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Sample records for human calf muscular

  1. Muscular Calf Injuries in Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Karl B; Rigby, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Calf pain is a common complaint among runners of all ages but is most frequent in masters athletes. This article focuses on injuries to the triceps surae or true 'calf muscles.' The most common calf injury is a tear of the medial gastrocnemius muscle (Tennis Leg) but other structures including the lateral gastrocnemius, plantaris and soleus also may be the cause of muscular pain. This article looks at the presentation, evaluation, and treatment of these injuries. We also highlight some examples of musculoskeletal ultrasound which is a valuable tool for rapid diagnosis of the cause and extent of injury.

  2. Human calf muscular metabolism study with a home-made ergometer using 31P NMR spectroscopy

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    Peynsaert, J; Achten, E; Claeys, E [Ghent University Hospital (Belgium); Rousseaux, M [Ghent University Hospital (Belgium). Dept. of Sport Medicine

    1995-12-01

    Phosphorus-31 NMR measurements were performed to examine the variations in the concentration of phosphate metabolites in calf muscle during exercise. Therefore, volunteers, installed in the supine position, were asked to push repetitively on the pedal of a home-made ergometer. The produced work and the changes in phosphorus containing metabolites were measured continuously. Correlations were made between the inorganic phosphate/phosphocreatine ratio and the cumulative work and between the intracellular pH and the cumulative work. The exercise protocol could be changed interactively with respect to the imposed initial pressure, the maximum pressure, the pressure increase per level and the time a certain level was held. The whole experiment could be graphically followed on-line. In the first stadium, the in vitro reproducibility of the ergometer was tested for different protocols. These tests revealed that, though the deviation in produced work was markedly the highest at high working pressures, the relative error never exceeded 3%. Consequently, the ex vitro reproducibility of the data was examined with the equipment placed in the scanner. Generally, same conclusions could be derived. In a next stage, the work will be synchronized with the biochemical data. Extreme precautions will be taken to examine each volunteer every time under the same physical and psychological conditions.

  3. Human calf muscular metabolism study with a home-made ergometer using 31P NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peynsaert, J.; Achten, E.; Claeys, E. . Dept. of Magnetic Resonance; Rousseaux, M.

    1995-01-01

    Phosphorus-31 NMR measurements were performed to examine the variations in the concentration of phosphate metabolites in calf muscle during exercise. Therefore, volunteers, installed in the supine position, were asked to push repetitively on the pedal of a home-made ergometer. The produced work and the changes in phosphorus containing metabolites were measured continuously. Correlations were made between the inorganic phosphate/phosphocreatine ratio and the cumulative work and between the intracellular pH and the cumulative work. The exercise protocol could be changed interactively with respect to the imposed initial pressure, the maximum pressure, the pressure increase per level and the time a certain level was held. The whole experiment could be graphically followed on-line. In the first stadium, the in vitro reproducibility of the ergometer was tested for different protocols. These tests revealed that, though the deviation in produced work was markedly the highest at high working pressures, the relative error never exceeded 3%. Consequently, the ex vitro reproducibility of the data was examined with the equipment placed in the scanner. Generally, same conclusions could be derived. In a next stage, the work will be synchronized with the biochemical data. Extreme precautions will be taken to examine each volunteer every time under the same physical and psychological conditions

  4. Quantitative assessment of calf circumference in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenakker, EAC; de Vries, Joeke; Fock, JM; van Tol, M; Brouwer, OF; Maurits, NM; van der Hoeven, JH

    2002-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is clinically characterised by progressive muscle weakness and a gradual increase in the size of some affected muscles, especially calf muscles. The extent of calf enlargement is usually determined by subjective visual assessment. The purpose of this study was to

  5. Venous pump of the calf: a study of venous and muscular pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, Y S; Barthelemy, P; Juhan, C

    1994-11-01

    Little data are available concerning the relation between the muscular pumping mechanism and the variation of superficial and deep venous pressure during normal action of the calf pump; therefore we undertook this study to determine the pressure values in three compartments of the calf and in the deep and the superficial venous system and to establish correlation between muscular and venous pressure. Nine healthy young women with a mean age of 23 years (range 19 to 28 years) were examined. In the same calf, a muscular catheter was placed in the deep posterior compartment (DPC), in the superficial posterior compartment (SPC), and in the anterior tibial compartment (ATC), and a vascular catheter was placed in the popliteal vein and in the greater saphenous vein (GSV). The five lines of pressure were simultaneously recorded in the following situations: at rest, during Valsalva maneuver, foot flexion, and foot extension. The situation was studied with the patient in the following positions: decubitus, sitting, standing, and squatting. A final continuous recording was carried out after the patient had been walking for 5 minutes. Mean values with standard errors of muscular and venous pressure were established in each situation. At rest and during Valsalva maneuver, the muscular pressures did not vary, whereas venous pressures increased significantly when the patient was sitting and standing. On the other hand, squatting was associated with a rise in the muscular and vein pressures. Foot flexion entailed a significant increase in the ATC pressure and a rise in the GSV pressure, whereas foot extension caused the DPC pressure to rise without venous pressure modifications. Walking was associated with an alternating increase in the DPC, SPC, GSV and popliteal vein pressures when the foot was compressed to floor followed by a significant decrease when the foot pressure was released. The variations in the deep and superficial venous pressures when the patient is sitting and

  6. Calf muscle involvement in Becker muscular dystrophy: when size does not matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monforte, Mauro; Mercuri, Eugenio; Laschena, Francesco; Ricci, Enzo; Tasca, Giorgio

    2014-12-15

    Calf hypertrophy is a common feature in Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), and it is still debated to which extent fatty degeneration or true muscle hypertrophy account for it. We wanted to investigate the relative contribution of these two components using a simple image analysis approach and their possible correlation with disease severity. Twenty-nine BMD patients' MRI scans were analyzed. A semiquantitative visual score assessing fatty replacement of calf muscles (calf MRI score, CMS) was calculated and correlated with the cross sectional area (CSA) of lower leg posterior compartment muscles, digitally measured on acquired images. The correlation between CSA and CMS was not significant. CMS in contrast correlated with disease severity (p<0.001) while CSA did not (p=0.969). In BMD, a major contribution to calf hypertrophy is provided by real muscle hypertrophy rather than by fatty degeneration. CMS appears to be a potential surrogate marker of disease severity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Interstitial and arterial-venous [K+] in human calf muscle during dynamic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, S; Langberg, Henning; Skovgaard, D

    2000-01-01

    +. Calf muscle pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale. On average, [K+]I was 4.4 mmol l(-1) at rest and increased during minutes 3-5 of incremental exercise by approximately 1-7 mmol l(-1) as a positive function of power output. K+ release also increased as a function of exercise intensity......Changes in the concentration of interstitial K+ surrounding skeletal muscle fibres ([K+]I) probably play some role in the regulation of cardiovascular adjustments to muscular activity, as well as in the aetiology of muscle pain and fatigue during high-intensity exercise. However, there is very...... little information on the response of [K+]I to exercise in human skeletal muscle. Five young healthy subjects performed plantar flexion exercise for four 5 min periods at increasing power outputs ( approximately 1-6 W) with 10 min intervening recovery periods, as well as for two 5 min periods...

  8. [Human myopathy and animal muscular dystrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapira, G; Dreyfus, J C; Schapira, F

    1977-08-01

    Two hereditary muscular dystrophies similar to human progressive muscular dystrophy (P.M.D. Duchenne type) have been isolated in animals, one in mouse, the other in chicken. The decrease in the activity of glycogenolytic enzymes is similar to that observed in denervated muscle. Isozymic fetal types for several muscular enzymes have been observed as well in chicken as in man, but this fetal type may also be found in neurogenic atrophy. The release in circulation of muscle enzymes seems more specific. But the origin of the genetic lesion is still unknown. We describe here the three different theories about this problem: i.e. neurogenic, vascular, or myogenic. This last theory implies a trouble of membrane permeability.

  9. Diffusion tensor imaging of the human calf : Variation of inter- and intramuscle-specific diffusion parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlaffke, Lara; Rehmann, Robert; Froeling, Martijn; Kley, Rudolf; Tegenthoff, Martin; Vorgerd, Matthias; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate to what extent inter- and intramuscular variations of diffusion parameters of human calf muscles can be explained by age, gender, muscle location, and body mass index (BMI) in a specific age group (20-35 years). Materials and Methods: Whole calf muscles of 18 healthy

  10. Muscular dystrophy in a dog resembling human becker muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncelli, A B; Abellonio, F; Pagano, T B; Esposito, I; Peirone, B; Papparella, S; Paciello, O

    2014-05-01

    A 3-year-old, male Labrador retriever dog was presented with clinical signs of progressive exercise intolerance, bilateral elbow extension, rigidity of the forelimbs, hindlimb flexion and kyphosis. Microscopical examination of muscle tissue showed marked variability in myofibre size, replacement of muscle with mature adipose tissue and degeneration/regeneration of muscle fibres, consistent with muscular dystrophy. Immunohistochemical examination for dystrophin showed markedly reduced labelling with monoclonal antibodies specific for the rod domain and the carboxy-terminal of dystrophin, while expression of β-sarcoglycan, γ-sarcoglycan and β-dystroglycan was normal. Immunoblotting revealed a truncated dystrophin protein of approximately 135 kDa. These findings supported a diagnosis of congenital canine muscular dystrophy resembling Becker muscular dystrophy in man. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Calf tissue liquid stowage and muscular and deep vein distension in orthostatic tests after a 90-day head down bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeille, P.A.; Kerbeci, P.; Audebert, P.; Capri, A.; Pascaud, L.

    2005-08-01

    The objectives were to assess the contribution of (1) the calf veins distension and(2) the tissue liquid stowage during standtest, to orthostatic intolerance "OI" after a head down bed rest (HDBR) of 90days. Method: The population consisted of a control group (Co-gr, n=9) and an exercise Fly wheel counter-measure group (CM-gr, n=9). Calf vein cross sectional area (CSA) and surrounding tissue liquid content (tissue image darkness) were assessed by echography during pre and post HDBR stand-tests. Results: From supine to standing (post HDBR), the Tibial and muscular vein CSA increased significantly in non tolerant subjects whereas in tolerant subjects the vein CSA did not change. Post HDBR the tissue image darkness (proportional to tissue liquid content) increased more from supine to standing in non tolerant than in tolerant subjects. No significant difference were found between Co and exercise CM groups. Conclusion: High calf vein CSA and tissue liquid content increase at post-HDBR stand-test were significantly correlated with occurrence of OI but not with CM.

  12. Muscular anatomy of the human ventricular folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jerald; Alipour, Fariborz

    2013-09-01

    Our purpose in this study was to better understand the muscular anatomy of the ventricular folds in order to help improve biomechanical modeling of phonation and to better understand the role of these muscles during phonatory and nonphonatory tasks. Four human larynges were decalcified, sectioned coronally from posterior to anterior by a CryoJane tape transfer system, and stained with Masson's trichrome. The total and relative areas of muscles observed in each section were calculated and used for characterizing the muscle distribution within the ventricular folds. The ventricular folds contained anteriorly coursing thyroarytenoid and ventricularis muscle fibers that were in the lower half of the ventricular fold posteriorly, and some ventricularis muscle was evident in the upper and lateral portions of the fold more anteriorly. Very little muscle tissue was observed in the medial half of the fold, and the anterior half of the ventricular fold was largely devoid of any muscle tissue. All 4 larynges contained muscle bundles that coursed superiorly and medially through the upper half of the fold, toward the lateral margin of the epiglottis. Although variability of expression was evident, a well-defined thyroarytenoid muscle was readily apparent lateral to the arytenoid cartilage in all specimens.

  13. Diffusion tensor imaging of the human calf: Variation of inter- and intramuscle-specific diffusion parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaffke, Lara; Rehmann, Robert; Froeling, Martijn; Kley, Rudolf; Tegenthoff, Martin; Vorgerd, Matthias; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias

    2017-10-01

    To investigate to what extent inter- and intramuscular variations of diffusion parameters of human calf muscles can be explained by age, gender, muscle location, and body mass index (BMI) in a specific age group (20-35 years). Whole calf muscles of 18 healthy volunteers were evaluated. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed using a 3T scanner and a 16-channel Torso XL coil. Diffusion-weighted images were acquired to perform fiber tractography and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis for each muscle of both legs. Fiber tractography was used to separate seven lower leg muscles. Associations between DTI parameters and confounds were evaluated. All muscles were additionally separated in seven identical segments along the z-axis to evaluate intramuscular differences in diffusion parameters. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were obtained for each muscle with low standard deviations (SDs) (SD FA : 0.01-0.02; SD MD : 0.07-0.14(10 -3 )). We found significant differences in FA values of the tibialis anterior muscle (AT) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles between men and women for whole muscle FA (two-sample t-tests; AT: P = 0.0014; EDL: P = 0.0004). We showed significant intramuscular differences in diffusion parameters between adjacent segments in most calf muscles (P < 0.001). Whereas muscle insertions showed higher (SD 0.03-0.06) than muscle bellies (SD 0.01-0.03), no relationships between FA or MD with age or BMI were found. Inter- and intramuscular variations in diffusion parameters of the calf were shown, which are not related to age or BMI in this age group. Differences between muscle belly and insertion should be considered when interpreting datasets not including whole muscles. 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1137-1148. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  14. Absolute quantification of carnosine in human calf muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezdemir, Mahir S; Reyngoudt, Harmen; Deene, Yves de; Sazak, Hakan S; Fieremans, Els; Delputte, Steven; D'Asseler, Yves; Derave, Wim; Lemahieu, Ignace; Achten, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Carnosine has been shown to be present in the skeletal muscle and in the brain of a variety of animals and humans. Despite the various physiological functions assigned to this metabolite, its exact role remains unclear. It has been suggested that carnosine plays a role in buffering in the intracellular physiological pH i range in skeletal muscle as a result of accepting hydrogen ions released in the development of fatigue during intensive exercise. It is thus postulated that the concentration of carnosine is an indicator for the extent of the buffering capacity. However, the determination of the concentration of this metabolite has only been performed by means of muscle biopsy, which is an invasive procedure. In this paper, we utilized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) in order to perform absolute quantification of carnosine in vivo non-invasively. The method was verified by phantom experiments and in vivo measurements in the calf muscles of athletes and untrained volunteers. The measured mean concentrations in the soleus and the gastrocnemius muscles were found to be 2.81 ± 0.57/4.8 ± 1.59 mM (mean ± SD) for athletes and 2.58 ± 0.65/3.3 ± 0.32 mM for untrained volunteers, respectively. These values are in agreement with previously reported biopsy-based results. Our results suggest that 1 H MRS can provide an alternative method for non-invasively determining carnosine concentration in human calf muscle in vivo

  15. The erythrocyte membrane in human muscular dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ruitenbeek (Willem)

    1979-01-01

    textabstractMore than 250 different forms of human neuromuscular diseases are known. They differ in age of onset, severity of weakness, rate of progression, type of inheritance, groups of muscles affected, frequency of incidence. Sometimes the clinical symptoms are not restricted to nervous

  16. Human figure drawings by children with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope-Grattan, M M; Burnett, C N; Wolfe, C V

    1976-02-01

    Seventy-two human figure drawings by forty-three patients who had a diagnosis of Duchenne's muscular dystrophy were examined. The study includes a description of these human figure drawings according to eleven emotional indicators and according to directionality quadrants. When the human figure drawings were used as a projective tool, four personality traits of some of the children were identified: physical inadequacy, immaturity, body anxiety, and insecurity. Both the emotional indicators and the quadrant in which the figures appeared were examined in relation to stages of the disease process to see if the human figure drawings of the children might reflect more stress and anxiety at a particular stage of the disease. Suggestions for improvements and recommendations for future study are given.

  17. Cellular toxicity of calf blood extract on human corneal epithelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Min; Kim, Su Jin; Han, Young Sang; Lee, Jong Soo

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the biologic effects of the calf blood extract on corneal epithelial cells in vitro. The effects on corneal epithelial cells were evaluated after 1, 4, 12, and 24 h of exposure to various concentrations of calf blood extract (3, 5, 8 and 16%). The MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay was performed to measure levels of cellular metabolic activity. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay was performed to determine the extent of cellular damage. Cellular morphology was examined using phase-contrast microscopy. The scratch wound assay was performed to quantify the migration of corneal epithelial cells. At the 3 and 5% concentrations of calf blood extract, MTT values were similar to those observed in the control group. However, at a concentration of 8 and 16%, cellular metabolic activity was significantly decreased after 4 h of exposure to calf blood extract. After 12 h of exposure to 8 and 16% concentrations of calf blood extract, LDH activity and cellular morphological damage to the corneal epithelial cells were significantly increased. There was no evidence of cellular migration after 12 h exposure to 5% or higher concentration of calf blood extract because of cellular toxicity. Compared with normal corneal epithelial cells, the cellular activity was decreased, and toxicity was increased after over 12 h of exposure to more than 5% concentration of calf blood extract. Further clinical studies will be necessary to determine the optimal concentration and exposure time for the topical application of eye drops containing calf blood extract.

