). Binding of(125)I-sGnRHa to catfish pituitary membrane fractions reached equilibrium after 2 h incubation at 4°C.

  18. Fundulus heteroclitus gonadotropins.5: Small scale chromatographic fractionation of pituitary extracts into components with different steroidogenic activities using homologous bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrino Teresa R

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fractionation and characterization of gonadotropins (GtH from Fundulus heteroclitus pituitary extracts were carried out using a biocompatible liquid chromatographic procedure (Pharmacia FPLC system. Chromatographic fractions were monitored for gonadotropic activities (induction of oocyte maturation and steroid production using homologous follicle bioassays in vitro. Size-exclusion chromatography eluted gonadotropic activity in one major protein peak (Mr ~ 30,000. Anion-exchange and hydrophobic-interaction chromatography (HIC yielded two distinct peaks of 17beta-estradiol (E2- and 17alpha-hydroxy,20beta-dihydroprogesterone (DHP-promoting activity with associated oocyte maturation. Two-dimensional chromatography (chromatofocusing followed by HIC resolved pituitary extracts into two active fractions; both induced E2 synthesis, but one was relatively poor in eliciting DHP and testosterone production. Thus, using homologous bioassays, at least two quantitatively different gonadotropic (steroidogenic activities: an E2-promoting gonadotropin (GtH I-like and a DHP-promoting gonadotropin (GtH II-like, which has a lower isoelectric point but greater hydrophobicity than the former, can be distinguished from F. heteroclitus pituitaries by a variety of chromatographic procedures. This study complements previous biochemical and molecular data in F. heteroclitus and substantiates the duality of GtH function in a multiple-spawning teleost.

  19. Amenorative effects of exogenous gonadotropins on reproductive profiles of replacement gilts with delayed puberty in a farm in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Am-In, Nutthee; Roongsitthichai, Atthaporn

    2017-02-01

    This study was to investigate the effect of gonadotropins on reproductive profiles of replacement gilts with delayed puberty. Totally, 136 Landrace X Yorkshire crossbred gilts, were categorized into control (n = 58) and treatment (n = 78) groups. Gonadotropins (400 U eCG plus 200 IU hCG) were administered in treatment group only. The results revealed that gilts in treatment group had higher number of gilts with estrus (92.3 vs 25.9%, P < 0.001), shorter onset to estrus (4.7 ± 0.3 vs 9.0 ± 0.8 d, P < 0.001), higher number of dominant follicles (18.0 ± 0.2 vs 13.2 ± 0.3 follicles, P < 0.001), and higher farrowing rate (87.5 vs 53.3%, P = 0.002) than those in control group. In conclusion, gonadotropins containing 400 IU eCG plus 200 IU hCG could improve reproductive profiles in replacement gilts with delayed puberty.

  20. Sex differences in the neurokinin B system in the human infundibular nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taziaux, Melanie; Swaab, Dick F.; Bakker, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The recent report that loss-of-function mutations in either the gene encoding neurokinin B (NKB) or its receptor (NK3R) produce gonadotropin deficiencies in humans strongly points to NKB as a key regulator of GnRH release. We used NKB immunohistochemistry on postmortem human brain tissue to

  1. Necdin, a Prader-Willi syndrome candidate gene, regulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nichol L G; Wevrick, Rachel; Mellon, Pamela L

    2009-01-15

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex genetic disorder characterized by hyperphagia, obesity and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, all highly suggestive of hypothalamic dysfunction. The NDN gene, encoding the MAGE family protein, necdin, maps to the PWS chromosome region and is highly expressed in mature hypothalamic neurons. Adult mice lacking necdin have reduced numbers of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, but the mechanism for this reduction is unknown. Herein, we show that, although necdin is not expressed in an immature, migratory GnRH neuronal cell line (GN11), high levels are present in a mature GnRH neuronal cell line (GT1-7). Furthermore, overexpression of necdin activates GnRH transcription through cis elements bound by the homeodomain repressor Msx that are located in the enhancer and promoter of the GnRH gene, and knock-down of necdin expression reduces GnRH gene expression. In fact, overexpression of Necdin relieves Msx repression of GnRH transcription through these elements and necdin co-immunoprecipitates with Msx from GnRH neuronal cells, indicating that necdin may activate GnRH gene expression by preventing repression of GnRH gene expression by Msx. Finally, necdin is necessary for generation of the full complement of GnRH neurons during mouse development and extension of GnRH axons to the median eminence. Together, these results indicate that lack of necdin during development likely contributes to the hypogonadotrophic hypogonadal phenotype in individuals with PWS.

  2. Necdin, a Prader–Willi syndrome candidate gene, regulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons during development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nichol L.G.; Wevrick, Rachel; Mellon, Pamela L.

    2009-01-01

    Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex genetic disorder characterized by hyperphagia, obesity and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, all highly suggestive of hypothalamic dysfunction. The NDN gene, encoding the MAGE family protein, necdin, maps to the PWS chromosome region and is highly expressed in mature hypothalamic neurons. Adult mice lacking necdin have reduced numbers of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, but the mechanism for this reduction is unknown. Herein, we show that, although necdin is not expressed in an immature, migratory GnRH neuronal cell line (GN11), high levels are present in a mature GnRH neuronal cell line (GT1-7). Furthermore, overexpression of necdin activates GnRH transcription through cis elements bound by the homeodomain repressor Msx that are located in the enhancer and promoter of the GnRH gene, and knock-down of necdin expression reduces GnRH gene expression. In fact, overexpression of Necdin relieves Msx repression of GnRH transcription through these elements and necdin co-immunoprecipitates with Msx from GnRH neuronal cells, indicating that necdin may activate GnRH gene expression by preventing repression of GnRH gene expression by Msx. Finally, necdin is necessary for generation of the full complement of GnRH neurons during mouse development and extension of GnRH axons to the median eminence. Together, these results indicate that lack of necdin during development likely contributes to the hypogonadotrophic hypogonadal phenotype in individuals with PWS. PMID:18930956

  3. Obesity, serum steroid levels, and pulsatile gonadotropin secretion in polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatikainen, T; Tulenheimo, A; Andersson, B; Kärkkäinen, J

    1983-04-01

    Serum binding capacity of sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG-BC), steroid concentrations, and secretion patterns of LH and FSH were compared between groups of seven nonobese and seven obese patients with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD). Obese patients with PCOD differed from those with normal weight in having very low SHBG-BC and elevated serum levels of free and albumin bound testosterone. Compared to healthy women in the follicular phase, both nonobese and obese patients with PCOD showed equally elevated serum levels of androstenedione, estrone, and albumin-bound and free estradiol. Pattern of gonadotropin secretion was studied from blood samples taken at 15 min intervals for 6 h. In 6 patients of both groups low pulses of FSH were found coincidently with pulses of LH. Serum level of LH showed a clear pulsatile pattern in all patients with PCOD, varying from 4.5 to 7.5 pulses per 6 h. The mean pulse rate in the groups of nonobese and obese patients with PCOD was similar, 5.9 pulses per 6 h. In the obese patients the mean LH levels were, however, less elevated and the pulse amplitudes were smaller than those in the nonobese patients. We suggest that this difference is due to high levels of biologically active testosterone in obese patients with PCOD.

  4. Does Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Agonists plus add-back therapy bring an aurora to orthodontic treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Lingyong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obviously, long therapy time of orthodontic treatment and a number of its adverse effects, such as pain, root resorption, enamel demineralization, periodontal disease, are the main reasons of complaints from patients. It is the first thing for an orthodontist to shorten the period of treatment and decrease the complications of orthodontic treatment as much as possible. The Hypothesis: We hypothesis Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Agonists (GnRHa and add-back therapy can create the "therapeutic window", namely, the appropriate estrogen level and assuage the adverse effects of estrogen deficiency which should be avoided as much as possible. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: It is generally acknowledged that estrogen has direct regulating role in bone metabolism by acting on osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Estrogen deficiency can increase the rate of orthodontic tooth movement and also bring about some adverse effects. The appropriate estrogen level, which we call the "therapeutic window" in orthodontic treatment, can speed up the orthodontic tooth movement and eliminate the adverse effects as far as possible. GnRHa can be the maker of estrogen deficiency; meanwhile, add-back therapy can remove the adverse effects by estrogen deficiency. So, we believe that GnRHa plus add-back therapy could be a new adjuvant method of orthodontic treatment and be good for orthodontists and patients.

  5. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Modulates Vomeronasal Neuron Response to Male Salamander Pheromone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste R. Wirsig-Wiechmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological studies have shown that gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH modifies chemosensory neurons responses to odors. We have previously demonstrated that male Plethodon shermani pheromone stimulates vomeronasal neurons in the female conspecific. In the present study we used agmatine uptake as a relative measure of the effects of GnRH on this pheromone-induced neural activation of vomeronasal neurons. Whole male pheromone extract containing 3 millimolar agmatine with or without 10 micromolar GnRH was applied to the nasolabial groove of female salamanders for 45 minutes. Immunocytochemical procedures were conducted to visualize and quantify relative agmatine uptake as measured by labeling density of activated vomeronasal neurons. The relative number of labeled neurons did not differ between the two groups: pheromone alone or pheromone-GnRH. However, vomeronasal neurons exposed to pheromone-GnRH collectively demonstrated higher labeling intensity, as a percentage above background (75% as compared with neurons exposed to pheromone alone (63%, P < 0.018. Since the labeling intensity of agmatine within neurons signifies the relative activity levels of the neurons, these results suggest that GnRH increases the response of female vomeronasal neurons to male pheromone.

  6. Developmental programming: impact of prenatal testosterone excess on pre- and postnatal gonadotropin regulation in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikkam, Mohan; Thompson, Robert C; Herkimer, Carol; Welch, Kathleen B; Flak, Jonathan; Karsch, Fred J; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2008-04-01

    The goal of this study was to explore mechanisms that mediate hypersecretion of LH and progressive loss of cyclicity in female sheep exposed during fetal life to excess testosterone. Our working hypothesis was that prenatal testosterone excess, by its androgenic action, amplifies GnRH-induced LH (but not FSH) secretion and, thus, hypersecretion of LH in adulthood, and that this results from altered developmental gene expression of GnRH and estradiol (E2) receptors, gonadotropin subunits, and paracrine factors that differentially regulate LH and FSH synthesis. We observed that, relative to controls, females exposed during fetal life to excess testosterone, as well as the nor-aromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone, exhibited enhanced LH but not FSH responses to intermittent delivery of GnRH boluses under conditions in which endogenous LH (GnRH) pulses were suppressed. Luteinizing hormone hypersecretion was more evident in adults than in prepubertal females, and it was associated with development of acyclicity. Measurement of pituitary mRNA concentrations revealed that prenatal testosterone excess induced developmental changes in gene expression of pituitary GnRH and E2 receptors and paracrine modulators of LH and FSH synthesis in a manner consistent with subsequent amplification of LH release. Together, this series of studies suggests that prenatal testosterone excess, by its androgenic action, amplifies GnRH-induced LH response, leading to LH hypersecretion and acyclicity in adulthood, and that this programming involves developmental changes in expression of pituitary genes involved in LH and FSH release.

  7. Internalization and recycling of receptor-bound gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in pituitary gonadotropes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schvartz, I.; Hazum, E.

    1987-01-01

    The fate of cell surface gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors on pituitary cells was studied utilizing lysosomotropic agents and monensin. Labeling of pituitary cells with a photoreactive GnRH derivative, [azidobenzoyl-D-Lys6]GnRH, revealed a specific band of Mr = 60,000. When photoaffinity-labeled cells were exposed to trypsin immediately after completion of the binding, the radioactivity incorporated into the Mr = 60,000 band decreased, with a concomitant appearance of a proteolytic fragment (Mr = 45,000). This fragment reflects cell surface receptors. Following GnRH binding, the hormone-receptor complexes underwent internalization, partial degradation, and recycling. The process of hormone-receptor complex degradation was substantially prevented by lysosomotropic agents, such as chloroquine and methylamine, or the proton ionophore, monensin. Chloroquine and monensin, however, did not affect receptor recycling, since the tryptic fragment of Mr = 45,000 was evident after treatment with these agents. This suggests that recycling of GnRH receptors in gonadotropes occurs whether or not the internal environment is acidic. Based on these findings, we propose a model describing the intracellular pathway of GnRH receptors

  8. Glucocorticoid regulation of gonadotropin release from gonadotropes of ovine pituitary gland in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nangalama, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    In order to understand the role of glucocorticoids in the regulation of gonadotropin release by the pituitary gland, the short-term effects of cortisol perifusion (1.5 h to 8 hrs) on GnRH-induced LH secretion were investigated. To determine the biochemical mechanism(s) by which cortisol can act to modulate GnRH-induced LH release, the interactions of cortisol and arachidonic acid in GnRH-stimulated LH release were examined. Cortisol perifusion for 1.5 hr had no effect on GnRH-induced LH release, but longer treatment periods (4 hr-8 hrs) significantly reduced GnRH-stimulated LH release (4.0 hr, p -4 M AA was administered for 20 min before a 10 min, 10 -10 M GnRH pulse. Like cortisol, chloroquine also failed to inhibit AA-induced LH release. Perifusion with 10 -6 M cortisol for 6.0 hours significantly (p 3 ]AA release 24% below the basal (100%) [ 3 H]AA secretion. Reduction of [ 3 H]AA release was accompanied by decreased GnRH-stimulated LH secretion

  9. Radioimmunological properties of antisera from carp gonadotropin (c-GTH) and its subunits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burzawa-Gerard, Elisabeth; Kerdelhue, B.

