WorldWideScience

Sample records for human centred design

  1. Towards Human-Centred Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannon, Liam J.

    The field of HCI has evolved and expanded dramatically since its origin in the early 1980’s. The HCI community embraces a large community of researchers and practitioners around the world, from a variety of disciplinary backgrounds in the human and social sciences, engineering and informatics, and more recently, the arts and design disciplines. This kaleidoscope of cultures and disciplines as seen at INTERACT Conferences provides a rich pool of resources for examining our field. Applications are increasingly exploring our full range of sensory modalities, and merging the digital and physical worlds. WiFi has opened up a huge design space for mobile applications. A focus on usability of products and services has been complemented by an emphasis on engagement, enjoyment and experience. With the advent of ubiquitous computing, and the emergence of “The Internet of Things”, new kinds of more open infrastructures make possible radically new kinds of applications. The sources of innovation have also broadened, to include human and social actors outside of the computing and design organizations. The question is to what extent is our mainstream thinking in the HCI field ready for the challenges of this Brave New World? Do the technological and social innovations that we see emerging require us to re-shape, or even, re-create, our field, or is it a case of a more gradual evolution and development of that which we already know? In this closing Keynote, I will provide a perspective on the evolution and development of the HCI field, looking backwards as well as forwards, in order to determine what are some of the changes of significance in the field. This “broad-brush” approach to what I term “ human-centred design” will be complemented by the examination of specific projects and applications, to help anchor some of the discussion. Areas such as user-centred design, participatory design, computer-supported cooperative work and learning, and interaction design, in

  2. The fragility of human-centred design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.G.D.

    2008-01-01

    In human-centred design (HCD), researchers and designers develop products in cooperation with the potential users of these products. They attempt to give users a voice or a role in their projects, with the intention of developing products that match users' needs and preferences. This approach is

  3. Human Centred Design: a bibliometric overview based on Science Direct

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lucas José Garcia; Giselle Schmidt Alves Díaz Merino; Susana Cristina Domenech; Eugenio Andres Díaz Merino; Adilson Luiz Pinto

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to realize a bibliometric review on Science Direct to create a outlook about Human Centred Design in order to identify the most significant authors, journals and key-words as well...

  4. Benefits of human-centred design in open innovation projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.G.D.; Aarts, O.A.J.; Broekman, C.C.M.T.

    2012-01-01

    Human-centred design (HCD) is a form of open innovation in which researchers and designers cooperate with (potential) users or customers, e.g. in co-design workshops, interviews, user tests and trials. Based on a case study of two open innovation projects in which HCD activities were organized (TA2

  5. Human-centred Methods of Social and Technical Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    Different inderstandings of design are presented.The historical background of human-centred designis described.Methods of social shaping are described in detailand the author's research experiences with using these methods in differentinternational projects presented and a model tointegrate...... technical and social perspective of design is suggested....

  6. Human-centred Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bason, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Design approaches are now being applied all over the world as a powerful approach to innovating public policies and services. Christian Bason, author of Leading public design: Discovering human-centred governance, argues that by bringing design methods into play, public managers can lead change...... with citizens at the centre, and discover a new model for steering public organisations: human-centred governance....

  7. Human Centred Design Considerations for Connected Health Devices for the Older Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Harte

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Connected health devices are generally designed for unsupervised use, by non-healthcare professionals, facilitating independent control of the individuals own healthcare. Older adults are major users of such devices and are a population significantly increasing in size. This group presents challenges due to the wide spectrum of capabilities and attitudes towards technology. The fit between capabilities of the user and demands of the device can be optimised in a process called Human Centred Design. Here we review examples of some connected health devices chosen by random selection, assess older adult known capabilities and attitudes and finally make analytical recommendations for design approaches and design specifications.

  8. Human-Centred Design: sustainable ideas and scenarios for the development of projects and products based on knowledge and human abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Sbordone, Maria Antonietta

    2008-01-01

    Human-Centred Design is defined as the discipline relating to products and services that, in different ways, takes into account the psycho-physical wellness of human beings, and is formulated according to an approach based on User-Centred Design (UCD). The User-Centred Design approach considers the relationships and the interactions users have with products while using them, and is developed within disciplines not properly belonging to the field of design. At the beginning of last century, wi...

  9. User experience in libraries applying ethnography and human-centred design

    CERN Document Server

    Borg, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Modern library services can be incredibly complex. Much more so than their forebears, modern librarians must grapple daily with questions of how best to implement innovative new services, while also maintaining and updating the old. The efforts undertaken are immense, but how best to evaluate their success? In this groundbreaking new book from Routledge, library practitioners, anthropologists, and design experts combine to advocate a new focus on User Experience (or UX ) research methods. Through a combination of theoretical discussion and applied case studies, they argue that this ethnographic and human-centred design approach enables library professionals to gather rich evidence-based insights into what is really going on in their libraries, allowing them to look beyond what library users say they do to what they actually do. Edited by the team behind the international UX in Libraries conference, "User Experience in Libraries" will ignite new interest in a rapidly emerging and game-changing area of resear...

  10. A Human Centred Interior Design of a Habitat Module for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burattini, C.

    Since the very beginning of Space exploration, the interiors of a space habitat had to meet technological and functional requirements. Space habitats have now to meet completely different requirements related to comfort or at least to liveable environments. In order to reduce psychological drawbacks afflicting the crew during long periods of isolation in an extreme environment, one of the most important criteria is to assure high habitability levels. As a result of the Transhab project cancellation, the International Space Station (ISS) is actually made up of several research laboratories, but it has only one module for housing. This is suitable for short-term missions; middle ­ long stays require new solutions in terms of public and private spaces, as well as personal compartments. A design concept of a module appositely fit for living during middle-long stays aims to provide ISS with a place capable to satisfy habitability requirements. This paper reviews existing Space habitats and crew needs in a confined and extreme environment. The paper then describes the design of a new and human centred approach to habitation module typologies.

  11. Client Centred Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Nielsen, Janni; Tweddell Levinsen, Karin

    2004-01-01

    Abstract In this paper the Human Computer Interaction (HCI) Research Group reports on the pre-phase of an e-learning project, which was carried out in collaboration with the client. The project involved an initial exploration of the problem spaces, possibilities and challenges for an online...... on existing resources and networks, suggesting a design, which also included end-users community needs and work-context. Our argument is that if a preparation phase both seeks to confirm knowledge and contemplate what is not yet known, giving attention to the context and need of the client (i.e. not only end......-users,) then it is possible to build on existing resources within the client organisation, leading to grounding of design decisions and a match between the e-learning environment designed and the capabilities of the client....

  12. Human-centred design in global health: A scoping review of applications and contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzano, Alessandra N; Martin, Jane; Hicks, Elaine; Faughnan, Maille; Murphy, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Health and wellbeing are determined by a number of complex, interrelated factors. The application of design thinking to questions around health may prove valuable and complement existing approaches. A number of public health projects utilizing human centered design (HCD), or design thinking, have recently emerged, but no synthesis of the literature around these exists. The results of a scoping review of current research on human centered design for health outcomes are presented. The review aimed to understand why and how HCD can be valuable in the contexts of health related research. Results identified pertinent literature as well as gaps in information on the use of HCD for public health research, design, implementation and evaluation. A variety of contexts were identified in which design has been used for health. Global health and design thinking have different underlying conceptual models and terminology, creating some inherent tensions, which could be overcome through clear communication and documentation in collaborative projects. The review concludes with lessons learned from the review on how future projects can better integrate design thinking with global health research.

  13. Human-centred design in global health: A scoping review of applications and contexts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra N Bazzano

    Full Text Available Health and wellbeing are determined by a number of complex, interrelated factors. The application of design thinking to questions around health may prove valuable and complement existing approaches. A number of public health projects utilizing human centered design (HCD, or design thinking, have recently emerged, but no synthesis of the literature around these exists. The results of a scoping review of current research on human centered design for health outcomes are presented. The review aimed to understand why and how HCD can be valuable in the contexts of health related research. Results identified pertinent literature as well as gaps in information on the use of HCD for public health research, design, implementation and evaluation. A variety of contexts were identified in which design has been used for health. Global health and design thinking have different underlying conceptual models and terminology, creating some inherent tensions, which could be overcome through clear communication and documentation in collaborative projects. The review concludes with lessons learned from the review on how future projects can better integrate design thinking with global health research.

  14. Human-centred design in global health: A scoping review of applications and contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jane; Hicks, Elaine; Faughnan, Maille; Murphy, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Health and wellbeing are determined by a number of complex, interrelated factors. The application of design thinking to questions around health may prove valuable and complement existing approaches. A number of public health projects utilizing human centered design (HCD), or design thinking, have recently emerged, but no synthesis of the literature around these exists. The results of a scoping review of current research on human centered design for health outcomes are presented. The review aimed to understand why and how HCD can be valuable in the contexts of health related research. Results identified pertinent literature as well as gaps in information on the use of HCD for public health research, design, implementation and evaluation. A variety of contexts were identified in which design has been used for health. Global health and design thinking have different underlying conceptual models and terminology, creating some inherent tensions, which could be overcome through clear communication and documentation in collaborative projects. The review concludes with lessons learned from the review on how future projects can better integrate design thinking with global health research. PMID:29091935

  15. Addressing the challenges of patient-centred design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen LaBat

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Patient-centred design is a relatively new term, but a longstanding concept in clinical practice. This discussion looks at patient-centred design and explores the relationships of patient-centred design to universal design, user-centred design and the newer human-centred design. It also explores why interdisciplinary approaches are needed for patient-centred design and how interdisciplinary collaboration works to address the challenges of patient centred design. Successful patient-centred solutions can grow from collaborations which include shared visions, understanding of both the nature and degree of variation in the patient,materials, and the designed solution, clear regular communication among all parties with careful definition of terms, and respect for the inherent cultures of all disciplines involved.

  16. Human-centred methods in the design of an e-health solution for patients undergoing weight loss treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Anita; Svanæs, Dag

    2013-01-01

    assessment through a series of participatory design workshops, and system evaluation through a workshop and a number of usability tests before system implementation. Results By using an iterative design approach and by involving patients and healthcare professionals throughout the process, letting them hold...... that designers must take particular considerations when patients and healthcare professionals are involved in the design process. Keywords E-health; Participatory design; User-centred design; Obesity; Weight loss treatment...

  17. The Use of Design Thinking to Enable Human-Centred Innovation within the Organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Herfurth, Lorenz

    2009-01-01

    Scholars and researchers are currently looking into the ways in which design thinking and design methods serve the organisation in reorienting and changing itself around the needs of the people they serve [1,2,3,4]. However, there are still few examples that allow us to gain insights of how this works in practice. This paper explores how design thinking can enable and contribute to the process of change implementation throughout the organisation building on insights and lessons learned from a...

  18. Human-Centred Design Projects and Co-Design in/outside the Turkish Classroom: Responses and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanouil, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Perhaps more than any other professional group in modern history, designers have felt compelled to undertake the responsibility of addressing and engaging with societal problems in their practice. Initially, this liability involved concerns of form and production methods during the industrial revolution era, and developed into existential, ethical…

  19. User-Centred Design Using Gamestorming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    User-centered design (UX) is becoming a standard in software engineering and has tremendous potential in healthcare. The purpose of this tutorial will be to demonstrate and provide participants with practice in user-centred design methods that involve 'Gamestorming', a form of brainstorming where 'the rules of life are temporarily suspended'. Participants will learn and apply gamestorming methods including persona development via empathy mapping and methods to translate artefacts derived from participatory design sessions into functional and design requirements.

  20. The Human Communication Research Centre Dialogue Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Anne H.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Human Communication Research Centre Dialogue Database. The database consists of over 700 transcribed and coded dialogues from pairs of speakers aged from 7-14. The speakers are recorded over 2 years while tackling cooperative problem-solving tasks, and the same pairs of speakers are recorded over 2 years tackling 10 different…

  1. Human-centred approaches in slipperiness measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönqvist, Raoul; Abeysekera, John; Gard, Gunvor; Hsiang, Simon M.; Leamon, Tom B.; Newman, Dava J.; Gielo-Perczak, Krystyna; Lockhart, Thurmon E.; Pai, Clive Y.-C.

    2010-01-01

    A number of human-centred methodologies—subjective, objective, and combined—are used for slipperiness measurement. They comprise a variety of approaches from biomechanically-oriented experiments to psychophysical tests and subjective evaluations. The objective of this paper is to review some of the research done in the field, including such topics as awareness and perception of slipperiness, postural and balance control, rating scales for balance, adaptation to slippery conditions, measurement of unexpected movements, kinematics of slipping, and protective movements during falling. The role of human factors in slips and falls will be discussed. Strengths and weaknesses of human-centred approaches in relation to mechanical slip test methodologies are considered. Current friction-based criteria and thresholds for walking without slipping are reviewed for a number of work tasks. These include activities such as walking on a level or an inclined surface, running, stopping and jumping, as well as stair ascent and descent, manual exertion (pushing and pulling, load carrying, lifting) and particular concerns of the elderly and mobility disabled persons. Some future directions for slipperiness measurement and research in the field of slips and falls are outlined. Human-centred approaches for slipperiness measurement do have many applications. First, they are utilized to develop research hypotheses and models to predict workplace risks caused by slipping. Second, they are important alternatives to apparatus-based friction measurements and are used to validate such methodologies. Third, they are used as practical tools for evaluating and monitoring slip resistance properties of foot wear, anti-skid devices and floor surfaces. PMID:11794763

  2. Designing User Centred Intelligent Classroom Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Diana Zdravkova; Schledermann, Kathrine Marie; Nielsen, Stine Maria Louring

    2018-01-01

    Through a case study, this paper presents a new way of designing intelligent classroom lighting to meet the users’ needs. A mix of ethnographic methods (field observations and interviews) were used to investigate the everyday learning activities at a middle school in Copenhagen in order...... to determine how lighting can support the learning environment. Based on the investigations, lighting design criteria and three predefined lighting scenes are proposed as a new design for meeting the needs of students and teachers during three types of activities. The scenes focus on smartboard visibility...

  3. Designing User Centred Intelligent Classroom Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Diana Zdravkova; Schledermann, Kathrine Marie; Nielsen, Stine Maria Louring

    2018-01-01

    Through a case study, this paper presents a new way of designing intelligent classroom lighting to meet the users’ needs. A mix of ethnographic methods (field observations and interviews) were used to investigate the everyday learning activities at a middle school in Copenhagen in order to determ...

  4. Evaluation of environmental education centres - A research design ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A research design for evaluation of environmental education centres by means of the case study method is explained. This method may be divided into four stages: selecting a case, gathering data (by studying documents and archival records, conducting interviews, direct observation and by means of questionnaires), ...

  5. Design of a technology centre: A Vehicle for Industrial Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper deals with the design of a Technology Centre to meet the needs of industries and enhance the industrial development activities in Ethiopia. The article addresses problems and constraints of industries in developing countries with regards to raw materials, skills, technology master plan, R&D, maintenance and ...

  6. Accessibility through user-centred and Inclusive Design processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This PhD dissertation addresses the subject of accessibility through user-centred and Inclusive Design processes (ID). The project takes as its starting point the observation that the concept of Inclusive Design is not adequately delimited. The supporting literature in the field of ID is structured...... around the fact that the needs of individuals with reduced capabilities compared to the norm (referred to for convenience as "the elderly and disabled") have not been properly addressed by standard design processes. In response to this fact, ID is a proposed design method to find more effective means...

  7. Designing with video focusing the user-centred design process

    CERN Document Server

    Ylirisku, Salu Pekka

    2007-01-01

    Digital video for user-centered co-design is an emerging field of design, gaining increasing interest in both industry and academia. It merges the techniques and approaches of design ethnography, participatory design, interaction analysis, scenario-based design, and usability studies. This book covers the complete user-centered design project. It illustrates in detail how digital video can be utilized throughout the design process, from early user studies to making sense of video content and envisioning the future with video scenarios to provoking change with video artifacts. The text includes

  8. Designing e-learning solutions with a client centred approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Nielsen, Janni; Levinsen, Karin

    2008-01-01

      This paper claims that the strategies applied in designing e-learning solutions tend to focus on how to proceed after the precondition, e.g., learners requirements, pedagogical choice, etc., have been decided upon. Investigating the HCI research field, we find that the methodological approaches...... as the organisation that has initiated the e-learning project and needs to manage the e-learning system after its development. Through the Client Centred Design and in close collaboration with the client, three strategic issues are uncovered and strategic models are presented for each. These models are complementary...... perspectives in a Client Centred framework that is useable as the starting point for others in developing large scale e-learning projects....

  9. Hardware design of the cortical-diencephalic centre of the lower urinary tract neuroregulator system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciá-Pérez, Francisco; Zambrano-Mendez, Leandro; Berna-Martínez, José-Vicente; Sepúlveda-Lima, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    The neuroregulator system in humans controls organ and system functioning. This system comprises a set of neural centres that are distributed along the spinal cord and act independently together with their nerve interconnections. The centres involved in this task were isolated in previous studies through investigations of the functioning and composition of the neuroregulator system of the lower urinary tract to elucidate their individual performances and enable the creation of a general neuroregulator system model capable of operating at the neuronal level. Although the long-term goal of our research is the development of a system on chip (SoC) capable of behaving as a fully programmable neuroregulator system, this work is another step in which we test the viability of the hardware design of one of these neuroregulator centres (specifically the cortical-diencephalic centre) to achieve a first prototype and architectural proposal. To this end, the behaviour of this centre has been isolated, a hardware design implemented on FPGA has been proposed to create a prototype, a simulation environment has been built for the evaluation, and finally, the results have been analysed. This system verified that the functional behaviour corresponded to the expected behaviour in humans and that the operational requirements for the implementation were technically and architecturally viable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Designing Human Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    Design is increasingly becoming a part of the university curriculum and research agenda. The keynote present and discuss Designing Human Technologies – an initiative aiming at establishing a design oriented main subject area alongside traditional main subject areas such as Natural Science......, the Humanities, and Social Science. The initiative broadens the perspective of IS and recognize reflections on aesthetics, ethics, values, connections to politics, and strategies for enabling a better future as legitimate parts of the research agenda. Designing Human Technologies is a design-oriented Strategic...... Research Initiative supporting Roskilde University’s new Humanities and Technology bachelor programme (‘HumTek’), and its three dimensions: Design, Humanities, and Technology. The research initiative involves 70 researchers from different departments and research groups at Roskilde University through...

  11. A human capital predictive model for agent performance in contact centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Jacobs

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Currently no integrative model exists that can explain the phenomena contributing to agent performance in the South African contact centre industry.Research purpose: The primary focus of this article was to develop a theoretically derived human capital predictive model for agent performance in contact centres and Business Process Outsourcing (BPO based on a review of current empirical research literature.Motivation for the study: The study was motivated by the need for a human capital predictive model that can predict agent and overall business performance.Research design: A nonempirical (theoretical research paradigm was adopted for this study and more specifically a theory or model-building approach was followed. A systematic review of published empirical research articles (for the period 2000–2009 in scholarly search portals was performed.Main findings: Eight building blocks of the human capital predictive model for agent performance in contact centres were identified. Forty-two of the human capital contact centre related articles are detailed in this study. Key empirical findings suggest that person– environment fit, job demands-resources, human resources management practices, engagement, agent well-being, agent competence; turnover intention; and agent performance are related to contact centre performance.Practical/managerial implications: The human capital predictive model serves as an operational management model that has performance implications for agents and ultimately influences the contact centre’s overall business performance.Contribution/value-add: This research can contribute to the fields of human resource management (HRM, human capital and performance management within the contact centre and BPO environment.

  12. Example of "Character Education" Course Design in the Light of "Experienced Centred" Design for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Nida

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design the course "Character Education" in the light of the "experienced centred" design and to assert an example of "Character Education" course design for higher education students. The research was conducted during the 2015-2016 spring semester as an action research. The participants…

  13. Human Systems Design Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of designing more humanised computer systems. This problem can be formally described as the need for defining human design criteria, which — if used in the design process - will secure that the systems designed get the relevant qualities. That is not only...... the necessary functional qualities but also the needed human qualities. The author's main argument is, that the design process should be a dialectical synthesis of the two points of view: Man as a System Component, and System as Man's Environment. Based on a man's presentation of the state of the art a set...... of design criteria is suggested and their relevance discussed. The point is to focus on the operator rather than on the computer. The crucial question is not to program the computer to work on its own conditions, but to “program” the operator to function on human conditions....

  14. A sit-ski design aimed at controlling centre of mass and inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langelier, Eve; Martel, Stéphane; Millot, Anne; Lessard, Jean-Luc; Smeesters, Cécile; Rancourt, Denis

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces a sit-ski developed for the Canadian Alpine Ski Team in view of the Vancouver 2010 Paralympic games. The design is predominantly based on controlling the mass distribution of the sit-ski, a critical factor in skiing performance and control. Both the antero-posterior location of the centre of mass and the sit-ski moment of inertia were addressed in our design. Our design provides means to adjust the antero-posterior centre of mass location of a sit-ski to compensate for masses that would tend to move the antero-posterior centre of mass location away from the midline of the binding area along the ski axis. The adjustment range provided is as large as 140 mm, thereby providing sufficient adaptability for most situations. The suspension mechanism selected is a four-bar linkage optimised to limit antero-posterior seat movement, due to suspension compression, to 7 mm maximum. This is about 5% of the maximum antero-posterior centre of mass control capacity (151 mm) of a human participant. Foot rest inclination was included in the design to modify the sit-ski inertia by as much as 11%. Together, these mass adjustment features were shown to drastically help athletes' skiing performance.

  15. Collective innovative practice through user-centred design thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Bolvig; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Wandahl, Søren

    2012-01-01

    thinking with its principles and mind-set can facilitate a common and collaborative effort within a value chain towards a joint innovative practice. Design thinking is unfolded through existing literature and it’s virtue as a facilitating and joining approach is tested through the application within...... the research project Innodoors. It is concluded user-centred material through the video media can enable practitioners from a value chain to establish a common understanding of innovation paths – potential directions for innovation. In addition it is concluded that design thinking can be adapted...... innovation has added significant aspects to the field of innovation management (e.g. Chesbrough, 2003) and companies can innovate with user collaboration or amplified notion of user together with hybrid collaborative constellations and new ways of working (von Hippel 2005). This paper examines how design...

  16. A Design-Based introduction to learning centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kristine Petersen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, outskirt areas in Denmark have suffered from depopulation and economic decline, a development that has led to a centralised education system where higher education institutions are vested in a central body in urban areas rather than in rural communities. University College Zealand has initiated a research project in collaboration with three municipalities in the region of Zealand and partners from the Nordic countries, which investigates the potential of municipal learning centres as a means to solve educational challenges in outskirt areas. A municipal learning centre is a physical location owned by a municipality, which offers (asynchronous courses through digital couplings to higher education institutions. The paper presents research findings showing that the development of an ecosystem based on collaboration between municipalities, higher education institutions and private and public businesses is pivotal for achieving a sustainable model for online education in rural areas. Furthermore, the paper presents a series of thinking technologies in the form of models and categories, which can be used as tools for establishing learning centres and designing learning activities for learning centres. --- Kommuner placeret i yderområder i Danmark har i de seneste årtier oplevet affolkning og økonomisk nedgang, og denne udvikling har medvirket til et centraliseret uddannelsessystem, hvor videregående uddannelsesinstitutioner flyttes fra yderområder til større byer. University College Sjælland har igangsat et forskningsprojekt i samarbejde med tre kommuner i Region Sjælland og partnere fra de nordiske lande, som har til formål at undersøge hvorvidt uddannelseskonceptet kommunale læringscentre kan medvirke til at løse uddannelsesudfordringer i landets yderområder. Et kommunalt læringscenter er en fysisk lokation som ejes af en kommune, som gennem læringscenteret kan give borgere mulighed for at tage et kursus eller en

  17. Behaviour Centred Design: towards an applied science of behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunger, Robert; Curtis, Valerie

    2016-12-01

    Behaviour change has become a hot topic. We describe a new approach, Behaviour Centred Design (BCD), which encompasses a theory of change, a suite of behavioural determinants and a programme design process. The theory of change is generic, assuming that successful interventions must create a cascade of effects via environments, through brains, to behaviour and hence to the desired impact, such as improved health. Changes in behaviour are viewed as the consequence of a reinforcement learning process involving the targeting of evolved motives and changes to behaviour settings, and are produced by three types of behavioural control mechanism (automatic, motivated and executive). The implications are that interventions must create surprise, revalue behaviour and disrupt performance in target behaviour settings. We then describe a sequence of five steps required to design an intervention to change specific behaviours: Assess, Build, Create, Deliver and Evaluate. The BCD approach has been shown to change hygiene, nutrition and exercise-related behaviours and has the advantages of being applicable to product, service or institutional design, as well as being able to incorporate future developments in behaviour science. We therefore argue that BCD can become the foundation for an applied science of behaviour change.

  18. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, Frederica; Campos, Pedro; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we review research in the emerging practice and research field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID). We present a HWID framework, and a sample of 54 HWID related papers from workshops, conferences and journals from the period 2009–2014. We group the papers into six topical groups....... Furthermore, much focus has been on studying design sketching or implemented systems-in-use, while little attention has been paid to mature design (prototypes) or early implementation (content templates). In conclusion, we recommend an update to the framework so that it can be also useful for research...

  19. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, Frederica; Campos, Pedro; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we review research in the emerging practice and research field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID). We present a HWID frame-work, and a sample of 54 papers from workshops, conferences and journals from the period 2009-2014. We group the papers into six topical groups, and then at....... Furthermore, much focus has been on studying design sketching or implemented systems-in-use, while little attention has been paid to mature design (prototypes) or early implementation (content templates). In conclusion, we recommend an update to the framework so that it can be also useful for research...

  20. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, Arminda; Ørngreen, Rikke

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume...

  1. Decision support tools in conservation: a workshop to improve user-centred design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rose

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A workshop held at the University of Cambridge in May 2017 brought developers, researchers, knowledge brokers, and users together to discuss user-centred design of decision support tools. Decision support tools are designed to take users through logical decision steps towards an evidence-informed final decision. Although they may exist in different forms, including on paper, decision support tools are generally considered to be computer- (online, software or app-based. Studies have illustrated the potential value of decision support tools for conservation, and there are several papers describing the design of individual tools. Rather less attention, however, has been placed on the desirable characteristics for use, and even less on whether tools are actually being used in practice. This is concerning because if tools are not used by their intended end user, for example a policy-maker or practitioner, then its design will have wasted resources. Based on an analysis of papers on tool use in conservation, there is a lack of social science research on improving design, and relatively few examples where users have been incorporated into the design process. Evidence from other disciplines, particularly human-computer interaction research, illustrates that involving users throughout the design of decision support tools increases the relevance, usability, and impact of systems. User-centred design of tools is, however, seldom mentioned in the conservation literature. The workshop started the necessary process of bringing together developers and users to share knowledge about how to conduct good user-centred design of decision support tools. This will help to ensure that tools are usable and make an impact in conservation policy and practice.

  2. Bioinformatics meets user-centred design: a perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Pavelin

    Full Text Available Designers have a saying that "the joy of an early release lasts but a short time. The bitterness of an unusable system lasts for years." It is indeed disappointing to discover that your data resources are not being used to their full potential. Not only have you invested your time, effort, and research grant on the project, but you may face costly redesigns if you want to improve the system later. This scenario would be less likely if the product was designed to provide users with exactly what they need, so that it is fit for purpose before its launch. We work at EMBL-European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI, and we consult extensively with life science researchers to find out what they need from biological data resources. We have found that although users believe that the bioinformatics community is providing accurate and valuable data, they often find the interfaces to these resources tricky to use and navigate. We believe that if you can find out what your users want even before you create the first mock-up of a system, the final product will provide a better user experience. This would encourage more people to use the resource and they would have greater access to the data, which could ultimately lead to more scientific discoveries. In this paper, we explore the need for a user-centred design (UCD strategy when designing bioinformatics resources and illustrate this with examples from our work at EMBL-EBI. Our aim is to introduce the reader to how selected UCD techniques may be successfully applied to software design for bioinformatics.

  3. Design Considerations for an Intensive Autism Treatment Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deochand, Neil; Conway, Alissa A.; Fuqua, R. Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) who display severe and challenging behaviour sometimes require centre-based intensive applied behaviour analysis (ABA) therapy to meet their health, safety and educational needs. Unfortunately, despite the need for centre-based treatment, there is a paucity of empirical research on building and…

  4. Usability of JACO Arm Interfaces Designed with a User-Centred Design Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauzin, Damien; Vigouroux, Nadine; Vella, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    Utility, usability and acceptability of robotic arm for helping motor impairment people (quadriplegic, muscular dystrophy, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) must be improved. The robotic arm JACO of company ©Kinova is controlled by a joystick, sometimes unusable by patients. The IRIT laboratory has designed three types of virtual interfaces: one based on virtual keyboards and two others on Pie Menu concepts. These interfaces were designed by mean of a user centred design approach (UCDA) including brain storming, focus group, iterative prototyping and trials. Then an experiment is described with two patients (Spinal Muscular Atrophy and cerebral palsy). This experiment shows that the three interfaces designed by a UCDA are usable by them.

  5. C-2000 design of Prince George Native Friendship Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-07

    An energy efficient and environmentally responsible C-2000 four-storey building was constructed in Prince George, British Columbia to be used as a Native Friendship Centre. The C-2000 requirements mean that the building will cost 33 per cent less to operate than a conventional building designed to ASHRAE 90.1 standards. The many innovative features of the building`s energy system were described. The use of mechanical cooling in the building was avoided. Items such as high performance low-e coating on window glazing, high performance window frames, and exterior shading were used to minimize cooling requirements and ensure occupant comfort. Envelope insulation was optimized to provide maximum energy efficiency. A compartmentalized HVAC system with fan coil technology was used to maintain optimum supply temperatures with minimum amount of reheat required. Energy efficient lighting fixtures were used throughout the building. Environmental considerations taken into account during construction, such as using recycled material wherever possible, maintaining indoor air quality by reducing materials with a tendency to off gas emissions, low emission carpets and adhesives were also described. The building has a life expectancy of 100 years. The cementitious outer cladding and the sloping metal roof are rated to last at least 50 years. tabs., figs.

  6. International Architectural and Urban Design Workshop Intergenerational Centre

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lučka Ažman Momirski

    2012-01-01

    .... An intergenerational centre in Žiri would make it possible for people to live in their home environment longer, and also improve their quality of life because of contact with the activity of younger generations...

  7. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume....... The papers reflect many different areas and address many complex and diverse work domains, ranging from medical user interfaces, work and speech interactions at elderly care facilities, greenhouse climate control, navigating through large oil industry engineering models, crisis management, library usability...

  8. Client Centred Desing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Nielsen, Janni; Levinsen, Karin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we argue for the use of Client Centred preparation phases when designing complex systems. Through Client Centred Design human computer interaction can extend the focus on end-users to alse encompass the client's needs, context and resources.......In this paper we argue for the use of Client Centred preparation phases when designing complex systems. Through Client Centred Design human computer interaction can extend the focus on end-users to alse encompass the client's needs, context and resources....

  9. Does user-centred design affect the efficiency, usability and safety of CPOE order sets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Julie; Shojania, Kaveh G; Easty, Anthony C; Etchells, Edward E

    2011-05-01

    Application of user-centred design principles to Computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems may improve task efficiency, usability or safety, but there is limited evaluative research of its impact on CPOE systems. We evaluated the task efficiency, usability, and safety of three order set formats: our hospital's planned CPOE order sets (CPOE Test), computer order sets based on user-centred design principles (User Centred Design), and existing pre-printed paper order sets (Paper). 27 staff physicians, residents and medical students. Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, an academic hospital in Toronto, Canada. Methods Participants completed four simulated order set tasks with three order set formats (two CPOE Test tasks, one User Centred Design, and one Paper). Order of presentation of order set formats and tasks was randomized. Users received individual training for the CPOE Test format only. Completion time (efficiency), requests for assistance (usability), and errors in the submitted orders (safety). 27 study participants completed 108 order sets. Mean task times were: User Centred Design format 273 s, Paper format 293 s (p=0.73 compared to UCD format), and CPOE Test format 637 s (pUsers requested assistance in 31% of the CPOE Test format tasks, whereas no assistance was needed for the other formats (pUser Centred Design format was more efficient and usable than the CPOE Test format even though training was provided for the latter. We conclude that application of user-centred design principles can enhance task efficiency and usability, increasing the likelihood of successful implementation.

  10. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . The papers reflect many different areas and address many complex and diverse work domains, ranging from medical user interfaces, work and speech interactions at elderly care facilities, greenhouse climate control, navigating through large oil industry engineering models, crisis management, library usability......This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume......, and mobile probing. They have been organized in the following topical sections: work analysis: dimensions and methods; interactions, models and approaches; and evaluations, interactions and applications....

  11. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume. ......, and mobile probing. They have been organized in the following topical sections: work analysis: dimensions and methods; interactions, models and approaches; and evaluations, interactions and applications........ The papers reflect many different areas and address many complex and diverse work domains, ranging from medical user interfaces, work and speech interactions at elderly care facilities, greenhouse climate control, navigating through large oil industry engineering models, crisis management, library usability...

  12. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, Arminda; Ørngreen, Rikke

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume....... The papers reflect many different areas and address many complex and diverse work domains, ranging from medical user interfaces, work and speech interactions at elderly care facilities, greenhouse climate control, navigating through large oil industry engineering models, crisis management, library usability......, and mobile probing. They have been organized in the following topical sections: work analysis: dimensions and methods; interactions, models and approaches; and evaluations, interactions and applications....

  13. Improving the installation of renewable heating technology in UK social housing properties through user centred design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Natalie; Haines, Victoria; Lilley, Debra

    2015-11-01

    Social housing organisations are increasingly installing renewable energy technologies, particularly for the provision of heating and hot water. To meet carbon reduction targets, uptake and installation must allow occupants to use the technology effectively. This paper describes research which investigated the service of installing heat pumps into UK social housing properties, from both landlords' and tenants' experiences. Adopting a user centred design approach, the research was in three phases: an exploration study to investigate landlords' and tenants' experiences of heat pump installation and use; refinement and development of the requirements for improved service delivery, primarily technology introduction and control; and the development and initial evaluation of an information leaflet as a key touchpoint in the service delivery. Recommendations for improved service delivery, to enable heat pumps to be accepted and used more effectively, are presented, as well as reflection on the process of applying user centred design in this context. In a relatively immature area of industry, installations to date have been heavily focused on technical aspects. This paper provides an insight into the human aspects of the service delivery of heat pumps in social housing, providing designers and social housing landlords with insight about how to improve the service.

  14. Design and Implementation of the Human Capital Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parisi, Cristiana; Rossi, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a Human Capital Report focused on the competency profile of the key employees. Employing the case study of Biomedical Branch of University of Florence, we have designed a strategy map centred on key stakeholders: students, university, didactic and research....... This study contributes to the previous literature, describing how university institutes can measure the human capital readiness....... centres, businesses. Furthermore, we have designed a model for the management of human resources, integrating two different approaches: individual and organic. On the basis of this model, semi-structured interview was carried out to obtain rich data on the current competences of key employees, divided...

  15. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by St Aidan's Day Care Centre Ltd., Wexford

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gibbons, C

    2015-02-01

    Ireland has seen a steady increase in paediatric sickle cell disease (SCD). In 2005, only 25% of children with SCD were referred to the haemoglobinopathy service in their first year. A non-funded screening programme was implemented. This review aimed to assess the impact screening has had. All children referred to the haemoglobinopathy service born in Ireland after 2005 were identified. Data was collected from the medical chart and laboratory system. Information was analysed using Microsoft Excel. 77 children with SCD were identified. The median age at antibiotic commencement in the screened group was 56 days compared with 447 days in the unscreened group, p = < 0.0003. 22 (28%) of infants were born in centre\\'s that do not screen and 17 (81%) were over 6 months old at referral, compared with 14 (21%) in the screened group. 6 (27%) of those in the unscreened group presented in acute crisis compared with 2 (3%) in the screened population. The point prevalence of SCD in Ireland is 0.2% in children under 15 yr of African and Asian descent. We identified delays in referral and treatment, which reflect the lack of government funded support and policy. We suggest all maternity units commence screening for newborns at risk of SCD. It is a cost effective intervention with a number needed to screen of just 4 to prevent a potentially fatal crisis.

  16. Human Factors and Their Effects on Human-Centred Assembly Systems - A Literature Review-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Abubakar, M. I.

    2017-09-01

    If a product has more than one component, then it must be assembled. Assembly of products relies on assembly systems or lines in which assembly of each product is often carried out manually by human workers following assembly sequences in various forms. It is widely understood that efficiency of assembling a product by reducing assembly times (therefore costs) is vital particularly for small and medium-sized manufacturing companies to survive in an increasingly competitive market. Ideally, it is helpful for pre-determining efficiency or productivity of a human-centred assembly system at the early design stage. To date, most research on performance of an assembly system using modelling simulation methods is focused on its “operational functions”. The term used in a narrow sense always indicates the performance of the “operational system”, which does not incorporate the effect of human factors that may also affect the system performance. This paper presents a research outcome of findings through a literature review-based study by identifying possible human factors that mostly affect the performance on human-centred manufacturing systems as part of the research project incorporating parameters of human factors into a DES (discrete event simulation) tool.

  17. The Burundi Heart Centre: From concept to design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, Julia; Yacoub, Lisa; Kambaris, Angelique; Wright, Gavin; Yacoub, Magdi H

    2015-01-01

    Burundi is one of the world's poorest nations, which is also reflected in its relative lack of cardiac facilities, particularly those catering to young children and adults. The authors discuss current efforts to build "The Burundi Heart Centre" to help address this challenge. In particular, they highlight how the project can act as a case study for a sustainable architecture that involves local people and uses locally available materials in a contemporary and innovative way.

  18. Embracing Student Experience in Inclusive Design Education through Learner-Centred Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Burçak; Ballice, Gülnur; Bengisu, Ebru; Alkan-Korkmaz, Sevinç; Paykoç, Eda

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the process and outcome of using learner-centred methods to develop students' empathic design abilities during an educational workshop on inclusive design. In the first section of the paper, we suggest the significance of incorporating inclusive design within the education of design disciplines. Then, we introduce a workshop on…

  19. Human Integration Design Processes (HIDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Human Integration Design Processes (HIDP) document is to provide human-systems integration design processes, including methodologies and best practices that NASA has used to meet human systems and human rating requirements for developing crewed spacecraft. HIDP content is framed around human-centered design methodologies and processes in support of human-system integration requirements and human rating. NASA-STD-3001, Space Flight Human-System Standard, is a two-volume set of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Agency-level standards established by the Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer, directed at minimizing health and performance risks for flight crews in human space flight programs. Volume 1 of NASA-STD-3001, Crew Health, sets standards for fitness for duty, space flight permissible exposure limits, permissible outcome limits, levels of medical care, medical diagnosis, intervention, treatment and care, and countermeasures. Volume 2 of NASASTD- 3001, Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, focuses on human physical and cognitive capabilities and limitations and defines standards for spacecraft (including orbiters, habitats, and suits), internal environments, facilities, payloads, and related equipment, hardware, and software with which the crew interfaces during space operations. The NASA Procedural Requirements (NPR) 8705.2B, Human-Rating Requirements for Space Systems, specifies the Agency's human-rating processes, procedures, and requirements. The HIDP was written to share NASA's knowledge of processes directed toward achieving human certification of a spacecraft through implementation of human-systems integration requirements. Although the HIDP speaks directly to implementation of NASA-STD-3001 and NPR 8705.2B requirements, the human-centered design, evaluation, and design processes described in this document can be applied to any set of human-systems requirements and are independent of reference

  20. WSDM : A user-centred design method for web sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Troyer, O.M.F.; Leune, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    WSDM is a user-centered method for the design of kiosk Web Sites. By explicitly starting from the requirements of the users or visitors, WSDM solves Web site problems that are primarily caused by that fact that a site has no underlying design at all, or that the design is mostly data-driven.

  1. Patient-centred improvements in health-care built environments: perspectives and design indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Calbert H; Douglas, Mary R

    2005-09-01

    To explore patients' perceptions of health-care built environments, to assess how they perceived health-care built facilities and designs. To develop a set of patient-centred indicators by which to appraise future health-care designs. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies, including futures group conferencing, autophotographic study, novice-expert exchanges and a questionnaire survey of a representative sample of past patients. The research was carried out at Salford Royal Hospitals NHS Trust (SRHT), Greater Manchester, UK, selected for the study because of planned comprehensive redevelopment based on the new NHS vision for hospital care and service delivery for the 21st century. Participants included 35 patients who took part in an autophotographic study, eight focus groups engaged in futures conferencing, a sample of past inpatients from the previous 12 months that returned 785 completed postal questionnaires. The futures group provided suggestions for radical improvements which were categorized into transport issues; accessibility and mobility; ground and landscape designs; social and public spaces; homeliness and assurance; cultural diversity; safety and security; personal space and access to outside. Patients' autophotographic study centred on: the quality of the ward design, human interactions, the state and quality of personal space, and facilities for recreation and leisure. The novices' suggestions were organized into categories of elemental factors representing patient-friendly designs. Experts from the architectural and surveying professions and staff at SRHT in turn considered these categories and respective subsets of factors. They agreed with the novices in terms of the headings but differed in prioritizing the elemental factors. The questionnaire survey of past patients provided opinions about ward designs that varied according to where they stayed, single room, bay ward or long open ward. The main concerns were limitation of private space

  2. Social insects inspire human design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, C. Tate; Clark, Rebecca M.; Moore, Dani; Overson, Rick P.; Penick, Clint A.; Smith, Adrian A.

    2010-01-01

    The international conference ‘Social Biomimicry: Insect Societies and Human Design’, hosted by Arizona State University, USA, 18–20 February 2010, explored how the collective behaviour and nest architecture of social insects can inspire innovative and effective solutions to human design challenges. It brought together biologists, designers, engineers, computer scientists, architects and businesspeople, with the dual aims of enriching biology and advancing biomimetic design. PMID:20392721

  3. Inclusive Design in the Key Stage 3 Classroom: An Investigation of Teachers' Understanding and Implementation of User-Centred Design Principles in Design and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholl, B.; Hosking, I. M.; Elton, E. M.; Lee, Y.; Bell, J.; Clarkson, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper starts out with a discussion of the importance of user-centred design, outlining its history and current embodiment in national and international standards and considers its particular relevance in addressing the needs of ageing populations. The paper moves on to examine how the premise of user-centred design has been taken up in…

  4. Co-designing person-centred mental health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Why should future mental health care be co-designed with users, and how do we do it? Based on our research we try yo answer these questions.......Why should future mental health care be co-designed with users, and how do we do it? Based on our research we try yo answer these questions....

  5. Person-centred ergonomics: a Brantonian view of human factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oborne, David J; Oborne, D.T

    1993-01-01

    ... Cataloguing in Publication Data Person-Centred Ergonomics A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 0-203-22123-0 Master e-book ISBN ISBN 0-203-27588-8 (Adobe eR...

  6. Designing safe and inclusive streets in India | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    17 nov. 2016 ... Safe streets play a crucial role in enabling livelihoods, mobility, and access to services. In fast-growing Indian cities such as Ahmedabad, streets are also the site of conflict. With incomes and vehicle ownership on the rise, traffic has replaced people as the central point of street design. Vehicle-focused street ...

  7. Applying a User-centred Approach to Interactive Visualization Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, I.; Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; van der Vet, P.E.; Zudilova-Seinstra, E.; Adriaansen, T.; van Liere, R.

    2008-01-01

    Analysing users in their context of work and finding out how and why they use different information resources is essential to provide interactive visualisation systems that match their goals and needs. Designers should actively involve the intended users throughout the whole process. This chapter

  8. The position and topography of the human colour centre as revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeefry, D J; Zeki, S

    1997-12-01

    We used a colour Mondrian--an abstract scene with no recognizable objects--and its achromatic version to image the change in blood oxygenation in the brains of 12 human subjects, with the aim of learning more about the position and variability of the colour centre in the human brain. The results showed a consistent association of colour stimulation with activation of an area that is distinct from the primary visual areas, and lies in the ventral occipitotemporal cortex; we refer to it as human V4. The position of human V4, as defined on functional grounds, varies between individuals in absolute terms but is invariably found on the lateral aspect of the collateral sulcus on the fusiform gyrus. There was no indication of lingual gyral activation. In further studies designed to reveal the topographic map within V4, we stimulated the superior and inferior visual fields separately, using the same stimuli. We found that human V4 contains a representation of both the superior and inferior visual fields. In addition, there appears to be retinotopic organization of V4 with the superior visual field being represented more medially on the fusiform gyrus and the inferior field more laterally, the two areas abutting on one another. We find no evidence that suggests the existence of a separate representation of the inferior hemifield for colour in more dorsolateral regions of the occipital lobe.

  9. Design of learner-centred constructivism based learning process

    OpenAIRE

    Schreurs, Jeanne; Al-Huneidi, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    A Learner-centered learning is constructivism based and Competence directed. We define general competencies, domain competencies and specific course competencies. Constructivism based learning activities are based on constructivism theory. For each course module the intended learning level will be defined. A model is built for the design of a learner centered constructivism based and competency directed learning process. The application of it in two courses are presented. Constructivism ba...

  10. A multi-dimensional analysis of person-centred collaborative practice for designing an educational curriculum in continuing care centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, Irene Katherina; Galenza, Shirley; Bratt, Sharon; Foisy-Doll, Colette R; Haase, Mary

    2015-01-01

    A significant transformation occurring in the continuing care industry is an attempt to shift the culture from impersonal institutions into true person-centred care (PCC) homes. This approach re-orients the facility's values, attitudes, norms and hierarchies while creating flexible role descriptions to promote collaborative teamwork. PCC practices will require healthcare teams to develop new approaches that empower residents and families to become partners in the development of a plan of care. This report outlines a study, which will gather data from an organizational policy analysis and interviews with residents and healthcare staff. These data will be examined through a sociological lens to identify areas for team improvement. The results will guide the design of a training curriculum to be delivered using traditional and multi-modal hi-fidelity simulation methods.

  11. Collective Innovation Practice through User-centred Design Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Bolvig; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Wandahl, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Establishing a collective innovative practice within a value chain is vital as competition often takes place between supply chains rather than individual companies (Lambert, 2006). This requires new new innovative approaches and an adaptive learning culture (Tyre and von Hippel 1997). User driven...... innovation has added significant aspects to the field of innovation management (e.g. Chesbrough, 2003) and companies can innovate with user collaboration or amplified notion of user together with hybrid collaborative constellations and new ways of working (von Hippel 2005). This paper examines how design...

  12. Human-Centered Design Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts, David J.; Howard, Robert

    2009-01-01

    For NASA, human-centered design (HCD) seeks opportunities to mitigate the challenges of living and working in space in order to enhance human productivity and well-being. Direct design participation during the development stage is difficult, however, during project formulation, a HCD approach can lead to better more cost-effective products. HCD can also help a program enter the development stage with a clear vision for product acquisition. HCD tools for clarifying design intent are listed. To infuse HCD into the spaceflight lifecycle the Space and Life Sciences Directorate developed the Habitability Design Center. The Center has collaborated successfully with program and project design teams and with JSC's Engineering Directorate. This presentation discusses HCD capabilities and depicts the Center's design examples and capabilities.

  13. Optics design of the extraction lines for the MedAustron hadron therapy centre

    CERN Document Server

    Benedikt, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The MedAustron hadron therapy centre will provide proton and carbon ion beams for tumour treatment. The accelerator complex is based on a synchrotron that will employ slow resonant extraction to provide beams with the time structure required for active scanning. Four medical treatment rooms and two research rooms are foreseen for the centre. The present paper describes the optics design of the extraction lines that link the synchrotron to the different beam application rooms. A modular approach has been adopted to facilitate running-in and operation and to minimise the number of different magnets and power converters to reduce the overall cost. Specific attention was given to the rather special transverse properties of the slow-extracted beam and to the correct matching of the strongly asymmetric beam to the rotational optics of the gantries. Another important aspect for the design was the overall compactness of the centre.

  14. Living Lab Research Landscape: From User Centred Design and User Experience towards User Cocreation

    OpenAIRE

    Pallot, Marc; Trousse, Brigitte; Senach, Bernard; Scapin, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    International audience; New paradigms, such as Open Innovation (Chesbrough, 2003) and Web 2.0 (O'Reilly, 2004) as well as Living Labs operating as a User Centred Open Innovation Ecosystem (Pallot, 2009), promote a more proactive role of users in the R&D process. However, a number of existing methods for involving users are abundantly described in the literature, such as Lead User (Von Hippel, 2005), User Driven Innovation (Von Hippel, 1986), User Centred Design (Von Hippel, 2005) and User Cre...

  15. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by St Catherine's Association Limited, Wicklow

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Muller, Ueli C

    2011-04-07

    Abstract Background The International Multi-centre ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) project with 11 participating centres from 7 European countries and Israel has collected a large behavioural and genetic database for present and future research. Behavioural data were collected from 1068 probands with ADHD and 1446 unselected siblings. The aim was to describe and analyse questionnaire data and IQ measures from all probands and siblings. In particular, to investigate the influence of age, gender, family status (proband vs. sibling), informant, and centres on sample homogeneity in psychopathological measures. Methods Conners\\' Questionnaires, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires, and Wechsler Intelligence Scores were used to describe the phenotype of the sample. Data were analysed by use of robust statistical multi-way procedures. Results Besides main effects of age, gender, informant, and centre, there were considerable interaction effects on questionnaire data. The larger differences between probands and siblings at home than at school may reflect contrast effects in the parents. Furthermore, there were marked gender by status effects on the ADHD symptom ratings with girls scoring one standard deviation higher than boys in the proband sample but lower than boys in the siblings sample. The multi-centre design is another important source of heterogeneity, particularly in the interaction with the family status. To a large extent the centres differed from each other with regard to differences between proband and sibling scores. Conclusions When ADHD probands are diagnosed by use of fixed symptom counts, the severity of the disorder in the proband sample may markedly differ between boys and girls and across age, particularly in samples with a large age range. A multi-centre design carries the risk of considerable phenotypic differences between centres and, consequently, of additional heterogeneity of the sample even if standardized diagnostic procedures are used. These

  16. Human heredity after 1945: moving populations centre stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangham, Jenny; de Chadarevian, Soraya

    2014-09-01

    The essays in this issue look at the contested history of human heredity after 1945 from a new analytical angle, that of populations and the ways in which they were constructed and studied. One consequence of this approach is that we do not limit our attention to the disciplinary study of genetics. After the Second World War, populations became a central topic for an array of fields, including demography, anthropology, epidemiology, and public health. Human heredity had a role in all of these: demographers carried out mental surveys in efforts to distinguish hereditary from environmental factors, doctors screened newborns and tested pregnant women for chromosome disorders; anthropologists collected blood from remote locations to gain insights into the evolutionary history of human populations; geneticists monitored people exposed to radiation. Through this work, populations were labelled as clinical, normal, primitive, pure, vulnerable or exotic. We ask: how were populations chosen, who qualified as members, and how was the study of human heredity shaped by technical, institutional and geopolitical conditions? By following the practical and conceptual work to define populations as objects of research, the essays trace the circulation of practices across different fields and contexts, bringing into view new actors, institutions, and geographies. By doing so the collection shows how human heredity research was linked to the broader politics of the postwar world, one profoundly conditioned by Cold War tensions, by nationalist concerns, by colonial and post-colonial struggles, by modernisation projects and by a new internationalism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. User-centred health design: reflections on D4D's experiences and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Louise

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of the importance of user-centred design and testing in the healthcare technology domain. Challenges associated with user and stakeholder involvement in designing solutions for healthcare are recognized in the literature and need to be addressed to facilitate the development of new technology that is usable and acceptable to the end-user. The Devices for Dignity Health Technology Cooperative (D4D) has been involved in a range of technology development projects with an underpinning approach of addressing unmet needs through user involvement. This paper provides practical examples of some of the challenges that occur at different stages during a user-centred design process including ethical approval processes; stakeholder and user recruitment and involvement; eliciting needs from users regarding sensitive and personal issues; and interdisciplinary working. The paper will describe some of the strategies that have been employed by D4D to overcome these challenges and facilitate technology development.

  18. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by The Irish Society for Autism, Meath

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Muller, Ueli C

    2011-04-07

    Abstract Background The International Multi-centre ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) project with 11 participating centres from 7 European countries and Israel has collected a large behavioural and genetic database for present and future research. Behavioural data were collected from 1068 probands with the combined type of attention deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD-CT) and 1446 \\'unselected\\' siblings. The aim was to analyse the IMAGE sample with respect to demographic features (gender, age, family status, and recruiting centres) and psychopathological characteristics (diagnostic subtype, symptom frequencies, age at symptom detection, and comorbidities). A particular focus was on the effects of the study design and the diagnostic procedure on the homogeneity of the sample in terms of symptom-based behavioural data, and potential consequences for further analyses based on these data. Methods Diagnosis was based on the Parental Account of Childhood Symptoms (PACS) interview and the DSM-IV items of the Conners\\' teacher questionnaire. Demographics of the full sample and the homogeneity of a subsample (all probands) were analysed by using robust statistical procedures which were adjusted for unequal sample sizes and skewed distributions. These procedures included multi-way analyses based on trimmed means and winsorised variances as well as bootstrapping. Results Age and proband\\/sibling ratios differed between participating centres. There was no significant difference in the distribution of gender between centres. There was a significant interaction between age and centre for number of inattentive, but not number of hyperactive symptoms. Higher ADHD symptom frequencies were reported by parents than teachers. The diagnostic symptoms differed from each other in their frequencies. The face-to-face interview was more sensitive than the questionnaire. The differentiation between ADHD-CT probands and unaffected siblings was mainly due to differences in hyperactive

  19. Climate Change and Human Health in Accra, Ghana | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Climate Change and Human Health in Accra, Ghana. Climate change constitutes a real threat to the livelihood and well-being of the Ghanaian population. Deterioration of the rural environment contributes noticeably to the influx of migrants that arrive in the cities every day. These new arrivals gather in slums lacking ...

  20. Efficient flow and human centred assembly by an interactive approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikhout, S.M.; Helmes, R.B.M.; Rhijn, J.W. van

    2004-01-01

    Due to fluctuations on the market, manufacturing of many product variations, and wish for fine-tuning between production and assembly a fan and motor manufacturing company wanted to improve their assembly line. The aims were efficient flow and human centered assembly in the new product line.

  1. Human Resources for Health Research in Africa | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Governments, policymakers and donors are increasingly recognizing that human resources are the critical driver of health research in developing countries. This grant will support a consultation and symposium on the subject. Expert teams will carry out a review and consultation on such themes as: the skills needed to ...

