WorldWideScience

Sample records for human capital levels

  1. Employment growth, human capital and educational levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Høgni Kalsø; Winther, Lars

    2015-01-01

    human capital in understanding regional growth. We examine to what extent different labour competences and capabilities relate to municipal employment growth using nine stratified, educational categories as proxies for different levels of human capital. Dividing municipalities into four spatial...... categories ranging from the urban to the peripheral, we conclude that there is a strong spatial distinction of educational structures with an urban bias, and that educational categories other than academic human capital can make an important contribution to our understanding of what drives employment growth......Contemporary studies in urban and regional development stress the importance of large city-regions as key places in modern capitalism taking the form of agglomerations of economic activities by industries, firms and highly skilled people. In this article, we challenge the strong focus on academic...

  2. Factors explaining the level of voluntary human capital disclosure in the Brazilian capital market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Batista Fontana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper presents a study on factors explaining the level of voluntary human capital information in companies with shares in the Brazilian stock exchange. Assuming the existence of information asymmetry between managers and shareholders, agency theory states that disclosure might lead to a reduction in agency costs. The proprietary costs theory indicates that information disclosure might increase the company’s costs. According to these theories, the likelihood that the managers will voluntarily disclose information depends on certain factors that are characteristic of the company. Understanding the disclosure of information regarding intangible assets, specifically human capital, has strategic relevance for enterprises because these features, although not always recorded in accounting, represent a competitive business edge in the current economy.Design/methodology/approach: The study examined 145 annual reports, representing 29 companies in the period of 2005-2009. The level of voluntary disclosure was determined through content analysis of annual reports using representative indicators of human capital information.Findings: The statistical results indicate that factors such as size, debt, growth and time of registration with the brazilian Securities and Exchange Commission explain the level of voluntary human capital disclosure of the companies studied.Originality/value: An important contribution of this research is the formulation and non-repudiation of the time of registration with the CVM hypothesis as a factor that explains the level of human capital disclosure because none of the revised studies have tested this hypothesis.

  3. Human Capital and Economic Growth: The Quest for the Most Relevant Level of Education in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan, Faisal; Tehseen, Syed; Arif, Imtiaz

    2009-01-01

    The study examines the role of human capital in the economic growth of Pakistan by using primary, secondary and higher education enrolments as proxies for human capital in three different specifications. The idea behind these models is to find out the most relevant level of education in terms of its contribution in economic growth. The order of integration of the variables is checked through Augmented Dickey Fuller and Phillips Perron test. In order to find out the evidences of the long run r...

  4. Factors explaining the level of voluntary human capital disclosure in the Brazilian capital market Factors explaining the level of voluntary human capital disclosure in the Brazilian capital market Factors explaining the level of voluntary human capital disclosure in the Brazilian capital market

    OpenAIRE

    Clea Beatriz Macagnan; Fernando Batista Fontana

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents a study on factors explaining the level of voluntary human capital information in companies with shares in the Brazilian stock exchange. Assuming the existence of information asymmetry between managers and shareholders, agency theory states that disclosure might lead to a reduction in agency costs. The proprietary costs theory indicates that information disclosure might increase the company’s costs. According to these theories, the likelihood that the managers wil...

  5. Taking it to another level: do personality-based human capital resources matter to firm performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, In-Sue; Kim, Seongsu; Van Iddekinge, Chad H

    2015-05-01

    Drawing on the attraction-selection-attrition perspective, strategic human resource management (SHRM) scholarship, and recent human capital research, this study explores organization-level emergence of personality (i.e., personality-based human capital resources) and its direct, interactive, and (conditional) indirect effects on organization-level outcomes based on data from 6,709 managers across 71 firms. Results indicate that organization-level mean emotional stability, extraversion, and conscientiousness are positively related to organization-level managerial job satisfaction and labor productivity but not to financial performance. Furthermore, organization-level mean and variance in emotional stability interact to predict all three organization-level outcomes, and organization-level mean and variance in extraversion interact to predict firm financial performance. Specifically, the positive effects of organization-level mean emotional stability and extraversion are stronger when organization-level variance in these traits is lower. Finally, organization-level mean emotional stability, extraversion, and conscientiousness are all positively related to firm financial performance indirectly via labor productivity, and the indirect effects are more positive when organization-level variance in those personality traits is lower. Overall, the findings suggest that personality-based human capital resources demonstrate tangible effects on organization-level outcomes. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed along with study limitations and future research directions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Modern Human Capital Management

    OpenAIRE

    Feldberger, Madita

    2008-01-01

    Title: Modern Human Capital Management Seminar date: 30th of May 2008 Course: Master thesis in Business Administration, 15 ECTS Authors: Madita Feldberger Supervisor: Lars Svensson Keywords: Human capital, SWOT Analysis, Strategic Map, Balanced Scorecard Research Problem: Despite of the success of Human Capital Management (HCM) in research it did not arrive yet in the HR departments of many companies. Numerous firms even have problems to set their strategic goals with focus on HR. The HR Bala...

  7. Human Capital Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, Ellen E

    2007-01-01

    ...: To provide an agile, adaptive, integrated, and innovative defense intelligence workforce through a deliberate process identifying, implementing, and directing human capital organizational, doctrinal...

  8. BUILDING HUMAN CAPITAL: THE IMPACT OF PARENTS´ INITIAL EDUCATIONAL LEVEL AND LIFELONG LEARNING ON THEIR CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FISCHER, Jakub

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of parents´ educational level on lifelong learning of children and relationship between parents´ and student´ lifelong learning including language skills and computer literacy. This intergenerational transmission, if proven, could influence the investments into the human capital in the long run. We used data from Adult Education Survey 2011 (AES to test the hypothesis that the parental attained level of education has a significant impact on the initial educational level of their children as well as on their lifelong learning participation. Furthermore, using data from AES, we tested the association between parental educational level and children´s language skills and reading activity and between parental non-formal as well as informal education and students´ lifelong learning. We have found that the parental effect on lifelong learning participation is slightly weaker than the effect of initial adult´s education. Nevertheless, the intergenerational transmission mechanism obviously works. The relationship between parental and students computer literacy is statistically significant, nevertheless weak. As for the nominal and ordinal character of the data, we used mainly the standard statistical methods including nonparametric tests, logit model and correspondence analysis.

  9. How to Do More with Less: Handling an Increased Workload While Maintaining Human Capital Level

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doerr, Jr., James C; Glazman, Emily

    2008-01-01

    ...) and local situation with regard to "human capital." The DoD is particularly concerned with the issue of maintaining its knowledge base in the face of large numbers of workers retiring and with an ever-increasing and increasingly complex workload...

  10. Manage "Human Capital" Strategically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…

  11. Entrepreneurs’ human and social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shayegheh Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Rezaei, Shahamak; Schøtt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: It is widely acknowledged that entrepreneurs’ human capital in form of education and social capital in form of networking are mutually beneficial and also that both human and social capital benefit their performance. Here, the hypothesis is that human and social capital, in combination......, provide added value and jointly add a further boost to performance, specifically if the form of exporting. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor provides data on 52,946 entrepreneurs, who reported on exporting and networking for advice. Hierarchical linear modelling shows that human capital promotes social...... capital, that human capital and social capital (specifically networking in the international environment, work-place, professions and market, but not in the private sphere) both benefit export directly and that human capital amplifies the benefit of social capital, especially through international...

  12. Social Capital and Human Mortality: Explaining the Rural Paradox with County-Level Mortality Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Leif; Haran, Murali

    2014-01-01

    The “rural paradox” refers to standardized mortality rates in rural areas that are unexpectedly low in view of well-known economic and infrastructural disadvantages there. We explore this paradox by incorporating social capital, a promising explanatory factor that has seldom been incorporated into residential mortality research. We do so while being attentive to spatial dependence, a statistical problem often ignored in mortality research. Analyzing data for counties in the contiguous United States, we find that: (1) the rural paradox is confirmed with both metro/non-metro and rural-urban continuum codes, (2) social capital significantly reduces the impacts of residence on mortality after controlling for race/ethnicity and socioeconomic covariates, (3) this attenuation is greater when a spatial perspective is imposed on the analysis, (4) social capital is negatively associated with mortality at the county level, and (5) spatial dependence is strongly in evidence. A spatial approach is necessary in county-level analyses such as ours to yield unbiased estimates and optimal model fit. PMID:25392565

  13. THE EFFECT OF HUMAN CAPITAL ON SOCIAL CAPITAL AMONG ENTREPRENEURS

    OpenAIRE

    HANNES OTTÓSSON; KIM KLYVER

    2010-01-01

    Using data collected from 714 entrepreneurs in a random sample of 10,000 Danes, this study provides an investigation of the effect of human capital on social capital among entrepreneurs. Previous entrepreneurship research has extensively investigated the separated effect of human capital and social capital on different entrepreneurial outputs. The study takes a step back and investigates how these two capital concepts are related — specifically how human capital influences social capital. In ...

  14. Human Capital and Organizational Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Julieta Josan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The new organizational changes caused by social, economic and politic reforms led to a shift in the strategic management of the companies. The growing need for professionals, who know how to generate profits, is growing and increase confidence of partners and clients, find new ideas and adapt to a dynamic market. Therefore, internally, we need an efficient management of human resources to find and retain the most suitable and efficient people which will increase productivity and face the increased acting globally competition. Currently, companies that succeed are the ones that integrate in their business strategy, an important component of development and valuation human capital. The paper aims to analyze and highlight the importance of human capital in the new organizational strategies, focused on achieving a high level of competitiveness, innovation and excellence.

  15. FDI, Human Capital and Income Convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völlmecke, Dominik; Jindra, Björn; Marek, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    within Central and East European countries (CEECs), where we find indications of a poverty trap. In contrast to FDI, regional human capital seems to be associated with higher income levels. However, we identify a positive interaction of FDI and human capital in their relation with income growth dynamics....

  16. Spatial Analysis Of Human Capital Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajdos Artur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to analyse the interdependence between labour productivity and the occupational structure of human capital in a spatial cross-section. Research indicates (see Fischer 2009 the possibility to assess the impact of the quality of human capital (measured by means of the level of education on labour productivity in a spatial cross-section.

  17. Human Capital Development: Comparative Analysis of BRICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Zavyalova, Elena; Minina, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article is to conduct macro-level analysis of human capital (HC) development strategies, pursued by four countries commonly referred to as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is based on comparisons of macro indices of human capital and innovativeness of the economy and a…

  18. The effect of human capital, social capital, and perceptual values on nascent entrepreneurs' export intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul Rind; Evald, Majbritt Rostgaard; Klyver, Kim

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of human capital, social capital, and cognition on nascent entrepreneurs' export intentions. The results indicate that while human capital and social capital influence the level of intended export, cognitive characteristics, such as self-efficacy and risk...

  19. Human Capital, (Human) Capabilities and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grange, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I initiate a debate into the (de)merits of human capital theory and human capability theory and discuss implications of the debate for higher education. Human capital theory holds that economic growth depends on investment in education and that economic growth is the basis for improving the quality of human life. Human capable…

  20. Human capital and career success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Kato, Takao

    capital formally through schooling for career success, as well as the gender gap in career success rates. Second, broadening the scope of human capital by experiencing various occupations (becoming a generalist) is found to be advantageous for career success. Third, initial human capital earned through......Denmark’s registry data provide accurate and complete career history data along with detailed personal characteristics (e.g., education, gender, work experience, tenure and others) for the population of Danish workers longitudinally. By using such data from 1992 to 2002, we provide rigorous...... formal schooling and subsequent human capital obtained informally on the job are found to be complements in the production of career success. Fourth, though there is a large body of the literature on the relationship between firm-specific human capital and wages, the relative value of firm-specific human...

  1. Human capital strategy: talent management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagra, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Large organizations, including the US Army Medical Department and the Army Nurse Corps, are people-based organizations. Consequently, effective and efficient management of the human capital within these organizations is a strategic goal for the leadership. Over time, the Department of Defense has used many different systems and strategies to manage people throughout their service life-cycle. The current system in use is called Human Capital Management. In the near future, the Army's human capital will be managed based on skills, knowledge, and behaviors through various measurement tools. This article elaborates the human capital management strategy within the Army Nurse Corps, which identifies, develops, and implements key talent management strategies under the umbrella of the Corps' human capital goals. The talent management strategy solutions are aligned under the Nurse Corps business strategy captured by the 2008 Army Nurse Corps Campaign Plan, and are implemented within the context of the culture and core values of the organization.

  2. Social Capital and Human Mortality: Explaining the Rural Paradox with County-Level Mortality Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tse-Chuan; Jensen, Leif; Haran, Murali

    2011-01-01

    The "rural paradox" refers to standardized mortality rates in rural areas that are unexpectedly low in view of well-known economic and infrastructural disadvantages there. We explore this paradox by incorporating social capital, a promising explanatory factor that has seldom been incorporated into residential mortality research. We do so while…

  3. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ECONOMIC GROWTH AND HUMAN CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Tania SANDU

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing the importance of infl uence exerted by human capital oneconomic growth of a country, to base decisions regarding the need to invest in such type of capital there are conducted studies and used different models for analysis related to a series of macroeconomic and demographic indicators.We present the main indicators and dynamics of human capital, placedin the economic context of Romania, with reference, in bringing out statistics data, to an average period of time (between 1994-2008 characterized at macroeconomic level, both by recession and economic growth periods. There were also highlighted indicators and dynamics, both at national and individual level.

  4. Human and Inhuman Capital, and Schooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Krašovec

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Theories of human capital are becoming an increasingly common reference in both newer pedagogical theories as well as political documents, outlining the plans for reforms of science and education. As a part of broader ideology of knowledge society, human capital theories represent ideological legitimation of neoliberal trends in science and education policies. Increased investment in human capital on both social and individual level is supposed to increase the competitiveness of the economy as a whole as well as employability and welfare of individuals. In the first part of the article, we sketch the intellectual history and the socio-political context of the development of theories of human capital. Second part is dedicated to a critique of characteristically neoliberal equalization of labor with capital and of a theory, according to which investment in human capital brings profits to individual workers. In the third part, we outline a general socio-historical dynamics of the development of high-tech capitalism and show that “investments in human capital” and economic innovations do not bring about increased social welfare. In the fourth, final part, we analyze in detail how current educational reforms impact the learning process and working conditions at public universities.

  5. Levels of Social Capital in Internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Arnim

    2016-01-01

    This contribution introduces the notion of social capital and discusses integration into the studies on internationalization of smaller firms and entrepreneurs. Integrating social capital into the resource based perspective, we categorize social capital at three levels: firstly, social capital can...... be attributed to individuals, affecting their relationship with the external environment. Secondly, social capital is an inherent property of networks, into which smaller firms and entrepreneurs are embedded. Thirdly, social capital exists at the macro level, where its characteristics and availability varies...... between environments and nations. This contribution attemps to fascilitate the operationalization of social capital for an improved understanding of processes of internationalization of smaller firms and entrepreneurs....

  6. Human Capital and Career Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Kato, Takao

    2016-01-01

    and Waldman and Lazear. Our analysis allows for both internal promotion and external recruitment as means to achieve top management appointments, and yields additional findings: the breath of human capital is more important in mature firms, as predicted by the theory; and the concept of firm-specific human...

  7. On Measuring Human Capital: A Case Study of Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Son, Hyun Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Human capital refers to the ability and efficiency of people to transform raw materials and capital into goods and services, the consensus being that these skills can be learned through the educational system. The concept of human capital, necessarily, is related to the productivity of workers. Thus, this paper develops a productivity-based single measure of human capital, taking account of different levels of education and productivity differentials across workers. Using this new measure, th...

  8. Human Capital and Optimal Positive Taxation of Capital Income

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Jacobs (Bas); A.L. Bovenberg (Lans)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes optimal linear taxes on capital and labor incomes in a life-cycle model of human capital investment, financial savings, and labor supply with heteroge- nous individuals. A dual income tax with a positive marginal tax rate on not only labor income but also capital

  9. Human capital diversity in the creation of social capital for team creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, J.; Han, J; Brass, D.

    2014-01-01

    We highlight the social aspects of team creativity by proposing that team creativity is influenced by two types of team social capital: bridging and bonding social capital. Going beyond the structural perspective, we posit that team-level human capital diversity is one of the potential antecedents

  10. Human capital in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    On June 7, 2010, as part of the Atomexpo 2010 exhibition, a round-table discussion took place on the topic Human capital in the nuclear industry: challenges and solutions. The article summarizes reports made during the meeting. Tatiana Kozhevnikova, deputy director general of the Rosatom Corporation, made a report about the strategy and best human resource management practices in member companies of the Corporation. She briefly described the state of the human capital in the Russian nuclear industry and outlined the key provisions of the human resource management strategy. Attendees to the round-table discussion elaborated further on the key statements of the report. The discussion has given an evidence that the Russian nuclear industry is giving an enormous importance to human resource management and is firmly intended on successfully tacking the issues associated with the provision of sufficient staff for the industry's safe and efficient development [ru

  11. Human Capital Tracking Tool -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — AVS is now required to collect, track, and report on data from the following Flight, Business and Workforce Plan. The Human Resource Management’s Performance Target...

  12. THE MARKET VALUE OF HUMAN CAPITAL: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEAGU OLIMPIA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a general consensus that human capital is a major determinant of economic growth. Reflections on how human capital is related to growth can be extended by viewing on the market value of the human capital. The concept of the market value of human capital reflects the efficiency of allocation and utilisation of the human capital in the economy. To measure this efficiency the concept of the market value of human capital is explained and developed in the present paper. The aim of the paper is to introduce the concept of market value of human capital and the specific objectives are targeted to define his content, to propose a method for estimating it and to provide calculations of it for OECD countries. The concept of human capital is complex and multifaceted one, consisting of: native human capital (biological, educational capital, health capital and social skills (Neagu, 2010. Clearly, human capital is intangible, a stock that is not directly observable as physical capital. Therefore, the estimation of human capital must be constructed indirectly. The stock of human capital in economy creates economic value, expressed through the economic output per capita. In order to estimate this economic value we have to find an appropriate proxy for the human capital stock producing that value. In the purpose of our paper, we consider that the economic value of human capital can be estimated by calculating the aggregate value created by the active human capital in the economy. In this view, GDP per person employed is a relevant estimation of value created by the employed labour force. The aggregate value is created by the employed persons with different educational level. The market value of human capital is calculated by dividing the GDP per person employed to the human capital stocks active in the economy. The human capital stock depends on educational costs ( on primary, seconadry, tertiary education as a the share of GDP per capita weighted by the

  13. HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT: A STRATEGY FOR MOVING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economy” but also “Knowledge economy” via human capital development. She has not been serious with her ... economy, Human capital, Strategy. Introduction. The world is now controlled by the revolution of Information and Communication.

  14. Heterogeneity of Human Capital and the Return

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer

    2015-01-01

    Human capital is an important growth factor for developing and developed countries and measuring the return to education is essential in evaluating the growth impact from human capital. Most studies use the length of education measured by the years of schooling as an indicator of human capital...

  15. Meting, waardering en sturing van human capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeeten, F.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Human capital wordt door diverse auteurs gezien als een ‘value driver’. Er is echter weinig bekend over de wijze waarop ondernemingen human capital meten en sturen en hoe beleggers op de kapitaalmarkt reageren op human capital informatie die door ondernemingen wordt verstrekt. In dit artikel wordt

  16. Human Capital Linkages to Labour Productivity: Implications from Thai Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukumnuaykit, Pungpond; Pholphirul, Piriya

    2016-01-01

    Human capital investment is a necessary condition for improving labour market outcomes in most countries. Empirical studies to investigate human capital and its linkages on the labour demand side are, however, relatively scarce due to limitations of firm-level data-sets. Using firm-level data from the Thai manufacturing sector, this paper aims to…

  17. Does human capital matter? A meta-analysis of the relationship between human capital and firm performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, T Russell; Todd, Samuel Y; Combs, James G; Woehr, David J; Ketchen, David J

    2011-05-01

    Theory at both the micro and macro level predicts that investments in superior human capital generate better firm-level performance. However, human capital takes time and money to develop or acquire, which potentially offsets its positive benefits. Indeed, extant tests appear equivocal regarding its impact. To clarify what is known, we meta-analyzed effects drawn from 66 studies of the human capital-firm performance relationship and investigated 3 moderators suggested by resource-based theory. We found that human capital relates strongly to performance, especially when the human capital in question is not readily tradable in labor markets and when researchers use operational performance measures that are not subject to profit appropriation. Our results suggest that managers should invest in programs that increase and retain firm-specific human capital.

  18. Does Human Capital Matter? A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Human Capital and Firm Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, T. Russell; Todd, Samuel Y.; Combs, James G.; Woehr, David J.; Ketchen, David J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Theory at both the micro and macro level predicts that investments in superior human capital generate better firm-level performance. However, human capital takes time and money to develop or acquire, which potentially offsets its positive benefits. Indeed, extant tests appear equivocal regarding its impact. To clarify what is known, we…

  19. The level of national competitiveness and the role of human capital in the creation of competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The new economy is organized around global networks of capital, management and information, which is based on technology. In this dynamic and growing international trade and the emergence of aggressive competition in the competitive and global market changing rules of the game and the positions which certain factors are in creating a competitive advantage in the global market. Technological development, innovation, knowledge and skills have become crucial factors for the development of an economy and its companies. Proper management of human capital is a direct source of improving quality and productivity at work, and with it the competitiveness of the most important prerequisite for achieving this goal is quality education. Investing in people and skills is essential, because it is the only way to preserve and improve competitiveness advantage. The need for continuing education caused great dynamism of modern society, the rapid technical and technological development, especially ICT, which requires the creation of new knowledge and skills, as well as creating new occupations, but at the same time that resource must be continually developed and improved.

  20. Migration Options for Skilled Labor and Optimal Investment in Human Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghoddusi, Hamed; Siyahhan, Baran

    2011-01-01

    of human capital. The analysis shows that the accu- mulation of human capital depends crucially on the level of uncertainty and the transferability of human capital across countries. Government subsidies are an important determinant of the composition of different types of human capital and can be crucial...

  1. Human Capital and FDI in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Dorozynska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the role of human capital in attracting FDI in the light of selected empirical studies conducted in Poland and globally. The literature on factors determining FDI location, including those relating to the importance of human capital, is dominated with studies at national or supranational level. Attracting foreign investment has become a key component of national strategies for the CEE countries. The paper makes an attempt to assess the relevance of human capital for FDI inflow at regional and local levels in Poland. At the same time, results of analyses were contrasted with quantitative surveys conducted in Central and Eastern Europe. Investing in education and human capital is important for creating good climate for investment. Evidence shows that achieving a certain minimum level of education is the precondition for a country to attract and maintain foreign direct investment and maximise indirect effects connected with human capital and resulting from the presence of businesses with foreign capital and maximise indirect effects connected with human capital and resulting from the presence of businesses with foreign capital. We should also stress that such a minimum is different for different sectors of the economy. Results of the study conducted in the Lodz Region demonstrated that human capital is an important factor, which attracts FDI to the region.

  2. The impact of human capital development in employment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was discovered that the level of human capital was not sufficient to stimulate employment or reduce unemployment in Nigeria. Besides, it was discovered that population growth is really not the challenge for employment in Nigeria especially if human capital can be harnessed productively, and channelled towards viable ...

  3. Human Capital and the Internal Rate of Return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Sherwin

    The theory of human capital has made a significant impact on the practice of modern labor economics. At a broad and general level, the concept of human capital has obvious appeal for its simplicity, analytical power, and relationship to economic theory. The fundamental problem in labor economics is the determination of wage rates and earnings;…

  4. HUMAN CAPITAL MANAGEMENT IN A KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    approach in Scientific Research Centers within knowledge based ... Relational Capital (customer capital): represents all the .... measure the economy's human capital by the rates of enrolment in .... skill or ability, a personal characteristic, or a cluster of two or more ..... satisfied with the moral motivation (not financial) of the.

  5. Changing domains in human capital measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pharny D. Chrysler-Fox

    2014-09-01

    Research purpose: The aim of the study was to explore and describe changing domains within human capital management to be managed and measured. Motivation for the study: The motivation was to advance the understanding of changing measurement domains to aid practitioners to manage and measure the contribution of the human resource function and employees, in order to unlock and add value and ultimately contribute to the success of an organisation. Research design, approach and method: Unstructured, in-depth interview data of purposively selected cases from a selected panel of human resource practitioners specialising in human capital measurement was thematically analysed in this exploratory-descriptive investigation. Main findings: Findings suggested that seven domains should be managed and measured. These domains highlight new areas of impact and levels of management. In addition, crossdomain relationships in measurement allow for an understanding of the impact and potential value on which to capitalise. Practical/managerial implications: New domains to manage and measure focus the attention of practitioners beyond the transactional performance management paradigm to a transformational approach to influence the business strategy. Higher education institutions need to develop students’ cognitive skills to facilitate systems thinking. Contribution: This study suggests a new approach to managing and measuring the human capital function and the workforce.

  6. Chinese Entrepreneurs Human and Social Capital Benefiting Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kent Wickstrøm; Rezaei, Shahamak; Schøtt, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    An entrepreneur’s innovative work tends to benefit from the entrepreneur’s human capital in the form of entrepreneurial competencies partly based on education, and the entrepreneur’s social capital in the form of a network in the public sphere and a network in the private sphere, although this may...... of human and social capital for innovation, comparing Chinese entrepreneurs in China with Chinese entrepreneurs in the diaspora. We find that the level of education, entrepreneurial competencies and social capital varied between entrepreneurs in home country and diaspora. Of the social and human capitals...... also be a liability. The entrepreneur’s human and social capital depend on the social context, specifically whether the entrepreneur is residing in the home country or in the diaspora. An indigenous entrepreneur is embedded in own country, but a migrant entrepreneur has a dual embeddedness, in the old...

  7. Human Capital and Risky Asset Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Wenjie; Yu, Qun

    2011-01-01

    Much research has been done to examine the relation between investors' human capital and their financial asset allocation. While some showed that the value of human capital should be taken into consideration to make financial asset allocation decisions on the composition of investing portfolios, most argued not. In this paper, we selected the monthly return of 9 industrial ETFs from June of 2007 to July 2011, used the present value of total future income as estimate of human capital, and reli...

  8. The impact of human capital outsourcing on human capital management practices in Karachi pharmaceutical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Rana, Tariq Mehmood; Syed, Qamar Ali Zaidi; Muhmmad, Sajid; Herani, Gobind M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this research is to examine relationship between Human Capital Management (HRM) and Human Resource (HR) Outsourcing in the Pharmaceutical sector. The specific objective is to find out that how important is HRM for an Organization to perform its operations more efficiently, and at what level Human Resource Outsourcing is affecting it. Literature review: Literature review shows that HR outsourcing has positive impact on HRM for an Organization to perform its operations more ...

  9. Education - an investment in human capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Neamţu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Formal education, personal abilities and the health state play an important role in this paper. Those are all essential constituent elements of the human capital. In the present paper we intend to present briefly the fundamental concepts of the human capital, with an emphasis on education and abilities. We also mark out the importance of the human capital development in the purpose of maintaining the development and the motivation of the human resources, which are the main premises organizations need to capitalize. The higher education has a determinant role in the attainment of this desideratum.

  10. The indicative analysis and ranking of human capital development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inessa, Gurban; Alexandr, Tarasyev

    2017-07-01

    In this article we discuss the rationale for the importance and effectiveness of the regions ranking as a tool for regional social and economic policies aimed to control the regional socio-economic development. A methodological approach to the determination of the human capital development level in the regions of the Russian Federation is provided focused on determining the quality of human capital in each region of the Russian Federation and the causes underlying this situation. The methodological apparatus is based on the indicative qualimetric analysis method that allows to convert various benchmarks expressed in different units in a comparable type. Also it is possible to receive and differentiate a comprehensive assessment of the human capital level in each region of the Russian Federation on the basis of the proposed classification. In this article we present the structure of the indicators system that simulates the human capital level by a number of descriptive components including demographic, educational, employment, research and socio-cultural components. In our research we found that in the overwhelming majority of the Russian Federation human capital is characterized mainly by a low development level. The system shows unstable dynamics in the human capital level through the Russian Federal Districts, as well as the leaders and laggards in the rating of the Russian Federation during the period 2000-2013. Our article presents the structure of a comprehensive assessment of the human capital level by providing estimates of its components.

  11. Human Capital Accumulation: The Role of Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavan, Thomas N.; Morley, Michael; Gunnigle, Patrick; Collins, Eammon

    2001-01-01

    Presents definitions of intellectual and human capital. Examines human capital from the individual perspective (employability, performance, career development) and organization perspective (investment, ownership, knowledge management). Reviews papers in the theme issue. (Contains 117 references.) (SK)

  12. Limited Capital Market Participation and Human Capital Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Berk; Johan Walden

    2010-01-01

    The non-tradability of human capital is often cited for the failure of traditional asset pricing theory to explain agents' portfolio holdings. In this paper we argue that the opposite might be true --- traditional models might not be able to explain agent portfolio holdings because they do not explicitly account for the fact that human capital does trade (in the form of labor contracts). We derive wages endogenously as part of a dynamic equilibrium in a production economy. Risk is shared in l...

  13. Optimal income taxation with endogenous human capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper augments the theory of optimal linear income taxation by taking into account human capital accumulation as a dimension of labor supply. The distribution of earning potentials is endogenous because agents differ in the ability to learn. Taxation affects utilization rates of human capital

  14. Human Capital Composition and Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chun-Li; Hung, Ming-Cheng; Harriott, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect of various compositions of human capital on economic growth. We construct alternative measures of human capital composition using five fields of study. In each instance, the measure represents the number of graduates in the respective field as a percentage of all graduates. The measures are as…

  15. A Human Capital Approach to Career Advising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Leigh S.; Zalewski, Jacqueline M.

    2011-01-01

    We began this series by addressing the challenges of career advising in a volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous environment. In this article, we define human capital and suggest that advisors encourage students to utilize the principle of maximizing human capital when making decisions. We describe the personal traits and attitudes needed to…

  16. EVALUATING HUMAN CAPITAL IN A KNOWLEDGE – BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanoil MUSCALU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The widespread enthusiasm for a knowledge-based approach to understanding the nature of a business and the possible basis for sustained competitive advantage have renewed interest in human capital evaluation or measurement. While many attempts have been made to develop methods for measuring intellectual capital, none have been widely adopted in the business world. In the knowledge-based organizations, and generally, in the information society, human capital is recognized as the fundamental factor of overall progress, and experts agree that long-term investment in human capital has strong drive-propagation effects at the individual, organizational, national and global level. In this paper, we consider that a knowledge-based approach can offer new possibilities and answers to illustrate the importance of evaluation the human capital and knowledge assets by consistently generating added value in the business world.

  17. Human Capital, Wealth, and Renewable Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bin ZHANG

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies dynamic interdependence among physical capital, resource and human capital. We integrate the Solow one-sector growth, Uzawa-Lucas two-sector and some neoclassical growth models with renewable resource models. The economic system consists of the households, production sector, resource sector and education sector. We take account of three ways of improving human capital: Arrow’s learning by producing (Arrow, 1962, Uzawa’s learning by education (Uzawa, 1965, and Zhang’s learning by consuming (Zhang, 2007. The model describes a dynamic interdependence among wealth accumulation, human capital accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. We simulate the model to demonstrate existence of equilibrium points and motion of the dynamic system. We also examine effects of changes in the productivity of the resource sector, the utilization efficiency of human capital, the propensity to receive education, and the propensity to save upon dynamic paths of the system.

  18. HUMAN CAPITAL FLIGHT - ROMANIA’S CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena VELCIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge, qualifications of workforce and human capital became key factors for progress. Human capital flight transfers not only people but work, knowledge, tangible and intangible capital and development potential. In this article, trying to answer whether Romania is a source country for emigration of highly skilled or well-educated individuals (ie human capital flight I flew over those two dimensions that have traditionally characterized human capital flight namely: shrinking work resource and lossing high educated peoples. Therefore, Romania was faced with decreasing the number of resident population due to the evolution of demographic phenomena with negative projections and declining number of working age population and young educated and highly skilled workers and professionals. This will generate complex problems for economy, labour market, difficulty in finding highly skilled workers, talent shortages etc so it’s critical to monitor the labour migration or brain drain phenomenon.

  19. The human capital crisis in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Marc Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The economics of dental practice are changing. The author reflects on the loss of a long-term, highly effective, and dedicated assistant in an orthodontic practice. Changes in technology, numbers of dentists, expected benefit levels, and a competitive workplace environment are combining to put pressures on the traditional model of oral health care. Whatever the solution turns out to be, the profession should take the lead in actively developing alternatives, and these will necessarily involve development of human capital in the dental practice.

  20. Human capital in low-tech manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Teis; Winther, Lars; Hansen, Ronnie Fibæk

    2014-01-01

    An essential feature associated with the rise of the knowledge economy has been the increasing focus on the importance of human capital as a precondition for economic growth. Human capital has been found to have a positive impact on the economic growth of high-tech industries, however, the influe......An essential feature associated with the rise of the knowledge economy has been the increasing focus on the importance of human capital as a precondition for economic growth. Human capital has been found to have a positive impact on the economic growth of high-tech industries, however......, the influence of human capital on the development of low-tech industries is yet to be analysed. This paper provides such an examination of low-tech industries based on an analysis of employment data within manufacturing industries in Denmark in the period 1993–2006. The findings highlight, first, that human...... capital appears to be equally important for economic development in low-tech industries and, second, that the divide between the large urban regions, especially Copenhagen, and the rest of the country plays the primary role in explaining the geography of human capital. These findings stress the relevance...

  1. The Economic Value of Human Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Gulie Alexandra Emanuela

    2012-01-01

    The human factor created by physical work and/or intellectual property of all existing material, is unequivocally active value of any work, ie human capital translates into different activities, specialized or not, it creates these individuals. History of the term human capital has experienced over time a series of ups and downs, as agreed or rejected by academia and the political class. Although known affirmation and its conceptual structure only after the seventh decade of the twentieth cen...

  2. The Cumulative Effect of Human Capital on Economic Growth:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheidaei , Zahra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the controversial relationship between human capital and growth through different channels using a cross-country panel approach applied for 104 countries, including 79 developing countries and 25 developed countries (OECD during 1980-2011. The analysis yields important insights into the relationship between human capital and growth. Firstly, we find a significant relationship between high levels of human capital and technology adoption Secondly, considering the levels of human capital directly as a innovation component in the productivity function shows that there is a non-linear relationship between this factor and growth. The results provide a new understanding of this relationship and to some extent contradict some earlier studies.

  3. Human Capital Quality and Development: An Employers' and Employees' Comparative Insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neagu Olimpia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to compare the employers' and employees' insights on human capital quality defining and human capital development at organisational level, based on a survey carried out in the county of Satu Mare, Romania. Our findings show that as human capital buyers, employers understand by human capital quality professional background and skills, professional behaviour and efficiency and productivity for the organisation. As human capital sellers, for employees human capital quality means health and the ability to learn and to be suitable to the job requirements. Regarding the opportunities to develop the organisational human capital, the views of employers and employees are very different when the level of discussion is international (macro-level. Employees consider that the international environment has a greater impact on human capital development in their organisation as the employers.

  4. People, partnerships and human progress: building community capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, T

    2001-09-01

    The Victorian-era journal The Sanitarian used on its masthead the slogan 'A nation's health is a nation's wealth'. Today, we are re-discovering that wisdom, recognizing that health is indeed a form of wealth. Moreover, we are beginning to understand that wealth is not merely our economic capital, but includes three other forms of capital--social, natural and human capital. Health is one key element of human capital. A healthy community is one that has high levels of social, ecological, human and economic 'capital', the combination of which may be thought of as 'community capital'. The challenge for communities in the 21st century will be to increase all four forms of capital simultaneously. This means working with suitable partners in the private sector, making human development the central purpose of governance, and more closely integrating social, environmental and economic policy. Community gardens, sustainable transportation systems and energy conservation programmes in community housing projects are some of the ways in which we can build community capital.

  5. Human Capital and Cross-Country Comparison of Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Marie Viaene; Itzhak Zilcha

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe paper studies the effects of cross-country differences in the production process of human capital on income distribution and growth. Our overlapping gen- erations economy has the following features: (1) consumers are heterogenous with respect to parental human capital and wealth; (2) intergenerational transfers take place via parental education and, public investments in education financed by taxes (possibly, with a level determined by majority voting); (3) due to investment i...

  6. Iraq Reconstruction: Lessons in Human Capital Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bowen, Jr., Stuart W; Nash, William L

    2006-01-01

    ...) Human Capital Management, (2) Contracting, and (3) Program and Project Management. In each subject area, SIGIR gathers information through research and interviews, collating and distilling the results into a white paper...

  7. Natural resources, redistribution and Human capital formation

    OpenAIRE

    Aguero, Jorge; Balcazar, Carlos Felipe; Maldonado, Stanislao; Ñopo, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    How do resource booms affect human capital accumulation? We exploit time and spatial variation generated by the commodity boom across local governments in Peru to measure the effect of natural resources on human capital formation. We explore the effect of both mining production and tax revenues on test scores, finding a substantial and statistically significant effect for the latter. Transfers to local governments from mining tax revenues are linked to an increase in math test scores of aroun...