    1978-01-01

    Anti-sera against carp gonadotropin (c-GTH) and its subunits SU I and SU II were produced in rabbits (IS-c-GTH, IS-SU I and IS-SU II). The radioimmunological titers were determined when antiserum binding dilution was 50 p. 100 of the 125 I-labelled glycoproteins. The titers of IS-c-GTH were 1/750 000, 1/300 000 and 1/500 000, respectively with c-GTH, SU I and SU II. With SU I, the titer of IS-SU I was 1/100 000 ; this antiserum in excess bound only 25 p. 100 of the c-GTH and no SU II. With c-GTH and SU II, the titer of IS-SU II was 1/270 000; it was 1/13 000 with SU I. With these antisera no binding was observed with rat hormones (LH, FSH, TSH, PRL) but IS-c-GTH and IS-SU II weakly bound rLH [fr

  10. Nonreproductive role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the control of ascidian metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Chisato; Ohta, Naoyuki; Ogura, Yosuke; Yoshida, Keita; Horie, Takeo; Kusakabe, Takehiro G; Satake, Honoo; Sasakura, Yasunori

    2014-12-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs) are neuropeptides that play central roles in the reproduction of vertebrates. In the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, GnRHs and their receptors are expressed in the nervous systems at the larval stage, when animals are not yet capable of reproduction, suggesting that the hormones have non-reproductive roles. We showed that GnRHs in Ciona are involved in the animal's metamorphosis by regulating tail absorption and adult organ growth. Absorption of the larval tail and growth of the adult organs are two major events in the metamorphosis of ascidians. When larvae were treated with GnRHs, they completed tail absorption more frequently than control larvae. cAMP was suggested to be a second messenger for the induction of tail absorption by GnRHs. tGnRH-3 and tGnRH-5 (the "t" indicates "tunicate") inhibited the growth of adult organs by arresting cell cycle progression in parallel with the promotion of tail absorption. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms of ascidian metamorphosis conducted by non-reproductive GnRHs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Chitosan-based DNA delivery vector targeted to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonthum, Chatwalee; Namdee, Katawut; Boonrungsiman, Suwimon; Chatdarong, Kaywalee; Saengkrit, Nattika; Sajomsang, Warayuth; Ponglowhapan, Suppawiwat; Yata, Teerapong

    2017-02-10

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the application of modified chitosan as a potential vector for gene delivery to gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR)-expressing cells. Such design of gene carrier could be useful in particular for gene therapy for cancers related to the reproductive system, gene disorders of sexual development, and contraception and fertility control. In this study, a decapeptide GnRH was successfully conjugated to chitosan (CS) as confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H NMR) and Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The synthesized GnRH-conjugated chitosan (GnRH-CS) was able to condense DNA to form positively charged nanoparticles and specifically deliver plasmid DNA to targeted cells in both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures systems. Importantly, GnRH-CS exhibited higher transfection activity compared to unmodified CS. In conclusion, GnRH-conjugated chitosan can be a promising carrier for targeted DNA delivery to GnRHR-expressing cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Procedure-related risk of miscarriage following amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akolekar, R; Beta, J; Picciarelli, G; Ogilvie, C; D'Antonio, F

    2015-01-01

    To estimate procedure-related risks of miscarriage following amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS) based on a systematic review of the literature and a meta-analysis. A search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL and The Cochrane Library (2000-2014) was performed to review relevant citations reporting procedure-related complications of amniocentesis and CVS. Only studies reporting data on more than 1000 procedures were included in this review to minimize the effect of bias from smaller studies. Heterogeneity between studies was estimated using Cochran's Q, the I(2) statistic and Egger bias. Meta-analysis of proportions was used to derive weighted pooled estimates for the risk of miscarriage before 24 weeks' gestation. Incidence-rate difference meta-analysis was used to estimate pooled procedure-related risks. The weighted pooled risks of miscarriage following invasive procedures were estimated from analysis of controlled studies including 324 losses in 42 716 women who underwent amniocentesis and 207 losses in 8899 women who underwent CVS. The risk of miscarriage prior to 24 weeks in women who underwent amniocentesis and CVS was 0.81% (95% CI, 0.58-1.08%) and 2.18% (95% CI, 1.61-2.82%), respectively. The background rates of miscarriage in women from the control group that did not undergo any procedures were 0.67% (95% CI, 0.46-0.91%) for amniocentesis and 1.79% (95% CI, 0.61-3.58%) for CVS. The weighted pooled procedure-related risks of miscarriage for amniocentesis and CVS were 0.11% (95% CI, -0.04 to 0.26%) and 0.22% (95% CI, -0.71 to 1.16%), respectively. The procedure-related risks of miscarriage following amniocentesis and CVS are much lower than are currently quoted. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Maternal use of fertility drugs and risk of cancer in children--a nationwide population-based cohort study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hargreave, Marie; Jensen, Allan; Nielsen, Thor Schütt Svane

    2015-01-01

    Large population-based studies are needed to examine the effect of maternal use of fertility drugs on the risk of cancer in children, while taking into account the effect of the underlying infertility. A cohort of 123,322 children born in Denmark between 1964 and 2006 to 68,255 women who had been...... evaluated for infertility was established. We used a case-cohort design and calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for cancer in childhood (0-19 years) and in young adulthood (20-29 years) associated with maternal use of six groups of fertility drugs (clomiphene, gonadotropins [i.e., human menopausal gonadotropins...... and follicle-stimulating hormone], gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs, human chorionic gonadotropins, progesterone and other fertility drugs). We found no statistically significant association between maternal use of fertility drugs and risk for overall cancer in childhood or young adulthood. However...

  14. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies of the chorion, plasma membrane and syncytial layers of the gastrula-stage embryo of the zebrafish Brachydanio rerio : a consideration of the structural and functional relationships with respect to cryoprotectant penetration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rawson, DM; Zhang, T; Kalicharan, D; Jongebloed, WL

    The structure of the chorion and plasma membranes of gastrula-stage zebrafish Brachydanio rerio embryos were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These studies confirm the outer chorion membrane complex to be 1.5-2.5 mu m in

  15. Maternal use of acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and acetylsalicylic acid during pregnancy and risk of cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Søndergaard; Rebordosa, Cristina; Thulstrup, Ane Marie

    2010-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors-acetaminophen, ibuprofen and acetylsalicylic acid-have endocrine-disruptive properties in the rainbow trout. In humans, aspirin blocks the androgen response to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and, because hCG-stimulated androgen production in utero is crucial...... for normal testicular descent, exposure to COX inhibitors at vulnerable times during gestation may impair testicular descent. We examined whether prenatal exposure to acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and acetylsalicylic acid was associated with increased occurrence of cryptorchidism....

  16. Neuroanatomical organization of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons during the oestrus cycle in the ewe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batailler, Martine; Caraty, Alain; Malpaux, Benoît; Tillet, Yves

    2004-01-01

    Background During the preovulatory surge of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a very large amount of the peptide is released in the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal blood for 24-36H00. To study whether this release is linked to a modification of the morphological organization of the GnRH-containing neurons, i.e. morphological plasticity, we conducted experiments in intact ewes at 4 different times of the oestrous cycle (before the expected LH surge, during the LH surge, and on day 8 and day 15 of the subsequent luteal phase). The cycle stage was verified by determination of progesterone and LH concentrations in the peripheral blood samples collected prior to euthanasia. Results The distribution of GnRH-containing neurons throughout the preoptic area around the vascular organ of the lamina terminalis was studied following visualisation using immunohistochemistry. No difference was observed in the staining intensity for GnRH between the different groups. Clusters of GnRH-containing neurons (defined as 2 or more neurons being observed in close contact) were more numerous during the late follicular phase (43 ± 7) than during the luteal phase (25 ± 6), and the percentage of clusters was higher during the beginning of the follicular phase than during the luteal phase. There was no difference in the number of labelled neurons in each group. Conclusions These results indicate that the morphological organization of the GnRH-containing neurons in ewes is modified during the follicular phase. This transitory re-organization may contribute to the putative synchronization of these neurons during the surge. The molecular signal inducing this plasticity has not yet been identified, but oestradiol might play an important role, since in sheep it is the only signal which initiates the GnRH preovulatory surge. PMID:15555074

  17. Neuroanatomical organization of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons during the oestrus cycle in the ewe

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    Malpaux Benoît

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the preovulatory surge of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, a very large amount of the peptide is released in the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal blood for 24-36H00. To study whether this release is linked to a modification of the morphological organization of the GnRH-containing neurons, i.e. morphological plasticity, we conducted experiments in intact ewes at 4 different times of the oestrous cycle (before the expected LH surge, during the LH surge, and on day 8 and day 15 of the subsequent luteal phase. The cycle stage was verified by determination of progesterone and LH concentrations in the peripheral blood samples collected prior to euthanasia. Results The distribution of GnRH-containing neurons throughout the preoptic area around the vascular organ of the lamina terminalis was studied following visualisation using immunohistochemistry. No difference was observed in the staining intensity for GnRH between the different groups. Clusters of GnRH-containing neurons (defined as 2 or more neurons being observed in close contact were more numerous during the late follicular phase (43 ± 7 than during the luteal phase (25 ± 6, and the percentage of clusters was higher during the beginning of the follicular phase than during the luteal phase. There was no difference in the number of labelled neurons in each group. Conclusions These results indicate that the morphological organization of the GnRH-containing neurons in ewes is modified during the follicular phase. This transitory re-organization may contribute to the putative synchronization of these neurons during the surge. The molecular signal inducing this plasticity has not yet been identified, but oestradiol might play an important role, since in sheep it is the only signal which initiates the GnRH preovulatory surge.

  18. The lower expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor associated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mingzhu; Zhu, Jing; Ling, Yang; Shi, Wenping; Zhang, Changsong; Wu, Haorong

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) has been demonstrated in a number of malignancies. The aim is to investigate the expression of GnRHR and prognosis in gastric cancer. Methods and materials: GnRHR mRNA was examined in tumor and non-tumor tissues from 48 gastric cancer patients by Real-time PCR. The GnRHR protein expression was performed by immunohistochemical analysis. Results: The expression of GnRHR mRNA was higher (mean ± SD, -10.06 ± 1.28) in gastric tumor tissues than matched non-tumor tissues (mean ± SD, -12.43 ± 1.33). GnRHR mRNA expression was associated with lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and TNM stage. We found the decreased expression of GnRHR mRNA were significantly correlated with poor overall survival (P = 0.003). Immunocytochemical staining of GnRHR in tumor tissues showed mainly weak staining (43.48%, 10/23) and moderate staining (21.74%, 5/23) in high GnRHR mRNA patients, and mainly negative staining in low GnRHR mRNA patients. And the staining of GnRHR was not detection in tumor tissues for more than half of gastric patients (52.08%, 25/48). These results implied that the loss of GnRHR protein could be a main event in gastric cancer. Conclusion: The GnRHR expression is very low in gastric cancer, and the loss of GnRHR expression could be a poor prognostic factor, which implied that GnRHR could play an important role in the development of gastric cancer. PMID:26550267

  19. Immunological properties of prolactin and studies on a gonadotropin binding inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.S.