  18. THE EFFECT OF FETAL CALF SERUM ON HUMAN DENTAL PULP STEM CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Suchánek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Authors studied potential side effects of fetal calf serum (FCS in cultivation media on human dental pulp stem cells (DPSC during long term cultivation. Methods: Two lines of DPSC obtained healthy donors (male 22 years, female 23 years were used. Both lines were cultivated under standard cultivation conditions in four different media containing 10% or 2% FCS and substituted with growth factors. During long term cultivation proliferation ability, karyotype and phenotype of DPSC were measured. Results: Both lines of DPSC cultivated in a media containing 2% FCS and ITS supplement showed the highest number of population doublings. On the other hand the proliferation rate of DPSC cultivated in a media with 2% FCS without ITS supplement was slowest. Proliferation rate of DPSC cultivated in 10% FCS media with or without FGF-2 was comparable. DPSC cultivated in a media with 10% FCS showed a significantly higher amount of chromosomal aberrations. These chromosomal aberrations do not seem to be clonal but surprisingly we found large amounts of tetraploid cells in the 9th passage in both media containing 10% FCS. Conclusions: Our study proved that cultivation of DPSC in media containing higher concentration of FCS has critical side effects on cell chromosomal stability.

  19. Fetal calf serum heat inactivation and lipopolysaccharide contamination influence the human T lymphoblast proteome and phosphoproteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Hazir

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of fetal calf serum (FCS heat inactivation and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS contamination on cell physiology have been studied, but their effect on the proteome of cultured cells has yet to be described. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of heat inactivation of FCS and LPS contamination on the human T lymphoblast proteome. Human T lymphoblastic leukaemia (CCRF-CEM cells were grown in FCS, either non-heated, or heat inactivated, having low ( Results A total of four proteins (EIF3M, PRS7, PSB4, and SNAPA were up-regulated when CCRF-CEM cells were grown in media supplemented with heat inactivated FCS (HE as compared to cells grown in media with non-heated FCS (NHE. Six proteins (TCPD, ACTA, NACA, TCTP, ACTB, and ICLN displayed a differential phosphorylation pattern between the NHE and HE groups. Compared to the low concentration LPS group, regular levels of LPS resulted in the up-regulation of three proteins (SYBF, QCR1, and SUCB1. Conclusion The present study provides new information regarding the effect of FCS heat inactivation and change in FCS-LPS concentration on cellular protein expression, and post-translational modification in human T lymphoblasts. Both heat inactivation and LPS contamination of FCS were shown to modulate the expression and phosphorylation of proteins involved in basic cellular functions, such as protein synthesis, cytoskeleton stability, oxidative stress regulation and apoptosis. Hence, the study emphasizes the need to consider both heat inactivation and LPS contamination of FCS as factors that can influence the T lymphoblast proteome.

  20. Blood flow and oxygenation in peritendinous tissue and calf muscle during dynamic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Langberg, H; Green, Sara Marie Ehrenreich

    2000-01-01

    1. Circulation around tendons may act as a shunt for muscle during exercise. The perfusion and oxygenation of Achilles' peritendinous tissue was measured in parallel with that of calf muscle during exercise to determine (1) whether blood flow is restricted in peritendinous tissue during exercise......, and (2) whether blood flow is coupled to oxidative metabolism. 2. Seven individuals performed dynamic plantar flexion from 1 to 9 W. Radial artery and popliteal venous blood were sampled for O2, peritendinous blood flow was determined by 133Xe-washout, calf blood flow by plethysmography, cardiac output...

  1. Phosphorylation of intact erythrocytes in human muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.M.; Nigro, M.

    1986-01-01

    The uptake of exogenous 32 Pi into the membrane proteins of intact erythrocytes was measured in 8 patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. No abnormalities were noted after autoradiographic analysis. This contrasts with earlier results obtained when isolated membranes were phosphorylated with gamma-[ 32 P]ATP, and suggests a possible reinterpretation of those experiments

  2. Human Platelet Lysate versus Fetal Calf Serum: These Supplements Do Not Select for Different Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Rebollo, Eduardo; Mentrup, Birgit; Ebert, Regina; Franzen, Julia; Abagnale, Giulio; Sieben, Torsten; Ostrowska, Alina; Hoffmann, Per; Roux, Pierre-François; Rath, Björn; Goodhardt, Michele; Lemaitre, Jean-Marc; Bischof, Oliver; Jakob, Franz; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2017-07-11

    Culture medium of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is usually supplemented with either human platelet lysate (HPL) or fetal calf serum (FCS). Many studies have demonstrated that proliferation and cellular morphology are affected by these supplements - it is therefore important to determine if they favor outgrowth of different subpopulations and thereby impact on the heterogeneous composition of MSCs. We have isolated and expanded human bone marrow-derived MSCs in parallel with HPL or FCS and demonstrated that HPL significantly increases proliferation and leads to dramatic differences in cellular morphology. Remarkably, global DNA-methylation profiles did not reveal any significant differences. Even at the transcriptomic level, there were only moderate changes in pairwise comparison. Furthermore, the effects on proliferation, cytoskeletal organization, and focal adhesions were reversible by interchanging to opposite culture conditions. These results indicate that cultivation of MSCs with HPL or FCS has no systematic bias for specific cell types.

  3. Time-resolved phosphorous magnetization transfer of the human calf muscle at 3 T and 7 T: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valkovič, Ladislav, E-mail: siegfried.trattnig@meduniwien.ac.at [MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria); Institute of Measurement Science, Department of Imaging Methods, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 841 04 Bratislava, Dúbravska cesta 9 (Slovakia); Chmelík, Marek, E-mail: marek.chmelik@meduniwien.ac.at [MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria); Just Kukurova, Ivica, E-mail: ivica.kukurova@meduniwien.ac.at [MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria); Krššák, Martin, E-mail: martin.krssak@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria); Gruber, Stephan, E-mail: stephan@nmr.at [MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria); Frollo, Ivan, E-mail: umerollo@savba.sk [Institute of Measurement Science, Department of Imaging Methods, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 841 04 Bratislava, Dúbravska cesta 9 (Slovakia); Trattnig, Siegfried, E-mail: siegfried.trattnig@meduniwien.ac.at [MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria); Bogner, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang@nmr.at [MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria)

    2013-05-15

    Phosphorous ({sup 31}P) magnetization transfer (MT) experiments enable the non-invasive investigation of human muscle metabolism in various physiological and pathological conditions. The purpose of our study was to investigate the feasibility of time-resolved MT, and to compare the results of MT experiments at 3 T and 7 T. Six healthy volunteers were examined on a 3 T and a 7 T MR scanner using the same setup and identical measurement protocols. In the calf muscle of all volunteers, four separate MT experiments (each ∼10 min duration) were performed in one session. The forward rate constant of the ATP synthesis reaction (k{sub ATP}) and creatine kinase reaction (k{sub CK}), as well as corresponding metabolic fluxes (F{sub ATP}, F{sub CK}), were estimated. A comparison of these exchange parameters, apparent T{sub 1}s, data quality, quantification precision, and reproducibility was performed. The data quality and reproducibility of the same MT experiments at 7 T was significantly higher (i.e., k{sub ATP} 2.7 times higher and k{sub CK} 3.4 times higher) than at 3 T (p < 0.05). The values for k{sub ATP} (p = 0.35) and k{sub CK} (p = 0.09) at both field strengths were indistinguishable. Even a single MT experiment at 7 T provided better data quality than did a 4 times-longer MT experiment at 3 T. The minimal time-resolution to reliably quantify both F{sub ATP} and F{sub CK} at 7 T was ∼6 min. Our results show that MT experiments at 7 T can be at least 4 times faster than 3 T MT experiments and still provide significantly better quantification. This enables time-resolved MT experiments for the observation of slow metabolic changes in the human calf muscle at 7 T.

  4. Time-resolved phosphorous magnetization transfer of the human calf muscle at 3 T and 7 T: A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovič, Ladislav; Chmelík, Marek; Just Kukurova, Ivica; Krššák, Martin; Gruber, Stephan; Frollo, Ivan; Trattnig, Siegfried; Bogner, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorous ( 31 P) magnetization transfer (MT) experiments enable the non-invasive investigation of human muscle metabolism in various physiological and pathological conditions. The purpose of our study was to investigate the feasibility of time-resolved MT, and to compare the results of MT experiments at 3 T and 7 T. Six healthy volunteers were examined on a 3 T and a 7 T MR scanner using the same setup and identical measurement protocols. In the calf muscle of all volunteers, four separate MT experiments (each ∼10 min duration) were performed in one session. The forward rate constant of the ATP synthesis reaction (k ATP ) and creatine kinase reaction (k CK ), as well as corresponding metabolic fluxes (F ATP , F CK ), were estimated. A comparison of these exchange parameters, apparent T 1 s, data quality, quantification precision, and reproducibility was performed. The data quality and reproducibility of the same MT experiments at 7 T was significantly higher (i.e., k ATP 2.7 times higher and k CK 3.4 times higher) than at 3 T (p < 0.05). The values for k ATP (p = 0.35) and k CK (p = 0.09) at both field strengths were indistinguishable. Even a single MT experiment at 7 T provided better data quality than did a 4 times-longer MT experiment at 3 T. The minimal time-resolution to reliably quantify both F ATP and F CK at 7 T was ∼6 min. Our results show that MT experiments at 7 T can be at least 4 times faster than 3 T MT experiments and still provide significantly better quantification. This enables time-resolved MT experiments for the observation of slow metabolic changes in the human calf muscle at 7 T

  5. A method to accurately estimate the muscular torques of human wearing exoskeletons by torque sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Beomsoo; Jeon, Doyoung

    2015-04-09

    In exoskeletal robots, the quantification of the user's muscular effort is important to recognize the user's motion intentions and evaluate motor abilities. In this paper, we attempt to estimate users' muscular efforts accurately using joint torque sensor which contains the measurements of dynamic effect of human body such as the inertial, Coriolis, and gravitational torques as well as torque by active muscular effort. It is important to extract the dynamic effects of the user's limb accurately from the measured torque. The user's limb dynamics are formulated and a convenient method of identifying user-specific parameters is suggested for estimating the user's muscular torque in robotic exoskeletons. Experiments were carried out on a wheelchair-integrated lower limb exoskeleton, EXOwheel, which was equipped with torque sensors in the hip and knee joints. The proposed methods were evaluated by 10 healthy participants during body weight-supported gait training. The experimental results show that the torque sensors are to estimate the muscular torque accurately in cases of relaxed and activated muscle conditions.

  6. A Method to Accurately Estimate the Muscular Torques of Human Wearing Exoskeletons by Torque Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beomsoo Hwang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In exoskeletal robots, the quantification of the user’s muscular effort is important to recognize the user’s motion intentions and evaluate motor abilities. In this paper, we attempt to estimate users’ muscular efforts accurately using joint torque sensor which contains the measurements of dynamic effect of human body such as the inertial, Coriolis, and gravitational torques as well as torque by active muscular effort. It is important to extract the dynamic effects of the user’s limb accurately from the measured torque. The user’s limb dynamics are formulated and a convenient method of identifying user-specific parameters is suggested for estimating the user’s muscular torque in robotic exoskeletons. Experiments were carried out on a wheelchair-integrated lower limb exoskeleton, EXOwheel, which was equipped with torque sensors in the hip and knee joints. The proposed methods were evaluated by 10 healthy participants during body weight-supported gait training. The experimental results show that the torque sensors are to estimate the muscular torque accurately in cases of relaxed and activated muscle conditions.

  7. An unusual variant of Becker muscular dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Visser, M.; Bakker, E.; Defesche, J. C.; Bolhuis, P. A.; van Ommen, G. J.

    1990-01-01

    We report on 5 brothers with slowly progressive limbgirdle weakness. Calf hypertrophy was absent. The levels of creatine kinase, electromyography, and findings from a muscle biopsy specimen were compatible with muscular dystrophy. The propositus's biopsy specimen also showed numerous rimmed

  8. A Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Model of Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy-Affected Skeletal Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Leslie; Kher, Devaki; Lee, Kian Leong; McKernan, Robert; Dumevska, Biljana; Hidalgo, Alejandro; Li, Jia; Yang, Henry; Main, Heather; Ferri, Giulia; Petek, Lisa M; Poellinger, Lorenz; Miller, Daniel G; Gabellini, Davide; Schmidt, Uli

    2016-09-01

    : Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) represents a major unmet clinical need arising from the progressive weakness and atrophy of skeletal muscles. The dearth of adequate experimental models has severely hampered our understanding of the disease. To date, no treatment is available for FSHD. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) potentially represent a renewable source of skeletal muscle cells (SkMCs) and provide an alternative to invasive patient biopsies. We developed a scalable monolayer system to differentiate hESCs into mature SkMCs within 26 days, without cell sorting or genetic manipulation. Here we show that SkMCs derived from FSHD1-affected hESC lines exclusively express the FSHD pathogenic marker double homeobox 4 and exhibit some of the defects reported in FSHD. FSHD1 myotubes are thinner when compared with unaffected and Becker muscular dystrophy myotubes, and differentially regulate genes involved in cell cycle control, oxidative stress response, and cell adhesion. This cellular model will be a powerful tool for studying FSHD and will ultimately assist in the development of effective treatments for muscular dystrophies. This work describes an efficient and highly scalable monolayer system to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into skeletal muscle cells (SkMCs) and demonstrates disease-specific phenotypes in SkMCs derived from both embryonic and induced hPSCs affected with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. This study represents the first human stem cell-based cellular model for a muscular dystrophy that is suitable for high-throughput screening and drug development. ©AlphaMed Press.

  9. Ultrastructure of interstitial cells of Cajal associated with deep muscular plexus of human small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Mikkelsen, H B; Thuneberg, L

    1992-01-01

    Evidence showing that interstitial cells of Cajal have important regulatory functions in the gut musculature is accumulating. In the current study, the ultrastructure of the deep muscular plexus and associated interstial cells of Cajal in human small intestine were studied to provide a reference...... a continuous basal lamina, caveolae, intermediate filaments, dense bodies, dense bands, and a well-developed subsurface smooth endoplasmic reticulum), but the arrangement of organelles was clearly different, and cisternae of granular endoplasmic reticulum were abundant. Interstitial cells of Cajal were......, and only few gap junctions with other interstitial cells of Cajal or with the musculature were observed. Compared with interstitial cells of Cajal from other mammals, those associated with the deep muscular plexus in the human small intestine more closely resemble smooth muscle cells...

  10. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Gene Expression in Normal and Diseased Human Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oronzi Scott, M.; Sylvester, J. E.; Heiman-Patterson, T.; Shi, Y.-J.; Fieles, W.; Stedman, H.; Burghes, A.; Ray, P.; Worton, R.; Fischbeck, K. H.

    1988-03-01

    A probe for the 5' end of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene was used to study expression of the gene in normal human muscle, myogenic cell cultures, and muscle from patients with DMD. Expression was found in RNA from normal fetal muscle, adult cardiac and skeletal muscle, and cultured muscle after myoblast fusion. In DMD muscle, expression of this portion of the gene was also revealed by in situ RNA hybridization, particularly in regenerating muscle fibers.

  11. Interstitial and arterial-venous [K+] in human calf muscle during dynamic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, S; Langberg, Henning; Skovgaard, D

    2000-01-01

    little information on the response of [K+]I to exercise in human skeletal muscle. Five young healthy subjects performed plantar flexion exercise for four 5 min periods at increasing power outputs ( approximately 1-6 W) with 10 min intervening recovery periods, as well as for two 5 min periods...