  8. Human Capital in the Entrepreneurship Ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Annemarie; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova

    2018-01-01

    Since Adam Smith (1776) took consideration to human capital as an asset of economic value, academic interest has focused on the economic effects of human capital. In 1931, Schumpeter called for a focus on the individual entrepreneur or the creative destructor with his/her motives, wishes, aspirat......Since Adam Smith (1776) took consideration to human capital as an asset of economic value, academic interest has focused on the economic effects of human capital. In 1931, Schumpeter called for a focus on the individual entrepreneur or the creative destructor with his/her motives, wishes......, aspirations and activities when dealing with entrepreneurship and entrepreneurs. Along these lines, this paper focuses on an in-depth investigation of the domain of human capital in Isenbergs Entrepreneurship Ecosystem. It captures the entrepreneurial mindset of the highly complex individual as a requisite...... for entrepreneurial success and ultimately, for business growth and development. The increasing literature debating human capital confirms the relevance of locating and refining the factors for entrepreneurial success. Consequently, this paper improves the roadmap of Entrepreneurship Ecosystems by adding the innate...

  9. HUMAN CAPITAL: Major Human Capital Challenges at SEC and Key Trade Agencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hillman, Richard

    2002-01-01

    .... The leadership provided by this subcommittee and the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs has been especially important in focusing attention on the federal government s human capital challenges.

  10. The Institutional Paradigm of Human Capital Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolomiiets Viktoriia М.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the modern conception of human capital is connected with the development of post-industrial information society, knowledge economy and digital economy. The main role in analyzing of the content and role of human capital can play a new institutional economic theory. It is determined that the methodology of research of paradigm change in economic science remains the subject of discussion. The conception of institutional paradigm of human capital development can be attributed to the new economy, the development of which is carried out on the condition that the employee is not always alienated from the relationships of ownership: he himself becomes the owner of the «new» economic resources. The factors of education along with the factors of health care which are determining in the development of human capital are researched. Special attention is paid to education, as it acts as an intellectual capital of the new economy, where knowledge and skills become the «intellectual 5D printer», producing the modern human capital. The transition to a new, post-industrial economy is characterized by a major long-term tendency: the progress of knowledge and the increasing complexity of the socio-economic life; created by powerful factors of information and computer technologies and leading to expansion of global economic space.

  11. Challenges of Research and Human Capital Development in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikwe, Christian K.; Ogidi, Reuben C.; Nwachukwu, K.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discussed the challenges of research and human capital development in Nigeria. Research and human capital development are critical to the development of any nation. Research facilitates human capital development. A high rating in human capital development indices places a country among the leading countries of the world. The paper…

  12. Political Regime and Human Capital: A Cross-Country Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    We examine the relationship between different dimensions of the political regime in place and human capital using a two-step structural equation model. In the first step, we employ factor analysis on 16 human capital indicators to construct two new human capital measures (basic and advanced human capital). In the second step, we estimate the…

  13. Human Capital and Knowledge Emergence. Induced Effects of the Global Crisis on Human capital and Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Buta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the global crisis context crossed by organizations and countries in the past six years we assist also at conflicting measures in which regards knowledge, innovation and human capital; for example, countries such as England and France have reduced their costs for education, while Germany and other countries (Australia, Austria, Canada and Norway maintained the same allocations for education. What will be the effects of such measures on human capital in the near future? What are the best human resources policies in companies in the crisis context? Given that the subject of the research is "knowledge and human capital", in this paper we refer to the induced effects of the crisis on human capital and innovation. We will also identify the key steps that can be taken during crisis, and not only, to stimulate human capital.

  14. KONTRIBUSI HUMAN CAPITAL dan CUSTOMER CAPITAL DALAM MENGGAPAI KINERJA CAFÉ dan RESTO di SURABAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gendut Sukarno

    2016-11-01

    Berdasarkan hasil pengolahan data diketemukan bahwa 1 human capital mampu memberikan kontribusi yang berarti terhadap customer capital. 2 Customer capital mampu memberikan kontribusi yang berarti terhadap kinerja café dan resto di Surabaya, 3 human capital mampu memberikan kontribusi yang berarti terhadap kinerja café dan resto di Surabaya.

  15. ACCOUNTING CHALLENGES – CAPITALIZING HUMAN VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra CIOCLOV (PETCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the performance of business organisations has been a priority for all stakeholders, and this is the reason accounting has continuously evolved to better assist investors in their decision-making process. However, given the increasing importance of the service industry, the focus in evaluating business performance is also on employees’ performance and employee-centred organisational policies that would further stimulate the knowledge-production at the firms’ level. As many accounting professionals have already understood, accounting faces the challenge of a continuous adaption to the necessities of the business environment, thus admitting that it should provide the grounds for a sustainable and generalizable methodology for intellectual and, more particularly, human capital recognition. This paper offers a literature review on intellectual capital management and reporting, leaving room for the debate upon the choice of instruments that would ensure an accurate presentation employees’ added-value to organisational performance. It also presents a schematic approach to further develop the subject, describing the proposed methodology for further in-depth research.

  16. Human Capital and Wages in Exporting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the link between a firms education level, export performance and wages of its workers. We argue that firms may escape intence competition in international markets by using high skilled workers to differentiate their products. This story is consistent with our empirical results....... Osing a very rich matched worker-firm longitudinal dataset we find that firms with high export intensities pay higher wages. However, an interaction term between export intensity and skill intensity has a positive impact on wages and it absorbs the direct effect of the export intensity. That is, we find...... an export wage premium, but it accrues to workers in firms with high skill intensities.Keywords: Exports, Wages, Human Capital, Rent Sharing, Matched Worker-Firm DataJEL Classification: J30, F10, I20...

  17. Partner's Resources and Adjusting Working Hours in the Netherlands: Differences over Time, between Levels of Human Capital, and over the Family Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbakel, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    We study to what extent adjustments in labor market participation, defined as employment entry and exit, and as increases and reductions of weekly working hours, depend on resources of the partner. Moreover, we investigate whether the influence of the partner depends on historical period, human capital, and children. We are especially interested…

  18. Human Capital in the Entrepreneurship Ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Annemarie; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova

    2018-01-01

    for entrepreneurial success and ultimately, for business growth and development. The increasing literature debating human capital confirms the relevance of locating and refining the factors for entrepreneurial success. Consequently, this paper improves the roadmap of Entrepreneurship Ecosystems by adding the innate......, aspirations and activities when dealing with entrepreneurship and entrepreneurs. Along these lines, this paper focuses on an in-depth investigation of the domain of human capital in Isenbergs Entrepreneurship Ecosystem. It captures the entrepreneurial mindset of the highly complex individual as a requisite...

  19. A Behavioral Theory of Human Capital Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper

    design in fostering the integration and use of human capital is bounded by individual cognitive limitations that may lead employees to deviate from expected behavior, both individually and in collaboration. The thesis consists of three research papers relying on comprehensive longitudinal project data...... with one another. The overarching contribution of the thesis is to demonstrate, through the combination of psychological and organizational theory, how the ability of firms to properly activate and apply the knowledge held by their employees is fundamentally contingent on the interplay of cognitive...... of a behavioral theory of human capital integration....

  20. A survey of work engagement and psychological capital levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Lynda

    2016-08-11

    To evaluate the relationship between work engagement and psychological capital (PsyCap) levels reported by registered nurses. PsyCap is a developable human resource. Research on PsyCap as an antecedent to work engagement in nurses is needed. A convenience sample of 137 registered nurses participated in this quantitative cross-sectional survey. Questionnaires measured self-reported levels of work engagement and psychological capital. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. There was a statistically significant correlation between work engagement and PsyCap scores (r=0.633, pworking at band 5 level reported statistically significantly lower PsyCap scores compared with nurses working at band 6 and 7 levels. Nurses reporting high levels of work engagement also reported high levels of PsyCap. Band 5 nurses might benefit most from interventions to increase their PsyCap. This study supports PsyCap as an antecedent to work engagement.

  1. The human capital theory. Encouragement and criticism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolomiiets, Uliana; Petrushenko, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2017), s. 77-80 ISSN 2520-6621 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : human capital * Mincerian theory * labor economics Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://armgpublishing.sumdu.edu.ua/journals/sec/issue-1/article-9/

  2. The human capital theory. Encouragement and criticism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolomiiets, Uliana; Petrushenko, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2017), s. 77-80 ISSN 2520-6621 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : human capital * Mincerian theory * labor economics Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://armgpublishing.sumdu.edu.ua/journals/sec/issue-1/article-9/

  3. Human Capital Development Policies: Enhancing Employees Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hooi Lan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose--The aim of this article is to gain insight into some of the human capital development (HCD) policies that enhance employee satisfaction. A salient focus of the study is to assess whether employees in globalised foreign-owned MNCs are likely to be more satisfied with the HCD policies than with the practices employed by locally owned MNCs.…

  4. Resource efficiency in agricultural development: human capital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resource efficiency in agricultural development: human capital development perspective and poverty challenges in developing countries. ... in Nigeria and contributed about 23.9% of the Gross National Domestic product in 2016. ... Equally, the new focus on agriculture involves training on new technologies and evolving ...

  5. Human Capital Theory: A Holistic Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Emrullah

    2014-01-01

    Human capital theory has had a profound impact on a range of disciplines from economics to education and sociology. The theory has always been the subject of bitter criticisms from the very beginning, but it has comfortably survived and expanded its influence over other research disciplines. Not surprisingly, a considerable number of criticisms…

  6. Earnings progression, human capital and incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    progression by investigating the effects of on-the-job human capital acquisition, explicit short-run incentives and career concern incentives on earnings progression. The model leads to predictions about the incentive structure and the progression in both cross-sectional and individual earnings which...

  7. THE MARKET VALUE OF HUMAN CAPITAL: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    NEAGU OLIMPIA

    2012-01-01

    There is a general consensus that human capital is a major determinant of economic growth. Reflections on how human capital is related to growth can be extended by viewing on the market value of the human capital. The concept of the market value of human capital reflects the efficiency of allocation and utilisation of the human capital in the economy. To measure this efficiency the concept of the market value of human capital is explained and developed in the present paper. The aim of the pap...

  8. Human Material in the Communication of Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atle Mikkola Kjøsen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to interrogate Marx’s analysis of the circulation of capital through the ‘new materialist’ communications and media theory of Friedrich Kittler. It explores the connections between Marx’s commodity fetish and how Kittler posits human beings as components of an information system alongside technologies and institutions. The article ask whether a ‘non-human’ Marxist theory is possible, i.e. if it is possible to remove the human being from its privileged position in Marx’s political economy. Specifically the paper argues that human beings are programmable human matter that serves to aid the communication of value through capital’s circuit. This stance necessitates adopting the point of view of capital and the fetish, bracketing the social and moving away from categories such as labour, production and class consciousness in favour of the value form, circulation and programmability.

  9. Political regime and human capital: A cross-country analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.; Haan, de J.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the relationship between different dimensions of the political regime in place and human capital using a two-step structural equation model. In the first step, we employ factor analysis on 16 human capital indicators to construct two new human capital measures (basic and advanced human

  10. Political regime and human capital : A cross-country analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.; de Haan, J.

    We examine the relationship between different dimensions of the political regime in place and human capital using a two-step structural equation model. In the first step, we employ factor analysis on 16 human capital indicators to construct two new human capital measures (basic and advanced human

  11. HUMAN CAPITAL: Major Human Capital Challenges at SEC and Key Trade Agencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hillman, Richard

    2002-01-01

    We appreciate the opportunity to appear here today to discuss the human capital challenges facing the agencies that play key roles in monitoring publicly traded companies and enforcing our nation's trade laws...

  12. Human Capital and Organizational Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Ioana Julieta Josan

    2013-01-01

    The new organizational changes caused by social, economic and politic reforms led to a shift in the strategic management of the companies. The growing need for professionals, who know how to generate profits, is growing and increase confidence of partners and clients, find new ideas and adapt to a dynamic market. Therefore, internally, we need an efficient management of human resources to find and retain the most suitable and efficient people which will increase productivity and face the incr...

  13. An Investigation of the Relationship between Capital Levels and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Siphambe H (Prof)

    The paper therefore seeks to establish the relationship between capital levels and ... Thus an increase in capital requirements will not affect banks' ..... competitive products and services to customers with the end result being increased ...

  14. On the uncertain nature of human capital investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazza, J.

    2012-01-01

    The four studies presented here pertain to an often neglected characteristic of educational investments in human capital literature: its unpredictability and how individuals account for and respond to it. The first study elicits, from a sample of Dutch high school students, the level of information

  15. Human capital, innovation, and climate policy: An integrated assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Carraro, Carlo; De Cian, Enrica; Tavoni, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the interplay between human capital and innovation in the presence of climate and educational policies. Using recent empirical estimates, human capital and general purpose R&D are introduced in an integrated assessment model that has been extensively applied to study the climate change mitigation. Our results suggest that climate policy stimulates general purpose as well as clean energy R&D but reduces the incentive to invest in human capital formation. Human capital incre...

  16. Initial capital structure of portuguese innovative firms : the role of nascent entrepreneurs' human capital

    OpenAIRE

    Couto, Eduardo; Bilau, José

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse whether the human capital of the nascent entrepreneur influences the initial capital structure of Portuguese innovative firms. The research model used includes a dependent binary variable devised to check the initial capital structure, two groups of independent variables referring to the human capital and a group of control variables. The results obtained through logistic regression show that "heterogeneity of professional experience" positively influences ...

  17. The role of human capital in the modern economy and indicators of its evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Serebryakova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a modern economy, increasing its competitiveness is impossible without the accumulation and development of human capital, since the foundation of the transformation of the economic system into an innovation economy is human capital. In this regard, the level of development and effectiveness of the use of human capital is of paramount importance. In this study, an attempt is made to assess the effectiveness of the use of human capital for its contribution to the economy of the country. The authors emphasize that the modern economy makes new demands on workers, therefore it is necessary to constantly accumulate human capital, its development through continuous training, which will allow the domestic economy to exit on the trajectory of sustainable economic growth. The need to create conditions for a comprehensive increase in the level of development of human capital was stressed. The authors propose an author's approach to assess the level of development and efficiency of the use of human capital on the basis of indicators: the index of labor productivity, the share of high-technology and knowledge-intensive industries in GDP, the increase in the number of high-productivity jobs, the innovative activity of organizations, the share of domestic expenditure on research and development in GDP, the coefficient of inventive activity. The article presents the results of the study of human capital in the Russian Federation. The role of human capital in the economic development of the country has been studied and justified. Key indicators of the effectiveness of the use of human capital are analyzed. Trends in the development of human capital in the Russian Federation for 2011–2016 are shown. The analysis of the results of the assessment will reveal problems in the formation and use of human capital and determine the main directions and necessary conditions for increasing the contribution of human capital to the economy.

  18. The crisis in human capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, E. D. K.; Kersey, Judith A.

    1991-01-01

    This overview discusses the current shortfalls in the U.S. national education system with attention to their effects on the aerospace industry and potential remedies. Student-achievement and literacy rates are examined to compare U.S. students to those of other countries, and the sociological and cultural phenomena are listed which can contribute to deficiencies in learning. Intervention programs for young children and for students in math and science are discussed, and corporate mechanisms are described which support scholarly activities. Also examined are teaching resources provided by government agencies that deal with science and technology. The general conclusion of the paper is that the efforts to date are insufficient because they do not address education levels across the country. It is suggested that corporations and communities rather than federal and state governments address the educational shortfalls.

  19. Companies' human capital required for collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albats, Ekaterina; Bogers, Marcel; Podmetina, Daria

    building, relationship building, IPR management and negotiation for the context of collaboration with universities. Our research has revealed an importance of expectation management skills for university-industry collaboration (UIC) context. We found that human capital for UIC is to be continuously......Universities are widely acknowledged as an important source of knowledge for corporate innovation, and collaboration with universities plays an important role in companies’ open innovation strategy. However, little is known about the human capital components required for collaboration...... with universities. Analysing the results of the survey among over 500 company managers we define the universal employees’ skills required for company’ successful collaborations with external stakeholders. Then through analysing qualitative interviews data we distinguish between these skills and capabilities...

  20. On Aggregating Human Capital Across Heterogeneous Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Growiec, Jakub; Groth, Christian

    experience. Under the scenarios considered here, the "macro-Mincer" (log-linear) relationship between aggregate human capital and average years of schooling is obtained only in cases which are inconsistent with heterogeneity in years of schooling and based on empirically implausible demographic survival laws....... Our numerical results indicate that the macro-Mincer equation can be a reasonable approximation of the true relationship only if returns to schooling and work experience are roughly constant across countries...

  1. Entrepreneurship and human capital development in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Kasper; Rutasitara, Longinus; Selejio, Onesmo

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the link between entrepreneurship and child human capital development. We specifically examine how operating a non-farm enterprise (NFE) as opposed to working in agriculture relates to child labour and schooling outcomes. Accounting for timeinvariant unobservable characteristics...... for girls. Given these findings, it appears that household entrepreneurship may contribute to decreasing the severe child labour problem in Tanzania, but resolving the problem of low school attendance rates will require a different strategy....

  2. Credit Market Development and Human Capital Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Wai-Hong

    2008-01-01

    In a two period overlapping generations economy with asymmetric information, we investigate the interaction between credit market development and human capital accumulation. As is typical, young borrowers supply their endowed unit of labor time to earn wage income which is used as internal funds. In contrast to conventional setups, young lenders distribute theirs between acquiring education and working for earnings. Through identifying the risk types of borrowers by a costly screening tech...

  3. The Option Value of Human Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Yongseok Shin; Sang Yoon (Tim) Lee

    2013-01-01

    We study college enrollment and completion decisions in the presence of risk in individuals' returns to college. Although the human capital acquired through education is irreversible (i.e., it cannot be decumulated or sold off), college education comes with two inherent options: (i) college students may drop out after obtaining additional information on their post-graduation wages and (ii) college graduates may take jobs that does not require a college degree, effectively protecting themselve...

  4. Optimal taxation and debt with uninsurable risks to human capital accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Gottardi, Piero; Kajii, Atsushi; Nakajima, Tomoyuki

    2015-01-01

    We consider an economy where individuals face uninsurable risks to their human capital accumulation, and analyze the optimal level of linear taxes on capital and labor income together with the optimal path of government debt. We show that in the presence of such risks it is beneficial to tax both labor and capital and to issue public debt. We also assess the quantitative importance of these findings, and show that the benefits of government debt and capital taxes both increase with the magnit...

  5. Features of human capital in urban territories | Mingaleva | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The calculations of human capital of agglomerated areas in general and of centers of agglomerated areas are carried out. The article contains conclusions on the relationship of human capital as a tangible asset of a big city with the development of specific social capital of the city, aimed at active policy of urbanization.

  6. Inequality in Human Capital and Endogenous Credit Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Rong; Heckman, James J

    2017-04-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of inequality in human capital with an emphasis on the role of the credit constraints. We develop and estimate a model in which individuals face uninsured human capital risks and invest in education, acquire work experience, accumulate assets and smooth consumption. Agents can borrow from the private lending market and from government student loan programs. The private market credit limit is explicitly derived by extending the natural borrowing limit of Aiyagari (1994) to incorporate endogenous labor supply, human capital accumulation, psychic costs of working, and age. We quantify the effects of cognitive ability, noncognitive ability, parental education, and parental wealth on educational attainment, wages, and consumption. We conduct counterfactual experiments with respect to tuition subsidies and enhanced student loan limits and evaluate their effects on educational attainment and inequality. We compare the performance of our model with an influential ad hoc model in the literature with education-specific fixed loan limits. We find evidence of substantial life cycle credit constraints that affect human capital accumulation and inequality. The constrained fall into two groups: those who are permanently poor over their lifetimes and a group of well-endowed individuals with rising high levels of acquired skills who are constrained early in their life cycles. Equalizing cognitive and noncognitive ability has dramatic effects on inequality. Equalizing parental backgrounds has much weaker effects. Tuition costs have weak effects on inequality.

  7. Membangun Human Capital Melalui Kepemimpinan Dan Komitmen Organisasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh Nasih

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Every company is constructed through two kinds of capital, which is financial capital and intellectual capital. If the company's capital is described as a tree, the human capital, an essential part of intellectual capital, is the resin. Resin allows the tree grows, and only the human capital that enables organizations to grow and develop. Considering the strategic position of human capital, it is a compulsion for a company to develop it. The problem is how to build human capital effectively? This study aimed to identify the factors that determine the development of human capital in an organization. There are 2 (two major factors that hypothetically influence human capital, which is leadership and organizational commitment. Leadership does not directly affect human capital. Leadership influence human capital through organizational commitment. In other words, organizational commitment is an intervening variable for the relationship or the influence of leadership on human capital. This hypothesis is based on a 'fact' that the function of leadership is oriented and intended to obtain or build the commitment of each personnel. Only committed personnel will provide their best for the organization. Only through the best contributions of every personnel, human capital can be built and developed. Leadership is useless if it can not obtain and create commitment. Personnel are useless, no matter how many and how skilfull they are, if they do not contribute the best for the organization. The presence of personnel without their comitment will be the same with their absence; even they may actually be detrimental to the organization.

  8. A Century of Human Capital and Hours

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Restuccia; Guillaume Vandenbroucke

    2012-01-01

    An average person born in the United States in the second half of the nineteenth century completed 7 years of schooling and spent 58 hours a week working in the market. By contrast, an average person born at the end of the twentieth century completed 14 years of schooling and spent 40 hours a week working. In the span of 100 years, completed years of schooling doubled and working hours decreased by 30 percent. What explains these trends? We consider a model of human capital and labor supply t...

  9. Exploring Human Capital and Hybrid Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klyver, Kim; Lomberg, Carina; Steffens, Paul

    2016-01-01

    ’s human capital influences entrepreneurial pursuits as a two stage process, first shaping whether nascent entrepreneurship and/or employment enters an individual’s consideration set when they are facing a career transition and second influencing the outcomes of entrepreneurial pursuits. Using a novel...... longitudinal dataset of individuals facing career transition as nascent entrepreneurs, job seekers or both, we find that while hybrid nascent entrepreneurship (trying to start a business while being employed) has a positive influence on outcomes, hybrid search (concurrent job search while trying to start...

  10. Principles in selecting human capital measurements and metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pharny D. Chrysler-Fox

    2014-09-01

    Research purpose: The study explored principles in selecting human capital measurements,drawing on the views and recommendations of human resource management professionals,all experts in human capital measurement. Motivation for the study: The motivation was to advance the understanding of selectingappropriate and strategic valid measurements, in order for human resource practitioners tocontribute to creating value and driving strategic change. Research design, approach and method: A qualitative approach, with purposively selectedcases from a selected panel of human capital measurement experts, generated a datasetthrough unstructured interviews, which were analysed thematically. Main findings: Nineteen themes were found. They represent a process that considers thecentrality of the business strategy and a systemic integration across multiple value chains inthe organisation through business partnering, in order to select measurements and generatemanagement level-appropriate information. Practical/managerial implications: Measurement practitioners, in partnership withmanagement from other functions, should integrate the business strategy across multiplevalue chains in order to select measurements. Analytics becomes critical in discoveringrelationships and formulating hypotheses to understand value creation. Higher educationinstitutions should produce graduates able to deal with systems thinking and to operatewithin complexity. Contribution: This study identified principles to select measurements and metrics. Noticeableis the move away from the interrelated scorecard perspectives to a systemic view of theorganisation in order to understand value creation. In addition, the findings may help toposition the human resource management function as a strategic asset.

  11. Human capital, social capital and scientific research in Europe: an application of linear hierarchical models

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu Goudard; Michel Lubrano

    2011-01-01

    The theory of human capital is one way to explain individual decisions to produce scientific research. However, this theory, even if it reckons the importance of time in science, is too short for explaining the existing diversity of scientific output. The present paper introduces the social capital of Bourdieu (1980), Coleman (1988) and Putnam (1995) as a necessary complement to explain the creation of scientific human capital. This paper connects these two concepts by means of a hierarchical...

  12. THE INVESTMENT IN HUMAN CAPITAL – MORE THAN AN IDEA IN PRESENT AND FUTURE REALITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUTA SIMONA

    2014-07-01

    In countries, there is a consensus, that parts of the level of government investment include also the need for investment in educational services, governments undoubtedly playing a central role in directing the formation and development of human capital. We need to invest in human capital, doubly so as that the investment in education is a profitable one, the rate of capitalization of the investment in education ranging from 5-30%, according to OECD statistics.

  13. Report: EPA Prepared to Implement Strategic Human Capital Management Activities But Challenges Remain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2004-P-00024, September 20, 2004. EPA’s headquarters and regional offices are prepared to implement strategic human capital management activities, but an alignment of office-level activities to the Agency’s Strategy for Human Capital is lacking.

  14. Human Capital Externalities : Effects for Low-Educated Workers and Low-Skilled Jobs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Lourens; Edzes, Arjen J. E.; Van Dijk, Jouke

    2016-01-01

    Investments in human capital are essential themes in many policy programmes. Besides the direct private returns of education, there is evidence of positive human capital externalities at the level of regions and firms. The results in this paper show that both production and consumption externalities

  15. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Minnesota. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Monica; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen; Wraight, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  16. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Wisconsin. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Ellen; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Meyer, Cassandra

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  17. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Indiana. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Cassandra; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  18. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Iowa. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrstock, Ellen; Bhatt, Monica; Cushing, Ellen; Wraight, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  19. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Michigan. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Cassandra; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  20. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Illinois. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Coby; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  1. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Ohio. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  2. Age, human capital and the geography of innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Frosch, Katharina; Tivig, Thusnelda

    2007-01-01

    An aging labor force is often associated with a decreasing innovative performance on aggregate, firm or individual level. Using a regional knowledge production function to explain patenting activity in German districts, we propose to include the effect of age in a twofold specification: First, we account indirectly for age by including the aggregate, age-heterogeneous human capital available in each district and estimating its effect on patenting performance. Second, we assume that there is a...

  3. 12 CFR 652.70 - Risk-based capital level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... risk-based capital level is the sum of the following amounts: (a) Credit and interest rate risk. The... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-based capital level. 652.70 Section 652.70 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FEDERAL AGRICULTURAL MORTGAGE...

  4. Next Generation Safeguards Initiative: Human Capital Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, M.; Irola, G.; Glynn, K.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2008, the Human Capital Development (HCD) subprogramme of the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) has supported the recruitment, education, training, and retention of the next generation of international safeguards professionals to meet the needs of both the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the United States. Specifically, HCD's efforts respond to data indicating that 82% of safeguards experts at U.S. Laboratories will have left the workforce within 15 years. This paper provides an update on the status of the subprogramme since its last presentation at the IAEA Safeguards Symposium in 2010. It highlights strengthened, integrated efforts in the areas of graduate and post-doctoral fellowships, young and midcareer professional support, short safeguards courses, and university engagement. It also discusses lessons learned from the U.S. experience in safeguards education and training as well as the importance of long-range strategies to develop a cohesive, effective, and efficient human capital development approach. (author)

  5. Specific and General Human Capital in an Endogenous Growth Model

    OpenAIRE

    Evangelia Vourvachaki; Vahagn Jerbashian; : Sergey Slobodyan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we define specific (general) human capital in terms of the occupations whose use is spread in a limited (wide) set of industries. We analyze the growth impact of an economy's composition of specific and general human capital, in a model where education and research and development are costly and complementary activities. The model suggests that a declining share of specific human capital, as observed in the Czech Republic, can be associated with a lower rate of long-term grow...

  6. Community Context and Child Health: A Human Capital Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Greenaway, Emily

    2017-09-01

    Human capital theory suggests that education benefits individuals' and their children's health through the educational skills people acquire in school. This perspective may also be relevant at the community level: the greater presence of adults with educational skills in a community may be a reason why living in a more highly educated setting benefits health. I use Demographic and Health Survey data for 30 sub-Saharan African countries to investigate whether the percentage of literate adults-specifically women-in a community is associated with children's likelihood of survival. I characterize 13,785 African communities according to the prevalence of women who are literate. Multilevel discrete-time hazard models ( N = 536,781 children) confirm that living in a community where more women are literate is positively associated with child survival. The study supports the conceptualization of literacy, and potentially other educational skills, as forms of human capital that can spill over to benefit others.

  7. Employee coaching and counseling program metode alternatif untuk optimalisasi human capital pada pegawai aparatur sipil negara (ASN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sulastiana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available State Civil Servants Apparatus (ASN have to be more integrity, professional, neutral and capable to carrying out a public service to the community. It was an important one that can be optimized through development of human capital. Based on previous research investigated role of Human Capital towards Services and performance of Public Service, shows that staff and head divison level only has moderate degree of human capital. While, Emotional Capital was a most dominan aspect in Human Capital. Otherwise, Social Capital aspects results in the low level. It comes with consequences to optimized them through psychological intervention with group Employee Coaching and Counseling Program (ECCP. This study was action research, experimental one group preteset and postest design. The result shows that ECCP was contribute effectively to enhance Human Capital, particularly in Emotional Capital optimization.

  8. Analyzing the impact of human capital factors on competitivenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óhegyi Katalin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of approaches to measure national competitiveness. However, in these reports human capital typically appears indirectly. The author's purpose is to uncover how human capital contributes to competitiveness of economies and to propose an approach to identify the most effective improvement opportunities for countries, illustrated on the example of Hungary. The analysis is based on the data of the Global Talent Index Report (2011 and the Global Competitiveness Report 2012-2013. The components of the Global Talent Index (GTI and their relation to the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI were analyzed with a linear programming based similarity analysis method, component-based object comparison for objectivity (COCO. Based on the output of the analysis it was identified how sensitive the Global Competitiveness Index is to the components of the GTI. Hungary's position was analyzed further to quantify improvement opportunities and threats based on the step function resulted by the COCO analysis. The author concludes that the human resource of a country is a pivotal element of national competitiveness. By developing human capital of the country the overall competitive position may be improved. Areas of priorities may be identified and the level of intervention may be quantified specific to a country. This could help policy makers to decide in the allocation of resource to maximize effectiveness, leading to improve (or protect a country's overall competitive position in the global arena.

  9. Barriers of the Human Capital Shaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Krochmal

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in the age of the economy focused on knowledge and science, the process of formation and development of the employees is considered as a very important investment, inspiration and a tool to efficiency creating, success and first of all, the strategic potential of the company. Indeed, it is people who are the key and the path to success and on them, the strength, the power and the success of any business should be built. The aim of this elaboration is to highlight and emphasize the importance of investment in human capital and show fluctuations, as one of the barriers that can disrupt this development, what in general also may be caused by lack of adequate systems of employees motivation.

  10. Human capital demand in Brazil: The effects of adjustment cost, economic growth, exports and imports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joilson Dias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to learn about the effects of the adjustment costs, economic growth, imports and exports on human capital labor demand. The dynamic model proposed by Sargent (1978 was adjusted to consider three types of human capital: (a one with fundamental education (1–8 years of schooling; (b one with secondary education level (9–11 years of education; (c and one with tertiary education level (12 years or more of schooling. Using state level panel data, the dynamic econometrics estimates showed the following results: (i the labor market adjustment costs are very higher; (ii the adjustment cost for the human capital with intermediary education level is the highest one compared to the others; (iii the states’ economic growth favor those with superior education; (iv the imports seems to favor the demand for those with intermediate education levels; (v the degree of openness does show some weak effect on the demand for human capitals with intermediate education. In sum, the growing demand for human capital with some superior education seems to be more associated to its lower adjustment cost and economic growth; the non-significance of real wage elasticity and high adjustment cost seems to indicate that the human capital with intermediate knowledge is in short supply; hence, economic education policy that increases supply of such human capital are in need.

  11. Ageing, human capital and demographic dividends with endogenous growth, labour supply and foreign capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edle von Gaessler, Anne; Ziesemer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We modify a Lucas-type endogenous growth model to contain endogenous labour supply, imperfect international capital movements, and estimated interest and education time functions. Solutions based on realistic calibrations show that (i) the rate of human capital depreciation through ageing has a much

  12. Social Capital, Human Capital and Parent-Child Relation Quality: Interacting for Children's Educational Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Otter, Cecilia; Stenberg, Sten-Åke

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the utility of social capital for children's achievement, and if this utility interacts with family human capital and the quality of the parent-child relationship. Our focus is on parental activities directly related to children's school work. Our data stem from a Swedish cohort born in 1953 and consist of both survey and register data.…

  13. SOCIAL CONTEXT, MANAGEMENT, AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE : When human capital and social capital serve as substitutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meier, Kenneth J.; Favero, Nathan; Compton, Mallory

    2016-01-01

    Do internal (administrative human capital) and external (social capital) resources work to reinforce the effects of each other? Work from multiple disciplines has approached this question, and we advance this literature with a theory of social and administrative resources as potential substitutes

  14. The Ways of Advanced Human Capital: Discussions from Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayén Amanda Rovira Rubio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present research aimed to know the significance of academic training experienced by postgraduate students who are pursuing their studies abroad under the context of a Training Program for Advanced Human Capital promoted by the Government of Chile. A feminist epistemology of situated knowledge was used as methodological framework, and narrative productions were used as technique of data collection. With this approach, the experiences of seven graduate students in Spanish universities, mostly of them beneficiaries of scholarships from Chile, were analyzed. The main findings were: the positive assessment of the experience of studying abroad, the divergent testimonies about these experiences, which based on previous educational trajectories and the socioeconomic level of the professional. These aspects influenced the identifications with the concept of Advanced Human Capital for Chile. Also, for some participants, the Advanced Human Capital is seen as an imposed concept which does not coincide with the real opportunities for the professional practice in the country. Therefore, the participants are sceptical about the possibilities of adequate job insertion in the return to Chile.

  15. Higher Education, Human Capital, and Regional Dynamics in Southern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biscaia, Ricardo; Teixeira, Pedro N.; Rocha, Vera

    2017-01-01

    studies. We discuss the role of human capital in the framework of growth convergence theories and the issue of human capital migration as a potential factor influencing regional disparities in Europe. Then we focus on an important component of human capital formation—the role of higher education...... relevance of human capital for economic growth was also associated with the role of technology and its impact in enhancing the demand for more and better qualified workers. However, the capacity of societies to take advantage of those investments has been found to be more complex and uncertain than......Although the term “human capital” has remote historical roots, being already widespread in the writings of the founding fathers of economic analysis, it was during the second half of the twentieth century that an increasing debate around human capital emerged among scholars. The increasing...

  16. Theoretical backgrounds of investigating of intellectual and human capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Nikiforovich Belkin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the theoretical aspects of a company's intellectual capital. This capital consists of stock and movement of knowledge which is useful for organizing. There are three components of intellectual capital - human, social and organizational capital. The differences of intellectual and human capital are established. In particular, if human capital is characterized by mundane knowledge, the intellectual one - by the new, and if the products of human capital are the usual goods and services, the products of intellectual capital are the result of translating and implementing new knowledge. The coincidence of research subjects of the theory of intellectual capital and the theory of innovative enterprise development is shown. The concept of "intellectual potential of the enterprise" is introduced and the building structure is discussed. This potential consists of intellectual capital, patents and licenses unrealized by the enterprises, formalized ideas and hypotheses and undiscovered creative potential of the staff. Finally, a realization model of the intellectual potential of the company is proposed.

  17. Human rights, health, and capital accumulation in the Third World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chossudovsky, M

    1979-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between human rights and the pattern of capital accumulation in the Third World. The repressive authoritarian State increasingly constitutes the means for enforcing the intensive exploitation of labor in Third World industrial enclaves and commercial agriculture. While the development of center capitalism has evolved toward "the Welfare State" and a framework of liberal sociodemocracy, the "peripheral State" is generally characterized by nondemocratic forms of government. This bipolarity in the state structure between center and periphery is functionally related to the international division of labor and the unity of production and circulation on a world level. The programs and policies of the center Welfare State (health, education, social security, etc.) constitute an input of "human capital" into the high-technology center labor process. Moreover, welfare programs in center countries activate the process of circulation by sustaining high levels of consumer demand. In underdeveloped countries, the underlying vacuum in the social sectors and the important allocations to military expenditure support the requirements of the peripheral labor process. Programs in health in the center and periphery are related to the bipolarity (qualification/dequalification) in the international division of labor. The social and economic functions of health programs are intimately related to the organic structure of the State and the mechanics whereby the State allocates its financial surplus in support of both capitalist production and circulation.