    1985-01-01

    The physiological role of prolactin in horses has not yet been well defined. With the availability of highly purified ePRL for inducing antibody formation in rabbits and for radiolabeling with Na 125 I, a very sensitive (0.4-0.6 ng/ml) and highly specific homologous RIA for ePRL was developed. A heterologous RIA using 125 I-labeled ovine PRL and anti-ePRL antiserum was also developed and compared to the homologous RIA for ePRL. Of the two systems, it is concluded that this homologous RIA system is more suitable and more reliable for measuring prolactin concentration in horse serum samples. Until now, biochemical information on PRL has not been available for reptilian species. Sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) prolactin was purified from pituitary extracts by selective precipitation, DEAE-cellulose chromatography and gel filtration. Similar to other species of PRL, sea turtle PRL is a 22,000-24,000 daltons protein and contains a high content of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, serine and leucine, the N-terminal amino acid residue. Gonadotropin (FSH) binding inhibitor was partially purified from sheep testes by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion exchange chromatography. The FSH-BI (molecular weight: 50,000 daltons, estimated by gel filtration) contains a protein moiety necessary for binding inhibitory activity. The inhibition of the binding of 125 I-labeled ovine FSH to its receptor by the FSH-BI is not competitive. Both in vivo and in vitro biological studies of FSH-BI preparations in rats indicated various effects on FSH and LH activities at the gonadal level. These findings suggest a physiological role for FSH-BI in the regulation of reproduction

  20. Differential Gene Expression in Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons of Male and Metestrous Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vastagh, Csaba; Rodolosse, Annie; Solymosi, Norbert; Farkas, Imre; Auer, Herbert; Sárvári, Miklós; Liposits, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons play a pivotal role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis in a sex-specific manner. We hypothesized that the differences seen in reproductive functions of males and females are associated with a sexually dimorphic gene expression profile of GnRH neurons. We compared the transcriptome of GnRH neurons obtained from intact metestrous female and male GnRH-green fluorescent protein transgenic mice. About 1,500 individual GnRH neurons from each sex were sampled with laser capture microdissection followed by whole-transcriptome amplification for gene expression profiling. Under stringent selection criteria (fold change >1.6, adjusted p value 0.01), Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 PM array analysis identified 543 differentially expressed genes. Sexual dimorphism was most apparent in gene clusters associated with synaptic communication, signal transduction, cell adhesion, vesicular transport and cell metabolism. To validate microarray results, 57 genes were selected, and 91% of their differential expression was confirmed by real-time PCR. Similarly, 88% of microarray results were confirmed with PCR from independent samples obtained by patch pipette harvesting and pooling of 30 GnRH neurons from each sex. We found significant differences in the expression of genes involved in vesicle priming and docking (Syt1, Cplx1), GABAergic (Gabra3, Gabrb3, Gabrg2) and glutamatergic (Gria1, Grin1, Slc17a6) neurotransmission, peptide signaling (Sstr3, Npr2, Cxcr4) and the regulation of intracellular ion homeostasis (Cacna1, Cacnb1, Cacng5, Kcnq2, Kcnc1). The striking sexual dimorphism of the GnRH neuron transcriptome we report here contributes to a better understanding of the differences in cellular mechanisms of GnRH neurons in the two sexes. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Acute gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment enhances extinction memory in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, L Y; Taha, M B; Cover, K K; Glynn, S S; Murillo, M; Lebron-Milad, K; Milad, M R

    2017-08-01

    Leuprolide acetate (LEU), also known as Lupron, is commonly used to treat prostate cancer in men. As a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor agonist, it initially stimulates the release of gonadal hormones, testosterone (T) and estradiol. This surge eventually suppresses these hormones, preventing the further growth and spread of cancer cells. Individuals receiving this treatment often report anxiety and cognitive changes, but LEU's effects on the neural mechanisms that are involved in anxiety during the trajectory of treatment are not well known. In this study, we examined the acute effects of LEU on fear extinction, hypothesizing that increased T levels following a single administration of LEU will facilitate extinction recall by altering neuronal activity within the fear extinction circuitry. Two groups of naïve adult male rats underwent a 3-day fear conditioning, extinction, and recall experiment. The delayed group (n=15) received a single injection of vehicle or LEU (1.2mg/kg) 3weeks before behavioral testing. The acute group (n=25) received an injection one day after fear conditioning, 30min prior to extinction training. Following recall, the brains for all animals were collected for c-fos immunohistochemistry. Blood samples were also collected and assayed for T levels. Acute administration of LEU increased serum T levels during extinction training and enhanced extinction recall 24h later. This enhanced extinction memory was correlated with increased c-fos activity within the infralimbic cortex and amygdala, which was not observed in the delayed group. These results suggest that the elevation in T induced by acute administration of LEU can influence extinction memory consolidation, perhaps through modification of neuronal activity within the infralimbic cortex and amygdala. This may be an important consideration in clinical applications of LEU and its effects on anxiety and cognition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Toward developing recombinant gonadotropin-based hormone therapies for increasing fertility in the flatfish Senegalese sole.

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    François Chauvigné

    Full Text Available Captive flatfishes, such as the Senegalese sole, typically produce very low volumes of sperm. This situation is particularly prevalent in the first generation (F1 of reared sole males, which limits the development of artificial fertilization methods and the implementation of selective breeding programs. In this study, we investigated whether combined treatments with homologous recombinant follicle-stimulating (rFsh and luteinizing (rLh hormones, produced in a mammalian host system, could stimulate spermatogenesis and enhance sperm production in Senegalese sole F1 males. In an initial autumn/winter experiment, weekly intramuscular injections with increasing doses of rFsh over 9 weeks resulted in the stimulation of gonad weight, androgen release, germ cell proliferation and entry into meiosis, and the expression of different spermatogenesis-related genes, whereas a subsequent single rLh injection potentiated spermatozoa differentiation. In a second late winter/spring trial corresponding to the sole's natural prespawning and spawning periods, we tested the effect of repeated rLh injections on the amount and quality of sperm produced by males previously treated with rFsh for 4, 6, 8 or 10 weeks. These latter results showed that the combination of rFsh and rLh treatments could increase sperm production up to 7 times, and slightly improve the motility of the spermatozoa, although a high variability in the response was found. However, sustained administration of rFsh during spawning markedly diminished Leydig cell survival and the steroidogenic potential of the testis. These data suggest that in vivo application of rFsh and rLh is effective at stimulating spermatogenesis and sperm production in Senegalese sole F1 males, setting the basis for the future establishment of recombinant gonadotropin-based hormone therapies to ameliorate reproductive dysfunctions of this species.

  3. Double insemination and gonadotropin-releasing hormone treatment of repeat-breeding dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J S; Call, E P; Scoby, R K; Phatak, A P

    1990-07-01

    Our objective was to determine if double inseminations during the same estrous period of dairy cattle eligible for their third or fourth service (repeat breeders) would improve pregnancy rates equivalent to injections of GnRH given at the time of AI. Repeat-breeding, lactating cows from six herds (five herds in the San Joaquin Valley of central California and one herd in northeast Kansas) were assigned randomly to four treatment groups when detected in estrus: 1) single AI plus no injection, 2) single AI plus 100 micrograms GnRH at AI, 3) double AI plus no injection, or 4) double AI plus 100 micrograms of GnRH at AI. Inseminations were performed according to the a.m.-p.m. rule. The second AI for the double AI treatment was given 12 to 16 h after the first AI. Injections of GnRH were given intramuscularly immediately following the single AI or the first AI of the double AI. Pregnancy rates of cows given a single AI and hormone injection were numerically higher in all six herds than those of their herdmates given only a single AI. In five of six herds, the pregnancy rates of cows given a double AI and hormone injection were numerically higher than pregnancy rates of their herdmates given only a double AI. Overall pregnancy rates for the four treatments were 1) 112/353 (32.1%), 2) 165/406 (41.6%), 3) 119/364 (33.5%), and 4) 135/359 (37.5%). Gonadotropin-releasing hormone increased pregnancy rates of repeat breeders compared with controls given only a single AI. No further benefit beyond the single AI was accrued from the double AI treatment, with or without concurrent hormone administration.

  4. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 2 suppresses food intake in the zebrafish, Danio rerio

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    Ryo eNishiguchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH is an evolutionarily conserved neuropeptide with 10 amino acid residues, of which several structural variants exist. A molecular form known as GnRH2 ([His5 Trp7 Tyr8]GnRH, also known as chicken GnRH II is widely distributed in vertebrates except for rodents, and has recently been implicated in the regulation of feeding behavior in goldfish. However, the influence of GnRH2 on feeding behavior in other fish has not yet been studied. In the present study, therefore, we investigated the role of GnRH2 in the regulation of feeding behavior in a zebrafish model, and examined its involvement in food intake after intracerebroventricular (ICV administration. ICV injection of GnRH2 at 0.1 and 1 pmol/g body weight (BW induced a marked decrease of food consumption in a dose-dependent manner during 30 min after feeding. Cumulative food intake was significantly decreased by ICV injection of GnRH2 at 1 pmol/g BW during the 30-min post-treatment observation period. The anorexigenic action of GnRH2 was completely blocked by treatment with the GnRH type I receptor antagonist Antide at 50 pmol/g BW. We also examined the effect of feeding condition on the expression level of the GnRH2 transcript in the hypothalamus. Levels of GnRH2 mRNA obtained from fish that had been provided excess food for 7 days were higher than those in fish that had been fed normally. These results suggest that, in zebrafish, GnRH2 acts as an anorexigenic factor, as is the case in goldfish.

  5. Participation of the endoplasmic reticulum protein chaperone thio-oxidoreductase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor expression at the plasma membrane

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    W. Lucca-Junior

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Chaperone members of the protein disulfide isomerase family can catalyze the thiol-disulfide exchange reaction with pairs of cysteines. There are 14 protein disulfide isomerase family members, but the ability to catalyze a thiol disulfide exchange reaction has not been demonstrated for all of them. Human endoplasmic reticulum protein chaperone thio-oxidoreductase (ERp18 shows partial oxidative activity as a protein disulfide isomerase. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the participation of ERp18 in gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR expression at the plasma membrane. Cos-7 cells were cultured, plated, and transfected with 25 ng (unless indicated wild-type human GnRHR (hGnRHR or mutant GnRHR (Cys14Ala and Cys200Ala and pcDNA3.1 without insert (empty vector or ERp18 cDNA (75 ng/well, pre-loaded for 18 h with 1 µCi myo-[2-3H(N]-inositol in 0.25 mL DMEM and treated for 2 h with buserelin. We observed a decrease in maximal inositol phosphate (IP production in response to buserelin in the cells co-transfected with hGnRHR, and a decrease from 20 to 75 ng of ERp18 compared with cells co-transfected with hGnRHR and empty vector. The decrease in maximal IP was proportional to the amount of ERp18 DNA over the range examined. Mutants (Cys14Ala and Cys200Ala that could not form the Cys14-Cys200 bridge essential for plasma membrane routing of the hGnRHR did not modify maximal IP production when they were co-transfected with ERp18. These results suggest that ERp18 has a reduction role on disulfide bonds in wild-type hGnRHR folding.

  6. Expression of estrogen receptor α 36 (ESR36) in the hamster ovary throughout the estrous cycle: effects of gonadotropins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Prabuddha; Roy, Shyamal K

    2013-01-01

    Estradiol-17β (E) plays an important role in ovarian follicular development. Evidence indicates that some of the effect of E is mediated by the transmembrane estrogen receptor. In this study, we examined the spatio-temporal expression of recently discovered ERα36 (ESR36), a splice variant of Esr1 and a receptor for non-genomic E signaling, in the hamster ovary during the estrous cycle and the role of gonadotropins and ovarian steroid hormones in ESR36 expression. ESR36 expression was high on estrus (D1:0900 h) and declined precipitously by proestrus (D4:0900 h) and remained low up to D4:1600 h. Immunofluorescence findings corroborated immunoblot findings and revealed that ESR36 was expressed only in the cell membrane of both follicular and non-follicular cells, except the oocytes. Ovarian ESR36 was capable of binding to the E-affinity matrix, and have different molecular weight than that of the ESR1 or GPER. Hypophysectomy (Hx) resulted in a marked decline in ESR36 protein levels. FSH and LH, alone or combined, markedly upregulated ESR36 protein in Hx hamsters to the levels observed in D1 hamsters, but neither E nor P had any effect. Inhibition of the gonadotropin surge by phenobarbital treatment on D4:1100 h attenuated ESR36 expression in D1:0900 h ovaries, but the decline was restored by either FSH or LH replacement on D4 afternoon. This is the first report to show that ESR36, which is distinct from ESR1 or GPER is expressed in the plasma membrane of ovarian follicular and non-follicular cells, binds to E and its expression is regulated directly by the gonadotropins. In light of our previous findings, the results suggest that ovarian cells contain at least two distinct membrane estrogen receptors, such as GPER and ESR36, and strongly suggest for a non-genomic action of E regulating ovarian follicular functions.