  12. Intramuscular renin-angiotensin system is activated in human muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guilian; Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Dai, Hongmei; Chiba, Yoko; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Hino-Fukuyo, Naomi; Onuma, Akira; Iinuma, Kazuie; Tsuchiya, Shigeru

    2009-05-15

    To investigate the role of the muscular renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in human muscular dystrophy, we used immunohistochemistry and Western blotting to examine the cellular localization of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) and the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2) in muscle biopsies from patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), and congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD). In normal muscle, ACE was expressed in vascular endothelial cells and neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), whereas AT1 was immunolocalized to the smooth muscle cells of blood vessels and intramuscular nerve twigs. AT2 was immunolocalized in the smooth muscle cells of blood vessels. These findings suggest that the RAS has a functional role in peripheral nerves and NMJs. ACE and AT1, but AT2 immunoreactivity were increased markedly in dystrophic muscle as compared to controls. ACE and the AT1 were strongly expressed in the cytoplasm and nuclei of regenerating muscle fibers, fibroblasts, and in macrophages infiltrating necrotic fibers. Double immunolabeling revealed that activated fibroblasts in the endomysium and perimysium of DMD and CMD muscle were positive for ACE and AT1. Triple immunolabeling demonstrated that transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and ACE were colocalized on the cytoplasm of activated fibroblasts in dystrophic muscle. Furthermore, Western blotting showed increases in the expression of AT1 and TGF-beta1 protein in dystrophic muscle, which coincided with our immunohistochemical results. The overexpression of ACE and AT1 in dystrophic muscle would likely result in the increased production of Ang II, which may act on these cells in an autocrine manner via AT1. The activation of AT1 may induce fibrous tissue formation through overexpression of TGF-beta1, which potently activates fibrogenesis and suppresses regeneration. In conclusion, our results imply that the intramuscular RAS-TGF-beta1 pathway

  13. A human in vitro model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy muscle formation and contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesmith, Alexander P; Wagner, Matthew A; Pasqualini, Francesco S; O'Connor, Blakely B; Pincus, Mark J; August, Paul R; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2016-10-10

    Tongue weakness, like all weakness in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), occurs as a result of contraction-induced muscle damage and deficient muscular repair. Although membrane fragility is known to potentiate injury in DMD, whether muscle stem cells are implicated in deficient muscular repair remains unclear. We hypothesized that DMD myoblasts are less sensitive to cues in the extracellular matrix designed to potentiate structure-function relationships of healthy muscle. To test this hypothesis, we drew inspiration from the tongue and engineered contractile human muscle tissues on thin films. On this platform, DMD myoblasts formed fewer and smaller myotubes and exhibited impaired polarization of the cell nucleus and contractile cytoskeleton when compared with healthy cells. These structural aberrations were reflected in their functional behavior, as engineered tongues from DMD myoblasts failed to achieve the same contractile strength as healthy tongue structures. These data suggest that dystrophic muscle may fail to organize with respect to extracellular cues necessary to potentiate adaptive growth and remodeling. © 2016 Nesmith et al.

  14. An exploration of diffusion tensor eigenvector variability within human calf muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockel, Conrad; Noseworthy, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    To explore the effect of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) acquisition parameters on principal and minor eigenvector stability within human lower leg skeletal muscles. Lower leg muscles were evaluated in seven healthy subjects at 3T using an 8-channel transmit/receive coil. Diffusion-encoding was performed with nine signal averages (NSA) using 6, 15, and 25 directions (NDD). Individual DTI volumes were combined into aggregate volumes of 3, 2, and 1 NSA according to number of directions. Tensor eigenvalues (λ1 , λ2 , λ3 ), eigenvectors (ε1 , ε2 , ε3 ), and DTI metrics (fractional anisotropy [FA] and mean diffusivity [MD]) were calculated for each combination of NSA and NDD. Spatial maps of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), λ3 :λ2 ratio, and zenith angle were also calculated for region of interest (ROI) analysis of vector orientation consistency. ε1 variability was only moderately related to ε2 variability (r = 0.4045). Variation of ε1 was affected by NDD, not NSA (P < 0.0002), while variation of ε2 was affected by NSA, not NDD (P < 0.0003). In terms of tensor shape, vector variability was weakly related to FA (ε1 :r = -0.1854, ε2 : ns), but had a stronger relation to the λ3 :λ2 ratio (ε1 :r = -0.5221, ε2 :r = -0.1771). Vector variability was also weakly related to SNR (ε1 :r = -0.2873, ε2 :r = -0.3483). Zenith angle was found to be strongly associated with variability of ε1 (r = 0.8048) but only weakly with that of ε2 (r = 0.2135). The second eigenvector (ε2 ) displayed higher directional variability relative to ε1 , and was only marginally affected by experimental conditions that impacted ε1 variability. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Human and animal invasive muscular sarcocystosis in Malaysia--recent cases, review and hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappe, D; Abdullah, S; Heo, C C; Kannan Kutty, M; Latif, B

    2013-09-01

    Sarcocystosis, an unusual parasitic zoonotic disease, is caused by coccidian/ apicomplexan protozoa in humans and animals. The parasites usually develop in a heteroxenous predator-prey life-cycle involving final (carnivore) and intermediate (omnivore/herbivore) hosts. Besides the intestinal, non-invasive form of the disease in which humans and animals are the definitive hosts for certain Sarcocystis spp., the invasive form has come to recent attention. In the latter, humans and animals serve as intermediate host harbouring sarcocysts in their muscle tissue. Already in 1991 sarcocystosis was seen as a potential emerging food borne zoonosis in Malaysia, and in 2011 and 2012 the largest cluster of symptomatic human muscular sarcocystosis world-wide was reported from Tioman Island, Pahang state. In this review, we focus on invasive sarcocystosis in humans and animals in Malaysia, review the recorded cases and epidemiology, and present hypotheses.

  16. Conservation of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene in mice and humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, E.P.; Monaco, A.P.; Feener, C.C.; Kunkel, L.M.

    1987-10-16

    A portion of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene transcript from human fetal skeletal muscle and mouse adult heart was sequence, representing approximately 25 percent of the total, 14-kb DMD transcript. The nucleic acid and predicted amino acid sequences from the two species are nearly 90 percent homologous. The amino acid sequence that is predicted from this portion of the DMD gene indicates that the protein product might serve a structural role in muscle, but the abundance and tissue distribution of the messenger RNA suggest that the DMD protein is not nebulin.

  17. Human Plasma and Human Platelet-rich Plasma as a Substitute for Fetal Calf Serum during Long-term Cultivation of Mesenchymal Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Suchánková Kleplová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Our aims were to isolate and cultivate mesenchymal dental pulp stem cells (DPSC in various media enriched with human blood components, and subsequently to investigate their basic biological properties. Methods: DPSC were cultivated in five different media based on α MEM containing different concentrations of human plasma (HP, platelet-rich plasma (PRP, or fetal calf serum (FCS. The DPSC biological properties were examined periodically. Results: We cultivated DPSC in the various cultivation media over 15 population doublings except for the medium supplemented with 10% HP. Our results showed that DPSC cultivated in medium supplemented with 10% PRP showed the shortest average population doubling time (DT (28.6 ± 4.6 hours, in contrast to DPSC cultivated in 10% HP which indicated the longest DT (156.2 ± 17.8 hours; hence this part of the experiment had been cancelled in the 6th passage. DPSC cultivated in media with 2% FCS+ITS (DT 47.3 ± 10.4 hours, 2% PRP (DT 40.1 ± 5.7 hours and 2% HP (DT 49.0 ± 15.2 hours showed almost the same proliferative activity. DPSC’s viability in the 9th passage was over 90% except for the DPSC cultivated in the 10% HP media. Conclusions: We proved that human blood components are suitable substitution for FCS in cultivation media for long-term DPSC cultivation.

  18. Tursiops truncatus calf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-05-15

    May 15, 1990 ... rest, changes in respiration rate appear to be strongly associated with the metabolic state of the calf. Stress ... 02-C02 respiratory control in bottlenose dolphins ..... phenomenon should be of obvious husbandry interest in.

  19. Human-machine interface based on muscular and brain signals applied to a robotic wheelchair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, A; Silva, R L; Celeste, W C; Filho, T F Bastos; Filho, M Sarcinelli

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a Human-Machine Interface (HMI) based on the signals generated by eye blinks or brain activity. The system structure and the signal acquisition and processing are shown. The signals used in this work are either the signal associated to the muscular movement corresponding to an eye blink or the brain signal corresponding to visual information processing. The variance is the feature extracted from such signals in order to detect the intention of the user. The classification is performed by a variance threshold which is experimentally determined for each user during the training stage. The command options, which are going to be sent to the commanded device, are presented to the user in the screen of a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant). In the experiments here reported, a robotic wheelchair is used as the device being commanded

  20. Human-machine interface based on muscular and brain signals applied to a robotic wheelchair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, A; Silva, R L; Celeste, W C; Filho, T F Bastos; Filho, M Sarcinelli [Electrical Engineering Department, Federal University of Espirito Santo (UFES), Av. Fernando Ferrari, 514, Vitoria, 29075-910 (Brazil)

    2007-11-15

    This paper presents a Human-Machine Interface (HMI) based on the signals generated by eye blinks or brain activity. The system structure and the signal acquisition and processing are shown. The signals used in this work are either the signal associated to the muscular movement corresponding to an eye blink or the brain signal corresponding to visual information processing. The variance is the feature extracted from such signals in order to detect the intention of the user. The classification is performed by a variance threshold which is experimentally determined for each user during the training stage. The command options, which are going to be sent to the commanded device, are presented to the user in the screen of a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant). In the experiments here reported, a robotic wheelchair is used as the device being commanded.

  1. Dystrophin Expressing Chimeric (DEC) Human Cells Provide a Potential Therapy for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemionow, Maria; Cwykiel, Joanna; Heydemann, Ahlke; Garcia, Jesus; Marchese, Enza; Siemionow, Krzysztof; Szilagyi, Erzsebet

    2018-06-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive and lethal disease caused by mutations of the dystrophin gene. Currently no cure exists. Stem cell therapies targeting DMD are challenged by limited engraftment and rejection despite the use of immunosuppression. There is an urgent need to introduce new stem cell-based therapies that exhibit low allogenic profiles and improved cell engraftment. In this proof-of-concept study, we develop and test a new human stem cell-based approach to increase engraftment, limit rejection, and restore dystrophin expression in the mdx/scid mouse model of DMD. We introduce two Dystrophin Expressing Chimeric (DEC) cell lines created by ex vivo fusion of human myoblasts (MB) derived from two normal donors (MB N1 /MB N2 ), and normal and DMD donors (MB N /MB DMD ). The efficacy of fusion was confirmed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy based on donor cell fluorescent labeling (PKH26/PKH67). In vitro, DEC displayed phenotype and genotype of donor parent cells, expressed dystrophin, and maintained proliferation and myogenic differentiation. In vivo, local delivery of both DEC lines (0.5 × 10 6 ) restored dystrophin expression (17.27%±8.05-MB N1 /MB N2 and 23.79%±3.82-MB N /MB DMD ) which correlated with significant improvement of muscle force, contraction and tolerance to fatigue at 90 days after DEC transplant to the gastrocnemius muscles (GM) of dystrophin-deficient mdx/scid mice. This study establishes DEC as a potential therapy for DMD and other types of muscular dystrophies.

  2. Three-Dimensional Human iPSC-Derived Artificial Skeletal Muscles Model Muscular Dystrophies and Enable Multilineage Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Martina Maffioletti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Generating human skeletal muscle models is instrumental for investigating muscle pathology and therapy. Here, we report the generation of three-dimensional (3D artificial skeletal muscle tissue from human pluripotent stem cells, including induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from patients with Duchenne, limb-girdle, and congenital muscular dystrophies. 3D skeletal myogenic differentiation of pluripotent cells was induced within hydrogels under tension to provide myofiber alignment. Artificial muscles recapitulated characteristics of human skeletal muscle tissue and could be implanted into immunodeficient mice. Pathological cellular hallmarks of incurable forms of severe muscular dystrophy could be modeled with high fidelity using this 3D platform. Finally, we show generation of fully human iPSC-derived, complex, multilineage muscle models containing key isogenic cellular constituents of skeletal muscle, including vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, and motor neurons. These results lay the foundation for a human skeletal muscle organoid-like platform for disease modeling, regenerative medicine, and therapy development. : Maffioletti et al. generate human 3D artificial skeletal muscles from healthy donors and patient-specific pluripotent stem cells. These human artificial muscles accurately model severe genetic muscle diseases. They can be engineered to include other cell types present in skeletal muscle, such as vascular cells and motor neurons. Keywords: skeletal muscle, pluripotent stem cells, iPS cells, myogenic differentiation, tissue engineering, disease modeling, muscular dystrophy, organoids

  3. Rhabdomyolysis associated with human parvovirus B19 infection in a patient with Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Aki; Yoto, Yuko; Ohya, Kazuhiro; Tsugawa, Takeshi; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2014-07-01

    Patients with Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy sometimes experience transient exacerbations of muscle weakness. We took care of a 9-year-old boy with Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy who presented with acute respiratory failure and decreased exercise ability with marked elevation of serum creatine kinase indicating rhabdomyolysis. At that time, his younger sister suffered from erythema infectiosum. Although he had no particular symptoms, he was tested and proven to have acute human parvovirus B19 infection based on detection of anti-B19 IgM and parvovirus B19 DNA in his serum. His acute rhabdomyolysis was possibly triggered by human parvovirus B19 infection. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. Muscular heat and mechanical pain sensitivity after lengthening contractions in humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queme, Fernando; Taguchi, Toru; Mizumura, Kazue; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Mechanical sensitivity of muscle nociceptors was previously shown to increase 2 days after lengthening contractions (LC), but heat sensitivity was not different despite nerve growth factor (NGF) being upregulated in the muscle during delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). The discrepancy of these results and lack of other reports drove us to assess heat sensitivity during DOMS in humans and to evaluate the effect of NGF on the heat response of muscle C-fibers. Pressure pain thresholds and pain intensity scores to intramuscular injection of isotonic saline at 48°C and capsaicin were recorded in humans after inducing DOMS. The response of single unmyelinated afferents to mechanical and heat stimulations applied to their receptive field was recorded from muscle-nerve preparations in vitro. In humans, pressure pain thresholds were reduced but heat and capsaicin pain responses were not increased during DOMS. In rats, the mechanical but not the heat sensitivity of muscle C-fibers was increased in the LC group. NGF applied to the receptive field facilitated the heat sensitivity relative to the control. The absence of facilitated heat sensitivity after LC, despite the NGF sensitization, may be explained if the NGF concentration produced after LC is not sufficient to sensitize nociceptor response to heat. This article presents new findings on the basic mechanisms underlying hyperalgesia during DOMS, which is a useful model to study myofascial pain syndrome, and the role of NGF on muscular nociception. This might be useful in the search for new pharmacologic targets and therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2013 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Abnormal mitochondrial transport and morphology as early pathological changes in human models of spinal muscular atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Chong Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA, characterized by specific degeneration of spinal motor neurons, is caused by mutations in the survival of motor neuron 1, telomeric (SMN1 gene and subsequent decreased levels of functional SMN. How the deficiency of SMN, a ubiquitously expressed protein, leads to spinal motor neuron-specific degeneration in individuals affected by SMA remains unknown. In this study, we examined the role of SMN in mitochondrial axonal transport and morphology in human motor neurons by generating SMA type 1 patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs and differentiating these cells into spinal motor neurons. The initial specification of spinal motor neurons was not affected, but these SMA spinal motor neurons specifically degenerated following long-term culture. Moreover, at an early stage in SMA spinal motor neurons, but not in SMA forebrain neurons, the number of mitochondria, mitochondrial area and mitochondrial transport were significantly reduced in axons. Knocking down of SMN expression led to similar mitochondrial defects in spinal motor neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells, confirming that SMN deficiency results in impaired mitochondrial dynamics. Finally, the application of N-acetylcysteine (NAC mitigated the impairment in mitochondrial transport and morphology and rescued motor neuron degeneration in SMA long-term cultures. Furthermore, NAC ameliorated the reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential in SMA spinal motor neurons, suggesting that NAC might rescue apoptosis and motor neuron degeneration by improving mitochondrial health. Overall, our data demonstrate that SMN deficiency results in abnormal mitochondrial transport and morphology and a subsequent reduction in mitochondrial health, which are implicated in the specific degeneration of spinal motor neurons in SMA.