  18. Human Capital Questionnaire: Assessment of European nurses' perceptions as indicators of human capital quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes-Baldó, Montserrat; Romeo, Marina; Berger, Rita

    2013-06-01

    Healthcare accreditation models generally include indicators related to healthcare employees' perceptions (e.g. satisfaction, career development, and health safety). During the accreditation process, organizations are asked to demonstrate the methods with which assessments are made. However, none of the models provide standardized systems for the assessment of employees. In this study, we analyzed the psychometric properties of an instrument for the assessment of nurses' perceptions as indicators of human capital quality in healthcare organizations. The Human Capital Questionnaire was applied to a sample of 902 nurses in four European countries (Spain, Portugal, Poland, and the UK). Exploratory factor analysis identified six factors: satisfaction with leadership, identification and commitment, satisfaction with participation, staff well-being, career development opportunities, and motivation. The results showed the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, which when applied to healthcare organizations, provide a better understanding of nurses' perceptions, and is a parsimonious instrument for assessment and organizational accreditation. From a practical point of view, improving the quality of human capital, by analyzing nurses and other healthcare employees' perceptions, is related to workforce empowerment. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. The Strategic Aspects of a Country's Human Capital Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkauskas, Aleksandras Vytautas; Gruževskis, Boguslavas; Danileviciene, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Often the perspective of human capital is drawn with different colours: from its growing importance to the possibility of changing it with current technical and information management tools. This usually happens when analysing the human capital education and corporate problems in the context of companies and other activity-organising units. In…

  20. Human Capital and Economic Growth - How Strong is the Nexus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinko Škare

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The link between human capital and economic growth still remains unexplained because of the measurement issues connected to the human capital stock. This study investigates the link between human capital stock and economic growth using inclusive wealth index and ratio of engaged to actively disengaged employees as proxy for human capital stock. Data from the global workplace and inclusive wealth reports are used in order to provide an international comparison of the link between human capital and inclusive wealth. Cross country comparison show human capital largerly contribute to the inclusive wealth formation. Formal education is important but also motivating working environment is needed to achieve sustainable economic growth. The finding further indicates that standard human capital growth model should be revised taking into the account variables addressing sustainable growth (not just growth and environmental variables (work conditions affecting human capital stock. Countries encouraging investments in the development of individuals both through formal education and inspiring work environments achieve higher sustainable economic growth

  1. Regional unemployment and human capital in transition economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán; Terrell, K.

    -, č. 77 (2007), s. 1-34 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : unemployment * human capital * regional labor markets Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://ipc.umich.edu/ working papers/ipc-77-jurajda,terrell,regional-unemployment-human- capital -transition-economies.pdf

  2. Job satisfaction and job performance – impacts on human capital

    OpenAIRE

    Gotvassli, Kjell-Åge; Haugset, Anne Sigrid

    2010-01-01

    Within macroeconomics it is a well established point of view that investments in human capital is important for the economic growth of a region. In this paper we will look at the connection between job satisfaction and job performance and its impact on the “use” of human capital.

  3. Using Human Capital Planning to Predict Future Talent Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruse, Donald; Jansen, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Human capital planning is an important tool in predicting future talent needs and sustaining organizational excellence over the long term. This article examines the concept of human capital planning and outlines how institutions can use HCP to identify the type and number of talent needed both now and in the future, recognize and prioritize talent…

  4. Birth order and human capital development: evidence from Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, M.; Plug, E.; Rosero, J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of birth order on human capital development in Ecuador. Using family fixed effects models we find positive and persistent birth order effects; earlier-born children stay behind in their human capital development from infancy to adolescence. Turning to potential

  5. Human Capital and Cross-Country Comparison of Inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie); I. Zilcha (Itzhak)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe paper studies the effects of cross-country differences in the production process of human capital on income distribution and growth. Our overlapping gen- erations economy has the following features: (1) consumers are heterogenous with respect to parental human capital and wealth; (2)

  6. Enhancement of human capital assets role in current economic situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pechenaia Liudmila Timofeevna

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents transformation of the notion “human capital assets” in economics. Methodical approaches to evaluation of human capital assets and involvement in innovation process. Generalization of theoretical overview data allows conclusion about strong interest to this economic category, testifying to good promise of this field development.

  7. Theorizing Translanguaging and Multilingual Literacies through Human Capital Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick H.; Murillo, Luz A.

    2015-01-01

    In this conceptual article we invite multilingual researchers to consider the concept of translanguaging through the lens of human capital theory. Our thinking about the interconnections among human capital, multilingualism, and translanguaging is motivated by our research in border "colonias" and other minoritized communities in South…

  8. An Energy Model for Viewing Embodied Human Capital Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Neil A.; Geroy, Gary D.

    2007-01-01

    Human capital development is one of the emerging areas of study with regard to social science theory, practice, and research. A relatively new concept, human capital is described in terms of individual knowledge skills and experience. It is currently expressed as a function of education as well as a measure of economic activity. Little theory…

  9. Human Capital Development in Western Region, Nigeria, 1955-1968

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses sustained approaches, programmes and strategies for human capital development in the defunct Western Region of Nigeria. Three broad approaches were vigorously pursued, namely, education, technical skills development and agriculture. The most enduring legacy was human capital development ...

  10. Does the Russian Economy Need Human Capital? Ten Doubts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimpelson, V. E.

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that human capital is an important factor in economic growth, but its impact on growth depends on the demand for education and skills on the labor market. Demand for human capital is largely determined by the institutional environment that governs the basic conditions for economic activity. The author expresses ten doubts…

  11. Evolution of the Concept of "Human Capital" in Economic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepelkin, Vyacheslav A.; Perepelkina, Elena V.; Morozova, Elena S.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the researched problem is determined by transformation of the human capital into the key economic resource of development of the postindustrial society. The purpose of the article is to disclose the content of evolution of the human capital as a scientific concept and phenomenon of the economic life. The leading approach to the…

  12. Human Capital as a Challenge for Economics Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Wyrzykowska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of human capital is increasingly attracting the attention of both theorists and practitioners, because at present human resources play a decisive role in the creation of competitive economies and business entities. Human capital and knowledge are becoming key factors in the area of entity competitiveness. Consequently, human capital is currently being analysed in a multi-faceted way in the context of numerous economic theories. The aim of this study is to summarize, analyse, and synthesise the information published on the subject of the theory of human capital and to present new theories and scientific paradigms. The theories presented in this study show that employees constitute the basic capital of modern organizations. One of the contemporary paradigms of modern management is the concept of knowledge-based economy and the paradigm of information technology. This article is based on literature studies and theoretical reflections of the author.

  13. Immigrant self-employment : testing hypotheses about the role of origin- and host country human capital and bonding and bridging social capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanas, A.M.; Tubergen, F.A. van; Lippe, T. van der

    2009-01-01

    Using large-scale data on immigrants in the Netherlands, the authors tested competing arguments about the role of origin- and host-country human capital and bonding and bridging social capital in immigrants’ self-employment. When taking job-skill level into account, immigrants with a higher level of

  14. Interning and Investing: Rethinking Unpaid Work, Social Capital, and the “Human Capital Regime”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Hope

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available For young workers, interning is a strategy for speculating on one’s asset portfolio. Students and graduates undertake internships as a way of maintaining their self-appreciation and avoiding depreciation in a “human capital regime.” In this article, we explore the specific example of interning in the creative industries as the self-management of human capital vis-à-vis the human capital theses. Taking three cultural objects and recent representations of the issue of unpaid internships—Intern magazine, an advert for a “volunteering opportunity” student placement, and testimonies from interns—we analyze how unpaid work in the creative industries and the neoliberal version of human capital entrepreneurship can be seen as embodied by interns.

  15. INVESTMENT IN HUMAN CAPITAL – PREREQUISITE FOR THE GROWTH OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BÎRCĂ ALIC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to investment in human capital as an essential element for ensuring organizational performance. Human capital investments may be direct, more focused on professional training, as well as indirect, more oriented towards the health of employees and the purchase of equipment for their development. In Moldovan organizations investments in human capital are more oriented towards training and professional development of employees. At the same time, in the recruitment and selection of candidates’ process, organizations are trying to attract people that have a high level of professional knowledge and skills, which contribute to increasing the value of their human capital. In order to assess the involvement level of the organizations from Republic of Moldova in terms of human capital development investment, a sociological research that included 152 organizations was conducted. The result of investigations have shown us that human capital value into an organization depends, in the first instance, on the selection tools and techniques that allow election of candidates with an intellectual and professional potential at higher level. Human capital value within organizations increases provided that their staff participates in various professional training programs.

  16. Consumption as investment: The theory of human capital and human capital as ethos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Javier López-Ruiz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the dilution of the conceptual border between “consumption” and “investment.” We argue that it is a key element for the understanding of capitalism in its current stage and the values guiding contemporary society. Some concepts created by Human Capital Theory – an economic theory from the 1960s – are widely viewed today as values that guide the behavior of individuals. This yields to a conceptual–axiological shift from consumption to investment that allows unusual forms of “delaying satisfaction by consuming now.” The diffuse area that is created between “consumption” and “investment” helps to understand how the Protestant work ethic is recreated as an “ethic of entrepreneurial work,” that is, of work understood in terms of “individual enterprise”.

  17. Impact of socially responsible human resources policies on intellectual capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Barrena-Martínez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research focuses on the benefits that social responsibility can report on the area of human resources, examined the impact of a socially responsible configuration of human resource policies and practices in the generation value process for the company, and more specifically in its intellectual capital. Design/methodology/approach: The study performed a regression analysis, testing the individual effects of socially responsible human resource policies on intellectual capital, broken down into three main variables such as human, social and organizational capital. Findings: The results shed light on how the introduction of socially responsible aspects in the management of human resources can facilitate the exchange of knowledge, skills and attitudes human--capital; lead to improvements in communication, trust, cooperation among employees social-capital and, in turn, generates an institutionalized knowledge encoded in the own organizational culture –organizational capital–. Research limitations/implications: The study only provides information from large companies with over 250 employees. Practical implications: There are important implications in the measure of corporate social responsibility concerns in the area of human resources. Social implications: Also important intangible effects on non-economic variables are confirmed, such as intellectual capital. Originality/value: The value of the study lies in its novelty, testing socially responsible configurations of human resources as well as the direct effects of different policies on intellectual capital.

  18. Calibrating the Level of Capital: The Way We See It

    OpenAIRE

    Ryo Kato; Shun Kobayashi; Yumi Saita

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims primarily to propose the framework for estimating the optimal levels of capital at banks with broad perspectives, elaborating factors such as liquidity and macroeconomic conditions. First, we attempt to reorganize the variety of policy proposals for enhancing financial sector regulation. In light of the broad perspective of the prudential policy framework, we discuss the role of bank capital in enhancing banking-sector resilience. Second, with our perspective in mind, we lay o...

  19. Population levels of wellbeing and the association with social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A W; Kelly, G; Dal Grande, E; Kelly, D; Marin, T; Hey, N; Burke, K J; Licinio, J

    2017-07-03

    This research investigates wellbeing at the population level across demographic, social and health indicators and assesses the association between wellbeing and social capital. Data from a South Australian monthly chronic disease/risk factor surveillance system of randomly selected adults (mean age 48.7 years; range 16-99) from 2014/5 (n = 5551) were used. Univariable analyses compared wellbeing/social capital indicators, socio-demographic, risk factors and chronic conditions. Multi-nominal logistic regression modelling, adjusting for multiple covariates was used to simultaneously estimate odds ratios for good wellbeing (reference category) versus neither good nor poor, and good wellbeing versus poor wellbeing. 48.6% were male, mean age 48.7 (sd 18.3), 54.3% scored well on all four of the wellbeing indicators, and positive social capital indicators ranged from 93.1% for safety to 50.8% for control over decisions. The higher level of social capital corresponded with the good wellbeing category. Modeling showed higher odds ratios for all social capital variables for the lowest level of wellbeing. These higher odds ratios remained after adjusting for confounders. The relationship between wellbeing, resilience and social capital highlights areas for increased policy focus.

  20. The Impact of Human Capital on Company performance Abera D

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    capital development towards accelerating the economic growth by devoting necessary ... extent does human capital create impact on firm performance? This study ... Till 2010 majority of their exports are semi-processed leather products such as pickled ...... Leather Industry Development Institute, AAU MSc thesis economics.

  1. Peoples Human and Social Capital Benefiting Careers in Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Rezaei, Shahamak; Schøtt, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A person may develop a vocational intention – whether to become entrepreneur – based on human capital in form of competencies, such as self-efficacy, opportunity-alertness and risk-propensity obtained partly through education, and on social capital in form of networking, such as knowing...

  2. Intellectual Capital: A Focus on Human Capital Reporting Practices of Top Malaysian Listed Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhayati Mat Husin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the extent of human capital (HC reporting among top Malaysian companies and introduce an HC reporting guideline that can be used by Malaysian companies and regulator. It begins by developing the HC framework based on previous intellectual capital (IC frameworks. This framework is then used to examine each of the top 100 Malaysian companies listed on the Bursa Malaysia in year 2008. Using the content analysis method, it reviews the annual reports of these companies to determine the extent of HC reporting. The findings of this paper highlight the need for the development of IC framework particularly on HC. HC differences were also identified between Malaysia and other countries such as Sri Lanka and Australia, and it is argued that these differences can be attributed to the social, economic, and political factors.Keywords: Human capital, intellectual capital, Malaysia

  3. The Department of Defense's Civilian Human Capital Strategic Plan Does Not Meet Most Statutory Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farrell, Brenda S

    2008-01-01

    To examine the extent to which DOD's civilian human capital strategic plan addresses congressional reporting requirements, we obtained and analyzed the "Department of Defense Civilian Human Capital...

  4. THE IMPORTANCE OF HUMAN CAPITAL IN THE STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT OF AN ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Grigorescu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this new world where the level of information has reached overwhelming thanks to new technologies , the human capital embodied in a stock value, skill and knowledge, becomes the main factor of production in the new economy. In this paper I have tried to emphasize that, this relatively new concept such as human capital has become the main motor of organizational development, representing one of the most important advantages of firms to work properly in their environments. The economic growth is conditioned by human capital development; current trends are changing and organizations change their outward form of thought and action and they enhance their human capital (this intangible asset too little highlighted and measured from the desire of being more flexible and easily assimilated by the market in the future. For modern companies, human capital has become a “golden coin” with 2 sides called: 1 capability (the ability to provide solutions to customers through knowledge, skills, know-how, and talent; 2 attitude (the ability to profitably use these values of the organization. In conclusion, human capital is measured using IQ and the productivity of modern economies depend largely on investment in knowledge and skills, although statistics in Romania do not include costs and expenses of human capital.

  5. The Importance of Intangible Resources in Regional Developing:human capital, social capital

    OpenAIRE

    POPA Florina

    2010-01-01

    A region’s competitiveness is the product of its creative, attractive and maintenance activities which may increase its influence, assuming that for a sustainable economic development there are needed both the existence of resources and the implementation of some policies conductive to growth,employment and stability. The study focuses on the importance of intangible resources highlighting – human capital, social capital, the relationships they create within the region and the influence they ...

  6. Overview of Researches on Social Capital, Human Capital and Social Integration of New Generation Migrant Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Luan, Wenjing; Lu, Honghong; Tong, Yulin; Lu, Danna

    2013-01-01

    With urbanization and socio-economic development, new generation migrant workers play an increasingly important role in urban construction. However, for a long time, their social integration situation in inflow places is not ideal. Academic circle has done a lot of researches, but no effective strategy is so far put forward. Through analysis of domestic and foreign researches, it is found that social capital and human capital have an important influence on social integration of new generation...

  7. Human Capital Development as a Strategy for Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    unfinished business of the Millennium Development Goals, and is intended ... The Sustainable Development Agenda has 17 global goals with 169 targets. .... Quality human capital has become one of the front burning issues in Nigeria today.

  8. 36 benchmarking human capital strategies of domestic and foreign

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The complexity of benchmarking the human capital strategies of others due to higher barriers to imitation ... Nigerian airline industry, exploring the issue of deregulation of the industry. This is ..... way to attain a number of corporate objectives.

  9. Strategic Human Capital: Preserving a Vital National Asset

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scott, Lynn

    1997-01-01

    .... These reductions neither account for the strategic value of human capital nor for the possible consequences of its depletion and the resulting dispersal and loss of strategic knowledge, skills and experience...

  10. HUMAN CAPITAL: Meeting the Governmentwide High-Risk Challenge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... An organization s people its human capital are its most critical asset in managing for results. However, the federal government has often acted as if federal employees were costs to be cut rather than assets to be valued...

  11. Human Capital Investment and Economic Growth in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Capital Investment and Economic Growth in Nigeria. ... relationship between investment in education, health and economic growth in Nigeria, ... in order to accelerate growth and liberate Nigerians from the vicious cycle of poverty, the ...

  12. Human Capital, Population Growth and Economic Development: Beyond Correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenzweig, Mark R.

    1987-01-01

    Empirical evidence on three assertions commonly-made by population policy advocates about the relationships among population growth, human capital formation and economic development is discussed and evaluated in the light of economic-biological models of household behavior and of its relevance to population policy. The three assertions are that (a) population growth and human capital investments jointly reflect and respond to changes in the economic environment, (b) larger families directly i...

  13. A national accounts satellite for human capital and education

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, Frits

    2011-01-01

    The official national accounts statistics do not show the role of human capital in the national economy. A set of satellite tables supplementing the standard national accounts statistics could serve this data need. In this satellite account, expenditure on education and training are recorded as human capital formation. This includes not only the expenditure on primary, secondary and tertiary education, but also expenditure on training and courses by employers and the earnings foregone by stud...

  14. Specific Human Capital as a Source of Superior Team Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Egon Franck; Stephan Nüesch; Jan Pieper

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we empirically investigate the performance effect of team-specific human capital in highly interactive teams. Based on the tenets of the resource-based view of the firm and on the ideas of typical learning functions, we hypothesize that team members’ shared experience in working together positively impacts team performance, but at diminishing rates. Holding a team’s stock of general human capital and other potential drivers constant, we find support for this prediction. Implica...

  15. El capital humano en el sistema de precios Human capital in the price system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuevas Homero

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo explora algunas implicaciones fundamentales de la introducción del capital humano en un sistema de equilibrio general de precios de producción. En particular, las implicaciones sobre las determinación de los salarios, los agregados, la homogeneidad del modelo de trabajo, las proporciones capital trabajo, la tasa natural del beneficio y las fluctuaciones de los precios de equilibrio.This essay explores some fundamental implications of the introduction of human capital in a system of general equilibrium of prices of production. In particular, the implications concerning the determination of wages, the aggregates, the homogenei ty of labor, the capital-labor ratio, the natural rate of profit and the fluctuations of equilibrium prices.

  16. ROLE OF HUMAN CAPITAL FORMATION IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TĂNASE DIANA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights the role of education in the growth of economic competitiveness and efficiency of human capital, in accordance with the quality of education and investments in human resources, in order to enhance labour productiveness. The paper starts by a brief analysis of Romania’s educational system, by comparison with the EU countries, analysing the number of high school students / college students per teacher, the percentage of education expenditure in the GDP, the correlation between the labour force’s training level and insertion into the labour market. The paper also presents the EU countries’ ranking related to higher education and professional training, pointing out the importance of lifelong professional training at the place of work. The paper draws conclusions regarding the importance of the labour force training, as the operation of a modern economy requires the existence of a well-trained labour force, education representing one of the fundamental pillars of any society’s development.

  17. Human Capital Management and Accountability of Social Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Siti Anis Nadia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of social business enterprises has been attributed to the increased demand for sustainability among the non-profit organisations (NPOs due to diminishing funding from traditional sources and increased competition for the scarce resources. To date, there is growing interest on social businesses (SBs as innovation in providing public services that contributes to the social wellbeing of community. This in turn can be linked directly or indirectly to economic development as the sustainability level of the country is measured specifically towards the development of human capital and solving the social problems rather than the economics alone. Indeed, having both economic and non-economic aims, SBs would be the potential solutions to address a range of societal issues and increase the efficiency and quality of public sector services that focus on equitable growth with ecological sustainability. Therefore, it is important to explore the relationship between capability of SBs and the social impact created. This paper explores on capability based on human capital management and social impact or value created through SBs. This is expected to provide some insights on the sustainability and credibility of SBs to support the government efforts in moving towards high nation income.

  18. Human capital and risk aversion in relational incentive contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvaloey, Ola

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines a self-enforced relational incentive contract between a risk neutral principal and a risk averse agent where the agent's human capital is essential in ex post realization of values. I analyse the effect of outside options on the optimal bonus level, showing how the presence of ex post outside options may impede desirable degrees of performance pay. The effect of risk aversion and incentive responsiveness is analysed by allowing for linear contracts. I show that the first order effect of these parameters are the same as in verifiable contracts, but second order effects show that the optimal bonus level's sensitivity to risk aversion and incentive responsiveness increases with the discount factor. The analysis has interesting implications on firm boundaries and specificity choices. (author)

  19. Global human capital: integrating education and population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Wolfgang; KC, Samir

    2011-07-29

    Almost universally, women with higher levels of education have fewer children. Better education is associated with lower mortality, better health, and different migration patterns. Hence, the global population outlook depends greatly on further progress in education, particularly of young women. By 2050, the highest and lowest education scenarios--assuming identical education-specific fertility rates--result in world population sizes of 8.9 and 10.0 billion, respectively. Better education also matters for human development, including health, economic growth, and democracy. Existing methods of multi-state demography can quantitatively integrate education into standard demographic analysis, thus adding the "quality" dimension.

  20. Household-level Social Capital in Cameroon and Children's Schooling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines household-level social capital as a determinant of children's schooling using a cross-sectional data of the 2001 Cameroon Household Survey. Reduced form demand equations of schooling for the entire sample, male and female children are estimated separately. Results indicate that parent's ...

  1. 12 CFR 206.5 - Capital levels of correspondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... not identical to the definition of that term as used for the purposes of the prompt corrective action... capital levels. A bank shall obtain information to demonstrate that a correspondent is at least adequately..., Thrift Financial Report, financial statement, or bank rating report for the correspondent. For a foreign...

  2. 76 FR 69031 - Order of Succession for the Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer AGENCY: Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice of order of succession. SUMMARY: In this notice, the Chief Human Capital Officer for the... Human Capital Officer. DATES: Effective Date: October 20, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lynette...

  3. Managing Human Resource based Intellectual Capital in a Global setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Lemke, Sarah; Matiaske, Wenzel

    2014-01-01

    From a strategic management perspective human capital and the embedded knowledge can be viewed as intellectual capital and became inevitably important for companies in general as well as for multinationals. While national companies just have to (re-)combine resources within a homogeneous...... if culturally differentiated incentive systems are necessary for optimised retention management? In the empirical part of this study it was made us of data from 32 countries. The research results reveal a moderating impact of cultural dimensions and therefore a cultural dependency for the effectiveness...... of incentives on retention management and therewith implicates that retention management is significant for the process of developing and fostering a MNCs intellectual capital. To improve their human-resource based intellectual capital MNCs have to adapt their initiatives to the cultural background...

  4. Cost-based industrial enterprise human capital management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glukhov Sergei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on importance of human capital in development of industrial enterprises, issues of their management and methods of achieving balance between interests of owners and employees. Difference between such concepts as human and labor potential as well as human and working capital is clarified. The special attention is paid to the fact that an effective system of motivation and incentivation of labor is to serve as means of rapprochement of human and labor capital. The authors point out the limited scope of the traditional forms of labor motivation and incentivation mechanisms and highlight the complexity of their encouragement for collective work results. The authors suggest using the cost-based approach to workforce management, which is based on assessment of market and intrinsic value of human capital in view of investment and quality characteristics. The proposed approach is attended by methodological support and operational calculations. The study states that the suggested human capital management model can be introduced into practice, as well as substantiates the necessity for boosting the performance of industrial enterprises and their cost by increasing production, stimulating the staff for selfrealization and self-improvement by bringing the owners’ corporate interests closer to the interests of the employees.

  5. Human Capital - A Quality Factor For The Competitiveness Of IT Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisei Crăciun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper treats quality, human capital and competitiveness concepts in order to determine in which measure the Human Capital quality influences the competitiveness of a firm. The human capital theory is a relatively new approach, the first valuable approach being that of Garry Becker which, subsequent of the modern management theoretical views, puts human capital into scientific frame. This present paper relates deeply on this theoretical frame as it is considered that, besides financial or tangible resources that allows and generate long term benefits for an enterprise, there is also another source that consists in an intangible form: the human capital. This resource is based on education and health, indirectly generating additional benefits for the individual as for the organization and is calculated as instruction, education and health insurances costs. That implies that this capital is an asset for the worker itself and that the worker cannot be distinguished from the knowledges, capacities, his health or his values. From this perspective, the worker is actively present in any activity a firm operates: from defining and executing process, operational planning, monitoring and control, research and development, human resources, etc. The hypothesis of this present paper will be explored with the examples of Jeff Bezos ( Amazon or Steve Jobs ( Apple as human capital is considered to be the most important component for the competitive advantage of IT enterprises. The quality level of the human capital represents the main source for long term sustainability of this competitive advantage and, given the best case practices, it’s impact on firm’s effect indicators is obvious. The paper will also emphasize the role of values and health as they are also the main issues on an IT enterprise. The article is structured in two parts. One is the theoretical frame that encompass the influence of the human capital on the competitiveness of the firm. The

  6. THE RELATIONSHIP OF HUMAN CAPITAL AND TAXATION SYSTEM IN THE CONTEXT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Filimonova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Maintaining a stable level of the national economy is a priority objective of socio-economic policy in Russia. It is known that the economic development of the state affected by several factors, among them the paramount levels of investment, including investment in human capital, which have a huge impact on the country's economic development, especially in the current situation in the economy, because human capital is one of the most important factors of economic growth. The problem of human capital - one of the most important in a changing world today. Translational motion of society crucially depends on his level and state (level of material well-being, attitude to work, education and qualifications are recognized in the scale of society's ideals and values, they define social norms, work motivation and social behavior, and the like .The article examines the relationship of the state investment in human capital and progressive economic development opportunities, as well as depending on the public investment in human capital from the existing tax system and tax policy pursued.

  7. Birth order and human capital development: evidence from Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, M.; Plug, E.; Rosero, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of birth order on human capital development in Ecuador using a large national database together with self-collected survey data. Using family fixed effects models we find significant positive birth order effects; earlier born children stay behind in their human

  8. Adult Education and Human Capital: Leadership from the Fortune 500.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Teresa M.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 333 Fortune 500 firms received 81 replies indicating that (1) two-thirds formally recognized the value of human resources; (2) most had changed corporate policy regarding human capital; and (3) most training was provided in the ares of new employee orientation, current job needs, customer relations, personal development, and…

  9. Human Capital Development in Nigeria: A Socio-Economic Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper establishes the link between education and selected human development indicators. Rapid socio-economic development has been observed to depend essentially on the calibre of human capital in a nation. Although Nigeria is one of the most populous nations in Africa, the country is still largely ...

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF BUSINESS SKILLS MODULE FOR HUMAN CAPITAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moré, Dailien

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Today firms advocate buy a business improvement depends on proper reach staff selection considering the level of commitment, work attitude, skills and competencies of each person in the performance of the functions of the various fees and jobs. This research proposes a module occupational competency (CL that would strengthen the Human Capital Management (GCH. The proposal may encourage national institutions and increase their productivity sustained employment success for the country. For the realization of the solution was carried out the study of business processes and methods of multicriterial decision-making. Following the completion of the design, the solution was implemented and the identified components were integrated, the results of the data obtained showed the feasibility of the contribution to the solution of the problem.

  11. Investing in human and natural capital. An alternative paradigm for sustainable development in Awassa, Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, Travis W.; Farley, Joshua; Huber, Candice

    2010-01-01

    Ethiopia remains underdeveloped due to limitations in natural, human, social and built capital. A 2006 scientific atelier conducted in the city of Awassa, Ethiopia investigated investments in human and natural capital as a sustainable development strategy. Local stakeholders identified firewood shortages, degradation of croplands, rising lake levels encroaching on croplands and poor water quality as major impediments to development. They further identified ecological degradation as a key component of these problems, and they acknowledged multiple vicious cycles compounding the environmental and economic threats to the Awassa community. Proposed solutions included investment in natural capital in the form of reforestation activities, investment in human capital in the form of promoting more efficient wood stoves along with increasing public awareness of environmental threats, and investments in social capital in the form of inter-institutional coordination to address environmental problems. All recommended investments rely primarily on national resources, in distinct contrast to the extensive imports required for most built capital investments. Unfortunately, Awassa lacks the surplus necessary for major capital investments of any kind. The atelier therefore helped local participants identify potential funders and write grant proposals for various projects, though none have been funded so far. Reversing the ecological degradation on the scale necessary for sustained economic development in Ethiopia however will require a steady flow of substantial investments, and cannot rely solely on the short term generosity of funders. International payments for carbon sequestration and other ecosystem services could help provide the necessary resources. (author)

  12. Investing in human and natural capital. An alternative paradigm for sustainable development in Awassa, Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Travis W. [Evans School of Public Affairs, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 98195 (United States); Farley, Joshua [Gund Institute for Ecological Economics and Department of Community Development and Applied Economics, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, 05405 (United States); Huber, Candice [UVM Agricultural Extension Service, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, 05405 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Ethiopia remains underdeveloped due to limitations in natural, human, social and built capital. A 2006 scientific atelier conducted in the city of Awassa, Ethiopia investigated investments in human and natural capital as a sustainable development strategy. Local stakeholders identified firewood shortages, degradation of croplands, rising lake levels encroaching on croplands and poor water quality as major impediments to development. They further identified ecological degradation as a key component of these problems, and they acknowledged multiple vicious cycles compounding the environmental and economic threats to the Awassa community. Proposed solutions included investment in natural capital in the form of reforestation activities, investment in human capital in the form of promoting more efficient wood stoves along with increasing public awareness of environmental threats, and investments in social capital in the form of inter-institutional coordination to address environmental problems. All recommended investments rely primarily on national resources, in distinct contrast to the extensive imports required for most built capital investments. Unfortunately, Awassa lacks the surplus necessary for major capital investments of any kind. The atelier therefore helped local participants identify potential funders and write grant proposals for various projects, though none have been funded so far. Reversing the ecological degradation on the scale necessary for sustained economic development in Ethiopia however will require a steady flow of substantial investments, and cannot rely solely on the short term generosity of funders. International payments for carbon sequestration and other ecosystem services could help provide the necessary resources. (author)

  13. Role of a University of Technology in Human Capital Development in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedeji, A. O.; Adepoju, O. O.

    2011-01-01

    The greatness of nations appears to be based on the level of their human capital development as the world continues its march in the knowledge economy. It has become imperative for Nigeria to remain competitive in the comity of nations in the production, transfer and utilisation of knowledge. The realisation of the importance of human capital…

  14. The Role Of Human Capital In The Competitive Platform Of South African Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. J. Kleynhans

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the role of human capital in the competitive platform of South African industries and to determine the ability of their human capital to address the challenges of modern technology and globalisation. Attention is given to the competitive strengths and investment opportunities, including the quality and availability of human resources, labour cost, level of education and skills, vocational and industry related training facility, work ethics, productivity, workplace regulations, as well as efficiency of the civil service; including productivity and competitiveness indexes. The study found that the level of human capital in South African industries is much higher than the general perception and not the worst element of South Africa’s competitive platform. The findings also indicated challenges, like absentees due to AIDS and other factors, a shortage of artisans and proficiency towards modern technology and innovation, which limits competitiveness.

  15. The Internationalization of Small and Medium Enterprises and Human Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Godelytė

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium enterprises (SME’s are generally recognised as a factor, which influences economic growth and impacting competitiveness of country. In the context of globalization the impact of internationalization of SME’s is increasing and determines development of new technologies. The internationalization of SME’s is determined to a large extent by the human capital of entrepreneurs/managers. The aim of this article is to analyse and summarise elements of human capital, that are discussed in scientific literature and to distinguish the most important for SME’s internationalization. The research is based on the evaluation of human capital in scientific literature and analysis and synthesis of questions of SME’s internationalization.

  16. Human capital and human resource management to achieve ambidextrous learning: A structural perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirta Diaz-Fernandez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organisational learning has become increasingly important for strategic renewal. Ambidextrous organisations are especially successful in the current environment, where firms are required to be efficient and adapt to change. Using a structural approach, this study discusses arguments about the nature of ambidexterity and identifies the kinds of human capital that better support specific learning types and HRM practices suited to these components of human capital. Results highlight learning differences between marketing and production units, as well as different HRM practices and human capital orientations. This study points out that human capital mediates between HRM practices and learning.

  17. The effect of childhood conduct disorder on human capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webbink, Dinand; Vujić, Sunčica; Koning, Pierre; Martin, Nicholas G

    2012-08-01

    This paper estimates the longer-term effects of childhood conduct disorder on human capital accumulation and violent and criminal behavior later in life using data of Australian twins. We measure conduct disorder with a rich set of indicators based on diagnostic criteria from psychiatry. Using ordinary least squares and twin fixed effects estimation approaches, we find that early-age (pre-18) conduct disorder problems significantly affect both human capital accumulation and violent and criminal behavior over the life course. In addition, we find that conduct disorder is more deleterious if these behaviors occur earlier in life. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. HUMAN CAPITAL GROWTH AND POVERTY: EVIDENCE FROM ETHIOPIA AND PERU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasio, Orazio; Meghir, Costas; Nix, Emily; Salvati, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we use high quality data from two developing countries, Ethiopia and Peru, to estimate the production functions of human capital from age 1 to age 15. We characterize the nature of persistence and dynamic complementarities between two components of human capital: health and cognition. We also explore the implications of different functional form assumptions for the production functions. We find that more able and higher income parents invest more, particularly at younger ages when investments have the greatest impacts. These differences in investments by parental income lead to large gaps in inequality by age 8 that persist through age 15.

  19. The Interaction between Human and Organizational Capital in Strategic Human Resource Management (P.49-62)

    OpenAIRE

    Audia Junita

    2017-01-01

    Studies in strategic human resource management emphasize the contribution of human and human resource management to organizational performance achievement. Human and organizational capitals are strategic capability and mechanism to create value in an organization.This paper seeks to identify an interactive relationship between human and organizational capital in strategic human resource management theoretically, which so far, have not got adequate attention, particularly in a systemic relatio...

  20. The association between team-level social capital and individual-level work engagement: Differences between subtypes of social capital and the impact of intra-team agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Annette; Clausen, Thomas; Borg, Vilhelm

    2018-04-01

    The study explored the association between team-level social capital and individual-level work engagement. Questionnaire data were collected from six companies in the dairy industry. Seven hundred seventy-two participants divided into 65 teams were included. In confirmatory factor analyses, we found a superior model fit to a four dimensional model of social capital: bonding social capital, bridging social capital and two types of linking social capital. The results showed a positive association between all subtypes of social capital at the team level and work engagement at the individual level. However, this association only remained significant for linking social capital in relation the workplace as a whole when we adjusted for psychosocial working conditions. The level of intra-team agreement in social capital score did not moderate the association between social capital and work engagement. In conclusion, the results provide further support for previous findings suggesting a positive association between social capital and work engagement. They add to the existing knowledge by suggesting that linking social capital in relation to the workplace is the most important explanatory variable for work engagement, thus emphasizing the need to distinguish between subtypes of social capital in research and practice. © 2018 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Sobre o conceito de "capital humano" On the concept of "human capital"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanilda Paiva

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda a retomada do conceito de capital humano nas últimas décadas no contexto da hegemonia de organismos multilaterais mais diretamente vinculados ao pensamento e aos interesses norte-americanos na área educacional, e de demandas que resultam da reestruturação produtiva e sociocultural na Nova Era Capitalista. Ressalta a amplitude das noções metafóricas dele derivadas (Bourdieu e outros e indica o trecho dos Grundrisse em que Marx refere-se ao homem como sendo o próprio capital fixo criado pelo desenvolvimento de suas capacidades no tempo livre.The article treats the retaking of the concept of human capital in recent decades in the context of the hegemony of the multilateral organizations more directly linked to the North American thinking and interests in the educational area and the demands which have resulted from the productive, social and cultural restructuring of the New Age of Capitalism. It highlights the breadth of the metaphorical notions derived from it (Bourdieu and others and cites the excerpt from the Grundrisse in which Marx refers to humans as fixed assets created by the development of their abilities in their free time.

  2. How to combine human resource management systems and human capital portfolios to achieve superior innovation performance

    OpenAIRE

    Rupietta, Christian; Backes-Gellner, Uschi

    2013-01-01

    Firms generate new knowledge that leads to innovations by recombining existing knowledge sources. A successful recombination depends on both the availability of a knowledge stock (human capital pool) that contains innovation-relevant knowledge and the regulation of the knowledge flow through the application of human resource management practices. However, while human resource theory expects complementarities between both the human capital pool and the human resource management system it does ...

  3. The Strategic Management of Human Capital: Issues and Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Barnett

    2008-01-01

    Most recently a number of school districts, with support from growing numbers of philanthropic foundations, have been honing in on the strategic management of human capital(SMHC)--which has been defined as "the acquisition, development, performance management and retention of top talent." Granted, over the last two decades policymakers and…

  4. Human Capital Augmentation versus the Signaling Value of MBA Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Panel data on MBA graduates is used in an attempt to empirically distinguish between human capital and signaling models of education. The existence of employment observations prior to MBA enrollment allows for the control of unobserved ability or selection into MBA programs (through the use of individual fixed effects). In addition, variation in…

  5. Analysis Of Human Capital Development In Technical Colleges In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the human capital development in Technical Colleges in Imo State of Nigeria. All the Technical Colleges in the State participated in the study. Results showed low enrollment in the Colleges. There was gender inequity in the enrollment as only 59 females (1.97%) enrolled in the Technical Colleges.

  6. Does Human Capital Contribute to Economic Growth in Mauritius?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeliah, Harris; Seetanah, Boopen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Real gross domestic product (GDP) growth for Mauritius has averaged more than 5 per cent since 1970 and GDP per capita has increased more than tenfold between 1970 and 2012, from less than $500 to more than $9,000. It has often been reported that human capital, along with other growth enablers, has played an important role in this…

  7. Human Capital Development: A Strategy for Moving Nigeria into the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The driving force for a nation's development and growth has shifted from natural endowment to knowledge economy. Countries without abundant resources have been excelling because of the emphasis on human capital that propels knowledge economy. This paper therefore, has emphasized the need for Nigeria to move ...