  7. Suplementasi Hormon Gonadotropin Pada Medium Maturasi In Vitro Untuk Meningkatkan Perkembangan Embrio Stadium 4 Sel Kambing Bligon

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    Dewi Pranatasari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the effect of gonadotropin hormone supplementation into in vitro maturation medium on maturation, fertilization and embryo development of Bligon goats. This research steps consist of oocyte collection, in vitro maturation, in vitro fertilization, and in vitro embryo development. At the maturation stage the oocyte that had been collected and divided into two groups based on the maturation medium, that was tissue culture medium (TCM with supplementation of GnRH 0 IU/mL and GnRH 25 IU/mL. Oocyte and embryo morphology data were analyzed descriptively. Maturation rate and embryo development data were analyzed by using independent sample t-test. Fertilization data was analyzed descriptively. The result showed the percentages of mature oocytes from gonadotropin supplementation of 0 IU/mL and 25 IU/mL were 54.10±25.97 and 54.89±26.44%, respectively. Expansion cumulus cells surrounding the oocytes might indicated the mature oocytes. Cleavage rate of the 2 cells stage were 13,02±11,09 and 27,01±16,65%; respectively, and for the 4 cells stage were 10,16±10,01% and 16,67±14.91%. Embryos obtained from the treatment, indicated uniform of blastomeres in the size, tight, compact, intact, and round-spherical shape. It could be concluded that supplementation of gonadotropin hormone into in vitro maturation medium could not increase the rate of oocyte maturation and 4 cell embryo development, but it could increase 2 cell embryo development of Bligon goats. Hormone supplementation could improved the maturation and embryo quality.

  8. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Regulates Expression of the DNA Damage Repair Gene, Fanconi anemia A, in Pituitary Gonadotroph Cells1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larder, Rachel; Chang, Lynda; Clinton, Michael; Brown, Pamela

    2007-01-01

    Gonadal function is critically dependant on regulated secretion of the gonadotropin hormones from anterior pituitary gonadotroph cells. Gonadotropin biosynthesis and release is triggered by the binding of hypothalamic GnRH to GnRH receptor expressed on the gonadotroph cell surface. The repertoire of regulatory molecules involved in this process are still being defined. We used the mouse LβT2 gonadotroph cell line, which expresses both gonadotropin hormones, as a model to investigate GnRH regulation of gene expression and differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to identify and isolate hormonally induced changes. This approach identified Fanconi anemia a (Fanca), a gene implicated in DNA damage repair, as a differentially expressed transcript. Mutations in Fanca account for the majority of cases of Fanconi anemia (FA), a recessively inherited disease identified by congenital defects, bone marrow failure, infertility, and cancer susceptibility. We confirmed expression and hormonal regulation of Fanca mRNA by quantitative RT-PCR, which showed that GnRH induced a rapid, transient increase in Fanca mRNA. Fanca protein was also acutely upregulated after GnRH treatment of LβT2 cells. In addition, Fanca gene expression was confined to mature pituitary gonadotrophs and adult mouse pituitary and was not expressed in the immature αT3-1 gonadotroph cell line. Thus, this study extends the expression profile of Fanca into a highly specialized endocrine cell and demonstrates hormonal regulation of expression of the Fanca locus. We suggest that this regulatory mechanism may have a crucial role in the GnRH-response mechanism of mature gonadotrophs and perhaps the etiology of FA. PMID:15128600

  9. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone regulates expression of the DNA damage repair gene, Fanconi anemia A, in pituitary gonadotroph cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larder, Rachel; Chang, Lynda; Clinton, Michael; Brown, Pamela

    2004-09-01

    Gonadal function is critically dependant on regulated secretion of the gonadotropin hormones from anterior pituitary gonadotroph cells. Gonadotropin biosynthesis and release is triggered by the binding of hypothalamic GnRH to GnRH receptor expressed on the gonadotroph cell surface. The repertoire of regulatory molecules involved in this process are still being defined. We used the mouse L beta T2 gonadotroph cell line, which expresses both gonadotropin hormones, as a model to investigate GnRH regulation of gene expression and differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to identify and isolate hormonally induced changes. This approach identified Fanconi anemia a (Fanca), a gene implicated in DNA damage repair, as a differentially expressed transcript. Mutations in Fanca account for the majority of cases of Fanconi anemia (FA), a recessively inherited disease identified by congenital defects, bone marrow failure, infertility, and cancer susceptibility. We confirmed expression and hormonal regulation of Fanca mRNA by quantitative RT-PCR, which showed that GnRH induced a rapid, transient increase in Fanca mRNA. Fanca protein was also acutely upregulated after GnRH treatment of L beta T2 cells. In addition, Fanca gene expression was confined to mature pituitary gonadotrophs and adult mouse pituitary and was not expressed in the immature alpha T3-1 gonadotroph cell line. Thus, this study extends the expression profile of Fanca into a highly specialized endocrine cell and demonstrates hormonal regulation of expression of the Fanca locus. We suggest that this regulatory mechanism may have a crucial role in the GnRH-response mechanism of mature gonadotrophs and perhaps the etiology of FA.

  10. Induction of spermatogenesis and fertility in hypogonadotropic azoospermic men by intravenous pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Z; Makler, A; Frisch, L; Brandes, J M

    1988-06-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has only recently become a helpful tool in the medication of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). Two azoospermic patients with HH who had previously been treated with hCG/hMG because of delayed puberty and each of whom had fathered a child after previous gonadotropin therapy were referred due to secondary failure of hCG/hMG treatment to induce spermatogenesis and fertility. A pulse study where blood was drawn every 15 minutes for LH, FSH and PRL RIAs was performed in each patient, and afterwards a bolus of i.v. GnRH was injected to assess gonadotropin responsiveness. A portable GnRH pump was connected to each patient so that it administered 5-20 micrograms of GnRH i.v. every 89 minutes. Spermatogenesis was first detected after 42 and 78 days respectively in the 2 treated HH men and 4 1/2 months from the start of treatment their wives became pregnant. No thrombophlebitis or other complications of the i.v. therapy occurred. In the case of the first patient, the semen was washed and concentrated and intra-uterine inseminations were carried out in an attempt to shorten the time needed to achieve fertility. The first pregnancy was successfully terminated at 38 weeks with the delivery of 2 heterozygotic normal male babies. The second pregnancy ended in spontaneous delivery of a healthy female. We conclude that i.v. pulsatile, intermittent GnRH administration is a safe, efficient and highly successful means of treating azoospermic men with HH.

  11. Molecular and functional characterization of a novel gonadotropin-releasing-hormone receptor isolated from the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris)

    OpenAIRE

    Kanda, Atsuhiro; Takahashi, Toshio; Satake, Honoo; Minakata, Hiroyuki

    2006-01-01

    GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of reproduction in vertebrates through interaction with a specific receptor. Previously, we isolated a GnRH homo-logue, oct-GnRH, from the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris). In the present study, we have identified a GnRH receptor (oct-GnRHR) specific for oct-GnRH from Octopus brain. Oct-GnRHR includes domains and motifs typical of vertebrate GnRH receptors. The intron-inserted positions are conserved between oct-GnR...

  12. The Effect of Oral Feeding of Tribulus terrestris L. on Sex Hormone and Gonadotropin Levels in Addicted Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosian Moghaddam, Mohammad Hassan; Khalili, Mohsen; Maleki, Maryam; Ahmad Abadi, Mohammad Esmail

    2013-01-01

    Background: Opioids can exert adverse effects on the body. Morphine, an opioid drug, reduces hormone levels and fertility, and causes sexual activity disorders. Tribulus terrestris (TT) is a traditional herbal medicine used to enhance sexual activities. This study investigates the possible role of TT on sex hormones and gonadotropins with the intent to show its usefulness in treating fertility disorders in opioid users. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we randomly divided 48 rats into four groups: i. control, ii. TT-treated, iii. addicted and iv. TT-treated addicted. Watersoluble morphine was administrated orally for 21 days to induce addiction, after which the treated groups 2 and 4 received plant-mixed pelleted food (6.25%) orally for four weeks. At the end of the treatment period, the sex hormone and gonadotropin levels of all rats’ sera were determined by radioimmunoassay and Elisa kits. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance, followed by post-hoc Tukey test. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The addicted group had a significantly lower luteinizing hormone (LH) level than the control group (p<0.027). LH levels increased significantly in the TT-treated addicted group (p<0.031). The testosterone level in the treated addicted group was lower than the treated control group. The addicted group had a significantly low testosterone level (p<0.001). The estrogen level was significantly (p<0.002) lower in the addicted group than in the control group. In addition, there was a significant difference between the treated addicted group and the treated control group (p<0.048). The treated control group had a significant increase in its progesterone level (p<0.002). Overall, except for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), morphine reduced most of the gonadotropins and sexual hormones. Whereas TT caused a considerable increase (p<0.05) in the hormones in the treated addicted group, there was only a

  13. The Effect of Oral Feeding of Tribulus terrestris L. on Sex Hormone and Gonadotropin Levels in Addicted Male Rats

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    Maryam Maleki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Opioids can exert adverse effects on the body. Morphine, an opioid drug,reduces hormone levels and fertility, and causes sexual activity disorders. Tribulus terrestris(TT is a traditional herbal medicine used to enhance sexual activities. This studyinvestigates the possible role of TT on sex hormones and gonadotropins with the intent toshow its usefulness in treating fertility disorders in opioid users.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we randomly divided 48 rats intofour groups: i. control, ii. TT-treated, iii. addicted and iv. TT-treated addicted. Watersolublemorphine was administrated orally for 21 days to induce addiction, after whichthe treated groups 2 and 4 received plant-mixed pelleted food (6.25% orally for fourweeks. At the end of the treatment period, the sex hormone and gonadotropin levels of allrats’ sera were determined by radioimmunoassay and Elisa kits. The data obtained werestatistically analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance, followed by post-hoc Tukeytest. P<0.05 was considered significant.Results: The addicted group had a significantly lower luteinizing hormone (LH levelthan the control group (p<0.027. LH levels increased significantly in the TT-treated addictedgroup (p<0.031. The testosterone level in the treated addicted group was lowerthan the treated control group. The addicted group had a significantly low testosteronelevel (p<0.001. The estrogen level was significantly (p<0.002 lower in the addictedgroup than in the control group. In addition, there was a significant difference betweenthe treated addicted group and the treated control group (p<0.048. The treated controlgroup had a significant increase in its progesterone level (p<0.002. Overall, except forfollicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, morphine reduced most of the gonadotropins andsexual hormones. Whereas TT caused a considerable increase (p<0.05 in the hormonesin the treated addicted group, there was only a slight increase in

  14. Degarelix: A Novel Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Receptor Blocker-Results from a 1-yr, Multicentre, Randomised, Phase 2 Dosage-Finding Study in the Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Poppel, Hendrik; Tombal, Bertrand; de la Rosette, Jean J.; Persson, Bo-Eric; Jensen, Jens-Kristian; Kold Olesen, Tine

    2008-01-01

    Background: Degarelix is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRH receptor blocker) with immediate onset of action, suppressing gonadotropins, testosterone, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in prostate cancer. Objective: To determine the efficacy and safety of initial doses of 200 mg or

  15. Regulatory Architecture of the LβT2 Gonadotrope Cell Underlying the Response to Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone

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    Frederique Ruf-Zamojski

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The LβT2 mouse pituitary cell line has many characteristics of a mature gonadotrope and is a widely used model system for studying the developmental processes and the response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH. The global epigenetic landscape, which contributes to cell-specific gene regulatory mechanisms, and the single-cell transcriptome response variation of LβT2 cells have not been previously investigated. Here, we integrate the transcriptome and genome-wide chromatin accessibility state of LβT2 cells during GnRH stimulation. In addition, we examine cell-to-cell variability in the transcriptional response to GnRH using Gel bead-in-Emulsion Drop-seq technology. Analysis of a bulk RNA-seq data set obtained 45 min after exposure to either GnRH or vehicle identified 112 transcripts that were regulated >4-fold by GnRH (FDR < 0.05. The top regulated transcripts constitute, as determined by Bayesian massive public data integration analysis, a human pituitary-relevant coordinated gene program. Chromatin accessibility [assay for transposase-accessible chromatin with high-throughput sequencing (ATAC-seq] data sets generated from GnRH-treated LβT2 cells identified more than 58,000 open chromatin regions, some containing notches consistent with bound transcription factor footprints. The study of the most prominent open regions showed that 75% were in transcriptionally active promoters or introns, supporting their involvement in active transcription. Lhb, Cga, and Egr1 showed significantly open chromatin over their promoters. While Fshb was closed over its promoter, several discrete significantly open regions were found at −40 to −90 kb, which may represent novel upstream enhancers. Chromatin accessibility determined by ATAC-seq was associated with high levels of gene expression determined by RNA-seq. We obtained high-quality single-cell Gel bead-in-Emulsion Drop-seq transcriptome data, with an average of >4,000 expressed genes

  16. Early postnatal treatment of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with recombinant human FSH and LH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, Katharina M; Schmidt, Ida M; Toppari, Jorma

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism may be diagnosed shortly after birth because of micropenis and cryptorchidism, combined with subnormal LH and FSH concentrations during the postnatal period. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether treating these patients with gonadotropins postna...... observed. CONCLUSIONS: Gonadotropin treatment in an infant with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism succeeded in inducing an increase in inhibin B and testicular growth.......BACKGROUND: Patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism may be diagnosed shortly after birth because of micropenis and cryptorchidism, combined with subnormal LH and FSH concentrations during the postnatal period. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether treating these patients with gonadotropins...... the normal range (0.05-0.17 IU/l and 79-112 pg/ml respectively). METHODS: From 7.9 to 13.7 months of age, the patient was treated with recombinant human LH and FSH in doses of 20 and 21.3 IU s.c. twice weekly respectively. RESULTS: During treatment concentrations of LH, FSH, inhibin B and estradiol increased...