  6. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 in veal calf farming: human MRSA carriage related with animal antimicrobial usage and farm hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graveland, Haitske; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Heesterbeek, Hans; Mevius, Dik; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Heederik, Dick

    2010-06-08

    Recently a specific MRSA sequence type, ST398, emerged in food production animals and farmers. Risk factors for carrying MRSA ST398 in both animals and humans have not been fully evaluated. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated factors associated with MRSA colonization in veal calves and humans working and living on these farms. A sample of 102 veal calf farms were randomly selected and visited from March 2007-February 2008. Participating farmers were asked to fill in a questionnaire (n = 390) to identify potential risk factors. A nasal swab was taken from each participant. Furthermore, nasal swabs were taken from calves (n = 2151). Swabs were analysed for MRSA by selective enrichment and suspected colonies were confirmed as MRSA by using slide coagulase test and PCR for presence of the mecA-gene. Spa types were identified and a random selection of each spa type was tested with ST398 specific PCR. The Sequence Type of non ST398 strains was determined. Data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. Human MRSA carriage was strongly associated with intensity of animal contact and with the number of MRSA positive animals on the farm. Calves were more often carrier when treated with antibiotics, while farm hygiene was associated with a lower prevalence of MRSA. This is the first study showing direct associations between animal and human carriage of ST398. The direct associations between animal and human MRSA carriage and the association between MRSA and antimicrobial use in calves implicate prudent use of antibiotics in farm animals.

  7. Mechanisms Inducing Low Bone Density in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy in Mice and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufo, Anna; Del Fattore, Andrea; Capulli, Mattia; Carvello, Francesco; De Pasquale, Loredana; Ferrari, Serge; Pierroz, Dominique; Morandi, Lucia; De Simone, Michele; Rucci, Nadia; Bertini, Enrico; Bianchi, Maria Luisa; De Benedetti, Fabrizio; Teti, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Patients affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and dystrophic MDX mice were investigated in this study for their bone phenotype and systemic regulators of bone turnover. Micro–computed tomographic (µCT) and histomorphometric analyses showed reduced bone mass and higher osteoclast and bone resorption parameters in MDX mice compared with wild-type mice, whereas osteoblast parameters and mineral apposition rate were lower. In a panel of circulating pro-osteoclastogenic cytokines evaluated in the MDX sera, interleukin 6 (IL-6) was increased compared with wild-type mice. Likewise, DMD patients showed low bone mineral density (BMD) Z-scores and high bone-resorption marker and serum IL-6. Human primary osteoblasts from healthy donors incubated with 10% sera from DMD patients showed decreased nodule mineralization. Many osteogenic genes were downregulated in these cultures, including osterix and osteocalcin, by a mechanism blunted by an IL-6-neutralizing antibody. In contrast, the mRNAs of osteoclastogenic cytokines IL6, IL11, inhibin-βA, and TGFβ2 were increased, although only IL-6 was found to be high in the circulation. Consistently, enhancement of osteoclastogenesis was noted in cultures of circulating mononuclear precursors from DMD patients or from healthy donors cultured in the presence of DMD sera or IL-6. Circulating IL-6 also played a dominant role in osteoclast formation because ex vivo wild-type calvarial bones cultured with 10% sera of MDX mice showed increase osteoclast and bone-resorption parameters that were dampen by treatment with an IL-6 antibody. These results point to IL-6 as an important mediator of bone loss in DMD and suggest that targeted anti-IL-6 therapy may have a positive impact on the bone phenotype in these patients. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research PMID:21509823

  8. Calf Spleen Extractive Injection (CSEI, a small peptides enriched extraction, induces human hepatocellular carcinoma cell apoptosis via ROS/MAPKs dependent mitochondrial pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxu Jia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Calf Spleen Extractive Injection (CSEI, a small peptides enriched extraction, performs immunomodulatory activity on cancer patients suffering from radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The present study aims to investigate the anti-hepatocellular carcinoma effects of CSEI in cells and tumor-xenografted mouse models. In HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells, CSEI reduced cell viability, enhanced apoptosis rate, caused reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation, inhibited migration ability, and induced caspases cascade and mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation. CSEI significantly inhibited HepG2-xenografted tumor growth in nude mice. In cell and animal experiments, CSEI increased the activations of pro-apoptotic proteins including caspase 8, caspase 9 and caspase 3; meanwhile, it suppressed the expressions of anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 and anti-oxidation proteins, such as nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2 and catalase (CAT. The enhanced phosphorylation of P38 and c-JunN-terminalkinase (JNK, and decreased phosphorylation of extra cellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERKs were observed in CSEI-treated cells and tumor tissues. CSEI-induced cell viability reduction was significantly attenuated by N-Acetyl-l-cysteine (a ROS inhibitor pretreatment. All data demonstrated that the upregulated oxidative stress status and the altered mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs phosphorylation contributed to CSEI-driven mitochondrial dysfunction. Taken together, CSEI exactly induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells via ROS/MAPKs dependent mitochondrial pathway.

  9. Bioenergetics of the calf muscle in Friedreich ataxia patients measured by 31P-MRS before and after treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Nachbauer

    Full Text Available Friedreich ataxia (FRDA is caused by a GAA repeat expansion in the FXN gene leading to reduced expression of the mitochondrial protein frataxin. Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhuEPO is suggested to increase frataxin levels, alter mitochondrial function and improve clinical scores in FRDA patients. Aim of the present pilot study was to investigate mitochondrial metabolism of skeletal muscle tissue in FRDA patients and examine effects of rhuEPO administration by phosphorus 31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P MRS. Seven genetically confirmed FRDA patients underwent 31P MRS of the calf muscles using a rest-exercise-recovery protocol before and after receiving 3000 IU of rhuEPO for eight weeks. FRDA patients showed more rapid phosphocreatine (PCr depletion and increased accumulation of inorganic phosphate (Pi during incremental exercise as compared to controls. After maximal exhaustive exercise prolonged regeneration of PCR and slowed decline in Pi can be seen in FRDA. PCr regeneration as hallmark of mitochondrial ATP production revealed correlation to activity of complex II/III of the respiratory chain and to demographic values. PCr and Pi kinetics were not influenced by rhuEPO administration. Our results confirm mitochondrial dysfunction and exercise intolerance due to impaired oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle tissue of FRDA patients. MRS did not show improved mitochondrial bioenergetics after eight weeks of rhuEPO exposition in skeletal muscle tissue of FRDA patients.EU Clinical Trials Register2008-000040-13.

  10. Three-Dimensional Human iPSC-Derived Artificial Skeletal Muscles Model Muscular Dystrophies and Enable Multilineage Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffioletti, Sara Martina; Sarcar, Shilpita; Henderson, Alexander B H; Mannhardt, Ingra; Pinton, Luca; Moyle, Louise Anne; Steele-Stallard, Heather; Cappellari, Ornella; Wells, Kim E; Ferrari, Giulia; Mitchell, Jamie S; Tyzack, Giulia E; Kotiadis, Vassilios N; Khedr, Moustafa; Ragazzi, Martina; Wang, Weixin; Duchen, Michael R; Patani, Rickie; Zammit, Peter S; Wells, Dominic J; Eschenhagen, Thomas; Tedesco, Francesco Saverio

    2018-04-17

    Generating human skeletal muscle models is instrumental for investigating muscle pathology and therapy. Here, we report the generation of three-dimensional (3D) artificial skeletal muscle tissue from human pluripotent stem cells, including induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patients with Duchenne, limb-girdle, and congenital muscular dystrophies. 3D skeletal myogenic differentiation of pluripotent cells was induced within hydrogels under tension to provide myofiber alignment. Artificial muscles recapitulated characteristics of human skeletal muscle tissue and could be implanted into immunodeficient mice. Pathological cellular hallmarks of incurable forms of severe muscular dystrophy could be modeled with high fidelity using this 3D platform. Finally, we show generation of fully human iPSC-derived, complex, multilineage muscle models containing key isogenic cellular constituents of skeletal muscle, including vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, and motor neurons. These results lay the foundation for a human skeletal muscle organoid-like platform for disease modeling, regenerative medicine, and therapy development. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Spontaneous calf haematoma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaidah, N H; Liew, N C

    2014-02-01

    Spontaneous calf haematoma is a rare condition and few case reports have been published in the English literature. Common conditions like deep vein thrombosis and traumatic gastrocnemius muscle tear need to be considered when a patient presents with unilateral calf swelling and tenderness. Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging are essential for confirmation of diagnosis. The purpose of this paper is to report on a rare case of spontaneous calf hematoma and its diagnosis and management.

  12. Human platelet lysate is a feasible candidate to replace fetal calf serum as medium supplement for blood vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofbauer, Pablo; Riedl, Sabrina; Witzeneder, Karin; Hildner, Florian; Wolbank, Susanne; Groeger, Marion; Gabriel, Christian; Redl, Heinz; Holnthoner, Wolfgang

    2014-09-01

    As angiogenic and lymphangiogenic key players, endothelial cells (ECs) are promising candidates for vascular regenerative therapies. To culture ECs in vitro, fetal calf serum (FCS) is most often used. However, some critical aspects of FCS usage, such as possible internalization of xenogeneic proteins and prions, must be considered. Therefore, the aim of this project was to determine if human platelet lysate (hPL) is a suitable alternative to FCS as medium supplement for the culture of blood vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells. The usability of hPL was tested by analysis of endothelial surface marker expression, metabolic activity and vasculogenic potential of outgrowth ECs (OECs), human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs), and lymphatic ECs (LECs). Expression of EC markers CD31, VEGFR2, VE-cadherin and CD146 did not differ significantly between the EC types cultured in FCS or hPL. In addition, OECs, HUVECs and LECs formed tube-like structures on Matrigel when cultured in hPL and FCS. With the use of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromid assays, we found that the metabolic activity of OECs and LECs was slightly decreased when hPL was used. However, HUVECs and LECs did not show a significant decrease in metabolic activity, and HUVECs showed a slightly higher activity at low seeding densities. The use of hPL on different EC types did not reveal any substantial negative effects on EC behavior. Thus, hPL appears to be a favorable candidate to replace FCS as a medium supplement in the culture of ECs. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sets of muscles and cause different degrees of muscle weakness. Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the most common and the most severe ... can walk independently. Prednisone If a child has Duchenne muscular ... to help slow the rate of muscle deterioration. By doing so, the child may be ...

  14. Maximal muscular vascular conductances during whole body upright exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Jensen-Urstad, M; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2004-01-01

    76% of VO(2,max) and at VO(2,max) with different techniques: diagonal stride (combined arm and leg exercise), double poling (predominantly arm exercise) and leg skiing (predominantly leg exercise). During submaximal exercise cardiac output (26-27 l min(-1)), mean blood pressure (MAP) (approximately......That muscular blood flow may reach 2.5 l kg(-1) min(-1) in the quadriceps muscle has led to the suggestion that muscular vascular conductance must be restrained during whole body exercise to avoid hypotension. The main aim of this study was to determine the maximal arm and leg muscle vascular...... (VO(2,max)) 5.1 +/- 0.1 l min(-1) participated in the study. Femoral and subclavian vein blood flows, intra-arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, as well as blood gases in the femoral and subclavian vein, right atrium and femoral artery were determined during skiing (roller skis) at approximately...

  15. Congenital Liver Cyst in a Neonatal Calf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Nogradi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital serous cysts attached to the liver capsule are usually small and multiple, but can be solitary, grow extremely large, and become symptomatic. They are considered rare incidental findings during laparotomies or necropsies and thier occurrence is well described in the human literature, with limited reports from the veterinary literature. This report describes the ante-mortem diagnosis and successful surgical removal of a large congenital liver cyst in a neonatal calf.

  16. Treatment with human immunoglobulin G improves the early disease course in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschüntzsch, Jana; Zhang, Yaxin; Klinker, Florian; Makosch, Gregor; Klinge, Lars; Malzahn, Dörthe; Brinkmeier, Heinrich; Liebetanz, David; Schmidt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe hereditary myopathy. Standard treatment by glucocorticosteroids is limited because of numerous side effects. The aim of this study was to test immunomodulation by human immunoglobulin G (IgG) as treatment in the experimental mouse model (mdx) of DMD. 2 g/kg human IgG compared to human albumin was injected intraperitoneally in mdx mice at the age of 3 and 7 weeks. Advanced voluntary wheel running parameters were recorded continuously. At the age of 11 weeks, animals were killed so that blood, diaphragm, and lower limb muscles could be removed for quantitative PCR, histological analysis and ex vivo muscle contraction tests. IgG compared to albumin significantly improved the voluntary running performance and reduced muscle fatigability in an ex vivo muscle contraction test. Upon IgG treatment, serum creatine kinase values were diminished and mRNA expression levels of relevant inflammatory markers were reduced in the diaphragm and limb muscles. Macrophage infiltration and myopathic damage were significantly ameliorated in the quadriceps muscle. Collectively, this study demonstrates that, in the early disease course of mdx mice, human IgG improves the running performance and diminishes myopathic damage and inflammation in the muscle. Therefore, IgG may be a promising approach for treatment of DMD. Two monthly intraperitoneal injections of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) improved the early 11-week disease phase of mdx mice. Voluntary running was improved and serum levels of creatine kinase were diminished. In the skeletal muscle, myopathic damage was ameliorated and key inflammatory markers such as mRNA expression of SPP1 and infiltration by macrophages were reduced. The study suggests that IgG could be explored as a potential treatment option for Duchenne muscular dystrophy and that pre-clinical long-term studies should be helpful. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  17. Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surveillance Tracking and Research Network , known as MD STAR net . Learn more about CDC’s other muscular dystrophy ... for Disease Control and Prevention Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs ...

  18. Muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are no known cures for the various muscular dystrophies. The goal of treatment is to control symptoms. Physical therapy may help maintain muscle strength and function. Leg braces and a wheelchair ...

  19. Muscular reflexes elicited by electrical stimulation of the anterior cruciate ligament in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhre-Poulsen, P; Krogsgaard, M R

    2000-01-01

    no sign of ACL disease, thin wire electrodes were inserted into the proximal and mid parts of the ACL. Postoperatively, the sensory nerve fibers inside the ACL were stimulated electrically while motor activity in the knee muscles was recorded using electromyography. In seven of the eight patients......, a muscular contraction of the semitendinosus muscle could be elicited with stimulus trains consisting of at least two stimuli. The latency was 95 +/- 35 ms. Stimulation during isometric contraction of either extensor or flexor muscles elicited a short, complete inhibition of the muscle activity...

  20. Two human cDNA molecules coding for the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) locus are highly homologous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, A.; Speer, A.; Billwitz, H. (Zentralinstitut fuer Molekularbiologie, Berlin-Buch (Germany Democratic Republic)); Cross, G.S.; Forrest, S.M.; Davies, K.E. (Univ. of Oxford (England))

    1989-07-11

    Recently the complete sequence of the human fetal cDNA coding for the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) locus was reported and a 3,685 amino acid long, rod-shaped cytoskeletal protein (dystrophin) was predicted as the protein product. Independently, the authors have isolated and sequenced different DMD cDNA molecules from human adult and fetal muscle. The complete 12.5 kb long sequence of all their cDNA clones has now been determined and they report here the nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) differences between the sequences of both groups. The cDNA sequence comprises the whole coding region but lacks the first 110 nt from the 5{prime}-untranslated region and the last 1,417 nt of the 3{prime}-untranslated region. They have found 11 nt differences (approximately 99.9% homology) from which 7 occurred at the aa level.

  1. Contractile properties are disrupted in Becker muscular dystrophy, but not in limb girdle type 2I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkken, Nicoline; Hedermann, Gitte; Thomsen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether a linear relationship between muscle strength and cross-sectional area (CSA) is preserved in calf muscles of patients with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD, n = 14) and limb-girdle type 2I muscular dystrophy (LGMD2I, n = 11), before and after correcting for muscle fat...

  2. Interactions of mean body and local skin temperatures in the modulation of human forearm and calf blood flows: a three-dimensional description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Joanne N; Matsuda-Nakamura, Mayumi; Taylor, Nigel A S

    2016-02-01

    The inter-relationships between mean body and local skin temperatures have previously been established for controlling hand and foot blood flows. Since glabrous skin contains many arteriovenous anastomoses, it was important to repeat those experiments on non-glabrous regions using the same sample and experimental conditions. Mild hypothermia (mean body temperature 31.4 °C), normothermia (control: 36.0 °C) and moderate hyperthermia (38.3 °C) were induced and clamped (climate chamber and water-perfusion garment) in eight males. Within each condition, five localised thermal treatments (5, 15, 25, 33, 40 °C) were applied to the left forearm and right calf. Steady-state forearm and calf blood flows were measured (venous occlusion plethysmography) for each of the resulting 15 combinations of clamped mean body and local skin temperatures. Under the normothermic clamp, cutaneous blood flows averaged 4.2 mL 100 mL(-1) min(-1) (±0.28: forearm) and 5.4 mL 100 mL(-1) min(-1) (±0.27: calf). When mildly hypothermic, these segments were unresponsive to localised thermal stimuli, but tracked those changes when normothermic and moderately hyperthermic. For deep-body (oesophageal) temperature elevations, forearm blood flow increased by 5.1 mL 100 mL(-1) min(-1) °C(-1) (±0.9) relative to normothermia, while the calf was much less responsive: 3.3 mL 100 mL(-1) min(-1) °C(-1) (±1.5). Three-dimensional surfaces revealed a qualitative divergence in the control of calf blood flow, with vasoconstrictor tone apparently being released more gradually. These descriptions reinforce the importance of deep-tissue temperatures in controlling cutaneous perfusion, with this modulation being non-linear at the forearm and appearing linear for the calf.