  8. Human capital management in a knowledge economy: The case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research aims to examine the existence of the human capital management through competencies and knowledge management approach in Scientific Research Centers within knowledge based economy. The study was applied to the case of Scientific Research Centers in Algeria, such as: (CREAD, CRSTRA, CDTA, ...

  9. Regional unemployment and human capital in transition economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán; Terrell, K.

    -, č. 345 (2007), s. 1-34 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : unemployment * human capital * regional labor markets Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp345.pdf

  10. Regional unemployment and human capital in transition economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán; Terrell, K.

    -, č. 6569 (2007), s. 1-34 ISSN 0265-8003 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : human capital * unemployment * labour mobility Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cepr.org/pubs/new-dps/dplist.asp?dpno=6569.asp

  11. Moderating effect of innovation on human capital and small firm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluate the importance of human capital on the performance of small firms in the construction sector in developing countries. Primary data was obtained from 255 small contractors in the construction sector in the state of Kelantan, Malaysia. Analysis of the study was carried out through descriptive and multiple ...

  12. Specific and general human capital in an endogenous growth model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jerbashian, Vahagn; Slobodyan, Sergey; Vourvachaki, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2015), s. 167-204 ISSN 0012-8775 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700850902 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : economic growth * human capital types * education policy Subject RIV: AH - Economic s Impact factor: 0.404, year: 2015

  13. Specific and general human capital in an endogenous growth model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jerbashian, Vahagn; Slobodyan, Sergey; Vourvachaki, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2015), s. 167-204 ISSN 0012-8775 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : economic growth * human capital types * education policy Subject RIV: AH - Economic s Impact factor: 0.404, year: 2015

  14. ADN to BSN: lessons from human capital theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Christina M

    2006-01-01

    Currently, approximately 16% of associate degree nursing (ADN) graduates acquire baccalaureate or higher degrees. Human capital analysis demonstrated negative to minimal average returns on investment (ROI) in BSN education. Increasing the ROI may influence ADNs to pursue baccalaureate education and can be an effective strategy for meeting the projected need for BSN-prepared nurses.

  15. Three Models of Education: Rights, Capabilities and Human Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeyns, Ingrid

    2006-01-01

    This article analyses three normative accounts that can underlie educational policies, with special attention to gender issues. These three models of education are human capital theory, rights discourses and the capability approach. I first outline five different roles that education can play. Then I analyse these three models of educational…

  16. Poverty, Access to Health Care Services and Human Capital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper is aimed at examining the poverty profile of Nigeria and its consequences on access to health care services and human capital development in the country. It is a startling paradox that about two – thirds of Nigerians are poor despite living in a country with vast potential wealth. Apart from looking at the theoretical ...

  17. Regional unemployment and human capital in transition economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán; Terrell, K.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2009), s. 241-274 ISSN 0967-0750 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : unemployment * human capital * regional labour markets Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.774, year: 2009

  18. Applying Organizational Commitment and Human Capital Theories to Emigration Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhohlyad, Olga; McLean, Gary N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to bring some additional insight into the issue of emigration by establishing a relationship between emigration and psychic return of citizens to their human capital investment in the country. Design/methodology/approach: The article adopts a quantitative research strategy. It applies organizational commitment and human…

  19. Human Capital Formation And Poverty Reduction Strategies In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study articulates the development thrust of the Nigerian government, (1999 – 2003), in the area of human capital information and poverty reduction. The policies to achieve its objectives and the gains of such policies to the common man in Nigeria. To achieve its objectives, the government emphasized, macroeconomic ...

  20. Human Capital-Intensive Firms and Symbolic Value Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezanne Cécile

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the process of symbolic value creation of human capital-intensive firms. Human capital is a critical resource for firms’ activities. Nevertheless, this dimension is often obscured by industrial economists. In the light of critical resource theory, we analyze how taking into account the inalienable and inimitable nature of specific human capital entails a reconsideration of the role and boundaries of the firm. We show that the firm seeks to coordinate the specialization of its key partners within the frame of its economic boundaries to ensure the long-term optimization of its potential of value. Therefore, the value of the firm depends on all the resources that the firm coordinates. Then we focus on the way HCIF can create different values. We suggest that the firm builds its competitive advantage on different forms of values, in particular the symbolic value incorporated in human capital. Finally, on the basis of these considerations, we identify the wealth included in the critical resources of the firm and to bring to light the process of symbolic value creation associated with it. We suggest that the firm is the value creating entity and the customer both recognizes and derives the value created from whatever it is that the firm provides. We propose a definition of this value and a schema of its creation process based on management works attempts. We conclude by proposing paths of research that could fruitfully be explored to further develop this new subject.

  1. Human Capital Formation in the Gulf and MENA Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ken E.

    2001-01-01

    Recent developments in human capital formation theories are particularly relevant to the Gulf and Middle Eastern and North African regions. Discusses recent western reconfigurations of the theory, noting how much local work must be done to reshape theory appropriately in the Middle East and explaining how issues relating to employment, education,…

  2. Human capital flight challenges within an Equitable Health System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human capital flight challenges within an Equitable Health System. N E Udonwa. Abstract. No Abstract Nigerian Journal of Medicine Vol. 16 (4) 2007: pp. 307-311. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njm.v16i4.37327 · AJOL African ...

  3. The Development of Human Capital in Young Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickie, James

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides insights into the human capital development of a group of young entrepreneurs, all of whom have built growth businesses with turnovers of between 1M British Pounds and 90M British Pounds. Their development of knowledge and skills was investigated before and during the creation of their first main ventures. This is significant…

  4. Inactive nurses in Taiwan: human capital, intention to return to hospital nursing, and incentives for returning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hsing-Yi; Tang, Fu-In; Chen, I-Ju; Yin, Teresa J C; Chen, Chu-Chieh; Yu, Shu

    2016-04-01

    To investigate inactive nurses' human capital, intention to return to hospital nursing and incentives for returning. Few studies have discussed the loss of human capital with regard to inactive nurses and how to attract them to return to clinical work. Systematic random sampling was used, with 328 subjects completing the mailed questionnaires, resulting in a response rate of 25.4%. Inactive nurses not only had moderate to high human capital (average years of nursing experience was 10.29, with moderate to high levels of nursing professional commitment and nursing competence) and were young. Forty-three percent of subjects reported intending to return to hospital nursing. Sufficient nurse staffing, greater safety in the working environment, and re-entry preparation programmes were incentives for returning. Recruiting inactive nurses back to hospital work is vital and feasible as inactive nurses had a moderate to high degree of human capital. The most feasible way is offering reasonable working conditions, in particular, providing sufficient staffing, a safe working environment and re-entry preparation programmes. The findings confirm the human capital of inactive nurses and provide concrete directions for nursing managers to follow when recruiting inactive nurses to hospital nursing. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Human capital – investing in man (intangible development factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Ziejewski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main issue considered in the paper is a man, and his place and role in the work environment in the knowledge driven development. The author emphasises the significance of the human factor and analyses related terms against the background of the contemporary social economics. The human capital as a development factor is a modern strategy for achieving competitive advantages on the market.

  6. EMPLOYMENT AND HUMAN CAPITAL IN THE GREEK HOTEL INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Efstathios VELISSARIOU; Christos AMIRADIS

    2014-01-01

    Tourism can have significant impacts on employment in tourist destinations. It must be also noted that the human capital in the tourism sector, and more specifically in hotels, constitutes a basic factor of quality. The effectiveness of service in the Hotel industry is often linked with the sufficient number of hotel personnel, their individual qualities and efficient Human resources management. The development of the hotel industry in Greece and the resulted employment and characteristics of...

  7. Valuable human capital: the aging health care worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sandra K; Collins, Kevin S

    2006-01-01

    With the workforce growing older and the supply of younger workers diminishing, it is critical for health care managers to understand the factors necessary to capitalize on their vintage employees. Retaining this segment of the workforce has a multitude of benefits including the preservation of valuable intellectual capital, which is necessary to ensure that health care organizations maintain their competitive advantage in the consumer-driven market. Retaining the aging employee is possible if health care managers learn the motivators and training differences associated with this category of the workforce. These employees should be considered a valuable resource of human capital because without their extensive expertise, intense loyalty and work ethic, and superior customer service skills, health care organizations could suffer severe economic repercussions in the near future.

  8. The Educational Asset Market: A Finance Perspective on Human Capital Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2002-01-01

    on type and level of education enables us to focus on the shared features between human capital and stock investments. An innovative finance-labor approach is applied to study the educational asset market. A risk-return trade-off is revealed which is not directly related to the length of education.......Like the stock market, the human capital market consists of a wide range of assets, i.e. educations. Each young individual chooses the educational asset that matches his preferred combination of risk and return in terms of future income. A unique register-based data set with exact information...

  9. A REVIEW OF THE EFFECT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Razmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the effect of social capital on human development in Iran. For this purpose, Iran society in the period 1984 to 2009 by using time series data and Autoregressive Distributed Lags (ARDL technique has been studied. Due to the quality of social capital variable two variables i.e. the number of judicial cases related to nonsufficient fund checks and embezzlement, bribery and forgery, and elections' participation rate have been used to measure the effect of social capital. The results suggest that there is a negative and significant effect of judicial cases on human development index (HDI level and elections' participation index statistically has not significant effect on Iran's human development index.

  10. Human capital financial results of an enterprise – research on the best employers in poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bagieńska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a modern economy human capital is the basic resource, directly influencing production and the financial results of the enterprise. Employee involvement determines their better job performance and the achievement of better financial results. The analysed companies – winners of the contest named Best Employer in Poland demonstrated increasing effectiveness and profitability of their activities which was shown by the calculated coefficients. The human capital coefficients based on the data from financial reports do not reflect the proper analysis of changes in return on investment and human capital productivity dependent on the level of employee involvement. A proper evaluation should concern not only financial results such as sales revenues, but also non-financial results.

  11. Los Alamos National Laboratory Human and Intellectual Capital for Sustaining Nuclear Deterrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAlpine, Bradley [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current human and intellectual capital at Los Alamos National Laboratory, through specific research into the statistics and demographics as well as numerous personal interviews at all levels of personnel. Based on this information, a series of recommendations are provided to assist Los Alamos National Laboratory in ensuring the future of the human and intellectual capital for the nuclear deterrence mission. While the current human and intellectual capital is strong it stands on the precipice and action must be taken to ensure Los Alamos National Laboratory maintains leadership in developing and sustaining national nuclear capabilities. These recommendations may be applicable to other areas of the nuclear enterprise, including the Air Force, after further research and study.

  12. Los Alamos National Laboratory Human and Intellectual Capital for Sustaining Nuclear Deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAlpine, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current human and intellectual capital at Los Alamos National Laboratory, through specific research into the statistics and demographics as well as numerous personal interviews at all levels of personnel. Based on this information, a series of recommendations are provided to assist Los Alamos National Laboratory in ensuring the future of the human and intellectual capital for the nuclear deterrence mission. While the current human and intellectual capital is strong it stands on the precipice and action must be taken to ensure Los Alamos National Laboratory maintains leadership in developing and sustaining national nuclear capabilities. These recommendations may be applicable to other areas of the nuclear enterprise, including the Air Force, after further research and study.

  13. Intellectual Capital: A Focus on Human Capital Reporting Practices of Top Malaysian Listed Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhayati Mat Husin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the extent of human capital (HC reporting among top Malaysian companies and introduce an HC reporting guideline that can be used by Malaysian companies and regulator. It begins by developing the HC framework based on previous intellectual capital (IC frameworks. This framework is then used to examine each of the top 100 Malaysian companies listed on the Bursa Malaysia in year 2008. Using the content analysis method, it reviews the annual reports of these companies to determine the extent of HC reporting. The findings of this paper highlight the need for the development of IC framework particularly on HC. HC differences were also identified between Malaysia and other countries such as Sri Lanka and Australia, and it is argued that these differences can be attributed to the social, economic, and political factors.

  14. Global economic meltdown and its effects on human capital development in Nigeria: Lessons and way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde Oladele Joseph

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Global economies around the world have experienced the most traumatic moments in the last one-decade. The crisis has been described by scholars, as perhaps been the worst financial crisis since the great economic depression of the 1930s. This paper lucidly examines the effects of global economic recession on the development of human capital with reference to Nigeria nation. The objectives of the paper among others are (i To establish the level of the impact of global economic recession on development of skills of human capital in Nigeria (ii To examine if there is any significant relationship between global economic recession and the motivation of human capital development in Nigeria among others. The paper uses survey method with two research hypotheses. Questionnaires were administered among academic staff of two Nigerian universities in the southwest part of Nigeria. Findings showed that the global economic recession has great impact on the development of skills of human capital in Nigeria. Findings also revealed that there exists a positive relationship between global economic recession and training and development of human capital in Nigeria. The paper offers useful policy recommendations, which include the need for government and appropriate agencies to put in place policies such as enabling environment that will lead to the growth and development of human capital in Nigeria. Government needs to put forward policies that minimize cost at all levels, maximize efficiency of output, training and retraining of goods hands; and that there is need to encourage better motivation of workers at every sector of the economy amongst others.

  15. Human Capital, Social Classes, and the Earnings Determination Process in Brazilian Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Jorge A.; Haller, Archibald O.; Fernandes, Danielle C.

    This paper examines the process of earnings determination in the agricultural sector of Brazil. Among the main causal factors analyzed are human capital (education and work experience), labor market segmentation, gender, social class position, level of development/modernization, and concentration of land ownership. Data on individuals employed in…

  16. Was Weber Wrong? A Human Capital Theory of Protestant Economic History. PEPG/07-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sascha O.; Wohmann, Ludger

    2007-01-01

    Max Weber attributed the higher economic prosperity of Protestant regions to a Protestant work ethic. We provide an alternative theory, where Protestant economies prospered because instruction in reading the Bible generated the human capital crucial to economic prosperity. County-level data from late 19th-century Prussia reveal that Protestantism…

  17. Chief Human Capital Officers Council (CHCOC)'s Members and Assistants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — List of members of the Chief Human Capital Officers Council (CHCOC): Federal Chief Human Capital Officers (CHCOs) and Deputy CHCOs, as well as the council's chair,...

  18. Human Capital Key Worry for Reformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2008-01-01

    Corporations have been striving to perfect the "people side" of their operations for decades. Most hunt aggressively for the right talent, train workers to produce at high levels, and reward top performers with promotions and higher pay. In public education, though, school districts have been more passive in managing this vital asset. Most rely on…

  19. Human capital and wages in exporting firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the link between the education level of workers, export performance and wages. We argue that firms may escape intense competition in international markets by using high skilled workers to differentiate their products. This story is consistent with our empirical results. Using...

  20. Human Capital Development - Resilient Cyber Physical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-29

    mathematics Discrete and continuous mathematics Physical world computing , including safety, reliability, security, performance, and risk...10 2.2 A Taxonomy to relate “Resilient CPS” to Education in Engineering and Computing Domains ............. 12 2.2.1 What is a CPS...19 Table 3. Entry Level Competencies for a Career Dealing with Assurance [CMU/SEI-2013-TN-004, 2010] ......... 20 Table 4. Computer

  1. HUMAN CAPITAL: CAUSE AND EFFECT OF THE ECONOMIC GROWTH. AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    NEAGU OLIMPIA

    2013-01-01

    From the birth of the human capital theory, economists were interested to find evidences showing the impact of the human capital on the economic output, discussing and debating more or less the effect of economic growth on the accumulation of human capital in the economy and the association between education and health. The paper aims to test several econometric models to explain the relationship between human capital and economic output. Using World Bank data, 17 countries with the fastest e...

  2. Empirical Studies of Human Capital Formation: The Role of Family, Sibling, and Neighborhood

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Huei-Ling III

    1998-01-01

    The formation of human capital is the main issue in this dissertation. More specifically, this dissertation discusses two alternative types of transferring human capital, in contrast to the transfer of human capital from parents to their children's education. These two types of transfer are sibling effect and neighborhood effect on children's education. Chapter 1 discusses the sibling effect on children's education, "Household Models and Formations of Human Capital with Sibling Effect in I...

  3. Assessment of labour market returns in the case of gender unique human capital

    OpenAIRE

    Paas, Tiiu; Tverdostup, Maryna

    2016-01-01

    Maryna Tverdostup, Tiiu Paas, ERSA 2016: The paper focuses on the identification of the unique, non-reached by the opposite gender human capital and the analysis of its effect on the earning profiles of unique human capital holders. The overwhelming research aim is to better understand the possible reasons behind gender wage disparities, focusing on the unique features of male and female human capital and their returns. When assessing the gender pay disparities, variation of human capital cha...

  4. Human Capital - A Quality Factor For The Competitiveness Of IT Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Elisei Crăciun

    2015-01-01

    This paper treats quality, human capital and competitiveness concepts in order to determine in which measure the Human Capital quality influences the competitiveness of a firm. The human capital theory is a relatively new approach, the first valuable approach being that of Garry Becker which, subsequent of the modern management theoretical views, puts human capital into scientific frame. This present paper relates deeply on this theoretical frame as it is considered that, besides financial or...

  5. SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT QUALITIES AND HUMAN CAPITAL EXPANDED REPRODUCTION IN THE REPUBLIC OF KARELIA AND THE RUSSIA EUROPEAN NORTH ARCTIC REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kekkonen A. L.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies of the spatial development qualities and the human capital expanded reproduction of the Republic of Karelia and the Arctic regions of Russia’s European North. The aim of the article is the identification of characteristics, opportunities and threats of human capital reproduction in terms of region spatial development. The application of the research results is to provide recommendations for improving reproduction of the human capital and development of the education and vocational guidance systems, human capital management in the region. The study of spatial development and reproduction of the human capital used methods of logical, statistical and comparative analysis and SWOT- analysis principles. The results of the study allowed revealing the peculiarities of spatial development and human capital expanded reproduction of the Republic of Karelia in comparison with the Russian Arctic regions of the European North (Arkhangelsk Oblast, Murmansk Oblast, Komi Republic and Nenets Autonomous District. The Republic of Karelia has a special geographical position, and based on many socio-economic indicators is considered to be a «depressive» region. The expanded reproduction of human capital will bring the Republic of Karelia to the next level of development, taking into consideration external and internal factors as well as opportunities and threats. The results obtained in the study will expand the existing system of knowledge about reproduction of the human capital in the framework of spatial development, and the review of the expanded reproduction of human capital on the regional level will allow the government authorities to develop objective measures of quality formation of the region's human resources. It is proved that the introduction of the vocational guidance system in the region could lead to minimization of the threats associated with depopulation and the gap between education system and the

  6. Human Capital and Wages in Exporting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    This paper studies the link between a firms education level, export performance and wages of its workers. We argue that firms may escape intense competition in international markets by using high skilled workers to differentiate their products. This story is consistent with our empirical results....... Using a very rich matched worker-firm longitudinal dataset we find that firms with high export intensities pay higher wages. However, an interaction term between export intensity and skill intensity has a positive impact on wages and it absorbs the direct effect of the export intensity. That is, we find...... an export wage premium, but it accrues to workers in firms with high skill intensities...

  7. CONSTRUCTION OF A DYNAMIC INPUT-OUTPUT MODEL WITH A HUMAN CAPITAL BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranov A. O.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of human capital is an important factor of economic growth. It seems to be useful to include «human capital» as a factor of a macroeconomic model, as it helps to take into account the quality differentiation of the workforce. Most of the models usually distinguish labor force by the levels of education, while some of the factors remain unaccounted. Among them are health status and culture development level, which influence productivity level as well as gross product reproduction. Inclusion of the human capital block to the interindustry model can help to make it more reliable for economic development forecasting. The article presents a mathematical description of the extended dynamic input-output model (DIOM with a human capital block. The extended DIOM is based on the Input-Output Model from The KAMIN system (the System of Integrated Analyses of Interindustrial Information developed at the Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering of the Siberian Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the Russian Federation and at the Novosibirsk State University. The extended input-output model can be used to analyze and forecast development of Russian economy.

  8. Business Teacher Education (BTE); A Panacea for Human Capital Development in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okifo, Joseph; Ayo, Abel O.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on business teacher education, a panacea for human capital development in Nigeria. Human capital suggests that education, and training, health and standard of living raises the productivity of workers and increases their lifetime earning capacity. Therefore, BTE is a panacea for human capital development because the…

  9. Auditor human capital and audit firm survival - The Dutch audit industry in 1930-1992

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocheler, [No Value; Maijoor, S; van Witteloostuijn, A; Bröcheler, V.

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between auditor human capital and audit firm survival. Specifically, the effects are investigated of the human capital of auditors on the survival chances of newly established audit firms. Human capital is analyzed both at the time of entry of a new audit firm and

  10. Determining the Optimum Level of Working Capital in the Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of working capital is very important to the operations of the Cameroon Development Corporation (CDC) Net working capital (i.e. the excess of liquid current assets over current liabilities) is an indispensable component of any business organization's capital structure. For any company to make profit in order to ...

  11. Knowledge-Intensive Entrepreneurship and the Impact of Human Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Neergaard, Helle; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address selected aspects of human capital in association with the entrepreneurial process in technology-based new ventures. Until recently, research investigating the founding of new businesses has mainly focused on the personal characteristics of entrepreneurs...... experiences are both considered to be critical to the entrepreneurial process, as they both seem to impact on new venture establishment. The longer the career path before venture founding, the more experience an entrepreneur has gathered. Therefore, age seems to have a positive influence on the success...... of a newly founded venture. Furthermore, the dimensions of human capital, experience and previous employment, seem to be essential in building the networks that help secure both the early as well as a continuous pool of finance for the ventures....

  12. Building Credible Human Capital Analytics for Organizational Competitive Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana

    2018-01-01

    Despite the enormous interest in human capital analytics (HCA), organizations have struggled to move from operational reporting to HCA. This is mainly the result of the inability of analytics teams to establish credible internal HCA and demonstrate its value. In this article, we stress the import......Despite the enormous interest in human capital analytics (HCA), organizations have struggled to move from operational reporting to HCA. This is mainly the result of the inability of analytics teams to establish credible internal HCA and demonstrate its value. In this article, we stress...... the importance of conceptualizing HCA as an organizational capability and suggest a method for its operationalization. We argue that the development of HCA within an organization requires working with three dimensions of HCA: data quality, analytics capabilities, and strategic ability to act. Moreover, such work...

  13. Human Capital Management Plan Fiscal Years 2003- 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-03-09

    Western, like many other Federal agencies, will face significant and challenging human capital issues in the next decade. The Federal workforce is aging; baby boomers, with their valuable skills and experience, are drawing nearer to retirement and new employees joining the Federal workforce today have different career expectations from the generation that preceded them. The average age of Western’s workforce is approaching 48. Almost a third of the workforce is between 50 and 54 years and most will be eligible to retire in five years. Western has almost twice as many employees who are 55 and older as it has who are 35 and younger. As the workforce ages, the proportion of younger workers is shrinking. The U.S. Census Bureau says you can expect these developments for the next 20 years. The 45 to 65 year-old work group will grow by 54 percent but the 18 to 44 population will rise by only 4 percent. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics workers age 25 to 44 will decline by 3 million, dropping from 51 percent of the labor force in 1998 to 44 percent in 2008. Western employees who will retire include highly skilled workers in fields such as information technology, engineering, and craft occupations. Deregulation of the electric utility industry and the establishment of regional transmission organizations and independent system operators are also demanding new and different skill mixes than those currently available in Western. Changes in workforce demographic, in the education and skills that will be required in the future, and an increasingly competitive job market, will require flexible and responsive human capital tools to attract and retain talented employees. These trends were the reason for a comprehensive review of Western’s human capital programs to determine its readiness for the future. In July 2001, a team of managers conducted a comprehensive assessment of Western’s human capital needs. The team used the assessment to draft a framework that

  14. Dynamic Interactions Between Health, Human Capital and Wealth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with health, human capital and wealth accumulation with elastic labor supply. The economic system consists of one industrial, one health, and one education sector. Our model is a synthesis of four main models in economic theory: Solow’s one-sector neoclassical growth mode, the Uzawa-Lucas two sector model, Arrow’s learning by doing model, and Grossman’s growth model with health. The model also includes Zhang’s idea about creative leisure or learning by consuming. Demand and supply of health service and education are determined by market mechanism. The model describes dynamic interdependence among wealth, health, human capital, economic structure, and time distribution among work, health caring, and education under perfect competition. We simulate the model and examine effects of changes in the propensity to consume health caring, the efficiency of producing health caring, the propensity to receive education, and the propensity to save.

  15. Human Capital and Romania’s Perspective in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai CHIRILĂ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The source of improving people life standard depends, alongsideother factors, on efforts oriented towards education, research, andknowledge enrichment. It is also related to development and disseminationof high performance technology, with knowledge development, skills andabilities, professional training able to realize, disseminate, and useinnovation. However, these investments in human capital will lead to goodresults by extending the active life of skilled workers, by improving thegeneral health status of the population, by preserving the environment, byimproving food products quality. All these are the more valid for Romania’seconomy, the more it needs to be integrated in the Western European area,which is a highly competitive area. Or, relative sub-investment inautochthonous human capital might force our country to developcomparative advantages in border fields from the point of view ofproductivity, to specialize in fields that intensively use raw materials, to turninto a low paid labour market.

  16. On the Relationship between Human Capital and Firm Performanc

    OpenAIRE

    Dinh Thi Thanh Binh; Le Minh Ngoc; Nguyen Huu Thinh; Bui Cao Khai; Tran Duy Hung; Nguyen Viet Duong; Le Thi Thu Trang

    2013-01-01

    This paper applies the ordinary least square regression model to estimate the effects of the human capital on the business performance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Vietnam. We exploit the cross-sectional data of SMEs for the year 2009. The estimated results show that basic and professional education of the firm owner are important factors affecting the success of the firm. Further, experience in owning a business before can help the firm owners enhance their performance. Finally,...

  17. Women's Role in the Agricultural Household: Bargaining and Human Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, T. Paul

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the methods and empirical findings from economic analyses of women's contribution to social welfare and the determinants of their human capital. To understand better women's roles in agricultural households, three themes have gained prominence in the economics literature. First is the conceptualization of the unified family as coordinator of production and consumption over the lifecycle. Second is the role of separability of production and consumption decisions in the agric...

  18. Human capital flight challenges within an equitable health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udonwa, N E

    2007-01-01

    The issue of human capital flight has been discussed at different forums with a consensus opinion that it has its merits and demerits to equitable health system. Most often one nation becomes a substantial net exporter of talent, leaving the provider nation at risk of depleting its natural supply of talent. This paper looks into the historical perspective of human capital flight or "brain drain", and its burden. It attempts to elucidate the various causes and suggested solutions. The paper's objective is to educate colleagues on the conceptual and contextual imperatives of the issue. Using a convenient sample of key informants who were medical colleagues in Nigeria relevant information was sourced from these colleagues, documents from the postgraduate medical college of Nigeria and the internet on maters relating to human capital flight and brain drain. Every year, thousands of qualified doctors, and other professionals leave Nigeria tempted by significantly higher wages, brighter prospects for employment and education, stability, food security. It appears that the potential exposure to different working conditions, resources and professional environments can be of advantage to the country, should Nigeria be able to recall these professionals. It also appears that necessary economic reforms that make staying at home rewarding, that is--good leadership, and policy planning that seriously looks into rural development, among other issues, are keys ingredients to reversing the trend in order to ensure a more equitable health system.

  19. Methodology of Competences Management Assuming the Cuban Norm about Management of Human Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Armando Cuesta

    2011-01-01

    An applied research conducted in eight Cuban companies which follow the approach of skills in strategic management of human resources according to the standard Cuban CN: 3000-3002:2007 on human capital management, seeking a superior performance to higher productivity. It sought to manage the connection of individual work with the responsibilities for the strategic organizational performance. As a result we have obtained a metodology to manage the various skill levels expressed in this compani...

  20. Application methods for identification of delphi bases comprehensive development of human capital

    OpenAIRE

    Lenka Bartková

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article focuses on the question of nurturing human capital in a company environment with emphasis on developing human capital not only by education, but also by investing into a healthy lifestyle, development of key competencies, social capital etc. Human capital development is usually interpreted as education. The bearer of knowledge, the employee, is often of secondary focus and not being taken into account. Increasing the efficiency of companies as well as the productivity...

  1. Human capital in the nursing management of hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ana Lúcia Arcanjo Oliveira; Fernandes, Josicélia Dumêt; Mauricio, Maria Deolinda Antunes Luz Lopes Dias; Silva, Rosana Maria de Oliveira; Barros, Claudia Silva Marinho Antunes de; Romano, Cátia Maria Costa

    2017-08-17

    To analyze how the components of human capital are used in the nursing management of hospital organizations. This was an exploratory and qualitative study. Data collection took place between October 2014 and May 2015 using semi-structured interviews. The data were analyzed according to content analysis. Twelve nurse managers participated. The components of human capital used by the nurses in personnel management were: during the hiring process, when requiring specialized education in the field and prior professional experience; when retaining talents with promotion strategies; in building capacities of professionals through support and training; and in collective work to construct processes and outcome assessment. The components of human capital need to be managed strategically with a focus on professional skills and development, with the aim of transforming individual and collective knowledge into new technology. Analisar como os componentes do capital humano são utilizados na gestão de enfermeiras em organizações hospitalares. Estudo exploratório, com abordagem qualitativa. A coleta de dados ocorreu de outubro de 2014 a maio de 2015 com a utilização de entrevistas semiestruturadas. Os dados foram analisados segundo a análise de conteúdo. Participaram 12 gestoras de enfermagem. Os componentes do capital humano utilizados pelas enfermeiras na gestão de pessoas foram: no processo admissional ao utilizar como critérios para contratação a exigência de especialização na área e experiência profissional prévia; na manutenção de talentos com estratégias de promoção; na capacitação de profissionais com apoio e treinamento; e no trabalho coletivo para a construção dos processos e avaliação dos resultados. Os componentes do capital humano precisam ser gerenciados estrategicamente com foco nas competências e no desenvolvimento do profissional, visando transformar os conhecimentos individuais e coletivos em novas tecnologias.

  2. FDI spillovers, absorptive capacities and human capital development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narula, Rajneesh; Marin, Anabel

    2003-01-01

    spillovers accrue from MNE activity, and provide apreliminary understanding of why MNE spillovers remain somewhat ambiguous,particularly in developing countries, paying particular attention to human capitaldevelopment. Our analysis is supported by data from the Innovation Survey in Argentina.On the whole......It is nowadays generally accepted that inward foreign direct investment (FDI) is crucialas a source of technological spillovers. One of the objectives of this paper is to review theevidence on the quantity and quality of human capital employed by domestic and foreignfirms. We examine whether...

  3. Sabotaging the benefits of our own human capital: Work unit characteristics and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Christopher M; Jiang, Kaifeng; Lepak, David P

    2016-02-01

    The strategic human capital literature indicates the importance of human capital to work unit performance. However, we argue that human capital only aids performance when it is translated into actions beneficial to the unit. We examine a set of common human capital leveraging characteristics (including the use of extended shifts, night shifts, shift flexibility, norms for work as a priority over sleep, and norms for constant connectivity) as factors that enhance the effect of human capital on human capital utilization. We also draw from the 2-process model of sleep regulation to examine how these characteristics undermine employee sleep, and thus weaken the link between human capital and work unit performance efficiency. Overall, we propose that human capital leveraging strategies initially enhance the effect of human capital on work unit performance, but over time weaken the effect of human capital on work unit performance efficiency. Thus, strategies intended to enhance the beneficial effect of human capital on work unit performance can end up doing the opposite. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Teachers as Human Capital or Human Beings? USAID's Perspective on Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes three USAID education strategy documents (1998, 2005, and 2011) as well as USAID's requests for proposals for three projects to assess how teachers are represented. The main findings indicate that USAID education strategy documents a) treat teachers as human capital, a human resource input, rather than as human beings and b)…

  5. MANAGEMENT OF INNOVATIVE IMPROVEMENT OF QUALITY OF LIFE AND HUMAN CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Usmanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of the chosen subject is caused by the current state and problems of development of a human capital and potential. The existing changes of the current legislation and a tendency of development of a human capital in Russia in developed countries allow to subject to doubt efficiency of planning of economic and social programs in the country. Also relevance of article is caused by the fact that in the conditions of a transitional economy and integration of economy into the world economy many countries create quality of life of the population according to standards and there is a need of revaluation of values regarding development of a human capital in Russia within the world device.In the first part of article the overview of historical aspects of planning of a human capital and the analysis of high budget revenues becomes. In article it is shown that expenses aren't effectively distributed on regional equalization and on social needs, that is on development of a welfare and a human capital and potential in the country.The second part of article describes one of manifestations of the quality level of life, that is the Minimum Wage (MW which is the main indicator for charge of temporary disability benefits, pension accrual, unemployment benefits, etc.The third part of article reflects the directions of development of innovative management: improvement of quality of life and a human capital where emphasis on need of preparation intellectual the oriented specialists is placed.The purpose/goal .The purpose of article is disclosure, comparison of features, and also determinations of criteria of management of innovative development of quality of life and a human capital in the Russian Federation.Methodology. The methodology of the solution of objectives is based on use of a method of a dialectic research, methods of the economic analysis, forecasting, the situation and system analysis, expert evaluations and the analysis of empirical data

  6. Recent proposal for the estimation of household human capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Vittadini

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Dagum and Slottje (2000 estimated household Human Capital (HC as a Latent Variable (LV proposing its monetary estimation by means of an actuarial approach. This paper introduces an improved method for the estimation of household HC as LV by means of formative and reflective indicators in agreement with the accepted economic definition of HC. The monetary HC distribution, estimated for Italian (2000 and US (2004 household, is used in a recursive causal model to explore the role of HC in macroeconomy.

  7. Human capital and salary differences in Mexico, 2000-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Rogelio Varela Llamas; Arturo Retamoza López

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this document is to estimate two models econometrics on the determination of the wages in Mexico for the period 2000–2009. There is in use information of the National Survey of Urban Employment and of the National Survey of Occupation and Employment of the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics (inegi). The impact is analyzed on the wage income of variables of offer of work as labor experience and human capital. In contrast, variables of demand are in use as si...

  8. Developing and improving human capital and productivity in public companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozipho Sithole

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the impact of the Assisted Education Programme (AEP in developing, improving human capital and productivity specifically for eThekwini Municipality employee human resource. This programme offers funding to employees to further their studies in higher learning institutions, which are in partnership with and recognized by eThekwini Municipality. The core function of this programme is to improve and develop employee capabilities in order to enhance municipal productivity. However, different factors have prohibited the programme from reaching required funding polity objectives. Participants filled in questionnaires and from them data were collected. The study used quantitative research as a method of research. The target population for this study consisted of 100 participants. The study sample size were 64 participants which were randomly selected out of the Durban Solid Waste Unit, specifically general assistants. The study analyzed data using SPSS (version 23.0. A significant percentage of respondents indicated to a lack of transparency and poor consistency in the process of awarding the funding and to insufficient information, which detailed the criteria for eligibility of applicants. Henceforth, the study concluded that municipal employee underutilized the AEP because of being ill informed about it. This resulted in the employee perception that the programme had little or no benefit to them and that it had no value in improving their human capital development. This finding is shown by a Chi-square goodness of fit test to be statistically significant (std=1.49150; mean=2.7500; p=.000

  9. Neoliberalism, Human Capital and the Skills Agenda in Higher Education--The Irish Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holborow, Marnie

    2012-01-01

    The making of human capital is increasingly seen as a principal function of higher education. A keyword in neoliberal ideology, human capital represents a subtle masking of social conflict and expresses metaphorically the commodification of human abilities and an alienating notion of human potential, both of which sit ill with the goals of…

  10. Human Capital of Family and Social Mobility in Rural Areas-Evidence from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin-hua; YU Mei-lian; WU Fang-wei; CHEN Wei

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on the impact of family’s human capital on social mobility in China’s rural community. Empirical research is conducted based on data from surveying a typical rural community in the past 20 yr. The study indicates that social mobility in rural area is active in the past 20 yr, and the human capital of family, represented by primary labor’s education level, has played an essential role in mobility of low social class. Meanwhile, socio-economic development and the change of supply and demand in labor market dims the signaling role of degree education, but the impact of occupational training is increasingly remarkable. Therefore, the change from sole degree education to multi-leveled education including occupational education and training is a main way for China’s rural families in low class to realize social mobility.

  11. Essays on the effects of human capital, innovation and technology on economic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Tiruneh, Esubalew Alehegn

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is on human capital (HC) and innovation in Germany and comprises of three essays. The first essay provides a comparative analysis on the economic performance impacts of creative class and HC at regional level with the purpose of testing whether the contemporary occupation-based creative class or the conventional education-based HC can be used as a better driver of regional economy. In doing so, I disaggregate creative class into creative core (scientific experts), creative profess...