  17. Semi-quantitative ultrastructural analysis of the localization and neuropeptide content of gonadotropin releasing hormone nerve terminals in the median eminence throughout the estrous cycle of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevot, V; Dutoit, S; Croix, D; Tramu, G; Beauvillain, J C

    1998-05-01

    The ultrastructural appearance of gonadotropin releasing hormone-immunoreactive elements was studied in the external zone of the median eminence of adult female Wistar rats. On the one hand, the purpose of the study was to determine the distribution of gonadotropin releasing hormone terminals towards the parenchymatous basal lamina at the level of hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal vessels, throughout the estrous cycle. On the other hand, we have semi-quantified the gonadotropin releasing hormone content in nerve terminals or preterminals during this physiological condition. A morphometric study was coupled to a colloidal 15 mn gold postembedding immunocytochemistry procedure. Animals were killed at 09.00 on diestrus II, 0.900, 10.00, 13.00, 17.00 and 18.00 on proestrus and 09.00 on estrus (n = 4-8 rats/group). A preliminary light microscopic study was carried out to identify an antero-posterior part of median eminence strongly immunostained by anti-gonadotropin releasing hormone antibodies but which was, in addition, easily spotted. This last condition was necessary to make a good comparison between each animal. Contacts between gonadotropin releasing hormone nerve terminals and the basal lamina were observed only the day of proestrus. Such contacts, however, were rare and in the great majority of cases, gonadotropin releasing hormone terminals are separated from basal lamina by tanycytic end feet. The morphometric analysis showed no significant variation in average distance between gonadotropin releasing hormone terminals and capillaries throughout the estrous cycle. Consequently, it did not appear that a large neuroglial plasticity exists during the estrous cycle. However, the observation of contacts only on proestrus together with some ultrastructural images evoke the possibility of a slight plasticity. The semi-quantitative results show that the content of gonadotropin releasing hormone in the nerve endings presented two peaks on proestrus: one at 09.00 (23 +/- 5

  18. Fanconi Anemia a Is a Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling Molecule Required for Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Transduction of the GnRH Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Larder, Rachel; Karali, Dimitra; Nelson, Nancy; Brown, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    GnRH binds its cognate G protein-coupled GnRH receptor (GnRHR) located on pituitary gonadotropes and drives expression of gonadotropin hormones. There are two gonadotropin hormones, comprised of a common α- and hormone-specific β-subunit, which are required for gonadal function. Recently we identified that Fanconi anemia a (Fanca), a DNA damage repair gene, is differentially expressed within the LβT2 gonadotrope cell line in response to stimulation with GnRH. FANCA is mutated in more than 60%...

  19. Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  20. Gender impact on first trimester markers in Down syndrome screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Severin Olesen; Wøjdemann, Karen R; Shalmi, Anne-Cathrine

    2002-01-01

    The influence of fetal gender on the level in the first trimester of the serological markers alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free beta human chorionic gonadotropin (betahCG) and on nuchal translucency is described for 2637 singleton pregnancies with nor......The influence of fetal gender on the level in the first trimester of the serological markers alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free beta human chorionic gonadotropin (betahCG) and on nuchal translucency is described for 2637 singleton pregnancies...... with normal outcome. Mean log MoM values for pregnancies with female and male fetuses were calculated using regression of log marker values on gestational age expressed as crown rump length and on maternal weight. A pronounced gender impact was found for free betahCG, being 16% higher for female than for male...

  1. Review: hCG, Preeclampsia and Regulatory T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, Wendy; Nevers, Tania; Sharma, Surendra; Kalkunte, Satyan

    2011-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is crucial for successful pregnancy. Its many functions include angiogenesis and immune regulation. Despite years of research, the etiology of preeclampsia remains unknown. Marked by insufficient trophoblast invasion and poor spiral artery remodeling, preeclampsia has also been linked to immune dysregulation. Here we discuss the roles of hCG in the context of endovascular cross-talk between trophoblasts and endothelial cells and immune tolerance. We propose ...

  2. Veterinary Laboratory Services Study - 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-01

    years. Many tests , such as ;uman pregnancy testing , Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolation and :iers have been converted to in—vitro procedures. Sheep...assignment in laboratories and worked in chemistry , mic robiology , or diagnostic areas can be directly uti l ized with little additional orientation. They...Chorionic Gonadotropin 475 730 17 1,222 UCG or Human Pregnancy 147 42 189 Tularemia 332 332 OX—19 211 211 Salmonella 219 219 Trichinella 17 17 Venipuncture

  3. Immunogenicity and Safety of an Inactivated Rift Valley Fever Vaccine in a 19-Year Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-26

    in general good health. Women of childbearing potential were required to have a negative beta subunit human chorionic gonadotropin (BhCG) pregnancy ...3 of the primary series (Fig. 1). 3.3.1.1. Serological analysis primary series of most prevalent lots uti - lized. When immune response analysis was...reported in one study with sheep that received MP-12 in the first trimester of pregnancy , other studies in ewes and in cattle showed no evidence of

  4. Hormone patterns in early human gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishell, D.R. Jr.; Thorneycroft, I.H.; Nagata, Y.; Murata, T.; Nakamura, R.M.

    1974-01-01

    Accurate measurement of the low concentration of gonadotropins and steroid hormones present in human serum has been made possible by the development of sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques. With the use of RIA FSH and LH, progesterone and 17OH-progesterone have been previously measured in early normal pregnancy. In order to determine the daily pattern of hormone levels in early normal pregnancy, gonadotropins as well as steroid hormone levels were measured in serum samples obtained daily from three women from the time of the last menstrual period prior to conception throughout the first few months of gestation. To further identify the steroid hormone pattern in early normal pregnancy, concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, and 17OH-progesterone were measured in individual serum samples obtained from a group of 158 women with apparently normal gestations who subsequently had therapeutic abortions. (auth)

  5. Pre- and postoperative status of gonadotropins (FSH and LH) and inhibin-B in relation to testicular histopathology at orchiopexy in infant boys with unilateral undescended testes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Thorup, Sebastian Cortes

    2015-01-01

    of unilateral orchiopexy on levels of gonadotropins and inhibin-B and correlate the hormone findings to the histopathology of the unilateral undescended testis. METHODS: 50 boys (mean age: 1 year and 2 months) operated for unilateral cryptorchidism had blood samples for serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle...

  6. Bone Mass in Young Adulthood Following Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analog Treatment and Cross-Sex Hormone Treatment in Adolescents With Gender Dysphoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klink, D.T.; Caris, M.G.; Heijboer, A.C.; van Trotsenburg, M.; Rotteveel, J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Sex steroids are important for bone mass accrual. Adolescents with gender dysphoria (GD) treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa) therapy are temporarily sex-steroid deprived until the addition of cross-sex hormones (CSH). The effect of this treatment on bone mineral

  7. Molecular Cloning, Genomic Organization and Developmental Regulation of a Novel Receptor from Drosophila melanogaster Structurally Related to Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptors from Vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Frank; Søndergaard, Leif; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J.P.

    1998-01-01

    After screening the data base of the BerkeleyDrosophilaGenome Project with a sequence coding for the transmembrane region of a G protein-coupled receptor, we found thatDrosophilamight contain a gene coding for a receptor that is structurally related to the Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) re...

  8. Comparison between pulsatile GnRH therapy and gonadotropins for ovulation induction in women with both functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and polycystic ovarian morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Agathe; Dewailly, Didier; Plouvier, Pauline; Catteau-Jonard, Sophie; Robin, Geoffroy

    2016-12-01

    Ovulation induction in patients having both functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) and polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) has been less studied in the literature. As results remain contradictory, no recommendations have yet been established. To compare pulsatile GnRH therapy versus gonadotropins for ovulation induction in "FHA-PCOM" patients and to determine if one treatment strikes as superior to the other. A 12-year retrospective study, comparing 55 "FHA-PCOM" patients, treated either with GnRH therapy (38 patients, 93 cycles) or with gonadotropins (17 patients, 53 cycles). Both groups were similar, defined by low serum LH and E2 levels, low BMI, excessive follicle number per ovary and/or high serum AMH level. Ovulation rates were significantly lower with gonadotropins (56.6% versus 78.6%, p = 0.005), with more cancellation and ovarian hyper-responses (14% versus 34% per initiated cycle, p < 0.005). Pregnancy rates were significantly higher with GnRH therapy, whether per initiated cycle (26.9% versus 7.6%, p = 0.005) or per patient (65.8% versus 23.5%, p = 0.007). In our study, GnRH therapy was more successful and safer than gonadotropins, for ovulation induction in "FHA-PCOM" patients. If results were confirmed by prospective studies, it could become a first-line treatment for this population, just as it is for FHA women without PCOM.

  9. Involvement of phospholipase C and intracellular calcium signaling in the gonadotropin-releasing hormone regulation of prolactin release from lactotrophs of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbæk; Weber, G M; Strom, C N

    2005-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a potent stimulator of prolactin (PRL) secretion in various vertebrates including the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. The mechanism by which GnRH regulates lactotroph cell function is poorly understood. Using the advantageous characteristics of the teleost...

  10. Expression of estrogen receptor α 36 (ESR36 in the hamster ovary throughout the estrous cycle: effects of gonadotropins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabuddha Chakraborty

    Full Text Available Estradiol-17β (E plays an important role in ovarian follicular development. Evidence indicates that some of the effect of E is mediated by the transmembrane estrogen receptor. In this study, we examined the spatio-temporal expression of recently discovered ERα36 (ESR36, a splice variant of Esr1 and a receptor for non-genomic E signaling, in the hamster ovary during the estrous cycle and the role of gonadotropins and ovarian steroid hormones in ESR36 expression. ESR36 expression was high on estrus (D1:0900 h and declined precipitously by proestrus (D4:0900 h and remained low up to D4:1600 h. Immunofluorescence findings corroborated immunoblot findings and revealed that ESR36 was expressed only in the cell membrane of both follicular and non-follicular cells, except the oocytes. Ovarian ESR36 was capable of binding to the E-affinity matrix, and have different molecular weight than that of the ESR1 or GPER. Hypophysectomy (Hx resulted in a marked decline in ESR36 protein levels. FSH and LH, alone or combined, markedly upregulated ESR36 protein in Hx hamsters to the levels observed in D1 hamsters, but neither E nor P had any effect. Inhibition of the gonadotropin surge by phenobarbital treatment on D4:1100 h attenuated ESR36 expression in D1:0900 h ovaries, but the decline was restored by either FSH or LH replacement on D4 afternoon. This is the first report to show that ESR36, which is distinct from ESR1 or GPER is expressed in the plasma membrane of ovarian follicular and non-follicular cells, binds to E and its expression is regulated directly by the gonadotropins. In light of our previous findings, the results suggest that ovarian cells contain at least two distinct membrane estrogen receptors, such as GPER and ESR36, and strongly suggest for a non-genomic action of E regulating ovarian follicular functions.