  3. Skeletal Muscle Differentiation on a Chip Shows Human Donor Mesoangioblasts' Efficiency in Restoring Dystrophin in a Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serena, Elena; Zatti, Susi; Zoso, Alice; Lo Verso, Francesca; Tedesco, F Saverio; Cossu, Giulio; Elvassore, Nicola

    2016-12-01

    : Restoration of the protein dystrophin on muscle membrane is the goal of many research lines aimed at curing Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Results of ongoing preclinical and clinical trials suggest that partial restoration of dystrophin might be sufficient to significantly reduce muscle damage. Different myogenic progenitors are candidates for cell therapy of muscular dystrophies, but only satellite cells and pericytes have already entered clinical experimentation. This study aimed to provide in vitro quantitative evidence of the ability of mesoangioblasts to restore dystrophin, in terms of protein accumulation and distribution, within myotubes derived from DMD patients, using a microengineered model. We designed an ad hoc experimental strategy to miniaturize on a chip the standard process of muscle regeneration independent of variables such as inflammation and fibrosis. It is based on the coculture, at different ratios, of human dystrophin-positive myogenic progenitors and dystrophin-negative myoblasts in a substrate with muscle-like physiological stiffness and cell micropatterns. Results showed that both healthy myoblasts and mesoangioblasts restored dystrophin expression in DMD myotubes. However, mesoangioblasts showed unexpected efficiency with respect to myoblasts in dystrophin production in terms of the amount of protein produced (40% vs. 15%) and length of the dystrophin membrane domain (210-240 µm vs. 40-70 µm). These results show that our microscaled in vitro model of human DMD skeletal muscle validated previous in vivo preclinical work and may be used to predict efficacy of new methods aimed at enhancing dystrophin accumulation and distribution before they are tested in vivo, reducing time, costs, and variability of clinical experimentation. This study aimed to provide in vitro quantitative evidence of the ability of human mesoangioblasts to restore dystrophin, in terms of protein accumulation and distribution, within myotubes derived from

  4. Maximal muscular vascular conductances during whole body upright exercise in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbet, J A L; Jensen-Urstad, M; van Hall, G; Holmberg, H -C; Rosdahl, H; Saltin, B

    2004-01-01

    That muscular blood flow may reach 2.5 l kg−1 min−1 in the quadriceps muscle has led to the suggestion that muscular vascular conductance must be restrained during whole body exercise to avoid hypotension. The main aim of this study was to determine the maximal arm and leg muscle vascular conductances (VC) during leg and arm exercise, to find out if the maximal muscular vasodilatory response is restrained during maximal combined arm and leg exercise. Six Swedish elite cross-country skiers, age (mean ± s.e.m.) 24 ± 2 years, height 180 ± 2 cm, weight 74 ± 2 kg, and maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2,max) 5.1 ± 0.1 l min−1 participated in the study. Femoral and subclavian vein blood flows, intra-arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, as well as blood gases in the femoral and subclavian vein, right atrium and femoral artery were determined during skiing (roller skis) at ∼76% of V̇O2,max and at V̇O2,max with different techniques: diagonal stride (combined arm and leg exercise), double poling (predominantly arm exercise) and leg skiing (predominantly leg exercise). During submaximal exercise cardiac output (26–27 l min−1), mean blood pressure (MAP) (∼87 mmHg), systemic VC, systemic oxygen delivery and pulmonary V̇O2 (∼4 l min−1) attained similar values regardless of exercise mode. The distribution of cardiac output was modified depending on the musculature engaged in the exercise. There was a close relationship between VC and V̇O2 in arms (r = 0.99, P arm VC (63.7 ± 5.6 ml min−1 mmHg−1) was attained during double poling, while peak leg VC was reached at maximal exercise with the diagonal technique (109.8 ± 11.5 ml min−1 mmHg−1) when arm VC was 38.8 ± 5.7 ml min−1 mmHg−1. If during maximal exercise arms and legs had been vasodilated to the observed maximal levels then mean arterial pressure would have dropped at least to 75–77 mmHg in our experimental conditions. It is concluded that skeletal muscle vascular conductance is

  5. Inhibition of apoptosis blocks human motor neuron cell death in a stem cell model of spinal muscular atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhruv Sareen

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a genetic disorder caused by a deletion of the survival motor neuron 1 gene leading to motor neuron loss, muscle atrophy, paralysis, and death. We show here that induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC lines generated from two Type I SMA subjects-one produced with lentiviral constructs and the second using a virus-free plasmid-based approach-recapitulate the disease phenotype and generate significantly fewer motor neurons at later developmental time periods in culture compared to two separate control subject iPSC lines. During motor neuron development, both SMA lines showed an increase in Fas ligand-mediated apoptosis and increased caspase-8 and-3 activation. Importantly, this could be mitigated by addition of either a Fas blocking antibody or a caspase-3 inhibitor. Together, these data further validate this human stem cell model of SMA, suggesting that specific inhibitors of apoptotic pathways may be beneficial for patients.

  6. Beef cow-calf production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuz, Dillon M; Umberger, Wendy J

    2003-07-01

    Cow-calf production occurs in all 50 states over varied resource bases and under vastly different environmental conditions. Multiple breeds exist and management styles and objectives are as numerous as the number of cow-calf producers. There is not one area of the country, one breed of cattle, or one management style that is most profitable for producing cows and calves. There are, however, some common strategies that can be employed by cow-calf producers to enhance profitability. Costs need to be controlled without jeopardizing cow herd productivity or net returns. It appears that the cost associated with purchased and harvested feeds varies considerably across operations. Understanding cyclic and seasonal price patterns, weight-price slides, cattle shrink, and other marketing costs can help producers enhance their profit by marketing (and not by just selling) their cattle. Producers with superior cattle genetics can become part of a specific alliance or, at a minimum, document the performance of their cattle so that they can get paid for the superior genetics. The beef industry is changing and will likely continue to change. Cow-calf producers will need to examine their own management practices to determine whether they are optimal for the current industry. Those producers who are most adept at matching their management abilities to their cattle type, their resource base, and the appropriate market outlet will be the most successful in the future.

  7. Isolation of mineralizing Nestin+ Nkx6.1+ vascular muscular cells from the adult human spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillon Hélène

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adult central nervous system (CNS contains different populations of immature cells that could possibly be used to repair brain and spinal cord lesions. The diversity and the properties of these cells in the human adult CNS remain to be fully explored. We previously isolated Nestin+ Sox2+ neural multipotential cells from the adult human spinal cord using the neurosphere method (i.e. non adherent conditions and defined medium. Results Here we report the isolation and long term propagation of another population of Nestin+ cells from this tissue using adherent culture conditions and serum. QPCR and immunofluorescence indicated that these cells had mesenchymal features as evidenced by the expression of Snai2 and Twist1 and lack of expression of neural markers such as Sox2, Olig2 or GFAP. Indeed, these cells expressed markers typical of smooth muscle vascular cells such as Calponin, Caldesmone and Acta2 (Smooth muscle actin. These cells could not differentiate into chondrocytes, adipocytes, neuronal and glial cells, however they readily mineralized when placed in osteogenic conditions. Further characterization allowed us to identify the Nkx6.1 transcription factor as a marker for these cells. Nkx6.1 was expressed in vivo by CNS vascular muscular cells located in the parenchyma and the meninges. Conclusion Smooth muscle cells expressing Nestin and Nkx6.1 is the main cell population derived from culturing human spinal cord cells in adherent conditions with serum. Mineralization of these cells in vitro could represent a valuable model for studying calcifications of CNS vessels which are observed in pathological situations or as part of the normal aging. In addition, long term propagation of these cells will allow the study of their interaction with other CNS cells and their implication in scar formation during spinal cord injury.

  8. Recapitulation of spinal motor neuron-specific disease phenotypes in a human cell model of spinal muscular atrophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Bo Wang; Xiaoqing Zhang; Xue-Jun Li

    2013-01-01

    Establishing human cell models of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) to mimic motor neuron-specific phenotypes holds the key to understanding the pathogenesis of this devastating disease.Here,we developed a closely representative cell model of SMA by knocking down the disease-determining gene,survival motor neuron (SMN),in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs).Our study with this cell model demonstrated that knocking down of SMN does not interfere with neural induction or the initial specification of spinal motor neurons.Notably,the axonal outgrowth of spinal motor neurons was significantly impaired and these disease-mimicking neurons subsequently degenerated.Furthermore,these disease phenotypes were caused by SMN-full length (SMN-FL) but not SMN-A7 (lacking exon 7)knockdown,and were specific to spinal motor neurons.Restoring the expression of SMN-FL completely ameliorated all of the disease phenotypes,including specific axonal defects and motor neuron loss.Finally,knockdown of SMNFL led to excessive mitochondrial oxidative stress in human motor neuron progenitors.The involvement of oxidative stress in the degeneration of spinal motor neurons in the SMA cell model was further confirmed by the administration of N-acetylcysteine,a potent antioxidant,which prevented disease-related apoptosis and subsequent motor neuron death.Thus,we report here the successful establishment of an hESC-based SMA model,which exhibits disease gene isoform specificity,cell type specificity,and phenotype reversibility.Our model provides a unique paradigm for studying how motor neurons specifically degenerate and highlights the potential importance of antioxidants for the treatment of SMA.

  9. Minocycline Prevents Muscular Pain Hypersensitivity and Cutaneous Allodynia Produced by Repeated Intramuscular Injections of Hypertonic Saline in Healthy Human Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samour, Mohamad Samir; Nagi, Saad Saulat; Shortland, Peter John; Mahns, David Anthony

    2017-08-01

    healthy human participants. This hypersensitivity was characterized by bilateral muscular hyperalgesia and cutaneous cold allodynia, symptoms commonly reported in many chronic pain conditions. Minocycline pretreatment abolished the development of this state. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sensory neurons do not induce motor neuron loss in a human stem cell model of spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Andrew J; Ebert, Allison D

    2014-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disorder leading to paralysis and early death due to reduced SMN protein. It is unclear why there is such a profound motor neuron loss, but recent evidence from fly and mouse studies indicate that cells comprising the whole sensory-motor circuit may contribute to motor neuron dysfunction and loss. Here, we used induced pluripotent stem cells derived from SMA patients to test whether sensory neurons directly contribute to motor neuron loss. We generated sensory neurons from SMA induced pluripotent stem cells and found no difference in neuron generation or survival, although there was a reduced calcium response to depolarizing stimuli. Using co-culture of SMA induced pluripotent stem cell derived sensory neurons with control induced pluripotent stem cell derived motor neurons, we found no significant reduction in motor neuron number or glutamate transporter boutons on motor neuron cell bodies or neurites. We conclude that SMA sensory neurons do not overtly contribute to motor neuron loss in this human stem cell system.

  11. Aspiration Thrombectomy Using a Guiding Catheter in Acute Lower Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis: Usefulness of the Calf-Squeeze Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae A; Kwak, Hyo Sung; Han, Young Min; Yu, Hee Chul [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The effectiveness of the calf-squeeze technique during aspiration thrombectomy using guiding catheter in the treatment of an acute lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) was evaluated by the use of imaging and the clinical follow-up of patients. A prospective analysis of ten patients (seven women, three men; median age, 56.9 years) with common iliac vein (CIV) obstruction and ipsilateral DVT was performed for this study. All patients presented with leg edema or pain and were treated with catheter-directed thrombolysis via an ipsilateral popliteal vein approach after insertion of a temporary inferior vena cava (IVC) filter. Subsequently, the patients were treated with by aspiration thrombectomy using a guiding catheter to remove the residual thrombus. The calf-squeeze technique during aspiration thrombectomy can be used to induce the proximal migration of thrombi in the popliteal, tibial, and muscular veins were used to increase venous flow. The calf-squeeze technique was employed at mean of 1.3 times (range, 1-3 times). All patients showed proximal migration of a popliteal and muscular vein thrombus during the execution of the calf-squeeze technique. Successful recanalization was achieved in all patients (100%) without any complications. On duplex ultrasonography, which was performed immediately after the aspiration thrombectomy, four patients had a residual thrombus in the soleal muscular veins. However, none of the patients had a thrombus in the popliteal and tibial veins; and, during follow-up, no DVT recurred in any patient. The use of the calf-squeeze technique during aspiration thrombectomy after catheter-directed thrombolysis can induce the proximal migration of thrombi in the popliotibial and muscular veins and is an effective method that can remove a thrombus in calf veins.

  12. Aspiration Thrombectomy Using a Guiding Catheter in Acute Lower Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis: Usefulness of the Calf-Squeeze Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae A; Kwak, Hyo Sung; Han, Young Min; Yu, Hee Chul

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of the calf-squeeze technique during aspiration thrombectomy using guiding catheter in the treatment of an acute lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) was evaluated by the use of imaging and the clinical follow-up of patients. A prospective analysis of ten patients (seven women, three men; median age, 56.9 years) with common iliac vein (CIV) obstruction and ipsilateral DVT was performed for this study. All patients presented with leg edema or pain and were treated with catheter-directed thrombolysis via an ipsilateral popliteal vein approach after insertion of a temporary inferior vena cava (IVC) filter. Subsequently, the patients were treated with by aspiration thrombectomy using a guiding catheter to remove the residual thrombus. The calf-squeeze technique during aspiration thrombectomy can be used to induce the proximal migration of thrombi in the popliteal, tibial, and muscular veins were used to increase venous flow. The calf-squeeze technique was employed at mean of 1.3 times (range, 1-3 times). All patients showed proximal migration of a popliteal and muscular vein thrombus during the execution of the calf-squeeze technique. Successful recanalization was achieved in all patients (100%) without any complications. On duplex ultrasonography, which was performed immediately after the aspiration thrombectomy, four patients had a residual thrombus in the soleal muscular veins. However, none of the patients had a thrombus in the popliteal and tibial veins; and, during follow-up, no DVT recurred in any patient. The use of the calf-squeeze technique during aspiration thrombectomy after catheter-directed thrombolysis can induce the proximal migration of thrombi in the popliotibial and muscular veins and is an effective method that can remove a thrombus in calf veins.

  13. Myotonic Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT) Congenital Muscular Dystrophy (CMD) Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy Endocrine Myopathies Metabolic Diseases of Muscle Mitochondrial Myopathies (MM) Myotonic Dystrophy (DM) Spinal-Bulbar ...

  14. Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells as a new model of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Dossena

    Full Text Available Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA or Kennedy's disease is an X-linked CAG/polyglutamine expansion motoneuron disease, in which an elongated polyglutamine tract (polyQ in the N-terminal androgen receptor (ARpolyQ confers toxicity to this protein. Typical markers of SBMA disease are ARpolyQ intranuclear inclusions. These are generated after the ARpolyQ binds to its endogenous ligands, which promotes AR release from chaperones, activation and nuclear translocation, but also cell toxicity. The SBMA mouse models developed so far, and used in preclinical studies, all contain an expanded CAG repeat significantly longer than that of SBMA patients. Here, we propose the use of SBMA patients adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs as a new human in vitro model to study ARpolyQ toxicity. These cells have the advantage to express only ARpolyQ, and not the wild type AR allele. Therefore, we isolated and characterized adipose-derived MSCs from three SBMA patients (ADSC from Kennedy's patients, ADSCK and three control volunteers (ADSCs. We found that both ADSCs and ADSCKs express mesenchymal antigens, even if only ADSCs can differentiate into the three typical cell lineages (adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteocytes, whereas ADSCKs, from SBMA patients, showed a lower growth potential and differentiated only into adipocyte. Moreover, analysing AR expression on our mesenchymal cultures we found lower levels in all ADSCKs than ADSCs, possibly related to negative pressures exerted by toxic ARpolyQ in ADSCKs. In addition, with proteasome inhibition the ARpolyQ levels increased specifically in ADSCKs, inducing the formation of HSP70 and ubiquitin positive nuclear ARpolyQ inclusions. Considering all of this evidence, SBMA patients adipose-derived MSCs cultures should be considered an innovative in vitro human model to understand the molecular mechanisms of ARpolyQ toxicity and to test novel therapeutic approaches in SBMA.