  12. Foreign Direct Investments and Human Capital Development in Subsaharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc NEMBOT NDEFFO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to estimate the impact of foreign direct investments on human capital development in 32 Subsaharan African countries over the period 1980 – 2005. Human capital is captured by the percentage of children in full-time education in primary and secondary schools. Panel data regressions are used for the estimations. The results show a correlation not only between FDI and the percentage of children in full-time education in primary school but also between the FDI and the percentage of children in full-time education in secondary school. These results are not significant for that. This shows that FDI directed towards Sub-Saharan Africa still remain insufficient. That is why a lot of effort should be made in order to favour the attraction of FDI in this part of the continent. The other variables which have a positive and significant impact on the percentage of children in full-time education are: the domestic investment rate, public sector expenditures, life expectancy at birth and the growth rate of the gross domestic product per capita.

  13. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2014-12-02

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions.

  14. The nutrition intervention improved adult human capital and economic productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Reynaldo; Melgar, Paul; Maluccio, John A; Stein, Aryeh D; Rivera, Juan A

    2010-02-01

    This article reviews key findings about the long-term impact of a nutrition intervention carried out by the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama from 1969 to 1977. Results from follow-up studies in 1988-89 and 2002-04 show substantial impact on adult human capital and economic productivity. The 1988-89 study showed that adult body size and work capacity increased for those provided improved nutrition through age 3 y, whereas the 2002-04 follow-up showed that schooling was increased for women and reading comprehension and intelligence increased in both men and women. Participants were 26-42 y of age at the time of the 2002-04 follow-up, facilitating the assessment of economic productivity. Wages of men increased by 46% in those provided with improved nutrition through age 2 y. Findings for cardiovascular disease risk factors were heterogeneous; however, they suggest that improved nutrition in early life is unlikely to increase cardiovascular disease risk later in life and may indeed lower risk. In conclusion, the substantial improvement in adult human capital and economic productivity resulting from the nutrition intervention provides a powerful argument for promoting improvements in nutrition in pregnant women and young children.

  15. Comparing Swedish and Norwegian Teachers' Professional Development: How Human Capital and Social Capital Factor into Teachers' Reading Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenberg, Monica; Andreassen, Rune

    2018-01-01

    The present study compares how Swedish (n = 340) and Norwegian (n = 236) teachers' human capital and social capital support reading habits as an aspect of professional development. The overall aim was to describe how teachers' human and social capital support their professional development as measured by the aspect of reading habits during leisure…

  16. Bringing human, social, and natural capital to life: practical consequences and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William P

    2011-01-01

    Capital is defined mathematically as the abstract meaning brought to life in the two phases of the development of "transferable representations," which are the legal, financial, and scientific instruments we take for granted in almost every aspect of our daily routines. The first, conceptual and gestational, and the second, parturitional and maturational, phases in the creation and development of capital are contrasted. Human, social, and natural forms of capital should be brought to life with at least the same amounts of energy and efficiency as have been invested in manufactured and liquid capital, and property. A mathematical law of living capital is stated. Two examples of well-measured human capital are offered. The paper concludes with suggestions for the ways that future research might best capitalize on the mathematical definition of capital.

  17. Profitability Identification of National Banking Through Credit, Capital, Capital Structure, Efficiency, and Risk Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Haryanto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the influence of credit, bank capital, capital structure, efficiency and risk toward the profitability in banking industry. Bank has an important role in the economy in Indonesia in 2014. The purposive sampling technique was used in this study to filter the samples according to several criteria such as being public at least in 2008, and publicly released the financial statement from 2008-2013. The total sample of 25 banks. Multiple regression technique was used in this study to analyze the data. The results show that credit, bank capital, and capital structure positively influence the profitability. This result supported by the previous research. The other finding shows that efficiency and risk have significantly negative effect on profitability. Bangking has an 80 percent market share in the financing of intermediation function of the entire financial system.Penelitian bertujuan menganalisis pengaruh antara kredit, permodalan bank, struktur modal, efisiensi dan risiko terhadap profitabilitas pada industri perbankan. Bank mempunyai peran penting dalam ekonomi Indonesia 2014. Teknik sampling penelitian ini adalah purposive sampling, dengan kriteria bank bank telah go public sebelum tahun 2008, mempublikasikan laporan keuangan tahun 2008-2013. Jumlah sampel sebanyak 25 bank. Teknik analisis yang digunakan regresi linier berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kredit, permodalan bank dan struktur modal berpengaruh terhadap profitabilitas dengan arah positif. Hasil lainnya adalah variabel efisiensi dan risiko berpengaruh signifikan dengan arah negatif terhadap profitabilitas. Perbankan memiliki market share 80 persen dalam sistem keuangan.JEL Classification: G3, G32

  18. Entrepreneurial Choices of Initial Human Capital Endowments and New Venture Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Van Praag, Mirjam; B. Folta, Timothy

    The founder (team)'s human capital is a vital determinant of future firm performance. This is a stylized fact. Less is known about the effect of the human capital of the initial workforce hired by the founder(s). We study the performance consequences of a founder's choice of the initial workforce......'s human capital (quantity and quality), besides the human capital of the founder(s). The analysis is based on matched employer-employee data and covers about 5,300 startups in manufacturing industries founded by individuals coming from employment between 1992 and 2007. We acknowledge that initial hiring...... decisions are endogenous and correlated with the human capital of the founders and the ownership structure of startups (single founder versus team of founders). Given the stickiness of initial choices, human capital decisions at entry turn out to be a close to irreversible matter with significant...

  19. Design and Implementation of the Human Capital Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parisi, Cristiana; Rossi, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a Human Capital Report focused on the competency profile of the key employees. Employing the case study of Biomedical Branch of University of Florence, we have designed a strategy map centred on key stakeholders: students, university, didactic and research...... centres, businesses. Furthermore, we have designed a model for the management of human resources, integrating two different approaches: individual and organic. On the basis of this model, semi-structured interview was carried out to obtain rich data on the current competences of key employees, divided...... in three personal characteristics for each strategic theme: knowledge, skills, aptitudes. The results of our analysis show where the competences of the key personnel are lacking, the strategic initiatives to take in the future, and the lead indicators to use for measure the effects of the initiatives...

  20. Does Famine Matter For Aggregate Adolescent Human Capital Acquisition In Sub-Saharan Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Julius A. Agbor and Gregory N. Price

    2012-01-01

    To the extent that in utero and childhood malnutrition negatively affects later stage mental and physical health, it can possibly constrain later stage human capital acquisition, which is an important driver of economic growth. This paper considers the impact of famine on aggregate adolescent human capital formation in Sub-Saharan Africa. We parameterize a joint adolescent human capital and food nutrition production function to estimate the effects of famine on primary school completion rates...

  1. WHERE HAVE OUR PEOPLE GONE SEQUESTRATION’S EFFECTS ON DOD HUMAN CAPITAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY WHERE HAVE OUR PEOPLE GONE? SEQUESTRATION’S EFFECTS ON DOD HUMAN CAPITAL by...reduction combined with decreased funding allocated for training is having hazardous effects on the human capital of the DOD. The quantitative data...cuts that had a direct impact on the human capital , or knowledge and abilities of the people that complete the mission. One of the major implications

  2. A Case Study On Human Capital Mismanagement In The United States Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-08

    AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY A Case Study on Human Capital Mismanagement in the United States Air Force By John P...Force does not effectively manage its human capital to develop and retain a technically literate acquisitions workforce. A detailed look at the...Several solutions are suggested to improve the human capital management and increase the quality and relevancy of the acquisitions community at

  3. Framework for Human Capital Development in Nigeria: A Public-Private Partnership Approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Akande, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the framework for human capital development in Nigeria through a public-private partnership (PPP) approach. No doubt, population of a country determines the subsisted human capital resources and this in turn determines the economic status of such country. Therefore, human capital development becomes a mantra for economic development. Unfortunately, government spending on education and health is so negligible as to make any meaningful impact on Nigerian economy. It is...

  4. COMMUNITY DETERMINANTS OF IMMIGRANT SELF-EMPLOYMENT: HUMAN CAPITAL SPILLOVERS AND ETHNIC ENCLAVES

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Sousa

    2013-01-01

    I find evidence that human capital spillovers have positive effects on the proclivity of low human capital immigrants to self-employ. Human capital spillovers within an ethnic community can increase the self-employment propensity of its members by decreasing the costs associated with starting and running a business (especially, transaction costs and information costs). Immigrants who do not speak English and those with little formal education are more likely to be self-employed if they reside...

  5. Strategy of Slovak Republic's government to use higher education as an investment into human capital

    OpenAIRE

    Smereková, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Bc. Erika Smereková Strategy of Slovak Republic's Government to use higher education as an investment in human capital Abstract The Master thesis on the topic "Strategy of Slovak Republic's government to use higher education as an investment in human capital" presents results to the following research question: To what extent is it a part of strategy of Slovak Republic's educational policy to use higher education as an investment in human capital? The thesis specifically focuses on the idea o...

  6. Evolution of Gender Differences in Post-Secondary Human Capital Investments: College Majors. Working Paper #03-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemici, Ahu; Wiswall, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, the level of human capital investments has changed substantially for men and women. Changes in the intensive margin of college major selection have been also been substantial, as the number of graduates in humanities, social science, and teaching has declined, and the number in science, engineering, and business has…

  7. The Risk-Return Trade-Off in Human Capital Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Joensen, Juanna Schrøter; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    In this paper we analyze investments in human capital assets in a way which is standard for financial assets, but not (yet) for human capital assets. We study mean-variance plots of human capital assets. We compare the properties of human capital returns using a performance measure and by sing...... tests for mean-variance spanning. A risk-return trade-off is revealed, hich is not only related to the length of education but also to the type of education. We identify a range of educations that are efficient in terms of investment goods, and a range of educations that are inefficient, and may...

  8. Strategic Management of Human Capital in Education: Improving Instructional Practice and Student Learning in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Allan R.

    2011-01-01

    "Strategic Management of Human Capital in Education" offers a comprehensive and strategic approach to address what has become labeled as "talent and human capital." Grounded in extensive research and examples of leading edge districts, this book shows how the entire human resource system in schools--from recruitment, to selection/placement,…

  9. Methodical approaches to value assessment and determination of the capitalization level of high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Vitaly; Dashkov, Leonid; Gorshkov, Roman; Burova, Olga; Romanova, Alina

    2018-03-01

    The article presents the analysis of the methodological approaches to cost estimation and determination of the capitalization level of high-rise construction objects. Factors determining the value of real estate were considered, three main approaches for estimating the value of real estate objects are given. The main methods of capitalization estimation were analyzed, the most reasonable method for determining the level of capitalization of high-rise buildings was proposed. In order to increase the value of real estate objects, the author proposes measures that enable to increase significantly the capitalization of the enterprise through more efficient use of intangible assets and goodwill.

  10. Expelled: Humans in Capitalism’s Deepening Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Sassen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As the Cold War was winding down, a new struggle began. Following a period of diverse versions of Keynesian-led relative redistribution in developed market economies, the United States became the point actor for a radical reshuffiing of capitalism. Key to this reshuffiing was expulsion - of people, places, and traditional economies (see Sassen 2014. While this is a socio-economic condition it is a critical, but invisible, element of the current political crisis. Measuring economic growth to understand whether government policies are working, or measuring political participation in terms of voting, excludes growing portions of our political economy - people, specific types of firms and economic circuits, and spaces. The Keynesian period was one of mass production and mass construction of suburban space: this brought with it an economic logic that valued people as workers and consumers, though not necessarily as human beings. The logic guiding the current phase of advanced capitalism does not value people as workers or as (mass consumers. Thus, in the last two decades there has been a sharp growth in the numbers of people that have been "expelled" from the economy in much of the world. The active expanding of a middle class in that earlier period has been replaced by the impoverishment and shrinking of the middle class.

  11. Generation of human and structural capital: lessons from knowledge management

    OpenAIRE

    Agndal, Henrik; Nilsson, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    Interorganizational and social relationships can be seen as part of the intellectual capital of a firm. Existing frameworks of intellectual capital, however, fail to address how relationships should be managed to generate more intellectual capital. Drawing on the interaction approach and the fields of intellectual capital and knowledge management, this paper develops a framework for managing relationships. The framework is illustrated with a case study. It is also noted that firms can improve...

  12. The fundamental problem of the Russian economy: human capital as a panacea from the raw disease of a country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azyrkina Alexandra, S.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines the urgent problems of modern Russia, as well as identified the fundamental problem hindering the successful development of the national economy. As a fundamental problem, the author defines the problem of the lack of diversification of the Russian economy. In the work proposed two global solutions to this problem: the intensive and extensive nature. Preference intensive approach to the resolution of pressing problems is justified. As the reference level intensive approach is the development of human capital. In the paper human capital is in general characterized, the evolution of the concept of human capital and the modern sense of the concept are given. The necessity to consider the human potential as the advantage of Russia is proved. Problems that hinder the development of human capital are identified and analyzed. Also some methods of the solution of those problems are presented. The research also identified the benefits of Russia from the point of view of the development of human capital in comparison with other countries, and identified the urgent problems that hinder its development. Analysis of the current situation from the point of view of limitations for successful human development and the factors hindering this development is provided.

  13. THE INSTITUTIONAL CONTENT OF THE HUMAN CAPITAL OF THE NATIONAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriia Kolomiiets

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current conditions of transformation of traditional institutes and institutions and formation of a new institutional state, the institutional content of human capital as the most valuable resource of the economy changes. Along with the existing research, the transformation of the old institutional system and the emergence of new institutes and institutions require an analysis of the updated institutional content of the human capital of the national economy. The purpose of the paper – to reveal the institutional content of the human capital of the national economy. In the process of work, the following tasks are set and solved: to study economic and institutional conditions of functioning of human capital, to determine the material content of human capital in the context of institutionalism and the process of institutionalization of human capital. Methodology. A methodological basis is a dialectical approach. To study the institutional content of human capital, abstract-logical and systemstructural methods are used. Results. Economic conditions for the formation and functioning of human capital are determined by the instability of the economic situation in Ukraine caused by the fall in the gross domestic product, the inappropriate growth of prices and wages, inflation, and military-political confrontation. Institutional conditions of Ukraine accumulate the following components: those that remained from the previous regimes; transformed components, imported components. The large financial capital, business structures, shadow economy, public sector of the country interact on a fundamentally different institutional basis. The main factor characterizing the institutional development of our country is the uncertainty of limits of institutionalization. The essential institutional conditions for the functioning of human capital are also the absence of a positive or negative experience of existence, coexistence of certain institutions in a

  14. The Relationships between Human Capital, Implicit Views of Intelligence, and Literacy Performance: Implications for the Obama Education Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rihana S.; Ari, Omer; Dortch, Cedrick

    2011-01-01

    African American adolescents from families with low levels of human capital (i.e., caregiver level of education) are at risk for poor early adult outcomes. The current study examined the relationships among 48 African American high school students' literacy performance (e.g., reading and vocabulary), their implicit views of intelligence, their…

  15. Human capital and salary differences in Mexico, 2000-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Varela Llamas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this document is to estimate two models econometrics on the determination of the wages in Mexico for the period 2000–2009. There is in use information of the National Survey of Urban Employment and of the National Survey of Occupation and Employment of the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics (inegi. The impact is analyzed on the wage income of variables of offer of work as labor experience and human capital. In contrast, variables of demand are in use as size of company, sector of activity and other attributes of sociodemographic character. The results indicate that the wage differences by degree of education are marked, but they are also by type of establishment and economic activity.

  16. A Human Capital Model of Educational Test Scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, James; D. Munk, Martin

    Latent class Poisson count models are used to analyze a sample of Danish test score results from a cohort of individuals born in 1954-55 and tested in 1968. The procedure takes account of unobservable effects as well as excessive zeros in the data. The bulk of unobservable effects are uncorrelated...... with observable parental attributes and, thus, are environmental rather than genetic in origin. We show that the test scores measure manifest or measured ability as it has evolved over the life of the respondent and is, thus, more a product of the human capital formation process than some latent or fundamental...... measure of pure cognitive ability. We find that variables which are not closely associated with traditional notions of intelligence explain a significant proportion of the variation in test scores. This adds to the complexity of interpreting test scores and suggests that school culture, attitudes...

  17. HOME COMPUTER USE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN CAPITAL*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamud, Ofer; Pop-Eleches, Cristian

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to estimate the effect of home computers on child and adolescent outcomes by exploiting a voucher program in Romania. Our main results indicate that home computers have both positive and negative effects on the development of human capital. Children who won a voucher to purchase a computer had significantly lower school grades but show improved computer skills. There is also some evidence that winning a voucher increased cognitive skills, as measured by Raven’s Progressive Matrices. We do not find much evidence for an effect on non-cognitive outcomes. Parental rules regarding homework and computer use attenuate the effects of computer ownership, suggesting that parental monitoring and supervision may be important mediating factors. PMID:22719135

  18. Private Transfer Choices under Uncertainty in Human Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo J. Raad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We develop a theoretical model for parental behavior regarding land inheritance, accounting for consumption and savings strategies. We identify two types of modeling: one with, and another without, strategic behavior. In the first model, we assume that children do not act strategically towards their parent. We find that the child with the highest return to human capital is more likely to receive a larger share of the land if the difference in offspring’s returns is large. In the second model, we allow for each child to influence parent’s optimal choice of bequest by providing services to the latter. We illustrate that the child’s strategy for service provision is sufficient to assure that the one providing more assistance will receive a larger share of the bequest in a Nash equilibrium. We conclude by illustrating our theoretical model with some empirical analysis using longitudinal data for the rural Brazilian Amazon.

  19. Neoliberal epistemology: From the impossibility of knowing to human capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krašovec Primož

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s discussions on education policy mostly consist of uncritical shuffling of allegedly neutral and merely technical or practical notions such as life-long learning, learning to learn or problem-solving and are based on similarly uncritical acceptance of socio-economic theories of the knowledge society, which is supposed to present an objective framework of education reforms. The aim of this article is to sketch the history of mentioned notions and to present a critique of theories of the knowledge society through an analysis of its tacit political content. To this aim, we took upon early neoliberal epistemology (Hayek and Polanyi as well as its transition towards theories of human capital (Drucker and Machlup.

  20. A Multicultural Competencies Approach to Developing Human Capital Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolliscroft, Paul; Cagáňová, Dagmar; Čambál, Miloš; Šefčíková, Miriam; Kamenova, Joana Valery

    2012-12-01

    The globalisation phenomenon has been prevalent since the last decade of 20th century and remains a significant factor influencing both organisations and individuals today. Within a globalised business environment the effective management of multicultural aspects and differences has become imperative to ensure success. It is increasingly evident there is a need to develop a clear understanding of multicultural competencies in order to fully develop a strategic approach to human capital management (HCM). The adoption of a strategic approach is necessary to ensure a focus on the issues critical to success and competitive advantage including multicultural management, professional skills and knowledge management. This paper aims to identify the importance of intercultural management and the impact of globalisation upon international business.

  1. Measuring the Effects of Human Capital on Growth in the Case of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia NEAGU

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It is obvious that human capital is critical for economic growth. The exploration of the impact of human capital on growth could bring valuable information for policy makers to substantiate their development strategies and to stimulate factors leading to economic growth. The paper aims to investigate the relationships between human capital and economic growth in the romanian economy by analyzing the correlations between statistical variables measuring human capital and economic growth. Using a regression model, it is analyzed the impact of the educational and health capital on the economic output. In the paper, a linear regression model of the relation of human capital to economic growth is subjet of an empirical analysis, firstly, taking into consideration only education as human capital and secondly, incorporating in the model the both components: health and education. A strong correlation between educational variables and GDP, for 1990-2010, was found. The quality of the educational capital has a determinant role in the economic growth, the highly educated people are influencing more the economic output than the secondary educated ones. GDP per capita is negatively correlated with the number of worked hours and positively influenced by the life expectancy. The most important contribution contained by this article refers to the incorporation of the two components of human capital in the same econometric model explaining the economic growth. The added value of paper consists in offering suggestions and orientation for national educational policies.

  2. Social Capital and School Performance: A Local-Level Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plagens, Gregory K.

    Scholars theorize that social contacts affect the productivity of individuals and groups. Robert Putnam claims to have found support for this theory in his studies of Italy and the United States. In each case he concludes that the presence of social capital generalized norms of trust and reciprocity is sufficient to predict progress on a variety…

  3. Job Performance, Job Satisfaction and Human Capital in the Labour Market in Bosnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Ilgün

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the effect of job performance, job satisfaction and humancapital. It shows that together with monetary factors, such factors as theperception of the social importance of the job, the ability to meet good friendsin the team, and the atmosphere within which the respondents work, may alsohave a high level of impact on labour supply through human capital. The paperdemonstrates the power of non-monetary factors in achieving improvementsin the context of the ‘job performance-job satisfaction-human capital’ chain,thus bringing about positive changes in labour market supply in Bosnia.

  4. The Contribution of Human Capital Investment in the Growth of East Asian Economy – A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabaz Nawzad Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human capital as the wealth of nation supports the economy in a variety of ways. This study intended to elucidate the significance of education, technology utilization and health investment in economic affluence of East Asia. The finding shows a significant relationship between human capital investment and economic growth in East Asia. Human capital investment has become an essential tool to determine nations productivity in both, micro and macro level. The findings come across to assume that, in order to be successful, HC investment through the improvement of technology, education and health system must be cautiously considered in any endeavor towards economic development and sustainability. The study concluded that a person with poor health, lack of knowledge or vocational training will offer less, theoretically, than a person who has been specifically trained or who has attained a higher level of education.

  5. The management of human capital in the framework of the theory of intellectual capital, a guide to indicators; La Gestion del capital humano en el Marco de la Teoria del Capital Intelectual. Una guia de indicadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejiero Alvarez, M. M.; Garcia Alvarez, M. T.; Mariz Perez, R. M.

    2010-07-01

    The study of the Intellectual Capital has a great importance in the last decade. In this context, Human Capital is established as a key variable to obtain sustainable competitive advantages in enterprises management. In this paper, we make a revision about the importance of Human Capital in the companies and we propose various indicators which allow to manage this concept. The objective is that the directives can choose the most suitable indicators in function of the characteristics of their enterprises, their management objectives and their strategies. (Author) 43 refs.

  6. Using recruitment source timing and diagnosticity to enhance applicants' occupation-specific human capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Michael C; Ployhart, Robert E; Campion, Michael A

    2017-05-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 102(5) of Journal of Applied Psychology (see record 2017-14296-001). In the article, the following headings were inadvertently set at the wrong level: Method, Participants and Procedure, Measures, Occupation specific human capital, Symbolic jobs, Relevant majors, Occupation-specific capital hotspots, Source timing, Source diagnosticity, Results, and Discussion. All versions of this article have been corrected.] This study proposes that reaching applicants through more diagnostic recruitment sources earlier in their educational development (e.g., in high school) can lead them to invest more in their occupation-specific human capital (OSHC), thereby making them higher quality candidates. Using a sample of 78,157 applicants applying for jobs within a desirable professional occupation in the public sector, results indicate that applicants who report hearing about the occupation earlier, and applicants who report hearing about the occupation through more diagnostic sources, have higher levels of OSHC upon application. Additionally, source timing and diagnosticity affect the likelihood of candidates applying for jobs symbolic of the occupation, selecting relevant majors, and attending educational institutions with top programs related to the occupation. These findings suggest a firm's recruiting efforts may influence applicants' OSHC investment strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Neighbourhood human capital and the development of children׳s emotional and behavioural problems: the mediating role of parenting and schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midouhas, Emily; Kuang, Ye; Flouri, Eirini

    2014-05-01

    This study examined how low neighbourhood human capital (measured by percentage of residents with no qualifications) may be related to trajectories of children׳s emotional and behavioural problems from early-to-middle childhood. It also assessed whether effects of neighbourhood human capital or its pathways were moderated by child nonverbal cognitive ability. Using data on 9850 children in England participating in the Millennium Cohort Study, we found that, after adjusting for key child and family background characteristics, the adverse effects of low neighbourhood human capital on hyperactivity and peer problems remained, and were fully attenuated by the achievement level of children׳s schools. The effect of low neighbourhood human capital on the change in conduct problems over time was robust. Moreover, higher nonverbal ability did not dampen the adverse impact of low neighbourhood human capital on the trajectory of conduct problems or that of low performing schools on hyperactivity and peer problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Level of access to social capital and its predictors among rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Level of access to social capital and its predictors among rural farming households ... The combined effects of all the variables explained 98.21% of the total variation in social capital ... This will consolidate and deepen interaction among members, and enable them build greater trust, and enjoy benefits of social networks in ...

  9. What Is "Human" in Human Capital Theory? Marking a Transition from Industrial to Postindustrial Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peers, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses educational practice as a site for the development of human capital theory. The article considers metaphysical constructions that are broadly typical of educational thought, and shows how they are amenable to economic analysis. Using different Marxist and feminist methods, it discusses pedagogy and the family as kinds of…

  10. Testing the Human Capital Development Model: The Case of Apprenticeships in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Taner; Gün, Servet

    2016-01-01

    Human capital theory was developed to study how individual agents make rational choices or how they invest in human capital to maximize their welfare. One of the leading founders of this perspective, Becker, argues that schooling, on-the-job training, medical care, migration and searching for information about prices and incomes are different…

  11. Human Capital Development and Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria: A Symbiotic Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaju, Kayode

    2012-01-01

    Human Capital development through education is a long time investment made by the state to enhance the well being of her citizenry. By investing in education, well educated individuals bring to bear their talents, knowledge, skills and experiences as they function in the various sectors of the economy. Human Capital development is therefore a…

  12. Unmanned Aerial Systems: Air Force and Army Should Improve Strategic Human Capital Planning for Pilot Workforces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    the best UAS pilot candidates, including by conducting additional research and testing a tool that measures multitasking ability, a competency...UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS Air Force and Army Should Improve Strategic Human Capital Planning for Pilot Workforces...Should Improve Strategic Human Capital Planning for Pilot Workforces What GAO Found The Air Force and the Army have not fully applied four of the five

  13. Knowledge Creation and Human Capital for Development: The Role of Graduate Entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Jay; Abubakar, Y. A.; Sagagi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Tackling structural and emergent problems in the labour market, valorising skilled human capital (HC) for opportunity creation, economic development and growth, are some of the key drivers for graduate entrepreneurship. This paper aims to examine developments in Africa, focusing on the significance of improving human capital through…

  14. The impact of human capital on company performance case of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human capital is getting wider attention with increasing globalization and also the saturation of the job market due to the recent downturn in the various economies of the world. Developed and developing countries put emphases on a more human capital development towards accelerating the economic growth by devoting ...

  15. Do Colleges and Universities Increase Their Region's Human Capital? Staff Report No. 401

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Jaison R.; Deitz, Richard

    2009-01-01

    We investigate whether the degree production and research and development (R&D) activities of colleges and universities are related to the amount and types of human capital present in the metropolitan areas where the institutions are located. We find that degree production has only a small positive relationship with local stocks of human capital,…

  16. The impact of social and human capital on new venture internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle

    2003-01-01

    The article seeks to address how industry affiliation affects the way in which social and human capital is used by technology- and knowledge-based entrepreneurs in the internationalisation process.......The article seeks to address how industry affiliation affects the way in which social and human capital is used by technology- and knowledge-based entrepreneurs in the internationalisation process....

  17. Influence of socio-cultural modernization on development of human capital assets in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents major points of research into socio-cultural conditions of human capital assets accumulation in Russia. Notion of social justice, social responsibility of business, realization of their role as “vehicle of capital” by employees, national mentality – all this essentially influences on efficiency of human capital assets accumulation in Russia.

  18. State Education as High-Yield Investment: Human Capital Theory in European Policy Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Human Capital Theory has been an increasingly important phenomenon in economic thought over the last 50 years. The central role it affords to education has become even more marked in recent years as the concept of the "knowledge economy" has become a global concern. In this paper, the prevalence of Human Capital Theory within European…

  19. AACP Special Taskforce on Diversifying Our Investment in Human Capital Interim Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Carla; Adams, Jennifer

    2016-09-25

    The 2015-2017 AACP Special Taskforce on Diversifying our Investment in Human Capital was appointed for a two-year term, therefore the interim update from the Taskforce. A full report will be provided in 2017 in the form of a white paper for academic pharmacy on diversifying our investment in human capital.

  20. Human Capital, Education and the Promotion of Social Cooperation: A Philosophical Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilead, Tal

    2009-01-01

    Although since the 1960s human capital theory has played a major role in guiding educational policy, philosophical issues that stem from this development have rarely been discussed. In this article, I critically examine how the idea that human capital should serve as a guide to educational policy making stands in relation to the role assigned to…

  1. Does Human Capital Theory Explain the Value of Higher Education? A South African Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Alex

    2010-01-01

    A perennial debate in the economics of education is whether human capital or screening/signalling theories best explain the value of schooling and hence the private demand for, in particular, higher education. Human capital theory proposes that formal training such as that offered by higher education institutions improves the productive capacity…

  2. Performance of the Higher Education Students Loans Board in Human Capital Investment from 2005-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memba, Albert Zephaniah; Feng, Zhao Zun

    2016-01-01

    Many studies conducted on the Higher Education Students Loans Board (HESLB) have mostly concentrated on its success, sustainability and effectiveness on loans issuance and repayment. None had focused on its performance towards human capital investment. This study sought to explain and analyze HESLB's performance in human capital investment, which…

  3. Does Human Capital Investment Impact the Earning Mobility of the Near Poor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    This secondary analysis of the earning mobility of the near poor examined the impact of human capital investment on the earning mobility of the near poor between 2005 and 2009. The theory framing this study is Human Capital Theory (Shultz, 1961). Other demographic and socioeconomic variables were included in this study to further explore factors…

  4. Discovering the Impact of ICT, FDI and Human Capital on GDP: a Cross-sectional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Campisi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact that human capital, information and communication technology (ICT and foreign direct investment (FDI have on GDP. Crosssectional data from a set of 20 OECD and 24 non-OECD countries in 2007 are analysed employing data envelopment analysis (DEA and classification and regression tree (CART techniques. The paper illustrates that the level and quality of access to ICT infrastructures plays an important role in determining a country’s level of technical efficiency. The paper also indicates the presence of a catch-up process, led by technological innovation, on the part of emerging countries.

  5. Human Capital Efficiency and Firm Performance: An Empirical Study on Malaysian Technology Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Azlina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between human capital efficiency and firm’s performance in Malaysian technology industry. Using accounting data, this study reviewed annual reports of all technology companies listed under Main Market and Ace Market of Bursa Malaysia in year 2009. The study applied Value Added Intellectual Coefficient (VAICTM methodology developed by Ante Pulic to measure human capital efficiency. The results showed that there was not much difference in terms of human capital efficiency between the Main Market and Ace Market. Results from correlation analysis indicate that human capital efficiency has significant and positive relation with firm’s performance. Findings from this study may be useful to companies’ managers to make better decision pertaining to the proper deployment of their strategic asset, namely human capital.

  6. Study on the Technical Efficiency of Creative Human Capital in China by Three-Stage Data Envelopment Analysis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous researches have proved the positive effect of creative human capital and its development on the development of economy. Yet, the technical efficiency of creative human capital and its effects are still under research. The authors are trying to estimate the technical efficiency value in Chinese context, which is adjusted by the environmental variables and statistical noises, by establishing a three-stage data envelopment analysis model, using data from 2003 to 2010. The research results indicate that, in this period, the entirety of creative human capital in China and the technical efficiency value in different regions and different provinces is still in the low level and could be promoted. Otherwise, technical non-efficiency is mostly derived from the scale nonefficiency and rarely affected by pure technical efficiency. The research also examines environmental variables’ marked effects on the technical efficiency, and it shows that different environmental variables differ in the aspect of their own effects. The expansion of the scale of education, development of healthy environment, growth of GDP, development of skill training, and population migration could reduce the input of creative human capital and promote the technical efficiency, while development of trade and institutional change, on the contrary, would block the input of creative human capital and the promotion the technical efficiency.

  7. Assessment of entrepreneurship pedagogy on entrepreneurship knowledge and entrepreneurial human capital asset: A conceptual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidimma Odira Okeke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is an effort to propose a conceptual model to measure the impact assessment of entrepreneurship pedagogic. It delineates entrepreneurship education pedagogic into four dimensions and opined specific level for each dimension. Reviewing the entrepreneurship education programme, assessment of entrepreneurship pedagogic evaluates the structure that influence growth mindset development through embedded heuristic strategies, thus, the impact on entrepreneurship knowledge and entrepreneurial capital asset context is proposed. Affirming Fayolle, Gailly, and Lassa-Clerc conceptual affinity that entrepreneurship education share with learning theories and entrepreneurship pedagogical content knowledge were conceptualized to suggest some practical realism guidelines of what insightful philosophy of teaching entrepreneurship need to achieve. With direct synthesis of relevant literature, propositions relating to entrepreneurship pedagogic structure along with the institutional connectedness and associated dimensions of entrepreneurship pedagogic assessment outcome were postulated. Also, the paper proposes the need for further assessment of specific forms of pedagogic impact on entrepreneurial human capital asset.

  8. The U.S. Intelligence Community's Five Year Strategic Human Capital Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    .... The National Intelligence Strategy (NIS) requires a 5-year human capital strategy that will build an agile, "all source" workforce by projecting and planning for mission critical human resource requirements...

  9. Lifelong learning as an instrument for human capital development in Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biao, Idowu

    2015-10-01

    A review of the Benin education system shows that it is still heavily school-based. Yet, a high level of wastage is currently being recorded at school level (about 50% success rate at primary level, about 40% success rate at high school level and about 1% enrolment rate of qualified candidates and success rate at tertiary level), leading to the unintentional creation of a large population of unskilled and unproductive youths and adults. Integrated education systems which hold great potential and opportunities for both initial and continuing education remain hardly explored and virtually untapped. Yet, the challenges of the 21st century are such that only the unveiling and continuous cultivation of multi-faceted human capital can help individual citizens lead both a productive and fulfilled life. Formal education alone or non-formal education alone, irrespective of how well each is delivered, is no longer sufficient in facing up to the multifarious challenges of the 21st century. If education is to serve Benin beneficially in this century, the current national system of education must be reoriented to free up citizens' human capital through the implementation of an integrated educational system. This article proposes a new national education system which is rooted in the concept of lifelong learning and combines formal and non-formal systems of education for Benin.

  10. Trends in Opportunity Costs of U.S. Postsecondary Education: A National HRD and Human Capital Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornacchione, Edgard; Daugherty, Jenny L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore opportunity costs of postsecondary education in the U.S. in the past three decades (1975-2005), as a measure to support investment decisions at national levels and as experienced by individuals deciding on pursuing further education. Based on human capital theory and inspired by a set of studies aiming at…

  11. The Role of Social Trust in Reducing Long-Term Truancy and Forming Human Capital in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine how social trust influences human capital formation using prefectural level data in Japan. To this end, I constructed a proxy for social trust, based on the Japanese General Social Surveys. After controlling for socioeconomic factors, I found that social trust plays an important role in reducing the rate of long-term…

  12. Education, poverty and the 'missing link': The limits of human capital theory as a paradigm for poverty reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonal, X.; Mundy, K.; Green, A.; Lingard, R.; Verger, A.

    2016-01-01

    One of the main areas where human capital theory has been especially influential is in the relationship between investment in education and poverty reduction. However, up to now, little success can be reported, with huge differences between the average levels of education globally achieved and the

  13. Conditional Tests of Factor Augmented Asset Pricing Models with Human Capital and Housing: Some New Results

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Klinkowska

    2009-01-01

    In this paper I develop the asset pricing model in which the wealth portfolio is enriched with human capital and housing capital. These two types of capital account for a significant portion of the total wealth. Additionally I introduce dynamics into the model and represent conditioning information by common factors estimated with dynamic factor methodology. In this way I can use more accurate representative of the unobservable information set of the investors. Obtained results prove that ind...

  14. Skill networks and measures of complex human capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Katharine A

    2017-11-28

    We propose a network-based method for measuring worker skills. We illustrate the method using data from an online freelance website. Using the tools of network analysis, we divide skills into endogenous categories based on their relationship with other skills in the market. Workers who specialize in these different areas earn dramatically different wages. We then show that, in this market, network-based measures of human capital provide additional insight into wages beyond traditional measures. In particular, we show that workers with diverse skills earn higher wages than those with more specialized skills. Moreover, we can distinguish between two different types of workers benefiting from skill diversity: jacks-of-all-trades, whose skills can be applied independently on a wide range of jobs, and synergistic workers, whose skills are useful in combination and fill a hole in the labor market. On average, workers whose skills are synergistic earn more than jacks-of-all-trades. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  15. Big Data and Intelligence: Applications, Human Capital, and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Landon-Murray

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential for big data to contribute to the US intelligence mission goes beyond bulk collection, social media and counterterrorism. Applications will speak to a range of issues of major concern to intelligence agencies, from military operations to climate change to cyber security. There are challenges too: procurement lags, data stovepiping, separating signal from noise, sources and methods, a range of normative issues, and central to managing these challenges, human capital. These potential applications and challenges are discussed and a closer look at what data scientists do in the Intelligence Community (IC is offered. Effectively filling the ranks of the IC’s data science workforce will depend on the provision of well-trained data scientists from the higher education system. Program offerings at America’s top fifty universities will thus be surveyed (just a few years ago there were reportedly no degrees in data science. One Master’s program that has melded data science with intelligence is examined as well as a university big data research center focused on security and intelligence. This discussion goes a long way to clarify the prospective uses of data science in intelligence while probing perhaps the key challenge to optimal application of big data in the IC.