  11. Clomiphene citrate versus high doses of gonadotropins for in vitro fertilisation in women with compromised ovarian reserve: a randomised controlled non-inferiority trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragni Guido

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present randomised controlled non-inferiority trial is to test whether in women with compromised ovarian reserve requiring in vitro fertilisation, a protocol of ovarian stimulation using exclusively clomiphene citrate performs similarly to a regimen with high doses of gonadotropins. Methods Women with day 3 serum FSH > 12 IU/ml on at least two occasions or previous poor response to hyper-stimulation were recruited at four Italian infertility units. Selected women were allocated to clomiphene citrate 150 mg/day from day 3 to day 7 of the cycle (n=145 or to a short protocol with GnRH agonist 0.1 mg and recombinant FSH 450 IU daily (n=146. They were randomised by means of a computer-generated list into two groups. The study was not blinded. The main outcome of the study was the delivery rate per started cycle. Results The study was interrupted after the scheduled two years of recruitment before reaching the sample size. 148 women were allocated to clomiphene citrate and 156 to the short protocol with high doses of gonadotropins; 124 and 125 participants were analysed in the groups, respectively. Women allocated to high doses of gonadotropins retrieved more oocytes and had a higher probability to perform embryo-transfer. However, the chances of success were similar. The delivery rate per started cycle in women receiving clomiphene citrate and high-dose gonadotropins was 3% (n=5 and 5% (n=7, respectively (p=0.77. The mean estimated cost per delivery in the two groups was 81,294 and 113,107 Euros, respectively. No side-effects or adverse events were observed. Conclusions In women with compromised ovarian reserve selected for in vitro fertilisation, ovarian stimulation with clomiphene citrate or high-dose gonadotropins led to similar chances of pregnancy but the former is less expensive. Trial registration Trial registered on http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01389713

  12. Environmental impacts on the gonadotropic system in female Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) during vitellogenesis: Photothermal effects on pituitary gonadotropins, ovarian gonadotropin receptor expression, plasma sex steroids and oocyte growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranger, Geir Lasse; Muncaster, Simon; Norberg, Birgitta; Thorsen, Anders; Andersson, Eva

    2015-09-15

    The gonadotropic system and ovarian growth and development were studied during vitellogenesis in female Atlantic salmon subjected to either simulated natural photoperiod and ambient water temperature (NL-amb), or an accelerating photoperiod (short day of LD8:16 from May 10) combined with either warmed (ca 2°C above ambient; 8L-warm) or cooled water (ca 2°C below ambient; 8L-cold) from May to September. Monthly samples were collected from 10 females/group for determination of transcript levels of pituitary gonadotropin subunits (fshb and lhb) and ovarian gonadotropin receptors (fshr and lhr), plasma sex steroids (testosterone: T and estradiol-17β: E2), gonadosomatic index (GSI) and oocyte size. Short day in combination with either warmed or cooled water induced an earlier increase in pituitary fshb and lhb levels compared with NL-amb controls, and advanced ovarian growth and the seasonal profiles of T, E2. By contrast only minor effects were seen of the photothermal treatments on ovarian fshr and lhr. The 8L-cold had earlier increase in fshb, lhb and E2, but similar oocyte and gonadal growth as 8L-warm, suggesting that the 8L-cold group tried to compensate for the lower water temperature during the period of rapid gonadal growth by increasing fshb and E2 production. Both the 8L-warm and 8L-cold groups showed incomplete ovulation in a proportion of the females, possibly due to the photoperiod advancement resulting in earlier readiness of spawning occurring at a higher ambient temperature, or due to some reproductive dysfunction caused by photothermal interference with normal neuroendocrine regulation of oocyte development and maturation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Aberrant gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) expression and its regulation of CYP11B2 expression and aldosterone production in adrenal aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Hattangady, Namita G; Ye, Ping; Satoh, Fumitoshi; Morimoto, Ryo; Ito-Saito, Takako; Sugawara, Akira; Ohba, Koji; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Rainey, William E; Sasano, Hironobu

    2014-03-25

    Aberrant expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) has been reported in human adrenal tissues including aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA). However, the details of its expression and functional role in adrenals are still not clear. In this study, quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed the mean level of GnRHR mRNA was significantly higher in APAs than in human normal adrenal (NA) (P=0.004). GnRHR protein expression was detected in human NA and neoplastic adrenal tissues. In H295R cells transfected with GnRHR, treatment with GnRH resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in CYP11B2 reporter activity. Chronic activation of GnRHR with GnRH (100nM), in a cell line with doxycycline-inducible GnRHR (H295R-TR/GnRHR), increased CYP11B2 expression and aldosterone production. These agonistic effects were inhibited by blockers for the calcium signaling pathway, KN93 and calmidazolium. These results suggest GnRH, through heterotopic expression of its receptor, may be a potential regulator of CYP11B2 expression levels in some cases of APA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A case of bilateral tubal pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayano Funamizu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral tubal pregnancy is very rare and occurs in only 1 out of every 200,000 spontaneous pregnancies. In this case, a 29-year-old woman with a history of primary infertility underwent treatment with human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, and became pregnant. A gestational sac (GS was not detected in the uterus and transvaginal ultrasonography (USG revealed GS with fetal heartbeat in the left adnexa at 7 weeks and 6 days of gestation. The patient underwent laparoscopic surgery and ultimately, bilateral tubal pregnancy was diagnosed. Consequently, bilateral fallopian tube resection was performed. Afterwards, she conceived by assisted reproductive technology (ART and delivered vaginally. This case suggests that even if a GS is found in one fallopian tube by USG, it is important to evaluate the other fallopian tube carefully. Keywords: bilateral tubal pregnancy, ectopic pregnancy, human menopausal gonadotropin, laparoscopy

  15. The nervus terminalis in amphibians: anatomy, chemistry and relationship with the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muske, L E; Moore, F L

    1988-01-01

    The nervus terminalis (TN), a component of the olfactory system, is found in most vertebrates. The TN of some fishes and mammals contains neurons immunoreactive (ir) to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (LHRH), and to several other neuropeptides and neurotransmitter systems, but there is little information on TN chemistry in other vertebrate taxa. Using immunocytochemical techniques, we found LHRH-ir neurons in amphibian TNs. In anurans, but not in a urodele, the TN was also found to contain Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2 (FMRFamide) immunoreactivity. LHRH-ir neurons of the TN and those of the septal-hypothalamic system are morphologically homogeneous and form a distinct anatomical continuum in amphibians. Based upon topographical and cytological criteria, we hypothesize that LHRH-ir systems in vertebrates might derive embryonically from the TN.

  16. Early-life Social Isolation Impairs the Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone Neuronal Activity and Serotonergic System in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko eSoga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Social isolation in early life deregulates the serotonergic system of the brain, compromising reproductive function. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus are critical to the inhibitory regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal activity in the brain and release of luteinising hormone by the pituitary gland. Although GnIH responds to stress, the role of GnIH in social isolation-induced deregulation of the serotonin system and reproductive function remains unclear. We investigated the effect of social isolation in early life on the serotonergic–GnIH neuronal system using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-tagged GnIH-transgenic rats. Socially isolated rats were observed for anxious and depressive behaviours. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined c-Fos protein expression in EGFP–GnIH neurons in 9-week-old adult male rats after 6 weeks post-weaning isolation or group -housing. We also inspected serotonergic fibre juxtapositions in EGFP–GnIH neurons in control and socially isolated male rats. Socially isolated rats exhibited anxious and depressive behaviours. The total number of EGFP–GnIH neurons was the same in control and socially isolated rats, but c-Fos expression in GnIH neurons was significantly reduced in socially isolated rats. Serotonin fibre juxtapositions on EGFP–GnIH neurons was also lower in socially isolated rats. In addition, levels of tryptophan hydroxylase mRNA expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus were significantly attenuated in these rats. These results suggest that social isolation in early life results in lower serotonin levels, which reduce GnIH neuronal activity and may lead to reproductive failure.

  17. Resumption of menstruation and pituitary response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone in functional hypothalamic amenorrhea subjects undertaking estrogen replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Z Q; Xu, J J; Lin, J F

    2013-11-01

    Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) refers to a functional menstrual disorder with various causes and presentations. Recovery of menstrual cyclicity is common in long-term follow-up but the affecting factors remain unknown. To explore factors affecting the menstrual resumption and to evaluate the pituitary response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in FHA. Thirty cases with FHA were recruited. All subjects were put on continuous 1 mg/day estradiol valerate orally and followed up monthly. Recovery was defined as the occurrence of at least three consecutive regular cycles. Responder referred to those who recovered within two years of therapy. Gonadotropin response to the 50 μg GnRH challenge was tested every three months. Nineteen (63.3%) subjects recovered with a mean time to recovery of 26.8 months. Time to recovery was negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI) before and by amenorrhea. Twentyone cases had undertaken therapy for more than two years and 10 of them recovered. BMI before and by amenorrhea were negatively correlated with the recovery. Significant increase of serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and LH response to GnRH were noted after recovery. Menstrual resumption was common in FHA undertaking estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). The likelihood of recovery was affected by their BMI before and by amenorrhea but not by the weight gain during therapy. Low serum LH and attenuated LH response to GnRH were the main features of pituitary deficiency in FHA. The menstrual resumption in FHA was accompanied by the recovery of serum LH and the LH response to GnRH.

  18. Early-Life Social Isolation Impairs the Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone Neuronal Activity and Serotonergic System in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Tomoko; Teo, Chuin Hau; Cham, Kai Lin; Idris, Marshita Mohd; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2015-01-01

    Social isolation in early life deregulates the serotonergic system of the brain, compromising reproductive function. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus are critical to the inhibitory regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal activity in the brain and release of luteinizing hormone by the pituitary gland. Although GnIH responds to stress, the role of GnIH in social isolation-induced deregulation of the serotonin system and reproductive function remains unclear. We investigated the effect of social isolation in early life on the serotonergic-GnIH neuronal system using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged GnIH transgenic rats. Socially isolated rats were observed for anxious and depressive behaviors. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined c-Fos protein expression in EGFP-GnIH neurons in 9-week-old adult male rats after 6 weeks post-weaning isolation or group housing. We also inspected serotonergic fiber juxtapositions in EGFP-GnIH neurons in control and socially isolated male rats. Socially isolated rats exhibited anxious and depressive behaviors. The total number of EGFP-GnIH neurons was the same in control and socially isolated rats, but c-Fos expression in GnIH neurons was significantly reduced in socially isolated rats. Serotonin fiber juxtapositions on EGFP-GnIH neurons were also lower in socially isolated rats. In addition, levels of tryptophan hydroxylase mRNA expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus were significantly attenuated in these rats. These results suggest that social isolation in early-life results in lower serotonin levels, which reduce GnIH neuronal activity and may lead to reproductive failure.

  19. CONGENITAL MALFORMATIONS: PRENATAL DIAGNOSTICS AND NOVEL CONCEPTION OF MEDICAL HELP TO NEWBORNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.F. Isakov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Current views on basic prenatal diagnostics techniques, as ultrasound, maternal serum biochemical markers (alpha fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, and unconjugated estriol, and fetal biologic material (chorionic villus sampling, placenta, amniotic liquid, fetal blood, obtained with invasive techniques (chorion biopsy, amniocentesis, cordocentesis, its' efficacy and possible practical application are given in the article. These new conception announce to consolidate three branches providing maternal and children — welfare should consolidate maternal welfare outpatient clinics, maternal hospital and newborn surgery hospital — into one institute, thus allowing to success work of all stages, to avoid transportation and late surgical treatment, to reduce lethal outcomes following surgical treatment of congenital malformations. Primary results of implementation of this conception are presented in the article.Key words: prenatal diagnostics, newborns, congenital mal formations, prevention and prophylactics, diagnostics.