  15. Early transplantation of human immature dental pulp stem cells from baby teeth to golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD dogs: Local or systemic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brolio Marina P

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD dogs represent the best available animal model for therapeutic trials aiming at the future treatment of human Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. We have obtained a rare litter of six GRMD dogs (3 males and 3 females born from an affected male and a carrier female which were submitted to a therapeutic trial with adult human stem cells to investigate their capacity to engraft into dogs muscles by local as compared to systemic injection without any immunosuppression. Methods Human Immature Dental Pulp Stem Cells (hIDPSC were transplanted into 4 littermate dogs aged 28 to 40 days by either arterial or muscular injections. Two non-injected dogs were kept as controls. Clinical translation effects were analyzed since immune reactions by blood exams and physical scores capacity of each dog. Samples from biopsies were checked by immunohistochemistry (dystrophin markers and FISH for human probes. Results and Discussion We analyzed the cells' ability in respect to migrate, engraftment, and myogenic potential, and the expression of human dystrophin in affected muscles. Additionally, the efficiency of single and consecutive early transplantation was compared. Chimeric muscle fibers were detected by immunofluorescence and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH using human antibodies and X and Y DNA probes. No signs of immune rejection were observed and these results suggested that hIDPSC cell transplantation may be done without immunosuppression. We showed that hIDPSC presented significant engraftment in GRMD dog muscles, although human dystrophin expression was modest and limited to several muscle fibers. Better clinical condition was also observed in the dog, which received monthly arterial injections and is still clinically stable at 25 months of age. Conclusion Our data suggested that systemic multiple deliveries seemed more effective than local injections. These findings open important

  16. CABLES MUSCULARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Gómez

    Full Text Available Los cables musculares o fibras de nitinol presentan una excelente alternativa a los actuadores convencionales, con una fuerza de actuación muy alta, equivalente a la de los actuadores hidráulicos, proporcionalmente a su peso, además de su acción silenciosa. Este material, inventado en 1963, aún no es muy conocido y de ahí que se haya realizado una recopilación de sus propiedades. Entre ellas, la temperatura de transición es la más importante, por ser la que activa la aleación. Muchos sistemas se han creado para alcanzar adecuadamente la temperatura de transición, y también se continúa en la investigación de métodos que ayuden a lograr un control preciso del movimiento de la aleación con memoria de forma (SMA.

  17. Calf Contouring with Endoscopic Fascial Release, Calf Implant, and Structural Fat Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Karacaoglu, MD

    2013-08-01

    Conclusions: A novel endoscopic approach for lower leg contouring is discussed. Endoscopic fasciotomy technique with calf implant and structural fat grafting for improved lower leg aesthetics is a simple, effective, reliable, and predictable technique for calf contouring.

  18. Recurrent painful calf swelling associated with gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarsky, J; Young, M B

    1978-01-01

    A 30-year-old man had a recurrent painful calf swelling associated with gout that mimicked thrombophlebitis and possibly muscle tear. This painful calf swelling occurred in the absence of a subjective history of arthritis of the knee. A constellation of clinical signs was highly suggestive that gout was the cause of the painful calf swellings. Patients with similar conditions, after careful exclusion of thrombophlebitis, might be spared unnecessary and potentially dangerous anticoagulation or surgical intervention by early diagnosis of gout.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, A.; Smith, W.L.; Franken, E.A.; Dunn, V.; Ehrhardt, J.; Ionasescu, V.; Zellweger, H.

    1987-10-01

    Eight children representing a spectrum of clinical states of biopsy-proven Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) underwent magnetic resonance (MR) scans to assess the degree of muscular involvement and disease progression. Five muscle groups (neck, shoulder girdle, pelvic girdle, thigh and calf) were evaluated. In each case, involved muscles were clearly demarcated. Image estimates of disease severity by degree of muscle involvement correlated well with clinical staging. In our experience MR is useful for assessment of disease stage, selection of appropriate muscles for biopsy and planning for courses of physical and rehabilitation therapy.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, A.; Smith, W.L.; Franken, E.A.; Dunn, V.; Ehrhardt, J.; Ionasescu, V.; Zellweger, H.

    1987-01-01

    Eight children representing a spectrum of clinical states of biopsy-proven Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) underwent magnetic resonance (MR) scans to assess the degree of muscular involvement and disease progression. Five muscle groups (neck, shoulder girdle, pelvic girdle, thigh and calf) were evaluated. In each case, involved muscles were clearly demarcated. Image estimates of disease severity by degree of muscle involvement correlated well with clinical staging. In our experience MR is useful for assessment of disease stage, selection of appropriate muscles for biopsy and planning for courses of physical and rehabilitation therapy. (orig.)

  1. Reversible immortalisation enables genetic correction of human muscle progenitors and engineering of next-generation human artificial chromosomes for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Sara; Uno, Narumi; Hoshiya, Hidetoshi; Ragazzi, Martina; Ferrari, Giulia; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Moyle, Louise Anne; Tonlorenzi, Rossana; Lombardo, Angelo; Chaouch, Soraya; Mouly, Vincent; Moore, Marc; Popplewell, Linda; Kazuki, Kanako; Katoh, Motonobu; Naldini, Luigi; Dickson, George; Messina, Graziella; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Cossu, Giulio; Tedesco, Francesco Saverio

    2018-02-01

    Transferring large or multiple genes into primary human stem/progenitor cells is challenged by restrictions in vector capacity, and this hurdle limits the success of gene therapy. A paradigm is Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), an incurable disorder caused by mutations in the largest human gene: dystrophin. The combination of large-capacity vectors, such as human artificial chromosomes (HACs), with stem/progenitor cells may overcome this limitation. We previously reported amelioration of the dystrophic phenotype in mice transplanted with murine muscle progenitors containing a HAC with the entire dystrophin locus (DYS-HAC). However, translation of this strategy to human muscle progenitors requires extension of their proliferative potential to withstand clonal cell expansion after HAC transfer. Here, we show that reversible cell immortalisation mediated by lentivirally delivered excisable hTERT and Bmi1 transgenes extended cell proliferation, enabling transfer of a novel DYS-HAC into DMD satellite cell-derived myoblasts and perivascular cell-derived mesoangioblasts. Genetically corrected cells maintained a stable karyotype, did not undergo tumorigenic transformation and retained their migration ability. Cells remained myogenic in vitro (spontaneously or upon MyoD induction) and engrafted murine skeletal muscle upon transplantation. Finally, we combined the aforementioned functions into a next-generation HAC capable of delivering reversible immortalisation, complete genetic correction, additional dystrophin expression, inducible differentiation and controllable cell death. This work establishes a novel platform for complex gene transfer into clinically relevant human muscle progenitors for DMD gene therapy. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  2. [Melanosis maculosa in a calf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenzind, D; Winzap, B; Hässig, M

    2003-07-01

    This work describes findings in a fattened calf, which were seen in a routine slaughter. The most important findings by the meat inspector were diffuse, black spots between 2 and 70 mm in diameter. This hyperpigmentation was observed on the entire carcass as well as on the outside and inside of all internal organs. Removal of the spinal cord produced black colored liquor. Subsequent microbiological examination of the meat resulted in sterile findings. The muscle pH was 5.8. On histological examination many macrophages containing melanin were found in the lung and liver. Based on these findings the diagnosis of Melanosis maculosa was made.

  3. In vitro culture of human osteosarcoma cell lines: a comparison of functional characteristics for cell lines cultured in medium without and with fetal calf serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruserud, Oystein; Tronstad, Karl Johan; Berge, Rolf

    2005-06-01

    Experimental in vitro models including well-characterised cell lines can be used to identify possible new therapeutic targets for the treatment of osteosarcoma. Culture media including inactivated serum is often recommended for in vitro culture of osteosarcoma cells, but the serum component then represents a nonstandardised parameter including a wide range of unidentified mediators. To improve the standardisation we have investigated whether serum-free culture media can be used in experimental in vitro studies of osteosarcoma cell lines. The seven osteosarcoma cell lines Cal72, SJSA-1, Saos-2, SK-ES-1, U2OS, 143.98.2, and KHOS-32IH were cultured in vitro in various serum-free media and media supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated fetal calf serum (FCS). Although proliferation often was relatively low in serum-free media (X-vivo 10, X-vivo 15, X-vivo 20, Stem Span SFEM), some cell lines (Cal72, KHOS-32IH, Saos-2) showed proliferation comparable with the recommended FCS-containing media even when using serum-free conditions. The optimal serum-free medium then varied between cell lines. We also compared 6 different FCS-containing media (including Stem Span with 10% FCS) and the optimal FCS-containing medium varied between cell lines. However, all cell lines proliferated well in Stem Span with FCS, and this medium was regarded as optimal for four of the lines. FCS could not be replaced by fatty acids or low density lipoprotein when testing the Stem Span medium. The release of a wide range of soluble mediators showed only minor differences when using serum-free and FCS-containing media (including Stem Span with and without FCS), and serum-free Stem Span could also be used for in vitro studies of mitogen-stimulated T cell activation in the presence of accessory osteosarcoma cells. The use of Stem Span with 10% FCS allowed the release of a wide range of chemokines by osteosarcoma cell lines (Cal72, SJSA-1), and the chemokine release profile was very similar to the

  4. Unilateral notomelia in a newborn Holstein calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Tammy L; Pack, LeeAnn; Radtke, Catherine L

    2014-07-01

    A 24-hour-old Holstein bull calf with notomelia was donated to the Atlantic Veterinary College. The extra limb was on the right side of the caudal neck adjacent to the withers. The limb was surgically removed under general anesthesia. The calf was adopted and discharged with no complications.

  5. Effect of lower limb preference on local muscular and vascular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahs, Christopher A; Rossow, Lindy M; Thiebaud, Robert S; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Kim, Daeyeol; Bemben, Michael G; Abe, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Unilateral physical training can enhance muscular size and function as well as vascular function in the trained limb. In non-athletes, the preferred arm for use during unilateral tasks may exhibit greater muscular strength compared to the non-preferred arm. It is unclear if lower limb preference affects lower limb vascular function or muscular endurance and power in recreationally active adults. To examine the effect of lower limb preference on quadriceps muscle size and function and on lower limb vascular function in middle-aged adults. Twenty (13 men, 7 women) recreationally-active middle-aged (55 ± 7 yrs) adults underwent measurements of quadriceps muscle thickness, strength, mean power, endurance, and arterial stiffness, calf venous compliance, and calf blood flow in the preferred and non-preferred lower limb. The preferred limb exhibited greater calf vascular conductance (31.6 ± 15.5 versus 25.8 ± 13.0 units flow/mmHg; p = 0.011) compared to the non-preferred limb. The interlimb difference in calf vascular conductance was negatively related to weekly aerobic activity (hrs/week) (r = −0.521; p = 0.019). Lower limb preference affects calf blood flow but not quadriceps muscle size or function. Studies involving unilateral lower limb testing procedures in middle-aged individuals should consider standardizing the testing to either the preferred or non-preferred limb rather than the right or left limb. (paper)

  6. Effect of human-robot interaction on muscular synergies on healthy people and post-stroke chronic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scano, A; Chiavenna, A; Caimmi, M; Malosio, M; Tosatti, L M; Molteni, F

    2017-07-01

    Robot-assisted training is a widely used technique to promote motor re-learning on post-stroke patients that suffer from motor impairment. While it is commonly accepted that robot-based therapies are potentially helpful, strong insights about their efficacy are still lacking. The motor re-learning process may act on muscular synergies, which are groups of co-activating muscles that, being controlled as a synergic group, allow simplifying the problem of motor control. In fact, by coordinating a reduced amount of neural signals, complex motor patterns can be elicited. This paper aims at analyzing the effects of robot assistance during 3D-reaching movements in the framework of muscular synergies. 5 healthy people and 3 neurological patients performed free and robot-assisted reaching movements at 2 different speeds (slow and quasi-physiological). EMG recordings were used to extract muscular synergies. Results indicate that the interaction with the robot very slightly alters healthy people patterns but, on the contrary, it may promote the emergency of physiological-like synergies on neurological patients.

  7. Body weight-supported training in Becker and Limb Girdle 2I muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente Rona; Berthelsen, Martin Peter; Husu, Edith

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We studied the functional effects of combined strength and aerobic anti-gravity training in severely affected patients with Becker and Limb-Girdle muscular dystrophies. METHODS: Eight patients performed 10-week progressive combined strength (squats, calf raises, lunges) and aerobic...

  8. Comparison of human IgE-binding soya bean allergenic protein Gly m I with the antigenicity profiles of calf anti-soya protein sera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessing, M.; Bleeker, H.; Tsuji, H.; Ogawa, T.; Vlooswijk, R.A.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the food, particularly the feed, industry, large quantities of soya bean protein products are used for the formulation of end-products destined for human or animal consumption. These basic ingredients and the final end products often have to fulfill specific requirements regarding the presence of

  9. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 in veal calf farming: Human MRSA carriage related with animal antimicrobial usage and farm hygiene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304841838; Wagenaar, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126613354; Heesterbeek, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073321427; Mevius, D.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/079677347; van Duijkeren, E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/135063841; Heederik, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072910542

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recently a specific MRSA sequence type, ST398, emerged in food production animals and farmers. Risk factors for carrying MRSA ST398 in both animals and humans have not been fully evaluated. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated factors associated with MRSA colonization in veal

  10. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 in veal calf farming: human MRSA carriage related with animal antimicrobial usage and farm hygiene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, H.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Heesterbeek, H.; Mevius, D.J.; Duijkeren, van E.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Recently a specific MRSA sequence type, ST398, emerged in food production animals and farmers. Risk factors for carrying MRSA ST398 in both animals and humans have not been fully evaluated. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated factors associated with MRSA colonization in veal

  11. Study of the muscular metabolism using Phosphorus 31 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (31P-MRS) in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, T.S.; Salmon, C.E.G.; Santos, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    Phosphorus 31 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ( 31 P-MRS) is a powerful technique for evaluating human muscular metabolism. Some reports indicated the behavior of phosphorylated metabolites (PCr, ADP and Pi) and other indirect parameters (intracellular pH and [Mg 2+ ]) in muscles at rest and after an exercise load. The aim of this work is a quantitative study of the phosphorylated metabolite levels in the calf muscle of normal subjects at rest and post-exercise, in order to create a normal control database. 31 P spectra of seven volunteers were acquired in both conditions. Firstly, different quantification methodologies were evaluated to use the more reliable. The P Cr metabolite was the more stable at rest and it had mono-exponential behavior after exercise. The Pi was the more sensible indicator of the physical activities. The time constants of the recuperation process are report for all the evaluated metabolites and parameters. Finally, the temporal behavior of phospho monoesters was quantified. (author)

  12. Analysis of the Interaction of Dp44mT with Human Serum Albumin and Calf Thymus DNA Using Molecular Docking and Spectroscopic Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongjie Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Di-2-pyridylketone-4,4,-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT exhibits significant antitumor activity. However, the mechanism of its pharmacological interaction with human serum albumin (HSA and DNA remains poorly understood. Here, we aimed to elucidate the interactions of Dp44mT with HSA and DNA using MTT assays, spectroscopic methods, and molecular docking analysis. Our results indicated that addition of HSA at a ratio of 1:1 did not alter the cytotoxicity of Dp44mT, but did affect the cytotoxicity of the Dp44mT-Cu complex. Data from fluorescence quenching and UV-VIS absorbance measurements demonstrated that Dp44mT could bind to HSA with a moderate affinity (Ka = approximately 104 M−1. CD spectra revealed that Dp44mT could slightly disrupt the secondary structure of HSA. Dp44mT could also interact with Ct-DNA, but had a moderate binding constant (KEB = approximately 104 M−1. Docking studies indicated that the IB site of HSA, but not the IIA and IIIA sites, could be favorable for Dp44mT and that binding of Dp44mT to HSA involved hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic force, consistent with thermodynamic results from spectral investigations. Thus, the moderate binding affinity of Dp44mT with HSA and DNA partially contributed to its antitumor activity and may be preferable in drug design approaches.