  16. Key Future Engineering Capabilities for Human Capital Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivich, Lorrie

    Projected record retirements of Baby Boomer generation engineers have been predicted to result in significant losses of mission-critical knowledge in space, national security, and future scientific ventures vital to high-technology corporations. No comprehensive review or analysis of engineering capabilities has been performed to identify threats related to the specific loss of mission-critical knowledge posed by the increasing retirement of tenured engineers. Archival data from a single diversified Fortune 500 aerospace manufacturing engineering company's engineering career database were analyzed to ascertain whether relationships linking future engineering capabilities, engineering disciplines, and years of engineering experience could be identified to define critical knowledge transfer models. Chi square, logistic, and linear regression analyses were used to map patterns of discipline-specific, mission-critical knowledge using archival data of engineers' perceptions of engineering capabilities, key developmental experiences, and knowledge learned from their engineering careers. The results from the study were used to document key engineering future capabilities. The results were then used to develop a proposed human capital retention plan to address specific key knowledge gaps of younger engineers as veteran engineers retire. The potential for social change from this study involves informing leaders of aerospace engineering corporations on how to build better quality mentoring or succession plans to fill the void of lost knowledge from retiring engineers. This plan can secure mission-critical knowledge for younger engineers for current and future product development and increased global competitiveness in the technology market.

  17. FORMATION OF THE HUMAN CAPITAL IN MODEL OF INTEGRATION OF HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE IN INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Mityakov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyzed the problems of reproduction of human resources in the scientific and educational cooperation and collaboration of university research with industry. Proposed a model integration high school science to industry of the region, including the internal and external levels. On the internal level, proposed a scheme of transfer technology in a technical university, where the formation of human capital is produced in two related areas: training of competitive labor market specialists with higher education, as well as consolidation in the universities of highly qualified personnel. On the external level, proposed creation of an integrated research and education production cluster, which brings together the personnel and technological capabilities of the industrial region.

  18. The effects of capital and human resource investments on hospital performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Gregory N; McDermott, Christopher; McDermott, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Data are employed from a sample of New York hospitals and the Hospital Consumer Assessment Healthcare Providers and Systems database to analyze the effects of capital spending, staffing levels, and salaries on hospital performance. The most striking result is that higher average salaries are associated with lower length of stay, lower mortality rate, and higher satisfaction but are not significantly related to cost per patient. Therefore, it appears that human resource investments may be associated with better patient outcomes without significantly increasing the cost of patient care.

  19. Provision of Human Capital by Business Schools of Pakistan: A Need for the Sustainability of the Pakistani Banking Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauman, Sarwat; Hussain, Nasreen

    2017-01-01

    Economic growth of Pakistan through the banking sector relies heavily on the human capital dispensed to them by the Pakistani business schools. A conceptual model of the continuous improvement cycle for building human capital is developed through a literature review, with the aim of helping to generate human capital. Six semistructured interviews…

  20. Determining How Tertiary Education and Human Capital Formation Influenced Economic Expansion in Israel, Japan, and Norway from 2000-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkbrenner, Erin Lee

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have calculated the relationship between human capital development and economic output by various means of econometric modeling and by use of numerous indicators under the context of an assortment of human capital theory. This study was conducted to identify new interpretations of the expansion of human capital in the form of tertiary…

  1. Human Capital and Economic Growth : Operationalising Growth Theory, with Special Reference to the Netherlands in the 19th Century"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Ronald

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents new estimates of the stock of human capital in the Netherlands between 1800 and 1913. The estimates of human capital are derived from data on primary, secondary and tertiary schooling. It is argued that the measure of human capital presented here is conceptually better than

  2. Intellectual Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Christensen, Karina Skovvang

    2015-01-01

    Intellectual capital (IC) consists of human capital, organizational capital, and relational capital, and their relationships. It has been said to be important to explain the difference between market value and book value of a firm, but measurement of IC is more likely to be important because...

  3. A Note on Human Capital and the Feldstein-Horioka Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Katsimi, Margarita; Moutos, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we reexamine the Feldstein-Horioka finding of limited international capital mobility by using a broader view (i.e., including human capital) of investment and saving. We find that the Feldstein-Horioka result is impervious to this change.

  4. Andragology and social capital theory: the implications for human resource development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, Joseph; Poell, Rob F.

    2004-01-01

    The problem and the solution. This article portrays a perspective from andragogy, individual learning, and social capital theory as a contribution to the discussion on the relationship between adult learning theory and human resource development (HRD). Andragogy and social capital theory may offer a

  5. How Social and Human Capital Predict Participation in Lifelong Learning: A Longitudinal Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipprath, Heidi; De Rick, Katleen

    2015-01-01

    Policy makers and researchers are increasingly showing interest in lifelong learning due to a rising unemployment rate in recent years. Much attention has been paid to determinants and benefits of lifelong learning but not to the impact of social capital on lifelong learning so far. In this article, we study how social and human capital can…

  6. Education, Health, and Labor Force Supply: Broadening Human Capital for National Development in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William C.; Ikoma, Sakiko; Baker, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Education and health are both capital investments in national development, often viewed as independent factors on a country's labor force supply and productivity. This study uses the 2010-2011 Third Integrated Household Survey in Malawi to propose an Education-enhanced Health Human Capital (EHHC) model where education influences labor force supply…

  7. Analysis of Factors Influencing Undergraduates' Occupation Choices: An Investigation of Both Social and Human Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Li; Shunguo, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Based on 2006 survey data on students from three universities in western China, this study analyzes the effect of the students' family background and academic achievements on their occupation choices. Both social capital and human capital were found to be significant factors influencing their employment decisions. The more abundant the social and…

  8. Bookworms and Party Animals: An Artificial Labour Market with Human and Social Capital Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Data show that educated workers earn higher wages and are unemployed less often. Some researchers believe that education improves a worker's productivity (or "human capital"), making them more desirable on the job market, while others believe that it improves a worker's network (or "social capital"), giving them more…

  9. The Impact of Facebook Use on Micro-Level Social Capital: A Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolijn L. Antheunis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between Facebook use and micro-level social capital has received substantial scholarly attention over the past decade. This attention has resulted in a large body of empirical work that gives insight into the nature of Facebook as a social networking site and how it influences the social benefits that people gather from having social relationships. Although the extant research provides a solid basis for future research into this area, a number of issues remain underexplored. The aim of the current article is twofold. First, it seeks to synthesize what is already known about the relationship between Facebook use and micro-level social capital. Second, it seeks to advance future research by identifying and analyzing relevant theoretical, analytical and methodological issues. To address the first research aim, we first present an overview and analysis of current research findings on Facebook use and social capital, in which we focus on what we know about (1 the relationship between Facebook use in general and the different subtypes of social capital; (2 the relationships between different types of Facebook interactions and social capital; and (3 the impact of self-esteem on the relationship between Facebook use and social capital. Based on this analysis, we subsequently identify three theoretical issues, two analytical issues and four methodological issues in the extant body of research, and discuss the implications of these issues for Facebook and social capital researchers.

  10. Data on examining the role of human capital in the energy-growth nexus across countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zheng

    2016-12-01

    This article describes two publicly available data sources: the new generation of Penn World Table (www.ggdc.net/pwt) and the BP Statistical Review of World Energy (http://www.bp.com/statisticalreview) which can be used to examine the role of human capital in the energy-growth nexus across countries. The critical human capital measure across countries is for the first time made available in the Penn World Table 8.0 and it enables empirical researchers to conduct cross-country analysis involving human capital much easily than ever before.

  11. Returns to Tenure, Firm-Specific Human Capital and Worker Heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2003-01-01

    Workers with longer job tenure are paid more, on average, than those with shorter tenure. This paper re-opens the debate about whether individual financial returns to tenure are due to firm-specific human capital accumulation or sorting according to unobserved individual productivity heterogeneity...... firms to distinguish between firm-specific human capital and worker heterogeneity. Although the proportion of tenure returns due to firm-specific human capital is smaller than that found in the US, it has increased from 10% in 1980 to 30% in 1998 in Denmark. This change coincides with decentralisation...

  12. Impact of individual-level social capital on quality of life among AIDS patients in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With growing recognition of the social determinants of health, social capital is an increasingly important construct in international health. However, the application of social capital discourse in response to HIV infection remains preliminary. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of social capital on quality of life (QoL among adult patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS. METHODS: A convenient sample of 283 patients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART was investigated in Anhui province, China. QoL data were collected using the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Survey (MOS-HIV questionnaire. Social capital was measured using a self-developed questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to explore associations between social capital and QoL. RESULTS: The study sample had a mean physical health summary (PHS score of 50.13 ± 9.90 and a mean mental health summary (MHS score of 41.64 ± 11.68. Cronbach's α coefficients of the five multi-item scales of social capital ranged from 0.44 to 0.79. When other variables were controlled for, lower individual levels of reciprocity and trust were associated with a greater likelihood of having a poor PHS score (odds ratio [OR] =2.02 or PHS score (OR=6.90. Additionally, the factors of social support and social networks and ties were associated positively with MHS score (OR=2.30, OR=4.17, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report to explore the effects of social capital on QoL of AIDS patients in China. The results indicate that social capital is a promising avenue for developing strategies to improve the QoL of AIDS patients in China, suggesting that the contribution of social capital should be fully exploited, especially with enhancement of QoL through social participation. Social capital development policy may be worthy of consideration.

  13. Human Capital Variables and Economic Growth in Nigeria: An Interactive Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenike Mosunmola Osoba

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have focused on the relationship between human capital and economic growth all over the world. However, there is still a missing gap on the joint influence of human capital investment components on economic growth particularly in Nigeria. This study therefore examines the interactive effects of the relationship between human capital investment components and economic growth in Nigeria for the period of 1986 – 2014. The study employed secondary annual data on education expenditure, health expenditure, real gross domestic product and gross capital formation obtained from the Central Bank Statistical bulletin, 2014. The data were analyzed using Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS technique. The results of the study showed that there was positive and significant relationship between the interactive effects of human capital components and growth in Nigeria. The study concluded that the interactive effect of the human capital variables was also in conformity with the theoretical proposition that increase in human capital will enhance growth as stipulated in the modified Solow growth model by Mankiw, Romer & Weil (1992.

  14. The Context and Values Inherent in Human Capital as Core Principles for New Economic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston P. Nagan

    2018-05-01

    for human decision-making and its economic effects. The paper summarizes the main points here, then seeks to clarify the value institutional context viewed from a global and comprehensive perspective. It provides a map of these values and institutions to guide inquiry. It ties these values to the values reflected in the UN Charter and International Bill of Rights. This clarification is an important challenge for understanding the impact of technology, consciousness, and the fundamental values upon which international public order is based. The paper concludes with an outline of value frameworks that should guide New Economic Theory based on human capital, and which could serve as a basis for the evolving New Economic Theory to enhance the public order. Human capital is the central principle of both theory and method for the advancement of New Economic Theory, founded on the problems of contextual reality, the ubiquity of value analysis, and the responsible management of political economy at the global level.

  15. Promoting the Reading Culture Towards Human Capital and Global Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasehinde, M. O.; Akanmode, O. A.; Alaiyemola, A. T.; Babatunde, O. T.

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly agreed that a country cannot be fully developed without large-scale investment in her educational scheme since the breakthrough of a country is directly proportional to her educational level. Since the acquisition of effective reading skills has a positive effect on all school subjects, then reading is sine-qua-non for human capital…

  16. Entrepreneurial Team: How Human and Social Capital Influence Entrepreneurial Opportunity Identification and Mobilization of External Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlem Omri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurial teams play an extremely important role in the development of any country, especially in developing countries. To understand entrepreneurial teams that operate in a low-technology industry, we rely on the network and human perspective on entrepreneurship. In this paper, we investigate how the social and human capital of entrepreneurial team members influences their ability to identify entrepreneurial opportunities and mobilize external resources. We extend prior research in two ways. First, by using the ordered probit method to measure the identified entrepreneurial opportunities number at the level of entrepreneurial teams. Second, to our knowledge, there is a very small number of studies that have theoretically and empirically investigated the mobilization of external resources, especially at the level of entrepreneurial teams.

  17. A human capital predictive model for agent performance in contact centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Jacobs

    2011-10-01

    Research purpose: The primary focus of this article was to develop a theoretically derived human capital predictive model for agent performance in contact centres and Business Process Outsourcing (BPO based on a review of current empirical research literature. Motivation for the study: The study was motivated by the need for a human capital predictive model that can predict agent and overall business performance. Research design: A nonempirical (theoretical research paradigm was adopted for this study and more specifically a theory or model-building approach was followed. A systematic review of published empirical research articles (for the period 2000–2009 in scholarly search portals was performed. Main findings: Eight building blocks of the human capital predictive model for agent performance in contact centres were identified. Forty-two of the human capital contact centre related articles are detailed in this study. Key empirical findings suggest that person– environment fit, job demands-resources, human resources management practices, engagement, agent well-being, agent competence; turnover intention; and agent performance are related to contact centre performance. Practical/managerial implications: The human capital predictive model serves as an operational management model that has performance implications for agents and ultimately influences the contact centre’s overall business performance. Contribution/value-add: This research can contribute to the fields of human resource management (HRM, human capital and performance management within the contact centre and BPO environment.

  18. Capital Humano y Generación de Valor en la Empresa (Human Capital and Generation of Value in the Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Merzthal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Parece indudable que el capital humano es actualmente el eje central de las empresas. Pero la evolución del conocimiento, la tecnología, la capacitación y la colaboración entre empresas constituye una generación de valor dentro de la empresa y con proyección en los consumidores / clientes. Esta generación de valor se extiende a la competitividad en las empresas y diversos contextos culturales. La capacitación es pieza clave en toda la estructura de las organizaciones y la conexión con otras empresas compartiendo capacitación se constituirán redes que generen valor para otras empresas en su conjunto para competir mejor y alcanzar cotas más altas de productividad en los mercados locales e internacionales, enlazando capital humano y generación de valor entre empresas a través de la capacitación. Se aborda la interacción entre capital humano y capacitación por medio del aprendizaje y como consecuencia este como referente de productividad y competitividad. Se pone de relieve la generación de valor desde a través del cliente, el valor económico y especialmente el valor desde las alianzas estratégicas y la capacitación. English abstract It seems undoubted that human capital is currently the key idea of companies. But the evolution of knowledge, technology, training and collaboration between companies constitute a generation of value within the company and with great potential for consumers / clients. This generation of value extends to competitiveness in companies and diverse cultural contexts. Training is a key element in the entire structure of organizations and the connection with other companies sharing training will form networks which generate value for other companies as a whole to compete better and achieve higher levels of productivity in local and international markets, linking human capital and generation of value between companies through training. The interaction between human capital and training is addressed

  19. Organizational resilience as a human capital strategy for companies in bankruptcy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert L

    2016-05-27

    Bankruptcy is a crisis that generates severe stress and anxiety, resulting in maladaptive behavior and inappropriate decision-making at both individual and organizational levels. There is limited research or guidance for management to address the consequences of bankruptcy on an organization's human capital. This study examined the human capital management principle of organizational resilience that was employed by a company that successfully reorganized and emerged from bankruptcy. This study translated seven principles of organizational resilience proposed by Mallak to operationalize a conceptual model of organizational resilience for companies operating in bankruptcy. The model is evaluated using a qualitative research approach comprised of an original case study of Integrated Electrical Services, Inc. The results of the research points to the importance of de-centralized operational decision making, expanding communication channels, ensuring adequate external resources, and engaging external stakeholders in the management of an organization seeking to successfully operate and ultimately emerge from bankruptcy. The research identified the central importance of expanding decision making boundaries in the resilience of organizations and their ability to adapt when under adverse conditions such as bankruptcy. The implications support an organization developing a human resource strategy to develop organizational resilience.

  20. Essays on the economics and econometrics of human capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosso, Stefano

    This thesis is composed by three distinct chapters. They are related by their common theme: the economic analysis of the process of human capital formation. The first chapter distills and extends the recent research on the economics of human development and social mobility. It critically analyzes the literature on the role of early life conditions in shaping multiple life skills with emphasis on the importance of critical and sensitive investments periods in influencing skill development. It develops economic models that rationalize the empirical evidence on treatment effects of social programs and on family influence. It investigates the empirical support of recent claims, made by part of the literature, on the relevance of credit constraints in limiting skill development. It shows how credit constraints are not a major force explaining differences in the amount of parental and self-investments in skills and how untargeted income transfer policies to poor families do not significantly boost child outcomes. The second chapter compares the performance of maximum likelihood and simulated methods of moments in estimating dynamic discrete choice models. It presents a structural model of education and shows how it can be used to estimate heterogeneous returns from schooling choices which account for their continuation values. Continuation values have a large impact on returns, but are ignored in the measures commonly used to assess the value of schooling choices. The estimates from the model are used to compute a synthetic dataset. This is used to assess the ability of maximum likelihood and simulated methods of moments to recover the model parameters. It finally proposes a Monte Carlo exercise to gain confidence on the performance of a simulated method of moments algorithm. The last chapter proposes a method to assess long run impacts on earnings of early interventions even in absence of long-term data collection on earnings histories for program participants. It

  1. STAFF AND COMPANY VALUE MANAGEMENT ON THE BASIS OF HUMAN CAPITAL ESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dokukina S. M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The statement «the main asset of any company is its staff» has already become axiomatic. People is the only competitive advantage the companies have now, although for many years the possession of technologies is considered as a competitive advantage. The article covers essential questions connecting with staff management to executive strategy of value based management. The problems connected with the estimation of human capital as long-term factor of the company’s value growth are described. However one can implement in practice only in condition that it may be estimated or measured. The author puts forth his conception of the technique of human capital estimation. Approaches and methods of the estimation of human capital of company are systematized and described. The estimation of human capital elements allows to find out the potential of this intangible asset in order to increase the value of company.

  2. Immigrants’ perception of business opportunities in Spain: the impact of general and specific human capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Aliaga Isla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Perceiving business opportunities is an important part of entrepreneurship. This study analyzes how immigrants’ general and specific human capital influences their likelihood of perceiving business opportunities. Analysis focuses on comparison between a group of immigrants and a group of Spanish citizens. Data from the 2008 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM was used. Logistic regression was used to analyze data. Results revealed that both immigrants’ and Spanish citizens’ human capital such as education is not significant to perceiving opportunities. Much to the contrary: the impact of specific human capital on perceiving opportunities is in general significant to both groups. This research reveals which specific types of human capital are relevant in the process of perceiving opportunities amongst immigrants. This paper is a novelty because it introduces a theoretical approach to the perception of opportunities within the universe of new businesses established by immigrants in Spain.

  3. Changing composition of human capital: the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeong, Byeongju; Kejak, Michal; Vinogradov, Viatcheslav

    -, č. 248 (2005), s. 1-27 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : human capital * composition * occupation Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp248.pdf

  4. Human Capital Investment and the Completion of Risky R&D Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siyahhan, Baran; Engelbert, Dockner

    2010-01-01

    but can be observed during the R&D phase of the project. The exogenous value of the patent determines the firm’s decisions to invest in human capital, to abandon the project if nec- essary, and to invest in marketing the new product. We study the corresponding optimal stopping times, determine their value...... and risk consequences, and derive optimal investment in the stock of human capital. While optimal investment in human capital is very sensitive to its productivity do increase the probability of a breakthrough it is insensitive to changes in the volatility of the present value of the patent. The value...... of the firm is driven by fixed labor costs that occur until the breakthrough is made, the call option to invest in human capital and market the product, and the put option to abandon the project. These options together with labor costs’ based operating leverage determine the risk dynamics. Risk varies non...

  5. Human Capital Investment and the Value of Risky R&D Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dockner, Engelbert; Siyahhan, Baran

    be observed during the R&D phase of the project. The exogenous value of the patent determines the firm’s decisions to invest in human capital, to abandon the project if necessary, and to invest in marketing the new product. We study the corresponding optimal stopping times, determine their value and risk...... consequences, and derive optimal investment in the stock of human capital. While optimal investment in human capital is very sensitive to its productivity do increase the probability of a breakthrough it is insensitive to changes in the volatility of the present value of the patent. The value of the firm...... is driven by fixed labor costs that occur until the breakthrough is made, the call option to invest in human capital and market the product, and the put option to abandon the project. These options together with labor costs’ based operating leverage determine the risk dynamics. Firm risk is inverse U...

  6. A Systems Engineering Approach to Address Human Capital Management Issues in the Shipbuilding Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Todd, Hal M; Parten, Douglas S

    2008-01-01

    .... This study investigated current DoD Human Capital Management (HCM) strategies for attracting, developing, retaining, and managing competencies and intellectual resources for science and engineering talent within the shipbuilding industry...

  7. Human capital, social capital and social exclusion: impacts on the opportunity of households with youth to leave poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hung

    2006-01-01

    Based on a sample survey, this paper, analyzes the impact of human capital, social capital and social exclusion on the opportunity of Hong Kong families with youth members to leave poverty. Educational attainment of the youth members and adult family members, as well as the quantity and quality of social networks were found to have significant positive impacts, while social exclusion from the labor market of the adult members was found to have significant negative impact on their opportunity to leave poverty. Among all factors, quality of social network is the most influential. The author suggests that in order to help families out of poverty and enable positive development of youth members, poverty alleviation policies or programs should be targeted to help the youth in poor families to build up a quality social network.

  8. Multi-level, cross-sectional study of workplace social capital and smoking among Japanese employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Etsuji; Fujiwara, Takeo; Takao, Soshi; Subramanian, S V; Yamamoto, Eiji; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2010-08-17

    Social capital is hypothesized to be relevant to health promotion, and the association between community social capital and cigarette smoking has been examined. Individual-level social capital has been found to be associated with smoking cessation, but evidence remains sparse on the contextual effect of social capital and smoking. Further, evidence remains sparse on the association between smoking and social capital in the workplace, where people are spending an increasing portion of their daily lives. We examined the association between workplace social capital and smoking status among Japanese private sector employees. We employed a two-stage stratified random sampling procedure. Of the total of 1,800 subjects in 60 companies, 1,171 (men/women; 834/337) employees (65.1%) were identified from 46 companies in Okayama in 2007. Workplace social capital was assessed in two dimensions; trust and reciprocity. Company-level social capital was based on inquiring about employee perceptions of trust and reciprocity among co-workers, and then aggregating their responses in order to calculate the proportion of workers reporting mistrust and lack of reciprocity. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods to explore whether individual- and company-level social capital was associated with smoking. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% credible intervals (CIs) for current smoking were obtained. Overall, 33.3% of the subjects smoked currently. There was no relationship between individual-level mistrust of others and smoking status. By contrast, one-standard deviation change in company-level mistrust was associated with higher odds of smoking (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.06-1.46) even after controlling for individual-level mistrust, sex, age, occupation, educational attainment, alcohol use, physical activity, body mass index, and chronic diseases. No clear associations were found between lack of reciprocity and smoking both at the individual- and

  9. HUMAN CAPITAL IN ECO-ECONOMY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ion PETRESCU

    2013-01-01

    The current modern civilization and, in this context, the Romanian one, faces a great challenge in finding the most effective and practical methods of implying the human capital in the process of ensuring the eco-economic progress and the sustainable development one in which people to live in communion with nature. In our communication we aim to analyze issues related to human capital involvement in eco-economy and sustainable development of Romania, based on the assessment of the impact of t...

  10. How much might human capital policies affect earnings inequalities and poverty?

    OpenAIRE

    Behrman, Jere R

    2011-01-01

    Economic inequality and poverty have persisted in Latin America despite important changes in political and policy regimes. This paper explores the relationship between various human capital programs aimed to reduced poverty and how improvements of those in poverty in the left tail of the earning income distribution are likely to reduce inequality. First it reviews some recent benefit/cost estimates for human capital intervention in LAC, suggesting some investments in which the returns appear ...

  11. THE IMPACT OF THE INORMATION SOCIETY ON HUMAN CAPITAL MANAGEMENT (STUDY CASE: AIR TRANSPORT ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana SHKODA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Information society is a complex, interdisciplinary and actual concept with reference to the role of the technologies we use in all spheres of the life. The impact of the information society on human capital management is obvious as the technological tools are used daily for improvement the performance of the modern companies. In tis artice it is presented the analysis of international aviation enterprises' activity (case of Ukraine and Republic of Moldova in the sphere of human capital management.

  12. Non-Monotonicity of Fertility in Human Capital Accumulation and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Spyridon Boikos; Alberto Bucci; Thanasis Stengos

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between per-capita human capital investment and the birth rate. Since the consequences of higher fertility (birth rate) on per-capita human capital accumulation (the so-called dilution effect) are not the same (in sign and magnitude) across different groups of countries with different birth rates, we analyze the growth impact of a non-linear dilution-effect. The main predictions of the model (concerning the relationship between population and economic ...

  13. Economic Growth—Human Capital Nexus in Post-Soviet Ukraine, 1989-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Osipian, Ararat

    2008-01-01

    This book presents theoretical and empirical investigation of economic growth and the possible impact of human capital on economic growth in Ukraine, the Russian Federation, Poland, and Hungary during the period of 1989-2009. This research defines place and role of human capital in the process of transition from the exogenous to the endogenous forms of growth and socio-economic development. It research presents an extended statistical analysis of transition economies. Substantial part of the ...

  14. The impact of innovation and the use of ICTs on human capital development in Spanish industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep-Maria Batalla-Busquets

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The analysis of the characteristics of the industrial companies that invest in the training of their human capital in comparison to the organizations that do not train their employees. This characterization is focused especially on the innovative capacity of firms and their technological applications. It also analyzes the factors that determine the likelihood that a company invests in personnel training. Design/methodology/approach: Descriptive characterization of those companies that invest in personnel training, comparing them against those who do not invest in improving its human capital. Furthermore, factors influencing the decision that a company invest in training are analyzed through a logistic regression. Among them we included the intensity of technological usage and the innovation capacity. This research is based on data from the Survey of Business Strategies (ESEE in 2009, conducted annually. The sample is approximately 1,800 companies, being representative of the Spanish manufacturing sector. Findings and Originality/value: Companies with a higher likelihood of investing in training of their workers are those with a larger number of workers, a higher level of qualification of employees, more stable labor relations, greater participation foreign capital, and also, have a higher level of technological uses, carries more technological partnerships with other organizations and has a more intense innovative activity. Social implications: In the current situation of job destruction and lack of competitiveness of the Spanish industry in increasingly globalized markets, training of workers is seen as the main alternative to increase the productivity of the Spanish industry. This study shows that the industrial structure does not meet the basic conditions described in the scientific literature, in order the companies to train their workers with the risk of exclusion that entails. Originality/value: The study of the characteristics of

  15. A PANEL REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF HUMAN CAPITAL RELEVANCE IN SELECTED SCANDINAVIAN AND SE EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Kokotovic

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of human capital relevance to economic growth is becoming increasingly important taking into account its relevance in many of the Sustainable Development Goals proposed by the UN. This paper conducted a panel regression analysis of selected SE European countries and Scandinavian countries using the Granger causality test and pooled panel regression. In order to test the relevance of human capital on economic growth, several human capital proxy variables were identified. Aside from the human capital proxy variables, other explanatory variables were selected using stepwise regression while the dependant variable was GDP. This paper concludes that there are significant structural differences in the economies of the two observed panels. Of the human capital proxy variables observed, for the panel of SE European countries only life expectancy was statistically significant and it had a negative impact on economic growth, while in the panel of Scandinavian countries total public expenditure on education had a statistically significant positive effect on economic growth. Based upon these results and existing studies, this paper concludes that human capital has a far more significant impact on economic growth in more developed economies.

  16. Human Capital as a Binding Constraint to Economic Growth: The Case of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Lazarov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the paper is to explore the assumption if the lack of skilled and well-educated workforces (human capital holds a potential of a binding constraint to economic growth of the Macedonian economy. Not neglecting growth econometrics’ insights for the investigation of the relationship between human capital and economic growth, the work is primarily based on a growth diagnostic approach. The empirical techniques used in this paper are: growth accounting decomposition production method; macro and micro assessment of the return rate on investment in human capital; and, comparative benchmark analysis concerns with regard to unemployment distribution according to education and age structure and companies’ perceptions about the quality of workforce. The estimated results indicate an important contribution of human capital to economic growth (its relative contribution in terms of growth rate composition is approximately 22 percent. The macro and micro assessment of the rate of return on investment in human capital shows that the rate of return to higher education is significantly superior to corresponding returns to secondary education. Finally, the international benchmark analysis helps in comparative human capital impact analysis (educational structure of labor force in the wider region. Predominantly, it is based on educational structure, unemployment distribution and the companies’ perception about the quality of the workforce.

  17. Factors of human capital related to project success in health care work units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhonen, Marjo; Paasivaara, Leena

    2011-03-01

    To explore factors of human capital related to project success that employees expect from nurse managers. Human capital refers to those resources that managers working with projects possess, such as abilities, knowledge and qualities of character. The data were collected by open interviews (n=14) with nurses, public health nurses and nurse managers working in primary health care and a hospital. Data analysis was carried out using qualitative content analysis. The main factors of human capital related to project success proved to be as follows: (1) management of enthusiastic project culture, (2) management of regeneration and (3) management of emotional intelligence. Future research is needed on the kind of means nurse managers use in human capital management in projects and how they see their possibilities in managing human capital. Human capital management skills should be underlined as an important competence area when recruiting a nurse manager. The success of health care projects cannot be improved only through education or by training of nurse managers; in addition, projects need nurse managers who understand workplace spirituality and have high emotional intelligence. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Human Capital Accountability and Construct: Evidence from Islamic Microfinance Institutions in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrizah Kamaluddin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To identify the human capital construct that significantly relates to the performance of Islamic organizations, this study obtained data from Islamic microfinance organizations in Malaysia using the survey questionnaire method. In addition, we interviewed renowned scholars in the fields of Islamic accounting and Shariah law. Consequently, this study proposes an extended model of human capital that is applicable to Islamic organizations. Apart from knowledge and competency, this study includes spiritual value as another construct of human capital in Islamic organizations. Knowledge includes ideas that are relevant to the accounting and auditing spectra, as well as Shariah principles and jurisprudence. By contrast, competency refers to the ability to innovate unique Shariah-compliant products that are rare and difficult to imitate. Meanwhile, spiritual values embrace the elements of “Siddiq,” “Amanah,” “Fathonah,” and “Tabligh.” This study affirms that knowledge, competency, and satisfaction are the most significant constructs of human capital that explain performance. Factor analysis indicates that spiritual value is embedded in and forms part of the human capital construct. Hence, spiritual value is a key element in company culture and contributes significantly to organizational success. This model can be a platform for human capital reporting in the relevant Islamic and conventional organizations.

  19. Does Social Capital Explain Community-Level Differences in Organ Donor Designation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladin, Keren; Wang, Rui; Fleishman, Aaron; Boger, Matthew; Rodrigue, James R

    2015-09-01

    The growing shortage of life-saving organs has reached unprecedented levels, with more than 120,000 Americans waiting for them. Despite national attempts to increase organ donation and federal laws mandating the equitable allocation of organs, geographic disparities remain. A better understanding of the contextual determinants of organ donor designation, including social capital, may enhance efforts to increase organ donation by raising the probability of collective action and fostering norms of reciprocity and cooperation while increasing costs to defectors. Because community-level factors, including social capital, predict more than half the variation in donor designation, future interventions should tailor strategies to specific communities as the unit of intervention. The growing shortage of organs has reached unprecedented levels. Despite national attempts to increase donation and federal laws mandating the equitable allocation of organs, their availability and waiting times vary significantly nationwide. Organ donor designation is a collective action problem in public health, in which the regional organ supply and average waiting times are determined by the willingness of individuals to be listed as organ donors. Social capital increases the probability of collective action by fostering norms of reciprocity and cooperation while increasing costs to defectors. We examine whether social capital and other community-level factors explain geographic variation in organ donor designation rates in Massachusetts. We obtained a sample of 3,281,532 registered drivers in 2010 from the Massachusetts Department of Transportation Registry of Motor Vehicles (MassDOT RMV). We then geocoded the registry data, matched them to 4,466 census blocks, and linked them to the 2010 US Census, the American Community Survey (ACS), and other sources to obtain community-level sociodemographic, social capital (residential segregation, voter registration and participation, residential

  20. Natural resource dependence, human capital accumulation, and economic growth: A combined explanation for the resource curse and the resource blessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Shuai; Yang, Lili

    2014-01-01

    In existing studies, no consensus has been reached on the relationship between natural resource dependence and human capital accumulation. To narrow the divergence, this paper carries out a normative research to explain the co-existence of the phenomena of the resource curse and the resource blessing based on an organic combination of conceptual and mathematical models. It first establishes a conceptual model to analyse the potential effects of the government's policy preference and natural resource development activities on human capital accumulation and economic growth. Furthermore, it develops an endogenous growth model to normatively illuminate the effects in the conceptual model and to explore the condition for the occurrence of the resource curse. The conceptual model analysis indicates that the rate of return on education investment and government behaviours play the crucial role in promoting the formation of the economic virtuous circle at the micro-level and macro-level, respectively, while resource development activities exert dual impacts on the circle. The main mechanisms in the conceptual model can be validated in the mathematical model. The rise in the subjective discount rate, the elasticity of intertemporal substitution, and resource goods price are adverse to the economic virtuous circle, while high-quality education and the institutional environment giving priority to manufacturing can become the necessary condition and sufficient condition for forming the circle, respectively. The allocation efficiency of production factors plays a decisive role in whether the blessing occurs, whereas sufficient human capital is an essential guarantee for evading the curse. - Highlights: • We conduct normative research combining a conceptual model and a mathematical model. • We discuss the potential impact of resource dependence on human capital and growth. • We explain the co-existence of the resource blessing and resource curse phenomena.

  1. Taking Human Capital Seriously: Talented Teachers in Every Classroom, Talented Principals in Every School. Principles and Recommendations for the Strategic Management of Human Capital in Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consortium for Policy Research in Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Strategic Management of Human Capital in Education Project was founded in 2008 with one goal: to improve student achievement dramatically in the 100 largest urban school districts. Unless teaching quality and principal leadership improve significantly, lasting education improvement is impossible. In policy terms, without "strategic management"…

  2. From Socialism to Hedge Fund: The Human Element and the New History of Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Huyssen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Alfred Winslow Jones was a socialist who founded the first hedge fund in 1949. He had been U.S. Vice Consul in Berlin from 1931 to 1932, Soviet sympathizer and anti-Nazi spy with dissident German communists, humanitarian observer during the Spanish Civil War, acclaimed sociologist of class, and an editor for Fortune magazine. At every stage of his life, Jones occupied positions of advantage, and his invention of the modern hedge fund has had an outsized impact on global capitalism’s contemporary round of financialization. On its face, then, his life would appear to offer ideal material for a “great-man” biography. Yet this “great man” also wrestled with the continual recognition that structural forces were undermining his fondest hopes for social change. Following Georgi Derluguian, Giovanni Arrighi, and Marc Bloch, this article proposes a world-system biography of Jones as a method better suited for mapping the internal dialectics of twentieth-century capitalism, using Jones as a human connection between cyclical and structural transformations of capitalism, and across changes of phase from financial to material expansion—and back again. On another level, it suggests a theoretical reorientation—toward what Bloch called “the human element”—for studies of capitalism’s cultural and material history. It argues that such a reorientation would hold rewards for the “new history of capitalism” field, which until now has pursued its quarry primarily by tracing the movements of commodities, capital, institutions, and ideas.

  3. Human Capital and Export Decisions: The Case of Small and Medium Enterprises in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrit Gashi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the propositions of firm internationalization theories including the Melit’z dynamic model of export participation, this paper investigates the effects of human capital on the export decisions of Kosovo’s firms. Using a unique dataset of around 500 Small and Medium Enterprises, econometric estimates show mixed indications regarding the relationship between the propensity to export and longevity in export markets and human capital variables, measured by the education of the workforce, and investment in training. While education generally has a negative effect on exporting decisions, the latter shows a consistent positive effect. In the context of Kosovo, this dichotomy may reflect in part the effect of the underperforming education system in Kosovo, which does not produce the right level and/or mix of skills required by the private sector; this, in turn, forces SMEs to invest in increasing workforce capacities. Another explanation may indicate the lack of demand for a better skilled workforce, either because of associated high costs, or because a significant number of firms in Kosovo operate in low-value activities that do not require advanced skills and knowledge. Other factors that affect the decisions of firms to enter and serve export markets are found to be firm size, experience, growth, and adoption of quality standards.

  4. An investigation on the effects of organizational memory and human capital on innovation and absorptive capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Mansouri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is considered as an enabling tool for creating value and sustainable competitive advantage for organizations in dynamic environment of our times along with its ever-increasing complexities. Until innovation in developing countries needs more capital and talent, human capital (HC is a key factor in innovative performance. People are the most important factor of exploitation of foreign knowledge; and knowledge focus in business environment is highly dependent on external information sources in order to develop innovation and improve performance of the company. Studies have shown that although importance level of knowledge is increased, but only 30 percent of existing knowledge is being used in organizations. Expensive but evitable mistakes take place due to information blockage; and the risk of losing knowledge is exceptionally higher when people leave the organization. This study is among the field research. The population includes large manufacturing firms across Khuzestan Province having been active throughout 2013. The data collection tool was a structured questionnaire and sampling is convenience method. The research questionnaire was distributed among a sample of 331 R&D and Human resources Experts selected using simple random sampling. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS and Amos statistical programs. The results indicate that organizational memory had significant impact on ACAP and innovation. Results also showed a significant positive effect of HC on ACAP, but did not support the effect of HC on innovation.