  2. Designing and evaluating a patient-centred health management system for seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Jaspaljeet Singh; Wünsche, Burkhard; Lutteroth, Christof

    2016-03-01

    Telehealth has been widely promoted as a technology to make healthcare more effective and affordable. However, current telehealth systems suffer from vendor lock-in and high cost, and are designed for managing chronic diseases rather than preventing them. We address shortcomings of existing consumer-level health informatics applications in supporting senior health consumers, and provide designers of such systems with a design framework. We assess the feasibility of patient-centred health management systems (HMSs) that are designed based on the proposed framework. In contrast to traditional telehealth, HMSs are patient centred and aim at enabling health consumers to take control of their own health by providing functionality for health self-management. Quantitative and qualitative methods were adopted in evaluating a prototype HMS. Senior healthcare consumers viewed our HMS prototype positively, and experienced a positive change in their attitude towards their health. We identified requirements and challenges for HMSs. In particular, participants indicated that social networking features must have a clear purpose beyond simple broadcasting of emotions and opinions. Our study indicates that seniors are able and motivated to leverage a web-based patient-centred HMS, provided that there are suitable health support applications tailored to their needs. This could be achieved by making it attractive for third party application developers to contribute HMS content. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Sustainability Certification (DGNB) and Design Process in the Case of four Healthcare Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability certification schemes experience grooving popularity. Only few years ago, Denmark got its own sustainability certification scheme based on the German DGNB certification scheme run by Green Building Council Denmark [1]. The objective of this study is to investigate if and in what way...... a DGNB-certification scheme will affect the decision-making and design process. The study takes point of departure in four Healthcare Centres, all DGNB silver certified – A case study design, using semi-structured interviews. The results show that it is important to collaborate in the design team from...

  4. User-Centred Design and Agile Development: Rebuilding the Swedish National Union Catalogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Lindström

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available With a new generation of OPACs emerging that attempt to address longstanding shortcomings, how do we make sure that we do not lose ground again in the future? This article suggests a combination of iterative development and user-centred design as a way to develop systems that will meet the constantly changing expectations of users by providing both functionality and usability. It gives a short introduction to iterative software development and user-centred design. A case study of the development of the new version of LIBRIS (http://libris.kb.se, the Swedish National Union Catalogue, is used as an example of how these methodologies can benefit from each other in practice.

  5. User engagement by user-centred design in e-Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Alistair; Thew, Sarah; De Bruijn, Oscar; Buchan, Ian; Jarvis, Paul; McNaught, Jock; Procter, Rob

    2010-09-13

    This paper describes the application of user-centred design (UCD) methods and a user engagement (UE) approach to a case study development of a visualization tool (ADVISES) to support epidemiological research. The combined UCD/UE approach consisted of scenario-based design, and analysis of the users' tasks and mental model of the domain. Prototyping and storyboarding techniques were used to explore design options with users as well as specifying functionality for two versions of the software to meet the needs of novice and expert users. An evaluation of the prototype was carried out to assess the extent to which the expert model would support public health professionals in their analysis activities. The results of the design exploration requirements analysis study are reported. The implications of scenario-based design exploration, participatory design and user engagement are discussed.

  6. Lessons Learned from Participatory Design in Dementia Care: Placing Care Partners at the Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Niels; Slegers, Karin; Wilkinson, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the participatory design (PD) process of a health information technology (HIT) project. This project, AToM was situated in dementia care and involved partners from academia, industry and care. The analysis specifically focuses on the role of the care partners in the PD process. We will show that the conditions to enable 'good participatory design' were not fully met and we present a set of actions to prevent this in future HIT projects. Central to our recommended approach is placing the care partners at the centre of the PD project.

  7. Vandhalla – A Sport Centre and a Successful Example of First-Generation Universal Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grangaard, Sidse; Ryhl, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    of Vandhalla. Vandhalla is a sport centre including an indoor swimming pool at the Danish folk high school, Egmont. Empirically, the evaluation is based on qualitative interviews and walkthroughs on site with the architects, the client, personnel and students. The evaluation shows that Vandhalla...... is a successful example of an inclusive building in Denmark. The paper points at two factors having an impact on the result: the client as a key driver and the understanding of the users. The general use of knowledge as well as the winning design team's use of knowledge in the work with the design...

  8. The Business of Research in Art and Design: Parallels Between Research Centres and Small Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seymour Roworth-Stokes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a cross-case analysis of four art and design research centres operating within UK universities. Findings from autobiographical and semi-structured interviews with researchers, research managers, and research leaders indicate that they encounter similar issues in trying to establish internal legitimacy within the university alongside the need to gain external support and recognition. In dealing with these challenges, art and design research centres tend to pass through four broadly identifiable phases: (i Origination (utilising credentials and leadership capacity, (ii Establishment (securing resources and embedding dedicated systems and processes, (iii Development (furthering profile, diversifying, and retaining autonomy, and (iv Sustainability (enhancing research culture, networks, and influence.Many interesting parallels are evident with the way small businesses strive to establish themselves within competitive market environments. Lessons for research managers and directors are explored to consider such similarities in key areas of responsibility that cover leadership, managing people and processes, developing organisational capacity, and building external networks. The research suggests research centre directors must demonstrate many intrapreneurial qualities to overcome obstacles in the development of a successful research team and that university departments can make substantial organisational interventions to help them succeed.

  9. A multi-dimensional framework to assist in the design of successful shared services centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Borman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Organisations are increasingly looking to realise the benefits of shared services yet there is little guidance available as to the best way to proceed. A multi-dimensional framework is presented that considers the service provided, the design of the shared services centre and the organisational context it sits within. Case studies are then used to determine what specific attributes from each dimension are associated with success and how they should be aligned. It is concluded that there appears to be a single, broadly standard pattern of attributes for successful Shared Services Centres (SSCs across the proposed dimensions of Activity, Environment, History, Resources, Strategy, Structure, Management, Technology and Individual Skills. It should also be noted though that some deviation from the identified standard along some dimensions is possible without adverse effect – ie that the alignment identified appears to be relatively soft.

  10. Design-corrected variation by centre in mortality reduction in the ERSPC randomised prostate cancer screening trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakama, Matti; Moss, Sue M; Stenman, Ulf-Hakan; Roobol, Monique J; Zappa, Marco; Carlsson, Sigrid; Randazzo, Marco; Nelen, Vera; Hugosson, Jonas

    2017-06-01

    Objectives To calculate design-corrected estimates of the effect of screening on prostate cancer mortality by centre in the European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC). Setting The ERSPC has shown a 21% reduction in prostate cancer mortality in men invited to screening with follow-up truncated at 13 years. Centres either used pre-consent randomisation (effectiveness design) or post-consent randomisation (efficacy design). Methods In six centres (three effectiveness design, three efficacy design) with follow-up until the end of 2010, or maximum 13 years, the effect of screening was estimated as both effectiveness (mortality reduction in the target population) and efficacy (reduction in those actually screened). Results The overall crude prostate cancer mortality risk ratio in the intervention arm vs control arm for the six centres was 0.79 ranging from a 14% increase to a 38% reduction. The risk ratio was 0.85 in centres with effectiveness design and 0.73 in those with efficacy design. After correcting for design, overall efficacy was 27%, 24% in pre-consent and 29% in post-consent centres, ranging between a 12% increase and a 52% reduction. Conclusion The estimated overall effect of screening in attenders (efficacy) was a 27% reduction in prostate cancer mortality at 13 years' follow-up. The variation in efficacy between centres was greater than the range in risk ratio without correction for design. The centre-specific variation in the mortality reduction could not be accounted for by the randomisation method.

  11. A Work-Centred Approach to Seeding the Development of Design Concepts to Support Shipboard Command and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chalmers, Bruce A; Lamoureux, Tab

    2005-01-01

    We present results from an ongoing investigation using a work-centred framework to design computer-based tools to support the cognitive and collaborative work of Command Teams on a HALIFAX Class frigate...

  12. Integrating payload design, planning, and control in the Dutch Utilisation Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    Spacecraft payload design, experiment planning and scheduling, and payload control are traditionally separate areas of activity. This paper describes the development of a prototype software tool--the Activity Scheduling System (ASS)--which integrates these activity areas. ASS is part of a larger project to build a Dutch Utilisation Centre (DUC), intended eventually to support all space utilization activities in The Netherlands. ASS has been tested on the High Performance Capillary Electrophoresis payload. The paper outlines the integrated preparation and operations concept embodied in ASS. It describes the ASS prototype, including a typical session. The results of testing are summarized. Possible enhancement of ASS, including integration into DUC, is sketched.

  13. Vandhalla - A Sport Centre and a Successful Example of First-Generation Universal Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangaard, Sidse; Ryhl, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    The research project 'Evaluation of Vandhalla' is a study of the perceived quality of the new building as well as the design competition and design process leading to the final design. The evaluation focuses on the mindset of the winning entry, the design process, the design solution and the value of Vandhalla. Vandhalla is a sport centre including an indoor swimming pool at the Danish folk high school, Egmont. Empirically, the evaluation is based on qualitative interviews and walkthroughs on site with the architects, the client, personnel and students. The evaluation shows that Vandhalla is a successful example of an inclusive building in Denmark. The paper points at two factors having an impact on the result: the client as a key driver and the understanding of the users. The general use of knowledge as well as the winning design team's use of knowledge in the work with the design is problematized. It is suggested that Vandhalla should be regarded as a contribution to the first generation of Universal Design (UD) in Denmark. The Evaluation was conducted by the authors at SBi Aalborg University and financed by Realdania.

  14. The Enzyme Portal: a case study in applying user-centred design methods in bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Paula; Cham, Jennifer A; Cao, Hong; Alcántara, Rafael; Rowland, Francis; Lopez, Rodrigo; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2013-03-20

    User-centred design (UCD) is a type of user interface design in which the needs and desires of users are taken into account at each stage of the design process for a service or product; often for software applications and websites. Its goal is to facilitate the design of software that is both useful and easy to use. To achieve this, you must characterise users' requirements, design suitable interactions to meet their needs, and test your designs using prototypes and real life scenarios.For bioinformatics, there is little practical information available regarding how to carry out UCD in practice. To address this we describe a complete, multi-stage UCD process used for creating a new bioinformatics resource for integrating enzyme information, called the Enzyme Portal (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/enzymeportal). This freely-available service mines and displays data about proteins with enzymatic activity from public repositories via a single search, and includes biochemical reactions, biological pathways, small molecule chemistry, disease information, 3D protein structures and relevant scientific literature.We employed several UCD techniques, including: persona development, interviews, 'canvas sort' card sorting, user workflows, usability testing and others. Our hope is that this case study will motivate the reader to apply similar UCD approaches to their own software design for bioinformatics. Indeed, we found the benefits included more effective decision-making for design ideas and technologies; enhanced team-working and communication; cost effectiveness; and ultimately a service that more closely meets the needs of our target audience.

  15. The experience of two European preimplantation genetic diagnosis centres on human leukocyte antigen typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Hilde; De Rycke, Martine; De Man, Caroline; De Hauwere, Kim; Fiorentino, Francesco; Kahraman, Semra; Pennings, Guido; Verpoest, Willem; Devroey, Paul; Liebaers, Inge

    2009-03-01

    Two European centres report on human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing of preimplantation embryos for haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation: 'UZ Brussel' in Brussels and 'Genoma' in Rome. Both centres have 6 years' experience with technical and clinical aspects of this type of genetic analysis on single blastomeres. Both centres apply a similar technique for preimplantation HLA typing using short tandem repeats linked to the HLA locus in multiplex PCR for haplotyping. At present, a conclusive HLA diagnosis could be assured in 92.8% and 90.3% of the embryos at UZ Brussel and at Genoma, respectively. The implantation rates were 32.4% and 28.2%, respectively, and the birth rates per cycle were 9.4% and 18.6%, respectively. The HLA programme at UZ Brussel and at Genoma resulted in the birth of 9 babies and 3 successful HSC transplantations, and 42 babies and 7 successful HSC transplantations, respectively, so far. Drastic embryo selection for preimplantation HLA typing (in theory 1/4 for HLA, 1/8 for HLA in combination with sexing for X-linked recessive diseases, 3/16 for HLA in combination with autosomal recessive disorders) resulted overall in the birth of 51 babies (15.9% live birth rate per started cycle) in two European centres.

  16. Implementasi Green Design Dengan Konsep Nature Pada Perancangan Interior Green Product Centre Di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Fransisca, The

    2013-01-01

    Global warming is one of thephenomenon forms due today environmental problems,so that green design as an answer to respond environmental issues and human inside. Embodiment of green design into a building are important, but people still lack awareness of it. Therefore, we need a place that is environmentally friendly, educating, and can transmit eco friendly lifestyle for the public.This interior design implementing green design aspects with the facilities such as galleries, workshop, consult...

  17. Design of a centre for biologically optimised light ion therapy in Stockholm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahme, A.; Lewensohn, R.; Ringborg, U.; Amaldi, U.; Gerardi, F.; Rossi, S.

    2001-12-01

    radiation therapy where alterations in the delivered dose can be performed by subsequent treatments. The increased knowledge in tumour and molecular biology will hopefully further improve the efficiency of this very unique new treatment modality that will be planned and delivered by radiobiologically optimised 3D-pencil beam scanning techniques to maximise the complication-free tumour cure and minimise normal tissue side effects. Finally, the design, cost, time scale and treatment capacity of the centre are reviewed. After a few years of running, the centre will be capable of treating 1000 patients/year with light ions and almost 3000 patients/year with the high-precision boost techniques.

  18. Game Design Principles based on Human Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Zaffari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper displays the result of the authors’ research regarding to the incorporation of Human Error, through design principles, to video game design. In a general way, designers must consider Human Error factors throughout video game interface development; however, when related to its core design, adaptations are in need, since challenge is an important factor for fun and under the perspective of Human Error, challenge can be considered as a flaw in the system. The research utilized Human Error classifications, data triangulation via predictive human error analysis, and the expanded flow theory to allow the design of a set of principles in order to match the design of playful challenges with the principles of Human Error. From the results, it was possible to conclude that the application of Human Error in game design has a positive effect on player experience, allowing it to interact only with errors associated with the intended aesthetics of the game.

  19. Centre-surround organization of fast sensorimotor integration in human motor hand area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubbioso, Raffaele; Raffin, Estelle; Karabanov, Anke

    2017-01-01

    Using the short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) paradigm, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor hand area (M1HAND) can probe how sensory input from limbs modulates corticomotor output in humans. Here we applied a novel TMS mapping approach to chart the spatial representat...... in M1HAND. Like homotopic SAI, heterotopic SAF was somatotopically expressed in M1HAND. Together, the results provide first-time evidence that fast sensorimotor integration involves centre-inhibition and surround-facilitation in human M1HAND....

  20. Method of Humanity Design for Food Machinery

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaowei Jiang

    2013-01-01

    In view of the humanity design problem of the existing food machinery, the author states her own personal design idea. So the author makes an exploration on method of humanity design for components of food machinery, including the monitor, the console, the control device and protection device. At last, several key points that must be followed by the humanity design of the color of food machinery have been pointed out.

  1. The role of user-centred design within online community development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrer, Erin; Cummings, Elizabeth; Ellis, Leonie; Turner, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Research has evidenced the benefits of using information and communications technology (ICT) in chronic disease management including improving information availability, communication methods and raising individual patient's self-awareness of their own conditions. Extending ICT use to support patients in the community through online services draws attention to the complex task of how to meaningfully acquire input from all potential users of such systems and to balance their competing interests. This paper explores these issues across system analysis, specification and design for a community based patient support system. The paper highlights user-centred design challenges in a situation where the patient-users were not able to be included during the planning stage and explores how this impacted on the subsequent development.

  2. Building Store Satisfaction Centred on Customer Retention in Clothing Retailing: Store Design and Ease of Shopping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulden Turhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study’s research model suggests that store design and ease of shopping are associated with customer retention through a mediated pathway in which store design and ease of shopping influence perceived store satisfaction, which in turn, influences customer retention. This survey was administered to two separate clothing stores offered to either females or males (in total, 533 participants. Using structural equation modelling methodology, data was analysed to explain the interrelations among the variables in the model. The results of an empirical study of a sample of store shoppers revealed that store design and ease of shopping influence customer retention in an indirect way through customer perception of satisfaction with the store. In building store satisfaction that is centred on customer retention, store design and shopping ease differ in their relative influences. This difference is high for females, but for men as low as to be considered negligible in males. As a result, improving customers’ perceptions of store design and ease of shopping is a way to ensure store satisfaction support customer retention. The results of the study provide a new insight into the relationships by suggesting indirect effects of shopping ease and store design on consumer retention by their impacts on store satisfaction, rather than direct effects.

  3. Building Store Satisfaction Centred on Customer Retention in Clothing Retailing: Store Design and Ease of Shopping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulden Turhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study’s research model suggests that store design and ease of shopping are associated with customer retention through a mediated pathway in which store design and ease of shopping influence perceived store satisfaction, which in turn, influences customer retention. This survey was administered to two separate clothing stores offered to either females or males (in total, 533 participants. Using structural equation modelling methodology, data was analysed to explain the interrelations among the variables in the model. The results of an empirical study of a sample of store shoppers revealed that store design and ease of shopping influence customer retention in an indirect way through customer perception of satisfaction with the store. In building store satisfaction that is centred on customer retention, store design and shopping ease differ in their relative influences. This difference is high for females, but for men as low as to be considered negligible in males. As a result, improving customers’ perceptions of store design and ease of shopping is a way to ensure store satisfaction support customer retention. The results of the study provide a new insight into the relationships by suggesting indirect effects of shopping ease and store design on consumer retention by their impacts on store satisfaction, rather than direct effects.

  4. Determination of platinum surface contamination in veterinary and human oncology centres using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, T; Brouwers, E E M; de Vos, J P; de Vries, N; Schellens, J H M; Beijnen, J H

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the surface contamination with platinum-containing antineoplastic drugs in veterinary and human oncology centres. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to measure platinum levels in surface samples. In veterinary and human oncology centres, 46.3 and 68.9% of the sampled surfaces demonstrated platinum contamination, respectively. Highest platinum levels were found in the preparation rooms (44.6 pg cm(-2)) in veterinary centres, while maximal levels in human centres were found in oncology patient-only toilets (725 pg cm(-2)). Transference of platinum by workers outside areas where antineoplastic drugs were handled was observed in veterinary and human oncology centres. In conclusion, only low levels of platinum contamination attributable to carboplatin were found in the sampled veterinary oncology centres. However, dispersion of platinum outside areas where antineoplastic drugs were handled was detected in veterinary and human oncology centres. Consequently, not only personnel, but also others may be exposed to platinum. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. We!Design: A Student-Centred Participatory Methodology for the Design of Educational Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllakos, George N.; Palaigeorgiou, George E.; Tsoukalas, Ioannis A.

    2008-01-01

    The development of educational applications has always been a challenging and complex issue, mainly because of the complications imposed by the cognitive and psychological aspects of student-computer interactions. This article presents a methodology, named We!Design, that tries to encounter the complexity of educational applications development…

  6. Methods and tools in user-centred design for information technology

    CERN Document Server

    Galer, Margaret; Ziegler, J; Galer, Mark

    1992-01-01

    This book is concerned with the development of human factorsinputs to software design. The aim is to create products whichmatch the requirements and characteristics of users and whichoffer usable user interfaces. The HUFIT project - Human Factorsin Information Technology - was carried out within the EuropeanStrategic Programme for Research and Development in InformationTechnology (ESPRIT) with the objective of enhancing the qualityof software design within the European Community. The variety ofactivities undertaken to achieve this goal are reflected in thisbook. It describes human factors know

  7. Materials design for artificial pinning centres in superconductor PLD coated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feighan, J. P. F.; Kursumovic, A.; MacManus-Driscoll, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    To date the strategy for inducing pinning in REBa2Cu3O7‑x (REBCO where RE = rare-earth) coated conductors has largely been empirical. Hence, we are not yet at a point where we can dial-in the compositions and process parameters to optimise pinning for particular applications having specific temperature, field, and field angle requirements. In this review, we cover the critical materials science aspects which enable the understanding, design and engineering of desired pinning centre morphologies. Our main emphasis is on in in situ epitaxial growth of REBCO films by vapour deposition. We review the optimal pinning centre morphologies which have been determined to be effective for different operation regimes. We also highlight how the interplay of thermodynamics (including epitaxial effects), film-particle interfacial strain, and kinetics determine pinning morphologies. Finally, we also briefly cover pinning in rapid ex situ, liquid assisted growth which is likely to be a necessary universal approach for applications where low cost is critical.

  8. Participatory design facilitates Person Centred Nursing in service improvement with older people: a secondary directed content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolstenholme, Daniel; Ross, Helen; Cobb, Mark; Bowen, Simon

    2017-05-01

    To explore, using the example of a project working with older people in an outpatient setting in a large UK NHS Teaching hospital, how the constructs of Person Centred Nursing are reflected in interviews from participants in a Co-design led service improvement project. Person Centred Care and Person Centred Nursing are recognised terms in healthcare. Co-design (sometimes called participatory design) is an approach that seeks to involve all stakeholders in a creative process to deliver the best result, be this a product, technology or in this case a service. Co-design practice shares some of the underpinning philosophy of Person Centred Nursing and potentially has methods to aid in Person Centred Nursing implementation. The research design was a qualitative secondary Directed analysis. Seven interview transcripts from nurses and older people who had participated in a Co-design led improvement project in a large teaching hospital were transcribed and analysed. Two researchers analysed the transcripts for codes derived from McCormack & McCance's Person Centred Nursing Framework. The four most expressed codes were as follows: from the pre-requisites: knowing self; from care processes, engagement, working with patient's beliefs and values and shared Decision-making; and from Expected outcomes, involvement in care. This study describes the Co-design theory and practice that the participants responded to in the interviews and look at how the co-design activity facilitated elements of the Person Centred Nursing framework. This study adds to the rich literature about using emancipatory and transformational approaches to Person Centred Nursing development, and is the first study exploring explicitly the potential contribution of Co-design to this area. Methods from Co-design allow older people to contribute as equals in a practice development project, co-design methods can facilitate nursing staff to engage meaningfully with older participants and develop a shared

  9. A case study of ISO 11064 in control centre design in the Norwegian petroleum industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, Andreas Lumbe; Skramstad, Torbjørn

    2010-12-01

    In 2006-2008 we performed a case study for the purpose of assessing the industrial application of the seven part Control Centre (CC) design standard ISO 11064 to identify positive and negative experiences among stakeholders in the Norwegian petroleum sector. We mainly focussed on ISO 11064 Part 1, because this was the most commonly used among the identified stakeholders. ISO 11064 is generally appreciated and applied in the industry, but we did observe a significant variance in use between the different parts of the standard. We also identified potential areas for improvements, like scope and application adaptation. Thus we suggest a more goal-based approach based on one normative part only. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Learner Analytics; The Need for User-Centred Design in Learning Analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. de Quincey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction and interface design of Learning Analytics systems is often based upon the ability of the developer to extract information from disparate sources and not on the types of data and interpretive needs of the user. Current systems also tend to focus on the educator’s view and very rarely involve the user in the development process. From using HCI methods, we have found that learners want to be able to access an overarching view of their previous, current and future learning activity. We propose that the only way of truly creating a personalised, supportive system of education is to place the learner at the centre, giving them control of their own Learner Analytics.

  11. User Centred Design of a Multimodal Reading Training System for Dyslexics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jakob Schou

    This thesis presents work in the area of computer-based reading training for dyslexics using speech technology and multimodal information. The study includes an analysis of typical dyslexic reading behaviour and traditional training techniques as well as the detailed development of a prototype...... system simulating the transfer of a traditional training technique into an automated solution. Utilising a user-centred design approach the study focuses on the usability aspects expected to be tightly coupled to the perceived quality of a final system. Interaction styles, feedback strategies, assistance......, involving dyslexics, it is shown that it is possible for dyslexic users to carry out reading exercises with the sole assistance and guidance of an automated training tool, given a sufficient speech recognition accuracy. It is furthermore shown that in order to cope with the different preferences...

  12. Conceptual design of an ALICE Tier-2 centre. Integrated into a multi-purpose computing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zynovyev, Mykhaylo

    2012-06-29

    This thesis discusses the issues and challenges associated with the design and operation of a data analysis facility for a high-energy physics experiment at a multi-purpose computing centre. At the spotlight is a Tier-2 centre of the distributed computing model of the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The design steps, examined in the thesis, include analysis and optimization of the I/O access patterns of the user workload, integration of the storage resources, and development of the techniques for effective system administration and operation of the facility in a shared computing environment. A number of I/O access performance issues on multiple levels of the I/O subsystem, introduced by utilization of hard disks for data storage, have been addressed by the means of exhaustive benchmarking and thorough analysis of the I/O of the user applications in the ALICE software framework. Defining the set of requirements to the storage system, describing the potential performance bottlenecks and single points of failure and examining possible ways to avoid them allows one to develop guidelines for selecting the way how to integrate the storage resources. The solution, how to preserve a specific software stack for the experiment in a shared environment, is presented along with its effects on the user workload performance. The proposal for a flexible model to deploy and operate the ALICE Tier-2 infrastructure and applications in a virtual environment through adoption of the cloud computing technology and the 'Infrastructure as Code' concept completes the thesis. Scientific software applications can be efficiently computed in a virtual environment, and there is an urgent need to adapt the infrastructure for effective usage of cloud resources.

  13. Design strategies for human relations in services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snelders, H.M.J.J.; Perik, E.M.; Secomandi, F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the degree of control that designers might have over human relations in services. For this purpose, a number of speculative service designs were devised to address work-related stress. We focus on three of the generated designs, where design interventions have made changes to

  14. Themes in human work interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Mark Pejtersen, Annelise; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2008-01-01

    Abstract. This paper raises themes that are seen as some of the challenges facing the emerging practice and research field of Human Work Interaction Design. The paper has its offset in the discussions and writings that have been dominant within the IFIP Working Group on Human Work Interaction...... Design (name HWID) through the last two and half years since the commencement of this Working Group. The paper thus provides an introduction to the theory and empirical evidence that lie behind the combination of empirical work studies and interaction design. It also recommends key topics for future...... research in Human Work Interaction Design....

  15. Interpretation and environmental education associated with national park visitor centres: Framework, development and design

    OpenAIRE

    Svartor, Jenni Engstrøm

    2017-01-01

    Tourism, especially nature-based tourism, is considered one of the world’s fastest growing industries. Popular tourism destinations include protected areas such as national parks, and do often include a visitor centre. National park visitor centres play a significant role in conveying information such as characteristics and values of national parks. Environmental education plays an important role at visitor centres, and nature conservation, biodiversity and climate are some of the topics that...

  16. Using the centre of percussion to design a steering controller for an autonomous race car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritayakirana, Krisada; Gerdes, J. Christian

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how a race car driver controls a vehicle at its friction limits can provide insights into the development of vehicle safety systems. In this paper, a race car driver's behaviour inspires the design of an autonomous racing controller. The resulting controller uses the vehicle's centre of percussion (COP) to design feedforward and feedback steering. At the COP, the effects of rotation and translation from the rear tire force cancel each other out; consequently, the feedforward steering command is robust to the disturbances from the rear tire force. Using the COP also simplifies the equations of motion, as the vehicle's lateral motion is decoupled from the vehicle's yaw motion and highlights the challenge of controlling a vehicle when the rear tires are highly saturated. The resulting dynamics can be controlled with a linear state feedback based on a lane-keeping system with additional yaw damping. Utilising Lyapunov theory, the closed-loop system is shown to remain stable even when the rear tires are highly saturated. The experimental results demonstrate that an autonomous vehicle can operate at its limits while maintaining a minimal lateral error.

  17. Contextual inquiry method for user-centred clinical IT system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitanen, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Little can be found in the literature about the applicability of field study methods, particularly contextual inquiry, in the health informatics field. This paper aims to inform and promote the use of contextual inquiry for user-oriented design of clinical information technology (IT) systems. The paper describes how the method was applied in two empirical studies to gather data about end-users' needs, as well as the use and usability of dictation solutions and electronic nursing documentation systems from the viewpoint of their end-users' in real working surroundings. Experience indicates that, compared to typical usability evaluation methods, contextual inquiry may provide valuable support for user-centred design activities: the method is suitable for increasing researchers' understanding of clinical practices, contexts of work, and end-users' interaction with numerous IT systems. However, in clinical settings there are special challenges related to recording and privacy issues, a wide variety of clinical practices and contexts of technology usage, as well as the hectic nature of clinical work.

  18. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Health Service Executive, Dublin 16

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hunter, Andrew

    2017-09-25

    Recent policy and service provision recommends a woman-centred approach to maternity care. Midwife-led models of care are seen as one important strategy for enhancing women\\'s choice; a core element of woman-centred care. In the Republic of Ireland, an obstetric consultant-led, midwife-managed service model currently predominates and there is limited exploration of the concept of women centred care from the perspectives of those directly involved; that is, women, midwives, general practitioners and obstetricians. This study considers women\\'s and clinicians\\' views, experiences and perspectives of woman-centred maternity care in Ireland.

  19. Method of Humanity Design for Food Slicer

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaowei Jiang

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the research is to investigate an effective method of humanity design for food slicer, thereby raising the external appearance quality and pleasant of food slicer, strengthening additional value and whole shape effect of product, satisfying the demand of market competition and creating higher economic efficiency. The article elaborates on the humanity design of each part of the slicer, including selecting electric motor and V belt, the design of V belt pulley and color des...

  20. Determination of platinum surface contamination in veterinary and human oncology centres using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, T.; Brouwers, E. E M; de Vos, J. P.; de Vries, N.; Schellens, J. H M; Beijnen, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the surface contamination with platinum-containing antineoplastic drugs in veterinary and human oncology centres. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to measure platinum levels in surface samples. In veterinary and human oncology

  1. Using concept mapping to design an indicator framework for addiction treatment centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabitz, Udo; van den Brink, Wim; Jansen, Paul

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine an indicator framework for addiction treatment centres based on the demands of stakeholders and in alignment with the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) Excellence Model. SETTING: The setting is the Jellinek Centre based in

  2. Toward human-centered algorithm design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric PS Baumer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As algorithms pervade numerous facets of daily life, they are incorporated into systems for increasingly diverse purposes. These systems’ results are often interpreted differently by the designers who created them than by the lay persons who interact with them. This paper offers a proposal for human-centered algorithm design, which incorporates human and social interpretations into the design process for algorithmically based systems. It articulates three specific strategies for doing so: theoretical, participatory, and speculative. Drawing on the author’s work designing and deploying multiple related systems, the paper provides a detailed example of using a theoretical approach. It also discusses findings pertinent to participatory and speculative design approaches. The paper addresses both strengths and challenges for each strategy in helping to center the process of designing algorithmically based systems around humans.

  3. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Prosper Fingal Limited, Co. Dublin

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Annamarie

    2013-01-02

    PURPOSE: Testicular cancer occurs at a time in a man\\'s life when major social life changes are occurring and when body image, fertility, sexual desire and performance can be central issues. Oncology nurses, as members of the multidisciplinary team, are in an ideal position to address men\\'s concerns. The aim of this study was to investigate oncology nurses\\' self-perceived knowledge and comfort in relation to discussing sexuality concerns with men diagnosed with testicular cancer and to identify the barriers and facilitators to such discussions. METHODS: This study employed a self-completion, anonymous survey design with a sample of registered nurses working in five, randomly chosen, oncology centres in Ireland. RESULTS: In total, 89 questionnaires (45% response rate) were included for analysis. Findings suggest that although nurses were open to addressing concerns, few informed patients they were available to discuss sexual concerns. Nurses reported lacking knowledge of, and discomfort in, discussing the more intimate aspects of sexuality, including: ejaculatory difficulties, erectile dysfunction, impotence, prosthesis options and testicular self examination. CONCLUSIONS: Findings reinforce the need for more comprehensive education on sexuality issues and testicular cancer. Nurses need to take a more proactive approach to sexuality care, as opposed to the \\'passive waiting stance\\' that permeates the current culture of care. Education programmes need to include specific information on sexual issues associated with testicular cancer, and oncology nurses must subsume sexuality as an essential aspect of their role through changes in policies and nursing care planning.

  4. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by St Paul's Child and Family Care Centre Limited, Dublin 9

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Lorna

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Deliberate self harm (DSH) is a major public health concern and has increased among young people in Ireland. While DSH is undoubtedly the result of interacting factors, studies have identified an association between DSH and family dysfunction as well as the protective role of positive family relationships. Following a focus group meeting held to identify the needs of parents and carers of young people with DSH, a support programme (SPACE) was developed. The aims of the current study are to evaluate the effectiveness of the SPACE programme in decreasing parental psychological distress, reducing parental report of young peoples\\' difficulties, increasing parental satisfaction and increasing parents\\' ratings of their own defined challenges and goals. METHODS: Participants were recruited from a Mental Health Service within a paediatric hospital, Community Child and Adolescent Mental Health Teams and family support services. All services were located within the greater Dublin area in Ireland. Forty-six parents of children who had engaged in or expressed thoughts of self harm attended the programme and participated in the evaluation study. The programme ran once a week over an 8-week period and included topics such as information on self harm in young people, parenting adolescents, communication and parental self-care. Seventy percent (N = 32) of the original sample at Time 1 completed measures at Time 2 (directly following the programme) and 37% (N = 17) of the original sample at Time 1 completed them at Time 3 (6 months following the programme).A repeated measures design was used to identify changes in parental wellbeing after attendance at the programme as well as changes in parental reports of their children\\'s difficulties. RESULTS: Participants had lower levels of psychological distress, increased parental satisfaction, lower ratings of their own defined challenges and higher ratings of their goals directly after the programme. These

  5. Perspectives on Retaining a DRDC Human Sciences Centre...in Toronto

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacobs, Ira

    2006-01-01

    ... & Technology activities. The strategy will include addressing issues such as the location of the research centres and the associated synergy that exists with industry and academia in the various research centre locations...

  6. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Peter Bradley Foundation Limited, Co. Dublin

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Andrew W

    2005-07-29

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the SPHERE study is to design, implement and evaluate tailored practice and personal care plans to improve the process of care and objective clinical outcomes for patients with established coronary heart disease (CHD) in general practice across two different health systems on the island of Ireland. CHD is a common cause of death and a significant cause of morbidity in Ireland. Secondary prevention has been recommended as a key strategy for reducing levels of CHD mortality and general practice has been highlighted as an ideal setting for secondary prevention initiatives. Current indications suggest that there is considerable room for improvement in the provision of secondary prevention for patients with established heart disease on the island of Ireland. The review literature recommends structured programmes with continued support and follow-up of patients; the provision of training, tailored to practice needs of access to evidence of effectiveness of secondary prevention; structured recall programmes that also take account of individual practice needs; and patient-centred consultations accompanied by attention to disease management guidelines. METHODS: SPHERE is a cluster randomised controlled trial, with practice-level randomisation to intervention and control groups, recruiting 960 patients from 48 practices in three study centres (Belfast, Dublin and Galway). Primary outcomes are blood pressure, total cholesterol, physical and mental health status (SF-12) and hospital re-admissions. The intervention takes place over two years and data is collected at baseline, one-year and two-year follow-up. Data is obtained from medical charts, consultations with practitioners, and patient postal questionnaires. The SPHERE intervention involves the implementation of a structured systematic programme of care for patients with CHD attending general practice. It is a multi-faceted intervention that has been developed to respond to barriers and solutions to

  7. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Brothers of Charity Services Galway, Galway

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Andrew W

    2005-07-29

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the SPHERE study is to design, implement and evaluate tailored practice and personal care plans to improve the process of care and objective clinical outcomes for patients with established coronary heart disease (CHD) in general practice across two different health systems on the island of Ireland. CHD is a common cause of death and a significant cause of morbidity in Ireland. Secondary prevention has been recommended as a key strategy for reducing levels of CHD mortality and general practice has been highlighted as an ideal setting for secondary prevention initiatives. Current indications suggest that there is considerable room for improvement in the provision of secondary prevention for patients with established heart disease on the island of Ireland. The review literature recommends structured programmes with continued support and follow-up of patients; the provision of training, tailored to practice needs of access to evidence of effectiveness of secondary prevention; structured recall programmes that also take account of individual practice needs; and patient-centred consultations accompanied by attention to disease management guidelines. METHODS: SPHERE is a cluster randomised controlled trial, with practice-level randomisation to intervention and control groups, recruiting 960 patients from 48 practices in three study centres (Belfast, Dublin and Galway). Primary outcomes are blood pressure, total cholesterol, physical and mental health status (SF-12) and hospital re-admissions. The intervention takes place over two years and data is collected at baseline, one-year and two-year follow-up. Data is obtained from medical charts, consultations with practitioners, and patient postal questionnaires. The SPHERE intervention involves the implementation of a structured systematic programme of care for patients with CHD attending general practice. It is a multi-faceted intervention that has been developed to respond to barriers and solutions to

  8. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Health Service Executive, Sligo

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lundgren, Ingela

    2015-02-05

    BackgroundThe number of caesarean sections (CS) is increasing globally, and repeat CS after a previous CS is a significant contributor to the overall CS rate. Vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) can be seen as a real and viable option for most women with previous CS. To achieve success, however, women need the support of their clinicians (obstetricians and midwives). The aim of this study was to evaluate clinician-centred interventions designed to increase the rate of VBAC.MethodsThe bibliographic databases of The Cochrane Library, PubMed, PsychINFO and CINAHL were searched for randomised controlled trials, including cluster randomised trials that evaluated the effectiveness of any intervention targeted directly at clinicians aimed at increasing VBAC rates. Included studies were appraised independently by two reviewers. Data were extracted independently by three reviewers. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the quality assessment tool, `Effective Public Health Practice Project¿. The primary outcome measure was VBAC rates.Results238 citations were screened, 255 were excluded by title and abstract. 11 full-text papers were reviewed; eight were excluded, resulting in three included papers. One study evaluated the effectiveness of antepartum x-ray pelvimetry (XRP) in 306 women with one previous CS. One study evaluated the effects of external peer review on CS birth in 45 hospitals, and the third evaluated opinion leader education and audit and feedback in 16 hospitals. The use of external peer review, audit and feedback had no significant effect on VBAC rates. An educational strategy delivered by an opinion leader significantly increased VBAC rates. The use of XRP significantly increased CS rates.ConclusionsThis systematic review indicates that few studies have evaluated the effects of clinician-centred interventions on VBAC rates, and interventions are of varying types which limited the ability to meta-analyse data. A further limitation is that

  9. The Health and Safety Benefits of New Technologies in Mining: A Review and Strategy for Designing and Deploying Effective User-Centred Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Horberry

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mining is currently experiencing a rapid growth in the development and uptake of automation and other new technologies (such as collision detection systems; however, they are often developed from a technology-centred perspective that does not explicitly consider the end-user. This paper first presents a review of the technologies currently available (or near-market and the likely human factors issues associated with them. The second part of the paper presents a potential long term strategy for research and development that aims to maximise the safety and health benefits for operators of such new technologies. The strategy includes a four stage research and development process, this covers: better understanding the needs for technology, user requirements and risk/cost analysis; human element design, procurement and deployment processes; evaluation and verification of the strategy; and dissemination of it to relevant stakeholders (including equipment manufacturers, mine site purchasers and regulators. The paper concludes by stressing the importance of considering the human element with respect to new mining technologies and the likely benefits of adopting the type of strategy proposed here. The overall vision is for mining to become safer and healthier through effective user-centred design and deployment of new technologies that serve both operator needs and the demands of the workplace.

  10. Human-Centred Intelligent Human-Computer Interaction (HCI²): how far are we from attaining it?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantic, Maja; Nijholt, Antinus; Pentland, Alex; Huang, Thomas S.

    2008-01-01

    A widely accepted prediction is that computing will move to the background, weaving itself into the fabric of our everyday living spaces and projecting the human user into the foreground. To realise this prediction, next-generation computing should develop anticipatory user interfaces that are

  11. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by St Michael's House, Dublin 13

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Presneill, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    The Erythropoietin in Traumatic Brain Injury (EPO-TBI) trial aims to determine whether the administration of erythropoietin to patients with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury improves patient-centred outcomes.

  12. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by SOS Kilkenny Ltd, Kilkenny

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Presneill, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    The Erythropoietin in Traumatic Brain Injury (EPO-TBI) trial aims to determine whether the administration of erythropoietin to patients with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury improves patient-centred outcomes.

  13. Human Work Interaction Design Meets International Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, Pedro; Clemmensen, Torkil; Barricelli, Barbara Rita

    2017-01-01

    opportunity to observe technology-mediated innovative work practices in informal settings that may be related to the notion of International Development. In this unique context, this workshop proposes to analyze findings related to opportunities for design research in this type of work domains: a) human......Over the last decade, empirical relationships between work domain analysis and HCI design have been identified by much research in the field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) across five continents. Since this workshop takes place at the Interact Conference in Mumbai, there is a unique...

  14. Human Work Interaction Design Meets International Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, Pedro; Clemmensen, Torkil; Barricelli, Barbara Rita

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, empirical relationships between work domain analysis and HCI design have been identified by much research in the field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) across five continents. Since this workshop takes place at the Interact Conference in Mumbai, there is a unique...... opportunity to observe technology-mediated innovative work practices in informal settings that may be related to the notion of International Development. In this unique context, this workshop proposes to analyze findings related to opportunities for design research in this type of work domains: a) human...

  15. Faculty of Dentistry, Kuwait University, designated as a World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Primary Oral Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbehani, J M

    2014-01-01

    The Faculty of Dentistry, Kuwait University, was designated as a World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centre for Primary Oral Health Care (POHC) in 2011. This article aimed to describe the following: (1) the background for this nomination, (2) the WHO Collaborating Centre for POHC, its terms of reference and 5 activities, (3) the primary health care concept as it was established in Alma-Ata, (4) the oral health situation in Kuwait and in the Middle-East region and, finally, (5) how POHC policy should be implemented in Kuwait and this region. It can be concluded that, because the caries experience is very high in Kuwait and in the other countries of the Eastern Mediterranean region, good POHC programmes should be designed and implemented in this region. The Faculty of Dentistry will strengthen its research tradition and as a WHO Collaborating Centre for POHC will try to collect information and experience from POHC in this region and exchange ideas between POHC experts in this region on how these programmes could be further developed. This will happen according to the terms of reference and activity plans of the WHO Collaborating Centre for POHC approved by the WHO Global Oral Health Programme. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Faculty of Dentistry, Kuwait University, Designated as a World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Primary Oral Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbehani, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Faculty of Dentistry, Kuwait University, was designated as a World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centre for Primary Oral Health Care (POHC) in 2011. This article aimed to describe the following: (1) the background for this nomination, (2) the WHO Collaborating Centre for POHC, its terms of reference and 5 activities, (3) the primary health care concept as it was established in Alma-Ata, (4) the oral health situation in Kuwait and in the Middle-East region and, finally, (5) how POHC policy should be implemented in Kuwait and this region. It can be concluded that, because the caries experience is very high in Kuwait and in the other countries of the Eastern Mediterranean region, good POHC programmes should be designed and implemented in this region. The Faculty of Dentistry will strengthen its research tradition and as a WHO Collaborating Centre for POHC will try to collect information and experience from POHC in this region and exchange ideas between POHC experts in this region on how these programmes could be further developed. This will happen according to the terms of reference and activity plans of the WHO Collaborating Centre for POHC approved by the WHO Global Oral Health Programme. PMID:24504110

  17. Design and static performance of high speed machining centre with "direct drive"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuhong XIAO; Yulian CHEN; Guangyuan ZHENG

    2009-01-01

    "Direct drive" is an ideal method for speeding machine tools. In the structure of a CNC machining centre with "direct drive", the linear motor's primary and secondary parts are assembled into the worktable and machine bed respectively to directly drive the worktable. The built-in rotary motor is assembled in the spindle to realize the main transmission system of the machine tool "direct drive". All mechanical transmission elements in machine tools are eliminated. High speed, efficiency, and accuracy are easily obtained. However, in this type of "direct drive" machining centre, the magnetic attraction force between the primary and the secondary linear motors and the dynamic impact at acceleration and deceleration are directly imposed on the machine tool, and influence the performance of the machining centre. This paper analyzes the special demands of "direct drive" on the machine centre, and introduces a new structure of the machining tool. The worktable and machine bed are optimized to meet the special demands of "direct drive". Static performance simulation on the machining centre is done to reveal an ideal result.

  18. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Enable Ireland Disability Services Limited, Cork

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coote, Susan

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: People with Multiple Sclerosis have a life long need for physiotherapy and exercise interventions due to the progressive nature of the disease and their greater risk of the complications of inactivity. The Multiple Sclerosis Society of Ireland run physiotherapy, yoga and exercise classes for their members, however there is little evidence to suggest which form of physical activity optimises outcome for people with the many and varied impairments associated with MS. METHODS AND DESIGN: This is a multi-centre, single blind, block randomised, controlled trial. Participants will be recruited via the ten regional offices of MS Ireland. Telephone screening will establish eligibility and stratification according to the mobility section of the Guys Neurological Disability Scale. Once a block of people of the same strand in the same geographical region have given consent, participants will be randomised. Strand A will concern individuals with MS who walk independently or use one stick to walk outside. Participants will be randomised to yoga, physiotherapy led exercise class, fitness instructor led exercise class or to a control group who don\\'t change their exercise habits.Strand B will concern individuals with MS who walk with bilateral support or a rollator, they may use a wheelchair for longer distance outdoors. Participants will be randomised to 1:1 Physiotherapist led intervention, group intervention led by Physiotherapist, group yoga intervention or a control group who don\\'t change their exercise habits. Participants will be assessed by physiotherapist who is blind to the group allocation at week 1, week 12 (following 10 weeks intervention or control), and at 12 week follow up. The primary outcome measure for both strands is the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale. Secondary outcomes are Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, 6 Minute Walk test, and muscle strength measured with hand held dynamometry. Strand B will also use Berg Balance Test and the Modified

  19. Mars Ascent Vehicle Design for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsgrove, Tara; Thomas, Dan; Sutherlin, Steven; Stephens, Walter; Rucker, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    In NASA's evolvable Mars campaign, transportation architectures for human missions to Mars rely on a combination of solar electric propulsion and chemical propulsion systems. Minimizing the Mars ascent vehicle (MAV) mass is critical in reducing the overall lander mass and also eases the requirements placed on the transportation stages. This paper presents the results of a conceptual design study to obtain a minimal MAV configuration, including subsystem designs and mass summaries.

  20. Human factors considerations in designing for infection prevention and control in neonatal care - findings from a pre-design inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudel, Chantal; Cobb, Sue; Momtahan, Kathryn; Brintnell, Janet; Mitchell, Ann

    2018-01-01

    Qualitative data collection methods drawn from the early stages of human-centred design frameworks combined with thematic analysis were used to develop an understanding of infection prevention practice within an existing neonatal intensive care unit. Findings were used to generate a framework of understanding which in turn helped inform a baseline approach for future research and design development. The study revealed that a lack of clarity between infection transmission zones and a lack of design attributes needed to uphold infection prevention measures may be undermining healthcare workers' understanding and application of good practice. The issue may be further complicated by well-intentioned behavioural attitudes to meeting work objectives; undue influences from spatial constraints; the influence of inadvertent and excessive touch-based interactions; physical and/or cognitive exertion to maintain transmission barriers; and the impact of expanding job design and increased workload to supplement for lack of effective barriers. Practitioner Summary: Despite high hand hygiene compliance within a neonatal intensive care unit, healthcare workers expressed concerns about the unit design and infection prevention practice. Early inquiry methods from human-centred design and thematic analysis helped develop a framework to understand how design can be used to aid infection prevention.

  1. Olfactory Environment Design for Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, C. S.; Holland, F. J.

    2002-01-01

    Smell is usually deemed the least important of the five senses. To contradict this assertion, however, there is no shortage of scientific literature which concludes that olfaction is of very great significance to humans. Odours have been shown to have a variety of effects on humans, and are capable of changing both behaviour and cognitive processing in ways that we are frequently completely unconscious of. Examples of this include alertness, alteration of mood, capacity for ideation and intellectual performance. To date, the design of human spacecraft has concentrated on making their olfactory environments, where possible, `odour neutral' - that is ensuring that all unpleasant and/or offensive odours are removed. Here it suggested that spacecraft (and other extraterrestrial facilities for human inhabitation) might benefit from having their olfactory environments designed to be `odour positive', that is to use odours and olfaction for the positive benefit of their residents. This paper presents a summary of current olfactory research and considers both its positive and negative implications for humans in space. It then discusses `odour positive' design of spacecraft olfactory environments and the possible benefits accruing from this approach before examining its implications for the architecture of spacecraft environmental control systems.

  2. Design, fiction and the medical humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, Christopher Gordon

    2016-12-01

    This paper sets out to explore the similarities between the developing discipline of speculative and critical design (SCD) and science fiction, and their relevance to the medical humanities. SCD looks beyond 'commercial design' to consider what sort of things we should, or should not, be designing in order to create preferable futures. It does so by extrapolating from current social, economic, political and scientific knowledge, designing artefacts, experiences and scenarios which communicate futures and alternative realities in tangible ways. By first outlying the relevance of SCD to the medical humanities, through its ability to imagine and visualise preferable healthcare futures, the paper will then discuss several recent design projects which focus on current and future ethical issues raised by emerging biotechnology. Through these projects, the paper will look at SCD's ability to provoke, engage and critique science and society, while also critically reflecting on the limitations of the evolving design discipline. Through the paper it is hoped that there can be an increased understanding of SCD and its ambitions, as well as its limitations, in order for SCD to better approach issues relating to health and wellbeing, along with other difficult and challenging issues which will affect all us today and into the (sci-fi) future. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Carriglea Cairde Services, Waterford

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ahmad, Sarfraz

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Immunological therapies enhance the ability of the immune system to recognise and destroy cancer cells via selective killing mechanisms. DNA vaccines have potential to activate the immune system against specific antigens, with accompanying potent immunological adjuvant effects from unmethylated CpG motifs as on prokaryotic DNA. We investigated an electroporation driven plasmid DNA vaccination strategy in animal models for treatment of prostate cancer. METHODS: Plasmid expressing human PSA gene (phPSA) was delivered in vivo by intra-muscular electroporation, to induce effective anti-tumour immune responses against prostate antigen expressing tumours. Groups of male C57 BL\\/6 mice received intra-muscular injections of phPSA plasmid. For phPSA delivery, quadriceps muscle was injected with 50 mug plasmid. After 80 seconds, square-wave pulses were administered in sequence using a custom designed pulse generator and acustom-designed applicator with 2 needles placed through the skin central to the muscle. To determine an optimum treatment regimen, three different vaccination schedules were investigated. In a separate experiment, the immune potential of the phPSA vaccine was further enhanced with co- administration of synthetic CpG rich oligonucleotides. One week after last vaccination, the mice were challenged subcutaneously with TRAMPC1\\/hPSA (prostate cancer cell line stably expressing human PSA) and tumour growth was monitored. Serum from animals was examined by ELISA for anti-hPSA antibodies and for IFNgamma. Histological assessment of the tumours was also carried out. In vivo and in vitro cytotoxicity assays were performed with splenocytes from treated mice. RESULTS: The phPSA vaccine therapy significantly delayed the appearance of tumours and resulted in prolonged survival of the animals. Four-dose vaccination regimen provided optimal immunological effects. Co - administration of the synthetic CpG with phPSA increased anti-tumour responses

  4. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by An Breacadh Nua, Wexford

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ahmad, Sarfraz

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Immunological therapies enhance the ability of the immune system to recognise and destroy cancer cells via selective killing mechanisms. DNA vaccines have potential to activate the immune system against specific antigens, with accompanying potent immunological adjuvant effects from unmethylated CpG motifs as on prokaryotic DNA. We investigated an electroporation driven plasmid DNA vaccination strategy in animal models for treatment of prostate cancer. METHODS: Plasmid expressing human PSA gene (phPSA) was delivered in vivo by intra-muscular electroporation, to induce effective anti-tumour immune responses against prostate antigen expressing tumours. Groups of male C57 BL\\/6 mice received intra-muscular injections of phPSA plasmid. For phPSA delivery, quadriceps muscle was injected with 50 mug plasmid. After 80 seconds, square-wave pulses were administered in sequence using a custom designed pulse generator and acustom-designed applicator with 2 needles placed through the skin central to the muscle. To determine an optimum treatment regimen, three different vaccination schedules were investigated. In a separate experiment, the immune potential of the phPSA vaccine was further enhanced with co- administration of synthetic CpG rich oligonucleotides. One week after last vaccination, the mice were challenged subcutaneously with TRAMPC1\\/hPSA (prostate cancer cell line stably expressing human PSA) and tumour growth was monitored. Serum from animals was examined by ELISA for anti-hPSA antibodies and for IFNgamma. Histological assessment of the tumours was also carried out. In vivo and in vitro cytotoxicity assays were performed with splenocytes from treated mice. RESULTS: The phPSA vaccine therapy significantly delayed the appearance of tumours and resulted in prolonged survival of the animals. Four-dose vaccination regimen provided optimal immunological effects. Co - administration of the synthetic CpG with phPSA increased anti-tumour responses

  5. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by St Catherine's Association Limited, Wicklow

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ahmad, Sarfraz

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Immunological therapies enhance the ability of the immune system to recognise and destroy cancer cells via selective killing mechanisms. DNA vaccines have potential to activate the immune system against specific antigens, with accompanying potent immunological adjuvant effects from unmethylated CpG motifs as on prokaryotic DNA. We investigated an electroporation driven plasmid DNA vaccination strategy in animal models for treatment of prostate cancer. METHODS: Plasmid expressing human PSA gene (phPSA) was delivered in vivo by intra-muscular electroporation, to induce effective anti-tumour immune responses against prostate antigen expressing tumours. Groups of male C57 BL\\/6 mice received intra-muscular injections of phPSA plasmid. For phPSA delivery, quadriceps muscle was injected with 50 mug plasmid. After 80 seconds, square-wave pulses were administered in sequence using a custom designed pulse generator and acustom-designed applicator with 2 needles placed through the skin central to the muscle. To determine an optimum treatment regimen, three different vaccination schedules were investigated. In a separate experiment, the immune potential of the phPSA vaccine was further enhanced with co- administration of synthetic CpG rich oligonucleotides. One week after last vaccination, the mice were challenged subcutaneously with TRAMPC1\\/hPSA (prostate cancer cell line stably expressing human PSA) and tumour growth was monitored. Serum from animals was examined by ELISA for anti-hPSA antibodies and for IFNgamma. Histological assessment of the tumours was also carried out. In vivo and in vitro cytotoxicity assays were performed with splenocytes from treated mice. RESULTS: The phPSA vaccine therapy significantly delayed the appearance of tumours and resulted in prolonged survival of the animals. Four-dose vaccination regimen provided optimal immunological effects. Co - administration of the synthetic CpG with phPSA increased anti-tumour responses

  6. Towards Designing Android Faces after Actual Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Using their face as their prior affective interface, android robots and other agents embody emotional facial expressions, and convey messages on their identity, gender, age, race, and attractiveness. We are examining whether androids can convey emotionally relevant information via their static...... human) and its’ Original (the actual human). The emotional judgments were achieved through an online survey with video-stimuli and questionnaires, following a forced-choice design. Analysis of the results indicated that the emotional judgments for the Geminoid-DK highly depend on the emotional judgments...... of the robotic task, in order to increase the chance of sustaining a more emotional interaction....