  20. Pregnancy complications and metabolic disease in women with clomiphene citrate-resistant anovulation randomized to receive laparoscopic electrocautery of the ovaries or ovulation induction with gonadotropins: a 10-year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahuis, Marleen J.; Oude Lohuis, Eefje J.; Bayram, Neriman; Hompes, Peter G. A.; Oosterhuis, G. Jurjen E.; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben Willem J.; van Wely, Madelon

    2014-01-01

    To assess long-term effects of laparoscopic electrocautery of the ovaries compared with ovulation induction with gonadotropins in women with clomiphene citrate (CC)-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) on the incidence of pregnancy complications like gestational diabetes, hypertensive

  1. Endocrine gland-derived endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) is a potential novel regulator of human parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunand, C; Hoffmann, P; Sapin, V; Blanchon, L; Salomon, A; Sergent, F; Benharouga, M; Sabra, S; Guibourdenche, J; Lye, S J; Feige, J J; Alfaidy, N

    2014-09-01

    EG-VEGF is an angiogenic factor that we identified as a new placental growth factor during human pregnancy. EG-VEGF is also expressed in the mouse fetal membrane (FM) by the end of gestation, suggesting a local role for this protein in the mechanism of parturition. However, injection of EG-VEGF to gravid mice did not induce labor, suggesting a different role for EG-VEGF in parturition. Here, we searched for its role in the FM in relation to human parturition. Human pregnant sera and total FM, chorion, and amnion were collected during the second and third trimesters from preterm no labor, term no labor, and term labor patients. Primary human chorion trophoblast and FM explants cultures were also used. We demonstrate that circulating EG-VEGF increased toward term and significantly decreased at the time of labor. EG-VEGF production was higher in the FM compared to placentas matched for gestational age. Within the FM, the chorion was the main source of EG-VEGF. EG-VEGF receptors, PROKR1 and PROKR2, were differentially expressed within the FM with increased expression toward term and an abrupt decrease with the onset of labor. In chorion trophoblast and FM explants collected from nonlaboring patients, EG-VEGF decreased metalloproteinase-2 and -9 activities and increased PGDH (prostaglandin-metabolizing enzyme) expression. Altogether these data demonstrate that EG-VEGF is a new cytokine that acts locally to ensure FM protection in late pregnancy. Its fine contribution to the initiation of human labor is exhibited by the abrupt decrease in its levels as well as a reduction in its receptors. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  2. Influence of light intensity and spectral composition of artificial light at night on melatonin rhythm and mRNA expression of gonadotropins in roach Rutilus rutilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüning, Anika; Hölker, Franz; Franke, Steffen; Kleiner, Wibke; Kloas, Werner

    2018-02-01

    In this study we investigated the influence of artificial light at night (ALAN) of different intensities (0, 1, 10, 100 lx) and different colours (blue, green, red) on the daily melatonin rhythm and mRNA expression of gonadotropins in roach Rutilus rutilus, a ubiquitous cyprinid, which occur in standing and moderately flowing freshwater habitats of central Europe. Melatonin concentrations were significantly lowered under nocturnal white light already at 1 lx. Low intensity blue, green and red ALAN lowered the melatonin levels significantly in comparison to a dark control. We conclude that ALAN can disturb melatonin rhythms in roach at very low intensities and at different wavelengths and thus light pollution in urban waters has the potential to impact biological rhythms in fish. However, mRNA expression of gonadotropins was not affected by ALAN during the period of the experiments. Thus, suspected implications of ALAN on reproduction of roach could not be substantiated.

  3. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor activates GTPase RhoA and inhibits cell invasion in the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Rojas, Arturo; Huerta-Reyes, Maira; Maya-Núñez, Guadalupe; Arechavaleta-Velásco, Fabián; Conn, P Michael; Ulloa-Aguirre, Alfredo; Valdés, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and its receptor (GnRHR) are both expressed by a number of malignant tumors, including those of the breast. In the latter, both behave as potent inhibitors of invasion. Nevertheless, the signaling pathways whereby the activated GnRH/GnRHR system exerts this effect have not been clearly established. In this study, we provide experimental evidence that describes components of the mechanism(s) whereby GnRH inhibits breast cancer cell invasion. Actin polymerization and substrate adhesion was measured in the highly invasive cell line, MDA-MB-231 transiently expressing the wild-type or mutant DesK191 GnRHR by fluorometry, flow cytometric analysis, and confocal microscopy, in the absence or presence of GnRH agonist. The effect of RhoA-GTP on stress fiber formation and focal adhesion assembly was measured in MDA-MB-231 cells co-expressing the GnRHRs and the GAP domain of human p190Rho GAP-A or the dominant negative mutant GAP-Y1284D. Cell invasion was determined by the transwell migration assay. Agonist-stimulated activation of the wild-type GnRHR and the highly plasma membrane expressed mutant GnRHR-DesK191 transiently transfected to MDA-MB-231 cells, favored F-actin polymerization and substrate adhesion. Confocal imaging allowed detection of an association between F-actin levels and the increase in stress fibers promoted by exposure to GnRH. Pull-down assays showed that the effects observed on actin cytoskeleton resulted from GnRH-stimulated activation of RhoA GTPase. Activation of this small G protein favored the marked increase in both cell adhesion to Collagen-I and number of focal adhesion complexes leading to inhibition of the invasion capacity of MDA-MB-231 cells as disclosed by assays in Transwell Chambers. We here show that GnRH inhibits invasion of highly invasive breast cancer-derived MDA-MB-231 cells. This effect is mediated through an increase in substrate adhesion promoted by activation of RhoA GTPase and formation of

  4. Comparison of the ultrashort gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist-antagonist protocol with microdose flare -up protocol in poor responders: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berker, Bülent; Duvan, Candan İltemir; Kaya, Cemil; Aytaç, Ruşen; Satıroğlu, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    To determine the potential effect of the ultrashort gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist/GnRH antagonist protocol versus the microdose GnRH agonist protocol in poor responders undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The patients in the Agonist-Antagonist Group (n=41) were administered the ultrashort GnRH-agonist/ antagonist protocol, while the patients in the Microdose Group (n=41) were stimulated according to the microdose flare-up protocol. The mean number of mature oocytes retrieved was the primary outcome measure. Fertilization rate, implantation rate per embryo and clinical pregnancy rates were secondary outcome measures. There was no differenc between the mean number of mature oocytes retrieved in the two groups. There were also no statistical differences between the two groups in terms of peak serum E2 level, canceled cycles, endometrial thickness on hCG day, number of 2 pronucleus and number of embryos transferred. However, the total gonadotropin consumption and duration of stimulation were significantly higher with the Agonist-Antagonist Group compared with the Microdose Group. The implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were similar between the two groups. Despite the high dose of gonadotropin consumption and longer duration of stimulation with the ultrashort GnRH agonist/ antagonist protocol, it seems that the Agonist-Antagonist Protocol is not inferior to the microdose protocol in poor responders undergoing ICSI.

  5. The Effects of Administrated Sildenafil Citrate on Uterine Luminal Epithelium Height Associated with Ovarian Angiogenesis: An Experimental Animal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosein Golkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ovarian angiogenesis (OA remains in lifetime and normal ovarian function depends to this continual remodeling of a complex vascular system. Endometrial thickness (ET is one of the strongest predictors of successful implantation and pregnancy. Appropriate OA effects on ET by facilitating of ovarian hormone delivery. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult female mice and twenty adult male mice were purchased. The female mice were divided into three groups: (1 control group without any intervention (n = 10, (2 gonadotropin group: receiving human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG and human chorionic gonadotropin (n = 10, and (3 gonadotropin and sildenafil citrate (SC group: receiving HMG and SC administration (n = 10. After mating, animals were deeply anesthetized, and the ovary and uterus was rapidly removed for histology and immunohistochemistry process. Results: Four days after ovarian induction, all three layers of the uterus with specified thickness can be clearly seen. The heights of endometrial epithelial cells in gonadotropin group were not significantly different than those in control group. In gonadotropin and SC group, heights of the cells were significantly (P 0.05 each. Our results of immunohistochemistry survey for ovarian CD31 demonstrated that administrated SC increased OA but not significantly (P > 0.05 each. Conclusion: It may finally conclude that administration of SC does not cause notable alterations in OA and ET; although for realistic decision about the SC effects on aforementioned parameters, more molecular investigations and longer drug consumption period are necessary.

  6. Gonadotropin Inhibitory Hormone Down-Regulates the Brain-Pituitary Reproductive Axis of Male European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paullada-Salmerón, José A; Cowan, Mairi; Aliaga-Guerrero, María; Morano, Francesca; Zanuy, Silvia; Muñoz-Cueto, José A

    2016-06-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) inhibits gonadotropin synthesis and release from the pituitary of birds and mammals. However, the physiological role of orthologous GnIH peptides on the reproductive axis of fish is still uncertain, and their actions on the main neuroendocrine systems controlling reproduction (i.e., GnRHs, kisspeptins) have received little attention. In a recent study performed in the European sea bass, we cloned a cDNA encoding a precursor polypeptide that contained C-terminal MPMRFamide (sbGnIH-1) and MPQRFamide (sbGnIH-2) peptide sequences, developed a specific antiserum against sbGnIH-2, and characterized its central and pituitary GnIH projections in this species. In this study, we analyzed the effects of intracerebroventricular injection of sbGnIH-1 and sbGnIH-2 on brain and pituitary expression of reproductive hormone genes (gnrh1, gnrh2, gnrh3, kiss1, kiss2, gnih, lhbeta, fshbeta), and their receptors (gnrhr II-1a, gnrhr II-2b, kiss1r, kiss2r, and gnihr) as well as on plasma Fsh and Lh levels. In addition, we determined the effects of GnIH on pituitary somatotropin (Gh) expression. The results obtained revealed the inhibitory role of sbGnIH-2 on brain gnrh2, kiss1, kiss2, kiss1r, gnih, and gnihr transcripts and on pituitary fshbeta, lhbeta, gh, and gnrhr-II-1a expression, whereas sbGnIH-1 only down-regulated brain gnrh1 expression. However, at different doses, central administration of both sbGnIH-1 and sbGnIH-2 decreased Lh plasma levels. Our work represents the first study reporting the effects of centrally administered GnIH in fish and provides evidence of the differential actions of sbGnIH-1 and sbGnIH-2 on the reproductive axis of sea bass, the main inhibitory role being exerted by the sbGnIH-2 peptide. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  7. Efecto de la administración de diferentes dosis de gonadotrofina coriónica equina sobre la respuesta ovárica y el desarrollo in vitro de embriones de ratón Effect of different doses of equine chorionic gonadotropin on ovary response and in vitro mouse embryo development

    OpenAIRE

    M. T. Teruel; R. C. Catalano; S. S. Callejas; J. A. Cabodevila; S. Gómez

    2006-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de diferentes dosis de gonadotrofina coriónica equina (eCG) (5, 7,5 o 10 UI) sobre parámetros ováricos y desarrollo in vitro de embriones de hembras ratón Balb C. El peso y diámetro ovárico fueron superiores en animales tratados con 7,5 y 10 UI de eCG que en animales controles (P

  8. Microdose gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist flare-up protocol versus multiple dose gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist protocol in poor responders undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection-embryo transfer cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Korhan; Berker, Bulent; Atabekoglu, Cem Somer; Sonmezer, Murat; Cetinkaya, Esra; Aytac, Rusen; Satiroglu, Hakan

    2009-06-01

    To compare the efficacy of microdose GnRH agonist (GnRH-a) flare-up and multiple dose GnRH antagonist protocols in patients who have a poor response to a long luteal GnRH-a protocol. Prospective, randomized, clinical study. University hospital. Forty-two poor responder patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)-embryo transfer cycle. Twenty-one patients received microdose leuprolide acetate (LA) (50 microg twice daily) starting on the second day of withdrawal bleeding. The other 21 patients received 0.25 mg of cetrorelix daily when the leading follicle reached 14 mm in diameter. Serum E(2) levels, number of growing follicles and mature oocytes, embryo quality, dose of gonadotropin used, cancellation, fertilization, implantation rate and pregnancy rate (PR). The mean serum E(2) concentration on the day of hCG administration was significantly higher in the microdose GnRH-a group than in the GnRH antagonist group (1,904 vs. 1,362 pg/mL). The clinical PRs per started cycle of microdose GnRH-a and GnRH antagonist groups were 14.2% and 9.5%, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in the other ovulation induction characteristics, fertilization and implantation rates. Microdose GnRH-a flare-up protocol and multiple dose GnRH antagonist protocol seem to have similar efficacy in improving treatment outcomes of poor responder patients.