  5. 12 CFR 652.80 - When you must determine the risk-based capital level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... your risk-based capital level at any time. (c) If you anticipate entering into any new business... level, which must include the new business activity, and report this pro forma determination to the Director, Office of Secondary Market Oversight, at least 10-business days prior to implementation of the...

  6. An industry analysis of the power of human capital for corporate performance: Evidence from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Morris

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Even in industrialised emerging economies, the value-generating competencies of a workforce, known as its human capital efficiency, are a key resource for commercial success. The objective of this research is to empirically investigate the relationship between human capital efficiency (as measured by value-added human capital and the financial and market performance of companies listed on the Main Board and Alternative Exchange (ALT-X of the Johannesburg Stock Exchange. Return on assets, revenue growth and headline earnings per share were used as financial performance indicators; while market-to-book ratio and total share return were used to measure market performance. Multivariate regressions were performed, with panel data covering 390 companies in the financial, basic materials, consumer services, consumer goods, industrial and technology industries from 2001 to 2011. First, human capital efficiency was found to have no effect on the market performance of listed companies in South Africa. Secondly, higher human capital efficiency was found to result in the extraction of greater returns from both tangible and intangible assets in all industries. Thirdly, higher profitability was found to be associated with higher human capital efficiency in almost every industry in South Africa, with the exception of the technology industry, where human capital efficiency was found to be independent of headline earnings per share. Finally, higher revenue growth was found to be positively associated with human capital efficiency in those industries which are not consumer-driven. In the consumer-driven industries, human capital efficiency contributes to bottom line profitability even though it is not a driver for revenue growth. Overall, the results of this study confirm that human capital efficiency enhances a company’s financial performance, whether it be through a greater capacity for production and service delivery, tighter cost controls or better use of

  7. Relations between the school physical environment and school social capital with student physical activity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Brenton; Trites, Stephen; Janssen, Ian

    2013-12-17

    The physical and social environments at schools are related to students' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels. The purpose of this study was to explore the interactive effects of the school physical environment and school social capital on the MVPA of students while at school. Data from 18,875 grade 6-10 students from 331 schools who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey were analyzed using multi-level regression. Students answered questions on the amount of time they spend in MVPA at school and on their school's social capital. Administrator reports were used to create a physical activity related physical environment score. The school physical environment score was positively associated with student MVPA at school (β = 0.040, p < .005). The association between the school social capital and MVPA was also positive (β = 0.074, p < .001). The difference in physical environments equated to about 20 minutes/week of MVPA for students attending schools with the lowest number of physical environment features and about 40 minutes/week for students attending schools with the lowest school social capital scores by comparison to students attending schools with the highest scores. The findings suggest that school social capital may be a more important factor in increasing students MVPA than the school physical environment. The results of this study may help inform interventions aimed at increasing student physical activity levels.

  8. Human capital and income within Mexicali and Tijuana’s manufacturing sector, 1994-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Cabrera

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This work study the income of the Tijuana and Mexicali industrial manufacturing worker as a function of the schooling level and work experience through a human capital econometric model. Information from the National Survey of Urban Employment (ENEU, was used in a representative data base with a sample of 184 observations for Tijuana between 1994 and 2001 (8 years and 23 industrial branches and 112 observations for Mexicali between 1998 and 2001 (4 years and 28 industrial branches. Schooling was most important than work experience in the income determination of the Tijuana and Mexicali industrial workers. This means that in the local labor market, the educational level is a key factor in the wage negotiation.

  9. The Dimensions of Organizational Intelligence in Romanian Companies – A Human Capital Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Lefter

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the perceptions of organizational intelligence dimensions in Romanian companies, taking into account the degree of awareness employees have, in relation to this concept, and the overall investments in R&D at the industry level. Starting from the concept of organizational intelligence, the way it is defined in recent literature, we establish seven dimensions which are relevant for its analysis, and test them on a relevant sample, random stratified, of Romanian companies, reflecting the structure of Romanian economy, and all the layers of company size. We examine, thus, the correlation between the quality of the organizational human capital (the individual intelligence and the learning processes, at the organizational level. The results of the study can be further expanded to analyses of the regions of development, by correlating the dimensions of the organizational intelligence with the macro-economic, developmental indicators.

  10. Analisis Pengaruh Human Capital Terhadap Kinerja Perusahaan (Studi Empiris pada Kantor Akuntan Publik di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Dwi Puji Astri Ongkorahardjo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Human capital is of the intellectual capital components owned by a company. This study evaluates if individual capability and organizational climate affect business performance partially and simultaneously. We use public accounting firms as our subjects.. Our study shows that individual capability and organizational climate respectively influence performance in public accounting firms. Additionally, these two factors simultaneously affect performance. Overall individual capability shows stronger relationship to performance compared to organizational climate. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Human capital sebagai salah satu komponen utama dari intellectual capital (intangible asset yang dimiliki oleh perusahaan. Penelitian ini menggunakan obyek kantor akuntan publik Penelitian ini berusaha menguji apakah individual capability dan the organizational climate yang merupakan komponen dari human capital memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap kinerja perusahaan kantor akuntan publik baik secara individual (parsial maupun secara simultan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pertama, individual capability berpengaruh signifikan terhadap kinerja kantor akuntan publik. Kedua, the organizational climate berpengaruh signifikan terhadap kinerja kantor akuntan publik. Ketiga, individual capability dan the organizational climate berpengaruh signifikan secara bersama-sama terhadap kinerja kantor akuntan publik. Pengujian juga membuktikan bahwa individual capability adalah variabel yang mempunyai pengaruh paling besar terhadap kinerja kantor akuntan publik. Kata kunci: Human capital, individual capability, the organizational climate.

  11. Exploring the Relationship between Human Capital Investment and Corporate Financial Performance of Jordanian Industrial Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris Nasif ALSHUBIRI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The revolution of globalization, computerization and information technology has entered to Jordanian market. This phenomenon requires company's attention of human element and the acquired knowledge, experience and the development of the so-called concept of intellectual capital.(IC In this study I used only the human capital as a part of IC. This study aims to exploring the relationship between human capital investment (HCI, and corporate financial performance. This study used an 11 industrial sectors listed of Amman Stock Exchange from 2005to 2011. Correlation analysis tests used in this study and the results indicate the high positive significant relationship between HCI and corporate financial performance related to, ROE , PTBV , log of sales , log of assets , DPS and ICR but no significant relationship between HCI and WCTO. The researcher recommends industrial companies to strengthen and stimulate the concept of human capital in the companies and the need for develop administrative innovation program. For future analysis may be used more sectors listed in market in addition used the all parts of intellectual capital related to structural and physical capital with corporate financial performance.

  12. Human Capital Influences in FDI in Eastern European Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpresim Vranovci

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increase of total foreign direct investments (FDI in developing countries, the distribution of these investments among countries is disproportional. The inflows have been directed only to a limited number of developing countries. The most significant effect of FDI on the country’s economy is the injection of needed capital and employment to overcome the gap between the savings of a developing economy, which does not invest much in new business, hindering so the employment increase. The idea that possible determinants of FDIs are not only determinants of economic nature, but also other factors that have impacts in attracting FDI inflows are progressively increasing. New studies realized that social capital is a factor, which is considered by foreign enterprises before investment decisions.

  13. The effect of social capital on improving productivity of human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of tests showed that increasing one unit of social capital and each of its three-fold aspects, productivity might be increased by 0.91, 0.58, 0.79 and 0.91, respectively. SPSS 19 and lisrel 8/8 software were used to analyze data and the statistic universe of this study included the managers and employees of Bandar ...

  14. THE EFFECT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL LEVEL OF ACCOMMODATION SERVICES EMPLOYEES ON JOB SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokman TOPRAK

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to reveal the social capital level of employees in accommodation services, to measure job satisfaction by a Job Satisfaction Survey and to find out the relationship between social capital and job satisfaction. The sample of the research is 210 workers who work in 2, 3, 4 and 5 star hotels in Mardin and Batman and who are chosen with random sampling. For this aim in this research a scale prepared for researchers with 55 articles named “social capital levels in hotel managements” and again a scale to measure the job satisfaction of employees in accommodation services with 36 questions are used. The scale with 55 articles mentioned above is composed of five sections with titles of; organizational commitment, communication-social interaction, collaboration-social networks and participation, confidence, tolerance towards differences and sharing the norms. At the end of the research it has been found out that there is a positive relation between job satisfaction and social capital except for the aspects of tolerance towards differences and sharing the norms. It has been confirmed that tolerance towards differences and sharing the norms has a slightly negative relationship with job satisfaction. Those results show that to increase the job satisfaction of employees and accordingly to increase their efficiency and to ensure the continuance of the business they should take measures to increase social capital of employees.

  15. The Effect of Maternal Depression and Substance Abuse on Child Human Capital Development. NBER Working Paper No. 15314

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Richard G.; Meara, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Recent models of human capital formation represent a synthesis of the human capital approach and a life cycle view of human development that is grounded in neuroscience (Heckman 2007). This model of human development, the stability of the home and parental mental health can have notable impacts on skill development in children that may affect the…

  16. Impact of HIV/aids epidemic on human capital development in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauda, Rasaki Stephen

    2018-01-12

    West Africa occupies the third position with respect to the burden of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) globally, after Southern and East Africa. About 5 million adults and children are infected with the disease in the subregion, while HIV prevalence in the general population hovers around 2% and 5%. This paper attempts to investigate the impact of HIV/AIDS epidemic on human capital development in 11 West African countries over the period 1990 to 2011. The study used a dynamic panel data modeling approach, using first difference, difference generalized methods of moment, and system generalized methods of moment estimating techniques. Four measures of HIV/AIDS and 2 human capital measures were used in the study. The findings revealed that HIV/AIDS pandemic had negative and significant impact on human capital in West Africa. However, the statistical significance was more pronounced on life expectancy (a measure of human capital), while the negative impact on school enrolment (another human capital measure) was not significant. It is therefore recommended that the spread of HIV/AIDS disease in West Africa should be effectively controlled, while the number of infected persons undergoing antiretroviral therapy in the subregion should be increased to a near 100% coverage. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Education, Endogenous Human Capital, and Monetary Economic Growth with MIU Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wei-Bin

    2013-01-01

    This study builds a monetary growth model with inflation policy and education. The model is a synthesis of the Uzawa-Lucas two-sector growth model and traditional monetary model with the money-in-utility (MIU) approach. We show how money, physical capital and human capital interact over time under exogenous inflation policy in a free market economy. The dynamics of the economy is described by three differential equations. We show that the monetary economic system has a saddle equilibrium poin...

  18. OPPORTUNITY COST OF EDUCATIONAL HUMAN CAPITAL INVESTMENT. APPLICATION FOR THE POSITION OF BENEFICIARY-INVESTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Florea Voiculescu

    2009-01-01

    The present paper focuses on providing a model of applying the opportunitycost concept on investments in human educational capital. In the first part we haveshown that the real costs of educational capital investment does not involve direct andindirect educational costs only but also the opportunity costs, i.e. the earnings that arelost by choosing to invest in education (and not in something else). From our researchthere results the fact that the share of the opportunity cost within the tota...

  19. Uncovering configurations of HRM service provider intellectual capital and worker human capital for creating high HRM service value using fsQCA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, Jeroen Gerard; Bondarouk, Tatiana

    Although traditionally applied independently, this study combines two theoretical perspectives – the intellectual capital theory and the consumer perspective – to uncover value-creating configurations of human resource management (HRM) service providers' and workers' knowledge resources. We examined

  20. Human Capital Versus Income Variations: Are They Linked in OECD Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Bartak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The theory of endogenous growth suggests a number of relations between income inequality and human capital. However, empirical evidence in this field is scarce. Therefore, in this paper we aim to demonstrate the existence of interdependencies between income inequality and human capital across OECD countries.Methodology: We present findings of the endogenous growth theory on the mechanisms linking inequality with human capital. Subsequently, we attempt to verify these links empirically using the regression function estimated by means of the generalized method of moments (GMM. The empirical analysis is based on panel data from 1995–2010.Findings: The results of the study reveal the existence of a negative relationship between income inequality and health indicators (infant mortality and maternal mortality. However, we did not reach an authoritative conclusion about the relationship between income inequality and quantitative indicators of educational achievement.Research limitations: Research is limited to the sample of OECD countries. Interdependencies between income inequality and human capital could be captured more clearly using a broader sample.Originality: This paper presents one of few studies testing the relation between human capital and income inequality. The use of high-quality empirical data on inequality (SWIID data and the generalized method of moments made it possible to contribute new arguments to the discussion of empirical analyses of these economic categories.

  1. Human capital gains associated with robotic assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty in children compared to open pyeloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behan, James W; Kim, Steve S; Dorey, Frederick; De Filippo, Roger E; Chang, Andy Y; Hardy, Brian E; Koh, Chester J

    2011-10-01

    Robotic assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty is an emerging, minimally invasive alternative to open pyeloplasty in children for ureteropelvic junction obstruction. The procedure is associated with smaller incisions and shorter hospital stays. To our knowledge previous outcome analyses have not included human capital calculations, especially regarding loss of parental workdays. We compared perioperative factors in patients who underwent robotic assisted laparoscopic and open pyeloplasty at a single institution, especially in regard to human capital changes, in an institutional cost analysis. A total of 44 patients 2 years old or older from a single institution underwent robotic assisted (37) or open (7) pyeloplasty from 2008 to 2010. We retrospectively reviewed the charts to collect demographic and perioperative data. The human capital approach was used to calculate parental productivity losses. Patients who underwent robotic assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty had a significantly shorter average hospital length of stay (1.6 vs 2.8 days, p human capital gains, eg decreased lost parental wages, and lower hospitalization expenses. Future comparative outcome analyses in children should include financial factors such as human capital loss, which can be especially important for families with young children. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. AN ANALYSIS OF HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH- CASE STUDY, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opeyemi Oluwabunmi Adejumo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to address the direction of causality between human capital and productivity growth in Nigeria, the study first investigated the pattern of productivity growth in Nigeria between 1970 and 2010. Following the endogenous growth model, which argued that technical progress, through an effective labor force, could lead to long-run growth which can be determined from within an economy; but it actually depends on the efficiency with which resources available to such an economy are utilized. This is against the exogenous growth model which emphasized that long-run growth can be attained by some unexplained technological progress, which is exogenous to any economy. Based on this controversy in literature, this study empirically determined the productivity growth in Nigeria, as well as the causal relation between human capital development and productivity growth in Nigeria using the Engle-Granger causality test. The results revealed that productivity growth has been very low and unstable in Nigeria as it oscillated between -1.5% and 0.6%. In addition, the nexus between human capital and productivity growth was examined. The findings revealed that while productivity growth caused human capital development, human capital development did not cause productivity growth.

  3. Human capital identification process: linkage for family medicine and community medicine to mobilize the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanasugarn, Chanuantong; Thongbunjob, Krid

    2012-06-01

    Community diagnosis and approach has shifted from a professional focus to a community focus. The information system has also been developed to reflect socio-cultural information. This new system has been established throughout the country and is being recorded in the computer system. However these data still lack human capital information to promote community mobilization. The present study aims to develop a process which reflects human capital from the insider and outsider points of view and which builds on the existing work system of primary care service, family medicine, and community medicine. The present study applies the participatory action research design with mixed methods including community grand-tour, household survey socio-metric questionnaire and focus group discussion in order to gather insider view of human capital. A key instrument developed in the present study is the socio-metric questionnaire which was designed according to the community grand tour and household survey results. The findings indicate that the process is feasible and the insider point of view given a longer evidence based list of the human capital. The model enhanced a closer relationship between professional and community people and suggested the realistic community mobilizer name list. Human capital identification process is feasible and should be recommended to integrate in the existing work process of the health staff in family and community practice.

  4. The impact of Facebook use on micro-level social capital : A synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antheunis, Marjolijn; Vanden Abeele, Mariek; Kanters, S.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between Facebook use and micro-level social capital has received substantial scholarly attention over the past decade. This attention has resulted in a large body of empirical work that gives insight into the nature of Facebook as a social networking site and how it influences the

  5. The Effects of Social Capital Levels in Elementary Schools on Organizational Information Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Abdurrahman

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effects of social capital levels at elementary schools on organizational information sharing as reported by teachers. Participants were 267 teachers selected randomly from 16 elementary schools; schools also selected randomly among 42 elementary schools located in the city center of Batman. The data were analyzed by…

  6. Bach, Beethoven, Bourdieu: "Cultural Capital" and the Scholastic Canon in England's A-Level Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article applies Bourdieu's notion of "cultural capital" to historical, documentary research which investigates the construction of a scholastic canon within England's A-level music examinations. A digest of the ways in which this canon evolved between 1951 and 1986 is presented in support of the idea that examiners' responses to…

  7. The Effects of Social Capital Elements on Job Satisfaction and Motivation Levels of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydak Özan, Mukadder; Yavuz Özdemir, Tuncay; Yaras, Zübeyde

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of social capital elements' on job satisfaction and motivation levels of teachers. The mixed method was used in the study. The quantitative data were analyzed through Correlation and Multiple Regression analyses. An interview form developed by the researchers was used for analyzing the…

  8. A Synthetic Indicator of a Company's Level of Intellectual Capital as a Hidden Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Dominiak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors of the paper analyzed 21 common methods of measuring a company's intellectual capital, finding that none of them meet all 6 demands that a model indicator should satisfy. As a result, a new method was developed, which meets the conditions for a model indicator. Using the chosen expert method, a synthetic indicator of a company's level of intellectual capital (WPKI has been determined. The authors of the paper determine the WPKI indicator for public construction companies using the algorithm defining a hidden value. (original abstract

  9. Undergraduate students' development of social, cultural, and human capital in a networked research experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jennifer Jo; Conaway, Evan; Dolan, Erin L.

    2016-12-01

    Recent calls for reform in undergraduate biology education have emphasized integrating research experiences into the learning experiences of all undergraduates. Contemporary science research increasingly demands collaboration across disciplines and institutions to investigate complex research questions, providing new contexts and models for involving undergraduates in research. In this study, we examined the experiences of undergraduates participating in a multi-institution and interdisciplinary biology research network. Unlike the traditional apprenticeship model of research, in which a student participates in research under the guidance of a single faculty member, students participating in networked research have the opportunity to develop relationships with additional faculty and students working in other areas of the project, at their own and at other institutions. We examined how students in this network develop social ties and to what extent a networked research experience affords opportunities for students to develop social, cultural, and human capital. Most studies of undergraduate involvement in science research have focused on documenting student outcomes rather than elucidating how students gain access to research experiences or how elements of research participation lead to desired student outcomes. By taking a qualitative approach framed by capital theories, we have identified ways that undergraduates utilize and further develop various forms of capital important for success in science research. In our study of the first 16 months of a biology research network, we found that undergraduates drew upon a combination of human, cultural, and social capital to gain access to the network. Within their immediate research groups, students built multidimensional social ties with faculty, peers, and others, yielding social capital that can be drawn upon for information, resources, and support. They reported developing cultural capital in the form of learning to

  10. Level of voluntary disclosure and the cost of capital of Brazilian companies: 2008 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Ballestero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed whether the level of voluntary disclosure in the Brazilian market affects the cost of capital of companies listed on Bovespa during the period covering 2008 through 2012.  The sample was composed of 46 Brazilian non-financial institutions, building on and complementing previous research such as that carried out by Lima, Lima, Favero and Galdi (2007, Murcia and Santos (2009a, and Li and Yang (2013. The panel data regression model is employed to relate the independent variables with the following dependent variables: Cost of Equity, Cost of Debt and Weighted Average Cost of Capital. Findings permit the conclusion that some voluntary disclosure practices influence the cost of capital, i.e., when a company chooses to voluntarily disclose information in its annual reports, this information can affect its cost of equity and cost of debt.

  11. THE EFFECT OF REVENUE AND MARKET SEGMENTATION LEVEL TOWARDS VENTURE CAPITAL INVESTMENT IN MOBILE APPLICATION BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Adrian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of mobile applications has mushroomed in local and foreign industries. This provides a tremendous opportunity for developers. For technopreneur developer, the capital to run the business is one of the biggest problems despite the fact that they may have great competence in the field. The fact that the business has big potential market in Indonesia has invited investors from local and overseas to invest as venture capital. However, due to the lack of knowledge on building collaboration with the investors and on understanding the market and investor needs in a long term, the developer finds difficulties to grow its business and to compete with bigger competitors. The research intends to seek the influence in selecting the level of revenue and market segmentation to support the investment decisions in the business of mobile applications, so that the mobile application developer is able to monetize their business to attract investors to invest in the venture capital.

  12. HUMAN CAPITAL AND HIGHER EDUCATION IN ROMANIA IN THE LAST YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADINA POPOVICI (BĂRBULESCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper underlines and analyses the role of human capital, as well as some issues related to higher education and research in Romania, both in figures and from a humanistic perspective of regarding them as fundamental investments in the future of nations, preservers of the supreme values of the humanity.

  13. Human Capital and Higher Education in Romania in the Last Years

    OpenAIRE

    Adina Popovici (Bărbulescu)

    2011-01-01

    The paper underlines and analyses the role of human capital, as well as some issues related to higher education and research in Romania, both in figures and from a humanistic perspective of regarding them as fundamental investments in the future of nations, preservers of the supreme values of the humanity.

  14. THE IMPACT OF HUMAN CAPITAL ON LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY REGARDING ‘ET 2020’ TARGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domicián MÁTÉ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to clarify the European Commission’s Education and Training (ET 2020 strategy, focusing primarily on the dimension of educational attainment. According to the ET 2020, the percentage of the population aged between 30 and 34 who have completed their tertiary education, should be at least 40% by 2020. Meanwhile, also forecasts a reduction in the early school leaver rate to less than 10%. The purposes of this study are to explore the present educational attainment performance in various OECD countries and to analyse the determinants of productivity growth regarding these educational targets. We found that in long run, an increase in the level of human capital resulted in a greater increase in productivity in those countries where the tertiary education and early school leaver ratios targets are achieved. Our conclusions highlight that educational reforms are needed to rethink the establishment of knowledge societies.

  15. Application methods for identification of delphi bases comprehensive development of human capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Bartková

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This article focuses on the question of nurturing human capital in a company environment with emphasis on developing human capital not only by education, but also by investing into a healthy lifestyle, development of key competencies, social capital etc. Human capital development is usually interpreted as education. The bearer of knowledge, the employee, is often of secondary focus and not being taken into account. Increasing the efficiency of companies as well as the productivity of employees is often discussed only in context of their education. It is not our intention to derogate the importance of spreading knowledge, but in our opinion, this particular field is being emphasized to the prejudice of other components of a human being as the bearer of knowledge as well as of a human being as the basis of human capital. We believe it is important to consider more complex paradigms of human capital development as well as other factors besides education, such as health, physical development, aesthetics etc. We assume that every company can gain a competitive advantage by using appropriate methods and tools to develop human potential. The European Union set a strategic goal for this decade at the conference in Lisbon in year 2000: "Becoming the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion". Based on the recommendation of the European Council from June 26th 2003 on the Broad Economic Policy Guidelines for Member States the EU considered this objective as one of the most strategic. In connection with this strategic goal, finding the potential for increasing the competitiveness of the European economy was accentuated. With the adoption of this strategy, companies, not only in the Czech Republic, focus on the human capital and its development as a means to fulfilling strategic objectives. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to

  16. Human Capital Intensity in Technology-Based Firms Located in Portugal: Do Foreign Multinationals Make a Difference?

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Teresa Tavares; Aurora A. C. Teixeira

    2005-01-01

    This paper contributes to the scarce empirical literature on the impact of foreign ownership on human capital intensity. New evidence is provided, based on a comprehensive, large-scale survey of technology-based firms located in Portugal. Using two alternatives measures of human capital (one based on skills, another on education), the key findings are that: (1) foreign ownership directly (and significantly) impacts on firms general human capital (education); (2) foreign ownership indirectly (...

  17. [Neighborhood environment quality, individual-level social capital, and depressive symptoms among adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Takashi

    2011-09-01

    We aimed to develop measures to assess features of neighborhood quality and individual social capital, as well as their associations with depressive symptoms among early adolescents. To determine whether relations of depressive symptoms with neighborhood quality might be contingent upon the level of individual cognitive social capital, neighborhood-by-cognitive social capital interaction terms were examined. A qualitative study was conducted to elicit the perceptions of early adolescents about their neighborhood environment. Subsequently, we recruited 2,002 eighth graders and asked for responses to a self-administered questionnaire. The variables analyzed in this study were the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (10 items), features of neighborhood quality, cognitive and structural individual social capital, and demographics. We adopted a generalized estimating equation regression model for the multivariate analysis. The analytic sample was 1,786 with no missing variable in the models. Seven subscales were devised to assess quality features of neighborhood environments with an examination of validity and reliability: "availability of services," "good neighborhood relations," "spaces for recreation," "insecurity and danger of accidents," "dirty-looking, squalid, unclean," "civic communities," and "aesthetic look." We also developed a scale of individual cognitive social capital, which consisted of three constructs: "social trust," "reciprocity," and "social norms." Additionally, the number of social activities in which subjects participated was counted as an indicator of the structural aspect of individual social capital. On examination with the generalized estimating equation regression model, "availability of services," "insecurity and danger of accidents," "dirty-looking, squalid, unclean," and cognitive social capital were significantly associated with the CES-D scores controlling for demographics. We also found a significant interplay between

  18. The impact of corruption on the sustainable development of human capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absalyamova, Svetlana; Absalyamov, Timur; Khusnullova, Asiya; Mukhametgalieva, Chulpan

    2016-08-01

    The article explains the use of the human capital sustainable development index (HCSDI) to assess the quality of the reproduction of human capital. The paper provides the algorithm for calculating HCSDI and its components. Authors estimated cross-country differences of HCSDI and developed econometric model of the impact of corruption on HCSDI. The use of this model has allowed to reveal the mechanism and assess the impact of corruption on HCSDI and its components. The results of econometric analysis revealed a negative multiplier effect: an increase in the corruption of the socio-economic system of the state by 1% caused HCSDI reduce by more than 1%. The results and conclusions may be proxy-assessments of the socio-economic consequences of violations of the stability of reproduction of human capital in the conditions of the growth of corruption in the country

  19. [Provision of integrity and reliability in hygienic examination of investment projects for human capital development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkhov, P V; Matsenko, A M; Krugliak, A P; Derkach, Zh V

    2012-01-01

    To reach normal competitiveness in world division of labour, investment projects should stimulate development of human capital towards advance of modern technologies and organizational development of all types of labour. At present time there are only separate calculations of certain types of people's health damage and completely disparate matters of damage compensation exceptionally for chemical contamination effects. The purpose of the paper is development of algorithms to provide hygienic welfare of human capital in investment projects. For this purpose in investments assessment and hygienic examination it is necessary to apply complete and comprehensive (systematic) evaluation of all factors that influence human capital welfare and practical hygienic and research institutions should be focused on systematic elimination of possible dangers and risks of investment projects.

  20. Enhancing Human Capital Development and Service Delivery in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions through Effective Academic Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinyeaka Igbokwe-Ibeto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of bureaucratic and human capital theories, an eclectic approach, the study examines the nexus between academic staff recruitment in Nigerian tertiary institutions and human capital development as well as service delivery with specific reference to universities. It is generally agreed that higher education is a sine-qua-non for human capital development and efficient service delivery. Higher education is a prerequisite for the production of highly competent experts, which in turn, contributes to the development of organizations and the economy at large. For these to be achieved, the right content and academic staff  must be in place to perform this varied function.  However, over the years the quality of human capital coming out of Nigerian universities and its impact on service delivery has become a source of concern to employers of labour and all stakeholders. Inferential opinions have traced the problem to the recruitment of incompetent academic staff. To investigate the issues raised, the study relied heavily on primary and secondary data and multi stage sampling was used to select the sample population. The data collected was presented in pie chart and simple percentage. Similarly, in order to test the hypotheses and establish the degree of dependence or independence of the variables under investigation, the chi-square statistical technique was used. The findings of the study revealed among others, that Nigerian universities do not employ merit, qualification and competency in the academic staff recruitment. It also established that there is a significant relationship between merit, qualification and competency based academic staff recruitment and human capital development and service delivery. To enhance human capital development and service delivery in Nigerian universities, the study recommends among others, that an independent body like the National University Commission (NUC should be given the responsibility of

  1. PENGARUH HUMAN CAPITAL TERHADAP KINERJA AUDITOR PADA KAP YANG ADA DI BANDUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nono Supriatna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research starting from the professionalism accountants as human capital at accountant firm as a service company. This research is intended  to study the effect of human capital on auditor performance at KAP in Bandung to propose the hypothesis that human capital has positive influence on auditors performance, either partially or simultaneously. Some dimensions of the sub-variables that make up the human capital that will be studied is represented by the factors individual capability, individual motivation, leadership, the organizational climate, and workgroup effectiveness. The auditor’s performance is measured by three factors that make up the performance:  (1 individual factor, (2 psychology factor, and (3 organization factor.             The research was conducted at the accounting firm located in Bandung. Of the number of samples taken at random population consisting of senior accountants and junior accountants as respondents. Technique of data collecting used  questionnaire. In accordance with the measurement scale, the data has been collected tested the validity of the formula Spearman Rank correlation and reliability with Cronbach alpha. The data has been tested and found valid and reliable then analyzed by correlation and regression analysis.             Based on the results of correlation and regression analysis to test hypotheses derived research findings that human capital simultaneously has a fairly close relationship with performance. While the multiple regression analysis known that each dimension contributes to the performance of the auditor's diverse and significant at p = 0.05, so the significance of test results, either partially or simultaneously can be concluded to accept the research hypothesis, namely human capital has positive influence on the performance of auditors.

  2. EMPIRICAL REFLECTIONS ON MIGRATION PHENOMENON. MAJOR EFFECTS OF MIGRATION ON THE HUMAN CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona BUTA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper Empirical reflections on migration phenomenon. Major effects of migration on the human capital analyzes the migration flows of the workforce (as part of the human capital globally/regionally, especially the highly qualified workforce migration. The qualified manpower processes of attracting on the work market have not been always well understood and, in some cases, have generated a series of difficulties. This is the reason why we will focus on the „waste of brains” phenomenon, which appears when highly qualified individuals are neither employed in the source-country nor in the target country; and, if they are, their job is below their qualifications.

  3. Human Capital Theory and Internal Migration: Do Average Outcomes Distort Our View of Migrant Motives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpi, Martin; Clark, William A W

    2017-05-01

    By modelling the distribution of percentage income gains for movers in Sweden, using multinomial logistic regression, this paper shows that those receiving large pecuniary returns from migration are primarily those moving to the larger metropolitan areas and those with higher education, and that there is much more variability in income gains than what is often assumed in models of average gains to migration. This suggests that human capital models of internal migration often overemphasize the job and income motive for moving, and fail to explore where and when human capital motivated migration occurs.

  4. THE QUALITY OF GROWTH: PERAN TEKNOLOGI DAN INVESTASI HUMAN CAPITAL SEBAGAI PEMACU PERTUMBUHAN EKONOMI BERKUALITAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Eko Prasetyo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of developing economy in a whole and continuously, the macro economy stability of acountry is an essential prerequisite for producing a quality economic growth. For achieving the qualityeconomic growth, there should be a continuous capital human investment and the use of continuousscience and technology (IPTEK. The process of developing economy will be able to transform thesociety condition from vicious circle to virtuous circle condition if the growth of economy is qualified..Keywords: Quality of growth; human capital, technology and virtuous circle.

  5. Human capital gaps in vaccine development: an issue for global vaccine development and global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawein, Andrea; Emini, Emilio; Watson, Michael; Dailey, Joanna; Donnelly, John; Tresnan, Dina; Evans, Tom; Plotkin, Stanley; Gruber, William

    2017-05-01

    Despite the success of vaccines in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases, many infectious diseases, both newly emerging and well known, lack vaccines. The global capability for beginning-to-end vaccine development has become limited, primarily owing to a scarcity of human capital necessary to guide the development of novel vaccines from the laboratory to the marketplace. Here, we identify and discuss the gaps in human capital necessary for robust vaccine development and make recommendations to begin to address these deficiencies. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. Internet’s Affects on the Human and Communicational Capitals of the Faculty Members and the PhD and MA Students in Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Montazerghaem

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Internet and other modern communication technologies have affected all aspects of the gathering, combining, and transforming knowledge, especially in scientific-educational and research organizations. These processes are parts of the whole intellectual capital in any organization. Intellectual capital is the hidden and intangible property which is oriented toward organizational goals. In the present study, I attempt to reflect on the affects internet has on some particular dimensions of intellectual capital, namely the human and the communicational, in Iran’s universities. According to the theoretical basis, it is shown that internet usage is an important factor in developing organizational intellectual capital (here, in the universities. Results show that human and communicational capitals are differently distributed in various universities. On the other hand, internet accessibility and consumption (type and quantity, as the independent variables of the study, have meaningful affects on human and communicational capitals in all universities. Furthermore, it is noteworthy to say that there are some other factors, as the ranking of the university, department, educational level (for students, and degree (for faculty members, and gender, which intervene in the process. Results show that internet usage, besides other factors as age, gender, marital status, could guide in explanation of the human and communicational capitals’ changes in the universities.

  7. Disaster Impacts on Human Capital Accumulation Shown in the Typhoon Haiyan Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özceylan Aubrecht, Dilek; Aubrecht, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    School children and their school environment are increasingly exposed to all kinds of hazards. Many disaster events have shown the extent of disaster impacts on the education sector which this study also highlights in the Typhoon Haiyan Case. Disasters do not only cause loss of lives or damage to educational facilities, they also entail significant economic and social consequences on human capital development in the short and long-run. While the trend of short term disaster impact can easily be analyzed in rapid post disaster assessments taking destroyed assets as proxy, usually analyses of medium and long-term effects of disasters include large inherent uncertainties and are of less tangible nature, require more time and complex methods and can often not give comprehensive results. The consequences of disasters especially in developing countries are therefore to a certain extent often left unknown. Generally, economic and social effects of disasters on human capital seem to be ambiguous and to some degree these effects are related to economic, social and institutional well-being. Thus, clear understanding is crucial to interpret its complex effects on human capital accumulation. This essential nature of medium and long-term effects has not been reflected in many analyses. Focus has mostly been given on the extent of physical damage, displacements, lives and assets lost instead of targeting resilience of social and economic characteristics of communities in terms of preventing human capital accumulation disruption. Main objective of this study is to provide a conceptual framework illustrating the impacts of disasters on schooling which might help in assessing such effects, as one of the fundamental components of human capital accumulation (Ozceylan Aubrecht, 2013). The dimensions of human capital building and its relationship to disasters under the light of past disaster events are discussed with a special focus on the recent Typhoon Haiyan that struck the

  8. Social capital and health: measuring and understanding social capital at a local level could help to tackle health inequalities more effectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Paul

    2002-09-01

    This paper examines whether an understanding of the concept of social capital and its local measurement can help to tackle inequalities in health within and across communities. The paper concludes that the concept of social capital offers a valuable opportunity to help public health professionals understand how to approach inequalities in health with a greater awareness of the social processes affecting the health of communities. The measurement of social capital has been problematic. However, new guidance from the Health Development Agency (HDA) provides a useful tool for developing social capital research. A greater understanding of whether, and how social capital relates to health will help to improve strategies to reduce health inequalities at the community level. Public health professionals contributing to community development strategies such as Neighbourhood Renewal Projects, Community Safety Partnerships, Health Action Zones and Health Improvement Programmes (HImPs) should encourage thought to be given about the role that an understanding of social capital could play in making these strategies more effective. Using the HDA measurement tool locally could be one way of doing this.

  9. Predictors of cultural capital on science academic achievement at the 8th grade level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misner, Johnathan Scott

    The purpose of the study was to determine if students' cultural capital is a significant predictor of 8th grade science achievement test scores in urban locales. Cultural capital refers to the knowledge used and gained by the dominant class, which allows social and economic mobility. Cultural capital variables include magazines at home and parental education level. Other variables analyzed include socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and English language learners (ELL). This non-experimental study analyzed the results of the 2011 Eighth Grade Science National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The researcher analyzed the data using a multivariate stepwise regression analysis. The researcher concluded that the addition of cultural capital factors significantly increased the predictive power of the model where magazines in home, gender, student classified as ELL, parental education level, and SES were the independent variables and science achievement was the dependent variable. For alpha=0.05, the overall test for the model produced a R2 value of 0.232; therefore the model predicted 23.2% of variance in science achievement results. Other major findings include: higher measures of home resources predicted higher 2011 NAEP eighth grade science achievement; males were predicted to have higher 2011 NAEP 8 th grade science achievement; classified ELL students were predicted to score lower on the NAEP eight grade science achievement; higher parent education predicted higher NAEP eighth grade science achievement; lower measures of SES predicted lower 2011 NAEP eighth grade science achievement. This study contributed to the research in this field by identifying cultural capital factors that have been found to have statistical significance on predicting eighth grade science achievement results, which can lead to strategies to help improve science academic achievement among underserved populations.