  7. Interior Design Education within a Human Ecological Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaup, Migette L.; Anderson, Barbara G.; Honey, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    An education based in human ecology can greatly benefit interior designers as they work to understand and improve the human condition. Design programs housed in colleges focusing on human ecology can improve the interior design profession by taking advantage of their home base and emphasizing the human ecological framework in the design curricula.…

  8. Development of human factors design review guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: 25. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model and 26. Review Criteria for Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Controls and Instrumentation, which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994. (author). 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. AltText: A Showcase of User Centred Design in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asjes, Kathleen

    In the information processing chain many documents are produced that are inaccessible to the reading impaired. The altText project aims to increase the accessibility of this content by: a) raising awareness among content providers about content adaption; b) allowing content providers to deliver content in a way that suits the needs of the information receiver; c) developing an online service that converts written text into several accessible formats (Braille, synthetic speech, large print or DaisyXML). The name of this service is the altText conversion portal. The paper argues that user centred innovation will be crucial to the success of this project.

  10. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by SOS Kilkenny Ltd, Kilkenny

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dunne, R

    2011-03-01

    Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most powerful treatment for depression, substantial variability in use has been described in Ireland. The Mental Health Commission collects usage data from approved centres but does not include home addresses or independent sector patients. Therefore, estimates of regional variation cannot be accurate, e.g. 145 (35% of total) independent sector patients were omitted from their 2008 analysis. When public and independent sector patients are combined inter-regional variation for 2008 is more than halved (chi-squared decreased from 83 to 30), with Western region contributing most to variation (chi-squared = 43). Ratio of ECT programmes to depressed admissions correlated negatively with rate for depressed admissions (r = -0.53, p = 0.01), while depressed admission numbers correlated with acute beds per area (r = 0.68, p = 0.001). Regional variation in ECT is less than previously reported; service factors probably account for much of this with smaller centres admitting severely ill patients more likely to require ECT.

  11. Design as a Process of Inquiry, Dialogic Products and Learning-Centred Research Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunn, Wendy; Said Mosleh, Wafa; Andersen, Pernille Viktoria

    2015-01-01

    to address the following questions: How do you engage university researchers and company partners in the collaborative design of energy efficient products? How do you engage teenagers in the future design of public libraries? Working across multiple field sites and the interaction design-teaching studio, we...... products play in opening lines of design inquiry within multi-stakeholder design and field practices involving a diversity of communities engaged in university, public, private research partnerships....

  12. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by St Catherine's Association Limited, Wicklow

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Aisling

    2010-09-17

    Abstract Background Considerable attention has been given by policy makers and researchers to the human resources for health crisis in Africa. However, little attention has been paid to quantifying health facility-level trends in health worker numbers, distribution and workload, despite growing demands on health workers due to the availability of new funds for HIV\\/AIDS control scale-up. This study analyses and reports trends in HIV and non-HIV ambulatory service workloads on clinical staff in urban and rural district level facilities. Methods Structured surveys of health facility managers, and health services covering 2005-07 were conducted in three districts of Zambia in 2008 (two urban and one rural), to fill this evidence gap. Intra-facility analyses were conducted, comparing trends in HIV and non-HIV service utilisation with staff trends. Results Clinical staff (doctors, nurses and nurse-midwives, and clinical officers) numbers and staff population densities fell slightly, with lower ratios of staff to population in the rural district. The ratios of antenatal care and family planning registrants to nurses\\/nurse-midwives were highest at baseline and increased further at the rural facilities over the three years, while daily outpatient department (OPD) workload in urban facilities fell below that in rural facilities. HIV workload, as measured by numbers of clients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) per facility staff member, was highest in the capital city, but increased rapidly in all three districts. The analysis suggests evidence of task sharing, in that staff designated by managers as ART and PMTCT workers made up a higher proportion of frontline service providers by 2007. Conclusions This analysis of workforce patterns across 30 facilities in three districts of Zambia illustrates that the remarkable achievements in scaling-up HIV\\/AIDS service delivery has been on the back of sustained non

  13. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Peamount Healthcare, Co. Dublin

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sermeus, Walter

    2011-04-18

    Abstract Background Current human resources planning models in nursing are unreliable and ineffective as they consider volumes, but ignore effects on quality in patient care. The project RN4CAST aims innovative forecasting methods by addressing not only volumes, but quality of nursing staff as well as quality of patient care. Methods\\/Design A multi-country, multilevel cross-sectional design is used to obtain important unmeasured factors in forecasting models including how features of hospital work environments impact on nurse recruitment, retention and patient outcomes. In each of the 12 participating European countries, at least 30 general acute hospitals were sampled. Data are gathered via four data sources (nurse, patient and organizational surveys and via routinely collected hospital discharge data). All staff nurses of a random selection of medical and surgical units (at least 2 per hospital) were surveyed. The nurse survey has the purpose to measure the experiences of nurses on their job (e.g. job satisfaction, burnout) as well as to allow the creation of aggregated hospital level measures of staffing and working conditions. The patient survey is organized in a sub-sample of countries and hospitals using a one-day census approach to measure the patient experiences with medical and nursing care. In addition to conducting a patient survey, hospital discharge abstract datasets will be used to calculate additional patient outcomes like in-hospital mortality and failure-to-rescue. Via the organizational survey, information about the organizational profile (e.g. bed size, types of technology available, teaching status) is collected to control the analyses for institutional differences. This information will be linked via common identifiers and the relationships between different aspects of the nursing work environment and patient and nurse outcomes will be studied by using multilevel regression type analyses. These results will be used to simulate the impact of

  14. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Three Steps, Meath

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sermeus, Walter

    2011-04-18

    Abstract Background Current human resources planning models in nursing are unreliable and ineffective as they consider volumes, but ignore effects on quality in patient care. The project RN4CAST aims innovative forecasting methods by addressing not only volumes, but quality of nursing staff as well as quality of patient care. Methods\\/Design A multi-country, multilevel cross-sectional design is used to obtain important unmeasured factors in forecasting models including how features of hospital work environments impact on nurse recruitment, retention and patient outcomes. In each of the 12 participating European countries, at least 30 general acute hospitals were sampled. Data are gathered via four data sources (nurse, patient and organizational surveys and via routinely collected hospital discharge data). All staff nurses of a random selection of medical and surgical units (at least 2 per hospital) were surveyed. The nurse survey has the purpose to measure the experiences of nurses on their job (e.g. job satisfaction, burnout) as well as to allow the creation of aggregated hospital level measures of staffing and working conditions. The patient survey is organized in a sub-sample of countries and hospitals using a one-day census approach to measure the patient experiences with medical and nursing care. In addition to conducting a patient survey, hospital discharge abstract datasets will be used to calculate additional patient outcomes like in-hospital mortality and failure-to-rescue. Via the organizational survey, information about the organizational profile (e.g. bed size, types of technology available, teaching status) is collected to control the analyses for institutional differences. This information will be linked via common identifiers and the relationships between different aspects of the nursing work environment and patient and nurse outcomes will be studied by using multilevel regression type analyses. These results will be used to simulate the impact of

  15. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Dundalk Simon Community, Louth

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sermeus, Walter

    2011-04-18

    Abstract Background Current human resources planning models in nursing are unreliable and ineffective as they consider volumes, but ignore effects on quality in patient care. The project RN4CAST aims innovative forecasting methods by addressing not only volumes, but quality of nursing staff as well as quality of patient care. Methods\\/Design A multi-country, multilevel cross-sectional design is used to obtain important unmeasured factors in forecasting models including how features of hospital work environments impact on nurse recruitment, retention and patient outcomes. In each of the 12 participating European countries, at least 30 general acute hospitals were sampled. Data are gathered via four data sources (nurse, patient and organizational surveys and via routinely collected hospital discharge data). All staff nurses of a random selection of medical and surgical units (at least 2 per hospital) were surveyed. The nurse survey has the purpose to measure the experiences of nurses on their job (e.g. job satisfaction, burnout) as well as to allow the creation of aggregated hospital level measures of staffing and working conditions. The patient survey is organized in a sub-sample of countries and hospitals using a one-day census approach to measure the patient experiences with medical and nursing care. In addition to conducting a patient survey, hospital discharge abstract datasets will be used to calculate additional patient outcomes like in-hospital mortality and failure-to-rescue. Via the organizational survey, information about the organizational profile (e.g. bed size, types of technology available, teaching status) is collected to control the analyses for institutional differences. This information will be linked via common identifiers and the relationships between different aspects of the nursing work environment and patient and nurse outcomes will be studied by using multilevel regression type analyses. These results will be used to simulate the impact of

  16. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by St Michael's House, Dublin 9

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sermeus, Walter

    2011-04-18

    Abstract Background Current human resources planning models in nursing are unreliable and ineffective as they consider volumes, but ignore effects on quality in patient care. The project RN4CAST aims innovative forecasting methods by addressing not only volumes, but quality of nursing staff as well as quality of patient care. Methods\\/Design A multi-country, multilevel cross-sectional design is used to obtain important unmeasured factors in forecasting models including how features of hospital work environments impact on nurse recruitment, retention and patient outcomes. In each of the 12 participating European countries, at least 30 general acute hospitals were sampled. Data are gathered via four data sources (nurse, patient and organizational surveys and via routinely collected hospital discharge data). All staff nurses of a random selection of medical and surgical units (at least 2 per hospital) were surveyed. The nurse survey has the purpose to measure the experiences of nurses on their job (e.g. job satisfaction, burnout) as well as to allow the creation of aggregated hospital level measures of staffing and working conditions. The patient survey is organized in a sub-sample of countries and hospitals using a one-day census approach to measure the patient experiences with medical and nursing care. In addition to conducting a patient survey, hospital discharge abstract datasets will be used to calculate additional patient outcomes like in-hospital mortality and failure-to-rescue. Via the organizational survey, information about the organizational profile (e.g. bed size, types of technology available, teaching status) is collected to control the analyses for institutional differences. This information will be linked via common identifiers and the relationships between different aspects of the nursing work environment and patient and nurse outcomes will be studied by using multilevel regression type analyses. These results will be used to simulate the impact of

  17. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Ability West, Galway

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sermeus, Walter

    2011-04-18

    Abstract Background Current human resources planning models in nursing are unreliable and ineffective as they consider volumes, but ignore effects on quality in patient care. The project RN4CAST aims innovative forecasting methods by addressing not only volumes, but quality of nursing staff as well as quality of patient care. Methods\\/Design A multi-country, multilevel cross-sectional design is used to obtain important unmeasured factors in forecasting models including how features of hospital work environments impact on nurse recruitment, retention and patient outcomes. In each of the 12 participating European countries, at least 30 general acute hospitals were sampled. Data are gathered via four data sources (nurse, patient and organizational surveys and via routinely collected hospital discharge data). All staff nurses of a random selection of medical and surgical units (at least 2 per hospital) were surveyed. The nurse survey has the purpose to measure the experiences of nurses on their job (e.g. job satisfaction, burnout) as well as to allow the creation of aggregated hospital level measures of staffing and working conditions. The patient survey is organized in a sub-sample of countries and hospitals using a one-day census approach to measure the patient experiences with medical and nursing care. In addition to conducting a patient survey, hospital discharge abstract datasets will be used to calculate additional patient outcomes like in-hospital mortality and failure-to-rescue. Via the organizational survey, information about the organizational profile (e.g. bed size, types of technology available, teaching status) is collected to control the analyses for institutional differences. This information will be linked via common identifiers and the relationships between different aspects of the nursing work environment and patient and nurse outcomes will be studied by using multilevel regression type analyses. These results will be used to simulate the impact of

  18. The 'critical mass' survey of palliative care programme at ESMO designated centres of integrated oncology and palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, D; Cherny, N; Latino, N; Strasser, F

    2017-09-01

    The ESMO Designated Centres (ESMO-DCs) of Integrated Oncology and Palliative Care (PC) Incentive Programme has grown steadily. We aimed to characterise the level of PC clinical services, education and research at ESMO-DCs. We sent all 184 ESMO-DCs an electronic survey consisting of 78 questions examining the DC characteristics, palliative care clinical programme (structure, processes, and outcomes), primary PC delivery by oncologists, education, research and attitudes and beliefs towards the ESMO-DC programme. The response rate was 83% (152/184). 115 (76%) ESMO-DCs were from Europe, 87 (57%) were tertiary care centres. 136 (90%) had inpatient consultation teams, 135 (89%) had outpatient PC clinics, 107 (71%) had dedicated acute care beds, and 75 (50%) offered community-based PC. An estimated 70% (interquartile range [IQR] 28-80%) of patients with advanced cancer had a PC consultation before death, occurring 90 days before death (median, IQR 40-150 days) for outpatients and 21 days (IQR 14-45 days) for inpatients. 59 (39%) offered PC fellowship programme; 47 (32%) had mandatory PC rotations for oncology fellows. Ninety-nine (65%) had double-boarded palliative oncologists. 118 (78%) of the ESMO-DCs reported that routine symptom screening was offered in the oncology clinic and 30% of patients had documented end-of-life discussions by their oncologists. Most centres (>80%) perceived the ESMO-DC programme to increase their status. The ESMO-DCs had a high level of PC infrastructure and provided access to a large proportion of patients with advanced cancer. The survey supports that the 13 criteria required for ESMO designation set a robust framework for integration, stimulated investment of resources into some palliative care programmes prior to accreditation, and raised the interest about palliative care among clinicians, trainees and patients.

  19. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Brothers of Charity Southern Services, Cork

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bennett, Annemarie E

    2014-08-06

    Adults with an intellectual disability have poorer diets than the general adult population. The Able 2 Cook 4 Health cookery course aims to improve the diets of adults with mild to moderate intellectual disability. This study aims to evaluate the course by obtaining the views of course participants and the views of managers hosting the course. Thirty course participants took part in focus groups. Five managers hosting the course participated in a semi-structured interview. Positive features of the course included the group cooking, social interaction and course instructors. Collaboration between centres hosting the course and participants\\' home environment is needed to help transfer the skills learned to all home settings. The Able 2 Cook 4 Health cookery course provided participants with an important social outlet to learn essential occupational skills. These findings could particularly influence the diets of adults with an intellectual disability moving into independent living.

  20. Design of a patient information leaflet in a surgical centre in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Alexander Thomas; Mendes da Costa, Thomas; Gollogly, Jim; Monsell, Fergal

    2017-07-01

    Hand deformities cause a large surgical burden on Cambodian society. They significantly affect the quality of life, limit hand function and can cause severe mental health issues. The visited surgical centre provides free rehabilitative surgery in Phnom Penh for those unable to afford private or public healthcare. As part of the postoperative care provided, a team of local Khmer physiotherapists help patients with early mobilisation, passive and active movements, and functional exercises. Leaflets are widespread in high-income countries, but are scarce in low-income countries. This study suggests a patient information leaflet to help with patient education after their discharge from hospital. The main challenges identified during the creation of such a leaflet were the low levels of education, low literacy and poor understanding of the disease process. A simple visual leaflet was created and will help reduce the anxiety and stress associated with hand disfigurement in this region.

  1. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Nua Healthcare Services, Clare

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bennett, Annemarie E

    2014-08-06

    Adults with an intellectual disability have poorer diets than the general adult population. The Able 2 Cook 4 Health cookery course aims to improve the diets of adults with mild to moderate intellectual disability. This study aims to evaluate the course by obtaining the views of course participants and the views of managers hosting the course. Thirty course participants took part in focus groups. Five managers hosting the course participated in a semi-structured interview. Positive features of the course included the group cooking, social interaction and course instructors. Collaboration between centres hosting the course and participants\\' home environment is needed to help transfer the skills learned to all home settings. The Able 2 Cook 4 Health cookery course provided participants with an important social outlet to learn essential occupational skills. These findings could particularly influence the diets of adults with an intellectual disability moving into independent living.

  2. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Health Service Executive, Kildare

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayes, B

    2007-01-01

    Varicella in childhood is a self-limiting disease, which usually follows a benign course. However, complications, although rare, may have serious consequences. Ischaemic stroke secondary to post varicella angiopathy is a well-described complication and is estimated to account for up to a third of all strokes in infants. We present three previously healthy children who presented to our centre with ischaemic cerebrovascular infarction due to varicella angiopathy. All three children first presented within six weeks after onset of varicella infection and had MRI changes characteristic of ischaemic stroke secondary to post varicella angiopathy. While one child made an excellent recovery being left with only a minor deficit, the remaining two children were left with considerable morbidity severely affecting quality of life. The varicella vaccine has been proven to be well tolerated, safe and effective. We conclude that varicella vaccination should be considered for inclusion in the vaccination schedule to prevent serious complications which while rare may have devastating consequences.

  3. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Kerry Parents and Friends Association, Kerry

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article systematically monitors the quality of life (QOL) of patients with schizophrenia from seven different sites across four European countries: France, Ireland, Portugal and Spain. METHODS: A one-year prospective cohort study was carried out. Inclusion criteria for patients were: a clinical lifetime diagnosis of schizophrenia according to ICD-10 (F20) diagnostic criteria for research, age between 18 and 65 years and at least one contact with mental health services in 1993. Data concerning QOL were recorded in seven sites from four countries: France, Portugal, Ireland and Spain, and were obtained using the Baker and Intagliata scale. At baseline, 339 patients answered the QOL questionnaire. At one-year follow-up, Spain could not participate, so only 263 patients were contacted and 219 agreed to take part. QOL was compared across centres by areas and according to a global index. QOL was correlated with presence of clinical and social problems, needs for care and interventions provided during the one-year follow-up. RESULTS: We did not find any link between gender and QOL. There were some significant differences between centres concerning many items. What is more, these differences were relative: in Lisbon where the lowest level of satisfaction was recorded, people were satisfied with food but highly dissatisfied with finances, whereas in St Etienne, where the highest level of satisfaction was recorded, people were less satisfied with food when they were more satisfied with finances. The evolution in one year among those respondents who took part in the follow-up (excluding the subjects from Granada) showed different patterns depending on the items. CONCLUSION: The four countries have different resources and patients live in rather different conditions. However, the main differences as far as their QOL is concerned very much depend on extra-psychiatric variables, principally marital status and income.

  4. Signals sustaining human immunoglobulin V gene hypermutation in isolated germinal centre B cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Dahlenborg; J.D. Pound (J.); J. Gordon (Jocelynne); C.A.K. Borrebaeck (C. A K); R. Carlsson (R.)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractAffinity maturation of antibody responses depends on somatic hypermutation of the immunoglobulin V genes. Hypermutation is initiated specifically in proliferating B cells in lymphoid germinal centres but the signals driving this process remain unknown. This study identifies signals that

  5. Temporal properties of centre-surround interactions in human motion perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perge, J.A.; Kanai, R.; Wezel, R.J.A. van; Lankheet, M.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    A recent electrophysiological study revealed that the response to the antagonistic surround of macaque area MT receptive fields is delayed (15 - 20 ms) relative to the centre (Perge et al, 2002 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 43 E-Abstract 3931). We investigated whether this phenomenon,

  6. Design, Integration, and Quality. Teacher Education from the perspective of ProTed, a Norwegian Centre of Excellence in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Magne Vestøl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Artikkelen tar utgangspunkt i utviklingsarbeid i ProTed, Senter for fremragende lærer­utdanning, og bidrar til å belyse tre begreper av sentral betydning for utforming, utvikling og evaluering av lærerutdanning. Basert på teoriseminarer, strukturerte rapporter og annet empirisk materiale fra ProTeds utviklings­prosjekter presenterer artikkelen tre hovedbegrep: design, integrasjon og kvalitet. Design presenteres som en virksomhet, en dynamisk kompe­tanse­utvikling hvor undervisning transformeres til læring. Kunnskapsintegrasjon forstås som et kjerne-element i et slikt design, og artikkelen utforsker ulike former for integrasjon. Artikkelen presenterer også et perspektiv på kvalitetsvurdering som legger vekt på performa­tive og transformative aspekt ved den kompetanse­utviklingen som genereres gjennom design-virksomheten.Nøkkelord: lærerutdanning, design, integrasjon, kvalitet, ProTedAbstractDrawing on the developmental work of ProTed, a Norwegian Centre of Excellence in Edu­cation, this article contributes to the understanding of three concepts of central importance for the construction, development and evaluation of teacher education. Based on material from theory seminars, structured reports and other data from ProTed’s development projects, the article presents an understanding of the concepts design, integration and quality. Design is presented as an activity, a dynamic competence development where teaching is transformed into learning. Knowledge integration is understood as a core element of this design, and different forms and aspects of integration are explored. An understanding of quality evalu­ation is presented that emphasises performative and transformative aspects of the competence development that is generated through the design activity.Keywords: teacher education, design, integration, quality, ProTed

  7. The EU-project United4Health: User-centred design of an information system for a Norwegian telemedicine service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaradottir, Berglind; Gerdes, Martin; Martinez, Santiago; Fensli, Rune

    2016-10-01

    Organizational changes of health care services in Norway brought to light a need for new clinical pathways. This study presents the design and evaluation of an information system for a new telemedicine service for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients after hospital discharge. A user-centred design approach was employed composed of a workshop with end-users, two user tests and a field trial. For data collection, qualitative methods such as observations, semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire were used. User workshop's outcome informed the implementation of the system initial prototype, evaluated by end-users in a usability laboratory. Several usability and functionality issues were identified and solved, such as the interface between the initial colour scheme and the triage colours. Iterative refinements were made and a second user evaluation showed that the main issues were solved. The responses to a questionnaire presented a high score of user satisfaction. In the final phase, a field trial showed satisfactory use of the system. This study showed how the target end-users groups were actively involved in identifying the needs, suggestions and preferences. These aspects were addressed in the development of an information system through a user-centred design process. The process efficiently enabled users to give feedback about design and functionality. Continuous refinement of the system was the key to full development and suitability for the telemedicine service. This research was a result of the international cooperation between partners within the project United4Health, a part of the Seventh Framework Programme for Research of the European Union. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. The Dutch Birth Centre Study : Study design of a programmatic evaluation of the effect of birth centre care in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.A. Hermus (Marieke A.A.); T.A. Wiegers (Therese A.); M.F. Hitzert (Marit F.); I.C. Boesveld (Inge C.); E. van den Akker-van Marle (Elske); H.A. Akkermans (Henk A.); M.A. Bruijnzeels (Marc); A. Franx (Arie); J. de Graaf (Joke); M.E.B. Rijnders (Marlies); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); K.M. van der Pal-De Bruin (Karin)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ Birth centres are regarded as settings where women with uncomplicated pregnancies can give birth, assisted by a midwife and a maternity care assistant. In case of (threatening) complications referral to a maternity unit of a hospital is necessary. In the last decade

  9. The Dutch Birth Centre Study : Study design of a programmatic evaluation of the effect of birth centre care in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermus, M.A.A.; Wiegers, T.A.; Hitzert, Margaretha; Boesveld, I.C.; van den Akker-van Marle, E.M.; Akkermans, Henk; Bruijnzeels, M.A.; Franx, A.; de Graaf, J.P.; Rijnders, M.E.B.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Van der Pal-De Bruin, K.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Birth centres are regarded as settings where women with uncomplicated pregnancies can give birth, assisted by a midwife and a maternity care assistant. In case of (threatening) complications referral to a maternity unit of a hospital is necessary. In the last decade up to 20 different

  10. The Dutch Birth Centre Study : study design of a programmatic evaluation of the effect of birth centre care in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermus, Marieke A. A.; Wiegers, Therese A.; Hitzert, Marit F.; Boesveld, Inge C.; van den Akker-van Marle, M. Elske; Akkermans, Henk A.; Bruijnzeels, Marc A.; Franx, Arie; de Graaf, Johanna P.; Rijnders, Marlies E. B.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; van der Pal-de Bruin, Karin M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Birth centres are regarded as settings where women with uncomplicated pregnancies can give birth, assisted by a midwife and a maternity care assistant. In case of (threatening) complications referral to a maternity unit of a hospital is necessary. In the last decade up to 20 different

  11. The Dutch Birth Centre Study: study design of a programmatic evaluation of the effect of birth centre care in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermus, M.A.; Wiegers, T.A.; Hitzert, M.F.; Boesveld, I.C.; Akker-van Marle, M.E. van den; Akkermans, H.A.; Bruijnzeels, M.A.; Franx, A.; Graaf, J.P. de; Rijnders, M.E.; Steegers, E.A.; Pal-de Bruin, K.M. van der

    2015-01-01

    Background: Birth centres are regarded as settings where women with uncomplicated pregnancies can give birth, assisted by a midwife and a maternity care assistant. In case of (threatening) complications referral to a maternity unit of a hospital is necessary. In the last decade up to 20 different

  12. The Dutch Birth Centre Study: Study design of a programmatic evaluation of the effect of birth centre care in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.A. Hermus (Marieke A.A.); T.A. Wiegers (Therese A.); M.F. Hitzert (Marit F.); I.C. Boesveld (Inge C.); E. Van den Akker-van Marle (E.); H.A. Akkermans (Henk A.); M.A. Bruijnzeels (Marc); A. Franx (Arie); J. de Graaf (Joke); M.E.B. Rijnders (Marlies E.B.); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); K.M. van der Pal-De Bruin (Karin)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Birth centres are regarded as settings where women with uncomplicated pregnancies can give birth, assisted by a midwife and a maternity care assistant. In case of (threatening) complications referral to a maternity unit of a hospital is necessary. In the last decade up to 20

  13. Human Factors Principles in Information Dashboard Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques V.; St. Germain, Shawn

    2016-06-01

    strategic modernization program at a nuclear power plant where legacy systems are upgraded to advanced digital technologies through a systematic process that links human factors principles to the systems engineering process. This approach will help to create an integrated control room architecture beyond what is possible for individual subsystem upgrades alone. In addition, several human factors design and evaluation methods were used to develop the end-state concept, including interactive sessions with operators in INL’s Human System Simulation Laboratory, three-dimensional modeling to visualize control board changes.

  14. Human Mars Ascent Configuration and Design Sensitivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsgrove, Tara P.; Gernhardt, Mike; Collins, Tim; Martin, John

    2017-01-01

    Human missions to Mars may utilize several small cabins where crew members could live for days up to a couple of weeks. At the end of a Mars surface mission the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) crew cabin would carry the crew to their destination in orbit in a matter of hours or days. Other small cabins in support of a Mars mission would include pressurized rovers that allow crew members to travel great distances from their primary habitat on Mars while unconstrained by time limits of typical EVAs. An orbital crew taxi could allow for exploration of the moons of Mars with minimum impact to the primary Earth-Mars transportation systems. A common crew cabin design that can perform in each of these applications is desired and could reduce the overall mission cost. However, for the MAV, the crew cabin size and mass can have a large impact on vehicle design and performance. The total ascent vehicle mass drives performance requirements for the Mars descent systems and the Earth to Mars transportation elements. Minimizing MAV mass is a priority and minimizing the crew cabin size and mass is one way to do that. This paper explores the benefits and impacts of using a common crew cabin design for the MAV. Results of a MAV configuration trade study will be presented along with mass and performance estimates for the selected design.

  15. A Learner-Centred Game-Design Approach: Impacts on Teachers' Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frossard, Frederique; Barajas, Mario; Trifonova, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This study presents an innovative pedagogical approach where teachers become game designers and engage in creative teaching practices. Within co-design training workshops, 21 Spanish primary and secondary school teachers have developed their own Game-Based Learning (GBL) scenarios, especially tailored to their teaching contexts and students…

  16. Material Agency In User-Centred Design Practices: High School Students Improvising (with) Smart Sensor Prototypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates (digital) materiality through an analysis of the "sociomaterial configuration" (Orlikowski 2009) of the participatory design project SensorLab (2010). In SensorLab, users were enrolled as designers: a group of high school students developed and tested smart pollution-sensing

  17. Material Agency In User-Centred Design Practices: High School Students Improvising (with) Smart Sensor Prototypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, S.C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates (digital) materiality through an analysis of the “sociomaterial configuration” (Orlikowski 2009) of the participatory design project SensorLab (2010). In SensorLab, users were enrolled as designers: a group of high school students developed and tested smart pollution-sensing

  18. User-centred system design approach applied on a robotic flexible endoscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, Jeroen; van der Voort, Mascha C.; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Complex systems, like surgical robots, are designed by engineers. It is very difficult for them to determine the different needs and desires of all stakeholders. Especially when designed from scratch, end user input is essential in creating a system that has added value, is user friendly, and can be

  19. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Nua Healthcare Services, Laois

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brabazon, E D

    2010-01-01

    The use of routinely available electronic sources of healthcare data on the spread of influenza has the potential to enhance current surveillance activities. This study aimed to develop a method for identifying influenza-related records from general practitioner(GP) out-of-hours (OOH) services in Ireland. Data from one such service were interrogated for keywords relating to influenza-like illness (ILI) and a proxy measure of influenza activity in the community setting was developed. Comparison of this syndromic surveillance measure with national data on ILI consultation rates demonstrated a statistically significant temporal correlation.In five out of six influenza seasons investigated,peaks in the GP OOH influenza-related calls appeared at least one week ahead of peaks in the national ILI consultation rates. The method described in this paper has been extended to nine OOH services in Ireland (covering 70% of the Irish population) to provide weekly figures on self-reported illness for influenza in the community and its data have been incorporated into the national weekly influenza reports produced by the Health Protection Surveillance Centre. These data should provide early warnings of both seasonal and pandemic influenza in Ireland.

  20. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by St Joseph's Foundation, Limerick

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brabazon, E D

    2010-01-01

    The use of routinely available electronic sources of healthcare data on the spread of influenza has the potential to enhance current surveillance activities. This study aimed to develop a method for identifying influenza-related records from general practitioner(GP) out-of-hours (OOH) services in Ireland. Data from one such service were interrogated for keywords relating to influenza-like illness (ILI) and a proxy measure of influenza activity in the community setting was developed. Comparison of this syndromic surveillance measure with national data on ILI consultation rates demonstrated a statistically significant temporal correlation.In five out of six influenza seasons investigated,peaks in the GP OOH influenza-related calls appeared at least one week ahead of peaks in the national ILI consultation rates. The method described in this paper has been extended to nine OOH services in Ireland (covering 70% of the Irish population) to provide weekly figures on self-reported illness for influenza in the community and its data have been incorporated into the national weekly influenza reports produced by the Health Protection Surveillance Centre. These data should provide early warnings of both seasonal and pandemic influenza in Ireland.

  1. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by RehabCare, Tipperary

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, Seamus M

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: We will examine the latest advances in genomic and proteomic laboratory technology. Through an extensive literature review we aim to critically appraise those studies which have utilized these latest technologies and ascertain their potential to identify clinically useful biomarkers. METHODS: An extensive review of the literature was carried out in both online medical journals and through the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland library. RESULTS: Laboratory technology has advanced in the fields of genomics and oncoproteomics. Gene expression profiling with DNA microarray technology has allowed us to begin genetic profiling of colorectal cancer tissue. The response to chemotherapy can differ amongst individual tumors. For the first time researchers have begun to isolate and identify the genes responsible. New laboratory techniques allow us to isolate proteins preferentially expressed in colorectal cancer tissue. This could potentially lead to identification of a clinically useful protein biomarker in colorectal cancer screening and treatment. CONCLUSION: If a set of discriminating genes could be used for characterization and prediction of chemotherapeutic response, an individualized tailored therapeutic regime could become the standard of care for those undergoing systemic treatment for colorectal cancer. New laboratory techniques of protein identification may eventually allow identification of a clinically useful biomarker that could be used for screening and treatment. At present however, both expression of different gene signatures and isolation of various protein peaks has been limited by study size. Independent multi-centre correlation of results with larger sample sizes is needed to allow translation into clinical practice.

  2. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Brothers of Charity Services Roscommon, Roscommon

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, Gabriel

    2015-05-22

    This paper describes patient characteristics, including Ebola viral load, associated with mortality in an MSF Ebola case management centre. Out of 780 admissions between June and October 2014, 525 (67%) were positive for Ebola with a known outcome. The crude mortality rate was 51% (270\\/525). Ebola viral load (whole blood sample) data was available on 76% (397\\/525) of patients. Univariate analysis indicated viral load at admission, age, symptom duration prior to admission and distance travelled to the CMC were associated with mortality (p value<0.05). The multivariable model predicted mortality in those with a viral load at admission greater than 10 million copies per millilitre (p value<0.05, Odds Ratio>10), aged 50 years or more (p value=0.08, Odds Ratio=2) and symptom duration prior to admission less than 5 days (p value=0.14). The presence of confusion, diarrhoea and conjunctivitis were significantly higher (p value<0.05) in Ebola patients who died. These findings highlight the importance viral load at admission has on mortality outcomes and could be used to cohort cases with viral loads greater than 10 million copies into dedicated wards with more intensive medical support to further reduce mortality.

  3. Kinesiology-Based Robot Foot Design for Human-Like Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SangJoo Kwon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Compared with the conventional flat foot, the flexible foot is advantageous in implementing human-like walking and much reduces energy consumption. In this paper, from an anatomical and kinesiological point of view, a flexible foot with toes and heels is investigated for a bipedal robot and three critical design parameters for walking stability are drawn, which include stiffness of toes and heels, frontal toe position, and ankle joint position. In addition, a human-like walking trajectory compatible with the flexible foot is proposed by mimicking a human walking pattern. First of all, the zero moment point (ZMP trajectory continuously moves forward without stopping, even in the single support phase. Secondly, the centre of mass (CoM trajectory includes vertical motion similar to that seen in human beings. Thirdly, the ankle trajectory follows the rotational motion of a human foot while being lifted from and landing on the ground. Through the simulation study, it is shown that the suggested design parameters can be applied as useful indices for the mechanical design of biped feet; interestingly, the vertical motion of the centre of mass tends to compensate for the transient response in the initial walking step.

  4. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Health Service Executive, Sligo

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brown, Aisling F

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms of protective immunity to Staphylococcus aureus infection in humans remain elusive. While the importance of cellular immunity has been shown in mice, T cell responses in humans have not been characterised. Using a murine model of recurrent S. aureus peritonitis, we demonstrated that prior exposure to S. aureus enhanced IFNγ responses upon subsequent infection, while adoptive transfer of S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells was protective in naïve mice. Translating these findings, we found that S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells were also significantly expanded during human S. aureus bloodstream infection (BSI). These Th1 cells were CD45RO+, indicative of a memory phenotype. Thus, exposure to S. aureus induces memory Th1 cells in mice and humans, identifying Th1 cells as potential S. aureus vaccine targets. Consequently, we developed a model vaccine comprising staphylococcal clumping factor A, which we demonstrate to be an effective human T cell antigen, combined with the Th1-driving adjuvant CpG. This novel Th1-inducing vaccine conferred significant protection during S. aureus infection in mice. This study notably advances our understanding of S. aureus cellular immunity, and demonstrates for the first time that a correlate of S. aureus protective immunity identified in mice may be relevant in humans.

  5. A Service Design Thinking Approach for Stakeholder-Centred eHealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunji

    2016-01-01

    Studies have described the opportunities and challenges of applying service design techniques to health services, but empirical evidence on how such techniques can be implemented in the context of eHealth services is still lacking. This paper presents how a service design thinking approach can be applied for specification of an existing and new eHealth service by supporting evaluation of the current service and facilitating suggestions for the future service. We propose Service Journey Modelling Language and Service Journey Cards to engage stakeholders in the design of eHealth services.

  6. Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. receives architectural and engineering design contract from Stanford Linear Accelerator Centre

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. announced that a subsidiary company won a contract from Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), to provide architectural and engineering design services for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) conventional facilities" (1/2 page)

  7. A Service Design Thinking Approach for Stakeholder-Centred eHealth

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eunji

    2016-01-01

    Studies have described the opportunities and challenges of applying service design techniques to health services, but empirical evidence on how such techniques can be implemented in the context of eHealth services is still lacking. This paper presents how a service design thinking approach can be applied for specification of an existing and new eHealth service by supporting evaluation of the current service and facilitating suggestions for the future service. We propose Service Journey Modell...

  8. Human Work Interaction Design for Pervasive and Smart Workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, Pedro F.; Lopes, Arminda; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2014-01-01

    ' experience and outputs? This workshop focuses on answering this question to support professionals, academia, national labs, and industry engaged in human work analysis and interaction design for the workplace. Conversely, tools, procedures, and professional competences for designing human-centered...

  9. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by North West Parents and Friends Association, Sligo

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    El-Khuffash, A

    2011-03-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a complex technique for providing life support in neonatal respiratory failure. T UK Collaborative ECMO trial demonstrated cost-effectiveness and substantial improvements in neurological morbidity and mortality. Currently, infants requiring ECMO in Ireland are referred to one of various centres in the UK and Scandinavia. We aimed to review the number of infants referred from Ireland for respiratory ECMO. All infants with a non-cardiac condition referred from Ireland for ECMO were reviewed for diagnosis and outcomes. Eleven infants required ECMO between June 2006 and January 2009 and were referred to the Scandinavian team for ECMO transport although one infant improved and did not require ECMO following the arrival of the team. Four infants died: one infant died prior to arrival of the ECMO team, 3 infants had fatal diagnoses and one infant with congenital diaphragmatic hernia received pre-op ECMO. The median (inter-quartile range) gestational age was 39.7 (38.3-40.7) weeks and birth weight of 3.7 (3.2-4.0) kg. The median age at the decision to transfer for ECMO was 13h (4-123) and the team arrived at 23 h (12-132). All infants had a normal cranial ultrasound and echo prior to ECMO and 2 infants had an abnormal MRI post-ECMO. The time on ECMO was 9 days (3-17) and total length of hospital stay was 32 d (23-36). There were no pre-ECMO clinical or biochemical

  10. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Brothers of Charity Services Clare, Clare

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Queally, JM

    2017-08-01

    Pelvic injuries involve injury to the osseo-ligamentous ring structure of the pelvis or the acetabulum of either hip joint. They are typically caused by high-energy trauma and may be associated with significant morbidity or mortality at the time of injury due to excessive haemorrhage and associated abdominal, chest or head injuries with mortality rates of 8.6% to 19.1% reported for closed injuries and rates of up to 50% reported for open injuries1. Despite the severity of these injuries and the potential for poor long term outcomes, these injuries were managed with non-surgical treatment until the middle of the 20th century. Treatment typically involved prolonged bed rest, traction or compression devices, pelvic slings and spica casts with poor outcomes due to persistent pelvic deformity in pelvic injures and early osteoarthritis in acetabular fractures2,3. In the 1930’s, with the advent of radiography, significant progress was made in terms of understanding injury patterns, subsequent displacement and the significance of pelvic instability and deformity post injury. Along with the improved definitive management of pelvic injuries, similar progress was made with the immediate management of life-threatening haemodynamic instability and resuscitation with a significant improvement in mortality rate achieved over the past 50 years3,4. In contemporary trauma care, to ensure optimal outcomes, pelvic trauma is now considered a subspecialty practised in tertiary centres by fellowship trained specialists. Herein we describe the evolution of pelvic trauma care in Ireland over the past 30 years in an overall context of improved international paradigms of care and discuss potential future developments

  11. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Muiriosa Foundation, Kildare

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The derivation of domestic cattle from the extinct wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) has been well-documented by archaeological and genetic studies. Genetic studies point towards the Neolithic Near East as the centre of origin for Bos taurus, with some lines of evidence suggesting possible, albeit rare, genetic contributions from locally domesticated wild aurochsen across Eurasia. Inferences from these investigations have been based largely on the analysis of partial mitochondrial DNA sequences generated from modern animals, with limited sequence data from ancient aurochsen samples. Recent developments in DNA sequencing technologies, however, are affording new opportunities for the examination of genetic material retrieved from extinct species, providing new insight into their evolutionary history. Here we present DNA sequence analysis of the first complete mitochondrial genome (16,338 base pairs) from an archaeologically-verified and exceptionally-well preserved aurochs bone sample. METHODOLOGY: DNA extracts were generated from an aurochs humerus bone sample recovered from a cave site located in Derbyshire, England and radiocarbon-dated to 6,738+\\/-68 calibrated years before present. These extracts were prepared for both Sanger and next generation DNA sequencing technologies (Illumina Genome Analyzer). In total, 289.9 megabases (22.48%) of the post-filtered DNA sequences generated using the Illumina Genome Analyzer from this sample mapped with confidence to the bovine genome. A consensus B. primigenius mitochondrial genome sequence was constructed and was analysed alongside all available complete bovine mitochondrial genome sequences. CONCLUSIONS: For all nucleotide positions where both Sanger and Illumina Genome Analyzer sequencing methods gave high-confidence calls, no discrepancies were observed. Sequence analysis reveals evidence of heteroplasmy in this sample and places this mitochondrial genome sequence securely within a previously identified

  12. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Three Steps, Meath

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Marathe, N

    2017-02-01

    Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterial (NTM) infections occur in HIV-negative patients with or without underlying lung disease. It is generally felt that these organisms are acquired from the environment. Unlike tuberculosis, there are no convincing data demonstrating human-to-human OR animal-to-human transmission of NTM. We report a case of NTM infection in a 38 year old patient with underlying emphysematous lung disease. The case highlights the diagnostic dilemma which occurs when persistent sputum Acid- Fast Bacilli (AFB) smears are positive, but Nucleic acid amplification test is negative. To aid the diagnosis and rule out Pulmonary Tuberculosis as the other differential diagnosis, we applied American Thoracic Society\\/Infectious Disease Society of America (ATS\\/IDSA) guidelines & recommendations1. The decision to treat was taken on basis of CT findings, clinical, microbiologic criteria and expert consultation with Microbiology department at Waterford.

  13. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by S.O.S. Kilkenny Ltd., Kilkenny

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-08-30

    Abstract Background Lactobacillus ruminis is a poorly characterized member of the Lactobacillus salivarius clade that is part of the intestinal microbiota of pigs, humans and other mammals. Its variable abundance in human and animals may be linked to historical changes over time and geographical differences in dietary intake of complex carbohydrates. Results In this study, we investigated the ability of nine L. ruminis strains of human and bovine origin to utilize fifty carbohydrates including simple sugars, oligosaccharides, and prebiotic polysaccharides. The growth patterns were compared with metabolic pathways predicted by annotation of a high quality draft genome sequence of ATCC 25644 (human isolate) and the complete genome of ATCC 27782 (bovine isolate). All of the strains tested utilized prebiotics including fructooligosaccharides (FOS), soybean-oligosaccharides (SOS) and 1,3:1,4-β-D-gluco-oligosaccharides to varying degrees. Six strains isolated from humans utilized FOS-enriched inulin, as well as FOS. In contrast, three strains isolated from cows grew poorly in FOS-supplemented medium. In general, carbohydrate utilisation patterns were strain-dependent and also varied depending on the degree of polymerisation or complexity of structure. Six putative operons were identified in the genome of the human isolate ATCC 25644 for the transport and utilisation of the prebiotics FOS, galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), SOS, and 1,3:1,4-β-D-Gluco-oligosaccharides. One of these comprised a novel FOS utilisation operon with predicted capacity to degrade chicory-derived FOS. However, only three of these operons were identified in the ATCC 27782 genome that might account for the utilisation of only SOS and 1,3:1,4-β-D-Gluco-oligosaccharides. Conclusions This study has provided definitive genome-based evidence to support the fermentation patterns of nine strains of Lactobacillus ruminis, and has linked it to gene distribution patterns in strains from different sources

  14. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Dara Residential Services, Kildare

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mitchell, Kevin

    2011-11-11

    Abstract The number of individual cases of psychiatric disorders that can be ascribed to identified, rare, single mutations is increasing with great rapidity. Such mutations can be recapitulated in mice to generate animal models with direct etiological validity. Defining the underlying pathogenic mechanisms will require an experimental and theoretical framework to make the links from mutation to altered behavior in an animal or psychopathology in a human. Here, we discuss key elements of such a framework, including cell type-based phenotyping, developmental trajectories, linking circuit properties at micro and macro scales and definition of neurobiological phenotypes that are directly translatable to humans.

  15. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by St Joseph's Foundation, Limerick

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohd Sharial, M S N

    2012-12-01

    Approximately 15%-23% of breast cancers overexpress human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), which leads to the activation of signaling pathways that stimulate cell proliferation and survival. HER2-targeted therapy has substantially improved outcomes in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. However, both de novo and acquired resistance are observed.

  16. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Redwood Extended Care Facility Ltd, Meath

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hill, Cian J

    2017-01-17

    The gut is the most extensively studied niche of the human microbiome. The aim of this study was to characterise the initial gut microbiota development of a cohort of breastfed infants (n = 192) from 1 to 24 weeks of age.

  17. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Health Service Executive, Cork

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abu, Ozotu Rosemary

    2016-08-01

    This mixed method research explores unprofessional behaviour experienced by clinical Medical students, during clinical training in Ireland; with a view to obtaining learning points that inform future design of modules on Professionalism. It also looks at the impact of these on students and the relationship between gender\\/ethnicity and students’ experiences of these behaviours.

  18. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by The Irish Society for Autism, Meath

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abu, Ozotu Rosemary

    2016-08-01

    This mixed method research explores unprofessional behaviour experienced by clinical Medical students, during clinical training in Ireland; with a view to obtaining learning points that inform future design of modules on Professionalism. It also looks at the impact of these on students and the relationship between gender\\/ethnicity and students’ experiences of these behaviours.

  19. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Gheel Autism Services, Kildare

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGuinness, Martina

    2009-08-01

    A number of toxic synthetic organic compounds can contaminate environmental soil through either local (e.g., industrial) or diffuse (e.g., agricultural) contamination. Increased levels of these toxic organic compounds in the environment have been associated with human health risks including cancer. Plant-associated bacteria, such as endophytic bacteria (non-pathogenic bacteria that occur naturally in plants) and rhizospheric bacteria (bacteria that live on and near the roots of plants), have been shown to contribute to biodegradation of toxic organic compounds in contaminated soil and could have potential for improving phytoremediation. Endophytic and rhizospheric bacterial degradation of toxic organic compounds (either naturally occurring or genetically enhanced) in contaminated soil in the environment could have positive implications for human health worldwide and is the subject of this review.

  20. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by St Catherine's Association Limited, Wicklow

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Raghavan, Karthika

    2010-11-01

    Characterization of the epigenetic profile of humans since the initial breakthrough on the human genome project has strongly established the key role of histone modifications and DNA methylation. These dynamic elements interact to determine the normal level of expression or methylation status of the constituent genes in the genome. Recently, considerable evidence has been put forward to demonstrate that environmental stress implicitly alters epigenetic patterns causing imbalance that can lead to cancer initiation. This chain of consequences has motivated attempts to computationally model the influence of histone modification and DNA methylation in gene expression and investigate their intrinsic interdependency. In this paper, we explore the relation between DNA methylation and transcription and characterize in detail the histone modifications for specific DNA methylation levels using a stochastic approach.

  1. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Muiriosa Foundation, Offaly

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Raghavan, Karthika

    2010-11-01

    Characterization of the epigenetic profile of humans since the initial breakthrough on the human genome project has strongly established the key role of histone modifications and DNA methylation. These dynamic elements interact to determine the normal level of expression or methylation status of the constituent genes in the genome. Recently, considerable evidence has been put forward to demonstrate that environmental stress implicitly alters epigenetic patterns causing imbalance that can lead to cancer initiation. This chain of consequences has motivated attempts to computationally model the influence of histone modification and DNA methylation in gene expression and investigate their intrinsic interdependency. In this paper, we explore the relation between DNA methylation and transcription and characterize in detail the histone modifications for specific DNA methylation levels using a stochastic approach.

  2. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Health Service Executive, Dublin 20

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2017-11-25

    Background: Phthalates are chemicals which are widespread in the environment. Although the impacts on health of such exposure are unclear, there is evidence of a possible impact on the incidence of a diverse range of diseases. Monitoring of human exposure to phthalates is therefore important. This study aimed to determine the extent of phthalate exposure among mothers and their children in both rural and urban areas in Ireland, and to identify factors associated with elevated concentrations. It formed part of the \\'Demonstration of a study to Co-ordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale\\' (DEMOCOPHES) pilot biomonitoring study. Methods: the concentration of phthalate metabolites were determined from a convenience sample of 120 mother\\/child pairs. The median age of the children was 8 years. A questionnaire was used to collect information regarding lifestyle and environmental conditions of the children and mothers. Rigorous quality assurance within DEMOCOPHES guaranteed the accuracy and international comparability of results. Results: Phthalate metabolites were detected in all of the samples from both children and mothers. Concentrations were significantly higher in respondents from families with lower educational attainment and in those exposed to such items as polyvinyl chloride (PVC), fast food and personal care products (PCP). Conclusions: The study demonstrates that human biomonitoring for assessing exposure to phthalates can be undertaken in Ireland and that the exposure of the population is widespread. Further work will be necessary before the consequences of this exposure are understood.

  3. Students' Ways of Experiencing Human-Centered Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltowski, Carla B.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the qualitatively different ways which students experienced human-centered design. The findings of this research are important in developing effective design learning experiences and have potential impact across design education. This study provides the basis for being able to assess learning of human-centered design which…

  4. A switch by design : User-centred design of smart energy technologies to change habits of using energy at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobus, C.B.A.

    2016-01-01

    This doctoral thesis demonstrates that households are able and willing to permanently change their habits of using energy, if they are supported by well-designed, user-friendly technology. Previous studies have assessed the impact of smart energy technologies and new tariff structures to make

  5. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by North West Parents and Friends Association, Sligo

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aventin, Aine

    2014-11-15

    Following the UK Medical Research Council\\'s (MRC) guidelines for the development and evaluation of complex interventions, this study aimed to design, develop and optimise an educational intervention about young men and unintended teenage pregnancy based around an interactive film. The process involved identification of the relevant evidence base, development of a theoretical understanding of the phenomenon of unintended teenage pregnancy in relation to young men, and exploratory mixed methods research. The result was an evidence-based, theory-informed, user-endorsed intervention designed to meet the much neglected pregnancy education needs of teenage men and intended to increase both boys\\' and girls\\' intentions to avoid an unplanned pregnancy during adolescence. In prioritising the development phase, this paper addresses a gap in the literature on the processes of research-informed intervention design. It illustrates the application of the MRC guidelines in practice while offering a critique and additional guidance to programme developers on the MRC prescribed processes of developing interventions. Key lessons learned were: (1) know and engage the target population and engage gatekeepers in addressing contextual complexities; (2) know the targeted behaviours and model a process of change; and (3) look beyond development to evaluation and implementation.

  6. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Redwood Extended Care Facility Ltd, Meath

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Rourke, Colm J

    2013-05-01

    Urological malignancies (cancers of the prostate, bladder, kidney and testes) account for 15% of all human cancers and more than 500,000 deaths worldwide each year. This group of malignancies is spread across multiple generations, affecting the young (testicular) through middle and old-age (kidney, prostate and bladder). Like most human cancers, urological cancers are characterized by widespread epigenetic insult, causing changes in DNA hypermethylation and histone modifications leading to silencing of tumor suppressor genes and genomic instability. The inherent stability yet dynamic plasticity of the epigenome lends itself well to therapeutic manipulation. Epigenetic changes are amongst the earliest lesions to occur during carcinogenesis and are essentially reversible (unlike mutations). For this reason, much attention has been placed over the past two decades on deriving pharmacological compounds that can specifically target and reverse such epi-mutations, either halting cancer on its developmental trajectory or reverting fully formed cancers to a more clinically manageable state. This review discusses DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase inhibitors that have been extensively studied in preclinical models and clinical trials for advanced and metastatic urological cancers.

  7. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Ability West, Galway

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flory, David

    2015-09-01

    This review of the governance of maternity services at South Tipperary General Hospital has focussed on the systems and processes for assurance of service quality, risk management and patient safety primarily inside the hospital but also in the Hospital Group structure within which it operates. The effectiveness of the governance arrangements is largely determined by the quality of the leadership and management – both clinical and general – which designs, implements, and oversees those systems and processes and is ultimately responsible and accountable.\\r\

  8. Sustainability Certification (DGNB) and Design Process in the Case of four Healthcare Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    the beginning also with the DGNB consultant and create commitment to the project. Additionally, the research show that in some cases the architectural design have been taken too fare in the initial phases without analysing and documenting several sustainable parameters. It creates a “point of no return”, which......Sustainability certification schemes experience grooving popularity. Only few years ago, Denmark got its own sustainability certification scheme based on the German DGNB certification scheme run by Green Building Council Denmark [1]. The objective of this study is to investigate if and in what way...

  9. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Brothers of Charity Services South East, Waterford

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Weissenmayer, Barbara A

    2011-01-01

    Second generation sequencing has prompted a number of groups to re-interrogate the transcriptomes of several bacterial and archaeal species. One of the central findings has been the identification of complex networks of small non-coding RNAs that play central roles in transcriptional regulation in all growth conditions and for the pathogen\\'s interaction with and survival within host cells. Legionella pneumophila is a gram-negative facultative intracellular human pathogen with a distinct biphasic lifestyle. One of its primary environmental hosts in the free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii and its infection by L. pneumophila mimics that seen in human macrophages. Here we present analysis of strand specific sequencing of the transcriptional response of L. pneumophila during exponential and post-exponential broth growth and during the replicative and transmissive phase of infection inside A. castellanii. We extend previous microarray based studies as well as uncovering evidence of a complex regulatory architecture underpinned by numerous non-coding RNAs. Over seventy new non-coding RNAs could be identified; many of them appear to be strain specific and in configurations not previously reported. We discover a family of non-coding RNAs preferentially expressed during infection conditions and identify a second copy of 6S RNA in L. pneumophila. We show that the newly discovered putative 6S RNA as well as a number of other non-coding RNAs show evidence for antisense transcription. The nature and extent of the non-coding RNAs and their expression patterns suggests that these may well play central roles in the regulation of Legionella spp. specific traits and offer clues as to how L. pneumophila adapts to its intracellular niche. The expression profiles outlined in the study have been deposited into Genbank\\'s Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under the series accession GSE27232.

  10. User-centred design as an important component of technological development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowski Natalie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available New technologies can be implemented in clinical rehabilitation processes or to close the gap in health care provision by transferring them to the patients’ home. Successful use can only be achieved under the assumption that the technology is accepted by its users. The involvement of users in iterative development processes is to be shown to increase the quality of health care systems and to prevent refusal. In this review potentials of user acceptance and satisfaction surveys in the development of stroke rehabilitation systems are discussed. The surveys are conducted as a method for improving the ongoing design process of innovative technical systems developed in the BMBF funded project “BeMobil”.