  13. Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Isolated Calf Vein Thrombosis in a Large Teaching Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santin Brian

    2011-01-01

    Methods. A retrospective review of the records of 100 consecutive patients diagnosed with ICDVT by DUS was conducted. Results. Patients (59% male were predominantly Caucasian (86% and inpatients (69% with an average age of 53 years. The most frequent risk factors were malignancy (22%, immobility (18%, and previous DVT (13%. Thrombus was present in named tibial veins in 58% and muscular branches in 42%. The peroneal vein was most frequently involved (39/117, 33% followed by the gastrocnemius veins (29/117, 22% and muscular calf tributaries (14%. Conclusions. Our patient population with ICDVT was predominantly symptomatic, in-patient cohort with a high incidence of risk factors such as malignancy, immobility, previous DVT, trauma, and postoperative status. Partial or complete resolution was documented by DUS in 53%.

  14. Concordant but Varied Phenotypes among Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Patient-Specific Myoblasts Derived using a Human iPSC-Based Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, In Young; Lim, HoTae; Estrellas, Kenneth; Mula, Jyothi; Cohen, Tatiana V; Zhang, Yuanfan; Donnelly, Christopher J; Richard, Jean-Philippe; Kim, Yong Jun; Kim, Hyesoo; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Li, Hongmei Lisa; Hotta, Akitsu; Rothstein, Jeffrey; Maragakis, Nicholas; Wagner, Kathryn R; Lee, Gabsang

    2016-06-07

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) remains an intractable genetic disease. Althogh there are several animal models of DMD, there is no human cell model that carries patient-specific DYSTROPHIN mutations. Here, we present a human DMD model using human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Our model reveals concordant disease-related phenotypes with patient-dependent variation, which are partially reversed by genetic and pharmacological approaches. Our "chemical-compound-based" strategy successfully directs hiPSCs into expandable myoblasts, which exhibit a myogenic transcriptional program, forming striated contractile myofibers and participating in muscle regeneration in vivo. DMD-hiPSC-derived myoblasts show disease-related phenotypes with patient-to-patient variability, including aberrant expression of inflammation or immune-response genes and collagens, increased BMP/TGFβ signaling, and reduced fusion competence. Furthermore, by genetic correction and pharmacological "dual-SMAD" inhibition, the DMD-hiPSC-derived myoblasts and genetically corrected isogenic myoblasts form "rescued" multi-nucleated myotubes. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate the feasibility of establishing a human "DMD-in-a-dish" model using hiPSC-based disease modeling. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Concordant but Varied Phenotypes among Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Patient-Specific Myoblasts Derived using a Human iPSC-Based Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Young Choi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD remains an intractable genetic disease. Althogh there are several animal models of DMD, there is no human cell model that carries patient-specific DYSTROPHIN mutations. Here, we present a human DMD model using human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs. Our model reveals concordant disease-related phenotypes with patient-dependent variation, which are partially reversed by genetic and pharmacological approaches. Our “chemical-compound-based” strategy successfully directs hiPSCs into expandable myoblasts, which exhibit a myogenic transcriptional program, forming striated contractile myofibers and participating in muscle regeneration in vivo. DMD-hiPSC-derived myoblasts show disease-related phenotypes with patient-to-patient variability, including aberrant expression of inflammation or immune-response genes and collagens, increased BMP/TGFβ signaling, and reduced fusion competence. Furthermore, by genetic correction and pharmacological “dual-SMAD” inhibition, the DMD-hiPSC-derived myoblasts and genetically corrected isogenic myoblasts form “rescued” multi-nucleated myotubes. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate the feasibility of establishing a human “DMD-in-a-dish” model using hiPSC-based disease modeling.

  16. Transplantation of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stems cells for the treatment of Becker muscular dystrophy in affected pedigree members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pang; Cui, Kai; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Zhendan; Shen, Yangyang; Wang, Xiangyu; Zhang, Jianbo; Tong, Feng; Li, Sheng

    2015-04-01

    The regeneration of muscle tissue has been achieved using multipotent mesenchymal stem cells in mouse models of injured skeletal muscle. In the present study, the utility of multipotent human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) in the treatment of Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), a genetic disease where muscle tissue fails to regenerate, was examined in members from a pedigree affected by BMD. The disease status was evaluated in 4 affected pedigree members (II1, II2, II3 and III2; aged 50, 46, 42 and 6 years, respectively). The transplantation of the hUC‑MSCs (performed on 3 patients, I2, II3 and III2) was performed by infusion with an intravenous drip over a 30‑min period, and the patients were evaluated at 1, 3, 4 and 12 weeks following the procedure. The evaluation was based on physical characteristics, as well as on molecular testing for serum creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels and a histological examination of muscle biopsies. The patients suffered no adverse reactions in response to the transplantation of the hUC‑MSCs. At 1 week following transplantation all 3 patients showed improvement in the muscle force of the limbs, muscle size and daily activity. The walking gait of patient III2 had improved by 1 week post-transplantation and reached a normal status by 12 weeks. Serum CK and LDH levels were decreased relative to the baseline levels. A histological examination of muscle biopsies displayed no obvious tissue regeneration. In conclusion, the treatment of patients with BMD using hUC-MSCs was safe and of therapeutic benefit that lasted for up to 12 weeks. hUC-MSCs are, therefore, a potential cell therapy-based treatment option for patients with muscular dystrophies.

  17. Modeling the phenotype of spinal muscular atrophy by the direct conversion of human fibroblasts to motor neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi-Jie; Li, Jin-Jing; Lin, Xiang; Lu, Ying-Qian; Guo, Xin-Xin; Dong, En-Lin; Zhao, Miao; He, Jin; Wang, Ning; Chen, Wan-Jin

    2017-02-14

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a lethal autosomal recessive neurological disease characterized by selective degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord. In recent years, the development of cellular reprogramming technology has provided an alternative and effective method for obtaining patient-specific neurons in vitro. In the present study, we applied this technology to the field of SMA to acquire patient-specific induced motor neurons that were directly converted from fibroblasts via the forced expression of 8 defined transcription factors. The infected fibroblasts began to grow in a dipolar manner, and the nuclei gradually enlarged. Typical Tuj1-positive neurons were generated at day 23. After day 35, induced neurons with multiple neurites were observed, and these neurons also expressed the hallmarks of Tuj1, HB9, ISL1 and CHAT. The conversion efficiencies were approximately 5.8% and 5.5% in the SMA and control groups, respectively. Additionally, the SMA-induced neurons exhibited a significantly reduced neurite outgrowth rate compared with the control neurons. After day 60, the SMA-induced neurons also exhibited a liability of neuronal degeneration and remarkable fracturing of the neurites was observed. By directly reprogramming fibroblasts, we established a feeder-free conversion system to acquire SMA patient-specific induced motor neurons that partially modeled the phenotype of SMA in vitro.

  18. The importance of the training-induced decrease in basal cortisol concentration in the improvement in muscular performance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandys, M; Majerczak, J; Kulpa, J; Duda, K; Rychlik, U; Zoladz, J A

    2016-01-01

    Acute exercise-induced changes in cortisol concentration (C) and training related adaptation within hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been widely examined, but their influence on muscle strength performance is at best uncertain. Twenty four young healthy men were randomly assigned to an endurance training group (ET, n=12) or to a non-exercising controls (CON, n=12). ET performed supervised endurance training on cycle ergometer for 20 weeks. Endurance training program improved exercise capacity (14 % increase in power output generated at peak oxygen uptake - VO(2peak)), muscle strength performance (increase in MVC - maximal voluntary contraction - by 9 % and in TTF 50 % MVC - time to fatigue at 50 % MVC - by 21 %) and led to a decrease in basal serum C concentration (P=0.006) and an increase in basal testosterone to cortisol (T/C) and free testosterone to cortisol (fT/C) ratios (P=0.01 and P=0.02, respectively). It was found that the decrease in C concentration (deltaC) was positively correlated to the increase in local muscular endurance (deltaTTF 50 % MVC). No significant hormonal changes were seen in CON group. It is concluded that greater decrease in cortisol concentration after the endurance training is accompanied by poorer improvement in skeletal muscle performance in previously untrained subjects.

  19. Evaluation of Serial Casting for Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Kate; de Valle, Katy; Kornberg, Andrew; Ryan, Monique; Kennedy, Rachel

    2018-02-01

    To report the effects of below-knee serial casting in two boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy who presented with well-preserved strength and calf shortening. Bilateral below-knee serial casts were applied over two weeks with follow-up of daily stretching and wearing of customized night splints. Outcome measures were performed at baseline, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post-casting. These included measures of calf length, leg strength, motor function, endurance, and spatio-temporal gait parameters. Both boys completed serial casting with gains in muscle length. No adverse effects on strength or motor function were observed over a 12-month follow-up period.

  20. Spinal Muscular Atrophy FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as ALS (Lou Gehrig’s Disease), cystic fibrosis and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Approximately 1 in 50 Americans, or about 6 ... Pediatric Neuromuscular Clinical Research Network ( PNCR ) and the Muscular ... is the SMN2 gene? Muscle weakness and atrophy in SMA results from the ...

  1. DNA replication timing is maintained genome-wide in primary human myoblasts independent of D4Z4 contraction in FSH muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Pope

    Full Text Available Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD is linked to contraction of an array of tandem 3.3-kb repeats (D4Z4 at 4q35.2 from 11-100 copies to 1-10 copies. The extent to which D4Z4 contraction at 4q35.2 affects overall 4q35.2 chromatin organization remains unclear. Because DNA replication timing is highly predictive of long-range chromatin interactions, we generated genome-wide replication-timing profiles for FSHD and control myogenic precursor cells. We compared non-immortalized myoblasts from four FSHD patients and three control individuals to each other and to a variety of other human cell types. This study also represents the first genome-wide comparison of replication timing profiles in non-immortalized human cell cultures. Myoblasts from both control and FSHD individuals all shared a myoblast-specific replication profile. In contrast, male and female individuals were readily distinguished by monoallelic differences in replication timing at DXZ4 and other regions across the X chromosome affected by X inactivation. We conclude that replication timing is a robust cell-type specific feature that is unaffected by FSHD-related D4Z4 contraction.

  2. Co-incidence of Turner syndrome and Duchenne muscular dystrophy - an important problem for the clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczorowska, Ewa; Zimowski, Janusz; Cichoń-Kotek, Monika; Mrozińska, Agnieszka; Purzycka, Joanna; Wierzba, Jolanta; Limon, Janusz; Lipska-Ziętkiewicz, Beata S

    Turner syndrome is a relatively common chromosomal disorder which affects about one in 2000 live born females. Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an X-linked recessive disorder affecting 1:3600 live born males. Considering the above, the coexistence of these two diseases may occur only anecdotally. Here, we report a 4 ½ year-old female with classical 45,X Turner syndrome who also had Duchenne muscular dystrophy caused by a point mutation in the dystrophin gene (c.9055delG). The patient showed the typical phenotype of Turner syndrome including distinctive dysmorphic features (short neck, low posterior hairline, wide position of nipples), aortic coarctation and feet lymphedema. Besides, she presented with an unusually early beginning of muscular dystrophy symptoms with infantile-onset motor developmental delay, intellectual disability and early calf muscular hypertrophy. The coexistence of an X-linked recessive disorder should be considered in women affected by Turner syndrome presenting with additional atypical clinical features.

  3. Quantifying antimicrobial resistance at veal calf farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, A.B.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Stegeman, A.; Vernooij, H.; Mevius, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to determine a sampling strategy to quantify the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance on veal calf farms, based on the variation in antimicrobial resistance within and between calves on five farms. Faecal samples from 50 healthy calves (10 calves/farm) were collected. From

  4. Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Treatment of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Safety and Feasibility Study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, B S; Chakrabarti, Swarup K; Dongare, Vaishali S; Ramirez, Christina M; Deb, Kaushik D

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a musculo-degenerative disease characterized by lack of dystrophin production with no definite cure available currently. Discarded umbilical cord is a potential source of mesenchymal stem cells which are non-immunogenic and can be used for transplantation in allogenic set ups. Given the regenerative and anti-inflammatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), here we investigated its role in the cellular therapy of DMD patients. This is a single-blinded study conducted in various hospitals of India situated in Mumbai, Delhi, and Lucknow. Inclusion criteria for enrolling the patients in the study were boys aged between 5 to 18 years, absence of dystrophin in the immunohistochemistry of muscle biopsy and mutation in dystrophin gene in cytogenetic analysis. The exclusion criteria were presence of dystrophin in the muscle biopsy, patients on corticosteroids etc. UC-MSCs (2 millions/kg body weight) were administered through IV and IM injection. Muscle power in muscles of proximal upper limb, distal upper limb, proximal lower limb, distal lower limb, hip flexors, hip extensors, hip abductors, and paraspinal muscles were measured in 11 DMD patients after UC-MSCs transplantation and were followed for up to 3 years (average follow up 1.5 years). 5 DMD patients did not receive any UC-MSCs transplantation and served as the control group. The treatment group (N = 11 at baseline) had a pretransplantation strength of 3.45 ± 1.0357 and 4.090 ± 0.8312 in muscles of proximal upper limb and distal upper limb respectively. After 1 year (N = 9) these strengths remained stable with an average of 3.78 (1.03) and 4.22 (0.83). In contrast, the control group (N = 5) has a pre-transplantation strength of 3.6 (0.54) and 4 (1) in the proximal and distal upper limb respectively. After 1 year, (N = 5) 3/5 subjects had a slight but not statistically significant decrease in the proximal upper limb, mean 3.0 (1.0) and 5/5 had a lunit decrease in

  5. Muscular Dystrophy (MD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patients may need assisted ventilation to treat respiratory muscle weakness and a pacemaker for cardiac abnormalities. View Full Treatment Information Definition The muscular dystrophies (MD) are a group of more than 30 ...

  6. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... There is no known cure for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. Treatments are given to control symptoms and improve quality of life. Activity is encouraged. Inactivity such as bedrest can make the muscle disease worse. Physical therapy may help maintain muscle ...

  7. Rhabdomyolysis featuring muscular dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoria, Rajat; Milone, Margherita

    2016-02-15

    Rhabdomyolysis is a potentially life threatening condition of various etiology. The association between rhabdomyolysis and muscular dystrophies is under-recognized in clinical practice. To identify muscular dystrophies presenting with rhabdomyolysis at onset or as predominant feature. We retrospectively reviewed clinical and laboratory data of patients with a genetically confirmed muscular dystrophy in whom rhabdomyolysis was the presenting or main clinical manifestation. Thirteen unrelated patients (males=6; females=7) were identified. Median age at time of rhabdomyolysis was 18 years (range, 2-47) and median duration between the first episode of rhabdomyolysis and molecular diagnosis was 2 years. Fukutin-related protein (FKRP) muscular dystrophy (n=6) was the most common diagnosis, followed by anoctaminopathy-5 (n=3), calpainopathy-3 (n=2) and dystrophinopathy (n=2). Four patients experienced recurrent rhabdomyolysis. Eight patients were asymptomatic and 3 reported myalgia and exercise intolerance prior to the rhabdomyolysis. Exercise (n=6) and fever (n=4) were common triggers; rhabdomyolysis was unprovoked in 3 patients. Twelve patients required hospitalization. Baseline CK levels were elevated in all patients (median 1200 IU/L; range, 600-3600). Muscular dystrophies can present with rhabdomyolysis; FKRP mutations are particularly frequent in causing such complication. A persistently elevated CK level in patients with rhabdomyolysis warrants consideration for underlying muscular dystrophy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tissue culture media supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum contains a castrate level of testosterone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedelaar, J.P.M.; Isaacs, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human prostate cancer cells are routinely maintained in media supplemented with 10% Fetal Calf Serum (FCS) to provide androgen. In the present study, total and free testosterone levels in 10%FCS supplemented tissue culture media were determined and compared to levels in intact and

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with mental retardation Muscular dystrophy, congenital, Fukuyama type Muscular dystrophy, congenital, with central nervous system involvement Polymicrogyria with muscular dystrophy Related Information How ...

  10. Differential diagnosis of calf pain by ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Augusto Botter

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate the recent and numerous applications of ultrasonography in the differential diagnosis of conditions that affect the popliteal fossa and lower limbs, resulting in calf pain. Popliteal cysts and their ruptures, aneurysms, hematomas, cellulitis, abscesses, soft tissue tumors and other fluid collections are easily identified by this technique. Moreover, post-trauma and inflammatory conditions affecting muscles and tendons, muscle necrosis, deep venous thrombosis and superficial thrombophlebitis are very well demonstrated by the ultrasonographic screening.