  9. Ultrasonographic fetometry formulas of inner chorionic cavity diameter and biparietal diameter for medium-sized dogs can be used in giant breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socha, Piotr; Janowski, Tomasz; Bancerz-Kisiel, Agata

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of the ultrasonographic fetometry method, involving inner chorionic cavity diameter (ICC) and biparietal diameter (BP) measurements, to predict the parturition date in giant breed dogs. Overall, 30 ICC and 24 BP measurements were taken on 24 giant breed bitches. The measured values were substituted into Luvoni and Grioni (2000) formulas for medium-sized bitches because formulas with ICC and BP to dogs with a body mass greater than 40 kg have not been defined. The accuracy of the parturition date predictions proved the method to be highly useful in the observed group of dogs. Prediction accuracy in the giants ranged between 54.16% (± 1 day, using BP) and 90% (± 2 days, using ICC), depending on the parameter measured and precision levels used. Numerically, the results obtained using ICC were better; however, no statistically significant differences between ICC and BP accuracy were found when comparing the effectiveness of the parturition date predictions. Regression lines based on the own fetometric measurements were highly convergent with the lines defined by Luvoni and Grioni (2000) formulas for medium-sized bitches. This outcome suggests a similar gestational development of fetuses in giant dogs and the possible use of Luvoni and Grioni (2000) formulas for medium-sized dogs with breeds weighing greater than 40 kg. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Predicting the Parturition Date in Bitches of Different Body Weight by Ultrasonographic Measurements of Inner Chorionic Cavity Diameter and Biparietal Diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socha, P; Janowski, T

    2014-04-01

    Predicting the parturition date in dogs by taking ultrasonographic foetometry has opened interesting research areas of veterinary obstetrics. Recently developed calculation formulas of inner chorionic cavity diameter (ICC) and biparietal diameter (BP) are formulas by Luvoni and Grioni (2000). This study is one of the first reports referring to ICC and BP with the use of Luvoni and Grioni formulas for predicting the parturition time in dogs of different body weight in clinical practice conditions. The research material consists of 70 clinically healthy pregnant bitches of 27 breeds and cross-breeds. Bitches were divided into 4 groups according to their body weight. In each of the bitches, ultrasonographic examination of pregnancy was performed at least twice (ICC and BP measurements). Parturition dates for dogs with a body weight over 25 kg were calculated based on formulas intended for the group of medium dogs. It was caused by the lack of appropriate formulas for these groups of dogs. The predicting parturition dates were compared with the actual dates of delivery provided by the bitch owners. Generally, the results obtained in this study are very encouraging and similar or even better than those published by other authors using foetometric measurements. In our research, when comparing the effectiveness of predicting the delivery date based on foetometric formulas by Luvoni and Grioni (2000), it was proved that in all groups of dogs, even those over 25 kg, ICC and BP measurements at both accuracy levels were characterized similar reliability. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Iron metabolism in BeWo chorion carcinoma cells. Transferrin-mediated uptake and release of iron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ende, A.; du Maine, A.; Simmons, C. F.; Schwartz, A. L.; Strous, G. J.

    1987-01-01

    Growing human choriocarcinoma BeWo b24 cells contain 1.5 X 10(6) functional cell surface transferrin binding sites and 2.0 X 10(6) intracellular binding sites. These cells rapidly accumulate iron at a rate of 360,000 iron atoms/min/cell. During iron uptake the transferrin and its receptor recycle at

  12. Erythropoietin may reduce the risk of germ cell loss in boys with cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Visfeldt, J; Thorup, J M

    2001-01-01

    of infertility. In order to increase the number of germ cells, and thereby the fertility potential, additional hormonal therapy has been attempted before surgery. In a study, small doses of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue buserelin before orchiopexy caused higher values. Others have found......: Erythropoietin (Eprex) 100 IU/kg were administered subcutaneously weekly for 3 months prior to surgery in two cryptorchid boys, 6 months old and 1 year 9 months old, respectively, with renal function impairment. RESULTS: The number of spermatogonia per tubular cross-section in testicular biopsies was unusually...... that hormonal treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin or gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue may harm the germ cells in cryptorchidism. The aim of the study is to demonstrate that additional hormonal therapy with erythropoietin has a positive effect on the number of germ cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS...

  13. The expression of gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor gene in ovaries and uterus cells of Iraqi and Damascus goat breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa kamil Abdulla

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Iraqi goats have a major economic role in production of meat, milk and leather as well as it considered a financial source for owners as reproduce twice a year, yet the Damascus goats have great importance than Iraqi goats owing to the number of twin births. The gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH and its receptors have great importance in the reproduction and eugenics. To make a comparison between the Iraqi and Damascus goats in terms of this receptor gene expression in the ovaries and uterus tissue cells, the study was performed, in which used the (∆Ct Using a Reference Gene method by quintitive -real time PCR technique. Results were found a significant difference (p<0.05, as the gene expression of (GnRH-R higher in the ovaries and uterus tissue cells in Damascus goats compared with the Iraqi goats. In conclusion; the multiple pregnancies of twins in Damascus goats may be due to an increase gene expression of (GnRH-R in the ovaries and uterus tissue

  14. Serum androgen and gonadotropin levels decline after progestogen-induced withdrawal bleeding in oligomenorrheic women with or without polycystic ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, L; Koskinen, P; Kaihola, H L; Erkkola, R; Irjala, K; Ruutiainen, K

    1992-10-01

    To examine the effect of short-term progestogen treatment on androgen, gonadotropin, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels in oligomenorrheic women. Comparative study of changes in hormonal parameters in patients with or without ultrasonographically diagnosed polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD). Open patient clinic of reproductive endocrinology at University Central Hospital of Turku, Finland. Seventy-five oligomenorrheic women with (n = 51) or without (n = 24) PCOD. Serum concentrations of testosterone (T), androstenedione (A), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and SHBG. The levels of T, A, LH, and the LH:FSH ratios decreased significantly after oral treatment with medroxyprogesterone acetate (10 mg/d for 10 days) in non-PCOD women and in women with PCOD decreasing the frequencies of pathological laboratory findings, in particular elevated levels of LH:FSH ratio and A in PCOD women and of LH:FSH ratio in non-PCOD women. The levels of T, A, and LH as well as the LH:FSH ratio were significantly higher in women with PCOD. Obesity was associated with high free androgen indices, low LH:FSH ratios, and low concentrations of LH, A, and SHBG. The serum samples for hormonal analyses used as an aid in diagnosing PCOD should be obtained without pretreatment with progestogen because it masks the biochemical findings of PCOD.

  15. Oral contraceptive therapy for polycystic ovary disease after chronic gonadotropin-releasing agonist administration. Predictors of continued ovarian suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkind-Hirsch, K E; Anania, C; Malinak, R

    1996-09-01

    To study the beneficial effects of oral contraceptive (OC) therapy following gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) administration in women with polycystic ovary disease (PCOD). Twenty-three hyperandrogenic women (aged 15-39) were randomized into two groups; GnRH-a (depot every 28 days) for six months or combination therapy (GnRH-a plus OC "addback") for six months. Following six months of treatment with either therapy, all patients received OC therapy for at least six months. The hormonal state was evaluated at three-month intervals. Hormone levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T) and free T remained suppressed within the normal range in 11 of 17 patients (65%) during the six months of OC only therapy, while the other six patients showed "escape" from suppression, with the LH, T and free T concentrations rising to pre-GnRH-a treatment levels. Use of OC addback therapy did not potentiate the long-acting therapeutic effect of GnRH-a pretreatment; three of six patients in the escape group were pretreated with combination therapy and three with GnRH-a only. In the majority of women with PCOD, OC therapy following GnRH-a administration was effective in maintaining ovarian androgen suppression. Failure to maintain ovarian suppression in this patient population was associated with higher elevations of baseline free T concentrations.

  16. Pituitary Gonadotropins, Prolactin and Growth Hormone Differentially Regulate AQP1 Expression in the Porcine Ovarian Follicular Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz T. Skowronski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present in vitro study analyzed whether the hormones that affect the ovarian follicular steroidogenesis process also participate in the regulation of AQP1 mRNA and protein expression. Granulosa (Gc and theca cells (Tc of medium and large porcine ovarian follicles were exposed to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, prolactin (PRL and growth hormone (GH for 24 h in separated cells and co-cultures of these cells. Real-time PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence and volumetric analysis were then performed. Gonadotropins, PRL and GH had a stimulatory impact on AQP1 mRNA and protein expression in Gc and Tc of medium and large ovarian cells. Moreover, swelling assays, in response to a hypotonic environment, demonstrated the functional presence of AQPs in porcine Gc and Tc. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that AQP1 protein was mainly localized in the perinuclear region of the cytoplasm, endosomes and cell membranes of Gc and Tc from medium and large follicles. It seems possible that AQP1 present in Gc and Tc cells may be implicated not only in the regulation of water homeostasis required for follicle development but also in cell proliferation and migration.

  17. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist use in controlled ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination cycles in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertunc, Devrim; Tok, Ekrem C; Savas, Aysun; Ozturk, Ilay; Dilek, Saffet

    2010-03-01

    To observe the effects of ganirelix on controlled ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination (COS/IUI) cycles in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Prospective, randomized, controlled clinical study. An academic clinical research center. Women with PCOS and anovulatory infertility undergoing COS/IUI. Recombinant FSH therapy was started on day 3. In women assigned to the control group (n = 47), treatment was continued up to the day of hCG administration. In patients assigned to receive GnRH antagonist (n = 42), ganirelix was added when the leading follicle was > or =14 mm. Pregnancy rates, serum E(2), P, and LH levels, and follicle numbers at hCG day, prevalence of premature luteinization, and cost of stimulation. Serum E(2), P, and LH levels were significantly lower in the ganirelix group. Although premature luteinization and cycle cancellation was encountered less in the ganirelix group, the pregnancy rates per cycle were similar (15.4% vs. 10.7%). Patients would pay 6,153 dollars more for each pregnancy when using ganirelix. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist resulted in more monofollicular development, less premature luteinization, and less cycle cancellation in IUI cycles of patients with PCOS; however, the cost of stimulation increased without an improvement in pregnancy rates. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine on ovarian cyclicity and uterine morphology of an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedeker, Nancy C; Hayek, Lee-Ann C; Murray, Suzan; de Avila, David M; Brown, Janine L

    2012-09-01

    This report describes the successful use of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) vaccine to suppress ovarian steroidogenic activity and to treat hemorrhage and anemia associated with reproductive tract pathology in a 59-year-old Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The Repro-BLOC GnRH vaccine was administered subcutaneously as a series of 4 boosters of increasing dose from 3 to 30 mg of recombinant ovalbumin-GnRH fusion protein given at variable intervals after initial vaccination with 3 mg protein. Efficacy was confirmed over a year after initial vaccination based on complete ovarian cycle suppression determined by serum progestagen analyses. Estrous cycle suppression was associated with a significant increase in GnRH antibody binding and subsequent decrease in serum luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations. Ultrasonographic examinations of the reproductive tract documented a reduction in uterine size and vascularity after immunization. The hematocrit level normalized soon after the initial intrauterine hemorrhage, and no recurrence of anemia has been detected. No substantive adverse effects were associated with GnRH vaccination. The results indicate that GnRH vaccination in elephants shows potential for contraception and management of uterine pathology in older elephants.

  19. Radioimmunotherapy of Nude Mice Bearing Human Colon Carcinoma with I-131 Labeled Anti-carcinoembryonic Antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Tae; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Sang Eun; Choi, Yong; Chi, Dae Yoon; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon; Chung, Hong Keun

    1995-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of various factors on the therapeutic effect of the I-l3l labeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody(anti-CEA antibody). Tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (MTT) was used to compare in vitro cytotoxicity of 3 Korean colon cancer cell lines (SNU-C2A, SNU-C4, SNU-C5) for selection of proper 2 cell lines in this study. The changes of the size of tumor which was xenografted to nude mice (balb/c nu/nu) were compared in 4 groups (group treated I-131 labeled anti-CEA antibody, group treated with non-radiolabeled anti-CEA antibody, group treated with I-131. labeled anti-human chorionic gonadotropin monoclonal antibody (anti-hCG antibody) as nonspecific antibody, and group injected with normal saline as a control). Immunohistochemical staining and in vivo autoradiography were performed after excision of the xenografted tumor. The results were as below mentioned. The in vitro cytotoxic effect of I-131 labeled anti-CEA antibody is most prominent in SNU-C5 cell line between 3 cancer cell lines. The changes of xenografted tumor size in both SNU-C4 and SNU-C5 cell tumors at the thirteenth day after injection of the antibodies were smallest in the group treated with I-131 labeled anti-CEA antibody (SNU-C4/SNU-C5; 324/342%) comparing with other groups, group treated with anti-CEA antibody (622/660%), group treated with I-131 anti-hCG antibody (538/546%), and control group(1030/724%) (p<0.02 in SNU-C4 and p<0.1in SNU-C5 at the 13th day after injection of antibodies). On the thirteenth day after injectio