  11. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Ability West, Galway

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murray, Denis

    2016-08-01

    Issues and trends in relation to substance misuse normally develop in the transitional phase of adolescence, as young people begin looking towards their peers for direction and are less subject to parental authority. In relation to substance misuse it is observed that risk and protection factors exist in equal measure within different contexts, including within the individual, family, peer group, school and community settings. In response to problems relating to illicit drug use in Ireland the first adult treatment service was established in Dublin in 1969. As an approach to meeting the complex needs of an adolescent drug using population two designated out-patient treatment adolescent services were established in Dublin during the mid-1990s. Working closely with families, carers and significant others improves communication and mobilises resources in ways that enhances protection for young people especially in circumstances where there are a number of family members engaging in substance misuse.

  12. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Health Service Executive, Monaghan

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reddan, Donald

    2010-03-12

    INTRODUCTION: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury, also referred to as contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), is a potentially serious renal complication associated with the use of iodinated contrast media (CM) in patients at risk. With the dramatic growth in contrast-enhanced imaging services worldwide, including procedures involving exposure to iodinated CM, efforts to reduce the occurrence of CIN have received considerable attention in recent years. To date, these efforts have met with little success since the 12% prevalence of CIN today remains unchanged from 2 decades ago. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review of the most recent evidence available from published reports of contemporary (2000-2008) prospective, randomized, controlled trials that have investigated CIN either by comparing CM or by comparing preventive strategies. The objective was to critically review the findings in light of several aspects of study design and then to establish a set of parameters for consideration in the planning of future CIN trials so as to optimize the strength of evidence obtained. RESULTS: Whether future CIN trials are investigating comparative CM nephrotoxicity or dealing with prophylactic strategies for risk reduction, the complexities that must be addressed include a standardized definition of CIN, appropriate timing of SCr measurements with timing standardized for all subjects in a given study population, awareness of study population risk profile, hydration protocols, and pharmacological prophylactic strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Large, well-designed trials (ideally with hard clinical outcome measures) that consider all the complexities involved in CIN and its prevention are needed before the clinical community has the evidence-based direction required for optimized patient care.

  13. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Ability West, Galway

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Semchenko, Evgeny A

    2010-11-30

    Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni is a major bacterial cause of food-borne enteritis, and its lipooligosaccharide (LOS) plays an initiating role in the development of the autoimmune neuropathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome, by induction of anti-neural cross-reactive antibodies through ganglioside molecular mimicry. Results Herein we describe the existence and heterogeneity of multiple LOS forms in C. jejuni strains of human and chicken origin grown at 37°C and 42°C, respectively, as determined on sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis gels with carbohydrate-specific silver staining and blotting with anti-ganglioside ligands, and confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The C. jejuni NCTC 11168 original isolate (11168-O) was compared to its genome-sequenced variant (11168-GS), and both were found to have a lower-Mr LOS form, which was different in size and structure to the previously characterized higher-Mr form bearing GM1 mimicry. The lower-Mr form production was found to be dependent on the growth temperature as the production of this form increased from ~5%, observed at 37°C to ~35% at 42°C. The structure of the lower-Mr form contained a β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-GalNAc disaccharide moiety which is consistent with the termini of the GM1, asialo-GM1, GD1, GT1 and GQ1 gangliosides, however, it did not display GM1 mimicry as assessed in blotting studies but was shown in NMR to resemble asialo-GM1. The production of multiple LOS forms and lack of GM1 mimicry was not a result of phase variation in the genes tested of NCTC 11168 and was also observed in most of the human and chicken isolates of C. jejuni tested. Conclusion The presence of differing amounts of LOS forms at 37 and 42°C, and the variety of forms observed in different strains, indicate that LOS form variation may play a role in an adaptive mechanism or a stress response of the bacterium during the colonization of different hosts.

  14. Human Reliability Analysis for Design: Using Reliability Methods for Human Factors Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Laurids Boring

    2010-11-01

    This paper reviews the application of human reliability analysis methods to human factors design issues. An application framework is sketched in which aspects of modeling typically found in human reliability analysis are used in a complementary fashion to the existing human factors phases of design and testing. The paper provides best achievable practices for design, testing, and modeling. Such best achievable practices may be used to evaluate and human system interface in the context of design safety certifications.

  15. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Western Care Association, Mayo

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ajetunmobi, A

    2014-12-01

    The impact of central nervous system (CNS) disorders on the human population is significant, contributing almost €800 billion in annual European healthcare costs. These disorders not only have a disabling social impact but also a crippling economic drain on resources. Developing novel therapeutic strategies for these disorders requires a better understanding of events that underlie mechanisms of neural circuit physiology. Studying the relationship between genetic expression, synapse development and circuit physiology in CNS function is a challenging task, involving simultaneous analysis of multiple parameters and the convergence of several disciplines and technological approaches. However, current gold-standard techniques used to study the CNS have limitations that pose unique challenges to furthering our understanding of functional CNS development. The recent advancement in nanotechnologies for biomedical applications has seen the emergence of nanoscience as a key enabling technology for delivering a translational bridge between basic and clinical research. In particular, the development of neuroimaging and electrophysiology tools to identify the aetiology and progression of CNS disorders have led to new insights in our understanding of CNS physiology and the development of novel diagnostic modalities for therapeutic intervention. This review focuses on the latest applications of these nanotechnologies for investigating CNS function and the improved diagnosis of CNS disorders.

  16. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Health Service Executive, Monaghan

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNabola, Aonghus

    2009-02-01

    According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area.

  17. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Steadfast House Limited, Monaghan

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    Williams, David

    2012-10-01

    Appreciation of the potential of newly marketed medicines to produce both benefit and harm has increased the role of the clinical pharmacologist. Pharmacoepidemiology applies epidemiological reasoning, methods and knowledge to the study of the uses and effects of drugs in human populations. Pharmacovigilence identifies and then responds to safety issues about marketed drugs. Whilst adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting systems can identify potential problems with drugs, determination of causation requires population-based studies of adverse events (including information from large clinical trials), which attempt to link unequivocally the adverse outcome to the drug in question. Pharmacovigilance is closely linked to postmarketing surveillance and is important for determining issues such as the long-term effects of drugs, identification of low-frequency ADRs, the effectiveness of drugs for their licensed indications or in new indications and other factors which may modify the efficacy and effectiveness of the drug in question. The related field of drug utilization developed in parallel with the study of adverse drug reactions, in recognition of the dramatic increase in the marketing of new drugs, the wide variations in the patterns and extent of drug prescribing, the growing concern about ADRs and the increasing costs of drugs. With the ever increasing number of recognized adverse effects of drugs, prescribing errors, patients\\' expectations concerning drug safety and the need for appropriate new drug appraisal, the clinical pharmacologist will play an important role both in the introduction of new drugs and in improving the safe and effective use of established drugs.

  18. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Praxis Care, Cavan

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stephan, Holger

    2009-10-01

    The human single-stranded DNA-binding protein, replication protein A (RPA), is regulated by the N-terminal phosphorylation of its 32-kDa subunit, RPA2. RPA2 is hyperphosphorylated in response to various DNA-damaging agents and also phosphorylated in a cell-cycle-dependent manner during S- and M-phase, primarily at two CDK consensus sites, S23 and S29. Here we generated two monoclonal phospho-specific antibodies directed against these CDK sites. These phospho-specific RPA2-(P)-S23 and RPA2-(P)-S29 antibodies recognized mitotically phosphorylated RPA2 with high specificity. In addition, the RPA2-(P)-S23 antibody recognized the S-phase-specific phosphorylation of RPA2, suggesting that during S-phase only S23 is phosphorylated, whereas during M-phase both CDK sites, S23 and S29, are phosphorylated. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that the mitotic phosphorylation of RPA2 starts at the onset of mitosis, and dephosphorylation occurs during late cytokinesis. In mitotic cells treated with ionizing radiation (IR), we observed a rapid hyperphosphorylation of RPA2 in addition to its mitotic phosphorylation at S23 and S29, associated with a significant change in the subcellular localization of RPA. Our data also indicate that the RPA2 hyperphosphorylation in response to IR is facilitated by the activity of both ATM and DNA-PK, and is associated with activation of the Chk2 pathway.

  19. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Camphill Communities of Ireland, Monaghan

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dineen, David G

    2009-12-01

    The accurate computational prediction of transcription start sites (TSS) in vertebrate genomes is a difficult problem. The physicochemical properties of DNA can be computed in various ways and a many combinations of DNA features have been tested in the past for use as predictors of transcription. We looked in detail at melting temperature, which measures the temperature, at which two strands of DNA separate, considering the cooperative nature of this process. We find that peaks in melting temperature correspond closely to experimentally determined transcription start sites in human and mouse chromosomes. Using melting temperature alone, and with simple thresholding, we can predict TSS with accuracy that is competitive with the most accurate state-of-the-art TSS prediction methods. Accuracy is measured using both experimentally and manually determined TSS. The method works especially well with CpG island containing promoters, but also works when CpG islands are absent. This result is clear evidence of the important role of the physical properties of DNA in the process of transcription. It also points to the importance for TSS prediction methods to include melting temperature as prior information.

  20. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Health Service Executive, Donegal

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donatello, Simona

    2011-04-26

    Abstract Background Many factors influence breast cancer progression, including the ability of progenitor cells to sustain or increase net tumour cell numbers. Our aim was to define whether alterations in putative progenitor populations could predict clinicopathological factors of prognostic importance for cancer progression. Methods Primary cultures were established from human breast tumour and adjacent non-tumour tissue. Putative progenitor cell populations were isolated based on co-expression or concomitant absence of the epithelial and myoepithelial markers EPCAM and CALLA respectively. Results Significant reductions in cellular senescence were observed in tumour versus non-tumour cultures, accompanied by a stepwise increase in proliferation:senescence ratios. A novel correlation between tumour aggressiveness and an imbalance of putative progenitor subpopulations was also observed. Specifically, an increased double-negative (DN) to double-positive (DP) ratio distinguished aggressive tumours of high grade, estrogen receptor-negativity or HER2-positivity. The DN:DP ratio was also higher in malignant MDA-MB-231 cells relative to non-tumourogenic MCF-10A cells. Ultrastructural analysis of the DN subpopulation in an invasive tumour culture revealed enrichment in lipofuscin bodies, markers of ageing or senescent cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that an imbalance in tumour progenitor subpopulations imbalances the functional relationship between proliferation and senescence, creating a microenvironment favouring tumour progression.

  1. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by COPE Foundation, Cork

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNabola, Aonghus

    2009-02-01

    According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area.

  2. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by St Joseph's Foundation, Cork

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNabola, Aonghus

    2009-02-01

    According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area.

  3. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Muiriosa Foundation, Kildare

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Noroviruses are the most common cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis. Improved detection methods have seen a large increase in the number of human NoV genotypes in the last ten years. The objective of this study was to develop a fast method to detect, quantify and genotype positive NoV samples from Irish hospitals. RESULTS: A real-time RT-PCR assay and a Reverse Line Blot Hybridisation assay were developed based on the ORF1-ORF2 region. The sensitivity and reactivity of the two assays used was validated using a reference stool panel containing 14 NoV genotypes. The assays were then used to investigate two outbreaks of gastroenteritis in two Irish hospitals. 56 samples were screened for NoV using a real-time RT-PCR assay and 26 samples were found to be positive. Genotyping of these positive samples found that all positives belonged to the GII\\/4 variant of NoV. CONCLUSION: The combination of the Real-time assay and the reverse line blot hybridisation assay provided a fast and accurate method to investigate a NoV associated outbreak. It was concluded that the predominant genotype circulating in these Irish hospitals was GII\\/4 which has been associated with the majority of NoV outbreaks worldwide. The assays developed in this study are useful tools for investigating NoV infection.

  4. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Health Service Executive, Westmeath

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    O'Driscoll, Jeremiah

    2011-09-22

    Abstract Objective To summarise the available evidence for the efficacy of neuromuscular training in enhancing sensorimotor and functional deficits in subjects with chronic ankle instability (CAI). Design Systematic review with best evidence synthesis. Data Sources An electronic search was conducted through December 2009, limited to studies published in the English language, using the Pubmed, CINAHL, Embase, and SPORTDiscus databases. Reference screening of all included articles was also undertaken. Methods Studies were selected if the design was a RCT, quasi RCT, or a CCT; the patients were adolescents or adults with confirmed CAI; and one of the treatment options consisted of a neuromuscular training programme. The primary investigator independently assessed the risk of study bias and extracted relevant data. Due to clinical heterogeneity, data was analysed using a best-evidence synthesis. Results Fourteen studies were included in the review. Meta-analysis with statistical pooling of data was not possible, as the studies were considered too heterogeneous. Instead a best evidence synthesis was undertaken. There is limited to moderate evidence to support improvements in dynamic postural stability, and patient perceived functional stability through neuromuscular training in subjects with CAI. There is limited evidence of effectiveness for neuromuscular training for improving static postural stability, active and passive joint position sense (JPS), isometric strength, muscle onset latencies, shank\\/rearfoot coupling, and a reduction in injury recurrence rates. There is limited evidence of no effectiveness for improvements in muscle fatigue following neuromuscular intervention. Conclusion There is limited to moderate evidence of effectiveness in favour of neuromuscular training for various measures of static and dynamic postural stability, active and passive JPS, isometric strength, muscle onset latencies, shank\\/rearfoot coupling and injury recurrence rates. Strong

  5. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Western Care Association, Mayo

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    Wasserman, Danuta

    2010-04-13

    Abstract Background There have been only a few reports illustrating the moderate effectiveness of suicide-preventive interventions in reducing suicidal behavior, and, in most of those studies, the target populations were primarily adults, whereas few focused on adolescents. Essentially, there have been no randomized controlled studies comparing the efficacy, cost-effectiveness and cultural adaptability of suicide-prevention strategies in schools. There is also a lack of information on whether suicide-preventive interventions can, in addition to preventing suicide, reduce risk behaviors and promote healthier ones as well as improve young people\\'s mental health. The aim of the SEYLE project, which is funded by the European Union under the Seventh Framework Health Program, is to address these issues by collecting baseline and follow-up data on health and well-being among European adolescents and compiling an epidemiological database; testing, in a randomized controlled trial, three different suicide-preventive interventions; evaluating the outcome of each intervention in comparison with a control group from a multidisciplinary perspective; as well as recommending culturally adjusted models for promoting mental health and preventing suicidal behaviors. Methods and design The study comprises 11,000 adolescents emitted from randomized schools in 11 European countries: Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain, with Sweden serving as the scientific coordinating center. Each country performs three active interventions and one minimal intervention as a control group. The active interventions include gatekeeper training (QPR), awareness training on mental health promotion for adolescents, and screening for at-risk adolescents by health professionals. Structured questionnaires are utilized at baseline, 3- and 12-month follow-ups in order to assess changes. Discussion Although it has been reported that suicide

  6. Designing Solutions by a Student Centred Approach: Integration of Chemical Process Simulation with Statistical Tools to Improve Distillation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M. Joao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Projects thematically focused on simulation and statistical techniques for designing and optimizing chemical processes can be helpful in chemical engineering education in order to meet the needs of engineers. We argue for the relevance of the projects to improve a student centred approach and boost higher order thinking skills. This paper addresses the use of Aspen HYSYS by Portuguese chemical engineering master students to model distillation systems together with statistical experimental design techniques in order to optimize the systems highlighting the value of applying problem specific knowledge, simulation tools and sound statistical techniques. The paper summarizes the work developed by the students in order to model steady-state processes, dynamic processes and optimize the distillation systems emphasizing the benefits of the simulation tools and statistical techniques in helping the students learn how to learn. Students strengthened their domain specific knowledge and became motivated to rethink and improve chemical processes in their future chemical engineering profession. We discuss the main advantages of the methodology from the students’ and teachers perspective

  7. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Redwood Extended Care Facility, Meath

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Neary, Peter M

    2010-04-01

    BACKGROUND AND DESIGN: Taurolidine consists of two taurinamide rings derived from the naturally occurring amino acid taurine. It has been utilized to prevent adhesions, as an antimicrobial, and as an anti-inflammatory agent. More recently, it has been found to exert antineoplastic activity. We reviewed the literature regarding taurolidine and its role in cancer treatment. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Taurolidine induces cancer cell death through a variety of mechanisms. Even now, all the antineoplastic pathways it employs are not completely elucidated. It has been shown to enhance apoptosis, inhibit angiogenesis, reduce tumor adherence, downregulate proinflammatory cytokine release, and stimulate anticancer immune regulation following surgical trauma. Apoptosis is activated through both a mitochondrial cytochrome-c-dependent mechanism and an extrinsic direct pathway. A lot of in vitro and animal data support taurolidine\\'s tumoricidal action. Taurolidine has been used as an antimicrobial agent in the clinical setting since the 1970s and thus far appears nontoxic. The nontoxic nature of taurolidine makes it a favorable option compared with current chemotherapeutic regimens. Few published clinical studies exist evaluating the role of taurolidine as a chemotherapeutic agent. The literature lacks a gold-standard level 1 randomized clinical trial to evaluate taurolidine\\'s potential antineoplastic benefits. However, these trials are currently underway. Such randomized control studies are vital to clarify the role of taurolidine in modern cancer treatment.

  8. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Western Care Association, Mayo

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    McGovern, M

    2017-02-01

    Paediatric patients represent a large percentage of Emergency Department (ED) visits and there is often a perception that the acuity of these presentations is low. The decision-making process that results in parents attending the ED is poorly understood. We designed a cross-sectional cohort study to explore the reasons for attendance, the treatment initiated at home and to assess parental perception of the economic cost of attendance. Data was collected on 200 patients using a survey administered to parents in ED with a follow-up phone call 4-6 weeks later. Our results suggest that attendances are often prompted by parental anxiety rather than clinical deterioration and that prior ED usage is common among those presenting for assessment. Many parents had attempted community therapy with 128\\/200 patients (64%) having been referred by a healthcare professional and medical therapy at home having been employed by 114\\/200 (57%) parents before attendance. Parental knowledge of the safety of over-the-counter medications was variable the economic cost of an ED visit was poorly understood by participants. The results of our study suggest that parental desire for control over worrisome symptoms drives much of their management strategy prior to hospital attendance. Strategies in the ED may need to focus more on managing parental expectations than on managing the illness itself and management strategies employed should focus not only on medical therapy of the child’s illness but on educating and empowering the parent.

  9. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Ability West, Galway

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    Hegarty, P K

    2012-02-03

    INTRODUCTION: Asplenia causes a deficiency in immunity with a long-term risk of fulminant infection, associated with significant mortality. Patient compliance requires an understanding of risks of infection and its prevention. The impact of patient education has been little studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To ascertain the degree of knowledge held by patients who have undergone splenectomy, a comprehensive survey was designed. This also aimed to determine which group of health professionals was most successful in conveying information to patients. Patients who had undergone total splenectomy were interviewed by telephone, using a standardised list of questions to assess their understanding of the post-operation risks. RESULTS: Of 40 consecutive patients, 32.5% had a good knowledge of the risks of asplenia and their prevention, 52.5% had a fair knowledge and 15% a poor knowledge. Haematologists were most successful in initially conveying information to patients, and general practitioners also played a critical role in patient education. In this survey, it appears that surgeons were not effective at educating patients. CONCLUSION: Patient education postsplenectomy is poor. Measures to prevent infection in the asplenic patient are not being adequately implemented.

  10. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Brothers of Charity Services Roscommon

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    O Dea, Angela

    2014-01-17

    The risks associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are well recognized, and there is increasing evidence to support treatment of the condition. However, clear guidance on the ideal approach to screening for GDM is lacking. Professional groups continue to debate whether selective screening (based on risk factors) or universal screening is the most appropriate approach. Additionally, there is ongoing debate about what levels of glucose abnormalities during pregnancy respond best to treatment and which maternal and neonatal outcomes benefit most from treatment. Furthermore, the implications of possible screening options on health care costs are not well established. In response to this uncertainty there have been repeated calls for well-designed, randomised trials to determine the efficacy of screening, diagnosis, and management plans for GDM. We describe a randomised controlled trial to investigate screening uptake rates and the clinical and cost effectiveness of screening in primary versus secondary care settings. The objective of this study is to assess screening uptake rates, and the clinical and cost effectiveness of screening for GDM in primary versus secondary care.

  11. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Health Service Executive, Cork

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    Aslan, Ozlem

    2010-12-15

    Abstract Background Recent QTL and gene expression studies have highlighted ankyrins as positional and functional candidate genes for meat quality. Our objective was to characterise the promoter region of the bovine ankyrin 1 gene and to test polymorphisms for association with sensory and technological meat quality measures. Results Seven novel promoter SNPs were identified in a 1.11 kb region of the ankyrin 1 promoter in Angus, Charolais and Limousin bulls (n = 15 per breed) as well as 141 crossbred beef animals for which meat quality data was available. Eighteen haplotypes were inferred with significant breed variation in haplotype frequencies. The five most frequent SNPs and the four most frequent haplotypes were subsequently tested for association with sensory and technological measures of meat quality in the crossbred population. SNP1, SNP3 and SNP4 (which were subsequently designated regulatory SNPs) and SNP5 were associated with traits that contribute to sensorial and technological measurements of tenderness and texture; Haplotype 1 and haplotype 4 were oppositely correlated with traits contributing to tenderness (P < 0.05). While no single SNP was associated with intramuscular fat (IMF), a clear association with increased IMF and juiciness was observed for haplotype 2. Conclusion The conclusion from this study is that alleles defining haplotypes 2 and 4 could usefully contribute to marker SNP panels used to select individuals with improved IMF\\/juiciness or tenderness in a genome-assisted selection framework.

  12. Methodology for the nuclear design validation of an Alternate Emergency Management Centre (CAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hueso César

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodology is devised by coupling different codes. The study of weather conditions as part of the data of the site will determine the relative concentrations of radionuclides in the air using ARCON96. The activity in the air is characterized depending on the source and release sequence specified in NUREG-1465 by RADTRAD code, which provides results of the inner cloud source term contribution. Known activities and energy spectra are inferred using ORIGEN-S, which are used as input for the models of the outer cloud, filters and containment generated with MCNP5. The sum of the different contributions must meet the conditions of habitability specified by the CSN (Spanish Nuclear Regulatory Body (TEDE <50 mSv and equivalent dose to the thyroid <500 mSv within 30 days following the accident doses so that the dose is optimized by varying parameters including CAGE location, flow filtering need for recirculation, thicknesses and compositions of the walls, etc. The results for the most penalizing area meet the established criteria, and therefore the CAGE building design based on the methodology presented is radiologically validated.

  13. Methodology for the nuclear design validation of an Alternate Emergency Management Centre (CAGE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso, César; Fabbri, Marco; de la Fuente, Cristina; Janés, Albert; Massuet, Joan; Zamora, Imanol; Gasca, Cristina; Hernández, Héctor; Vega, J. Ángel

    2017-09-01

    The methodology is devised by coupling different codes. The study of weather conditions as part of the data of the site will determine the relative concentrations of radionuclides in the air using ARCON96. The activity in the air is characterized depending on the source and release sequence specified in NUREG-1465 by RADTRAD code, which provides results of the inner cloud source term contribution. Known activities, energy spectra are inferred using ORIGEN-S, which are used as input for the models of the outer cloud, filters and containment generated with MCNP5. The sum of the different contributions must meet the conditions of habitability specified by the CSN (Spanish Nuclear Regulatory Body) (TEDE <50 mSv and equivalent dose to the thyroid <500 mSv within 30 days following the accident doses) so that the dose is optimized by varying parameters such as CAGE location, flow filtering need for recirculation, thicknesses and compositions of the walls, etc. The results for the most penalizing area meet the established criteria, and therefore the CAGE building design based on the methodology presented is radiologically validated.

  14. Design and Implementation of a Virtual Calculation Centre (VCC for Engineering Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaeddine Mokri

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the academic institutions in all over the world provide their attendees with databases where courses and other materials could be uploaded, downloaded and checked by the faculty and students. Those materials are mostly PDF files, MS Word files, MS power point presentations or downloadable computer programs. Even though those databases are very beneficial, they need to be improved to meet the students’ needs, especially in engineering faculties where students may need thermo-physical properties of some substances, charts, diagrams, conversion factors and so forth. In addition, many students see it cumbersome downloading and installing a computer program that they do not need often in their studies. As an attempt to satisfy the academic community needs in the faculty of Engineering in Abou Bekr Belkaid University (Tlemcen, Algeria, we had to devise some Web technologies and techniques to design an interactive virtual space wherein many engineering-related Web applications are accessible on-line. Students and professors can access on-line to properties of many substances, convert physical quantities from and into a variety of units, exploit computer programs on-line without installing them, generate tables and charts, and also, they can use diagrams on-line by means of the mouse. The set of those applications is called a Virtual Calculation Center. This paper goes through the different services that could be implemented in a Virtual Calculation Center, and describes the techniques and technologies used to build those applications.

  15. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Ability West, Galway

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel Boulos, Maged N

    2011-12-21

    Abstract \\'Wikification of GIS by the masses\\' is a phrase-term first coined by Kamel Boulos in 2005, two years earlier than Goodchild\\'s term \\'Volunteered Geographic Information\\'. Six years later (2005-2011), OpenStreetMap and Google Earth (GE) are now full-fledged, crowdsourced \\'Wikipedias of the Earth\\' par excellence, with millions of users contributing their own layers to GE, attaching photos, videos, notes and even 3-D (three dimensional) models to locations in GE. From using Twitter in participatory sensing and bicycle-mounted sensors in pervasive environmental sensing, to creating a 100,000-sensor geo-mashup using Semantic Web technology, to the 3-D visualisation of indoor and outdoor surveillance data in real-time and the development of next-generation, collaborative natural user interfaces that will power the spatially-enabled public health and emergency situation rooms of the future, where sensor data and citizen reports can be triaged and acted upon in real-time by distributed teams of professionals, this paper offers a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of the overlapping domains of the Sensor Web, citizen sensing and \\'human-in-the-loop sensing\\' in the era of the Mobile and Social Web, and the roles these domains can play in environmental and public health surveillance and crisis\\/disaster informatics. We provide an in-depth review of the key issues and trends in these areas, the challenges faced when reasoning and making decisions with real-time crowdsourced data (such as issues of information overload, "noise", misinformation, bias and trust), the core technologies and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards involved (Sensor Web Enablement and Open GeoSMS), as well as a few outstanding project implementation examples from around the world.

  16. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by An Breacadh Nua, Wexford

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel Boulos, Maged N

    2011-12-21

    Abstract \\'Wikification of GIS by the masses\\' is a phrase-term first coined by Kamel Boulos in 2005, two years earlier than Goodchild\\'s term \\'Volunteered Geographic Information\\'. Six years later (2005-2011), OpenStreetMap and Google Earth (GE) are now full-fledged, crowdsourced \\'Wikipedias of the Earth\\' par excellence, with millions of users contributing their own layers to GE, attaching photos, videos, notes and even 3-D (three dimensional) models to locations in GE. From using Twitter in participatory sensing and bicycle-mounted sensors in pervasive environmental sensing, to creating a 100,000-sensor geo-mashup using Semantic Web technology, to the 3-D visualisation of indoor and outdoor surveillance data in real-time and the development of next-generation, collaborative natural user interfaces that will power the spatially-enabled public health and emergency situation rooms of the future, where sensor data and citizen reports can be triaged and acted upon in real-time by distributed teams of professionals, this paper offers a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of the overlapping domains of the Sensor Web, citizen sensing and \\'human-in-the-loop sensing\\' in the era of the Mobile and Social Web, and the roles these domains can play in environmental and public health surveillance and crisis\\/disaster informatics. We provide an in-depth review of the key issues and trends in these areas, the challenges faced when reasoning and making decisions with real-time crowdsourced data (such as issues of information overload, "noise", misinformation, bias and trust), the core technologies and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards involved (Sensor Web Enablement and Open GeoSMS), as well as a few outstanding project implementation examples from around the world.

  17. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Muiríosa Foundation, Offaly

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel Boulos, Maged N

    2011-12-21

    Abstract \\'Wikification of GIS by the masses\\' is a phrase-term first coined by Kamel Boulos in 2005, two years earlier than Goodchild\\'s term \\'Volunteered Geographic Information\\'. Six years later (2005-2011), OpenStreetMap and Google Earth (GE) are now full-fledged, crowdsourced \\'Wikipedias of the Earth\\' par excellence, with millions of users contributing their own layers to GE, attaching photos, videos, notes and even 3-D (three dimensional) models to locations in GE. From using Twitter in participatory sensing and bicycle-mounted sensors in pervasive environmental sensing, to creating a 100,000-sensor geo-mashup using Semantic Web technology, to the 3-D visualisation of indoor and outdoor surveillance data in real-time and the development of next-generation, collaborative natural user interfaces that will power the spatially-enabled public health and emergency situation rooms of the future, where sensor data and citizen reports can be triaged and acted upon in real-time by distributed teams of professionals, this paper offers a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of the overlapping domains of the Sensor Web, citizen sensing and \\'human-in-the-loop sensing\\' in the era of the Mobile and Social Web, and the roles these domains can play in environmental and public health surveillance and crisis\\/disaster informatics. We provide an in-depth review of the key issues and trends in these areas, the challenges faced when reasoning and making decisions with real-time crowdsourced data (such as issues of information overload, "noise", misinformation, bias and trust), the core technologies and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards involved (Sensor Web Enablement and Open GeoSMS), as well as a few outstanding project implementation examples from around the world.

  18. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Camphill Communities of Ireland

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-08-30

    Abstract Background The genus Lactobacillus is characterized by an extraordinary degree of phenotypic and genotypic diversity, which recent genomic analyses have further highlighted. However, the choice of species for sequencing has been non-random and unequal in distribution, with only a single representative genome from the L. salivarius clade available to date. Furthermore, there is no data to facilitate a functional genomic analysis of motility in the lactobacilli, a trait that is restricted to the L. salivarius clade. Results The 2.06 Mb genome of the bovine isolate Lactobacillus ruminis ATCC 27782 comprises a single circular chromosome, and has a G+C content of 44.4%. In silico analysis identified 1901 coding sequences, including genes for a pediocin-like bacteriocin, a single large exopolysaccharide-related cluster, two sortase enzymes, two CRISPR loci and numerous IS elements and pseudogenes. A cluster of genes related to a putative pilin was identified, and shown to be transcribed in vitro. A high quality draft assembly of the genome of a second L. ruminis strain, ATCC 25644 isolated from humans, suggested a slightly larger genome of 2.138 Mb, that exhibited a high degree of synteny with the ATCC 27782 genome. In contrast, comparative analysis of L. ruminis and L. salivarius identified a lack of long-range synteny between these closely related species. Comparison of the L. salivarius clade core proteins with those of nine other Lactobacillus species distributed across 4 major phylogenetic groups identified the set of shared proteins, and proteins unique to each group. Conclusions The genome of L. ruminis provides a comparative tool for directing functional analyses of other members of the L. salivarius clade, and it increases understanding of the divergence of this distinct Lactobacillus lineage from other commensal lactobacilli. The genome sequence provides a definitive resource to facilitate investigation of the genetics, biochemistry and host

  19. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Kingsriver Community Holdings Ltd, Kilkenny

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oglesby, Irene K

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as a class of regulatory RNAs with immense significance in numerous biological processes. When aberrantly expressed miRNAs have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of several disease states. Extensive research has explored miRNA involvement in the development and fate of immune cells and in both the innate and adaptive immune responses whereby strong evidence links miRNA expression to signalling pathways and receptors with critical roles in the inflammatory response such as NF-κB and the toll-like receptors, respectively. Recent studies have revealed that unique miRNA expression profiles exist in inflammatory lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer. Evaluation of the global expression of miRNAs provides a unique opportunity to identify important target gene sets regulating susceptibility and response to infection and treatment, and control of inflammation in chronic airway disorders. Over 800 human miRNAs have been discovered to date, however the biological function of the majority remains to be uncovered. Understanding the role that miRNAs play in the modulation of gene expression leading to sustained chronic pulmonary inflammation is important for the development of new therapies which focus on prevention of disease progression rather than symptom relief. Here we discuss the current understanding of miRNA involvement in innate immunity, specifically in LPS\\/TLR4 signalling and in the progression of the chronic inflammatory lung diseases cystic fibrosis, COPD and asthma. miRNA in lung cancer and IPF are also reviewed.

  20. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by St Michael's House, Dublin 5

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2009-12-21

    Abstract Compelling evidence of major health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and outdoor interaction with \\'greenspace\\' have emerged in the past decade - all of which combine to give major potential health benefits from \\'grow-your-own\\' (GYO) in urban areas. However, neither current risk assessment models nor risk management strategies for GYO in allotments and gardens give any consideration to these health benefits, despite their potential often to more than fully compensate the risks. Although urban environments are more contaminated by heavy metals, arsenic, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and dioxins than most rural agricultural areas, evidence is lacking for adverse health outcomes of GYO in UK urban areas. Rarely do pollutants in GYO food exceed statutory limits set for commercial food, and few people obtain the majority of their food from GYO. In the UK, soil contamination thresholds triggering closure or remediation of allotment and garden sites are based on precautionary principles, generating \\'scares\\' that may negatively impact public health disproportionately to the actual health risks of exposure to toxins through own-grown food. By contrast, the health benefits of GYO are a direct counterpoint to the escalating public health crisis of \\'obesity and sloth\\' caused by eating an excess of saturated fats, inadequate consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables combined with a lack of exercise. These are now amongst the most important preventable causes of illness and death. The health and wider societal benefits of \\'grow-your-own\\' thus reveal a major limitation in current risk assessment methodologies which, in only considering risks, are unable to predict whether GYO on particular sites will, overall, have positive, negative, or no net effects on human health. This highlights a more general need for a new generation of risk assessment tools that also predict overall consequences for health to more effectively guide

  1. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Camphill Communities of Ireland, Kilkenny

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonald, Fiona B

    2016-03-01

    Intermittent hypoxia is a feature of apnea of prematurity (AOP), chronic lung disease, and sleep apnea. Despite the clinical relevance, the long-term effects of hypoxic exposure in early life on respiratory control are not well defined. We recently reported that exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) during postnatal development (pCIH) causes upper airway muscle weakness in both sexes, which persists for several weeks. We sought to examine if there are persistent sex-dependent effects of pCIH on respiratory muscle function into adulthood and\\/or increased susceptibility to re-exposure to CIH in adulthood in animals previously exposed to CIH during postnatal development. We hypothesized that pCIH would cause long-lasting muscle impairment and increased susceptibility to subsequent hypoxia. Within 24 h of delivery, pups and their respective dams were exposed to CIH: 90 s of hypoxia reaching 5% O2 at nadir; once every 5 min, 8 h per day for 3 weeks. Sham groups were exposed to normoxia in parallel. Three groups were studied: sham; pCIH; and pCIH combined with adult CIH (p+aCIH), where a subset of the pCIH-exposed pups were re-exposed to the same CIH paradigm beginning at 13 weeks. Following gas exposures, sternohyoid and diaphragm muscle isometric contractile and endurance properties were examined ex vivo. There was no apparent lasting effect of pCIH on respiratory muscle function in adults. However, in both males and females, re-exposure to CIH in adulthood in pCIH-exposed animals caused sternohyoid (but not diaphragm) weakness. Exposure to this paradigm of CIH in adulthood alone had no effect on muscle function. Persistent susceptibility in pCIH-exposed airway dilator muscle to subsequent hypoxic insult may have implications for the control of airway patency in adult humans exposed to intermittent hypoxic stress during early life.

  2. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Brothers of Charity Southern Services, Cork

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    Oglesby, Irene K

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as a class of regulatory RNAs with immense significance in numerous biological processes. When aberrantly expressed miRNAs have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of several disease states. Extensive research has explored miRNA involvement in the development and fate of immune cells and in both the innate and adaptive immune responses whereby strong evidence links miRNA expression to signalling pathways and receptors with critical roles in the inflammatory response such as NF-κB and the toll-like receptors, respectively. Recent studies have revealed that unique miRNA expression profiles exist in inflammatory lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer. Evaluation of the global expression of miRNAs provides a unique opportunity to identify important target gene sets regulating susceptibility and response to infection and treatment, and control of inflammation in chronic airway disorders. Over 800 human miRNAs have been discovered to date, however the biological function of the majority remains to be uncovered. Understanding the role that miRNAs play in the modulation of gene expression leading to sustained chronic pulmonary inflammation is important for the development of new therapies which focus on prevention of disease progression rather than symptom relief. Here we discuss the current understanding of miRNA involvement in innate immunity, specifically in LPS\\/TLR4 signalling and in the progression of the chronic inflammatory lung diseases cystic fibrosis, COPD and asthma. miRNA in lung cancer and IPF are also reviewed.

  3. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Brothers of Charity Services Ireland, Clare

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel Boulos, Maged N

    2011-12-21

    Abstract \\'Wikification of GIS by the masses\\' is a phrase-term first coined by Kamel Boulos in 2005, two years earlier than Goodchild\\'s term \\'Volunteered Geographic Information\\'. Six years later (2005-2011), OpenStreetMap and Google Earth (GE) are now full-fledged, crowdsourced \\'Wikipedias of the Earth\\' par excellence, with millions of users contributing their own layers to GE, attaching photos, videos, notes and even 3-D (three dimensional) models to locations in GE. From using Twitter in participatory sensing and bicycle-mounted sensors in pervasive environmental sensing, to creating a 100,000-sensor geo-mashup using Semantic Web technology, to the 3-D visualisation of indoor and outdoor surveillance data in real-time and the development of next-generation, collaborative natural user interfaces that will power the spatially-enabled public health and emergency situation rooms of the future, where sensor data and citizen reports can be triaged and acted upon in real-time by distributed teams of professionals, this paper offers a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of the overlapping domains of the Sensor Web, citizen sensing and \\'human-in-the-loop sensing\\' in the era of the Mobile and Social Web, and the roles these domains can play in environmental and public health surveillance and crisis\\/disaster informatics. We provide an in-depth review of the key issues and trends in these areas, the challenges faced when reasoning and making decisions with real-time crowdsourced data (such as issues of information overload, "noise", misinformation, bias and trust), the core technologies and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards involved (Sensor Web Enablement and Open GeoSMS), as well as a few outstanding project implementation examples from around the world.

  4. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Brothers of Charity Services Galway, Galway

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2009-12-21

    Abstract Compelling evidence of major health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and outdoor interaction with \\'greenspace\\' have emerged in the past decade - all of which combine to give major potential health benefits from \\'grow-your-own\\' (GYO) in urban areas. However, neither current risk assessment models nor risk management strategies for GYO in allotments and gardens give any consideration to these health benefits, despite their potential often to more than fully compensate the risks. Although urban environments are more contaminated by heavy metals, arsenic, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and dioxins than most rural agricultural areas, evidence is lacking for adverse health outcomes of GYO in UK urban areas. Rarely do pollutants in GYO food exceed statutory limits set for commercial food, and few people obtain the majority of their food from GYO. In the UK, soil contamination thresholds triggering closure or remediation of allotment and garden sites are based on precautionary principles, generating \\'scares\\' that may negatively impact public health disproportionately to the actual health risks of exposure to toxins through own-grown food. By contrast, the health benefits of GYO are a direct counterpoint to the escalating public health crisis of \\'obesity and sloth\\' caused by eating an excess of saturated fats, inadequate consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables combined with a lack of exercise. These are now amongst the most important preventable causes of illness and death. The health and wider societal benefits of \\'grow-your-own\\' thus reveal a major limitation in current risk assessment methodologies which, in only considering risks, are unable to predict whether GYO on particular sites will, overall, have positive, negative, or no net effects on human health. This highlights a more general need for a new generation of risk assessment tools that also predict overall consequences for health to more effectively guide

  5. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Western Care Association, Mayo

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, David J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Sunitinib has activity in patients with metastatic urothelial cancer (UC), but most patients do not respond. OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of response to sunitinib. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-seven patients with advanced UC received sunitinib on one of two schedules at a single institution. Blood pressure (BP), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and pharmacokinetic (PK) results were correlated with response to sunitinib. MEASUREMENTS: BP was assessed on day 1 and 28 of each cycle and on day 14 of cycle 1. IHC was performed on 55 samples from 38 cases using mammalian target of rapamycin and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway marker antibodies. Blood samples for PK analysis were collected from 15 patients at three time points. Response was assessed using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Sunitinib-induced hypertension predicted improved response when hypertension was categorized as a discrete (p = 0.02) or continuous variable (p = 0.005 [systolic BP] and p = 0.007 [diastolic BP]). The odds ratio of response was 12.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.95-246.8) for grade 3\\/4 hypertension compared with grade 0. Response was associated with low HIF-1alpha expression in primary (p = 0.07) tissue. A nonstatistically significant trend was seen for an association between greater drug concentration and best response. A correlation between expression markers within the same pathways was identified, phosphorylated-4EBP1 and phosphorylated-S6 (p = 6.5 x 10(-9)), and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and HIF-1alpha (p = 0.008). Results are limited by small numbers. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical and molecular biomarkers of response to sunitinib may have clinical relevance and require prospective validation. There is an urgent need for predictive biomarkers to guide the management of UC.

  6. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by St Michael's House, Dublin 5

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    Moloney, Niamh

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Work related upper limb disorders constitute 45% of all occupational diseases and are a significant public health problem. A subgroup, non specific arm pain (NSAP), remains elusive in terms of understanding its pathophysiological mechanisms with its diagnosis based on the absence of specific clinical findings. One commonly proposed theory is that a neural tissue disorder is the primary dysfunction in NSAP and findings from previous studies lend some support to this theory. However, it is not clear if changes identified are simply a consequence of ongoing pain rather than due to specific neural changes. The presence of neuropathic pain has been investigated in several other musculoskeletal conditions but currently, there is no specific diagnostic tool or gold standard which permits an unequivocal diagnosis of neuropathic pain. The purpose of this study is to further describe the somatosensory profiles in patients with NSAP and to compare these profiles to a group of patients with MRI confirmed cervical radiculopathy who have been previously classified as having neuropathic pain. METHODS\\/DESIGN: Three groups of participants will be investigated: Groups 1 and 2 will be office workers with either NSAP or cervical radiculopathy and Group 3 will be a control group of non office workers without upper limb pain. Participants will undergo a clinical assessment, pain questionnaires (LANSS, Short Form McGill, DASH and TSK) and quantitative sensory testing comprising thermal detection and pain thresholds, vibration thresholds and pressure pain thresholds. DISCUSSION: The spectrum of clinically suspected neuropathic pain ranges from more obvious conditions such as trigeminal neuralgia to those with vague signs of nerve disorder such as NSAP. A thorough description of the somatosensory profiles of NSAP patients and a comparison with a more defined group of patients with evidence of neuropathic pain will help in the understanding of underlying neurophysiology in

  7. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Camphill Communities of Ireland, Kildare

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Julie M

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many cancer survivors suffer a range of physical and psychological symptoms which may persist for months or years after cessation of treatment. Despite the known benefits of exercise and its potential to address many of the adverse effects of treatment, the role of exercise as well as optimum duration, frequency, and intensity in this population has yet to be fully elucidated. Many cancer rehabilitation programmes presented in the literature are very long and have tight eligibility criteria which make them non-applicable to the majority of cancer survivors. This paper presents the protocol of a novel 8-week intervention which aims to increase fitness, and address other physical symptoms in a heterogeneous cancer survivor population. METHODS\\/DESIGN: The aim is to recruit 64 cancer survivors 2-6 months after completion of chemotherapy, usually adjuvant, with curative intent. Subjects will be recruited through oncology clinics in a single institution and randomised to usual care or an exercise intervention. The exercise intervention consists of two specifically tailored supervised moderate intensity aerobic exercise sessions weekly over 8-weeks. All participants will be assessed at baseline (0 weeks), at the end of the intervention (8 weeks), and at 3-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure is fitness, and secondary patient-related outcome measures include fatigue, quality of life, and morphological outcomes. A further secondary outcome is process evaluation including adherence to and compliance with the exercise program. DISCUSSION: This study will provide valuable information about the physical outcomes of this 8-week supervised aerobic programme. Additionally, process information and economic evaluation will inform the feasibility of implementing this program in a heterogeneous population post cessation of chemotherapy.

  8. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Health Service Executive, Meath

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    Zhou, Ping

    2011-08-03

    Abstract Background To simplify the methodology for the isolation of Campylobacter spp. from retail broiler meat, we evaluated 108 samples (breasts and thighs) using an unpaired sample design. The enrichment broths were incubated under aerobic conditions (subsamples A) and for comparison under microaerobic conditions (subsamples M) as recommended by current reference protocols. Sensors were used to measure the dissolved oxygen (DO) in the broth and the percentage of oxygen (O2) in the head space of the bags used for enrichment. Campylobacter isolates were identified with multiplex PCR assays and typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Ribosomal intergenic spacer analyses (RISA) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) were used to study the bacterial communities of subsamples M and A after 48 h enrichment. Results The number of Campylobacter positive subsamples were similar for A and M when all samples were combined (P = 0.81) and when samples were analyzed by product (breast: P = 0.75; thigh: P = 1.00). Oxygen sensors showed that DO values in the broth were around 6 ppm and O2 values in the head space were 14-16% throughout incubation. PFGE demonstrated high genomic similarity of isolates in the majority of the samples in which isolates were obtained from subsamples A and M. RISA and DGGE results showed a large variability in the bacterial populations that could be attributed to sample-to-sample variations and not enrichment conditions (aerobic or microaerobic). These data also suggested that current sampling protocols are not optimized to determine the true number of Campylobacter positive samples in retail boiler meat. Conclusions Decreased DO in enrichment broths is naturally achieved. This simplified, cost-effective enrichment protocol with aerobic incubation could be incorporated into reference methods for the isolation of Campylobacter spp. from retail broiler meat.

  9. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Brothers of Charity Services Galway, Galway

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    Buckley, B S

    2011-12-12

    Background:  Gestational diabetes mellitus is a potentially serious condition that affects many pregnancies and its prevalence is increasing. Evidence suggests early detection and treatment improves outcomes, but this is hampered by continued disagreement and inconsistency regarding many aspects of its diagnosis. Methods:  The Vitamin D and Lifestyle Intervention for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Prevention (DALI) research programme aims to promote pan-European standards in the detection and diagnosis of gestational diabetes and to develop effective preventive interventions. To provide an overview of the context within which the programme will be conducted and its findings interpreted, systematic searching and narrative synthesis have been used to identify and review the best available European evidence relating to the prevalence of gestational diabetes, current screening practices and barriers to screening. Results:  Prevalence is most often reported as 2-6% of pregnancies. Prevalence may be lower towards the Northern Atlantic seaboard of Europe and higher in the Southern Mediterranean seaboard. Screening practice and policy is inconsistent across Europe, hampered by lack of consensus on testing methods, diagnostic glycaemic thresholds and the value of routine screening. Poor clinician awareness of gestational diabetes, its diagnosis and local clinical guidelines further undermine detection of gestational diabetes. Conclusions:  Europe-wide agreement on screening approaches and diagnostic standards for gestational diabetes could lead to better detection and treatment, improved outcomes for women and children and a strengthened evidence base. There is an urgent need for well-designed research that can inform decisions on best practice in gestational diabetes mellitus screening and diagnosis. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine© 2011 Diabetes UK.

  10. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Brothers of Charity Services South East, Tipperary

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, C Anthony

    2010-03-17

    Abstract Background A number of recent developments in medical and nursing education have highlighted the importance of communication and consultation skills (CCS). Although such skills are taught in all medical and nursing undergraduate curriculums, there is no comprehensive screening or assessment programme of CCS using professionally trained Standardized Patients Educators (SPE\\'s) in Ireland. This study was designed to test the content, process and acceptability of a screening programme in CCS with Irish medical and nursing students using trained SPE\\'s and a previously validated global rating scale for CCS. Methods Eight tutors from the Schools of Nursing and Medicine at University College Cork were trained in the use of a validated communication skills and attitudes holistic assessment tool. A total of forty six medical students (Year 2 of 5) and sixty four nursing students (Year 2\\/3 of 4) were selected to under go individual CCS assessment by the tutors via an SPE led scenario. Immediate formative feedback was provided by the SPE\\'s for the students. Students who did not pass the assessment were referred for remediation CCS learning. Results Almost three quarters of medical students (33\\/46; 72%) and 81% of nursing students (56\\/64) passed the CCS assessment in both communication and attitudes categories. All nursing students had English as their first language. Nine of thirteen medical students referred for enhanced learning in CCS did not have English as their first language. Conclusions A significant proportion of both medical and nursing students required referral for enhanced training in CCS. Medical students requiring enhanced training were more likely not to have English as a first language.

  11. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Prosper Fingal Limited, Co. Dublin

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    Conway, R

    2015-02-01

    Management guidelines for many rheumatic diseases are published in specialty rheumatology literature but rarely in general medical journals. Musculoskeletal disorders comprise 14% of all consultations in primary care. Formal post-graduate training in rheumatology is limited or absent for many primary care practitioners. Primary care practitioners can be trained to effectively treat complex diseases and have expressed a preference for interactive educational courses. The Rheumatology General Practice (GP) Toolbox is an intensive one day course designed to offer up to date information to primary care practitioners on the latest diagnostic and treatment guidelines for seven common rheumatic diseases. The course structure involves a short lecture on each topic and workshops on arthrocentesis, joint injection and DXA interpretation. Participants evaluated their knowledge and educational experience before, during and after the course. Thirty-two primary care practitioners attended, who had a median of 13 (IQR 6.5, 20) years experience in their specialty. The median number of educational symposia attended in the previous 5 years was 10 (IQR-5, 22.5), with a median of 0 (IQR 0, 1) in rheumatology. All respondents agreed that the course format was appropriate. Numerical improvements were demonstrated in participant\\'s confidence in diagnosing and managing all seven common rheumatologic conditions, with statistically significant improvements (p < 0.05) in 11 of the 14 aspects assessed. The Rheumatology Toolbox is an effective educational method for disseminating current knowledge in rheumatology to primary care physicians and improved participant\\'s self-assessed competence in diagnosis and management of common rheumatic diseases.

  12. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by St Joseph's Foundation, Limerick

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    Leathem, Claire S

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recruitment and retention of patients and healthcare providers in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is important in order to determine the effectiveness of interventions. However, failure to achieve recruitment targets is common and reasons why a particular recruitment strategy works for one study and not another remain unclear. We sought to describe a strategy used in a multicentre RCT in primary care, to report researchers\\' and participants\\' experiences of its implementation and to inform future strategies to maximise recruitment and retention. METHODS: In total 48 general practices and 903 patients were recruited from three different areas of Ireland to a RCT of an intervention designed to optimise secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. The recruitment process involved telephoning practices, posting information, visiting practices, identifying potential participants, posting invitations and obtaining consent. Retention involved patients attending reviews and responding to questionnaires and practices facilitating data collection. RESULTS: We achieved high retention rates for practices (100%) and for patients (85%) over an 18-month intervention period. Pilot work, knowledge of the setting, awareness of change in staff and organisation amongst participant sites, rapid responses to queries and acknowledgement of practitioners\\' contributions were identified as being important. Minor variations in protocol and research support helped to meet varied, complex and changing individual needs of practitioners and patients and encouraged retention in the trial. A collaborative relationship between researcher and practice staff which required time to develop was perceived as vital for both recruitment and retention. CONCLUSION: Recruiting and retaining the numbers of practices and patients estimated as required to provide findings with adequate power contributes to increased confidence in the validity and generalisability of RCT results. A

  13. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by St Michael's House, Dublin 16

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    Zhou, Ping

    2011-08-03

    Abstract Background To simplify the methodology for the isolation of Campylobacter spp. from retail broiler meat, we evaluated 108 samples (breasts and thighs) using an unpaired sample design. The enrichment broths were incubated under aerobic conditions (subsamples A) and for comparison under microaerobic conditions (subsamples M) as recommended by current reference protocols. Sensors were used to measure the dissolved oxygen (DO) in the broth and the percentage of oxygen (O2) in the head space of the bags used for enrichment. Campylobacter isolates were identified with multiplex PCR assays and typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Ribosomal intergenic spacer analyses (RISA) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) were used to study the bacterial communities of subsamples M and A after 48 h enrichment. Results The number of Campylobacter positive subsamples were similar for A and M when all samples were combined (P = 0.81) and when samples were analyzed by product (breast: P = 0.75; thigh: P = 1.00). Oxygen sensors showed that DO values in the broth were around 6 ppm and O2 values in the head space were 14-16% throughout incubation. PFGE demonstrated high genomic similarity of isolates in the majority of the samples in which isolates were obtained from subsamples A and M. RISA and DGGE results showed a large variability in the bacterial populations that could be attributed to sample-to-sample variations and not enrichment conditions (aerobic or microaerobic). These data also suggested that current sampling protocols are not optimized to determine the true number of Campylobacter positive samples in retail boiler meat. Conclusions Decreased DO in enrichment broths is naturally achieved. This simplified, cost-effective enrichment protocol with aerobic incubation could be incorporated into reference methods for the isolation of Campylobacter spp. from retail broiler meat.

  14. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Stewarts Care Limited, Dublin 20

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conway, R

    2015-02-01

    Management guidelines for many rheumatic diseases are published in specialty rheumatology literature but rarely in general medical journals. Musculoskeletal disorders comprise 14% of all consultations in primary care. Formal post-graduate training in rheumatology is limited or absent for many primary care practitioners. Primary care practitioners can be trained to effectively treat complex diseases and have expressed a preference for interactive educational courses. The Rheumatology General Practice (GP) Toolbox is an intensive one day course designed to offer up to date information to primary care practitioners on the latest diagnostic and treatment guidelines for seven common rheumatic diseases. The course structure involves a short lecture on each topic and workshops on arthrocentesis, joint injection and DXA interpretation. Participants evaluated their knowledge and educational experience before, during and after the course. Thirty-two primary care practitioners attended, who had a median of 13 (IQR 6.5, 20) years experience in their specialty. The median number of educational symposia attended in the previous 5 years was 10 (IQR-5, 22.5), with a median of 0 (IQR 0, 1) in rheumatology. All respondents agreed that the course format was appropriate. Numerical improvements were demonstrated in participant\\'s confidence in diagnosing and managing all seven common rheumatologic conditions, with statistically significant improvements (p < 0.05) in 11 of the 14 aspects assessed. The Rheumatology Toolbox is an effective educational method for disseminating current knowledge in rheumatology to primary care physicians and improved participant\\'s self-assessed competence in diagnosis and management of common rheumatic diseases.