  10. Benchmarking Human Capital Strategies of Domestic and Foreign ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The object of this research is to investigate the human resource management strategies in the Nigerian Airline Industry. A comparative study was conducted in Nigeria's airline industry to examine the extent to which Domestic Airlines (DAs) and Foreign Airlines (FAs) operating in the country are using Human Resource ...

  11. Estimating the Effects of Human Capital Constraints on Innovation in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeetendra Khadan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Human capital, as reflected in education levels and skills, and innovation is an important engine of economic growth. The Caribbean is deficient in both: lower than expected GDP growth rates are accompanied by relatively low innovation at the firm level, and the workforce is characterised by skills deficiencies and educational mismatches. In that regard, this paper exploits firm-level data covering 13 Caribbean countries to examine the extent to which innovation, a key driver of productivity growth, is affected by firms’ inability to find appropriately educated and skilled workers to fill key positions in its organizational structure, which is estimated using Probit models distinguishing between past and future innovation decisions. The econometric analysis finds that firms that have difficulty finding new skilled employees are less likely to engage in any type of innovation compared to those that can, and this is also true for decisions about future technological and non-technological innovations. Moreover, firms that face challenges finding employees with the required core and job-related skills at the managerial and professional levels are also less likely to innovate. Finally, while in-firm training is found to increase the probability of innovation, its magnitude is low.

  12. The effects of HIV/AIDS on economic growth and human capitals: a panel study evidence from Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Shongkour

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) affects economic growths by reducing the human capitals are among the most poorly understood aspect of the AIDS epidemic. This article analyzes the effects of the prevalence of HIV and full-blown AIDS on a country's human capitals and economic growths. Using a fixed effect model for panel data 1990-2010 from the Asia, I explored the dynamic relationships among HIV/AIDS, economic growths, and human capitals within countries over time. The econometric effects concerned that HIV/AIDS plays an important role in the field of economic growths and it is measured as a change in real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and human capitals. The modeling results for the Asian countries indicates HIV/AIDS prevalence that has a hurtful effect on GDP per capita by reducing human capitals within countries over time.

  13. PENGARUH HUMAN CAPITAL TERHADAP KINERJA AUDITOR PADA KAP YANG ADA DI BANDUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nono Supriatna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is based on the importance of accountant professionalism as human capital in accounting firm as a service company. This research is intended to study the effect of human capital on the performance of auditors in KAP in Bandung by proposing research hypothesis that, human capital have positive effect on auditor performance, either partially or simultaneously. Several dimensions as sub-variables that form human caputals to be studied are represented by individual capability, individual motivation, leadership, the organizational climate, and workgroup effectiveness factors. The auditor's performance is measured by three factors that make the performance are (1 individual factors, (2 psychological factors, and (3 organizational factors. The study was conducted at an accounting firm located in Bandung. From the number of population taken random sample consisting of senior accountant and junior accountant as respondent. Data collection technique used is by using questionnaire. In accordance with the measurement scale, the data that have been collected tested the validity of Rank Spearman correlation formula and reliability with Alpha Cronbach. Data that have been tested and declared valid and reliable are then analyzed by correlation and regression analysis. Based on the results of correlation and regression analysis to test the hypothesis obtained findings of research results that human capital simultaneously have a fairly close relationship with its performance. While from multiple regression analysis it is known that each dimension gives various contribution to auditor performance and significant at p = 0,05, so from result of significance test, either partially or simultaneously can be concluded to accept research hypothesis, that is human capital have positive effect to auditor performance

  14. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE COST OF EDUCATION AND THE HUMAN CAPITAL. THE ALIGNEMENT OF ROMANIA TO THE EUROPEAN STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA-JULIETA JOSAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Once with the development of the human capital theory, the education received an economic value, which is a quality variable of human resources and the main determinant of economic growth. The famed economists have shown that the remarkable economic effects of the investments in education influence the chances of acquiring a job and earnings, demonstrating how the theory justifies such an investment. Human capital approach allows also estimating the costs of education in schools and higher education, as well as the profits that comes out of it. Thus, the human capital theory is primarily focused on the demand for education. Moreover, the objective function of the state, in terms of education, contains itself two contradictory arguments: the state, theoretically, is a representative and guarantor of the collective good and its organizer; the state will seek to maximize individual education on the one hand and on the other hand will search for the optimization of the relationship between professional training and formal education. Also, in the context of recent years, the budgetary constraints are raising the problem of optimal allocation of the resources, as well as the funding of the performance of the educational services. The particularities, in terms of flexibility and cumulative distribution of the investment levels in the human factors, are translated into a practical action in the sense that global competition, from which Romania cannot decouple. In the long run, there are winning and resisting only those with academic flexible formation and the intelligent persons. Considering the above arguments, the purpose of this paper is to analyze the main characteristics of funding mechanisms for education systems, the volume of spending on education and ways of managing the resources allocated to the education. The cost allocation for education in Romania is investigated in terms of government policies, but also in terms of human capital theory

  15. The Strategic Management of Human Capital: Brief Reflections and a Few Propositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Barnett

    2008-01-01

    The author shares how he was fascinated by the recent interest in and focus on the strategic management of human capital (SMHC)--which has been defined as "the acquisition, development, performance management and retention of top talent in the nation's schools." It is one thing to identify talented educators; it is another to utilize them…

  16. The Rewards of Human Capital Competences for Young European Higher Education Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Aracil, Adela; Mora, Jose-Gines; Vila, Luis E.

    2004-01-01

    The labour market rewards for a number of required human capital competences are analysed using a sample of young European higher education graduates. Factor analysis is applied to classify competences by jobs into eight orthogonal groups, namely participative, methodological, specialised, organisational, applying rules, physical, generic and…

  17. Measurement of human capital input across countries: a method based on the laborer's income

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeong, Byeongju

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 2 (2002), s. 333-349 ISSN 0304-3878 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : human capital * measurement * international comparison Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.632, year: 2002

  18. Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela : Investing in Human Capital for Growth, Prosperity, and Poverty Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    This report draws on limited, available data to analyze selected economic, and social issues, which include better understanding of poverty, and inequality in relation to real income, and, improving the allocation of social expenditures, while increasing the effectiveness of social programs. The deterioration of social, and human capital should be prevented, by simultaneously promoting its ...

  19. Policies to Create and Destroy Human Capital in Europe. NBER Working Paper No. 15742

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James J.; Jacobs, Bas

    2010-01-01

    Trends in skill bias and greater turbulence in modern labor markets put wages and employment prospects of unskilled workers under pressure. Weak incentives to utilize and maintain skills over the life-cycle become manifest with the ageing of the population. Policies to promote human capital formation reduce welfare state dependency among the…

  20. Returns to the market: valuing human capital in the post-transition Czech and Slovak Republics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filer, R.; Jurajda, Štěpán; Plánovský, J.

    -, č. 125 (1999), s. 1-26 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : human capital * post-transition Czech and Slovak Republics Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp125.pdf

  1. The role of human capital formation in the transition to modern economic growth, 1300-1900

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Pleijt, A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375805621

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of the Industrial Revolution increasingly emphasize the key role of human capital in promoting economic growth, and empirical studies have shown that education is a strong predictor of per capita GDP. Contrary to the theory, however, economic historians have described the role of

  2. The impact of outsourcing on investments in firm-specific human capital under varying contract regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bråd Nielsen, Lars

    knowledge and skills, thus requiring continuous updating of employee competences. This paper develops a two-period agency model to show how the threat of layoff (outsourcing of job tasks to a third party supplier) can help a company trigger or ease employee investments in .firm-speci.c human capital...

  3. Human capital and the gender gap in authority in European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abendroth, A.; Maas, I.; van der Lippe, T.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we investigate why women are less likely than men to hold a position of workplace authority and why countries differ in this respect. We focus on the importance of investments in different types of human capital and the returns on them. Whether leave policies, the availability of

  4. Human Capital Formation during the First Industrial Revolution: Evidence from the Use of Steam Engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Pleijt, Alexandra|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375805621; Nuvolari, A.; Weisdorf, J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of technological change on human capital formation during the early phases of England’s Industrial Revolution. Following the methodology used in Franck and Galor (2016), we consider the adoption of steam engines as an indicator of technical change, examining the

  5. Rethinking International Migration of Human Capital and Brain Circulation: The Case of Chinese-Canadian Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blachford, Dongyan Ru; Zhang, Bailing

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the dynamics of brain circulation through a historical review of the debates over international migration of human capital and a case study on Chinese-Canadian academics. Interviews with 22 Chinese-Canadian professors who originally came from China provide rich data regarding the possibilities and problems of the contemporary…

  6. Human Capital Response to Globalization: Education and Information Technology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, Gauri Kartini

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that globalization increases inequality, by increasing skilled wage premiums in developing countries. This effect may be mitigated, however, if human capital responds to global opportunities. I study how the impact of globalization varies across Indian districts with different costs of learning English. Linguistic diversity…

  7. Cultural, Human, and Social Capital as Determinants of Corporal Punishment: Toward an Integrated Theoretical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohe; Tung, Yuk-Ying; Dunaway, R. Gregory

    2000-01-01

    This article constructs a model to predict the likelihood of parental use of corporal punishment on children in two-parent families. Reports that corporal punishment is primarily determined by cultural, human, and social capital that are available to, or already acquired by parents. Discusses an integrated, resource-based theory for predicting use…

  8. Returns to Tenure, Firm-Specific Human Capital and Worker Heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2003-01-01

    Workers with longer job tenure are paid more, on average, than those with shorter tenure. This paper re-opens the debate about whether individual financial returns to tenure are due to firm-specific human capital accumulation or sorting according to unobserved individual productivity heterogeneity...

  9. The Relationship Between Postsecondary Education and Skill: Comparing Credentialism with Human Capital Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, David

    2004-01-01

    This paper assesses the importance of the credential requirements used by employers to attract graduates who will use their education on the job. The framework of this study is embedded within the theoretical debates between proponents of the credentialist and human capital theories of education. Past research related to these debates has focused…

  10. HUMAN CAPITAL IN ROMANIA - BETWEEN CAPITALISATION AND DISSIPATION - A RETROSPECTIVE APPROACH OVER THE LAST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina VASILE

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A century of human capital evolution in Romania, from the labour market perspective, meant the transition from the strictly quantitative approach, namely from the labour force / labour resources (due to the emergence of the unemployment phenomenon, but also the industrial relations development to the integrative human capital one (tangible and intangible in which skills(professional and those so called „soft” and lifelong learning are associated with technology transfer while decent and efficient employment becomes conditionality to company efficiency. The labour market was developed as the most regulated market, highly dependent on the business environment and labour demand in number and/or skills. Being related to technological transfer human capital becomes a factor of performance and development through its three dimensions: quantitative (indicators that quantify employment and labour, qualitative (the efficiency of labour as production factor and the comparative advantages of education and behavioural (aspects of industrial relations, in both micro and macroeconomic approach. The paper aims to present the evolution and main peculiarities of the human capital in Modern Romania during the last 100 years, focussed on economy profile - competitive / market oriented (1918- 1947 and after 1989 or centralized (1948- 1989. How much we gain and lost in preserving, valuing and efficient allocation of the most valuable asset of a nation? Finally, looking forward to economic, social and societal challenges we are desingning some benchmarks and select few relevant policy recommendations for responsible and accountable management of this wealth of the nation

  11. The Gender Pay Gap Beyond Human Capital: Heterogeneity in Noncognitive Skills and in Labor Market Tastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Wayne A.; Hussey, Andrew; Jetter, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Focused on human capital, economists typically explain about half of the gender earnings gap. For a national sample of MBAs, we account for 82 percent of the gap by incorporating noncognitive skills (for example, confidence and assertiveness) and preferences regarding family, career, and jobs. Those two sources of gender heterogeneity account for…

  12. Education for a Competitive Asia: Questioning the Discourse of Human Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot-Rueda, Theodora

    2018-01-01

    This article looks at the concept of education for human capital from its origins in the US and Britain as part of a neo-colonial effort, to its current role in dominating educational discourse across Asia. It argues that although there is nothing wrong with promoting education for career success, this should not be the only lens through which we…

  13. Educational Mismatches and Earnings: Extensions of Occupational Mobility Theory and Evidence of Human Capital Depreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubb, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Using a human capital theory framework, this study examines the impact of educational mismatches on earnings and occupational mobility. Occupational mobility theory suggests that overeducated workers observe greater upward occupational mobility and undereducated workers observe lower upward occupational mobility. By extension, this leads to…

  14. Strong Ties, Weak Ties, and Human Capital: Latino Immigrant Employment outside the Enclave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Max J.; Parra, Pilar A.

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the role of social ties and human capital in the integration of Latino immigrants into the local economy. This analysis extends earlier research by focusing on more rural contexts with limited labor-market opportunities and less access to social resources provided by coethnics. We reconsider conclusions of previous studies by…

  15. Peer Effects and Human Capital Accumulation: the Externalities of ADD. NBER Working Paper No. 14354

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizer, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Although recent work has shown that peers affect human capital accumulation, the mechanisms are not well understood. Knowing why high achieving peers matter, because of their innate ability, disciplined behavior or some other factor, has important implications for our understanding of the education production function and for how we organize…

  16. The Impact of Human Capital on the Cost of Air Force Acquisition Programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feuring, Jeffrey C

    2007-01-01

    .... The measure of output is the average cost overrun of Air Force contracts. A time series regression was conducted while controlling for other economic factors such as budgetary fluctuations and inflation. The results show positive effects of Human Capital on performance. Other policy implications of the study are the importance of budgetary stability, inflation predictions and the Defense Acquisition Workforce Improvement Act (DAWIA).

  17. Outward Foreign Direct Investment and Human Capital Development: A Small Country Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the pattern of outward foreign direct investment (FDI) by Irish MNCs, and more specifically, to investigate their approach to human capital development and how these correspond to foreign MNCs in Ireland. In particular, it seeks to investigate training and development expenditure, adoption of…

  18. ePortfolios in the Workplace for Human Capital Management: A Multiple Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    This study researches whether the ePortfolio is a suitable instrument for human capital management in the business environment. The implementation of ePortfolio systems in five different organizations is analyzed. It considers whether ePortfolio implementations were successful, and relevant critical success factors were identified. For the latter…

  19. Tax evasion, human capital, and productivity-induced tax rate reduction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gillman, Max; Kejak, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2014), s. 42-79 ISSN 1932-8575 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34096S Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : tax evasion * human capital * tax rates and tables Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.600, year: 2014

  20. Tax evasion, human capital, and productivity-induced tax rate reduction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gillman, M.; Kejak, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2014), s. 42-79 ISSN 1932-8575 Grant - others:UK(CZ) UNCE 204005/2012 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : tax evasion * human capital * tax rates and tables Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.600, year: 2014

  1. Congratulations or Condolences? The Role of Human Capital in the Cultivation of a University Administrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, John; Singell, Larry D., Jr.; Stater, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Administrative skill is essential to organizational effectiveness. Yet, few studies examine how human capital investments over a career affect selection into administration. We use panel data for economists to estimate the probability of choosing administration over a pure academic track. The results show that, while research-specific human…

  2. Changing compositon of human capital: the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeong, Byeongju; Kejak, Michal; Vinogradov, Viatcheslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2008), s. 247-271 ISSN 0967-0750 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : human capital * occupation * education Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.614, year: 2008

  3. Building the Capacity to Innovate: The Role of Human Capital--Support Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; Courvisanos, Jerry; Tuck, Jacqueline; McEachern, Steven

    2012-01-01

    This document was produced by the authors based on their research for the report "Building the Capacity to Innovate: The Role of Human Capital," and is an added resource for further information. This document contains the following appendices: (1) Survey methodology; (2) Synopsis of the literature; (3) Interview questions; and (4) Survey…

  4. Aligning Evaluation Results and Professional Development: Driving Systemic Human Capital Management Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrstock-Sherratt, Ellen; Jacques, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    This brief provides district and other educational leaders with research-based information on aligning professional development policies with teacher evaluations to drive more comprehensive human capital management. First, this brief describes an aligned evaluation and professional development system. Next, it discusses existing models and…

  5. Human Capital and Rates of Return: Brilliant Ideas or Ideological Dead Ends?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klees, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Human capital theory and rate of return methodology have long been a dominant framework in comparative and international education and other fields. While there have been criticisms since its inception, it has been ubiquitous and widely accepted as an important mechanism for educational planning, evaluation, and policy making. In this article, I…

  6. Labour Market Intermediaries: A Corrective to the Human Capital Paradigm (Mis)matching Skills and Jobs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbins, Tony; Plows, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    The orthodox supply-side human capital theory (HCT) paradigm is inadequate for understanding and adjusting to labour market volatility in UK regional economies like Wales. This article explores the role of regional labour market intermediaries (LMIs) in matching supply (skills) and demand (job opportunities) in regional labour markets. Some LMIs…

  7. A Human Capital Framework for a Stronger Teacher Workforce. Advancing Teaching--Improving Learning. White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Jeannie; Martinez, Krissia; Nordstrum, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Building a stronger teacher workforce requires the thoughtful orchestration of multiple processes working together in a human capital system. This white paper presents a framework that can be used to take stock of current efforts to enhance the teacher workforce in school districts or educational organizations, as well as their underlying theories…

  8. The conditional returns to origin-country human capital among Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, Agnieszka; van Tubergen, Frank

    2014-07-01

    This study extends the analysis of the economic returns to pre-migration human capital by examining the role of the receiving context, co-ethnic residential concentration, and post-migration investments in human capital. It uses large-scale survey data on Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in Belgium. The analysis demonstrates that regarding employment, Moroccan immigrants, that is, those originating from former French colonies receive larger returns to their origin-country education and work experience in French- vs. Dutch-speaking regions. Other than the positive interaction effect between co-ethnic residential concentration and work experience on employment, there is little evidence that co-ethnic concentration increases the returns to origin-country human capital. Speaking the host-country language facilitates economic returns to origin-country work experience. Conversely, immigrants who acquire host-country credentials and work experience receive lower returns to origin-country education and experience, suggesting that, at least among low-skilled immigrants, pre- and post-migration human capital substitute rather than complement each other. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Multi-Region Model of Economic Growth with Human Capital and Negative Externalities in Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batabyal, A.; Nijkamp, P.

    2013-01-01

    We use a multi-region model and provide the first theoretical analysis of the effects of human capital use and a particular kind of innovative activity on economic growth. In each of the N heterogeneous regions in our model, consumers have constant relative risk aversion preferences, there are

  10. A Framework for a Multi-State Human Capital Development Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Brian T.; Ewell, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The rise of a globalized knowledge economy requires nations to understand the distribution of skills and abilities in their populations. It is no longer sufficient to know how many resources are devoted to the development of nations' human capital. Today, nations also must be able to demonstrate and understand the outcomes of their educational…

  11. Early Motherhood and Harsh Parenting: The Role of Human, Social, and Cultural Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yookyong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the role of maternal human, social, and cultural capital in the relationship between early motherhood and harsh parenting behavior. Methods: This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing (FFCW) Study. Harsh parenting behaviors by mothers who were 19 years or younger at birth of the focal child (n…

  12. Equality and Human Capital: Conflicting Concepts within State-Funded Adult Education in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a critique of the concept of equality as it informs the White Paper on Adult Education: Learning for Life (2000). It also outlines the extent to which human capital theory can be seen to have effectively colonised lifelong learning from the outset of its adoption by the European Union with highly constraining implications for…

  13. Human Capital: A Self-Assessment Checklist for Agency Leaders. Version 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This document presents and discusses a self-assessment checklist that the General Accounting Office (GAO) developed to enable agency leaders to examine their human capital efforts through a process consisting of the following stages: analyze and plan; implement change; and evaluate and continuously improve. The preface defines the term "human…

  14. Male-Female Differences in Hourly Wages: The Role of Human Capital, Working Conditions, and Housework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersch, Joni

    1991-01-01

    Data from a survey of 414 male and 217 female workers assessed the effects of human capital, household responsibilities, working conditions, and on-the-job training on wages. Household responsibilities had a negative effect on women's earnings; the presence of children positively affected wages of both sexes. (SK)

  15. Human Capital Spillovers in Families: Do Parents Learn from or Lean on Their Children? NBER Working Paper No. 17235

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuziemko, Ilyana

    2011-01-01

    I develop a model in which a child's acquisition of a given form of human capital incentivizes adults in his household to either learn from him (if children act as teachers then adults' cost of learning the skill falls) or lean on him (if children's human capital substitutes for that of adults in household production then adults' benefit of…

  16. The importance of specific human capital, planning and familiarity in Dutch small firm ownership transfers : a seller’s perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lex van Teeffelen; Martijn Driessen; Lorraine Uhlaner

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the transfer process and the importance of human capital and succession planning as firm resource from the seller’s perspective. It further differentiates amongst two types of human capital - specific and generic - to predict the transfer duration, obtained price and

  17. The relevance of human capital to firm performance: A focus on the retail industry in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Urban

    2015-03-01

    Implications: Research into human capital and links to performance in Africa and emerging markets is valuable as recent research has found that the matching of entrepreneurial human capital with opportunities for growth is the essence of economic development.

  18. Building Innovation Capacity: The Role of Human Capital Formation in Enterprises--A Review of the Literature. Occasional Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; Courvisanos, Jerry; Tuck, Jacqueline; McEachern, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This literature review examines the role of human capital formation in building innovative capacity in firms. The aim of the review is to develop a model of human capital development factors to be used as a basis for a larger research project where the factors that develop innovation capacity in enterprises will be investigated. The review finds…

  19. African-American Communities in Economic Crisis: Adult Educators Investing in the Human Capital Development of the Urban Poor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Mattyna L.

    2010-01-01

    Through discourse analysis the research will unearth the tension between the Theories of Human Capital (HCT) and the Work First Policy (WFP), Policies Informing Education (PIE), and Human Capital Development (HCD) as they relate to the labor market. The application of discourse analysis demonstrates how the tenants of HCT are missing components…

  20. Measuring social capital: The Danish Cooperative Dairy Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, G.L.H.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    What are the roots of social capital and how can it be measured and built? Social capital is considered as a new production factor which must be added to the conventional concepts of human and physical capital. Social capital is productive because it increases the level of trust in a society and ...

  1. Governo eletrônico e capital intelectual nas organizações públicas Electronic government and human capital in public organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Joia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo mostra a variação de capital intelectual em organizações públicas envolvidas em empreendimentos government-to-government (G2G. Para tanto, um frame heurístico foi desenvolvido a fim de avaliar o impacto de projetos G2G nos componentes do capital intelectual de agências públicas, isto é, em seus capitais humano, organizacional, de relacionamento e de inovação. Aplicando-se esse frame heurístico a 30 empreendimentos G2G no Brasil, ligando o Banco Central com os tribunais de justiça, detectou-se um impacto positivo no capital intelectual das organizações envolvidas nesses empreendimentos. Além disso, verificou-se que tais empreendimentos G2G influenciaram os componentes do capital intelectual de forma homogênea. A partir daí, o frame foi validado por meio de uma elevada e positiva correlação entre a variação do capital intelectual nas organizações públicas e a percepção de valor dos funcionários envolvidos nesses mesmos empreendimentos. Finalmente, adicionalmente às limitações da pesquisa, algumas conclusões são apresentadas a gestores públicos, practitioners e acadêmicos, para que seja entendido o potencial de uso da teoria do capital intelectual para avaliação de iniciativas de governo eletrônicoThis article shows the intellectual capital variation in public organizations involved in government-to-government (G2G enterprises. A heuristic frame was developed to measure the impact of G2G projects on the intellectual capital components of public agencies, i.e., on their human, organizational, relational and innovative capitals. This heuristic frame was applied to 30 G2G enterprises in Brazil connecting the Central Bank to the courts of justice and revealed a positive impact on the intellectual capital of the organizations involved. Furthermore, these G2G enterprises influenced the intellectual capital components uniformly. Then the frame was validated by means of a high and positive correlation

  2. The contribution of international trade to economic growth through human capital accumulation: Evidence from nine Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirajul Haq

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to test the hypothesis “international trade contributes to economic growth through its effects on human capital accumulation.” To assess the hypothesis empirically, we employed the extended Neo-Classical growth model that reflects some features of the endogenous growth models. We thus ended up with a model in which the change in human capital is sensitive to change in trade policies. Unlike conventional approaches, the model serves to assess and determine the impact of international trade on the accumulation of human capital. The empirical analysis estimates dynamic panel growth equations by using a data-set of nine Asian countries, over the period 1972–2012. The overall evidence substantiates the fact that in countries under consideration, international trade enhances the accumulation of human capital and contributes to economic growth positively through human capital accumulation.

  3. Child stunting is associated with weaker human capital among native Amazonians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undurraga, Eduardo A; Behrman, Jere R; Emmett, Susan D; Kidd, Celeste; Leonard, William R; Piantadosi, Steven T; Reyes-García, Victoria; Sharma, Abhishek; Zhang, Rebecca; Godoy, Ricardo A

    2018-01-01

    We assessed associations between child stunting, recovery, and faltering with schooling and human capital skills in a native Amazonian society of horticulturalists-foragers (Tsimane'). We used cross-sectional data (2008) from 1262 children aged 6 to 16 years in 53 villages to assess contemporaneous associations between three height categories: stunted (height-for-age Z score, HAZ-1), and three categories of human capital: completed grades of schooling, test-based academic skills (math, reading, writing), and local plant knowledge. We used annual longitudinal data (2002-2010) from all children (n = 853) in 13 villages to estimate the association between changes in height categories between the first and last years of measure and schooling and academic skills. Stunting was associated with 0.4 fewer completed grades of schooling (∼24% less) and with 13-15% lower probability of showing any writing or math skills. Moderate stunting was associated with ∼20% lower scores in local plant knowledge and 9% lower probability of showing writing skills, but was not associated with schooling or math and writing skills. Compared with nonstunted children, children who became stunted had 18-21% and 15-21% lower probabilities of showing math and writing skills, and stunted children had 0.4 fewer completed grades of schooling. Stunted children who recovered showed human capital outcomes that were indistinguishable from nonstunted children. The results confirm adverse associations between child stunting and human capital skills. Predictors of growth recovery and faltering can affect human capital outcomes, even in a remote, economically self-sufficient society. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Human capital in family businesses: an exploratory analysis in Spanish firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Carrasco Hernández

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze how family firms identify, develop and protect their human capital. From an exploratoryperspective based on the resource-based view, the key human resource practices are examined in a sample of 433Spanish companies. Specifically, we examine the orientation and idiosyncrasies that family firms confer to the selection andpromotion mechanism, to the training and developing practices, to the design of compensation and executive paymentsand, finally, to the process of succession

  5. Development in the Learning Factory: Training Human Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Harry; Delbridge, Rick

    2001-01-01

    A study of human resource practices in 18 automobile factories in the United States and Britain showed that manufacturing innovations are placing greater demands on line managers and workers. Training is being refocused to develop their interpersonal, team, and leadership skills. However, lack of time and suitable training facilities are barriers.…

  6. Applying Human Capital Performance Bonds to Career and Technical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stacy; Rothschild, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Profound demographic and technological changes are upon us, changes that pose new and evolving challenges requiring fresh approaches from virtually every sector and system. Education is no exception. As fiscal pressures grow, federal, state, and local governments are cutting back where they can, often in human service budgets. Ironically, these…

  7. BUSINESS AND HUMAN CAPITAL IN THE ECONOMIC SYSTEM: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Zikunova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the process of transformation of the role of the human factor in the economic system, it shows the importance of entrepreneurship as an intangible resource of post-industrial development. Resource value of entrepreneurship is characterized on the basis of economic analysis of the functional role of entrepreneurship in the system. Showing methodological approaches to the study of entrepreneurship presented in the works of foreign representatives of business theory

  8. Evaluating a national science and technology program using the human capital and relational asset perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chia-Liang; Chou, Jerome Chih-Lung; Roan, Hung-Wei

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the performance of the National Science and Technology Program (NSTP) by targeting the Taiwan National Telecommunication Program (NTP) initiated in 1998. The Taiwan telecommunications industry has prospered, currently occupying key positions in global markets even though NTP seldom contributes positively to patent citation performance. Hence, the authors of this study investigate the qualitative perspective of intellectual capital rather than quantitative technological indices. The current study focuses on both human capital and relational assets through surveys of 53 principal investigators of NTP projects and 63 industrial R&D managers of telecommunications corporations in the Taiwan market. Results show that NSTP member quality and the flow of employment are good indicators of human capital and that both perform better than the middle value in the case of Taiwan NTP. In addition, we find that industrial participants are more likely to share R&D resources than other academic researchers with higher intention of co-publishing, co-funding, and sharing equipment and facilities. The industrial NTP participants also have higher expectations regarding achieving advanced technology breakthroughs in contrast to non-NTP industrial interviewees. Moreover, industrial participants with greater industry-university cooperation intensity indeed obtain a particular advantage, that is, greater knowledge acquisition from other fields related to the effect of knowledge spillovers through the particular NSTP linkage. Accordingly, from the perspectives of human capital and relational assets, the authors conclude by articulating the importance of absorptive capacity resulting from good human capital and knowledge spillover contributed by relational assets within governmental technology policy and NSTP programming. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Space Shuttle: Human Capital Challenges Require Management Attention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    .... NASA budget data shows that, since 1995, shuttle workforce levels have decreased from about 3,000 to about 1,800 full time equivalent employees NASA based its downsizing efforts on optimistic programmatic assumptions...

  10. Human Capital or Humane Talent? Rethinking the Nature of Education in China from a Comparative Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Limin

    2010-01-01

    In order to analyze the impact of human capital theory on contemporary Chinese education, this paper first draws a conceptual outline of how this theory was introduced and interpreted to suit the Chinese quest for modernization. The study then adopts a comparative historical approach to the points of similarity between Neo-Confucian educational…

  11. TRAINING IN ETHICS OF HUMAN CAPITAL TO BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neyda Ibañez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the investigation was to interpret training in ethics for action business students an introduction to the economy of the Faculty of Social and Economic Sciences at the University of Carabobo, as part of professional development in business studies. The investigation was addressed within the paradigm post positivist using ethnographic and hermeneutic method, descriptive mode of scientific research and technique participant-observation. It concludes that training in ethics management must transcend the economic theories located in the teleological by financial or economic interests toward the teleological including humanism.

  12. Influence of quality of life on the state and development of human capital in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Tsaurkubule

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the essence and forms of interrelation between human capital and quality of life are still insufficiently studied. Therefore, there is a need for defining general components of these categories and areas, where human capital interacts with quality of life. Today, Latvia has been developing in difficult conditions: the population is decreasing, emigration is growing, possibilities of employment are limited, and the income of residents is decreasing. All these factors reduce quality of life for the population and lead to the loss of human resources in the country. The existence of a problem stemming from the relationship between quality of life and human capital establishes the relevance of the research and determines its aim. The main contradiction is between the external positioning of the state as a country successfully overcoming crisis and the growth of internal crisis in the state, leading to the further impoverishment of the population, leading to an increased emigration of the working population of Latvia. The main research question is as follows: how to preserve human resources in the state? Based on an analysis of post-crisis socio-economic processes taking place in the society, recommendations are made to improve the socio-economic policy in ways that improve the welfare of the population of Latvia.

  13. HUMAN CAPITAL AND DEVELOPMENT: SOME EVIDENCE FROM EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattoscio Nicola

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of development is not only referred to the level or to the growth rate of GDP of a country, but it concerns different aspects of individual life. Development leads to a changing of values, behaviours and attitudes of people interested in it and in the well-being of the whole society. \\r\

  14. Identification and Induction of Human, Social, and Cultural Capitals through an Experimental Approach to Stormwater Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale W. Thurston

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Decentralized stormwater management is based on the dispersal of stormwater management practices (SWMP throughout a watershed to manage stormwater runoff volume and potentially restore natural hydrologic processes. This approach to stormwater management is increasingly popular but faces constraints related to land access and citizen engagement. We tested a novel method of environmental management through citizen-based stormwater management on suburban private land. After a nominal induction of human capital through an education campaign, two successive (2007, 2008 reverse auctions engaged residents to voluntarily bid on installation of SWMPs on their property. Cumulatively, 81 rain gardens and 165 rain barrels were installed on approximately one-third of the 350 eligible residential properties in the watershed, resulting in an estimated 360 m3 increase in stormwater detention capacity. One surprising result was the abundance of zero dollar bids, indicating even a limited-effort human capital campaign was sufficient to enroll many participants. In addition, we used statistical methods to illustrate the significant role of social capital in forming clusters of adjacent properties that participated in bidding. This indicated that as participants shared their experiences, neighbors may have become more willing to trust the program and enroll. Significant agglomerations of participating properties may indicate a shift in neighborhood culture regarding stormwater management with positive implications for watershed health through the sustained induction of alternate capitals.

  15. Ideologias do capital humano e do capital social: da integração à inserção e ao conformismo Human capital and social capital ideologies: from integration to insertion and conformism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Cardoso da Motta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as alterações operadas nas abordagens de políticas públicas para os países de 'capitalismo dependente', na virada do século, conduzidas pelos principais organismos multilaterais e materializadas nas 'políticas de desenvolvimento do milênio' (PDMs. Identifica-se que neste conjunto de políticas foram introduzidas novas bases ideológicas calcadas na 'teoria do capital social' de Robert Putnam. No âmbito da educação, compreende-se que esse processo de ajuste vai deflagrar uma nova etapa de rejuvenescimento da ideologia do capital humano que alarga as atribuições da escola e restringe a dimensão política que insere a ação pedagógica. A tese apresentada é que as PDMs são mecanismos de hegemonia de função de direção intelectual e moral, com ações concretas e definições de metas focadas nas camadas de trabalhadores 'excluídos' do processo produtivo, mas que ainda possuem condições produtivas, com a finalidade de instaurar um processo mais intensivo de educar para o conformismo. Toma-se como base de análise categorias de Gramsci.This article analyzes the changes the main multilateral agencies made, in the turn of the century, to the public policy approaches in countries where there was 'dependent capitalism,' changes materialized in the 'millennium development policies' (MDP. It is noticeable that new ideological bases, underpinned by Robert Putnam's 'social capital theory,' were introduced in these policies. In the realms of education, it is thought this adjustment process will trigger a new stage of renewal of the human capital ideology, one that increases the attributions of the school and limits the political dimension that inserts pedagogic action. The thesis is that the MDPs are intellectually- and morally-driven function hegemony mechanisms, with concrete actions and goal definitions focused on the tiers of workers who are 'excluded' from the productive process but, none-theless, are still able

  16. Selected aspects of organizational culture vs. formation of Human Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Kisiel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The awareness of employees in relation to organizational culture existing in a company and their knowledge in this subject - have a crucial meaning. In the face of intensity of transformations, constant searching for the best solutions which bring the organization closer to success seams necessary. The organizational culture can help employees among others to: engage in performance of tasks. Organizational culture helps to understand mission, strategy of the organization and assumptions carried out by it. The purpose of this paper is the description of different aspects of organizational culture with reference to actions taken in the scope of management of human resources. The nature of leadership was also stressed in shaping the organizational culture. The analysis of literature in the field of management, own experience and observation of the author in the above mentioned matter made it possible to respond to the research problem presented in this paper.

  17. Religious influences on human capital variations in imperial Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomila Lankina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical legacies, particularly imperial tutelage and religion, have featured prominently in recent scholarship on political regime variations in post-communist settings, challenging earlier temporally proximate explanations. The overlap between tutelage, geography, and religion has complicated the uncovering of the spatially uneven effects of the various legacies. The author addresses this challenge by conducting sub-national analysis of religious influences within one imperial domain, Russia. In particular, the paper traces how European settlement in imperial Russia has had a bearing on human development in the imperial periphery. The causal mechanism that the paper proposes to account for this influence is the Western communities’ impact on literacy, which is in turn linked in the analysis to the Western Christian, particularly Protestant, roots, of settler populations. The author makes this case by constructing an original dataset based on sub-national data from the hitherto underutilised first imperial census of 1897.

  18. An Empirical Analysis of Differences in GDP per Capita and the Role of Human Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfakianakis, George; Magoutas, Anastasios I.; Georgopoulos, Demosthenes

    2010-01-01

    Using a generalized production function approach and insights from empirical research on the determinants of growth, this paper assesses the relative importance of specific factors in explaining differences in the levels of per capita GDP. Emphasis is placed on education, physical capital accumulation, the share of the public sector in economic…

  19. Is Shale Development Drilling Holes in the Human Capital Pipeline?

    OpenAIRE

    Rickman, Dan S.; Wang, Hongbo; Winters, John V.

    2016-01-01

    Using the Synthetic Control Method (SCM) and a novel method for measuring changes in educational attainment we examine the link between educational attainment and shale oil and gas extraction for the states of Montana, North Dakota, and West Virginia. The three states examined are economically-small, relatively more rural, and have high levels of shale oil and gas reserves. They also are varied in that West Virginia is intensive in shale gas extraction, while the other two are intensive in sh...

  20. Sector-specific human capital and the distribution of earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Smith

    2009-01-01

    This paper incorporates assignment frictions and sector-specific training into the Roy model of occupational choice. Assignment frictions represent the extent of the market whereas differences in sector-specific training reflect worker specialization. This framework thus captures Adam Smith's idea that the extent of the market determines the division of labor. The paper demonstrates the way in which the relationship between assignment frictions and specialization affects the level and composi...