  15. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Stewarts Care Ltd

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Whitford, David L

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There has been little development of the general practice consultation over the years, and many aspects of the present consultation do not serve communities with multiple health and social problems well. Many of the problems presenting to general practitioners in socio-economically disadvantaged areas are not amenable to a purely medical solution, and would particularly benefit from a multidisciplinary approach. Socio-economic deprivation is also associated with those very factors (more psychosocial problems, greater need for health promotion, more chronic diseases, more need for patient enablement) that longer consultations have been shown to address. This paper describes our study protocol, which aims to evaluate whether a lengthened multidisciplinary primary care team consultation with families in a socially deprived area can improve the psychological health of mothers in the families. METHODS\\/DESIGN: In a randomised controlled trial, families with a history of social problems, substance misuse or depression are randomly allocated to an intervention or control group. The study is based in three general practices in a highly deprived area of North Dublin. Primary health care teams will be trained in conducting a multidisciplinary lengthened consultation. Families in the intervention group will participate in the new style multidisciplinary consultation. Outcomes of families receiving the intervention will be compared to the control group who will receive only usual general practitioner care. The primary outcome is the psychological health of mothers of the families and secondary outcomes include general health status, quality of life measures and health service usage. DISCUSSION: The main aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a lengthened multidisciplinary team consultation in primary care. The embedded nature of this study in general practices in a highly deprived area ensures generalisability to other deprived communities, but more

  16. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Peter Bradley Foundation Limited, Donegal

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Spicer, Neil

    2011-07-13

    Abstract Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV\\/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV\\/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV\\/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV\\/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84), service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58) and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86). Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV\\/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV\\/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV\\/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV\\/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with

  17. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Prosper Fingal Limited, Co. Dublin

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Begley, Cecily

    2011-10-29

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: No midwifery-led units existed in Ireland before 2004. The aim of this study was to compare midwife-led (MLU) versus consultant-led (CLU) care for healthy, pregnant women without risk factors for labour and delivery. METHODS: An unblinded, pragmatic randomised trial was designed, funded by the Health Service Executive (Dublin North-East). Following ethical approval, all women booking prior to 24 weeks of pregnancy at two maternity hospitals with 1,300-3,200 births annually in Ireland were assessed for trial eligibility.1,653 consenting women were centrally randomised on a 2:1 ratio to MLU or CLU care, (1101:552). \\'Intention-to-treat\\' analysis was used to compare 9 key neonatal and maternal outcomes. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was found between MLU and CLU in the seven key outcomes: caesarean birth (163 [14.8%] vs 84 [15.2%]; relative risk (RR) 0.97 [95% CI 0.76 to 1.24]), induction (248 [22.5%] vs 138 [25.0%]; RR 0.90 [0.75 to 1.08]), episiotomy (126 [11.4%] vs 68 [12.3%]; RR 0.93 [0.70 to 1.23]), instrumental birth (139 [12.6%] vs 79 [14.3%]; RR 0.88 [0.68 to 1.14]), Apgar scores <8 (10 [0.9%] vs 9 [1.6%]; RR 0.56 [0.23 to 1.36]), postpartum haemorrhage (144 [13.1%] vs 75 [13.6%]; RR 0.96 [0.74 to 1.25]); breastfeeding initiation (616 [55.9%] vs 317 [57.4%]; RR 0.97 [0.89 to 1.06]). MLU women were significantly less likely to have continuous electronic fetal monitoring (397 [36.1%] vs 313 [56.7%]; RR 0.64 [0.57 to 0.71]), or augmentation of labour (436 [39.6%] vs 314 [56.9%]; RR 0.50 [0.40 to 0.61]). CONCLUSIONS: Midwife-led care, as practised in this study, is as safe as consultant-led care and is associated with less intervention during labour and delivery. Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN14973283.

  18. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Peter Bradley Foundation Limited, Dublin 24

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Eamon

    2011-02-14

    Abstract Background Current projections indicate that there will be a significant increase in the number of people with dementia in Ireland, from approximately 40,000 at present to 100,000 by 2036. Psychosocial interventions, such as reminiscence, have the potential to improve the quality of life of people with dementia. However, while reminiscence is used widely in dementia care, its impact on the quality of life of people with dementia remains largely undocumented and there is a need for a robust and fair assessment of its overall effectiveness. The DementiA education programme incorporating REminiscence for Staff study will evaluate the effectiveness of a structured reminiscence-based education programme for care staff on the quality of life of residents with dementia in long-stay units. Methods\\/Design The study is a two-group, single-blind cluster randomised trial conducted in public and private long-stay residential settings in Ireland. Randomisation to control and intervention is at the level of the long-stay residential unit. Sample size calculations suggest that 18 residential units each containing 17 people with dementia are required for randomisation to control and intervention groups to achieve power of at least 80% with alpha levels of 0.05. Each resident in the intervention group is linked with a nurse and care assistant who have taken the structured reminiscence-based education programme. Participants in the control group will receive usual care. The primary outcome is quality of life of residents as measured by the Quality of Life-AD instrument. Secondary outcomes include agitation, depression and carer burden. Blinded outcome assessment is undertaken at baseline and at 18-22 weeks post-randomisation. Discussion Trials on reminiscence-based interventions for people with dementia have been scarce and the quality of the information arising from those that have been done has been undermined by methodological problems, particularly in relation to scale

  19. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Peamount Healthcare, Co. Dublin

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Varnik, Airi

    2011-01-29

    Abstract Background There is a lack of international research on suicide by drug overdose as a preventable suicide method. Sex- and age-specific rates of suicide by drug self-poisoning (ICD-10, X60-64) and the distribution of drug types used in 16 European countries were studied, and compared with other self-poisoning methods (X65-69) and intentional self-injury (X70-84). Methods Data for 2000-04\\/05 were collected from national statistical offices. Age-adjusted suicide rates, and age and sex distributions, were calculated. Results No pronounced sex differences in drug self-poisoning rates were found, either in the aggregate data (males 1.6 and females 1.5 per 100,000) or within individual countries. Among the 16 countries, the range (from some 0.3 in Portugal to 5.0 in Finland) was wide. \\'Other and unspecified drugs\\' (X64) were recorded most frequently, with a range of 0.2-1.9, and accounted for more than 70% of deaths by drug overdose in France, Luxembourg, Portugal and Spain. Psychotropic drugs (X61) ranked second. The X63 category (\\'other drugs acting on the autonomic nervous system\\') was least frequently used. Finland showed low X64 and high X61 figures, Scotland had high levels of X62 (\\'narcotics and hallucinogens, not elsewhere classified\\') for both sexes, while England exceeded other countries in category X60. Risk was highest among the middle-aged everywhere except in Switzerland, where the elderly were most at risk. Conclusions Suicide by drug overdose is preventable. Intentional self-poisoning with drugs kills as many males as females. The considerable differences in patterns of self-poisoning found in the various European countries are relevant to national efforts to improve diagnostics of suicide and appropriate specific prevention. The fact that vast majority of drug-overdose suicides came under the category X64 refers to the need of more detailed ICD coding system for overdose suicides is needed to permit better design of suicide

  20. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Muiriosa Foundation, Kildare

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Eamon

    2011-02-14

    Abstract Background Current projections indicate that there will be a significant increase in the number of people with dementia in Ireland, from approximately 40,000 at present to 100,000 by 2036. Psychosocial interventions, such as reminiscence, have the potential to improve the quality of life of people with dementia. However, while reminiscence is used widely in dementia care, its impact on the quality of life of people with dementia remains largely undocumented and there is a need for a robust and fair assessment of its overall effectiveness. The DementiA education programme incorporating REminiscence for Staff study will evaluate the effectiveness of a structured reminiscence-based education programme for care staff on the quality of life of residents with dementia in long-stay units. Methods\\/Design The study is a two-group, single-blind cluster randomised trial conducted in public and private long-stay residential settings in Ireland. Randomisation to control and intervention is at the level of the long-stay residential unit. Sample size calculations suggest that 18 residential units each containing 17 people with dementia are required for randomisation to control and intervention groups to achieve power of at least 80% with alpha levels of 0.05. Each resident in the intervention group is linked with a nurse and care assistant who have taken the structured reminiscence-based education programme. Participants in the control group will receive usual care. The primary outcome is quality of life of residents as measured by the Quality of Life-AD instrument. Secondary outcomes include agitation, depression and carer burden. Blinded outcome assessment is undertaken at baseline and at 18-22 weeks post-randomisation. Discussion Trials on reminiscence-based interventions for people with dementia have been scarce and the quality of the information arising from those that have been done has been undermined by methodological problems, particularly in relation to scale

  1. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by COPE Foundation, Cork

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Varnik, Airi

    2011-01-29

    Abstract Background There is a lack of international research on suicide by drug overdose as a preventable suicide method. Sex- and age-specific rates of suicide by drug self-poisoning (ICD-10, X60-64) and the distribution of drug types used in 16 European countries were studied, and compared with other self-poisoning methods (X65-69) and intentional self-injury (X70-84). Methods Data for 2000-04\\/05 were collected from national statistical offices. Age-adjusted suicide rates, and age and sex distributions, were calculated. Results No pronounced sex differences in drug self-poisoning rates were found, either in the aggregate data (males 1.6 and females 1.5 per 100,000) or within individual countries. Among the 16 countries, the range (from some 0.3 in Portugal to 5.0 in Finland) was wide. \\'Other and unspecified drugs\\' (X64) were recorded most frequently, with a range of 0.2-1.9, and accounted for more than 70% of deaths by drug overdose in France, Luxembourg, Portugal and Spain. Psychotropic drugs (X61) ranked second. The X63 category (\\'other drugs acting on the autonomic nervous system\\') was least frequently used. Finland showed low X64 and high X61 figures, Scotland had high levels of X62 (\\'narcotics and hallucinogens, not elsewhere classified\\') for both sexes, while England exceeded other countries in category X60. Risk was highest among the middle-aged everywhere except in Switzerland, where the elderly were most at risk. Conclusions Suicide by drug overdose is preventable. Intentional self-poisoning with drugs kills as many males as females. The considerable differences in patterns of self-poisoning found in the various European countries are relevant to national efforts to improve diagnostics of suicide and appropriate specific prevention. The fact that vast majority of drug-overdose suicides came under the category X64 refers to the need of more detailed ICD coding system for overdose suicides is needed to permit better design of suicide

  2. A designated centre for people with disabilities, operated by Nua Healthcare, Kildare

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    French, Helen P

    2012-10-16

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of exercise therapy (ET) compared to ET with adjunctive manual therapy (ET+MT) for people with hip osteoarthritis (OA). A secondary aim was to identify if immediate commencement of ET or ET+MT was more beneficial than a 9 week waiting period for either intervention. DESIGN: Assessor-blind randomised controlled trial with 9 and 18 week follow-ups. SETTING: Four academic teaching hospitals, Dublin, Ireland. PARTICIPANTS: 131 patients with hip OA recruited from general practitioners, rheumatologists, orthopaedic surgeons, and other hospital consultants were randomised to one of three groups: ET (n=45), ET+MT (n=43) and wait-list control (n=43). INTERVENTIONS: Participants in both ET and ET+ MT groups received up to 8 treatments over 8 weeks. Control group participants were re-randomised into either ET or ET+MT group after 9 week follow-up. Their data were pooled with original treatment group data: ET (n=66) and ET+MT (n=65). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the WOMAC physical function (PF) subscale. Secondary outcomes included physical performance, pain, hip range of motion (HROM), anxiety\\/depression, quality of life, medication usage, patient-perceived change and patient satisfaction. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in WOMAC PF between ET (n=66) and ET+MT (n=65) groups at 9 weeks (mean diff 0.09 (95% CI -4.41, 5.25)) or at 18 weeks (mean diff 0.42 (95% CI -3.98, 6.83)), or other outcomes, except \\'patient satisfaction with outcome\\' which was higher in the ET+MT group (p=0.02). Improvements in WOMAC, HROM and patient-perceived change occurred in both treatment groups compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: Self-reported function, HROM and patient-perceived improvement occurred after an 8 week programme of ET for patients with hip OA MT as an adjunct provided no further benefit, except for higher patient satisfaction.

  3. Human-centered incubator : Beyond a design concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, R.H.M.; Willemsen, H.

    2013-01-01

    We read with interest the paper by Ferris and Shepley1 on a human-centered design project with university students on neonatal incubators. It is interesting to see that in the design solutions and concepts as presented by Ferris and Shepley,1 human-centered design played an important role. In 2005,

  4. Designing Information Human Factors and Common Sense in Information Design

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Joel

    2012-01-01

    "The book itself is a diagram of clarification, containing hundreds of examples of work by those who favor the communication of information over style and academic postulation-and those who don't. Many blurbs such as this are written without a thorough reading of the book. Not so in this case. I read it and love it. I suggest you do the same."-Richard Saul Wurman Designing Information shows designers in all fields - from user-interface design to architecture and engineering - how to design complex data and information for meaning, relevance, and clarity. Written by a worldwide authority on th

  5. A user-centred design process of new cold-protective clothing for offshore petroleum workers operating in the Barents Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naesgaard, Ole Petter; Storholmen, Tore Christian Bjørsvik; Wiggen, Øystein Nordrum; Reitan, Jarl

    2017-12-07

    Petroleum operations in the Barents Sea require personal protective clothing (PPC) to ensure the safety and performance of the workers. This paper describes the accomplishment of a user-centred design process of new PPC for offshore workers operating in this area. The user-centred design process was accomplished by mixed-methods. Insights into user needs and context of use were established by group interviews and on-the-job observations during a field-trip. The design was developed based on these insights, and refined by user feedback and participatory design. The new PPC was evaluated via field-tests and cold climate chamber tests. The insight into user needs and context of use provided useful input to the design process and contributed to tailored solutions. Providing users with clothing prototypes facilitated participatory design and iterations of design refinement. The group interviews following the final field test showed consensus of enhanced user satisfaction compared to PPC in current use. The final cold chamber test indicated that the new PPC provides sufficient thermal protection during the 60 min of simulated work in a wind-chill temperature of -25°C. Accomplishing a user-centred design process contributed to new PPC with enhanced user satisfaction and included relevant functional solutions.

  6. Model-Based approaches to Human-Automation Systems Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamieson, Greg A.; Andersson, Jonas; Bisantz, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Human-automation interaction in complex systems is common, yet design for this interaction is often conducted without explicit consideration of the role of the human operator. Fortunately, there are a number of modeling frameworks proposed for supporting this design activity. However...... (and reportedly one or two critics) can engage one another on several agreed questions about such frameworks. The goal is to aid non-aligned practitioners in choosing between alternative frameworks for their human-automation interaction design challenges....

  7. Cost benefits from human productivity design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluth, B. J.

    1984-01-01

    The degree to which changing definitions of productivity influence the design of space systems is discussed from a sociological point of view. Particular attention is given to the importance of subjective criteria used in judgements about the cost and benefits of designing a Space Station. It is recommended that designers, administrators, and potential private industrial participants recognize the objectives and goals of other groups involved in the Space Station program in order to establish the most cooperative and productive design environment.

  8. Use of platelet rich plasma to treat plantar fasciitis: design of a multi centre randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peerbooms Joost C

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background If conservative treatment for chronic plantar fasciitis fails, often a corticosteroid injection is given. Corticosteroid injection gives temporarily pain reduction, but no healing. Blood platelets initiate the natural healing rate. GPS® gives an eightfold concentrate platelets of patients own blood. Injection of these platelets in the attachment of the fascia to the os calcis might induce a healing rate. Methods and design A randomized controlled multi centre trial will be performed. The study population consists of 120 patients of 18 years and older. Patients with chronic plantar fasciitis will be allocated randomly to have a steroid injection or an autologous platelet concentrate injections. Data will be collected before the procedure, 4,8,12,26 weeks and 1 year after the procedure. The main outcome measures of this study are pain and function measured with questionnaires. Conclusion Recent literature show positive effects for the treatment of tendinosis with autologous platelet injections. The forthcoming trial will compare treatment for chronic plantar fasciitis with a steroid injection versus an autologous platelet injection. Our results will be published as soon as they become available. Trial Registration Trial registration number: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00758641.

  9. Developing a personalised self-management system for post stroke rehabilitation; utilising a user-centred design methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, Susan; Nasr, Nasrin; Parker, Jack; Zheng, Huiru; Davies, Richard; Mountain, Gail

    2014-11-01

    To develop and evaluate an information and communication technology (ICT) solution for a post-stroke Personalised Self-Managed Rehabilitation System (PSMrS). The PSMrS translates current models of stroke rehabilitation and theories underpinning self-management and self-efficacy into an ICT-based system for home-based post-stroke rehabilitation. The interdisciplinary research team applied a hybrid of health and social sciences research methods and user-centred design methods. This included a series of home visits, focus groups, in-depth interviews, cultural probes and technology biographies. The iterative development of both the content of the PSMrS and the interactive interfaces between the system and the user incorporates current models of post-stroke rehabilitation and addresses the factors that promote self-managed behaviour and self-efficacy such as mastery, verbal persuasion and physiological feedback. The methodological approach has ensured that the interactive technology has been driven by the needs of the stroke survivors and their carers in the context of their journey to both recovery and adaptation. Underpinned by theories of motor relearning, neuroplasticity, self-management and behaviour change, the PSMrS developed in this study has resulted in a personalised system for self-managed rehabilitation, which has the potential to change motor behaviour and promote the achievement of life goals for stroke survivors.

  10. A human factors design of a nuclear plant analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byeon, Seung Nam; Lee, Dong Hoon; Park, Chan Woo [Kyounghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    The project consists of four key stages as follows : based on the review of various literature, human factors design principles and processes are identified, the literature reviewed in the project includes NUREG-0700, research papers for MMI, human factors handbooks, and laboratory reports, after the design principles and processes are determined, a design checklist is developed to evaluate the user interface of NPA, the design checklist consists of seven different categories such as display screen, menu interface, form-fillin, alphanumeric characters, symbols, color, and highlighting, NPA was tested with the design checklist for conformance to the human factors design principles, the expert reviews are performed to evaluate a graphic user interface of NPA, the application of the design checklist and the subjective opinion of the expert identify the design included in the user interface of NPA, based on the thorough analysis of design defects, design guidelines are recommended to improve the user interface of NPA.

  11. Precision wildlife medicine: applications of the human-centred precision medicine revolution to species conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whilde, Jenny; Martindale, Mark Q; Duffy, David J

    2017-05-01

    The current species extinction crisis is being exacerbated by an increased rate of emergence of epizootic disease. Human-induced factors including habitat degradation, loss of biodiversity and wildlife population reductions resulting in reduced genetic variation are accelerating disease emergence. Novel, efficient and effective approaches are required to combat these epizootic events. Here, we present the case for the application of human precision medicine approaches to wildlife medicine in order to enhance species conservation efforts. We consider how the precision medicine revolution, coupled with the advances made in genomics, may provide a powerful and feasible approach to identifying and treating wildlife diseases in a targeted, effective and streamlined manner. A number of case studies of threatened species are presented which demonstrate the applicability of precision medicine to wildlife conservation, including sea turtles, amphibians and Tasmanian devils. These examples show how species conservation could be improved by using precision medicine techniques to determine novel treatments and management strategies for the specific medical conditions hampering efforts to restore population levels. Additionally, a precision medicine approach to wildlife health has in turn the potential to provide deeper insights into human health and the possibility of stemming and alleviating the impacts of zoonotic diseases. The integration of the currently emerging Precision Medicine Initiative with the concepts of EcoHealth (aiming for sustainable health of people, animals and ecosystems through transdisciplinary action research) and One Health (recognizing the intimate connection of humans, animal and ecosystem health and addressing a wide range of risks at the animal-human-ecosystem interface through a coordinated, collaborative, interdisciplinary approach) has great potential to deliver a deeper and broader interdisciplinary-based understanding of both wildlife and human

  12. Wooden Spaceships: Human-Centered Vehicle Design for Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twyford, Evan

    2009-01-01

    Presentation will focus on creative human centered design solutions in relation to manned space vehicle design and development in the NASA culture. We will talk about design process, iterative prototyping, mockup building and user testing and evaluation. We will take an inside look at how new space vehicle concepts are developed and designed for real life exploration scenarios.

  13. Design Projects in Human Anatomy & Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzotto, Kristin; Ortiz, Mary T.

    2008-01-01

    Very often, some type of writing assignment is required in college entry-level Human Anatomy and Physiology courses. This assignment can be anything from an essay to a research paper on the literature, focusing on a faculty-approved topic of interest to the student. As educators who teach Human Anatomy and Physiology at an urban community college,…

  14. Wings: A New Paradigm in Human-Centered Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Paul C.

    1997-01-01

    Many aircraft accidents/incidents investigations cite crew error as a causal factor (Boeing Commercial Airplane Group 1996). Human factors experts suggest that crew error has many underlying causes and should be the start of an accident investigation and not the end. One of those causes, the flight deck design, is correctable. If a flight deck design does not accommodate the human's unique abilities and deficits, crew error may simply be the manifestation of this mismatch. Pilots repeatedly report that they are "behind the aircraft" , i.e., they do not know what the automated aircraft is doing or how the aircraft is doing it until after the fact. Billings (1991) promotes the concept of "human-centered automation"; calling on designers to allocate appropriate control and information to the human. However, there is much ambiguity regarding what it mean's to be human-centered. What often are labeled as "human-centered designs" are actually designs where a human factors expert has been involved in the design process or designs where tests have shown that humans can operate them. While such designs may be excellent, they do not represent designs that are systematically produced according to some set of prescribed methods and procedures. This paper describes a design concept, called Wings, that offers a clearer definition for human-centered design. This new design concept is radically different from current design processes in that the design begins with the human and uses the human body as a metaphor for designing the aircraft. This is not because the human is the most important part of the aircraft (certainly the aircraft would be useless without lift and thrust), but because he is the least understood, the least programmable, and one of the more critical elements. The Wings design concept has three properties: a reversal in the design process, from aerodynamics-, structures-, and propulsion-centered to truly human-centered; a design metaphor that guides function

  15. Eco-design and human-powered products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazazian, T. [O2 (France); Jansen, A. [PES Research Group, Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the relation between eco-design and human-powered products. The results of a number of design projects in the field of eco-design are presented; they focus on the use of human power as a renewable energy source for consumer products. Human-powered energy systems are powered by muscular work from the human body. Opportunities for human-powered energy systems are reduction of life cycle costs and energy self-sufficiency. Challenges can be found in identifying scenarios where the concept of human power is adopted by consumers. Eco-design proves helpful in providing a platform for radical innovations driving the introduction of human-powered technology. (orig.)

  16. A process for placing the human at the centre of the constructive simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dean, D.; Vincet, A.; Mistry, B; Spaans, M.; Petiet, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper will describe different aspects of human behaviour and characteristics that can be represented by modelling techniques, based on ongoing work within the UK Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl), the Nederland’s Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) and the US Naval

  17. The impact of study design and diagnostic approach in a large multi-centre ADHD study: Part 2: Dimensional measures of psychopathology and intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roeyers Herbert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The International Multi-centre ADHD Genetics (IMAGE project with 11 participating centres from 7 European countries and Israel has collected a large behavioural and genetic database for present and future research. Behavioural data were collected from 1068 probands with ADHD and 1446 unselected siblings. The aim was to describe and analyse questionnaire data and IQ measures from all probands and siblings. In particular, to investigate the influence of age, gender, family status (proband vs. sibling, informant, and centres on sample homogeneity in psychopathological measures. Methods Conners' Questionnaires, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires, and Wechsler Intelligence Scores were used to describe the phenotype of the sample. Data were analysed by use of robust statistical multi-way procedures. Results Besides main effects of age, gender, informant, and centre, there were considerable interaction effects on questionnaire data. The larger differences between probands and siblings at home than at school may reflect contrast effects in the parents. Furthermore, there were marked gender by status effects on the ADHD symptom ratings with girls scoring one standard deviation higher than boys in the proband sample but lower than boys in the siblings sample. The multi-centre design is another important source of heterogeneity, particularly in the interaction with the family status. To a large extent the centres differed from each other with regard to differences between proband and sibling scores. Conclusions When ADHD probands are diagnosed by use of fixed symptom counts, the severity of the disorder in the proband sample may markedly differ between boys and girls and across age, particularly in samples with a large age range. A multi-centre design carries the risk of considerable phenotypic differences between centres and, consequently, of additional heterogeneity of the sample even if standardized diagnostic procedures are

  18. The impact of study design and diagnostic approach in a large multi-centre ADHD study: Part 2: Dimensional measures of psychopathology and intelligence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Muller, Ueli C

    2011-04-07

    Abstract Background The International Multi-centre ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) project with 11 participating centres from 7 European countries and Israel has collected a large behavioural and genetic database for present and future research. Behavioural data were collected from 1068 probands with ADHD and 1446 unselected siblings. The aim was to describe and analyse questionnaire data and IQ measures from all probands and siblings. In particular, to investigate the influence of age, gender, family status (proband vs. sibling), informant, and centres on sample homogeneity in psychopathological measures. Methods Conners\\' Questionnaires, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires, and Wechsler Intelligence Scores were used to describe the phenotype of the sample. Data were analysed by use of robust statistical multi-way procedures. Results Besides main effects of age, gender, informant, and centre, there were considerable interaction effects on questionnaire data. The larger differences between probands and siblings at home than at school may reflect contrast effects in the parents. Furthermore, there were marked gender by status effects on the ADHD symptom ratings with girls scoring one standard deviation higher than boys in the proband sample but lower than boys in the siblings sample. The multi-centre design is another important source of heterogeneity, particularly in the interaction with the family status. To a large extent the centres differed from each other with regard to differences between proband and sibling scores. Conclusions When ADHD probands are diagnosed by use of fixed symptom counts, the severity of the disorder in the proband sample may markedly differ between boys and girls and across age, particularly in samples with a large age range. A multi-centre design carries the risk of considerable phenotypic differences between centres and, consequently, of additional heterogeneity of the sample even if standardized diagnostic procedures are used. These

  19. Human Systems Interface Design Methods Using Ecological Interface Design Principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seung Kweon; Park, Jung Chul; Kim, Sun Su; Sim, Kwang Pyo; Yuk, Seung Yul; Choi, Jae Hyeon; Yoon, Seung Hyun [Chungju National University, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The results of this study categorized into two parts. The first part is the guidelines for EID designs. The procedure to observe for EID design is composed of 6 steps; 1) to define a target system, 2) to make an abstraction hierarchy model, 3) to check the link structure among each components included in the layers of abstraction hierarchy model, 4) to transform information requirements to variables, 5) to make the graphs related to each variables, 6) to check the graphs by visual display design principles and heuristic rules. The second part is an EID design alternative for nuclear power plant. The EID for high level function represents the energy balance and energy flow in each loop of nuclear power plant. The EID for middle level function represents the performance indicators of each equipment involved in the all processes of changing from coolants to steam. The EID for low level function represents the values measured in each equipment such as temperature, pressure, water level and so on.

  20. SoundScapes - Beyond Interaction... in search of the ultimate human-centred interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Tony

    2006-01-01

    that can also benefit communication. To achieve this a new generation of intuitive natural interfaces will be required and SoundScapes (see below) is a step toward this goal to discover the ultimate interface for matching the human experience to technology. Emergent hypothesis that have developed...... as a result of the SoundScapes research will be discussed. Introduction to SoundScapes SoundScapes is a contemporary art concept that has become widely known as an interdisciplinary platform for knowledge exchange, innovative product creation of creative and scientific work that uses non-invasive sensor...... Resonance. The multimedia content is adaptable so that the environment is tailored for each participant according to a user profile. This full body movement or the smallest of gesture results in human data input to SoundScapes. The same technology that enables this empowerment is used for performance art...

  1. Students' ways of experiencing human-centered design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltowski, Carla B.

    This study investigated the qualitatively different ways which students experienced human-centered design. The findings of this research are important in developing effective design learning experiences and have potential impact across design education. This study provides the basis for being able to assess learning of human-centered design which will allow educational programs to determine their impact, and what aspects are most effective. Because the object of study was the variation of students' experiences human-centered design, a phenomenographic framework was used to guide the methodology of the study. The literature and research on service-learning and human-centered design informed the construction of the phenomenographic study and also provided ways to interpret the data and situate the results. Thirty-three student designers from a variety of academic contexts were interviewed using a semi-structured, open-ended approach in which they discussed concrete experiences "designing for others", and reflections and meanings associated with those experiences. Analysis of the data yielded seven qualitatively different ways in which the students experienced human-centered design, or categories of description. Logically related, the seven categories of description formed an outcome space that was two-dimensional with distinct, but not independent, axes. The critical differences among the categories provided the basis for developing their hierarchical relationship. Five of the categories were nested hierarchically. From less comprehensive to more comprehensive, those categories included: Human-centered design as "User as Information Source Input to Linear Process", "Keep Users' Needs in Mind", "Design in Context", "Commitment" and "Empathic Design". Two categories represented ways of experiencing human-centered design that were distinct: design was not human-centered, but "Technology-Centered" and human-centered design was not design, but "Service". In addition, this

  2. Using Human Motion Intensity as Input for Urban Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Esben Skouboe; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Gade, Rikke

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study investigating the potential use of human motion intensities as input for parametric urban design. Through a computer vision analysis of thermal images, motion intensity maps are generated and utilized as design drivers for urban design patterns; and, through a case study...... of a town square, human occupancy and motion intensities are used to generate situated or topologies presenting new adaptive methods for urban design. These methods incorporate local or as design drivers for canopy, pavement and furniture layout. The urban design solution may be congured due to various...

  3. Road design, human behaviour and road accidents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1996-01-01

    On this basis of recent decades' research this paper presents the problems a road designer meets when he, among other goals, tries to optimise safety. The author argues that road design is only one of the factors affecting accident risk and that road users' possibilities and limitations must play a

  4. Trend of human brucellosis over a decade at tertiary care centre in North Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, D P; Ajantha, G S; Shubhada, C; Jain, P A; Kalabhavi, A; Shetty, P C; Hosamani, M; Appannanavar, S; Kulkarni, R D

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease. India having a major agrarian population is expected to have a higher prevalence. However, due to lack of laboratory facility or awareness among clinicians, the disease is largely underreported. The aim of this study was to know the prevalence and trend of human brucellosis over a decade, in patients attending a teaching hospital in North Karnataka, and to understand their geographical distribution. The study was conducted from January 2006 to December 2015 at a tertiary care teaching hospital in North Karnataka. A total of 3610 serum samples were evaluated from suspected cases of brucellosis. All serum samples were initially screened by Rose Bengal plate test, and positive samples were further analysed by Serum agglutination test (SAT) using standard Brucella abortus antigen from Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India. A titre above or equal to 1:80 IU/ml was considered as positive. Demographic data such as age, sex and native place of these patients were also analysed. We observed that human brucellosis is present in North Karnataka. The overall seropositivity of brucellosis in suspected cases was 5.1%. The positive titres ranged from 1:80 to 163,840 IU/ml. The majority of the patients were from Gadag, Koppal and Haveri districts of North Karnataka. Our study confirms the presence of human brucellosis in the northern part of Karnataka. Further studies to understand the prevalence of animal brucellosis in these areas will help in implementing prevention measures.

  5. Ergonomics Perspective in Agricultural Research: A User-Centred Approach Using CAD and Digital Human Modeling (DHM) Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Thaneswer; Sanjog, J.; Karmakar, Sougata

    2016-09-01

    Computer-aided Design (CAD) and Digital Human Modeling (DHM) (specialized CAD software for virtual human representation) technologies endow unique opportunities to incorporate human factors pro-actively in design development. Challenges of enhancing agricultural productivity through improvement of agricultural tools/machineries and better human-machine compatibility can be ensured by adoption of these modern technologies. Objectives of present work are to provide the detailed scenario of CAD and DHM applications in agricultural sector; and finding out means for wide adoption of these technologies for design and development of cost-effective, user-friendly, efficient and safe agricultural tools/equipment and operator's workplace. Extensive literature review has been conducted for systematic segregation and representation of available information towards drawing inferences. Although applications of various CAD software have momentum in agricultural research particularly for design and manufacturing of agricultural equipment/machinery, use of DHM is still at its infancy in this sector. Current review discusses about reasons of less adoption of these technologies in agricultural sector and steps to be taken for their wide adoption. It also suggests possible future research directions to come up with better ergonomic design strategies for improvement of agricultural equipment/machines and workstations through application of CAD and DHM.

  6. Human factors of intelligent computer aided display design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    Design concepts for a decision support system being studied at NASA Langley as an aid to visual display unit (VDU) designers are described. Ideally, human factors should be taken into account by VDU designers. In reality, although the human factors database on VDUs is small, such systems must be constantly developed. Human factors are therefore a secondary consideration. An expert system will thus serve mainly in an advisory capacity. Functions can include facilitating the design process by shortening the time to generate and alter drawings, enhancing the capability of breaking design requirements down into simpler functions, and providing visual displays equivalent to the final product. The VDU system could also discriminate, and display the difference, between designer decisions and machine inferences. The system could also aid in analyzing the effects of designer choices on future options and in ennunciating when there are data available on a design selections.

  7. Monoclonal antibodies to the reactive centre loop (RCL) of human corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) can protect against proteolytic cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John G; Elder, Peter A

    2017-07-01

    Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) binds most of the cortisol in circulation and is a non-functional member of the family of serine protease inhibitors (serpins) with an exposed elastase sensitive reactive centre loop (RCL). The RCL can be cleaved by human neutrophil elastase, released from activated neutrophils, and can also be cleaved at nearby site(s) by elastase released by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and at two further sites, also within the RCL, by bovine chymotrypsin. Cleavage of the RCL results in a conformational change accompanied by a marked decrease in affinity for cortisol and hence its release at the site of proteolysis. These cleavages are irreversible and the similar half-lives of cleaved and intact CBG could mean that there may be some advantage in slowing the rate of CBG cleavage in acute inflammation thereby increasing the proportion of intact CBG in circulation. Here we show, for the first time, that pre-incubation of tethered human CBG with two monoclonal antibodies to the RCL of CBG protects against cleavage by all three enzymes. Furthermore, in plasma, pre-incubation with both RCL monoclonal antibodies delays neutrophil elastase cleavage of the RCL and one of these RCL monoclonal antibodies also delays bovine chymotrypsin cleavage of the RCL. These findings may provide a basis and rationale for the concept of the use of RCL antibodies as therapeutic agents to effectively increase the proportion of intact CBG in circulation which may be of benefit in acute inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Trend of human brucellosis over a decade at tertiary care centre in North Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D P Patil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease. India having a major agrarian population is expected to have a higher prevalence. However, due to lack of laboratory facility or awareness among clinicians, the disease is largely underreported. The aim of this study was to know the prevalence and trend of human brucellosis over a decade, in patients attending a teaching hospital in North Karnataka, and to understand their geographical distribution. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted from January 2006 to December 2015 at a tertiary care teaching hospital in North Karnataka. A total of 3610 serum samples were evaluated from suspected cases of brucellosis. All serum samples were initially screened by Rose Bengal plate test, and positive samples were further analysed by Serum agglutination test (SAT using standard Brucella abortus antigen from Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India. A titre above or equal to 1:80 IU/ml was considered as positive. Demographic data such as age, sex and native place of these patients were also analysed. Results: We observed that human brucellosis is present in North Karnataka. The overall seropositivity of brucellosis in suspected cases was 5.1%. The positive titres ranged from 1:80 to 163,840 IU/ml. The majority of the patients were from Gadag, Koppal and Haveri districts of North Karnataka. Conclusion: Our study confirms the presence of human brucellosis in the northern part of Karnataka. Further studies to understand the prevalence of animal brucellosis in these areas will help in implementing prevention measures.

  9. The impact of study design and diagnostic approach in a large multi-centre ADHD study. Part 1: ADHD symptom patterns.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Muller, Ueli C

    2011-04-07

    Abstract Background The International Multi-centre ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) project with 11 participating centres from 7 European countries and Israel has collected a large behavioural and genetic database for present and future research. Behavioural data were collected from 1068 probands with the combined type of attention deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD-CT) and 1446 \\'unselected\\' siblings. The aim was to analyse the IMAGE sample with respect to demographic features (gender, age, family status, and recruiting centres) and psychopathological characteristics (diagnostic subtype, symptom frequencies, age at symptom detection, and comorbidities). A particular focus was on the effects of the study design and the diagnostic procedure on the homogeneity of the sample in terms of symptom-based behavioural data, and potential consequences for further analyses based on these data. Methods Diagnosis was based on the Parental Account of Childhood Symptoms (PACS) interview and the DSM-IV items of the Conners\\' teacher questionnaire. Demographics of the full sample and the homogeneity of a subsample (all probands) were analysed by using robust statistical procedures which were adjusted for unequal sample sizes and skewed distributions. These procedures included multi-way analyses based on trimmed means and winsorised variances as well as bootstrapping. Results Age and proband\\/sibling ratios differed between participating centres. There was no significant difference in the distribution of gender between centres. There was a significant interaction between age and centre for number of inattentive, but not number of hyperactive symptoms. Higher ADHD symptom frequencies were reported by parents than teachers. The diagnostic symptoms differed from each other in their frequencies. The face-to-face interview was more sensitive than the questionnaire. The differentiation between ADHD-CT probands and unaffected siblings was mainly due to differences in hyperactive

  10. The impact of study design and diagnostic approach in a large multi-centre ADHD study. Part 1: ADHD symptom patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roeyers Herbert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The International Multi-centre ADHD Genetics (IMAGE project with 11 participating centres from 7 European countries and Israel has collected a large behavioural and genetic database for present and future research. Behavioural data were collected from 1068 probands with the combined type of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD-CT and 1446 'unselected' siblings. The aim was to analyse the IMAGE sample with respect to demographic features (gender, age, family status, and recruiting centres and psychopathological characteristics (diagnostic subtype, symptom frequencies, age at symptom detection, and comorbidities. A particular focus was on the effects of the study design and the diagnostic procedure on the homogeneity of the sample in terms of symptom-based behavioural data, and potential consequences for further analyses based on these data. Methods Diagnosis was based on the Parental Account of Childhood Symptoms (PACS interview and the DSM-IV items of the Conners' teacher questionnaire. Demographics of the full sample and the homogeneity of a subsample (all probands were analysed by using robust statistical procedures which were adjusted for unequal sample sizes and skewed distributions. These procedures included multi-way analyses based on trimmed means and winsorised variances as well as bootstrapping. Results Age and proband/sibling ratios differed between participating centres. There was no significant difference in the distribution of gender between centres. There was a significant interaction between age and centre for number of inattentive, but not number of hyperactive symptoms. Higher ADHD symptom frequencies were reported by parents than teachers. The diagnostic symptoms differed from each other in their frequencies. The face-to-face interview was more sensitive than the questionnaire. The differentiation between ADHD-CT probands and unaffected siblings was mainly due to differences in hyperactive

  11. Design of artificial human joints & organs

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    This book covers the design science and methodology of artificial joints and organs.  It presents the mechanical characterization of the hard and soft tissues as well as the viscoelastic properties of the tissue.

  12. Design of a Human Reliability Assessment model for structural engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, J.; Terwel, K.C.; Al-Jibouri, S.H.S.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that humans are the “weakest link” in structural design and construction processes. Despite this, few models are available to quantify human error within engineering processes. This paper demonstrates the use of a quantitative Human Reliability Assessment model within

  13. Toward a Theory for the Design of Human Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten; Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche

    2014-01-01

    Design is increasingly becoming a part of the university curriculum and research agenda. A theory about the pro-cess and practice of design might be important to estab-lish design as a main subject at universities. We believe it is in the interest of many design communities – not least the Partic...... the PD community to engage in collective theory building, and we present a framework intended to support our shared reflections on the design of human technologies....

  14. Computer Aided Design in Digital Human Modeling for Human Computer Interaction in Ergonomic Assessment: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Suman Mukhopadhyay , Sanjib Kumar Das and Tania Chakraborty

    2012-01-01

    Research in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) hasbeen enormously successful in the area of computeraidedergonomics or human-centric designs. Perfectfit for people has always been a target for productdesign. Designers traditionally used anthropometricdimensions for 3D product design which created a lotof fitting problems when dealing with thecomplexities of the human body shapes. Computeraided design (CAD), also known as Computer aideddesign and drafting (CADD) is the computertechnology used fo...

  15. LINKING CLASSROOM AND COMMUNITY: A THEORETICAL ALIGNMENT OF SERVICE LEARNING AND A HUMAN-CENTERED DESIGN METHODOLOGY IN CONTEMPORARY COMMUNICATION DESIGN EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneli Bowie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The current emphasis on social responsibility and community collaboration within higher education has led to an increased drive to include service learning in the curriculum. With its emphasis on mutually beneficial collaborations, service learning can be meaningful for both students and the community, but is challenging to manage successfully. From a design education perspective, it is interesting to note that contemporary design practice emphasises a similar approach known as a human-centered design, where users are considered and included throughout the design process. In considering both service learning and human-centred design as foundations for design pedagogy, various philosophical and methodological similarities are evident. The paper explores the relationship between a service learning community engagement approach and a human-centered design approach in contemporary communication design education. To this end, each approach is considered individually after which a joint frame of reference is presented. Butin’s service learning typology, namely the four Rs – respect, reciprocity, relevance and reflection – serves as a point of departure for the joint frame of reference. Lastly, the potential value and relevance of a combined understanding of service learning and human-centered design is considered.

  16. How Social Media ChangesUser-Centred Design - Cumulative and Strategic User Involvement with Respect to Developer–User Social Distance

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    The aim of user-centred, participatory, and lead-user design approaches is to raise the quality of products and services through methods that aid developers in user involvement. In the lite-rature, the design context is often assumed to be 'one-off projects', which limits the applicabi-lity of the guidelines for further service design after market launch. Other challenges concern-ing social media include ambiguities in the role of informal engagement, the abstraction pro-cesses between millio...

  17. Meeting Human Reliability Requirements through Human Factors Design, Testing, and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Boring

    2007-06-01

    In the design of novel systems, it is important for the human factors engineer to work in parallel with the human reliability analyst to arrive at the safest achievable design that meets design team safety goals and certification or regulatory requirements. This paper introduces the System Development Safety Triptych, a checklist of considerations for the interplay of human factors and human reliability through design, testing, and modeling in product development. This paper also explores three phases of safe system development, corresponding to the conception, design, and implementation of a system.

  18. Behind the scenes of the PRIME intervention: designing a complex intervention to improve malaria care at public health centres in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah D. DiLiberto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Uganda, health system challenges limit access to good quality healthcare and contribute to slow progress on malaria control. We developed a complex intervention (PRIME, which was designed to improve quality of care for malaria at public health centres. Objective: Responding to calls for increased transparency, we describe the PRIME intervention's design process, rationale, and final content and reflect on the choices and challenges encountered during the design of this complex intervention. Design: To develop the intervention, we followed a multistep approach, including the following: 1 formative research to identify intervention target areas and objectives; 2 prioritization of intervention components; 3 review of relevant evidence; 4 development of intervention components; 5 piloting and refinement of workshop modules; and 6 consolidation of the PRIME intervention theories of change to articulate why and how the intervention was hypothesized to produce desired outcomes. We aimed to develop an intervention that was evidence-based, grounded in theory, and appropriate for the study context; could be evaluated within a randomized controlled trial; and had the potential to be scaled up sustainably. Results: The process of developing the PRIME intervention package was lengthy and dynamic. The final intervention package consisted of four components: 1 training in fever case management and use of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (mRDTs; 2 workshops in health centre management; 3 workshops in patient-centred services; and 4 provision of mRDTs and antimalarials when stocks ran low. Conclusions: The slow and iterative process of intervention design contrasted with the continually shifting study context. We highlight the considerations and choices made at each design stage, discussing elements we included and why, as well as those that were ultimately excluded. Reflection on and reporting of ‘behind the scenes’ accounts of intervention

  19. Human Characteristics and Measures in Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    rate, blood pressure, pupillary response, electrooculogram (EOG), plasma, and salivary cortisol and other hormone levels 19.2 HUMAN TRAITS...physiological measures (e.g., EEG, oculography, cardiovascular measures, and respiratory rates) Actigraphy, temperature, melatonin levels in saliva or...plasma samples Physiological measures such as cortisol levels in saliva, plasma, and urine samples, psychophysiological measures (e.g., EEG, EDA, EeG

  20. Application of face centred central composite design to optimise compression force and tablet diameter for the formulation of mechanically strong and fast disintegrating orodispersible tablets.

    OpenAIRE

    Pabari, Ritesh M.; Ramtoola, Zebunnissa

    2012-01-01

    A two factor, three level (3(2)) face centred, central composite design (CCD) was applied to investigate the main and interaction effects of tablet diameter and compression force (CF) on hardness, disintegration time (DT) and porosity of mannitol based orodispersible tablets (ODTs). Tablet diameters of 10, 13 and 15 mm, and CF of 10, 15 and 20 kN were studied. Results of multiple linear regression analysis show that both the tablet diameter and CF influence tablet characteristics. A negative ...

  1. PID Controller Design for Human Elbow Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Eski, Ikbal; Kirnap, Ahmet; Kirnap, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    A controller design for mechatronic system which capable of doing  passive therapeutic exercises of patients whohave upper extremity limitation is presented in this paper. Expectation fromcontroller is it should produce torque values can exactly repeat degree valuesdepended on time which were taken from first therapy exercises of patients. Thedesigned controller tested with real angle values which was  taken from during elbow therapy. Simulationresults showed that the proposed control system ...

  2. Human factor engineering applied to nuclear power plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manrique, A. [TECNATOM SA, BWR General Electric Business Manager, Madrid (Spain); Valdivia, J.C. [TECNATOM SA, Operation Engineering Project Manager, Madrid (Spain); Jimenez, A. [TECNATOM SA, Operation Engineering Div. Manager, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    For the design and construction of new nuclear power plants as well as for maintenance and operation of the existing ones new man-machine interface designs and modifications are been produced. For these new designs Human Factor Engineering must be applied the same as for any other traditional engineering discipline. Advantages of implementing adequate Human Factor Engineering techniques in the design of nuclear reactors have become not only a fact recognized by the majority of engineers and operators but also an explicit requirement regulated and mandatory for the new designs of the so called advanced reactors. Additionally, the big saving achieved by a nuclear power plant having an operating methodology which significantly decreases the risk of operating errors makes it necessary and almost vital its implementation. The first step for this is preparing a plan to incorporate all the Human Factor Engineering principles and developing an integral design of the Instrumentation and Control and Man-machine interface systems. (author)

  3. Human Centred Design of a smart phone alert application for drivers

    OpenAIRE

    PAUZIE, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Smart phone applications developed to support driving task could be powerful tools to contribute to drivers' safety, eco-mobility and comfort, by allowing real time and quick widespread of critical road information, using geo-location and social networking. Furthermore, downloading smart phone applications is easily accessible at low cost for the drivers. Nevertheless, several issues such as distraction linked to the use of smart phone while driving and reliability of the transmitted informat...

  4. Relational adaptivity - enacting human-centric systems design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve

    2016-01-01

    Human centered design approaches places the experiencing human at the center of concern, situated in relation to the dynamics of the environmental condition and the variables of the system of control and sensing. Taking the approach of enacted design methods to enforce the experience...... of the inhabitant as core in human-centered design solutions, the intelligence of the connected sensors is suggested to be developed as an actual learning and self-adjusting adaptive environment, where the adaptive system is part of a negotiation with users on the qualities of the environment. We will present...... and activity, driven by detailed encounters with human centered investigations and experiential accounts. The sensor system is a test environment, using a very elaborate system design to enable extensive variations in the sensor and network parameters. But, the suggestion is, that by using this kind of high...

  5. Context-Centric Design of Automotive Human-Machine Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Mercep, Ljubo

    2014-01-01

    Automotive human-machine interfaces are increasingly relying on situation awareness and context processing in order to improve the safety and user experience. This work suggests a context-centric approach to designing a human-machine interface, which places the focus on the context modelling and context usage. In the first step, a unified human-machine interaction strategy is defined. In the second step, the resulting requirements are analyzed and the appropriate solutions are implemented. ...

  6. Human-Centered Design for the Personal Satellite Assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Jeffrey M.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Gawdiak, Yuri; Thomas, Hans; Greaves, Mark; Clancey, William J.; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Personal Satellite Assistant (PSA) is a softball-sized flying robot designed to operate autonomously onboard manned spacecraft in pressurized micro-gravity environments. We describe how the Brahms multi-agent modeling and simulation environment in conjunction with a KAoS agent teamwork approach can be used to support human-centered design for the PSA.

  7. Air pollution and health implications of regional electricity transfer at generational centre and design of compensation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relhan, Nemika

    India's electricity generation is primarily from coal. As a result of interconnection of grid and establishment of pithead power plants, there has been increased electricity transfer from one region to the other. This results in imbalance of pollution loads between the communities located in generation vis-a-vis consumption region. There may be some states, which are major power generation centres and hence are facing excessive environmental degradation. On the other hand, electricity importing regions are reaping the benefits without paying proper charges for it because present tariff structure does not include the full externalities in it. The present study investigates the distributional implications in terms of air pollution loads between the electricity generation and consumption regions at the state level. It identifies the major electricity importing and exporting states in India. Next, as a case study, it estimates the health damage as a result of air pollution from thermal power plants (TPPs) located in a critically polluted region that is one of the major generator and exporter of electricity. The methodology used to estimate the health damage is based on impact pathway approach. In this method, air pollution modelling has been performed in order to estimate the gridded Particulate Matter (PM) concentration at various receptor locations in the study domain. The air quality modeling exercise helps to quantify the air pollution concentration in each grid and also apportion the contribution of power plants to the total concentration. The health impacts as a result of PM have been estimated in terms of number of mortality and morbidity cases using Concentration Response Function (CRF's) available in the literature. Mortality has been converted into Years of Life Lost (YOLL) using life expectancy table and age wise death distribution. Morbidity has been estimated in terms of number of cases with respect to various health end points. To convert this health

  8. Emissions during the BHP Billiton mozal aluminium smelter Fume Treatment Centre (FTC) rebuild – A human health perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available BHP Billiton Mozambique Aluminium Smelter (MOZAL) experienced structural damage to the Fume Treatment Centre (FTC) caused by unanticipated corrosion. As a result MOZAL was in the process of rebuilding the FTC, an exercise that entailed a bypass...

  9. The haemtrack home therapy reporting system: Design, implementation, strengths and weaknesses: A report from UK Haemophilia Centre Doctors Organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, C R M; Xiang, H; Scott, M; Collins, P W; Liesner, R; Dolan, G; Hollingsworth, R

    2017-09-01

    Haemtrack is an electronic home treatment diary for patients with inherited bleeding disorders, introduced in 2008. It aimed to improve the timeliness and completeness of patient-reported treatment records, to facilitate analysis of treatment and outcome trends. The system is easy to use, responsive and accessible. The software uses Microsoft technologies with a SQL Server database and an ASP.net website front-end, running on personal computers, android and I-phones. Haemtrack interfaces with the UK Haemophilia Centre Information System and the National Haemophilia Database (NHD). Data are validated locally by Haemophilia Centres and centrally by NHD. Data collected include as follows: treatment brand, dose and batch number, time/date of bleed onset and drug administration, reasons for treatment (prophylaxis, bleed, follow-up), bleed site, severity, pain-score and outcome. Haemtrack was used by 90% of haemophilia treatment centres (HTCs) in 2015, registering 2683 patients using home therapy of whom 1923 used Haemtrack, entering >17 000 treatments per month. This included 68% of all UK patients with severe haemophilia A. Reporting compliance varied and 55% of patients reported ≥75% of potential usage. Centres had a median 78% compliance overall. A strategy for progressively improving compliance is in place. Age distribution and treatment intensity were similar in Haemtrack users/non-users with severe haemophilia treated prophylactically. The Haemtrack system is a valuable tool that may improve treatment compliance and optimize treatment regimen. Analysis of national treatment trends and large-scale longitudinal, within-patient analysis of changes in regimen and/or product will provide valuable insights that will guide future clinical practice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Antibody humanization by structure-based computational protein design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonjoo; Hua, Casey; Sentman, Charles L; Ackerman, Margaret E; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies derived from non-human sources must be modified for therapeutic use so as to mitigate undesirable immune responses. While complementarity-determining region (CDR) grafting-based humanization techniques have been successfully applied in many cases, it remains challenging to maintain the desired stability and antigen binding affinity upon grafting. We developed an alternative humanization approach called CoDAH ("Computationally-Driven Antibody Humanization") in which computational protein design methods directly select sets of amino acids to incorporate from human germline sequences to increase humanness while maintaining structural stability. Retrospective studies show that CoDAH is able to identify variants deemed beneficial according to both humanness and structural stability criteria, even for targets lacking crystal structures. Prospective application to TZ47, a murine anti-human B7H6 antibody, demonstrates the approach. Four diverse humanized variants were designed, and all possible unique VH/VL combinations were produced as full-length IgG1 antibodies. Soluble and cell surface expressed antigen binding assays showed that 75% (6 of 8) of the computationally designed VH/VL variants were successfully expressed and competed with the murine TZ47 for binding to B7H6 antigen. Furthermore, 4 of the 6 bound with an estimated KD within an order of magnitude of the original TZ47 antibody. In contrast, a traditional CDR-grafted variant could not be expressed. These results suggest that the computational protein design approach described here can be used to efficiently generate functional humanized antibodies and provide humanized templates for further affinity maturation.

  11. Reliability of functional and predictive methods to estimate the hip joint centre in human motion analysis in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainz, Hans; Hajek, Martin; Modenese, Luca; Saxby, David J; Lloyd, David G; Carty, Christopher P

    2017-03-01

    In human motion analysis predictive or functional methods are used to estimate the location of the hip joint centre (HJC). It has been shown that the Harrington regression equations (HRE) and geometric sphere fit (GSF) method are the most accurate predictive and functional methods, respectively. To date, the comparative reliability of both approaches has not been assessed. The aims of this study were to (1) compare the reliability of the HRE and the GSF methods, (2) analyse the impact of the number of thigh markers used in the GSF method on the reliability, (3) evaluate how alterations to the movements that comprise the functional trials impact HJC estimations using the GSF method, and (4) assess the influence of the initial guess in the GSF method on the HJC estimation. Fourteen healthy adults were tested on two occasions using a three-dimensional motion capturing system. Skin surface marker positions were acquired while participants performed quite stance, perturbed and non-perturbed functional trials, and walking trials. Results showed that the HRE were more reliable in locating the HJC than the GSF method. However, comparison of inter-session hip kinematics during gait did not show any significant difference between the approaches. Different initial guesses in the GSF method did not result in significant differences in the final HJC location. The GSF method was sensitive to the functional trial performance and therefore it is important to standardize the functional trial performance to ensure a repeatable estimate of the HJC when using the GSF method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Concept of Human Error and the Design of Reliable Human-Machine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1995-01-01

    The concept of human error is unreliable as a basis for design of reliable human-machine systems. Humans are basically highly adaptive and 'errors' are closely related to the process of adaptation and learning. Therefore, reliability of system operation depends on an interface that is not designe...... way. The concepts behind such 'ecological' interfaces are discussed, an it is argued that a 'typology' of visualization concepts is a pressing research need.......The concept of human error is unreliable as a basis for design of reliable human-machine systems. Humans are basically highly adaptive and 'errors' are closely related to the process of adaptation and learning. Therefore, reliability of system operation depends on an interface that is not designed...

  13. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by St John of God Community Services Limited, Kildare

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McManus, Brenda A

    2009-09-01

    When Candida dubliniensis isolates obtained from seabird excrement and from humans in Ireland were compared by using multilocus sequence typing, 13 of 14 avian isolates were genetically distinct from human isolates. The remaining avian isolate was indistinguishable from a human isolate, suggesting that transmission may occur between humans and birds.

  14. Human-Computer Interaction in Tactical Operations: Designing for Effective Human-Computer Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    editing. fraphical interaction (Report No. CW’-CS-R8718). Human Computer Interaction 1(3), 223-274. Washington, DC National Aeronautics and Space...Co - * r LLcOPY Research Product 90-31 j LL Human- Computer Interaction in Tactical Operations: Designing for Effective Human- Computer Dialogue DTIC...5600 62785A 790 1304 C2 LE (include Security Classification) i- Computer Interaction in Tactical Operations: Designing for Effective i- Computer

  15. How system designers think: a study of design thinking in human factors engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papantonopoulos, Sotiris

    2004-11-01

    The paper presents a descriptive study of design thinking in human factors engineering. The objective of the study is to analyse the role of interpretation in design thinking and the role of design practice in guiding interpretation. The study involved 10 system designers undertaking the allocation of cognitive functions in three production planning and control task scenarios. Allocation decisions were recorded and verbal protocols of the design process were collected to elicit the subjects' thought processes. Verbal protocol analysis showed that subjects carried out the design of cognitive task allocation as a problem of applying a selected automation technology from their initial design deliberations. This design strategy stands in contrast to the predominant view of system design that stipulates that user requirements should be thoroughly analysed prior to making any decisions about technology. Theoretical frameworks from design research and ontological design showed that the system design process may be better understood by recognizing the role of design hypotheses in system design, as well as the diverse interactions between interpretation and practice, means and ends, and design practice and the designer's pre-understanding which shape the design process. Ways to balance the bias exerted on the design process were discussed.

  16. From human factors to HSI and beyond: operation centers and control rooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronkhorst, A.W.; Post, W.M.; Brake, G.M. te

    2014-01-01

    Currently, Human Factors does not just cover human performance and human centred design but also the evaluation and influencing of human behaviour in complex environments. In particular in the design of operations centres and control rooms, the functioning of humans and systems must be considered in

  17. Optimizing the Design of Preprinted Orders for Ambulatory Chemotherapy: Combining Oncology, Human Factors, and Graphic Design

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Jennifer; White, Rachel E.; Hunt, Richard G.; Cassano-Piché, Andrea L.; Easty, Anthony C.

    2011-01-01

    This study illustrates how human factors professionals, clinicians, and designers can leverage each other's expertise to uncover commonly overlooked patient safety hazards and provide health care professionals with tools to minimize those hazards.

  18. Designers' models of the human-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Douglas J.; Breedin, Sarah D.

    1993-01-01

    Understanding design models of the human-computer interface (HCI) may produce two types of benefits. First, interface development often requires input from two different types of experts: human factors specialists and software developers. Given the differences in their backgrounds and roles, human factors specialists and software developers may have different cognitive models of the HCI. Yet, they have to communicate about the interface as part of the design process. If they have different models, their interactions are likely to involve a certain amount of miscommunication. Second, the design process in general is likely to be guided by designers' cognitive models of the HCI, as well as by their knowledge of the user, tasks, and system. Designers do not start with a blank slate; rather they begin with a general model of the object they are designing. The author's approach to a design model of the HCI was to have three groups make judgments of categorical similarity about the components of an interface: human factors specialists with HCI design experience, software developers with HCI design experience, and a baseline group of computer users with no experience in HCI design. The components of the user interface included both display components such as windows, text, and graphics, and user interaction concepts, such as command language, editing, and help. The judgments of the three groups were analyzed using hierarchical cluster analysis and Pathfinder. These methods indicated, respectively, how the groups categorized the concepts, and network representations of the concepts for each group. The Pathfinder analysis provides greater information about local, pairwise relations among concepts, whereas the cluster analysis shows global, categorical relations to a greater extent.

  19. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for the computer room of the CERN Control Centre

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for the computer room of the CERN Control Centre

  20. Design and manufacturing of anthropomorphic thyroid-neck phantom for use in nuclear medicine centres in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosilla, A; Díaz Londoño, G; García, M; Ruíz, F; Andrade, P; Pérez, A

    2014-12-01

    Anthropomorphic phantoms are used in nuclear medicine for imaging quality control, calibration of gamma spectrometry system for the study of internal contamination with radionuclides and for internal dosimetric studies. These are constructed of materials that have radiation attenuation coefficients similar to those of the different organs and tissues of the human body. The material usually used for the manufacture of phantoms is polymethyl methacrylate. Other materials used for this purpose are polyethylene, polystyrene and epoxy resin. This project presents the design and manufacture of an anthropomorphic thyroid-neck phantom that includes the cervical spine, trachea and oesophagus, using a polyester resin (ρ = 1.1 g cm(-3)). Its linear and mass attenuation coefficients were experimentally determined and simulated by means of XCOM software, finding that this material reproduces the soft tissue ICRU-44 in a range of energies between 80 keV and 11 MeV, with less than a 5 % difference. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Heritage Inquiries: A Designerly Approach to Human Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giaccardi, Elisa; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    This two-day workshop brings together the interdisciplinary community of scholars and practitioners involved in the design of interactive systems and sharing a common interest in heritage matters. The workshop addresses heritage as a unique domain for the exploration of novel design inquiries...... into how we come together through separate understandings and attachments to artifacts, places, and events of the past as well as of the present. The aim of the workshop is to explore how design research in the heritage domain can contribute to human-centered interaction design, with a particular...

  2. Naturalistic Cognition: A Research Paradigm for Human-Centered Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Storkerson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Naturalistic thinking and knowing, the tacit, experiential, and intuitive reasoning of everyday interaction, have long been regarded as inferior to formal reason and labeled primitive, fallible, subjective, superstitious, and in some cases ineffable. But, naturalistic thinking is more rational and definable than it appears. It is also relevant to design. Inquiry into the mechanisms of naturalistic thinking and knowledge can bring its resources into focus and enable designers to create better, human-centered designs for use in real-world settings. This article makes a case for the explicit, formal study of implicit, naturalistic thinking within the fields of design. It develops a framework for defining and studying naturalistic thinking and knowledge, for integrating them into design research and practice, and for developing a more integrated, consistent theory of knowledge in design. It will (a outline historical definitions of knowledge, attitudes toward formal and naturalistic thinking, and the difficulties presented by the co-presence of formal and naturalistic thinking in design, (b define and contrast formal and naturalistic thinking as two distinct human cognitive systems, (c demonstrate the importance of naturalistic cognition in formal thinking and real-world judgment, (d demonstrate methods for researching naturalistic thinking that can be of use in design, and (e briefly discuss the impact on design theory of admitting naturalistic thinking as valid, systematic, and knowable.

  3. Enhancing Human-Computer Interaction Design Education: Teaching Affordance Design for Emerging Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiola, Anthony; Matei, Sorin Adam

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of human-computer interaction design (HCID) over the last 20 years suggests that there is a growing need for educational scholars to consider new and more applicable theoretical models of interactive product design. The authors suggest that such paradigms would call for an approach that would equip HCID students with a better…

  4. A Human Factors Framework for Payload Display Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Mariea C.; Hutchinson, Sonya L.

    1998-01-01

    During missions to space, one charge of the astronaut crew is to conduct research experiments. These experiments, referred to as payloads, typically are controlled by computers. Crewmembers interact with payload computers by using visual interfaces or displays. To enhance the safety, productivity, and efficiency of crewmember interaction with payload displays, particular attention must be paid to the usability of these displays. Enhancing display usability requires adoption of a design process that incorporates human factors engineering principles at each stage. This paper presents a proposed framework for incorporating human factors engineering principles into the payload display design process.

  5. Sosial Spaghetti: Human centered design and social integration: social change, gamification and psychology in design

    OpenAIRE

    Hvalbye, Kristin Gudmundsen; Myrland, Sandra Elvebakken

    2016-01-01

    Master i produktdesign Sustainability is about both economical, social and environmental sustainability. This master thesis focuses on social sustainability in the form of well-being and empowerment of people through social integration. This has been addressed with a human centered design process, and with methods from system oriented design and service design, along with theories based on psychology, social change and gamification. The research question and problem statement and h...

  6. From Human Factors to Human Actors to Human Crafters: A Meta-Design Inspired Participatory Framework for Designing in Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceli, Monica Grace

    2012-01-01

    Meta-design theory emphasizes that system designers can never anticipate all future uses of their system at design time, when systems are being developed. Rather, end users shape their environments in response to emerging needs at use time. Meta-design theory suggests that systems should therefore be designed to adapt to future conditions in the…

  7. MERIP - Design of Production Systems with focus on Human Ressources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter; Knudsen, Mads Kristian Lund

    1998-01-01

    The way in which the Industry has involved the human resources in production systems, has changed in last decades. Previously the human resources were mainly considered as means to link together the technical systems, while today they are key resources responsible for development, planning......", "Employee-activated Production Development - MAPU", "Integrated Production Systems - IPS" and "Strategic Development of Staff - SUM". MERIP (Human resources in production) is a continuation of this type of projects, aiming at increasing the competitive power of the companies. However MERIP scientists want...... to involve the human resources in the production in new ways. Therefore the objective of the project is to develop methods for design of production systems, that use every possibility in human resources supported by the technology aiming at increasing the competitive power of the companies. The task force...

  8. Coping with human errors through system design: Implications for ecological interface design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Vicente, Kim J.

    1989-01-01

    Research during recent years has revealed that human errors are not stochastic events which can be removed through improved training programs or optimal interface design. Rather, errors tend to reflect either systematic interference between various models, rules, and schemata, or the effects of t...... on both the interferences causing error and on the opportunity for error recovery left to the operator.......Research during recent years has revealed that human errors are not stochastic events which can be removed through improved training programs or optimal interface design. Rather, errors tend to reflect either systematic interference between various models, rules, and schemata, or the effects...... of the adaptive mechanisms involved in learning. In terms of design implications, these findings suggest that reliable human-system interaction will be achieved by designing interfaces which tend to minimize the potential for control interference and support recovery from errors. In other words, the focus should...

  9. Virtual patients design and its effect on clinical reasoning and student experience: a protocol for a randomised factorial multi-centre study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bateman James

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virtual Patients (VPs are web-based representations of realistic clinical cases. They are proposed as being an optimal method for teaching clinical reasoning skills. International standards exist which define precisely what constitutes a VP. There are multiple design possibilities for VPs, however there is little formal evidence to support individual design features. The purpose of this trial is to explore the effect of two different potentially important design features on clinical reasoning skills and the student experience. These are the branching case pathways (present or absent and structured clinical reasoning feedback (present or absent. Methods/Design This is a multi-centre randomised 2x2 factorial design study evaluating two independent variables of VP design, branching (present or absent, and structured clinical reasoning feedback (present or absent.The study will be carried out in medical student volunteers in one year group from three university medical schools in the United Kingdom, Warwick, Keele and Birmingham. There are four core musculoskeletal topics. Each case can be designed in four different ways, equating to 16 VPs required for the research. Students will be randomised to four groups, completing the four VP topics in the same order, but with each group exposed to a different VP design sequentially. All students will be exposed to the four designs. Primary outcomes are performance for each case design in a standardized fifteen item clinical reasoning assessment, integrated into each VP, which is identical for each topic. Additionally a 15-item self-reported evaluation is completed for each VP, based on a widely used EViP tool. Student patterns of use of the VPs will be recorded. In one centre, formative clinical and examination performance will be recorded, along with a self reported pre and post-intervention reasoning score, the DTI. Our power calculations indicate a sample size of 112 is required for

  10. TRAINING OF HUMAN OPERATORS IN CENTRE FOR PERSONNEL TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES OF CNTEE "TRANSELECTRICA"-SA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODEAN I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using new technologies to equipment maintenance have a number of advantages well known. By applying these technologies work will achieve significant increases economic efficiency only if applied properly. In this sense it must be adequately trained staff, both maintenance operators and operational operators. CNTEE "Transelectrica" SA, through its policy, proposes the use of new technologies and LW technologies (live working. To develop and promote LW technologies and new technologies, the Company promoted the foundation of a centre for the training of personnel and development of new technologies. The centre will aim to promote new technologies and prepare personnel for the correct application of new technologies in our company and to increase readiness and effectiveness of actions taken by its own staff and authorize them for LW and other technology. Also the Centre can attest companies and their services and technologies. This paper presents some aspects of the Centre and how personnel receive the training services for more effective implementation of these technologies.

  11. The Politics of Naming: Critiquing "Learner-Centred" and "Teacher as Facilitator" in English Language and Humanities Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Phan Le

    2014-01-01

    "Learner-centred" and "teacher as facilitator," among the most influential concepts (re)shaping education over the past decades, are often represented as bringing democratic participation, equality, and empowerment to learners and helping transform and liberate societies. At the same time, these concepts are constructed in…

  12. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Daughters of Charity Disability Support Services Ltd., Dublin

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Colleran, Gabrielle C

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anterior triangle masses pose an important clinical dilemma. It is very difficult to distinguish the potential pathologies pre operatively by clinical and radiological assessment. CASE REPORT: The first case highlights the management of a bilateral chemodectoma, the second case is a presentation of castleman\\'s disease and the third is that of metastatic tonsillar adenocarcinoma. All three cases had a similar presentation and radiological appearance pre-operatively. CONCLUSION: Anterior triangle masses span the clinical spectrum of pathologies from chemodectoma to castleman\\'s disease to carcinoma. Expert vascular and radiological management is required for optimum patient care and should take place in a tertiary referral centre. Duplex US, CTA and MRA are important pre operative assessment tools to ensure that adequate information regarding the relationship of the lesion to the carotid artery is available to the operating surgeon who should have vascular expertise as deliberate practice volume has been repeatedly shown to result in improved patient outcome.

  13. CHI 2013 Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) SIG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Campos, Pedro F.; Katre, Dinesh S.

    2013-01-01

    In this SIG we aim to introduce the IFIP 13.6 Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) approach to the CHI audience. The HWID working group aims at establishing relationships between extensive empirical work-domain studies and HCI design. We invite participants from industry and academia...... with an interest on empirical work analysis, HCI, interaction design and usability and user experience in work situations and in the workplace. This SIG is a vital step towards creating a CHI2014 workshop on this topic....

  14. The design of a human-powered vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederholt, J. V.; Pahle, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    Human power applied through a bicycle is perhaps the most efficient means of transport available today. Aerodynamic drag, however, limits the speed possible from the man/bicycle combination. An aerodynamically efficient body enclosing the system can reduce the drag and permit increased speeds. A study was conducted to determine an efficient body design for a high-speed bicycle. Wind tunnel and potential flow studies were conducted to evaluate the drag and lift characteristics of proposed shell designs. A proposed bicycle/shell design is presented.

  15. Convergent ethical issues in HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria vaccine trials in Africa: Report from the WHO/UNAIDS African AIDS Vaccine Programme's Ethics, Law and Human Rights Collaborating Centre consultation, 10-11 February 2009, Durban, South Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mamotte, Nicole; Wassenaar, Douglas; Koen, Jennifer; Essack, Zaynab

    2010-01-01

    .... In order to explore convergent ethical issues in HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria vaccine trials in Africa, the Ethics, Law and Human Rights Collaborating Centre of the WHO/UNAIDS African AIDS Vaccine...

  16. 9 August 2011 - United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights N. Pillay signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss; in the ATLAS visitor centre with Collaboration Former Spokesperson P. Jenni.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    9 August 2011 - United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights N. Pillay signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss; in the ATLAS visitor centre with Collaboration Former Spokesperson P. Jenni.

  17. Human factors in organizational design and management VI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Koningsveld, E.A.P.; Dhondt, S.

    1998-01-01

    This book contains proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Human Factors in Organizational Design and Management held in The Hague, The Netherlands, August 19-22, 1998. The Symposium was sponsored jointly by the International Ergonomics Society, the Dutch Ergonomics Society, NIA TNO and

  18. Designing exons for human olfactory receptor gene subfamilies ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 35; Issue 3. Designing exons for human olfactory receptor gene subfamilies using a mathematical paradigm. Sk Sarif Hassan Pabitra Pal Choudhury Amita Pal R L Brahmachary Arunava Goswami. Articles Volume 35 Issue 3 September 2010 pp 389-393 ...

  19. Human physiology as the determining factor in protective clothing design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Protective clothing is designed to protect humans against risks like fire, chemicals or blunt impact. Although protect¡ve clothing diminishes the effects of external risks, it may hinder people in functioning and it may also introduce new (internal) risks. Manufacturers are often not aware of the

  20. Recipient design in human communication: simple heuristics or perspective taking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokpoel, Mark; van Kesteren, Marlieke; Stolk, Arjen; Haselager, Pim; Toni, Ivan; van Rooij, Iris

    2012-01-01

    Humans have a remarkable capacity for tuning their communicative behaviors to different addressees, a phenomenon also known as recipient design. It remains unclear how this tuning of communicative behavior is implemented during live human interactions. Classical theories of communication postulate that recipient design involves perspective taking, i.e., the communicator selects her behavior based on her hypotheses about beliefs and knowledge of the recipient. More recently, researchers have argued that perspective taking is computationally too costly to be a plausible mechanism in everyday human communication. These researchers propose that computationally simple mechanisms, or heuristics, are exploited to perform recipient design. Such heuristics may be able to adapt communicative behavior to an addressee with no consideration for the addressee's beliefs and knowledge. To test whether the simpler of the two mechanisms is sufficient for explaining the "how" of recipient design we studied communicators' behaviors in the context of a non-verbal communicative task (the Tacit Communication Game, TCG). We found that the specificity of the observed trial-by-trial adjustments made by communicators is parsimoniously explained by perspective taking, but not by simple heuristics. This finding is important as it suggests that humans do have a computationally efficient way of taking beliefs and knowledge of a recipient into account.

  1. Human Work Interaction Design. Work Analysis and HCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, Arminda; Ørngreen, Rikke

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume. ...

  2. Interrupted or continuous slowly absorbable sutures – Design of a multi-centre randomised trial to evaluate abdominal closure techniques INSECT-Trial [ISRCTN24023541

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Büchler Markus W

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The closure of the abdomen after median laparotomy is still a matter of debate among surgeons. Further well designed and performed randomised controlled trials determining the optimal method of abdominal fascial closure are needed. Design This is a three armed, multi-centre, intra-operatively randomised, controlled, patient blinded trial. Over 20 surgical departments will enrol 600 patients who are planned for an elective primary abdominal operation. The objective of this study is to compare the frequency of abdominal incisional hernias between two continuous suture techniques with different, slowly absorbable monofilament materials and an interrupted suture using an absorbable braided suture material at one year postoperatively. Conclusion This trial will answer the question whether the continuous abdominal wall closure with a slowly absorbable material with longitudinal elasticity is superior to the continuous suture with a material lacking elasticity and to interrupted sutures with braided thread.

  3. Workshop on cultural usability and human work interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Ørngreen, Rikke; Roese, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    This workshop analyzes the use of techniques to connect empirical work analysis and interaction design in different cultural contexts. In industry, a wealth of usability evaluation methods is used to evaluate computer software user interfaces and other interactive products: Inspection methods...... it into interaction design. The workshop will present current research into cultural usability and human work interaction design. Cultural usability is a comprehensive concept, which adheres to all kinds of contexts in which humans are involved (private family, work, public and private organizations, nature...... and climate, etc.). See conference website http://www.nordichi2008.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=68&Itemid=92 and workgroup website at http://ilex.cbs.dk/hwid/, where the proceedings is available....

  4. Leveraging human-centered design in chronic disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Gordon O; Pacione, Chris; Shultz, Rebecca K; Klügl, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Bridging the knowing-doing gap in the prevention of chronic disease requires deep appreciation and understanding of the complexities inherent in behavioral change. Strategies that have relied exclusively on the implementation of evidence-based data have not yielded the desired progress. The tools of human-centered design, used in conjunction with evidence-based data, hold much promise in providing an optimal approach for advancing disease prevention efforts. Directing the focus toward wide-scale education and application of human-centered design techniques among healthcare professionals will rapidly multiply their effective ability to bring the kind of substantial results in disease prevention that have eluded the healthcare industry for decades. This, in turn, would increase the likelihood of prevention by design. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. "The Answer Is Brought about from within You": A Student-Centred Perspective on Pedagogy in Art and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Susan; Yorke, Mantz; Blair, Bernadette

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the ways that a group of third-year undergraduate art and design students conceptualise the pedagogy they experience on their course. This study is part of broader research funded by the Group for Learning in Art and Design (GLAD) and the Higher Education Academy (HEA) that employs qualitative interviewing approaches to…

  6. A Methodology for Instructional Design in Mathematics--With the Generic and Epistemic Student at the Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strømskag, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    This theoretical paper presents a methodology for instructional design in mathematics. It is a theoretical analysis of a proposed model for instructional design, where tasks are embedded in situations that preserve meaning with respect to particular pieces of mathematical knowledge. The model is applicable when there is an intention of teaching…

  7. Evidence of a relational spatial strategy in learning the centre of enclosures in human children (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, Luca; Giuliano, Alda

    2014-07-01

    Three- to five-year-old children were trained to localize a sensor hidden underneath the floor, in the centre of a square-shaped enclosure (1.5m×1.5m). Walking over the sensor caused a pleasant music to be played in the environment, thus engaging children in a playful spatial search. Children easily learned to find the centre of the training environment starting from random positions. After training, children were tested in enclosures of different size and/or shape: a larger square-shaped enclosure (3m×3m), a rectangle-shaped enclosure (1.5m×3m), an equilateral triangle-shaped enclosure (side 3m) and an isosceles triangle-shaped enclosure (base 1.5m; sides 3m). Children searched in the central region of the enclosures, their precision varying as a function of the similarity of the testing enclosure's shape to the shape of the training enclosure. This suggests that a relational spatial strategy was used, and that it depended on the encoding of geometrical shape. This result highlights a distinctive role of the geometric centre of enclosed spaces in place learning in children, as already observed in nonhuman species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Human factors analysis and design methods for nuclear waste retrieval systems. Human factors design methodology and integration plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, S.M.

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of the recommended activities and methods to be employed by a team of human factors engineers during the development of a nuclear waste retrieval system. This system, as it is presently conceptualized, is intended to be used for the removal of storage canisters (each canister containing a spent fuel rod assembly) located in an underground salt bed depository. This document, and the others in this series, have been developed for the purpose of implementing human factors engineering principles during the design and construction of the retrieval system facilities and equipment. The methodology presented has been structured around a basic systems development effort involving preliminary development, equipment development, personnel subsystem development, and operational test and evaluation. Within each of these phases, the recommended activities of the human engineering team have been stated, along with descriptions of the human factors engineering design techniques applicable to the specific design issues. Explicit examples of how the techniques might be used in the analysis of human tasks and equipment required in the removal of spent fuel canisters have been provided. Only those techniques having possible relevance to the design of the waste retrieval system have been reviewed. This document is intended to provide the framework for integrating human engineering with the rest of the system development effort. The activities and methodologies reviewed in this document have been discussed in the general order in which they will occur, although the time frame (the total duration of the development program in years and months) in which they should be performed has not been discussed.

  9. Challenges and Paradoxes of Human Factors in Health Technology Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Plinio P; Cafazzo, Joseph A

    2016-03-01

    Usability testing allows human factors professionals to identify and mitigate issues with the design and use of medical technology. The test results, however, can be paradoxical and therefore be misinterpreted, limiting their usefulness. The paradoxical findings can lead to products that are not aligned with the needs and constraints of their users. We herein report on our observations of the paradox of expertise, the paradox of preference versus performance, and the paradox of choice. Each paradox explored is in the perspective of the design of medical technology, the issues that need to be considered in the interpretation of the test results, as well as suggestions on how to avoid the pitfalls in the design of medical technology. Because these paradoxes can influence product design at various stages of product development, it is important to be aware of the effects to interpret the findings properly.

  10. Integrated Human Factors Design Guidelines for Sound Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Woo Chang [Kumoh National Univ. of Technology, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-05-15

    Digital MMI, such as CRT, LCD etc., has been used increasingly in the design of main control room of the Korean standard nuclear power plants following the YGN units 3 and 4. The utilization of digital MMI may introduce various kind of sound interface into the control room design. In this project, for five top-level guideline items, including Sound Formats, Alarms, Sound Controls, Communications, and Environments, a total of 147 detail guidelines were developed and a database system for these guidelines was developed. The integrated human factors design guidelines for sound interface and the database system developed in this project will be useful for the design of sound interface of digital MMI in Korean NPPs.

  11. Designing for intuitive use for non-human users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirman, Hanna; Jørgensen, Ida Kathrine Hammeleff

    2015-01-01

    In the field of human-computer interaction the notion of intuitive use describes the extent to which a human user can subconsciously interact with a product by relying on existing knowledge from similar or identical situations. In animal-computer interaction (ACI) the idea of intuitive use holds ...... with knowledge transfer from other domains familiar to the animal may allow intuitive use of digital technology. Examples will be drawn from an ongoing game design research project which aims to build digital games for Bornean orangutans....

  12. [Design and validation of a satisfaction and quality of life scale for users of residential and social care centres].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Literas, Luciano; Navarro, Albert; Fontanals, María Dulce

    2010-01-01

    In a comprehensive approach to ageing care, the promotion of personal and emotional well-being is fundamental, as well as the development of tools to evaluate outcomes. This approach needs to take into account the subjective perception of the elderly by gathering evidence using indicators that express impacts and satisfaction. Thus, the SAR Foundation's Satisfaction and Quality of Life Scale (SyCV-FSAR) has been developed and validated to assess well-being in residential care settings. Bibliographical reviews, interviews and focal groups with professionals (doctors, nurses, social workers, quality managers, etc.) were conducted to define the questionnaire that was first piloted and then applied in a final survey. Test of validity was carried out by factorial analysis (FA), principal axis factoring and Oblimin rotation. The sampling adequacy was measured by Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test and Bartlett's sphericity. Test of reliability was carried out by internal consistency analysis (Cronbach's alpha). A total of 475 users took part in the survey, 69.1% of those who fulfilled the criteria. Of these 60.0% were women, an average age 82.1, 47.2% of them between 75 and 84 years old, with a MMSE of 27. The FA identified three factors ("Residential service and geriatric care", "Personal framework" and "Social relationships") that explained 27.5% of the total variability. The measure of sampling adequacy by Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test was 0.80, and the Bartlett's sphericity test was significant (Plife in residential and social care centres. Copyright © 2009 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Daughters of Charity Disability Support Services Ltd., Tipperary

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mitchell, Kevin

    2011-11-11

    Abstract The number of individual cases of psychiatric disorders that can be ascribed to identified, rare, single mutations is increasing with great rapidity. Such mutations can be recapitulated in mice to generate animal models with direct etiological validity. Defining the underlying pathogenic mechanisms will require an experimental and theoretical framework to make the links from mutation to altered behavior in an animal or psychopathology in a human. Here, we discuss key elements of such a framework, including cell type-based phenotyping, developmental trajectories, linking circuit properties at micro and macro scales and definition of neurobiological phenotypes that are directly translatable to humans.

  14. Human friendly architectural design for a small Martian base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozicki, J.; Kozicka, J.

    2011-12-01

    The manned mission to Mars is expected to last almost three years. A human factor must be taken seriously into account in such a long-term mission. A big comfortable habitat can help to overcome sociopsychological problems, that occur in ICEs (Isolated and Confined Environments). Authors have come forward to this issue and have developed a Martian base design as a human friendly habitat. The project is based on researches of extreme conditions on Mars, architecture in ICEs and contemporary building technologies. The base consists of five modules: a Central Module (CM), an Agriculture Dome (AD), a Residential Dome (RD), a Laboratory Dome (LD) and a Garage (G). Each element has its own functional purpose. The CM is a metal capsule similar to the Reference Mission module (RM, NASA, 1997). Domes are inflatable multilayer structures, which interiors are "open planned". Interiors can be arranged and divided into rooms by using modular partition walls designed by authors.

  15. Human Work Interaction Design. Work Analysis and HCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, Arminda; Ørngreen, Rikke

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume. ......, and mobile probing. They have been organized in the following topical sections: work analysis: dimensions and methods; interactions, models and approaches; and evaluations, interactions and applications.......This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume....... The papers reflect many different areas and address many complex and diverse work domains, ranging from medical user interfaces, work and speech interactions at elderly care facilities, greenhouse climate control, navigating through large oil industry engineering models, crisis management, library usability...

  16. Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2009-01-01

    This document reviews the Design Reference Architecture (DRA) for human exploration of Mars. The DRA represents the current best strategy for human missions. The DRA is not a formal plan, but provides a vision and context to tie current systems and technology developments to potential missions to Mars, and it also serves as a benchmark against which alternative architectures can be measured. The document also reviews the objectives and products of the 2007 study that was to update NASA's human Mars mission reference architecture, assess strategic linkages between lunar and Mars strategies, develop an understanding of methods for reducing cost/risk of human missions through investment in research, technology development and synergy with other exploration plans. There is also a review of the process by which the DRA will continue to be refined. The unique capacities of human exploration is reviewed. The possible goals and objectives of the first three human missions are presented, along with the recommendation that the mission involve a long stay visiting multiple sites.The deployment strategy is outlined and diagrammed including the pre-deployment of the many of the material requirements, and a six crew travel to Mars on a six month trajectory. The predeployment and the Orion crew vehicle are shown. The ground operations requirements are also explained. Also the use of resources found on the surface of Mars is postulated. The Mars surface exploration strategy is reviewed, including the planetary protection processes that are planned. Finally a listing of the key decisions and tenets is posed.

  17. Development of human factors design review guidelines(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: 25. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model and 26. Review Criteria for Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Controls and Instrumentation, which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994. (author). 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Development of human factors design review guidelines(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25, human factors engineering program review model' and '26, review criteria for human factors aspects of advanced controls and instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents NUREG--0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm system. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994.

  19. Human Work Interaction Design. Work Analysis and HCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, Arminda; Ørngreen, Rikke

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume. ......, and mobile probing. They have been organized in the following topical sections: work analysis: dimensions and methods; interactions, models and approaches; and evaluations, interactions and applications....

  20. Human Centered Design and Development for NASA's MerBoard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Jay

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of the design and development process for NASA's MerBoard. These devices are large interactive display screens which can be shown on the user's computer, which will allow scientists in many locations to interpret and evaluate mission data in real-time. These tools are scheduled to be used during the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover (MER) expeditions. Topics covered include: mission overview, Mer Human Centered Computers, FIDO 2001 observations and MerBoard prototypes.

  1. Factors associated with "Ikigai" among members of a public temporary employment agency for seniors (Silver Human Resources Centre in Japan; gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyoda Yasuhiro

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background "Ikigai" is culturally defined in the society of Japan as a comprehensive concept describing subjective well-being. It is considered to be related to life-satisfaction, self-esteem, morale, happiness as well as evaluation towards meaning of one's life. Although previous studies examined factors associated with Ikigai with smaller samples, consistent results have not been obtained, especially from the viewpoint of gender differences. Identification of gender-specific factors related with Ikigai among the elderly, may be of value to enhance subjective well-being. Methods Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among 4,737 randomly selected members of the Silver Human Resources Centre (SHRC, a public temporary employment agency for seniors, in Osaka, Japan. This represents about 10% of all registered members (n = 41,593 in the 38 SHRC centres in Osaka. A total of 4,376 subjects (male: 2,913; female: 1,463 provided a satisfactory response to the questionnaire (response rate: 92%. The status whether they have "Ikigai" or not was evaluated by self-anchoring scale ranging from 0 to 5 (0 = lowest rate and 5 = highest rate of having "Ikigai". Also, self-rated life-change score through work (-3 to 3 was evaluated by three items, i.e. changes in (1 the number of friends through work, (2 social interests and (3 the quantity of conversation with others (1 = increase, 0 = no change, and -1 = decrease. Results The factors associated with "Ikigai" for total subjects were the number of rooms in one's residence, annual income, healthy life style score (Breslow, the number of working days through SHRC, satisfaction with one's life history and life-change sore through work. The multivariable odds ratio (95%CI of having "Ikigai" was 1.9 (1.1–3.3 for persons with no change in life thorough work compared with subjects with a score of ≦-1. Moreover, the multivariable odds ratios were 3.5 (1.9–6.6 for a life-change score = 1, 3.1 (1

  2. Design and Evaluation of Human System Interfaces (HSIs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In the safe operation of nuclear power plants and other complex process industries the performance of the control room crews plays an important role. In this respect a well-functioning and well-designed Human-System Interface (HSI) is crucial for safe and efficient operation of the plant. It is therefore essential that the design, development and evaluation of both control rooms and HSI-solutions are conducted in a well-structured way, applying sound human factors principles and guidelines in all phases of the HSI development process. Many nuclear power plants around the world are currently facing major modernisation of their control rooms. In this process computerised, screen-based HSIs replace old conventional operator interfaces. In new control rooms, both in the nuclear field and in other process industries, fully digital, screen-based control rooms are becoming the standard. It is therefore of particular importance to address the design and evaluation of screen-based HSIs in a systematic and consistent way in order to arrive at solutions which take proper advantage of the possibilities for improving operator support through the use of digital, screen-based HSIs, at the same time avoiding pitfalls and problems in the use of this technology. The Halden Reactor Project, in cooperation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, organised an International Summer School on ''Design and Evaluation of Human-System Interfaces (HSIs)'' in Halden, Norway in the period August 25th - 29th, 2003. The Summer School addressed the different steps in design, development and evaluation of HSIs, and the human factors principles, standards and guidelines which should be followed in this process. The lectures comprised both theoretical background, as well as examples of good and bad HSI design, thereby providing practical advice in design and evaluation of operator interfaces and control room solutions to the participants in the Summer School. This CD contains the

  3. Design and performance of a multi-centre randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation of joint tele-consultations [ISRCTN54264250

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Simon

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate information flow is crucial to the care of patients, particularly at the interface between primary and secondary care. Communication problems can result from inadequate organisation and training, There is a major expectation that information and communication technologies may offer solutions, but little reliable evidence. This paper reports the design and performance of a multi-centre randomised controlled trial (RCT, unparalleled in telemedicine research in either scale or range of outcomes. The study investigated the effectiveness and cost implications in rural and inner-city settings of using videoconferencing to perform joint tele-consultations as an alternative to general practitioner referral to the hospital specialist in the outpatient clinic. Methods Joint tele-consultation services were established in both the Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust in inner London, and the Royal Shrewsbury Hospitals Trust, in Shropshire. All the patients who gave consent to participate were randomised either to joint tele-consultation or to a routine outpatients appointment. The principal outcome measures included the frequency of decision by the specialist to offer a follow-up outpatient appointment, patient satisfaction (Ware Specific Questionnaire, wellbeing (SF12 and enablement (PEI, numbers of tests, investigations, procedures and treatments. Results A total of 134 general practitioners operating from 29 practices participated in the trial, referring a total of 3170 patients to 20 specialists in ENT medicine, general medicine (including endocrinology, and rheumatology, gastroenterology, orthopaedics, neurology and urology. Of these, 2094 patients consented to participate in the study and were correctly randomised. There was a 91% response rate to the initial assessment questionnaires, and analysis showed equivalence for all key characteristics between the treatment and control groups. Conclusion We have designed and

  4. Improving person-centred care in nursing homes through dementia-care mapping: design of a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van de Ven Geertje

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness and efficiency of nursing-home dementia care are suboptimal: there are high rates of neuropsychiatric symptoms among the residents and work-related stress among the staff. Dementia-care mapping is a person-centred care method that may alleviate both the resident and the staff problems. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of dementia-care mapping in nursing-home dementia care. Methods/Design The study is a cluster-randomised controlled trial, with nursing homes grouped in clusters. Studywise minimisation is the allocation method. Nursing homes in the intervention group will receive a dementia-care-mapping intervention, while the control group will receive usual care. The primary outcome measure is resident agitation, to be assessed with the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory. The secondary outcomes are resident neuropsychiatric symptoms, assessed with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory - Nursing Homes and quality of life, assessed with Qualidem and the EQ-5D. The staff outcomes are stress reactions, job satisfaction and job-stress-related absenteeism, and staff turnover rate, assessed with the Questionnaire about Experience and Assessment of Work, the General Health Questionnaire-12, and the Maastricht Job Satisfaction Scale for Health Care, respectively. We will collect the data from the questionnaires and electronic registration systems. We will employ linear mixed-effect models and cost-effectiveness analyses to evaluate the outcomes. We will use structural equation modelling in the secondary analysis to evaluate the plausibility of a theoretical model regarding the effectiveness of the dementia-care mapping intervention. We will set up process analyses, including focus groups with staff, to determine the relevant facilitators of and barriers to implementing dementia-care mapping broadly. Discussion A novelty of dementia-care mapping is that it offers an

  5. Enhancing outdoor learning through participatory design and development: a case study of embedding mobile learning at a field study centre

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor learning seeks to engage and enthuse students through authentic practical inquiry lessons. This article explores how participatory design and development can enable outdoor learning organisations to introduce sustainable technological innovations within their teaching practices. A case study describing a collaborative project between university researchers and an environmental education charity is presented, which highlights the challenges and issues regarding the usability, scalabili...

  6. Establishing a "Centre for Engineering Experimentation and Design Simulation": A Step towards Restructuring Engineering Education in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswarlu, P.

    2017-01-01

    Reforms in undergraduate engineering curriculum to produce engineers with entrepreneurial skills should address real-world problems relevant to industry and society with active industry support. Technology-assisted, hands-on projects involving experimentation, design simulation and prototyping will transform graduates into professionals with…

  7. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by St John of God Community Services Limited, Dublin 24

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abu, Ozotu Rosemary

    2016-08-01

    This mixed method research explores unprofessional behaviour experienced by clinical Medical students, during clinical training in Ireland; with a view to obtaining learning points that inform future design of modules on Professionalism. It also looks at the impact of these on students and the relationship between gender\\/ethnicity and students’ experiences of these behaviours.

  8. Human-Centered Design as an Integrating Discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy André Boy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available What is research today? Good research has to be indexed within appropriate mechanisms to be visible, considered and finally useful. These mechanisms are based on quantitative research methods and codes that are often very academic. Consequently, they impose rigorous constraints on the way results should be obtained and presented. In addition, everything people learn in academia needs to be graded. This leads to standard packaging of what should be learned and results in making people executants and not creators nor inventors. In other words, this academic standardization precludes freedom for innovation. This paper proposes Human-Centered Design (HCD as a solution to override these limitations and roadblocks. HCD involves expertise, experience, participation, modeling and simulation, complexity analysis and qualitative research. What is education today? Education is organized in silos with little attempt to integrate individual academic disciplines. Large system integration is almost never learned in engineering schools, and Human- Systems Integration (HSI even less. Instead, real-life problemsolving requires integration skills. What is design research? We often hear that design has nothing to do with research, and conversely. Putting design and research together, as complementary disciplines, contributes to combine creativity, rigorous demonstration and validation. This is somehow what HCD is about.

  9. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by St John of God Community Services Limited, Kildare

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Raghavan, Karthika

    2010-11-01

    Characterization of the epigenetic profile of humans since the initial breakthrough on the human genome project has strongly established the key role of histone modifications and DNA methylation. These dynamic elements interact to determine the normal level of expression or methylation status of the constituent genes in the genome. Recently, considerable evidence has been put forward to demonstrate that environmental stress implicitly alters epigenetic patterns causing imbalance that can lead to cancer initiation. This chain of consequences has motivated attempts to computationally model the influence of histone modification and DNA methylation in gene expression and investigate their intrinsic interdependency. In this paper, we explore the relation between DNA methylation and transcription and characterize in detail the histone modifications for specific DNA methylation levels using a stochastic approach.

  10. "Not for human consumption": a review of emerging designer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselman, Megan E; Hampton, Jeremy P

    2014-07-01

    Synthetic, or "designer" drugs, are created by manipulating the chemical structures of other psychoactive drugs so that the resulting product is structurally similar but not identical to illegal psychoactive drugs. Originally developed in the 1960s as a way to evade existing drug laws, the use of designer drugs has increased dramatically over the past few years. These drugs are deceptively packaged as "research chemicals," "incense," "bath salts," or "plant food," among other names, with labels that may contain warnings such as "not for human consumption" or "not for sale to minors." The clinical effects of most new designer drugs can be described as either hallucinogenic, stimulant, or opioid-like. They may also have a combination of these effects due to designer side-chain substitutions. The easy accessibility and rapid emergence of new designer drugs have created challenges for health care providers when treating patients presenting with acute toxicity from these substances, many of which can produce significant and/or life-threatening adverse effects. Moreover, the health care provider has no way to verify the contents and/or potency of the agent ingested because it can vary between packages and distributors. Therefore, a thorough knowledge of the available designer drugs, common signs and symptoms of toxicity associated with these agents, and potential effective treatment modalities are essential to appropriately manage these patients. © 2014 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  11. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Daughters of Charity Disability Support Services Ltd. -Tipperary

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Krijt, Jakub

    2011-02-01

    Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) deficiency is usually confirmed by assaying the enzyme activity in cultured skin fibroblasts. We investigated whether CBS is present in human plasma and whether determination of its activity in plasma could be used for diagnostic purposes. We developed an assay to measure CBS activity in 20 μL of plasma using a stable isotope substrate - 2,3,3-(2)H serine. The activity was determined by measurement of the product of enzyme reaction, 3,3-(2)H-cystathionine, using LC-MS\\/MS. The median enzyme activity in control plasma samples was 404 nmol\\/h\\/L (range 66-1,066; n = 57). In pyridoxine nonresponsive CBS deficient patients, the median plasma activity was 0 nmol\\/ho\\/L (range 0-9; n = 26), while in pyridoxine responsive patients the median activity was 16 nmol\\/hour\\/L (range 0-358; n = 28); this overlapped with the enzyme activity from control subject. The presence of CBS in human plasma was confirmed by an in silico search of the proteome database, and was further evidenced by the activation of CBS by S-adenosyl-L-methionine and pyridoxal 5\\'-phosphate, and by configuration of the detected reaction product, 3,3-(2)H-cystathionine, which was in agreement with the previously observed CBS reaction mechanism. We hypothesize that the CBS enzyme in plasma originates from liver cells, as the plasma CBS activities in patients with elevated liver aminotransferase activities were more than 30-fold increased. In this study, we have demonstrated that CBS is present in human plasma and that its catalytic activity is detectable by LC-MS\\/MS. CBS assay in human plasma brings new possibilities in the diagnosis of pyridoxine nonresponsive CBS deficiency.

  12. Nutrition of students from dietetics profile education in the Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities compared with students from other academic centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalcze, Katarzyna; Turyk, Zofia; Drywień, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate nutrition in humans is one of the most important factors affecting normal development, nutritional status and keeping healthy. University students can be overburdened with responsibilities arising from their studies which may result in abnormal diet/nutrition and decrease their levels of physical activity. To determine and assess nutrition and eating habits for selected female students studying nutrition at the Siedlce University of Natural Sciences & Humanities (UPH), compared with young people from other academic centres also studying nutrition and having a similar education profile. A diagnostic survey was undertaken anonymously on 100 female student subjects using a proprietary questionnaire. Students were undergraduates at the UPH during their 2nd and 3rd year. Dietetics students considered that the practical application of proper nutrition principles is very important. Nevertheless, 44% assessed themselves to follow abnormal diets; 58% declared they ate whole grains frequently whereas 58% and 65% respectively consumed fruit and vegetables daily. Dietary irregularities were identified, particularly in how often fish was eaten, where 46% either never ate fish or did so only occasionally. Subjects preferred lean cuts of poultry meat (65%), and the most common cooking practice was frying (52%). Subjects did not follow dietary recommendations, although responses varied in the different academic centres. Despite learning from their studies about normal nutritional requirements it seems that, to large degree, students follow eating habits acquired during their childhoods in the home.

  13. Applying Human-Centered Design Methods to Scientific Communication Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, E. R.; Jayanty, N. K.; DeGroot, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    Knowing your users is a critical part of developing anything to be used or experienced by a human being. User interviews, journey maps, and personas are all techniques commonly employed in human-centered design practices because they have proven effective for informing the design of products and services that meet the needs of users. Many non-designers are unaware of the usefulness of personas and journey maps. Scientists who are interested in developing more effective products and communication can adopt and employ user-centered design approaches to better reach intended audiences. Journey mapping is a qualitative data-collection method that captures the story of a user's experience over time as related to the situation or product that requires development or improvement. Journey maps help define user expectations, where they are coming from, what they want to achieve, what questions they have, their challenges, and the gaps and opportunities that can be addressed by designing for them. A persona is a tool used to describe the goals and behavioral patterns of a subset of potential users or customers. The persona is a qualitative data model that takes the form of a character profile, built upon data about the behaviors and needs of multiple users. Gathering data directly from users avoids the risk of basing models on assumptions, which are often limited by misconceptions or gaps in understanding. Journey maps and user interviews together provide the data necessary to build the composite character that is the persona. Because a persona models the behaviors and needs of the target audience, it can then be used to make informed product design decisions. We share the methods and advantages of developing and using personas and journey maps to create more effective science communication products.

  14. Space Flight Human System Standards (SFHSS). Volume 2; Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Factors" and Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Fitts, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the standards for space flight hardware based on human capabilities and limitations. The contents include: 1) Scope; 2) Applicable documents; 3) General; 4) Human Physical Characteristics and Capabilities; 5) Human Performance and Cognition; 6) Natural and Induced Environments; 7) Habitability Functions; 8) Architecture; 9) Hardware and Equipment; 10) Crew Interfaces; 11) Spacesuits; 12) Operatons: Reserved; 13) Ground Maintenance and Assembly: Reserved; 14) Appendix A-Reference Documents; 15) Appendix N-Acronyms and 16) Appendix C-Definition. Volume 2 is supported by the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH)s.

  15. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Daughters of Charity Disability Support Services Ltd., Tipperary

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Uzochukwu, I

    2016-06-01

    Ambulatory Gynaecology allows a “see-and-treat” approach to managing gynaecological conditions, providing a more streamlined, integrated care pathway than the traditional gynaecology clinic and inpatient care model. This study was designed to assess patient satisfaction and acceptability of Ambulatory Gynaecology services in Mayo University Hospital, Castlebar, Ireland. It also provided for feedback from patients as to how the service might be improved. \\r\

  16. Upscaling the recruitment and retention of human resources for health at primary healthcare centres in Lebanon: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameddine, Mohamad; Khodr, Hiba; Mourad, Yara; Yassoub, Rami; Abi Ramia, Jinane

    2016-05-01

    The sustainability of primary healthcare (PHC) worldwide has been challenged by a global shortage in human resources for health (HRH). This study is a unique attempt at systematically soliciting and synthesising the voice of PHC and community stakeholders on the HRH recruitment and retention strategies at the PHC sector in Lebanon, the obstacles and challenges hindering their optimisation and the recommendations to overcome such obstacles. A qualitative design was utilised, involving 22 semi-structured interviews with PHC experts in Lebanon conducted in 2013. Nvivo qualitative data analysis software was employed for the thematic analysis of data collected from interviews. Five comprehensive themes emerged: understanding PHC scope, HRH recruitment issues, HRH retention challenges, rural areas' specific challenges and stakeholders' recommendations. Analysis of stakeholders' responses revealed a lack of a unified understanding of the PHC scope impacting the capacity for appropriate HRH planning. Identified impediments to recruitment included the suboptimal supply of HRH, financial constraints and poor management. Retention difficulties were attributed to poor working environments, financial constraints and lack of professional development. There was consensus that HRH challenges faced were aggravated in rural areas, jeopardising the equitable access to PHC services of quality. Equitable access was also jeopardised by the reported shortage of female HRH in a sociocultural context where many females prefer providers of the same gender. The study sets the path towards upscaling recruitment and retention policies and practices through the endorsement of a nationally acknowledged PHC definition and scope, the sustainable development of the PHC workforce and through the implementation of targeted recruitment and retention strategies addressing rural settings and gender equity. Decision-makers and planners are urged to identify HRH as the most important input for the success

  17. Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Health and the Human Integration Design Handbook. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbec, Keith; Tillman, Barry; Connolly, Janis

    2010-01-01

    For decades, Space Life Sciences and NASA as an Agency have considered NASA-STD-3000, Man-Systems Integration Standards, a significant contribution to human spaceflight programs and to human-systems integration in general. The document has been referenced in numerous design standards both within NASA and by organizations throughout the world. With research program and project results being realized, advances in technology and new information in a variety of topic areas now available, the time arrived to update this extensive suite of requirements and design information. During the past several years, a multi-NASA center effort has been underway to write the update to NASA-STD-3000 with standards and design guidance that would be applicable to all future human spaceflight programs. NASA-STD-3001 - Volumes 1 and 2 - and the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH) were created. Volume 1, Crew Health, establishes NASA s spaceflight crew health standards for the pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight phases of human spaceflight. Volume 2, Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Health, focuses on the requirements of human-system integration and how the human crew interacts with other systems, and how the human and the system function together to accomplish the tasks for mission success. The HIDH is a compendium of human spaceflight history and knowledge, and provides useful background information and research findings. And as the HIDH is a stand-alone companion to the Standards, the maintenance of the document has been streamlined. This unique and flexible approach ensures that the content is current and addresses the fundamental advances of human performance and human capabilities and constraints research. Current work focuses on the development of new sections of Volume 2 and collecting updates to the HIDH. The new sections in development expand the scope of the standard and address mission operations and support operations. This effort is again collaboration

  18. Community-oriented curriculum design for medical humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Duu-Jian

    2008-07-01

    Various recent surveys in Taiwan show physicians' decreasing satisfaction and increasing frustration with their working environment. Their major complaints are stress, long hours, salary, management's disrespect, and lack of trust from patients and society. To move towards restoration of social trust, this paper proposes incorporating the concept of "doctor as mediator in the changing relationship with patients" into the medical curriculum, as will be described in detail. This paper argues that structured community service for medical students facilitates self-learning, and will not only motivate them to develop good clinical and communication skills, but will also lead them to realize that the essence of medicine must be social trust. These effects have been seen after several years of an experimental curriculum involving more than 800 students. A program using methodology for community empowerment has been realized in a two-stage curriculum design. Students' self-assessment of achievements in these courses included further improvement in communication skills, courage to express own position, appropriate planning in advance, management of human resources, ability to deal with limited space and time, and experience of a profoundly moving learning process. In conclusion, community-based curriculum designs that facilitate self-learning for medical students should be the key element of reformed humanities education in Taiwan medical schools. Moreover, medical humanities continues to be a key element contributing to ongoing intellectual movements in Taiwan for building civil society and rooting democracy in the community.

  19. Community-oriented Curriculum Design for Medical Humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duu-Jian Tsai

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Various recent surveys in Taiwan show physicians' decreasing satisfaction and increasing frustration with their working environment. Their major complaints are stress, long hours, salary, management's disrespect, and lack of trust from patients and society. To move towards restoration of social trust, this paper proposes incorporating the concept of “doctor as mediator in the changing relationship with patients” into the medical curriculum, as will be described in detail. This paper argues that structured community service for medical students facilitates self-learning, and will not only motivate them to develop good clinical and communication skills, but will also lead them to realize that the essence of medicine must be social trust. These effects have been seen after several years of an experimental curriculum involving more than 800 students. A program using methodology for community empowerment has been realized in a two-stage curriculum design. Students' self-assessment of achievements in these courses included further improvement in communication skills, courage to express own position, appropriate planning in advance, management of human resources, ability to deal with limited space and time, and experience of a profoundly moving learning process. In conclusion, community-based curriculum designs that facilitate self-learning for medical students should be the key element of reformed humanities education in Taiwan medical schools. Moreover, medical humanities continues to be a key element contributing to ongoing intellectual movements in Taiwan for building civil society and rooting democracy in the community.

  20. A Design Case Featuring the Graduate Design Studio at Indiana University Bloomington’s Human-Computer Interaction Design Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Callison

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author illustrates the design of a physical space that was created to serve as a performance intervention for graduate students in the Human-Computer Interaction Design (HCId program in the School of Informatics, Indiana University Bloomington. Opened in Fall 2010, the HCId Graduate Design Studio was designed to help facilitate collaboration between students and faculty in the HCId Program. An effort was made to document the Studio and students working in the Studio over an extended period of time. The author visited the Design Studio a minimum of ten times between late January and late April 2011. Visits were conducted on different days of the week (Monday - Friday and at different times of the day to capture a variety of students and activity level in the Studio. In order to gain a perspective on the two distinct groups of students who utilize the Studio, interviews of graduate students from both the HCId Master of Science and Doctoral program were conducted. In addition interviews were conducted of two other important stakeholders, the HCId Program Director and the Director of Facilities for the School of Informatics, both of whom were heavily involved in the design of the Studio. Through faculty and student interviews, text descriptions, photographs, and audio and video recordings this article addresses the design features and their impact, both successful and unsuccessful, on student and faculty collaboration of the HCId Graduate Design Studio.

  1. Developing human factors/ergonomics as a design discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norros, Leena

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with internal challenges that the human factors/ergonomics (HFE) research faces when wishing to strengthen its contribution to development of work systems. Three established characteristics of high-quality HFE, i.e., HFE takes a systems approach, HFE is design-driven, and HFE focuses on two closely related outcomes, performance and well-being, are taken as a starting point of a methodological discussion, in which conceptual innovations, e.g. adopting the technology-in-use perspective, are proposed to support development of HFE towards the high-quality aims. The feasibility of the proposed conceptual choices is demonstrated by introducing a naturalistic HFE analysis approach including four HFE functions. The gained experience of the use of this approach in a number of complex work domains allows the conclusion that becoming design-driven appears as that most difficult quality target for HFE to reach. Creating an own design discipline identity in a multi-voiced collaboration is the key internal challenge for human factors/ergonomics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  2. 77 FR 59992 - Announcement of Humanities Medal Design Competition Under the America COMPETES Reauthorization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... artists and designers to create a thoughtful and imaginative visual representation of the humanities for a... the idea of the humanities--the study of literature, philosophy, history, and other subjects--into a... submitted designs: 1. Design relates to the humanities. The subjects and ideas of the humanities--literature...

  3. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by G.A.L.R.O. Limited, Laois

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toomey, David

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genome sequencing and bioinformatics have provided the full hypothetical proteome of many pathogenic organisms. Advances in microarray and mass spectrometry have also yielded large output datasets of possible target proteins\\/genes. However, the challenge remains to identify new targets for drug discovery from this wealth of information. Further analysis includes bioinformatics and\\/or molecular biology tools to validate the findings. This is time consuming and expensive, and could fail to yield novel drugs if protein purification and crystallography is impossible. To pre-empt this, a researcher may want to rapidly filter the output datasets for proteins that show good homology to proteins that have already been structurally characterised or proteins that are already targets for known drugs. Critically, those researchers developing novel antibiotics need to select out the proteins that show close homology to any human proteins, as future inhibitors are likely to cross-react with the host protein, causing off-target toxicity effects later in clinical trials. METHODOLOGY\\/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To solve many of these issues, we have developed a free online resource called Genomes2Drugs which ranks sequences to identify proteins that are (i) homologous to previously crystallized proteins or (ii) targets of known drugs, but are (iii) not homologous to human proteins. When tested using the Plasmodium falciparum malarial genome the program correctly enriched the ranked list of proteins with known drug target proteins. CONCLUSIONS\\/SIGNIFICANCE: Genomes2Drugs rapidly identifies proteins that are likely to succeed in drug discovery pipelines. This free online resource helps in the identification of potential drug targets. Importantly, the program further highlights proteins that are likely to be inhibited by FDA-approved drugs. These drugs can then be rapidly moved into Phase IV clinical studies under \\'change-of-application\\' patents.

  4. Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of the Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0 (DRA 5.0), which is the latest in a series of NASA Mars reference missions. It provides a vision of one potential approach to human Mars exploration. The reference architecture provides a common framework for future planning of systems concepts, technology development, and operational testing as well as Mars robotic missions, research that is conducted on the International Space Station, and future lunar exploration missions. This summary the Mars DRA 5.0 provides an overview of the overall mission approach, surface strategy and exploration goals, as well as the key systems and challenges for the first three human missions to Mars.

  5. PATIENT-CENTRED SCREENING FOR PRIMARY IMMUNODEFICIENCY, A MULTI-STAGE DIAGNOSTIC PROTOCOL DESIGNED FOR NONIMMUNOLOGISTS: 2011 UPDATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. de Vries

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Members of the European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID and other colleagues have updated themulti-stage expert-opinion-based diagnostic protocol for non-immunologists incorporating newly defined primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs. The protocol presented here aims to increase the awareness of PIDs among doctors working in different fields. Prompt identification of PID is important for prognosis, but this may not be an easy task. The protocol therefore starts from the clinical presentation of the patient. Because PIDs may present at all ages, this protocol is aimed at both adult and paediatric physicians. The multi-stage design allows cost-effective screening for PID of the large number of potential cases in the early phases, with more expensive tests reserved for definitive classification in collaboration with a specialist in the field of immunodeficiency at a later stage.

  6. Computational Human Performance Modeling For Alarm System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo

    2012-07-01

    The introduction of new technologies like adaptive automation systems and advanced alarms processing and presentation techniques in nuclear power plants is already having an impact on the safety and effectiveness of plant operations and also the role of the control room operator. This impact is expected to escalate dramatically as more and more nuclear power utilities embark on upgrade projects in order to extend the lifetime of their plants. One of the most visible impacts in control rooms will be the need to replace aging alarm systems. Because most of these alarm systems use obsolete technologies, the methods, techniques and tools that were used to design the previous generation of alarm system designs are no longer effective and need to be updated. The same applies to the need to analyze and redefine operators’ alarm handling tasks. In the past, methods for analyzing human tasks and workload have relied on crude, paper-based methods that often lacked traceability. New approaches are needed to allow analysts to model and represent the new concepts of alarm operation and human-system interaction. State-of-the-art task simulation tools are now available that offer a cost-effective and efficient method for examining the effect of operator performance in different conditions and operational scenarios. A discrete event simulation system was used by human factors researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop a generic alarm handling model to examine the effect of operator performance with simulated modern alarm system. It allowed analysts to evaluate alarm generation patterns as well as critical task times and human workload predicted by the system.

  7. The Centre for Early Human Behaviour (EHB) at the University of Bergen: A transdisciplinary exploration into the evolution of homo sapiens behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolowski, Stefan; Henshilwood, Christopher; Jansen, Eystein

    2017-04-01

    Homo sapiens was anatomically modern by 200 000 years ago in Africa, but there is no archaeological evidence to demonstrate that behaviour was modern at the time. Attributes of modern behaviour, perhaps inspired by changes in the human brain, are only recognizable after 100 000 years ago. Before we can study the process, we must critically define the criteria for the term 'modern behaviour' and then find a means to recognize such behavior in the record. This seemingly simple research statement involves complex exploration by a team of specialists. In this highly competitive research field our centre will, for the first time, be able to rise to the challenge by combining the skills of cutting-edge scientists in archaeology, climate reconstruction and modelling, and the cognitive and social sciences. Over the next decade we will integrate knowledge and methods from different disciplines to synthesize approaches and contribute to a sophisticated understanding of early human behaviour. Our highly ambitious research program will focus explicitly on rare, well preserved archaeological sites occupied in the period between 100-50 000 years ago because these contain the 'keys' for unlocking the past. A major competitive edge is the EHB Director's 25 years of archaeological experience and his long-term exclusive access, with permits, to a number of the best-preserved sites in the southern Cape, South Africa - a region regarded as a major locus for vital evidence that could inform on the behaviour of early humans. Our planned excavations at existing and new sites and our ground-breaking and innovative interdisciplinary approaches, including climate (The Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research) and cognitive research, to understanding the processes that shaped human cultures. Primarily, EHB will directly address unanswered, first order questions about Homo sapiens: a) what defines the switch to 'modern behaviour', exactly how should this term be defined and then, when, why and

  8. Rationale and design of a multi-centre randomised controlled trial of individualised cooled dialysate to prevent left ventricular systolic dysfunction in haemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odudu Aghogho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main hypothesis of this study is that patients having regular conventional haemodialysis (HD will have a smaller decline in cardiac systolic function by using cooler dialysate. Cooler dialysate may also be beneficial for brain function. Methods/Design The trial is a multicentre, prospective, randomised, un-blinded, controlled trial. Patients will be randomised 1:1 to use a dialysate temperature of 37°C for 12 months or an individualised cooled dialysate. The latter will be set at 0.5°C less than the patient’s own temperature, determined from the mean of 6 prior treatment sessions with a tympanic thermometer, up to a maximum of 36°C. Protocol adherence will be regularly checked. Inclusion criteria are incident adult HD patients within 180 days of commencing in-centre treatment 3 times per week with capacity to consent for the trial and without contra-indications for magnetic resonance imaging. Exclusion criteria include not meeting inclusion criteria, inability to tolerate magnetic resonance imaging and New York Heart Association Grade IV heart failure. During the study period, resting cardiac and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging will be performed at baseline and 12 months on an inter-dialytic day. Cardiovascular performance during HD will also be assessed by continuous cardiac output monitors, intra-dialytic echocardiography and biomarkers at baseline and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is a 5% between-group difference in left ventricular ejection fraction measured by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at 12 months compared to baseline. Analysis will be by intention-to-treat. Secondary outcome measures will include changes in cerebral microstructure and changes in cardiovascular performance during HD. A total of 73 patients have been recruited into the trial from four UK centres. The trial is funded by a Research for Patient Benefit Grant from the National Institute of Healthcare Research. AO is

  9. Preventing hospital admissions by reviewing medication (PHARM in primary care: design of the cluster randomised, controlled, multi-centre PHARM-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Bogert Sander CA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medication can be effective but can also be harmful and even cause hospital admissions. Medication review or pharmacotherapy review has often been proposed as a solution to prevent these admissions and to improve the effectiveness and safety of pharmacotherapy. However, most published randomised controlled trials on pharmacotherapy reviews showed no or little effect on morbidity and mortality. Therefore we designed the PHARM (Preventing Hospital Admissions by Reviewing Medication-study with the objective to study the effect of the total pharmaceutical care process on medication related hospital admissions and on adverse drug events, survival and quality of life. Methods/Design The PHARM-study is designed as a cluster randomised, controlled, multi-centre study in an integrated primary care setting. Patients with a high risk of a medication related hospital admission are included in the study with randomisation at GP (general practitioner level. We aim to include 14200 patients, 7100 in each arm, from at least 142 pharmacy practices. The intervention consists of a patient-centred, structured, pharmaceutical care process. This process consists of several steps, is continuous and occurrs over multiple encounters of patients and clinicians. The steps of this pharmaceutical care process are a pharmaceutical anamnesis, a review of the patient's pharmacotherapy, the formulation and execution of a pharmaceutical care plan combined with the monitoring and follow up evaluation of the care plan and pharmacotherapy. The patient's own pharmacist and GP carry out the intervention. The control group receives usual care. The primary outcome of the study is the frequency of hospital admissions related to medication within the study period of 12 months of each patient. The secondary outcomes are survival, quality of life, adverse drug events and severe adverse drug events. The outcomes will be analysed by using mixed-effects Cox models

  10. Development of a web-based patient decision aid for initiating disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs using user-centred design methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nota, Ingrid; Drossaert, Constance H C; Melissant, Heleen C; Taal, Erik; Vonkeman, Harald E; Haagsma, Cees J; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2017-04-26

    A main element of patient-centred care, Patient Decision Aids (PtDAs) facilitate shared decision-making (SDM). A recent update of the International Patient Decision Aids Standards (IPDAS) emphasised patient involvement during PtDA development, but omitted a methodology for doing so. This article reports on the value of user-centred design (UCD) methods for the development of a PtDA that aims to support inflammatory arthritis patients in their choice between disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). The IPDAS development process model in combination with UCD methods were applied. The process was overseen by an eight-member multidisciplinary steering group. Patients and health professionals were iteratively consulted. Qualitative in-depth interviews combined with rapid prototyping were conducted with patients to assess their needs for specific functionality, content and design of the PtDA. Group meetings with health professionals were organized to assess patients' needs and to determine how the PtDA should be integrated into patient pathways. The current literature was reviewed to determine the clinical evidence to include in the PtDA. To evaluate usability among patients, they were observed using the PtDA while thinking aloud and then interviewed. The combination of patient interviews with rapid prototyping revealed that patients wanted to compare multiple DMARDs both for their clinical aspects and implications for daily life. Health professionals mainly wanted to refer patients to a reliable, easily adjustable source of information about DMARDs. A web-based PtDA was constructed consisting of four parts: 1) general information about SDM, inflammatory arthritis and DMARDs; 2) an application to compare particular DMARDs; 3) value clarification exercises; and 4) a printed summary of patients' notes, preferences, worries and questions that they could bring to discuss with their rheumatologist. The study demonstrated that UCD methods can be of great value for the

  11. Reflections on the Role of the "Users": Challenges in a Multi-Disciplinary Context of Learner-Centred Design for Children on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Sarah; Cobb, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Technology design in the field of human-computer interaction has developed a continuum of participatory research methods, closely mirroring methodological approaches and epistemological discussions in other fields. This paper positions such approaches as examples of inclusive research (to varying degrees) within education, and illustrates the…

  12. Perspectives on human-human sensorimotor interactions for the design of rehabilitation robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawers, Andrew; Ting, Lena H

    2014-10-06

    Physical interactions between patients and therapists during rehabilitation have served as motivation for the design of rehabilitation robots, yet we lack a fundamental understanding of the principles governing such human-human interactions (HHI). Here we review the literature and pose important open questions regarding sensorimotor interaction during HHI that could facilitate the design of human-robot interactions (HRI) and haptic interfaces for rehabilitation. Based on the goals of physical rehabilitation, three subcategories of sensorimotor interaction are identified: sensorimotor collaboration, sensorimotor assistance, and sensorimotor education. Prior research has focused primarily on sensorimotor collaboration and is generally limited to relatively constrained visuomotor tasks. Moreover, the mechanisms by which performance improvements are achieved during sensorimotor cooperation with haptic interaction remains unknown. We propose that the effects of role assignment, motor redundancy, and skill level in sensorimotor cooperation should be explicitly studied. Additionally, the importance of haptic interactions may be better revealed in tasks that do not require visual feedback. Finally, cooperative motor tasks that allow for motor improvement during solo performance to be examined may be particularly relevant for rehabilitation robotics. Identifying principles that guide human-human sensorimotor interactions may lead to the development of robots that can physically interact with humans in more intuitive and biologically inspired ways, thereby enhancing rehabilitation outcomes.

  13. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Daughters of Charity Disability Support Services Ltd., Tipperary

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carroll, Aine Dr.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Adverse cognitive, emotional and behavioural sequelae of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) are commonly noted by family members. These sequelae can adversely impact on marital and family relationships. The aim of this study is to examine marital and relationship satisfaction following a TBI amongst patients and partners. Design: A questionnaire based postal survey was used to investigate relationship and marital satisfaction. Participants: Thirty four participants (14 male; 20 female), ranging in age from 25-68 years ( = 44 years, SD 11 years), took part in this study. Sixteen had sustained a TBI and eighteen were partners of patients with TBI. Participants with TBI who were inpatients at the National Rehabilitation Hospital (NRH) and their partners were invited to participate in the study. Outcome Measures: The Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSI-R) was used to examine marital and relationship satisfaction. Results: Both patients and partners reported relationship difficulties following brain injury (z = -3.078, p < .05 patients; z = 2.699, p < .05 partners). Conclusion: This study highlights the significant impact of TBI on relationships for both the TBI survivor and their partners. Implications for interventions in neuropsychological rehabilitation are discussed.

  14. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by KARE, PROMOTING INCLUSION FOR PEOPLE WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES, Kildare

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rawstron, A C

    2016-04-01

    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) the level of minimal residual disease (MRD) after therapy is an independent predictor of outcome. Given the increasing number of new agents being explored for CLL therapy, using MRD as a surrogate could greatly reduce the time necessary to assess their efficacy. In this European Research Initiative on CLL (ERIC) project we have identified and validated a flow-cytometric approach to reliably quantitate CLL cells to the level of 0.0010% (10(-5)). The assay comprises a core panel of six markers (i.e. CD19, CD20, CD5, CD43, CD79b and CD81) with a component specification independent of instrument and reagents, which can be locally re-validated using normal peripheral blood. This method is directly comparable to previous ERIC-designed assays and also provides a backbone for investigation of new markers. A parallel analysis of high-throughput sequencing using the ClonoSEQ assay showed good concordance with flow cytometry results at the 0.010% (10(-4)) level, the MRD threshold defined in the 2008 International Workshop on CLL guidelines, but it also provides good linearity to a detection limit of 1 in a million (10(-6)). The combination of both technologies would permit a highly sensitive approach to MRD detection while providing a reproducible and broadly accessible method to quantify residual disease and optimize treatment in CLL.

  15. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Daughters of Charity Disability Support Services Ltd., Limerick

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hashem, Atef A

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence, severity and pattern of hypodontia in Irish patients referred to a tertiary care clinic for developmental dental disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Details of 168 patients with hypodontia referred during the period 2002-2006 were entered in a database designed as a national record. Tooth charting was completed using clinical and radiographic examinations. The age of patients ranged from 7-50 years, with a median age of 20 years (Mean: 21.79; SD: 8.005). RESULTS: Hypodontia referrals constituted 65.5% of the total referrals. Females were more commonly affected than males with a ratio of 1.3:1. The number of referrals reflected the population density in this area; the majority were referrals from the public dental service. Mandibular second premolars were the most commonly missing teeth, followed by maxillary second premolars and maxillary lateral incisors; maxillary central incisors were the least affected. Symmetry of tooth agenesis between the right and left sides was an evident feature. Slightly more teeth were missing on the left side (n = 725) than on the right side (n = 706) and in the maxillary arch (n = 768) as compared to the mandibular arch (n = 663). Some 54% of patients had severe hypodontia with more than six teeth missing; 32% had moderate hypodontia, with four to six teeth missing. The most common pattern of tooth agenesis was four missing teeth. CONCLUSION: Hypodontia was a common presentation in a population referred to this tertiary care clinic. The pattern and distribution of tooth agenesis in Irish patients appears to follow the patterns reported in the literature.

  16. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by St John of God Community Services Limited, Louth

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2010-10-30

    The biotoxins, azaspiracids (AZAs), from marine phytoplankton accumulate in shellfish and affect human health by causing severe gastrointestinal disturbance, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. Specific and sensitive methods have been developed and validated for the determination of the most commonly occurring azaspiracid analogs. An LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer is a hybrid instrument that combines linear ion trap (LIT) mass spectrometry (MS) with high-resolution Fourier transform (FT) MS and this was exploited to perform simultaneous ultra-high-resolution full-scan MS analysis and collision-induced dissociation (CID) tandem mass spectrometry (MS\\/MS). Using the highest mass resolution setting (100,000 FWHM) in full-scan mode, the methodology was validated for the determination of six AZAs in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) tissue extracts. Ultra-high mass resolution, together with a narrow mass tolerance window of ±2 mDa, dramatically improved detection sensitivity. In addition to employing chromatographic resolution to distinguish between the isomeric azaspiracid analogs, AZA1\\/AZA6 and AZA4\\/AZA5, higher energy collisionally induced dissociation (HCD) fragmentation on selected precursor ions were performed in parallel with full-scan FTMS. Using HCD MS\\/MS, most precursor and product ion masses were determined within 1 ppm of the theoretical m\\/z values throughout the mass spectral range and this enhanced the reliability of analyte identity.For the analysis of mussels (M. galloprovincialis), the method limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0.010 µg\\/g using full-scan FTMS and this was comparable with the LOQ (0.007 µg\\/g) using CID MS\\/MS. The repeatability data were; intra-day RSD% (1.8-4.4%; n = 6) and inter-day RSD% (4.7-8.6%; n = 3). Application of these methods to the analysis of mussels (M. edulis) that were naturally contaminated with azaspiracids, using high-resolution full-scan Orbitrap MS and low-resolution CID MS\\/MS, produced

  17. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Daughters of Charity Disability Support Services Ltd., Dublin 7

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Spicer, Neil

    2011-07-13

    Abstract Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV\\/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV\\/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV\\/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV\\/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84), service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58) and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86). Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV\\/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV\\/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV\\/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV\\/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with

  18. Improving flight condition situational awareness through Human Centered Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Carol

    2012-01-01

    In aviation, there is currently a lack of accurate and timely situational information, specifically weather data, which is essential when dealing with the unpredictable complexities that can arise while flying. For example, weather conditions that require immediate evasive action by the flight crew, such as isolated heavy rain, micro bursts, and atmospheric turbulence, require that the flight crew receive near real-time and precise information about the type, position, and intensity of those conditions. Human factors issues arise in considering how to display the various sources of weather information to the users of that information and how to integrate this display into the existing environment. In designing weather information display systems, it is necessary to meet the demands of different users, which requires an examination of the way in which the users process and use weather information. Using Human Centered Design methodologies and concepts will result in a safer, more efficient and more intuitive solution. Specific goals of this approach include 1) Enabling better fuel planning; 2) Allowing better divert strategies; 3) Ensuring pilots, navigators, dispatchers and mission planners are referencing weather from the same sources; 4) Improving aircrew awareness of aviation hazards such as turbulence, icing, hail and convective activity; 5) Addressing inconsistent availability of hazard forecasts outside the United States Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ); and 6) Promoting goal driven approaches versus event driven (prediction).

  19. Middleware Design for Swarm-Driving Robots Accompanying Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Su; Kim, Sang Hyuck; Kang, Soon Ju

    2017-02-17

    Research on robots that accompany humans is being continuously studied. The Pet-Bot provides walking-assistance and object-carrying services without any specific controls through interaction between the robot and the human in real time. However, with Pet-Bot, there is a limit to the number of robots a user can use. If this limit is overcome, the Pet-Bot can provide services in more areas. Therefore, in this study, we propose a swarm-driving middleware design adopting the concept of a swarm, which provides effective parallel movement to allow multiple human-accompanying robots to accomplish a common purpose. The functions of middleware divide into three parts: a sequence manager for swarm process, a messaging manager, and a relative-location identification manager. This middleware processes the sequence of swarm-process of robots in the swarm through message exchanging using radio frequency (RF) communication of an IEEE 802.15.4 MAC protocol and manages an infrared (IR) communication module identifying relative location with IR signal strength. The swarm in this study is composed of the master interacting with the user and the slaves having no interaction with the user. This composition is intended to control the overall swarm in synchronization with the user activity, which is difficult to predict. We evaluate the accuracy of the relative-location estimation using IR communication, the response time of the slaves to a change in user activity, and the time to organize a network according to the number of slaves.

  20. Automated design synthesis of robotic/human workcells for improved manufacturing system design in hazardous environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Joshua M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-12

    Manufacturing tasks that are deemed too hazardous for workers require the use of automation, robotics, and/or other remote handling tools. The associated hazards may be radiological or nonradiological, and based on the characteristics of the environment and processing, a design may necessitate robotic labor, human labor, or both. There are also other factors such as cost, ergonomics, maintenance, and efficiency that also effect task allocation and other design choices. Handling the tradeoffs of these factors can be complex, and lack of experience can be an issue when trying to determine if and what feasible automation/robotics options exist. To address this problem, we utilize common engineering design approaches adapted more for manufacturing system design in hazardous environments. We limit our scope to the conceptual and embodiment design stages, specifically a computational algorithm for concept generation and early design evaluation. In regard to concept generation, we first develop the functional model or function structure for the process, using the common 'verb-noun' format for describing function. A common language or functional basis for manufacturing was developed and utilized to formalize function descriptions and guide rules for function decomposition. Potential components for embodiment are also grouped in terms of this functional language and are stored in a database. The properties of each component are given as quantitative and qualitative criteria. Operators are also rated for task-relevant criteria which are used to address task compatibility. Through the gathering of process requirements/constraints, construction of the component database, and development of the manufacturing basis and rule set, design knowledge is stored and available for computer use. Thus, once the higher level process functions are defined, the computer can automate the synthesis of new design concepts through alternating steps of embodiment and function structure

  1. The impact of study design and diagnostic approach in a large multi-centre ADHD study: Part 2: Dimensional measures of psychopathology and intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, U.C.; Asherson, P.; Banaschewski, T.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Ebstein, R.P.; Eisenberg, J.; Gill, M.; Manor, I.; Miranda, A.; Oades, R.D.; Roeyers, H.; Rothenberger, A.; Sergeant, J.A.; Sonuga-Barke, E.J.S.; Thompson, M.; Faraone, S.V.; Steinhausen, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The International Multi-centre ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) project with 11 participating centres from 7 European countries and Israel has collected a large behavioural and genetic database for present and future research. Behavioural data were collected from 1068 probands with ADHD and 1446

  2. Human Factors Guidance for Control Room and Digital Human-System Interface Design and Modification, Guidelines for Planning, Specification, Design, Licensing, Implementation, Training, Operation and Maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Fink, D. Hill, J. O' Hara

    2004-11-30

    Nuclear plant operators face a significant challenge designing and modifying control rooms. This report provides guidance on planning, designing, implementing and operating modernized control rooms and digital human-system interfaces.

  3. Optimizing the design of preprinted orders for ambulatory chemotherapy: combining oncology, human factors, and graphic design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jennifer; White, Rachel E; Hunt, Richard G; Cassano-Piché, Andrea L; Easty, Anthony C

    2012-03-01

    To establish a set of guidelines for developing ambulatory chemotherapy preprinted orders. Multiple methods were used to develop the preprinted order guidelines. These included (A) a comprehensive literature review and an environmental scan; (B) analyses of field study observations and incident reports; (C) critical review of evidence from the literature and the field study observation analyses; (D) review of the draft guidelines by a clinical advisory group; and (E) collaboration with graphic designers to develop sample preprinted orders, refine the design guidelines, and format the resulting content. The Guidelines for Developing Ambulatory Chemotherapy Preprinted Orders, which consist of guidance on the design process, content, and graphic design elements of ambulatory chemotherapy preprinted orders, have been established. Health care is a safety critical, dynamic, and complex sociotechnical system. Identifying safety risks in such a system and effectively addressing them often require the expertise of multiple disciplines. This study illustrates how human factors professionals, clinicians, and designers can leverage each other's expertise to uncover commonly overlooked patient safety hazards and to provide health care professionals with innovative, practical, and user-centered tools to minimize those hazards.

  4. Optimizing the Design of Preprinted Orders for Ambulatory Chemotherapy: Combining Oncology, Human Factors, and Graphic Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jennifer; White, Rachel E.; Hunt, Richard G.; Cassano-Piché, Andrea L.; Easty, Anthony C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To establish a set of guidelines for developing ambulatory chemotherapy preprinted orders. Methods: Multiple methods were used to develop the preprinted order guidelines. These included (A) a comprehensive literature review and an environmental scan; (B) analyses of field study observations and incident reports; (C) critical review of evidence from the literature and the field study observation analyses; (D) review of the draft guidelines by a clinical advisory group; and (E) collaboration with graphic designers to develop sample preprinted orders, refine the design guidelines, and format the resulting content. Results: The Guidelines for Developing Ambulatory Chemotherapy Preprinted Orders, which consist of guidance on the design process, content, and graphic design elements of ambulatory chemotherapy preprinted orders, have been established. Conclusion: Health care is a safety critical, dynamic, and complex sociotechnical system. Identifying safety risks in such a system and effectively addressing them often require the expertise of multiple disciplines. This study illustrates how human factors professionals, clinicians, and designers can leverage each other's expertise to uncover commonly overlooked patient safety hazards and to provide health care professionals with innovative, practical, and user-centered tools to minimize those hazards. PMID:23077436

  5. Human-Centered Design of Human-Computer-Human Dialogs in Aerospace Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Christine M.

    1998-01-01

    A series of ongoing research programs at Georgia Tech established a need for a simulation support tool for aircraft computer-based aids. This led to the design and development of the Georgia Tech Electronic Flight Instrument Research Tool (GT-EFIRT). GT-EFIRT is a part-task flight simulator specifically designed to study aircraft display design and single pilot interaction. ne simulator, using commercially available graphics and Unix workstations, replicates to a high level of fidelity the Electronic Flight Instrument Systems (EFIS), Flight Management Computer (FMC) and Auto Flight Director System (AFDS) of the Boeing 757/767 aircraft. The simulator can be configured to present information using conventional looking B757n67 displays or next generation Primary Flight Displays (PFD) such as found on the Beech Starship and MD-11.

  6. Human behavior research and the design of sustainable transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James J.

    2011-09-01

    Transport currently represents approximately 19% of the global energy demand and accounts for about 23% of the global carbon dioxide emissions (IEA 2009). As the demand for mobility is expected to continue to increase in the coming decades, the stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels will require the evolution of transport, along with power generation, building design and manufacturing. The continued development of these sectors will need to include changes in energy sources, energy delivery, materials, infrastructure and human behavior. Pathways to reducing carbon from the transport sector have unique challenges and opportunities that are inherent to the human choices and behavioral patterns that mold the transportation systems and the associated energy needs. Technology, government investment, and regulatory policies have a significant impact on the formulation of transportation infrastructure; however, the role of human behavior and public acceptance on the efficiency and effectiveness of transport systems should not be underestimated. Although developed, rapidly developing, and underdeveloped nations face different challenges in the establishment of transport infrastructure that can meet transport needs while achieving sustainable carbon dioxide emissions, the constraints that establish the domain of possibilities are closely related for all nations. These constraints include capital investment, fuel supplies, power systems, and human behavior. Throughout the world, there are considerable efforts directed at advancing and optimizing the financing of sustainable infrastructures, the production of low carbon fuels, and the production of advanced power systems, but the foundational work on methods to understand human preferences and behavior within the context of transport and the valuation of reductions in carbon dioxide emissions is greatly lagging behind. These methods and the associated understanding of human behavior and the willingness to pay for

  7. Unifying Human Centered Design and Systems Engineering for Human Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Guy A.; McGovernNarkevicius, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Despite the holistic approach of systems engineering (SE), systems still fail, and sometimes spectacularly. Requirements, solutions and the world constantly evolve and are very difficult to keep current. SE requires more flexibility and new approaches to SE have to be developed to include creativity as an integral part and where the functions of people and technology are appropriately allocated within our highly interconnected complex organizations. Instead of disregarding complexity because it is too difficult to handle, we should take advantage of it, discovering behavioral attractors and the emerging properties that it generates. Human-centered design (HCD) provides the creativity factor that SE lacks. It promotes modeling and simulation from the early stages of design and throughout the life cycle of a product. Unifying HCD and SE will shape appropriate human-systems integration (HSI) and produce successful systems.

  8. Application of face centred central composite design to optimise compression force and tablet diameter for the formulation of mechanically strong and fast disintegrating orodispersible tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabari, Ritesh M; Ramtoola, Zebunnissa

    2012-07-01

    A two factor, three level (3(2)) face centred, central composite design (CCD) was applied to investigate the main and interaction effects of tablet diameter and compression force (CF) on hardness, disintegration time (DT) and porosity of mannitol based orodispersible tablets (ODTs). Tablet diameters of 10, 13 and 15 mm, and CF of 10, 15 and 20 kN were studied. Results of multiple linear regression analysis show that both the tablet diameter and CF influence tablet characteristics. A negative value of regression coefficient for tablet diameter showed an inverse relationship with hardness and DT. A positive value of regression coefficient for CF indicated an increase in hardness and DT with increasing CF as a result of the decrease in tablet porosity. Interestingly, at the larger tablet diameter of 15 mm, while hardness increased and porosity decreased with an increase in CF, the DT was resistant to change. The optimised combination was a tablet of 15 mm diameter compressed at 15 kN showing a rapid DT of 37.7s and high hardness of 71.4N. Using these parameters, ODTs containing ibuprofen showed no significant change in DT (ANOVA; p>0.05) irrespective of the hydrophobicity of the ibuprofen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING PROCESS TO SUPPORT HUMAN-SYSTEM INTERFACE DESIGN IN CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, C.; Joe, J.; Boring, R.

    2017-05-01

    The primary objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program is to sustain operation of the existing commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) through a multi-pathway approach in conducting research and development (R&D). The Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) System Technologies pathway conducts targeted R&D to address aging and reliability concerns with legacy instrumentation and control (I&C) and other information systems in existing U.S. NPPs. Control room modernization is an important part following this pathway, and human factors experts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been involved in conducting R&D to support migration of new digital main control room (MCR) technologies from legacy analog and legacy digital I&C. This paper describes a human factors engineering (HFE) process that supports human-system interface (HSI) design in MCR modernization activities, particularly with migration of old digital to new digital I&C. The process described in this work is an expansion from the LWRS Report INL/EXT-16-38576, and is a requirements-driven approach that aligns with NUREG-0711 requirements. The work described builds upon the existing literature by adding more detail around key tasks and decisions to make when transitioning from HSI Design into Verification and Validation (V&V). The overall objective of this process is to inform HSI design and elicit specific, measurable, and achievable human factors criteria for new digital technologies. Upon following this process, utilities should have greater confidence with transitioning from HSI design into V&V.

  10. Designing the Human Resource Scorecard as a Performance Measurement of Human Resource

    OpenAIRE

    Muslim, Erlinda; Firania, Frinda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. This study discusses the importance of performance measurement in a company because it can be used to assess the success of the company. The purpose of this study is to design and measure the performance of a MIGAS company using the Human Resource Scorecard approach by establishing the priority weight of strategic objectives and Key Performance Indicators on the Strategy Map through the Analytical Network Process. Results of this study are acquiring 16 strategic objectives, and 20 l...

  11. Human Work Interaction Design. Work Analysis and HCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, Arminda; Ørngreen, Rikke

    . The papers reflect many different areas and address many complex and diverse work domains, ranging from medical user interfaces, work and speech interactions at elderly care facilities, greenhouse climate control, navigating through large oil industry engineering models, crisis management, library usability......This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume......, and mobile probing. They have been organized in the following topical sections: work analysis: dimensions and methods; interactions, models and approaches; and evaluations, interactions and applications....

  12. Human Work Interaction Design. Work Analysis and HCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    . The papers reflect many different areas and address many complex and diverse work domains, ranging from medical user interfaces, work and speech interactions at elderly care facilities, greenhouse climate control, navigating through large oil industry engineering models, crisis management, library usability......This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume......, and mobile probing. They have been organized in the following topical sections: work analysis: dimensions and methods; interactions, models and approaches; and evaluations, interactions and applications....

  13. The truth about universal design: how knowledge on basic human functioning, used to inform design, differs across cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, V.; Hinds, P.; Evers, V.; Abdelnour-Nocera, J.; del Galdo, E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper offers a literature review of how findings from human psychology can be used as guidance for the design of interactive products for specific cultural settings. By considering cultural differences in human social psychology, we challenge the global applicability of design rules which are

  14. DESIGNE OF A TECHNOLOGY CENTRE:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Vehicle for Industrial Development. Daniel Kitaw. Department of .... instance, the vehicles in circulation are of various types and of many models. .... 40. 351525. Electric power. 50. 104540. 25. 201515. National market. 20. 52020. 50. 504520. Technical. 15. 151010. 10. 5105. 580. 365500430. Journal of EEA, Vol. 19,2002 ...

  15. DESIGNE OF A TECHNOLOGY CENTRE:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    towards the assembly of trucks and tractors in preference to tile other industries in Category II. An assembly of a truck and/or a tractor involves some hundreds of major parts and tens of tIlOusands of parts if every nut and bolt is counted. Such products have a power train (engine, transmission, drive shaft and axles), body ...

  16. Middleware Design for Swarm-Driving Robots Accompanying Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Su Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on robots that accompany humans is being continuously studied. The Pet-Bot provides walking-assistance and object-carrying services without any specific controls through interaction between the robot and the human in real time. However, with Pet-Bot, there is a limit to the number of robots a user can use. If this limit is overcome, the Pet-Bot can provide services in more areas. Therefore, in this study, we propose a swarm-driving middleware design adopting the concept of a swarm, which provides effective parallel movement to allow multiple human-accompanying robots to accomplish a common purpose. The functions of middleware divide into three parts: a sequence manager for swarm process, a messaging manager, and a relative-location identification manager. This middleware processes the sequence of swarm-process of robots in the swarm through message exchanging using radio frequency (RF communication of an IEEE 802.15.4 MAC protocol and manages an infrared (IR communication module identifying relative location with IR signal strength. The swarm in this study is composed of the master interacting with the user and the slaves having no interaction with the user. This composition is intended to control the overall swarm in synchronization with the user activity, which is difficult to predict. We evaluate the accuracy of the relative-location estimation using IR communication, the response time of the slaves to a change in user activity, and the time to organize a network according to the number of slaves.

  17. Sensors system design for discrimination between humans and animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ǎgulinescu, Ana-Maria Claudia, Dr; Marcu, Ioana; Halunga, Simona; Fratu, Octavian

    2016-12-01

    The applicability areas for sensor networks vary from industrial automation, environmental observation to medical domain [1]. As the quality of life has improved, the life expectancy also increased during the last years, fact that leads to an aging of the population. It is well known that elderly people need special treatment and resources due to their decreasing capacity of self-caring. It is, thus, desirable to increase the length of independent living for this category without depriving them from the known life environment and personal habits. Another possible application is the one of child care and monitoring in closed precincts. This paper illustrates the implementation steps of a sensor network used for discriminating between the presence of a human being and of an animal that may be useful in case of medical emergency situations. The design takes into account the main challenges that may occur such as achievement of not accurate results due to the fact that children are moving much more than an adult. The basic structure is designed using Arduino platform, sensors for distance measurements, for height determination as well as DHT22 temperature sensor and sensors for motion detection and takes into account cases of walking and standing subjects. Several configurations have been tested in order to improve the relative error for discrimination between children and pet entering a room.

  18. Factors associated with "Ikigai" among members of a public temporary employment agency for seniors (Silver Human Resources Centre) in Japan; gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Kokoro; Iso, Hiroyasu; Fukuda, Hideki; Toyoda, Yasuhiro; Takatorige, Toshio; Tatara, Kozo

    2006-02-27

    "Ikigai" is culturally defined in the society of Japan as a comprehensive concept describing subjective well-being. It is considered to be related to life-satisfaction, self-esteem, morale, happiness as well as evaluation towards meaning of one's life. Although previous studies examined factors associated with Ikigai with smaller samples, consistent results have not been obtained, especially from the viewpoint of gender differences. Identification of gender-specific factors related with Ikigai among the elderly, may be of value to enhance subjective well-being. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among 4,737 randomly selected members of the Silver Human Resources Centre (SHRC), a public temporary employment agency for seniors, in Osaka, Japan. This represents about 10% of all registered members (n = 41,593) in the 38 SHRC centres in Osaka. A total of 4,376 subjects (male: 2,913; female: 1,463) provided a satisfactory response to the questionnaire (response rate: 92%). The status whether they have "Ikigai" or not was evaluated by self-anchoring scale ranging from 0 to 5 (0 = lowest rate and 5 = highest rate of having "Ikigai"). Also, self-rated life-change score through work (-3 to 3) was evaluated by three items, i.e.) changes in (1) the number of friends through work, (2) social interests and (3) the quantity of conversation with others (1 = increase, 0 = no change, and -1 = decrease). The factors associated with "Ikigai" for total subjects were the number of rooms in one's residence, annual income, healthy life style score (Breslow), the number of working days through SHRC, satisfaction with one's life history and life-change sore through work. The multivariable odds ratio (95% CI) of having "Ikigai" was 1.9 (1.1-3.3) for persons with no change in life thorough work compared with subjects with a score of elder male and female.

  19. Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) reactive centre loop antibodies and surface plasmon resonance interrogate the proposed heat dependent "flip-flop" mechanism of human CBG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John G; Fredericks, Rayleen; Fee, Conan J; Elder, Peter A

    2016-04-01

    Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is the predominant carrier of cortisol in circulation and is a non-inhibitory member of the serpin superfamily of serine protease inhibitors. In the stressed or "S" conformation, CBG possesses an intact exposed reactive centre loop (RCL) that can be irreversibly cleaved by elastase released from activated human neutrophils whereupon it adopts a relaxed or "R" conformation. The latter conformation has decreased affinity for cortisol, allowing the release of the majority of cortisol at sites of inflammation. Recently there has been speculation that mild increments in heat such as found in pyrexia (39-40°C) may also induce a reversible "flip-flop" of the RCL into the body of the protein structure, without cleavage, facilitating a reversible temperature-dependent release of cortisol. Here we raised a new monoclonal antibody to the RCL of human CBG and used this in concert with an existing RCL antibody and show by surface plasma resonance that, at temperatures up to 40°C, the RCL of purified CBG and the RCL of CBG in intact plasma is accessible to these two antibodies. Together, the epitopes of these antibodies span 11 consecutive amino acids (STGVTLNLTSK) of the 18 residues of the RCL. This adequate antibody cover of the RCL sequence leads to the conclusion that the proposed temperature-dependent "flip-flop" of the RCL of CBG is doubtful. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The design of neonatal incubators: a systems-oriented, human-centered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, T K; Shepley, M M

    2013-04-01

    This report describes a multidisciplinary design project conducted in an academic setting reflecting a systems-oriented, human-centered philosophy in the design of neonatal incubator technologies. Graduate students in Architectural Design and Human Factors Engineering courses collaborated in a design effort that focused on supporting the needs of three user groups of incubator technologies: infant patients, family members and medical personnel. Design teams followed established human-centered design methods that included interacting with representatives from the user groups, analyzing sets of critical tasks and conducting usability studies with existing technologies. An iterative design and evaluation process produced four conceptual designs of incubators and supporting equipment that better address specific needs of the user groups. This report introduces the human-centered design approach, highlights some of the analysis findings and design solutions, and offers a set of design recommendations for future incubation technologies.

  1. Human Resources and Vaccine Management at Provincial Health Office, District/City Health Office and Primary Health Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Leny Susyanty

    2015-03-01

    (GAIN UCI 2010–2014 stated that the general problems of decline in immunization coverage and quality of service were caused by several things, one of which is the lack of quantity, quality and distribution of human resources. Methods: A cross-sectional mix-method study to investigate human resources in vaccine management had been conducted in two provinces in 2012. Primary data were collected by interviewing stakeholders thoroughly, secondary data collection and observation were also carried out. Analysis was done by scoring for data concerning education, length of employment, training experience and knowledge. Result:The number of Vaccine management officers are still lacking. While the immunization guidelines required minimal two officers for each health centers. Officers’ knowledge in primary health centers is still inadequate, especially in terms of the vaccine and Coldchain (Ice Lined Refrigerators. Officers at Provincial Health Office had been trained in vaccine management, but not all officers at District Health Office and Primary Health Centers had received training yet. Suggestion: This study suggests the addition of the quantity and quality of human resources in vaccine management, because the officers can affect the quality of the vaccines, because vaccines need a special handling to maintain the quality to provide immunity and prevent the occurrence of diseases that can be prevented by immunization (PD3I.Key words: vaccine, human resources, training, knowledge

  2. Human-centered environment design in intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Albayrak, A.; Goossens, R.H.M.; Xiao, D.; Jakimowicz, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Because of high risk and instability of the patients in Intensive care unit(ICU), the design of ICU is very difficult. ICU design, auxiliary building design, lighting design, noise control and other aspects can also enhance its management. In this paper, we compare ICU design in China and Holland

  3. Designing and Implementing an Information Literacy Course in the Humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Daugman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As instructors in the Z. Smith Reynolds Library information literacy program at Wake Forest University, we are expanding beyond our introductory course model to teach discipline-specific information literacy courses. Z. Smith Reynolds Library initiated an information literacy program in 2002 and currently offers a 1-credit elective, taught in 15 sections per semester. Advanced discipline-specific courses were added in Spring 2008, and include courses in the social sciences, business and economics, and the sciences. As the subject specialists for art, dance, literature, music, religion and theatre, we were charged with creating a credit-bearing arts and humanities information literacy course, LIB250: Humanities Research Sources and Strategies. In addition to our arts and humanities course content and methodologies, we incorporated web2.0 technologies throughout course design and delivery in order to streamline planning and to facilitate student engagement. In our course preparation, we utilized Google Docs for collaborative brainstorming, planning, organization and self-evaluation. Our students used Google Docs for submitting their course assignments, which included a faculty or practitioner interview and the final project for the course. The project was an annotated bibliography that extended beyond books and journal articles to include additional elements such as scholarly associations, core journals, primary sources, and major special collections related to their topics. A blog was used for the course syllabus, incorporating assignment information and supplementary resources for class topics; student blogging included reflection and feedback on each lecture as well as application of class content to their research topics. A visit to the Library's Rare Books Reading Room exposed the students to the Library's unique holdings and introduced them to rare and archival resources at other libraries. Our article presents this process from start to

  4. Human Factors engineering criteria and design for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant preliminary safety analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, J.A.; Schur, A.; Stitzel, J.C.L.

    1993-09-01

    This report provides a rationale and systematic methodology for bringing Human Factors into the safety design and operations of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). Human Factors focuses on how people perform work with tools and machine systems in designed settings. When the design of machine systems and settings take into account the capabilities and limitations of the individuals who use them, human performance can be enhanced while protecting against susceptibility to human error. The inclusion of Human Factors in the safety design of the HWVP is an essential ingredient to safe operation of the facility. The HWVP is a new construction, nonreactor nuclear facility designed to process radioactive wastes held in underground storage tanks into glass logs for permanent disposal. Its design and mission offer new opposites for implementing Human Factors while requiring some means for ensuring that the Human Factors assessments are sound, comprehensive, and appropriately directed.

  5. Town Centre Redevelopment Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagnby, Bo Hellisen

    urban planning and design strategieswhich have been practised in most of the larger Danish towns: pedestrian streets, shopping centres, preservation of historic features, waterfronts, concentration of offices, conference and sports facilities, improvement og traffic and transport conditions as well...... as slum clearence and urban renewal. To a certain extent parallels are drawn to international experiences, especially where these are of such a nature that they can be assumed transferred to Danish connctions. Conclusively, the strategies are discussed in the light of the turn of Danish urban planning...

  6. Design and internal validation of an obstetric early warning score: secondary analysis of the Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre Case Mix Programme database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, C; Alexander, P; Columb, M; Johal, J

    2013-04-01

    We designed and internally validated an aggregate weighted early warning scoring system specific to the obstetric population that has the potential for use in the ward environment. Direct obstetric admissions from the Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre's Case Mix Programme Database were randomly allocated to model development (n = 2240) or validation (n = 2200) sets. Physiological variables collected during the first 24 h of critical care admission were analysed. Logistic regression analysis for mortality in the model development set was initially used to create a statistically based early warning score. The statistical score was then modified to create a clinically acceptable early warning score. Important features of this clinical obstetric early warning score are that the variables are weighted according to their statistical importance, a surrogate for the FI O2 /Pa O2 relationship is included, conscious level is assessed using a simplified alert/not alert variable, and the score, trigger thresholds and response are consistent with the new non-obstetric National Early Warning Score system. The statistical and clinical early warning scores were internally validated using the validation set. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.995 (95% CI 0.992-0.998) for the statistical score and 0.957 (95% CI 0.923-0.991) for the clinical score. Pre-existing empirically designed early warning scores were also validated in the same way for comparison. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.955 (95% CI 0.922-0.988) for Swanton et al.'s Modified Early Obstetric Warning System, 0.937 (95% CI 0.884-0.991) for the obstetric early warning score suggested in the 2003-2005 Report on Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the UK, and 0.973 (95% CI 0.957-0.989) for the non-obstetric National Early Warning Score. This highlights that the new clinical obstetric early warning score has an excellent ability to

  7. Human-centered approaches in geovisualization design: investigating multiple methods through a long-term case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, David; Dykes, Jason

    2011-12-01

    Working with three domain specialists we investigate human-centered approaches to geovisualization following an ISO13407 taxonomy covering context of use, requirements and early stages of design. Our case study, undertaken over three years, draws attention to repeating trends: that generic approaches fail to elicit adequate requirements for geovis application design; that the use of real data is key to understanding needs and possibilities; that trust and knowledge must be built and developed with collaborators. These processes take time but modified human-centred approaches can be effective. A scenario developed through contextual inquiry but supplemented with domain data and graphics is useful to geovis designers. Wireframe, paper and digital prototypes enable successful communication between specialist and geovis domains when incorporating real and interesting data, prompting exploratory behaviour and eliciting previously unconsidered requirements. Paper prototypes are particularly successful at eliciting suggestions, especially for novel visualization. Enabling specialists to explore their data freely with a digital prototype is as effective as using a structured task protocol and is easier to administer. Autoethnography has potential for framing the design process. We conclude that a common understanding of context of use, domain data and visualization possibilities are essential to successful geovis design and develop as this progresses. HC approaches can make a significant contribution here. However, modified approaches, applied with flexibility, are most promising. We advise early, collaborative engagement with data – through simple, transient visual artefacts supported by data sketches and existing designs – before moving to successively more sophisticated data wireframes and data prototypes. © 2011 IEEE

  8. Psychophysics of human vision and camouflage pattern design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baumbach, J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The psychophysics of human vision describes how humans perceive and process information in a scene. The physiological aspects (e.g. spatial resolution and spectral resolution) as well as the psychological aspects of vision have been investigated...

  9. Making intelligent systems team players: Case studies and design issues. Volume 1: Human-computer interaction design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schreckenghost, Debra L.; Woods, David D.; Potter, Scott S.; Johannesen, Leila; Holloway, Matthew; Forbus, Kenneth D.

    1991-01-01

    Initial results are reported from a multi-year, interdisciplinary effort to provide guidance and assistance for designers of intelligent systems and their user interfaces. The objective is to achieve more effective human-computer interaction (HCI) for systems with real time fault management capabilities. Intelligent fault management systems within the NASA were evaluated for insight into the design of systems with complex HCI. Preliminary results include: (1) a description of real time fault management in aerospace domains; (2) recommendations and examples for improving intelligent systems design and user interface design; (3) identification of issues requiring further research; and (4) recommendations for a development methodology integrating HCI design into intelligent system design.

  10. Inter-laboratory comparison of DNA preservation in archival paraffin-embedded human brain tissue from participating centres on four continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kösel, S; Grasbon-Frodl, E M; Arima, K; Chimelli, L; Hahn, M; Hashizume, Y; Hulette, C; Ikeda, K; Jacobsen, P F; Jones, M; Kobayashi, M; Love, S; Mizutani, T; Rosemberg, S; Sasaki, A; Smith, T W; Takahashi, H; Vortmeyer, A O; Graeber, M B

    2001-07-01

    DNA extracted from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brain tissue is known to contain as yet ill-characterized inhibitors of the PCR process. As part of a project that aims to clarify the role of mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in human neurodegenerative diseases using DNA from various ethnic backgrounds, we have investigated factors that influence the preservation of archival DNA and its suitability for PCR. In this study, neuropathological tissue samples were analysed that had been routinely processed in 18 international centres on four continents. Following DNA extraction, PCR amplification of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences was performed with and without additional purification of the template DNA. In addition, the DNA used for PCR was analysed by HPLC. Phosphate-buffered formalin proved to be a superior fixative compared with unbuffered aldehyde: DNA extraction resulted in greater yields, the molecular weight of the isolated DNA was higher and PCR was more successful. PCR inhibitors were identified as (1) high concentrations of small (analysis did not reveal significant qualitative differences between DNA isolated from fresh-frozen tissue samples and DNA recovered from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded brain tissue. The fact that DNA could be amplified from the majority of tissue specimens in this study suggests that rare diseases and diseases where ethnic background plays an important role can be sampled for genetic polymorphism analysis on a global scale using archival neuropathological collections.

  11. Magnetic field effects on humans: epidemiological study design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budinger, T.F.; Wong, P.; Yen, C.K.

    1978-10-01

    This report presents details of the study design and methods for a retrospective epidemiological study on the health effects, if any, of stationary and alternating magnetic fields produced by man-made devices such as cyclotrons, controlled thermonuclear reactors (CTR), high voltage-high current transmission lines, magnetohydrodynamic devices (MHD), energy storage systems, and isotope separation facilities. The magnetic fields to which the workers can be exposed are as high as 10,000 gauss and the anticipated increase in magnetic fields associated with the environment and transmission lines near these devices is a few times the natural earth magnetic field. Thus the objectives include acquisition of low exposure data which can be used to evaluate any risks to the population incidentally exposed to environmental increases in magnetic fields, as well as an acquisition of high exposure data to be used in determining allowable exposure standards for the technical personnel working at CTR and MHD facilities. From the present status of knowledge on biological effects of magnetic fields, it is not possible to extrapolate or rationally conclude maximum permissible exposure levels for magnetic device workers and the population at large. There are no known previous studies of the effects of long-term exposure to magnetic fields involving large samples and matched controls. Thus this human epidemiological study was commenced in 1977 in parallel with experimental studies on biological and medical effects of magnetic fields being conducted by Dr. T. Tenforde and co-workers at LBL, by investigators at Battelle Northwest, and smaller projects at a number of laboratories around the world. The data base for the exposed population is comprised of approximately 1,000 cyclotron and bubble chamber workers.

  12. Human tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis: a retrospective comparison with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a Mexican tertiary care centre, 2000-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Gonzalez, Pedro; Cervera-Hernandez, Miguel E; Martinez-Gamboa, Areli; Garcia-Garcia, Lourdes; Cruz-Hervert, Luis P; Bobadilla-Del Valle, Miriam; Ponce-de Leon, Alfredo; Sifuentes-Osornio, Jose

    2016-11-08

    Human tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is believed to be frequent in developing countries. Transmission is usually through ingestion of unpasteurized dairy products, although airborne contagion is possible. Disease caused by M. tuberculosis or M. bovis is clinically indistinguishable from each other. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with M. bovis disease. Retrospective analysis of all culture-positive cases of M. bovis and M. tuberculosis from 2000 to 2015, in a Mexican tertiary-care centre. Sociodemographic, clinical, and radiographic data from medical records were compared. Disease site was classified as pulmonary, extrapulmonary, or pulmonary and extrapulmonary, based on cultures. We evaluated 533 cases, 372 (69.7 %) of which were caused by M. tuberculosis and 161 (30.2 %) by M. bovis. Characteristics associated with M. bovis disease were: younger age (aOR 0.97, 95 % CI 0.95-0.98), glucocorticoid use (aOR 2.27, 95 % CI 1.42-3.63), and extrapulmonary disease (aOR 1.80, 95 % CI 1.21-2.69). M. tuberculosis was associated with lower socioeconomic status (aOR 0.52, 95 % CI 0.28-0.97). When we analysed only pulmonary cases, younger age (aOR 0.97, 95 % CI 0.96-0.99), glucocorticoid use (aOR 2.41, 95 % CI 1.30-4.46), and smoking (aOR 1.94, CI 95 % 1.15-3.27) were associated with M. bovis. Both groups showed similar proportions of direct microscopy smear results (respiratory samples) and chest X-ray cavitations. Younger age, glucocorticoid use, and extrapulmonary disease were associated with M. bovis as the causative agent of tuberculosis in a group of patients from a tertiary care centre in a country where bovine tuberculosis is endemic. Further studies must be conducted in the general population to determine pathogen-specific associated factors and outcomes.

  13. Designing With Empathy: Humanizing Narratives for Inspired Healthcare Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel-Gilfilen, Candy; Portillo, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Designers can and should play a critical role in shaping a holistic healthcare experience by creating empathetic design solutions that foster a culture of care for patients, families, and staff. Using narrative inquiry as a design tool, this case study shares strategies for promoting empathy. Designing for patient-centered care infuses empathy into the creative process. Narrative inquiry offers a methodology to think about and create empathetic design that enhances awareness, responsiveness, and accountability. This article shares discoveries from a studio on empathetic design within an outpatient cancer care center. The studio engaged students in narrative techniques throughout the design process by incorporating aural, visual, and written storytelling. Benchmarking, observations, and interviews were merged with data drawn from scholarly evidence-based design literature reviews. Using an empathy-focused design process not only motivated students to be more engaged in the project but facilitated the generation of fresh and original ideas. Design solutions were innovative and impactful in supporting the whole person. Similarities as well as differences defined empathetic cancer care across projects and embodied concepts of design empowerment, design for the whole person, and design for healing. By becoming more conscious of empathy, those who create healthcare environments can better connect holistically to the user to take an experiential approach to design. Explicitly developing a mind-set that raises empathy to the forefront of the design process offers a breakthrough in design thinking that bridges the gap between what might be defined as "good design" and patient-centered care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. The Study on Human-Computer Interaction Design Based on the Users’ Subconscious Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingyuan

    2017-09-01

    Human-computer interaction is human-centered. An excellent interaction design should focus on the study of user experience, which greatly comes from the consistence between design and human behavioral habit. However, users’ behavioral habits often result from subconsciousness. Therefore, it is smart to utilize users’ subconscious behavior to achieve design's intention and maximize the value of products’ functions, which gradually becomes a new trend in this field.

  15. Primary prevention of childhood obesity through counselling sessions at Swedish child health centres: design, methods and baseline sample characteristics of the PRIMROSE cluster-randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Nora; Hansson, Lena M; Andersson, Elina Scheers; Bohman, Benjamin; Westin, Maria; Magnusson, Margaretha; Larsson, Christel; Sundblom, Elinor; Willmer, Mikaela; Blennow, Margareta; Heitmann, Berit L; Forsberg, Lars; Wallin, Sanna; Tynelius, Per; Ghaderi, Ata; Rasmussen, Finn

    2014-04-09

    Childhood obesity is a growing concern in Sweden. Children with overweight and obesity run a high risk of becoming obese as adults, and are likely to develop comorbidities. Despite the immense demand, there is still a lack of evidence-based comprehensive prevention programmes targeting pre-school children and their families in primary health care settings. The aims are to describe the design and methodology of the PRIMROSE cluster-randomised controlled trial, assess the relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire, and describe the baseline characteristics of the eligible young children and their mothers. The PRIMROSE trial targets first-time parents and their children at Swedish child health centres (CHC) in eight counties in Sweden. Randomisation is conducted at the CHC unit level. CHC nurses employed at the participating CHC received training in carrying out the intervention alongside their provision of regular services. The intervention programme, starting when the child is 8-9 months of age and ending at age 4, is based on social cognitive theory and employs motivational interviewing. Primary outcomes are children's body mass index and waist circumference at four years. Secondary outcomes are children's and mothers' eating habits (assessed by a food frequency questionnaire), and children's and mothers' physical activity (measured by accelerometer and a validated questionnaire), and mothers' body mass index and waist circumference. The on-going population-based PRIMROSE trial, which targets childhood obesity, is embedded in the regular national (routine) preventive child health services that are available free-of-charge to all young families in Sweden. Of the participants (n = 1369), 489 intervention and 550 control mothers (75.9%) responded to the validated physical activity and food frequency questionnaire at baseline (i.e., before the first intervention session, or, for children in the control group, before they reached 10 months of age). The

  16. Global gene expression changes of in vitro stimulated human transformed germinal centre B cells as surrogate for oncogenic pathway activation in individual aggressive B cell lymphomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Aggressive Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) are a group of lymphomas derived from germinal centre B cells which display a heterogeneous pattern of oncogenic pathway activation. We postulate that specific immune response associated signalling, affecting gene transcription networks, may be associated with the activation of different oncogenic pathways in aggressive Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). Methodology The B cell receptor (BCR), CD40, B-cell activating factor (BAFF)-receptors and Interleukin (IL) 21 receptor and Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) were stimulated in human transformed germinal centre B cells by treatment with anti IgM F(ab)2-fragments, CD40L, BAFF, IL21 and LPS respectively. The changes in gene expression following the activation of Jak/STAT, NF-кB, MAPK, Ca2+ and PI3K signalling triggered by these stimuli was assessed using microarray analysis. The expression of top 100 genes which had a change in gene expression following stimulation was investigated in gene expression profiles of patients with Aggressive non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL). Results αIgM stimulation led to the largest number of changes in gene expression, affecting overall 6596 genes. While CD40L stimulation changed the expression of 1194 genes and IL21 stimulation affected 902 genes, only 283 and 129 genes were modulated by lipopolysaccharide or BAFF receptor stimulation, respectively. Interestingly, genes associated with a Burkitt-like phenotype, such as MYC, BCL6 or LEF1, were affected by αIgM. Unique and shared gene expression was delineated. NHL-patients were sorted according to their similarity in the expression of TOP100 affected genes to stimulated transformed germinal centre B cells The αIgM gene module discriminated individual DLBCL in a similar manner to CD40L or IL21 gene modules. DLBCLs with low module activation often carry chromosomal MYC aberrations. DLBCLs with high module activation show strong expression of genes involved in cell-cell communication, immune responses

  17. Improving person-centred care in nursing homes through dementia-care mapping: design of a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, G. van de; Draskovic, I.; Adang, E.M.M.; Donders, R.; Post, A.; Zuidema, S.U.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effectiveness and efficiency of nursing-home dementia care are suboptimal: there are high rates of neuropsychiatric symptoms among the residents and work-related stress among the staff. Dementia-care mapping is a person-centred care method that may alleviate both the resident and the

  18. Improving person-centred care in nursing homes through dementia-care mapping : design of a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ven, Geertje; Draskovic, Irena; Adang, Eddy M M; Donders, Rogier A R T; Post, Aukje; Zuidema, Sytse U; Koopmans, Raymond T C M; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra J F J

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effectiveness and efficiency of nursing-home dementia care are suboptimal: there are high rates of neuropsychiatric symptoms among the residents and work-related stress among the staff. Dementia-care mapping is a person-centred care method that may alleviate both the resident and the

  19. ErgoTMC, A New Tool For Human-Centered TMC Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has recently made available a new tool to assist Transportation Management Center (TMC) managers and designers in incorporating human-centered design principles into their TMCs. ErgoTMC, a web site tailored t...

  20. Learning to Design Backwards: Examining a Means to Introduce Human-Centered Design Processes to Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    "Designing backwards" is presented here as a means to utilize human-centered processes in diverse educational settings to help teachers and students learn to formulate and operate design processes to achieve three sequential and interrelated goals. The first entails teaching them to effectively and empathetically identify, frame and…

  1. Situation awareness in process control; designing the human interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passenier, P.O.; Delft, J.H. van

    1999-01-01

    Through the introduction of process automation, the supervision of multiple functions becomes more and more the role of a single human operator, the 'process manager', assisted by a process information and control system. Consequently, the level of direct involvement of the human operator with the

  2. Product Design Improvement Using Human-Computer Interaction Method Based on Modal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Lei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of product design improvement method was proposed, which was mainly based on modal analysis using human-computer interactive way. And it was used in design improvement of an aerospace assembly to verify the effectiveness. The method made full use of the advantages of human and computer in product design and the work was mainly focused on modal analysis by computer and structure modification by human-computer interaction method. The final design got a better solution than the initial design as the results showed that the base frequency increased by 34.7% from 43.2Hz to 58.2Hz after design improvement and the vibration feature improved a lot. Also the experimental results were close to the simulation results with the relative error was 2.5%. The human-computer method can save cost and time and can provide a reference for other design of new products at the same time.

  3. RTEMS Centre - Support and Maintenance Centre to RTEMS Operating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, H.; Constantino, A.; Freitas, D.; Coutinho, M.; Faustino, S.; Mota, M.; Colaço, P.; Sousa, J.; Dias, L.; Damjanovic, B.; Zulianello, M.; Rufino, J.

    2009-05-01

    RTEMS CENTRE - Support and Maintenance Centre to RTEMS Operating System is a joint ESA/Portuguese Task Force initiative to develop a support and maintenance centre to the Real-Time Executive for Multiprocessor Systems (RTEMS). This paper gives a high level visibility of the progress, the results obtained and the future work in the RTEMS CENTRE [6] and in the RTEMS Improvement [7] projects. RTEMS CENTRE started officially in November 2006, with the RTEMS 4.6.99.2 version. A full analysis of RTEMS operating system was produced. The architecture was analysed in terms of conceptual, organizational and operational concepts. The original objectives [1] of the centre were primarily to create and maintain technical expertise and competences in this RTOS, to develop a website to provide the European Space Community an entry point for obtaining support (http://rtemscentre.edisoft.pt), to design, develop, maintain and integrate some RTEMS support tools (Timeline Tool, Configuration and Management Tools), to maintain flight libraries and Board Support Packages, to develop a strong relationship with the World RTEMS Community and finally to produce some considerations in ARINC-653, DO-178B and ECSS E-40 standards. RTEMS Improvement is the continuation of the RTEMS CENTRE. Currently the RTEMS, version 4.8.0, is being facilitated for a future qualification. In this work, the validation material is being produced following the Galileo Software Standards Development Assurance Level B [5]. RTEMS is being completely tested, errors analysed, dead and deactivated code removed and tests produced to achieve 100% statement and decision coverage of source code [2]. The SW to exploit the LEON Memory Management Unit (MMU) hardware will be also added. A brief description of the expected implementations will be given.

  4. The impact of human papillomavirus type on colposcopy performance in women offered HPV immunisation in a catch-up vaccine programme: a two-centre observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, A; Gillespie, C; Cotton, S; Busby-Earle, C; Kavanagh, K; Cuschieri, K; Cubie, H; Robertson, C; Smart, L; Pollock, K; Moore, C; Palmer, T; Cruickshank, M E

    2017-08-01

    To determine whether human papillomavirus (HPV) immunisation has affected the prevalence of HPV genotypes and colposcopic features of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in young women referred for colposcopy. A two-centre observational study including vaccinated and unvaccinated women. Colposcopy clinics serving two health regions in Scotland, UK. A total of 361 women aged 20-25 years attending colposcopy following an abnormal cervical cytology result at routine cervical screening. Cervical samples were obtained from women for HPV DNA genotyping and mRNA E6/E7 expression of HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, and 45. Demographic data, cytology, and histology results and colposcopic features were recorded. Chi-square analysis was conducted to identify associations between vaccine status, HPV genotypes, and colposcopic features. Colposcopic features, HPV genotypes, mRNA expression, and cervical histology. The prevalence of HPV 16 was significantly lower in the vaccinated group (8.6%) compared with the unvaccinated group (46.7%) (P = 0.001). The number of cases of CIN2+ was significantly lower in women who had been vaccinated (P = 0.006). The HPV vaccine did not have a statistically significant effect on commonly recognised colposcopic features, but there was a slight reduction in the positive predictive value (PPV) of colposcopy for CIN2+, from 74% (unvaccinated) to 66.7% (vaccinated). In this group of young women with abnormal cytology referred to colposcopy, HPV vaccination via a catch-up programme reduced the prevalence of CIN2+ and HPV 16 infection. The reduced PPV of colposcopy for the detection of CIN2+ in women who have been vaccinated is at the lower acceptable level of the UK national cervical screening programme guidelines. Reduction of hrHPV positivity and CIN in immunised women consistent with lower PPV of colposcopy for CIN2+. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  5. WHEDA study: Effectiveness of occupational therapy at home for older people with dementia and their caregivers - the design of a pragmatic randomised controlled trial evaluating a Dutch programme in seven German centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt-Radloff, Sebastian; Graff, Maud; Leonhart, Rainer; Schornstein, Katrin; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra; Olde-Rikkert, Marcel; Huell, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background A recent Dutch mono-centre randomised controlled trial has shown that occupational therapy improves daily functioning in dementia. The aim of this present study is to compare the effects of the Dutch community occupational therapy programme with a community occupational therapy consultation on daily functioning in older people with mild or moderate dementia and their primary caregivers in a German multi-centre context. Methods/Design A multi-centre single blind randomised controlled trial design is being used in seven health care centres (neurological, psychiatric and for older people) in urban regions. Patients are 1:1 randomised to treatment or control group. Assessors are blind to group assignment and perform measurements on both groups at baseline, directly after intervention at 6 weeks and at 16, 26 and 52 weeks follow-up. A sample of 140 community dwelling older people (aged >65 years) with mild or moderate dementia and their primary caregivers is planned. The experimental intervention consists of an evidence-based community occupational therapy programme including 10 sessions occupational therapy at home. The control intervention consists of one community occupational therapy consultation based on information material of the Alzheimer Society. Providers of both interventions are occupational therapists experienced in treatment of cognitively impaired older people and trained in both programmes. 'Community' indicates that occupational therapy intervention occurs in the person's own home. The primary outcome is patients' daily functioning assessed with the performance scale of the Interview for Deterioration in Daily Living Activities in Dementia and video tapes of daily activities rated by external raters blind to group assignment using the Perceive, Recall, Plan and Perform System of Task Analysis. Secondary outcomes are patients' and caregivers' quality of life, mood and satisfaction with treatment; the caregiver's sense of competence, caregiver

  6. WHEDA study: Effectiveness of occupational therapy at home for older people with dementia and their caregivers - the design of a pragmatic randomised controlled trial evaluating a Dutch programme in seven German centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernooij-Dassen Myrra

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent Dutch mono-centre randomised controlled trial has shown that occupational therapy improves daily functioning in dementia. The aim of this present study is to compare the effects of the Dutch community occupational therapy programme with a community occupational therapy consultation on daily functioning in older people with mild or moderate dementia and their primary caregivers in a German multi-centre context. Methods/Design A multi-centre single blind randomised controlled trial design is being used in seven health care centres (neurological, psychiatric and for older people in urban regions. Patients are 1:1 randomised to treatment or control group. Assessors are blind to group assignment and perform measurements on both groups at baseline, directly after intervention at 6 weeks and at 16, 26 and 52 weeks follow-up. A sample of 140 community dwelling older people (aged >65 years with mild or moderate dementia and their primary caregivers is planned. The experimental intervention consists of an evidence-based community occupational therapy programme including 10 sessions occupational therapy at home. The control intervention consists of one community occupational therapy consultation based on information material of the Alzheimer Society. Providers of both interventions are occupational therapists experienced in treatment of cognitively impaired older people and trained in both programmes. 'Community' indicates that occupational therapy intervention occurs in the person's own home. The primary outcome is patients' daily functioning assessed with the performance scale of the Interview for Deterioration in Daily Living Activities in Dementia and video tapes of daily activities rated by external raters blind to group assignment using the Perceive, Recall, Plan and Perform System of Task Analysis. Secondary outcomes are patients' and caregivers' quality of life, mood and satisfaction with treatment; the caregiver

  7. Australian International Food Security Research Centre | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Australian International Food Security Research Centre. Australian International Food Security Research Centre. http://aciar.gov.au/AIFSC. Cultivate Africa's Future. The Cultivate Africa's Future research partnership is designed to support applied research to combat hunger in sub-Saharan Africa by harnessing the potential ...

  8. Human factors issues in the design of stereo-rendered photorealistic objects: a stereoscopic Turing test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Collin D.; Clewlow, John C.; Kessel, Ivan

    2010-02-01

    We present visual acuity metrics, human factors issues, and technical considerations in the construction of a stereorendered reality test in the spirit of the Turing test, Alan Turing's famous artificial intelligence test designed to explore the boundaries between human and machine interaction. The overall aim of this work is to provide guiding principles in the design of a stereoscopic reality test.

  9. Experience in system design for human-robot teaming in urban search & rescue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijff, G.J.M.; Janíček, M.; Keshavdas, S.; Larochelle, B.; Zender, H.; Smets, N.J.J.M.; Mioch, T.; Neerincx, M.A.; Diggelen, J. van; Colas, F.; Liu, M.; Pomerleau, F.; Svoboda, T.; Petriček, T.; Pirri, F.; Giannni, M.; Papadakis, P.; Sinha, A.; Balmer, P.; Tomatis, N.; WOrst, R.; Linder, T.; Surmann, H.; Tretyakov, V.; Corrao, S.; Pratzler-Wanczura, S.; Sulk, M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes experience with applying a user-centric design methodology in developing systems for human-robot teaming in Urban Search & Rescue. A human-robot team consists of several robots (rovers/UGVs, microcopter/UAVs), several humans at an off-site command post (mission commander, UGV

  10. The Search for Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, April

    2006-01-01

    This paper acknowledges the importance of a dancer's centre but likewise highlights the problematic nature of the communication of this concept from dance teacher to student. After a brief introduction of orthodox approaches in finding centre, this paper suggests a method of locating centre through the ancient somatic technique.

  11. Naturalistic Cognition: A Research Paradigm for Human-Centered Design

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Storkerson

    2010-01-01

    Naturalistic thinking and knowing, the tacit, experiential, and intuitive reasoning of everyday interaction, have long been regarded as inferior to formal reason and labeled primitive, fallible, subjective, superstitious, and in some cases ineffable. But, naturalistic thinking is more rational and definable than it appears. It is also relevant to design. Inquiry into the mechanisms of naturalistic thinking and knowledge can bring its resources into focus and enable designers to create better,...

  12. Human Factors Consideration for the Design of Collaborative Machine Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung; Fisk, Arthur D.; Rogers, Wendy A.

    Recent improvements in technology have facilitated the use of robots and virtual humans not only in entertainment and engineering but also in the military (Hill et al., 2003), healthcare (Pollack et al., 2002), and education domains (Johnson, Rickel, & Lester, 2000). As active partners of humans, such machine assistants can take the form of a robot or a graphical representation and serve the role of a financial assistant, a health manager, or even a social partner. As a result, interactive technologies are becoming an integral component of people's everyday lives.

  13. The nursing human resource budget: design for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, J B; Cameron, M L; Flarey, D L

    1995-06-01

    As vital as the nursing human resource budget is to the successful achievement of institutional goals, it is very important to present a well-developed budget. Using current automated spreadsheet technology, the nursing human resource budget can be laid out in a format that is easy to understand and easy to present. Using the methods discussed in this article, the nurse executive will be able to perform infinite iterations of the proposed budget with a few simple key strokes, thus allowing for things like zero-based budgeting or addition of programs during the budgeting process or at a later date. Implications for nurse executives are discussed.

  14. Designer Babies? Teacher Views on Gene Technology and Human Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibeci, Renato

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes the views of a sample of primary and high school teachers on the application of gene technology to human medicine. In general, high school teachers are more positive about these developments than primary teachers, and both groups of teachers are more positive than interested lay publics. Highlights ways in which this topic can be…

  15. Implications of Research on Human Memory for CALL Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forester, Lee

    2002-01-01

    Offers a brief overview of what is generally accepted about how human memory works as it applied to computer assisted language learning (CALL). Discusses a number of interactions from various CALL products in light of the research summarized. (Author/VWL)

  16. Simplified human thermoregulatory model for designing wearable thermoelectric devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijethunge, Dimuthu; Kim, Donggyu; Kim, Woochul

    2018-02-01

    Research on wearable and implantable devices have become popular with the strong need in market. A precise understanding of the thermal properties of human skin, which are not constant values but vary depending on ambient condition, is required for the development of such devices. In this paper, we present simplified human thermoregulatory model for accurately estimating the thermal properties of the skin without applying rigorous calculations. The proposed model considers a variable blood flow rate through the skin, evaporation functions, and a variable convection heat transfer from the skin surface. In addition, wearable thermoelectric generation (TEG) and refrigeration devices were simulated. We found that deviations of 10–60% can be resulted in estimating TEG performance without considering human thermoregulatory model owing to the fact that thermal resistance of human skin is adapted to ambient condition. Simplicity of the modeling procedure presented in this work could be beneficial for optimizing and predicting the performance of any applications that are directly coupled with skin thermal properties.

  17. Human-Centered Design Bill of Rights for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar, William A.

    This paper presents a potential solution to encourage technology adoption and integration within schools by proposing a human-centered technology "bill of rights" for educators. The intention of this bill of rights it to influence educators' beliefs towards technology and to enable educators to confront with confidence the seemingly…

  18. Electric dipole centres and colour centres in natural sodalite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, W.E. van den; Kerssen, J.; Volger, J.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments on an electric dipole centre, exhibiting multiple relaxation, in the natural mineral sodalite, are described. The concentration of the dipole centres is reduced upon X irradiation, whereas simultaneously colour centres and paramagnetic centres arise. Thermal bleaching restores the

  19. Human-system interface design review guideline -- Process and guidelines: Final report. Revision 1, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-06-01

    NUREG-0700, Revision 1, provides human factors engineering (HFE) guidance to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff for its: (1) review of the human system interface (HSI) design submittals prepared by licensees or applications for a license or design certification of commercial nuclear power plants, and (2) performance of HSI reviews that could be undertaken as part of an inspection or other type of regulatory review involving HSI design or incidents involving human performance. The guidance consists of a review process and HFE guidelines. The document describes those aspects of the HSI design review process that are important to the identification and resolution of human engineering discrepancies that could adversely affect plant safety. Guidance is provided that could be used by the staff to review an applicant`s HSI design review process or to guide the development of an HSI design review plan, e.g., as part of an inspection activity. The document also provides detailed HFE guidelines for the assessment of HSI design implementations. NUREG-0700, Revision 1, consists of three stand-alone volumes. Volume 1 consists of two major parts. Part 1 describes those aspects of the review process of the HSI design that are important to identifying and resolving human engineering discrepancies. Part 2 contains detailed guidelines for a human factors engineering review which identify criteria for assessing the implementation of an applicant`s or licensee`s HSI design.

  20. Principles of human joint replacement design and clinical application

    CERN Document Server

    Buechel, Frederick F

    2015-01-01

    This book is written for the users and designers of joint replacements. In its second extended edition it conveys to the reader the knowledge accumulated by the authors during their forty year effort on the development of replacement devices for the lower limb for the purpose of aiding the reader in their design and evaluation of joint replacement devices. The early chapters describe the engineering, scientific and medical principles needed for replacement joint evaluation. One must understand the nature and performance of the materials involved and their characteristics in vivo, i.e. the response of the body to implant materials. It is also essential to understand the response of the implants to applied loading and motion, particularly in the hostile physiological environment. A chapter describes the design methodology now required for joint replacement in the USA and EU countries. The remaining chapters provide a history of joint replacement, an evaluation of earlier and current devices and sample case hist...

  1. Principles of Human Joint Replacement Design and Clinical Application

    CERN Document Server

    Buechel, Frederick F

    2012-01-01

    Drs. Buechel, an orthopaedic surgeon, and Pappas, a professor of Mechanical Engineering, are the designers of several successful joint replacement systems. The most well-known of these is the pioneering LCS knee replacement. They have written this book for the users and designers of joint replacements. It is an attempt to convey to the reader the knowledge accumulated by the authors during their thirty five year effort on the development of replacement devices for the lower limb for the purpose of aiding the reader in their design and evaluation of joint replacement devices. The early chapters describe the engineering, scientific and medical principles needed for replacement joint evaluation. One must understand the nature and performance of the materials involved and their characteristics in vivo, i.e. the response of the body to implant materials. It is also essential to understand the response of the implants to applied loading and motion, particularly in the hostile physiological environment. A chapter de...

  2. The Optical Design of the Human Eye: a Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Navarro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cornea, lens and eye models are analyzed and compared to experimental findings to assess properties and eventually unveil optical design principles involved in the structure and function of the optical system of the eye. Models and data often show good match but also some paradoxes. The optical design seems to correspond to a wide angle lens. Compared to conventional optical systems, the eye presents a poor optical quality on axis, but a relatively good quality off-axis, thus yielding higher homogeneity for a wide visual field. This seems the result of an intriguing combination of the symmetry design principle with a total lack of rotational symmetry, decentrations and misalignments of the optical surfaces.

  3. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 236 - Human-Machine Interface (HMI) Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... The product design should sufficiently incorporate human factors engineering that is appropriate to... predictability and consistency in product behavior and communications. HMI design must accommodate an operator's... scheduling; and (3) HMI design must support contingency planning. (h) Ensure that electronics equipment radio...

  4. CMS Centre at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    A new "CMS Centre" is being established on the CERN Meyrin site by the CMS collaboration. It will be a focal point for communications, where physicists will work together on data quality monitoring, detector calibration, offline analysis of physics events, and CMS computing operations. Construction of the CMS Centre begins in the historic Proton Synchrotron (PS) control room. The historic Proton Synchrotron (PS) control room, Opened by Niels Bohr in 1960, will be reused by CMS to built its control centre. TThe LHC@FNAL Centre, in operation at Fermilab in the US, will work very closely with the CMS Centre, as well as the CERN Control Centre. (Photo Fermilab)The historic Proton Synchrotron (PS) control room is about to start a new life. Opened by Niels Bohr in 1960, the room will be reused by CMS to built its control centre. When finished, it will resemble the CERN Contro...

  5. Designing and Implementing Human Capital Management Systems in Educator Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Sara; Milanowski, Anthony; Scott, Jenna; Adrien, Richard; Fairbairn, Shane; Bourn, Ronda; Hill, Marsha

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Education's Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) 4 program represents a programmatic shift away from educator compensation reform as the primary lever of change for teacher performance and student learning. The TIF 4 program is designed to encourage the use of educator effectiveness measures to support the strategic instructional vision…

  6. The ideal Atomic Centre; Le Centre Atomique ideal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The author presents considerations which should prove to be of interest to all those who have to design, to construct and to operate a nuclear research centre. A large number of the ideas presented can also be applied to non-nuclear scientific research centres. In his report the author reviews: various problems with which the constructor is faced: ground-plan, infrastructure, buildings and the large units of scientific equipment in the centre, and those problems facing the director: maintenance, production, supplies, security. The author stresses the relationship which ought to exist between the research workers and the management. With this aim in view he proposes the creation of National School for Administration in Research which would train administrative executives for public or private organisations; they would be specialised in the fields of fundamental or applied research. (author) [French] L'auteur propose une base de reflexions a tous ceux qui doivent concevoir, realiser et faire vivre un Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires. Un grand nombre des idees exprimees peut d'ailleurs s'appliquer a un Centre d'Etudes Scientifiques non nucleaires. Dans son ouvrage, l'auteur passe en revue les differents problemes qui se posent au constructeur: plan, masse, infrastructure, batiments et grands appareils du Centre, et ceux qu'a a resoudre le directeur: entretien, fabrication, approvisionnements, securite. L'auteur insiste sur l'aspect des rapports qui doivent exister entre les chercheurs et ceux qui les administrent. Il propose a cette fin la creation d'une Ecole Nationale d'Administration de la Recherche qui formerait des cadres administratifs pour les organismes publics ou prives, specialises dans la Recherche fondamentale ou appliquee. (auteur)

  7. Design, recruitment, and microbiological considerations in human challenge studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darton, Thomas C; Blohmke, Christoph J; Moorthy, Vasee S; Altmann, Daniel M; Hayden, Frederick G; Clutterbuck, Elizabeth A; Levine, Myron M; Hill, Adrian V S; Pollard, Andrew J

    2015-07-01

    Since the 18th century a wealth of knowledge regarding infectious disease pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment has been accumulated from findings of infection challenges in human beings. Partly because of improvements to ethical and regulatory guidance, human challenge studies-involving the deliberate exposure of participants to infectious substances-have had a resurgence in popularity in the past few years, in particular for the assessment of vaccines. To provide an overview of the potential use of challenge models, we present historical reports and contemporary views from experts in this type of research. A range of challenge models and practical approaches to generate important data exist and are used to expedite vaccine and therapeutic development and to support public health modelling and interventions. Although human challenge studies provide a unique opportunity to address complex research questions, participant and investigator safety is paramount. To increase the collaborative effort and future success of this area of research, we recommend the development of consensus frameworks and sharing of best practices between investigators. Furthermore, standardisation of challenge procedures and regulatory guidance will help with the feasibility for using challenge models in clinical testing of new disease intervention strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. On the application of motivation theory to human factors/ergonomics: motivational design principles for human-technology interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalma, James L

    2014-12-01

    Motivation is a driving force in human-technology interaction. This paper represents an effort to (a) describe a theoretical model of motivation in human technology interaction, (b) provide design principles and guidelines based on this theory, and (c) describe a sequence of steps for the. evaluation of motivational factors in human-technology interaction. Motivation theory has been relatively neglected in human factors/ergonomics (HF/E). In both research and practice, the (implicit) assumption has been that the operator is already motivated or that motivation is an organizational concern and beyond the purview of HF/E. However, technology can induce task-related boredom (e.g., automation) that can be stressful and also increase system vulnerability to performance failures. A theoretical model of motivation in human-technology interaction is proposed, based on extension of the self-determination theory of motivation to HF/E. This model provides the basis for both future research and for development of practical recommendations for design. General principles and guidelines for motivational design are described as well as a sequence of steps for the design process. Human motivation is an important concern for HF/E research and practice. Procedures in the design of both simple and complex technologies can, and should, include the evaluation of motivational characteristics of the task, interface, or system. In addition, researchers should investigate these factors in specific human-technology domains. The theory, principles, and guidelines described here can be incorporated into existing techniques for task analysis and for interface and system design.

  9. Composite Design and Manufacturing Development for Human Spacecrafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litteken, Douglas; Lowry, David

    2013-01-01

    The Structural Engineering Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) has begun work on lightweight, multi-functional pressurized composite structures. The first candidate vehicle for technology development is the Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) cabin, known as the Gen 2B cabin, which has been built at JSC by the Robotics Division. Of the habitable MMSEV vehicle prototypes designed to date, this is the first one specifically analyzed and tested to hold internal pressure and the only one made out of composite materials. This design uses a laminate base with zoned reinforcement and external stringers, intended to demonstrate certain capabilities, and to prepare for the next cabin design, which will be a composite sandwich panel construction with multi-functional capabilities. As part of this advanced development process, a number of new technologies were used to assist in the design and manufacturing process. One of the methods, new to JSC, was to build the Gen 2B cabin with Out of Autoclave technology to permit the creation of larger parts with fewer joints. An 8-ply pre-preg layup was constructed to form the cabin body. Prior to lay-up, a design optimization software called FiberSIM was used to create each ply pattern. This software is integrated with Pro/Engineer to allow for customized draping of each fabric ply over the complex tool surface. Slits and darts are made in the software model to create an optimal design that maintains proper fiber placement and orientation. The flat pattern of each ply is then exported and sent to an automated cutting table where the patterns are cut out of graphite material. Additionally, to assist in lay-up, a laser projection system (LPT) is used to project outlines of each ply directly onto the tool face for accurate fiber placement and ply build-up. Finally, as part of the OoA process, a large oven was procured to post-cure each part. After manufacturing complete, the cabin underwent modal and pressure

  10. A Function-Behavior-State Approach to Designing Human Machine Interface for Nuclear Power Plant Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Zhang, W. J.

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents an approach to human-machine interface design for control room operators of nuclear power plants. The first step in designing an interface for a particular application is to determine information content that needs to be displayed. The design methodology for this step is called the interface design framework (called framework ). Several frameworks have been proposed for applications at varying levels, including process plants. However, none is based on the design and manufacture of a plant system for which the interface is designed. This paper presents an interface design framework which originates from design theory and methodology for general technical systems. Specifically, the framework is based on a set of core concepts of a function-behavior-state model originally proposed by the artificial intelligence research community and widely applied in the design research community. Benefits of this new framework include the provision of a model-based fault diagnosis facility, and the seamless integration of the design (manufacture, maintenance) of plants and the design of human-machine interfaces. The missing linkage between design and operation of a plant was one of the causes of the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor incident. A simulated plant system is presented to explain how to apply this framework in designing an interface. The resulting human-machine interface is discussed; specifically, several fault diagnosis examples are elaborated to demonstrate how this interface could support operators' fault diagnosis in an unanticipated situation.

  11. Motivation, Participation, and Engagement in Human Work Interaction Design Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Campos, Pedro; Abdelnour-Nocera, José

    2016-01-01

    This position paper is aimed at presenting as discussion material at the CoPDA 2016 Workshop the preliminary results of a short review of the literature published by the HWID community in the last 10 years in four books. Specifically, the attention is posed on understanding the importance of moti...... of motivation, participation, and engagement in Interaction Design projects for smart and pervasive workplaces...

  12. Biorecognition Element Design and Characterization for Human Performance Biomarkers Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-16

    and peptide-AuNP ratio. The first design involving an integrated sensor showed successful cortisol detection at biological levels. A competitive ... competitive assay where target recognition is performed in the surface of AuNPs and an electroactive signaling molecule was released for analyte...increasing the changes for target binding. Also, the MCH layer would prevent adsorption of non-relevant analytes reducing non-specific binding

  13. Instructional Design Practices in the Design and Development of Digital Humanities Virtual Environments (DH-VEs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Valerie Hunter

    2011-01-01

    Virtual environments, virtual worlds, simulations, 3D models are loaded with potential, promise, and problems. While learning in virtual settings is still being researched, instructional designers are challenged as to which instructional design practices are best suited for virtual environments (VEs). The problem is there is a lack of a conceptual…

  14. Using human-centered design to improve the assault rifle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Cheng-Lang; Yuan, Cheng-Kang; Liu, Bor-Shong

    2012-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to interview infantry soldiers to determine their preferences with respect to rifle design and to examine the effect of buttstocks on shooting performance. Factor analysis showed that seven main factors should be considered in rifle redesign including tactics necessary, interface design, saving weight, bullpup configuration, sight design, other devices, and bayonet lug. For the shooting experiment, a total of four shooting trials were performed with the T-91 rifle, with buttstock lengths of 26 mm, 34 mm, self-adjusting stock, and bullpup stock. The analysis revealed that buttstock length had a significant effect on shooting performance. The redesigned rifle weight and total length should be reduced to 3.2 kg and 750 mm, respectively. The rifle buttstock should be a non-adjustable bullpup style. The buttstock shape should be curved and the hand-guard type should be more deeply and density seams, while the trigger handle shape should be slanted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Human Pathogens on Plants: Designing a Multidisciplinary Strategy for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jacqueline; Leach, Jan E; Eversole, Kellye; Tauxe, Robert

    2014-10-15

    Recent efforts to address concerns about microbial contamination of food plants and resulting foodborne illness have prompted new collaboration and interactions between the scientific communities of plant pathology and food safety. This article provides perspectives from scientists of both disciplines and presents selected research results and concepts that highlight existing and possible future synergisms for audiences of both disciplines. Plant pathology is a complex discipline that encompasses studies of the dissemination, colonization, and infection of plants by microbes such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and oomycetes. Plant pathologists study plant diseases as well as host plant defense responses and disease management strategies with the goal of minimizing disease occurrences and impacts. Repeated outbreaks of human illness attributed to the contamination of fresh produce, nuts and seeds, and other plant-derived foods by human enteric pathogens such as Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. have led some plant pathologists to broaden the application of their science in the past two decades, to address problems of human pathogens on plants (HPOPs). Food microbiology, which began with the study of microbes that spoil foods and those that are critical to produce food, now also focuses study on how foods become contaminated with pathogens and how this can be controlled or prevented. Thus, at the same time, public health researchers and food microbiologists have become more concerned about plant-microbe interactions before and after harvest. New collaborations are forming between members of the plant pathology and food safety communities, leading to enhanced research capacity and greater understanding of the issues for which research is needed. The two communities use somewhat different vocabularies and conceptual models. For example, traditional plant pathology concepts such as the disease triangle and the disease cycle can help to define

  16. What do we mean by Human-Centered Design of Life-Critical Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Guy A

    2012-01-01

    Human-centered design is not a new approach to design. Aerospace is a good example of a life-critical systems domain where participatory design was fully integrated, involving experimental test pilots and design engineers as well as many other actors of the aerospace engineering community. This paper provides six topics that are currently part of the requirements of the Ph.D. Program in Human-Centered Design of the Florida Institute of Technology (FIT.) This Human-Centered Design program offers principles, methods and tools that support human-centered sustainable products such as mission or process control environments, cockpits and hospital operating rooms. It supports education and training of design thinkers who are natural leaders, and understand complex relationships among technology, organizations and people. We all need to understand what we want to do with technology, how we should organize ourselves to a better life and finally find out whom we are and have become. Human-centered design is being developed for all these reasons and issues.

  17. Multi-tasking arbitration and behaviour design for human-interactive robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yuichi; Onishi, Masaki; Hosoe, Shigeyuki; Luo, Zhiwei

    2013-05-01

    Robots that interact with humans in household environments are required to handle multiple real-time tasks simultaneously, such as carrying objects, collision avoidance and conversation with human. This article presents a design framework for the control and recognition processes to meet these requirements taking into account stochastic human behaviour. The proposed design method first introduces a Petri net for synchronisation of multiple tasks. The Petri net formulation is converted to Markov decision processes and processed in an optimal control framework. Three tasks (safety confirmation, object conveyance and conversation) interact and are expressed by the Petri net. Using the proposed framework, tasks that normally tend to be designed by integrating many if-then rules can be designed in a systematic manner in a state estimation and optimisation framework from the viewpoint of the shortest time optimal control. The proposed arbitration method was verified by simulations and experiments using RI-MAN, which was developed for interactive tasks with humans.

  18. Human Factors Principles in Design of Computer-Mediated Visualization for Robot Missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David I Gertman; David J Bruemmer

    2008-12-01

    With increased use of robots as a resource in missions supporting countermine, improvised explosive devices (IEDs), and chemical, biological, radiological nuclear and conventional explosives (CBRNE), fully understanding the best means by which to complement the human operator’s underlying perceptual and cognitive processes could not be more important. Consistent with control and display integration practices in many other high technology computer-supported applications, current robotic design practices rely highly upon static guidelines and design heuristics that reflect the expertise and experience of the individual designer. In order to use what we know about human factors (HF) to drive human robot interaction (HRI) design, this paper reviews underlying human perception and cognition principles and shows how they were applied to a threat detection domain.

  19. Innovative Reduced Mass TPS Designs for Human-Rated Aeroassit Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses Item #2 of Topic X7.04 Aeroassist Systems and proposes innovative heat shield thermal protection systems (TPS) designs for human-rated...

  20. Site Planning and Design to Enable Planetary Science and Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, R.; Lupisella, M.; Bleacher, J.

    2017-02-01

    It is critical to properly plan site layout and design of science and habitation assets about and within planetary exploration zones following planetary protection policies and environment management practices for effective robotic and human missions.

  1. Revising the South African guidelines for human settlement planning and design (the red book)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, Willemien

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Guidelines for Human Settlement Planning and Design, commonly known as the Red Book, is a South African publication aimed at providing practical guidance to built environment professionals in support of the creation of sustainable and vibrant...

  2. A digital human tool for guiding the ergonomic design of collaborative robots

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice, Pauline; Padois, Vincent; Measson, Yvan; Bidaud, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The growing number of musculoskeletal disorders in industry could be addressed by the use of collaborative robots, which allow the joint manipulation of objects by both a robot and a person. Efficiently designing these robots requires to assess the ergonomic benefit they offer. Despite the advances in human biomechanics and digital human model (DHM) simulation tools, the existing software for ergonomic analyses remain ill-adapted for collaborative robots design, becaus...

  3. Basic design of multimedia system for the representation of human error cases in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Geun Ok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-04-01

    We have developed a multimedia system for the representation of human error cases with the education and training on human errors can be done effectively. The followings are major topics during the basic design; 1 Establishment of a basic concept for representing human error cases using multimedia, 2 Establishment of a design procedure for the multimedia system, 3 Establishment of a hardware and software environment for operating the multimedia system, 4 Design of multimedia input and output interfaces. In order to verify the results of this basic design, we implemented the basic design with an incident triggered by operator`s misaction which occurred at Uljin NPP Unit 1. (Author) 12 refs., 30 figs.,.

  4. Verification and validation of human factors issues in control room design and upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, M.; Collier, S. [Inst. for Energiteknikk, Halden (Norway). OECD Halden Reactor Project

    1999-12-01

    Systems, facilities and equipment are periodically updated during a power plant's lifetime. This has human factors implications, especially if the central control room is involved. Human factors work may therefore be required. There is an extensive literature on human factors itself, but not so much on how it is verified and validated. Therefore, HRP and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate commissioned a study. The objective was to review the literature and establish a knowledge base on verification and validation (V and V) of human factors issues. The report first discusses verification and validation as applied to human factors work. It describes a design process and the typical human factors topics involved. It then presents a generic method for V and V of human factors. This is built on a review of standards, guidelines and other references given in an annotated bibliography. The method is illustrated by application to some human factors topics.

  5. The role of the sexual assault centre.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Eogan, Maeve

    2013-02-01

    Sexual Assault Centres provide multidisciplinary care for men and women who have experienced sexual crime. These centres enable provision of medical, forensic, psychological support and follow-up care, even if patients chose not to report the incident to the police service. Sexual Support Centres need to provide a ring-fenced, forensically clean environment. They need to be appropriately staffed and available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to allow prompt provision of medical and supportive care and collection of forensic evidence. Sexual Assault Centres work best within the context of a core agreed model of care, which includes defined multi-agency guidelines and care pathways, close links with forensic science and police services, and designated and sustainable funding arrangements. Additionally, Sexual Assault Centres also participate in patient, staff and community education and risk reduction. Furthermore, they contribute to the development, evaluation and implementation of national strategies on domestic, sexual and gender-based violence.

  6. Positioning the arts for intervention design research in the human services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, David P; Calligan, Holly Feen

    2015-12-01

    The arts have been integral to the human experience fostering innovation in social arrangements, strengthening group cohesion, and merging esthetics with the utilitarian properties of technology. For intervention design research in the human services the arts can harness innovation and creativity in meeting human needs and addressing social issues. Given their capacities to stimulate expression of first person experience through interpretative strategies, the arts can equip people and groups, including researchers, with opportunities to express primary experiential knowledge through creative means, portray useful ways of meeting human needs, educate others about the social issues people experience, and formulate intervention strategies or even models to address the causes and consequences of those issues. In this paper, the authors discuss how the arts can inform and deepen human service intervention design and development and, as a result, advance innovation in the human services. They offer a rationale supporting the inclusion of the arts in the design of human service interventions, examine the contributions of the arts to the formulation of intervention concept and developmental research to further improve interventions, and consider how the arts can advance the reflexivity of intervention designers. The authors draw implications for how researchers can position the arts in the nine steps of intervention design and development the authors offer in this paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The ATHENA human papillomavirus study: design, methods, and baseline results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Thomas C; Stoler, Mark H; Behrens, Catherine M; Apple, Raymond; Derion, Toniann; Wright, Teresa L

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to describe baseline data from Addressing the Need for Advanced HPV Diagnostics, a prospective, multicenter US cervical cancer screening trial. A total of 47,208 women aged 21 years or older undergoing routine screening were enrolled; liquid-based cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing were performed. Women with abnormal cytology underwent colposcopy, as did high-risk HPV (hrHPV)-positive women and a random subset of women negative by both tests aged 25 years or older. Verification bias adjustment was applied; 95% confidence intervals were computed by the bootstrap method. The prevalence of cytologic abnormalities was 7.1%. hrHPV, HPV 16, and HPV 18 were detected using the cobas HPV Test in 12.6%, 2.8%, and 1.0% of women, respectively. Both cytologic abnormalities and hrHPV positivity declined with increasing age. The adjusted prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) or greater in women aged 25-34 years was 2.3%, decreasing to 1.5% among older women. The Addressing the Need for Advanced HPV Diagnostics study provides important estimates of the prevalence of cytologic abnormalities, hrHPV positivity, and CIN2 or greater in a US screening population. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Building a Human Rights Youth Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyles, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Capital Territory's Human Rights Act 2004 and the establishment of an ACT Human Rights Commission have begun to create a human rights culture in the ACT. This paper highlights the influence of this culture on the design and build of the ACT's new youth justice centre. (Contains 2 figures.)

  9. Designing, developing, and deploying systems to support human-robot teams in disaster response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijff, G.J.M.; Kruijff-Korbayová, I.; Keshavdas, S.; Larochelle, B.; Janíček, M.; Colas, F.; Liu, M.; Pomerleau, F.; Siegwart, R.; Neerincx, M.A.; Looije, R.; Smets, N.J.J.M.; Mioch, T.; Diggelen, J. van; Pirri, F.; Gianni, M.; Ferri, F.; Menna, M.; Worst, R.; Linder, T.; Tretyakov, V.; Surmann, H.; Svoboda, T.; Reinštein, M.; Zimmermann, K.; Petříček, T.; Hlaváč, V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes our experience in designing, developing and deploying systems for supporting human-robot teams during disaster response. It is based on R&D performed in the EU-funded project NIFTi. NIFTi aimed at building intelligent, collaborative robots that could work together with humans in

  10. Optimal design method to minimize users' thinking mapping load in human-machine interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanqun; Li, Xu; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The discrepancy between human cognition and machine requirements/behaviors usually results in serious mental thinking mapping loads or even disasters in product operating. It is important to help people avoid human-machine interaction confusions and difficulties in today's mental work mastered society. Improving the usability of a product and minimizing user's thinking mapping and interpreting load in human-machine interactions. An optimal human-machine interface design method is introduced, which is based on the purpose of minimizing the mental load in thinking mapping process between users' intentions and affordance of product interface states. By analyzing the users' thinking mapping problem, an operating action model is constructed. According to human natural instincts and acquired knowledge, an expected ideal design with minimized thinking loads is uniquely determined at first. Then, creative alternatives, in terms of the way human obtains operational information, are provided as digital interface states datasets. In the last, using the cluster analysis method, an optimum solution is picked out from alternatives, by calculating the distances between two datasets. Considering multiple factors to minimize users' thinking mapping loads, a solution nearest to the ideal value is found in the human-car interaction design case. The clustering results show its effectiveness in finding an optimum solution to the mental load minimizing problems in human-machine interaction design.

  11. Perspectives on human-human sensorimotor interactions for the design of rehabilitation robots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sawers, Andrew; Ting, Lena H

    2014-01-01

    Physical interactions between patients and therapists during rehabilitation have served as motivation for the design of rehabilitation robots, yet we lack a fundamental understanding of the principles...

  12. The iBRA (implant breast reconstruction evaluation) study: protocol for a prospective multi-centre cohort study to inform the feasibility, design and conduct of a pragmatic randomised clinical trial comparing new techniques of implant-based breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Shelley; Conroy, Elizabeth J; Williamson, Paula R; Thrush, Steven; Whisker, Lisa J; Skillman, Joanna M; Barnes, Nicola L P; Cutress, Ramsey I; Teasdale, Elizabeth M; Mills, Nicola; Mylvaganam, Senthurun; Branford, Olivier A; McEvoy, Katherina; Jain, Abhilash; Gardiner, Matthew D; Blazeby, Jane M; Holcombe, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Implant-based breast reconstruction (IBBR) is the most commonly performed reconstructive procedure in the UK. The introduction of techniques to augment the subpectoral pocket has revolutionised the procedure, but there is a lack of high-quality outcome data to describe the safety or effectiveness of these techniques. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are the best way of comparing treatments, but surgical RCTs are challenging. The iBRA (implant breast reconstruction evaluation) study aims to determine the feasibility, design and conduct of a pragmatic RCT to examine the effectiveness of approaches to IBBR. The iBRA study is a trainee-led research collaborative project with four phases:Phase 1 - a national practice questionnaire (NPQ) to survey current practicePhase 2 - a multi-centre prospective cohort study of patients undergoing IBBR to evaluate the clinical and patient-reported outcomesPhase 3- an IBBR-RCT acceptability survey and qualitative work to explore patients' and surgeons' views of proposed trial designs and candidate outcomes.Phase 4 - phases 1 to 3 will inform the design and conduct of the future RCT All centres offering IBBR will be encouraged to participate by the breast and plastic surgical professional associations (Association of Breast Surgery and British Association of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons). Data collected will inform the feasibility of undertaking an RCT by defining current practice and exploring issues surrounding recruitment, selection of comparator arms, choice of primary outcome, sample size, selection criteria, trial conduct, methods of data collection and feasibility of using the trainee collaborative model to recruit patients and collect data. The preliminary work undertaken within the iBRA study will determine the feasibility, design and conduct of a definitive RCT in IBBR. It will work with the trainee collaborative to build capacity by creating an infrastructure of research-active breast and plastic surgeons

  13. Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Tools to Support the Human Factors Design Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Null, Cynthia H.; Jackson, Mariea D.; Perry, Trey; Quick, Jason C.; Stokes, Jack W.

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this assessment was to develop a library of basic 1-Gravity (G) human posture and motion elements used to construct complex virtual simulations of ground processing and maintenance tasks for spaceflight vehicles, including launch vehicles, crewed spacecraft, robotic spacecraft, satellites, and other payloads. The report herein describes the task, its purpose, performance, findings, NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) recommendations, and conclusions in the definition and assemblage of the postures and motions database (PMD).

  14. Human experience and product usability: principles to assist the design of user-product interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro-Koc, Marianella; Popovic, Vesna; Emmison, Michael

    2009-07-01

    This paper introduces research that investigates how human experience influences people's understandings of product usability. It describes an experiment that employs visual representation of concepts to elicit participants' ideas of a product's use. Results from the experiment lead to the identification of relationships between human experience, knowledge, and context-of-use--relationships that influence designers' and users' concepts of product usability. These relationships are translated into design principles that inform the design activity with respect to the aspects of experience that trigger people's understanding of a product's use. A design tool (ECEDT) is devised to aid designers in the application of these principles. This tool is then trialled in the context of a design task in order to verify applicability of the findings.

  15. The Study to the Theory of Human-Machine-Integration in Product Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Min; Zhou, Renhe

    2017-09-01

    The paper puts forward a design concept named Human-Machine-Integration which refers to the shape of the product designed according to the location and contact type when the product is used. It considers the double properties of function and aesthetics to product and makes the designer combine the formal principle with Human-Machine Engineering theory together to mould the product shape conforming to the easy-to-user principle with the consideration of form beauty at the same time. It regards the man - machine - environment as a whole body and has practical significance to the system design of the product. When a product is designed according to Human-Machine-Integration theory, contact parts form and contact area and the harmonious relationship between forms of contact parts and overall product should be considered. And the Convex-concave match of product part and body part should be complement with each other and tolerant match of product part is contacted with the human body part. At the same time, the purpose of form should be fully considered. Correspondence, Integrity, Systematicness and Independence are four characteristics of Human-Machine-Integration design.

  16. Intuitive engineering, human factors, and the design of future interfaces (Invited Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, James B.

    2005-05-01

    Human factors engineering (HFE) professionals complain that they are often called in after-the-fact to help correct human interface problems. They believe many design flaws can be avoided if design teams involve them early on. However, in the case of innovative technology, such post hoc human factors may not be avoidable unless the inventor is also a human factors engineer or the prospective user. In rare cases an inventor of a new technology has an intuitive understanding of human engineering principles and knows well the capabilities and limitations of operators. This paper outlines the importance of focusing on the user-system interface and encouraging engineers to develop their own intuitive sense of users through mental imagery. If design engineers start with a clear mental picture of a specific user and task rather than generalities of use, fewer interface problems are likely to be encountered later in development. Successful technology innovators often use a visual thinking approach in the development of new concepts. Examples are presented to illustrate the successful application of intuitive design. An approach is offered on how designers can improve their non-verbal thinking skills. The author shares the view that the mission of HFE should not be to make system developers dependent on the small community of HF experts but rather to help them learn the value of applying user-centered design techniques.

  17. A Web-Based Programme for Person-Centred Learning and Support Designed for Preschool Children with Long-Term Illness: A Pilot Study of a New Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, Anna-Lena; Simeonsdotter Svensson, Agneta; Pramling Samuelsson, Ingrid; Jenholt Nolbris, Margaretha

    2012-01-01

    For children living with long-term illness, school age is a risk period with regard to psychosocial ill health and poor compliance with treatment. There is a need for methods to promote health, well-being, and self-esteem. This study describes a new concept for supporting children, person-centred web-based learning and support, which has been tested in 12 preschool children and incorporates learning about feelings, relationships, and the right to integrity. SKYPE was used for conversations between the child and the web teacher. Methods. The programme was developed and tested in two steps. The conversations were tape-recorded and analysed using phenomenography. The questions addressed concerned the quality of the intervention process: accessibility of intervention, learning content and support, and identification of measurable items and patterns. Findings. The children found it interesting to communicate with their web teacher using SKYPE. The story about Max and Sara served as a good basis for discussion, and development was found in the learning process. The children were able to talk about relations and feelings and developed an understanding for use in new situations in their daily lives. Items and patterns that are useful for research and documentation were identified, for example, well-being, resources, needs, and wishes. PMID:23326654

  18. Designing Green Stormwater Infrastructure for Hydrologic and Human Benefits: An Image Based Machine Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, A.; Minsker, B. S.

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization over the last century has degraded our natural water resources by increasing storm-water runoff, reducing nutrient retention, and creating poor ecosystem health downstream. The loss of tree canopy and expansion of impervious area and storm sewer systems have significantly decreased infiltration and evapotranspiration, increased stream-flow velocities, and increased flood risk. These problems have brought increasing attention to catchment-wide implementation of green infrastructure (e.g., decentralized green storm water management practices such as bioswales, rain gardens, permeable pavements, tree box filters, cisterns, urban wetlands, urban forests, stream buffers, and green roofs) to replace or supplement conventional storm water management practices and create more sustainable urban water systems. Current green infrastructure (GI) practice aims at mitigating the negative effects of urbanization by restoring pre-development hydrology and ultimately addressing water quality issues at an urban catchment scale. The benefits of green infrastructure extend well beyond local storm water management, as urban green spaces are also major contributors to human health. Considerable research in the psychological sciences have shown significant human health benefits from appropriately designed green spaces, yet impacts on human wellbeing have not yet been formally considered in GI design frameworks. This research is developing a novel computational green infrastructure (GI) design framework that integrates hydrologic requirements with criteria for human wellbeing. A supervised machine learning model is created to identify specific patterns in urban green spaces that promote human wellbeing; the model is linked to RHESSYS model to evaluate GI designs in terms of both hydrologic and human health benefits. An application of the models to Dead Run Watershed in Baltimore showed that image mining methods were able to capture key elements of human preferences that could

  19. Human whole-blood culture system for ex vivo characterization of designer-cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schukur, Lina; Geering, Barbara; Fussenegger, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Encapsulated designer cells implanted into mice are currently used to validate the efficacy of therapeutic gene networks for the diagnosis and treatment of various human diseases in preclinical research. Because many human conditions cannot be adequately replicated by animal models, complementary and alternative procedures to test future treatment strategies are required. Here we describe a novel approach utilizing an ex vivo human whole-blood culture system to validate synthetic biology-inspired designer cell-based treatment strategies. The viability and functionality of transgenic mammalian designer cells co-cultured with primary human immune cells were characterized. We demonstrated that transgenic mammalian designer cells required adequate insulation from the human blood microenvironment to maintain viability and functionality. The biomaterial alginate-(poly-l-lysine)-alginate used to encapsulate the transgenic designer cells did neither affect the viability of primary granulocytes and lymphocytes nor the functionality of lymphocytes. Additionally, alginate-encapsulated transgenic designer cells remained responsive to the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) from the whole-blood culture upon exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). TNF diffused into the alginate capsules, bound to the specific TNF receptors on the transgenic designer cells' surface and triggered the expression of the reporter gene SEAP (human placental secreted alkaline phosphatase) that was rewired to the TNF-specific signaling cascade. Human whole-blood culture systems can therefore be considered as valuable complementary assays to animal models for the validation of synthetic circuits in genetically modified mammalian cells and may speed up preclinical research in a world of personalized medicine. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Design Concept of Human Interface System for Risk Monitoring for Proactive Trouble Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hidekazu, Yoshikawa; Ming, Yang; Zhijian, Zhang

    2011-01-01

    A new concept is first proposed of distributed human interface system to integrate both operation and maintenance of nuclear power plant. Then, a method of constructing human interface system is introduced by integrating the plant knowledge database system based on Multilevel Flow Model (MFM......) with the risk monitor to watch Defense-in Depth plant safety functions. The proposed concept is applied for a liquid metal fast reactor Monju and necessary R&D subjects are reviewed to realize human interface system for the maintenance work in Monju plant. Because of using high temperature liquid sodium...... as reactor coolant in Monju plant, the maintenance for Monju should utilize more automated equipments of remote control and robotics than that of light water reactor. It is necessary to design optimum task allocation between human and automated machine as the requisites for good communication design of human...