  11. Dismorfia muscular Muscle dysmorphia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Seleri Marques Assunção

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Preocupações mórbidas com a imagem corporal eram tidas até recentemente como problemas eminentemente femininos. Atualmente estas preocupações também têm sido encontradas no sexo masculino. A dismorfia muscular é um subtipo do transtorno dismórfico corporal que ocorre principalmente em homens que, apesar da grande hipertrofia muscular, consideram-se pequenos e fracos. Além de estar associada a prejuízos sociais, ocupacionais, recreativos e em outras áreas do funcionamento do indivíduo, a dismorfia muscular é também um fator de risco para o abuso de esteróides anabolizantes. Este artigo aborda aspectos epidemiológicos, etiológicos e padrões clínicos da dismorfia muscular, além de tecer comentários sobre estratégias de tratamento para este transtorno.Morbid concern over body image was considered, until recently, a female issue. Nowadays, it has been viewed as a common male disorder. Muscle dysmorphia, a subtype of a body dysmorphic disorder, affects men who, despite having clear muscular hypertroph,y see themselves as frail and small. Besides being associated to major social, leisure and occupational dysfunction, muscle dysmorphia is also a risk factor for the abuse of steroids. This article describes epidemiological, etiological and clinical characteristics of muscle dysmorphia and comments on its treatment strategy.

  12. Dyskospondylitis and paravertebral abscesses in a calf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testoni, S.

    2006-01-01

    A case of progressive spastic paraparesis due to a dyskospondylitis at the level of T9-T10 is described in a four-month old Holstein female calf. The calf was recumbent, but bright, alert and willing to suckle. Despite repeated attempts, the calf was not able to assume the sternal recumbency. The radiological findings were decisive for the in life diagnosis. Spinal radiography of the thoraco-lumbar region revealed lysis and collapse of T9 and T10 vertebral bodies; irregular proliferative new bone was evident. Lumbo-sacral myelography showed a narrowing and dorsal displacement of the ventral contrast column at the same spinal level, indicating a severe ventral extradural compression of the spinal cord. At the level of the thoracic cavity, a 20 x 15 cm diameter opacity extending ventrally to T8-T13 and caudo-dorsally to the heart was also evident. At gross necroscopy, two approximately 15 cm diameter encapsulated paravertebral abscesses were evident in the thoracis cavity just below the spinal column. A pure culture of Fusobacterium necrophorum was obtained from them. A saggital section of the spine showed an erosive suppurative process of T9 and T10 vertebral bodies that provoked the compression of the thoracic tract of the spinal cord [it

  13. Evaluation of Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-06

    Becker Muscular Dystrophy; Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy, Type 2A (Calpain-3 Deficiency); Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy, Type 2B (Miyoshi Myopathy, Dysferlin Deficiency); Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy, Type 2I (FKRP-deficiency)

  14. Duchenne muscular dystrophy models show their age

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    The lack of appropriate animal models has hampered efforts to develop therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). A new mouse model lacking both dystrophin and telomerase (Sacco et al., 2010) closely mimics the pathological progression of human DMD and shows that muscle stem cell activity is a key determinant of disease severity.

  15. Duchenne muscular dystrophy - a molecular service

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1987 a carrier detection and prenatal diagnostic service for. Duchenne muscular dystrophy using molecular technology was instituted at the Department of Human Genetics, Uni- versity of Cape Town, to serve affe.cted families in southern. Africa. DNA samples from 100 affected male subjects and. 350 of their relatives ...

  16. A laserterapia de baixa potência melhora o desempenho muscular mensurado por dinamometria isocinética em humanos Low-level laser therapy enhances muscular performance as measured by isokinetic dynamometry in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Cesar Pinto Leal Junior

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A fadiga muscular é uma nova área de pesquisa em laserterapia, com poucos estudos conduzidos. Embora a laserterapia de baixa potência (LBP previamente ao exercício tenha apresentado resultados positivos no retardo da fadiga musculoesquelética, ainda não foi estudada utilizando-se a dinamometria isocinética para mensurar desempenho e fadiga muscular. Este estudo tem o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da LBP (655 nm, 50 mW, 2,4 J por ponto e 12 J de energia total sobre o desempenho e fadiga muscular do músculo tibial anterior, utilizando dinamometria isocinética (30 repetições de contração concêntrica em 14 indivíduos saudáveis sedentários do sexo masculino. Os voluntários foram avaliados ao efetuar 30 repetições isocinéticas de dorsiflexão de tornozelo à velocidade angular de 240°.seg-1. Os resultados mostram que, quando os voluntários foram tratados com LBP antes do exercício, os valores do pico de torque (30,91±5,86 N.m foram significativamente superiores, comparados a três medições anteriores sem a aplicação de LBP (24,92±7,45 N.m, pSkeletal muscle fatigue is a novel research area in laser therapy, there being few studies carried out. Though low-level laser therapy (LLLT applied prior to exercise has showed positive results in delaying skeletal muscle fatigue, no studies could be found that measured muscle performance and fatigue by means of isokinetic dynamometry. This clinical trial aims at assessing the effects of LLLT (655 nm, 50 mW and 12 J total energy delivered on anterior tibialis muscle performance and fatigue by means of isokinetic dynamometry (30 concentric-mode repetitions at 240º.sec-1 angular speed in 14 healthy male subjects. Results show that, when volunteers had been treated with LLLT prior to exercise, torque peak values (30.91±5.86 N.m were significantly higher than those of three previous measurements with no LLLT (24.92±7.45 N.m, p<0.001; 26.83±7.74 N.m, p<0.01; and 26.00±7.88 N.m, p<0

  17. Learning about Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protein. Often these boys are classified as having Becker muscular dystrophy. Genetic testing (looking at the body's genetic instructions) ... National Library of Medicine Web site Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy [ghr.nlm.nih.gov] From Genetics Home Reference ...

  18. An overview of calf diarrhea - infectious etiology, diagnosis, and intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong-il

    2014-01-01

    Calf diarrhea is a commonly reported disease in young animals, and still a major cause of productivity and economic loss to cattle producers worldwide. In the report of the 2007 National Animal Health Monitoring System for U.S. dairy, half of the deaths among unweaned calves was attributed to diarrhea. Multiple pathogens are known or postulated to cause or contribute to calf diarrhea development. Other factors including both the environment and management practices influence disease severity or outcomes. The multifactorial nature of calf diarrhea makes this disease hard to control effectively in modern cow-calf operations. The purpose of this review is to provide a better understanding of a) the ecology and pathogenesis of well-known and potential bovine enteric pathogens implicated in calf diarrhea, b) describe diagnostic tests used to detect various enteric pathogens along with their pros and cons, and c) propose improved intervention strategies for treating calf diarrhea. PMID:24378583

  19. Ultrasonographic findings of the various diseases presenting as calf pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Joo; Kim, Ok Hwa; Choo, Hye Jung; Park, Jun Ho; Park, Yeong-Mi; Jeong, Hae Woong; Lee, Sung Moon; Cho, Kil Ho; Choi, Jung-Ah; Jacobson, Jon A

    2016-01-01

    There are various causes of calf pain. The differential diagnoses affecting the lower leg include cystic lesions, trauma-related lesions, infection or inflammation, vascular lesions, neoplasms, and miscellaneous entities. Ultrasound (US) provide detailed anatomical information of the calf structures, and it offers the ability to confirm, other calf abnormalities, particularly when deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is ruled out. The purpose of this article is to review the causes of a painful calf presenting as DVT and incidental findings found as part of the work-up of DVT, and to provide a broad overview of US findings and clinical features of these pathologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Meaning of Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is very similar to Duchenne, except kids with Becker MD may not have problems until much later, when they're teenagers or adults. It takes a long time for their muscles to become weak. How Does a Kid Get Muscular Dystrophy? MD is not contagious (say: con-TAY-juss), ...

  1. Young, healthy subjects can reduce the activity of calf muscles when provided with EMG biofeedback in upright stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taian M. Vieira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests the minimisation of muscular effort rather than of the size of bodily sway may be the primary, nervous system goal when regulating the human, standing posture. Different programs have been proposed for balance training; none however has been focused on the activation of postural muscles during standing. In this study we investigated the possibility of minimising the activation of the calf muscles during standing through biofeedback. By providing subjects with an audio signal that varied in amplitude and frequency with the amplitude of surface electromyograms (EMG recorded from different regions of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, we expected them to be able to minimise the level of muscle activation during standing without increasing the excursion of the centre of pressure (CoP. CoP data and surface EMG from gastrocnemii, soleus and tibialis anterior muscles were obtained from ten healthy participants while standing at ease and while standing with EMG biofeedback. Four sensitivities were used to test subjects’ responsiveness to the EMG biofeedback. Compared with standing at ease, the two most sensitive feedback conditions induced a decrease in plantar flexor activity (~15%; P<0.05 and an increase in tibialis anterior EMG (~10%; P<0.05. Furthermore, CoP mean position significantly shifted backward (~30 mm. In contrast, the use of less sensitive EMG biofeedback resulted in a significant decrease in EMG activity of ankle plantar flexors with a marginal increase in TA activity compared with standing at ease. These changes were not accompanied by greater CoP displacements or significant changes in mean CoP position. Key results revealed subjects were able to keep standing stability while reducing the activity of gastrocnemius and soleus without loading their tibialis anterior muscle when standing with EMG biofeedback. These results may therefore posit the basis for the development of training protocols aimed at

  2. [Atypical reaction to anesthesia in Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Helga Cristina Almeida da; Hiray, Marcia; Vainzof, Mariz; Schmidt, Beny; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle; Amaral, José Luiz Gomes do

    2017-05-31

    Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy affects skeletal muscles and leads to progressive muscle weakness and risk of atypical anesthetic reactions following exposure to succinylcholine or halogenated agents. The aim of this report is to describe the investigation and diagnosis of a patient with Becker muscular dystrophy and review the care required in anesthesia. Male patient, 14 years old, referred for hyperCKemia (chronic increase of serum creatine kinase levels - CK), with CK values of 7,779-29,040IU.L -1 (normal 174IU.L -1 ). He presented with a discrete delay in motor milestones acquisition (sitting at 9 months, walking at 18 months). He had a history of liver transplantation. In the neurological examination, the patient showed difficulty in walking on one's heels, myopathic sign (hands supported on the thighs to stand), high arched palate, calf hypertrophy, winged scapulae, global muscle hypotonia and arreflexia. Spirometry showed mild restrictive respiratory insufficiency (forced vital capacity: 77% of predicted). The in vitro muscle contracture test in response to halothane and caffeine was normal. Muscular dystrophy analysis by Western blot showed reduced dystrophin (20% of normal) for both antibodies (C and N-terminal), allowing the diagnosis of Becker muscular dystrophy. On preanesthetic assessment, the history of delayed motor development, as well as clinical and/or laboratory signs of myopathy, should encourage neurological evaluation, aiming at diagnosing subclinical myopathies and planning the necessary care to prevent anesthetic complications. Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy, although it does not increase susceptibility to MH, may lead to atypical fatal reactions in anesthesia. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Performance and Health of Group-Housed Calves Kept in Igloo Calf Hutches and Calf Barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Wójcik*, Renata Pilarczyk, Anna Bilska, Ottfried Weiher1 and Peter Sanftleben1

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Group-reared calves are usually housed in common buildings, such as calf barns of all sorts; however, there are concerns about this practice due to problems such as an increased incidence of diseases and poor performance of the calves. Group calf rearing using igloo hutches may be a solution combining the benefits of individual and group housing systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate group-reared calves housed in Igloo-type hutches compared with those housed in common calf barns. The experiment was carried out on a large private dairy farm located in Vorpommern, Germany. A total of 90 Deutsche-Holstein bull calves were assigned to 2 treatment groups: the calf-barn group, with calves grouped in pens in a building, and the Igloo-hutch group, with calves housed in outdoor enclosures with an access to group igloo-style hutches. Calves entering the 84-day experiment were at an average age of about three weeks, with the mean initial body weight of about 50 kg. The calves housed in the group Igloo hutches attained higher daily weight gains compared to those housed in the calf barn (973 vs 721 g/day, consumed more solid feeds (concentrate, corn grain and maize silage: (1.79 vs 1.59 kg/day, and less milk replacer (5.51 vs 6.19 kg/day, had also a lower incidence of respiratory diseases (1.24 vs 3.57% with a shorter persistence of the illness.

  4. Efficacy of calf:cow ratios for estimating calf production of arctic caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, R.D.; Griffith, B.; Parrett, L.S.; White, R.G.

    2013-01-01

    Caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) calf:cow ratios (CCR) computed from composition counts obtained on arctic calving grounds are biased estimators of net calf production (NCP, the product of parturition rate and early calf survival) for sexually-mature females. Sexually-immature 2-year-old females, which are indistinguishable from sexually-mature females without calves, are included in the denominator, thereby biasing the calculated ratio low. This underestimate increases with the proportion of 2-year-old females in the population. We estimated the magnitude of this error with deterministic simulations under three scenarios of calf and yearling annual survival (respectively: low, 60 and 70%; medium, 70 and 80%; high, 80 and 90%) for five levels of unbiased NCP: 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%. We assumed a survival rate of 90% for both 2-year-old and mature females. For each NCP, we computed numbers of 2-year-old females surviving annually and increased the denominator of CCR accordingly. We then calculated a series of hypothetical “observed” CCRs, which stabilized during the last 6 years of the simulations, and documented the degree to which each 6-year mean CCR differed from the corresponding NCP. For the three calf and yearling survival scenarios, proportional underestimates of NCP by CCR ranged 0.046–0.156, 0.058–0.187, and 0.071–0.216, respectively. Unfortunately, because parturition and survival rates are typically variable (i.e., age distribution is unstable), the magnitude of the error is not predictable without substantial supporting information. We recommend maintaining a sufficient sample of known-age radiocollared females in each herd and implementing a regular relocation schedule during the calving period to obtain unbiased estimates of both parturition rate and NCP.

  5. Giant atypical ossifying fibromyxoid tumour of the calf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harish, Srinivasan; Polson, Alexander; Griffiths, Meryl; Morris, Paul; Malata, Charles; Bearcroft, Philip W.P.

    2006-01-01

    We present a case of giant atypical ossifying fibromyxoid tumour (OFMT) of soft tissue, occurring in the calf, in a 77-year-old woman. The patient presented with a history of bleeding ulcer over a calf lump that had been present for over 4 years. Clinical presentation, radiological features and histopathologic findings are described, and the relevant literature is reviewed. (orig.)

  6. CalfScience: Extension Education at Many Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dale A.; Tellessen, Kathlyn; Sischo, William M.

    2010-01-01

    The issue of antimicrobial resistance in food animal agriculture was addressed by conducting clinical trials to assess alternatives to antimicrobials in dairy calf-raising and developing outreach to three different audiences. Current research was integrated into Extension programs for calf-raisers, animal science and veterinary students, and food…

  7. Preventative programs for respiratory disease in cow/calf operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelken, T J

    1997-11-01

    Control of respiratory disease in cow/calf operations presents many challenges. The incidence of disease in the suckling calf is not well documented and the logistics of handling range animals make control programs difficult to implement. Health programs have to be built around normal working patterns, and these patterns may not provide the best "fit" for immune management of the calf. Weaned calves undergo significant disease challenge when they enter typical marketing channels. This provides the potential for high levels of calf morbidity, mortality, medicine costs, and losses from decreased performance as they arrive at a stocker operation or feedyard. If preweaning calf health and preconditioning programs are used, they must be planned so that the producer has an opportunity to obtain a return on their investment. Options for increasing calf weight marketed, certified calf health sales, or retained ownership through the next phase of production should be evaluated carefully. Any potential increase in calf value must be weighed against program costs. This affords the veterinarian an opportunity to build on traditional disease management and prevention skills and expand their influence in overall ranch management.

  8. Effects of phyto-oestrogens on veal calf prostate histology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    In veal calf production plant-based proteins are frequently included in milk replacer fed to the animals. Since soy products, which are mostly used, are known for their high levels of phyto-oestrogens, the effects of these feeds on the veal calf prostate were examined. Goal was to determine whether

  9. Duchenne muscular dystrophy carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, K.; Nakano, I.

    1989-01-01

    By means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1 values) of the skeletal muscles were measured in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) carriers and normal controls. The bound water fraction (BWF) was calculated from the T1 values obtained, according to the fast proton diffusion model. In the DMD carriers, T1 values of the gluteus maximus and quadriceps femoris muscles were significantly higher, and BWFs of these muscles were significantly lower than in normal control. Degenerative muscular changes accompanied by interstitial edema were presumed responsible for this abnormality. No correlation was observed between the muscle T1 and serum creatine kinase values. The present study showed that MRI could be a useful method for studying the dynamic state of water in both normal and pathological skeletal muscles. Its possible utility for DMD carrier detection was discussed briefly. (orig.)

  10. Influences of supplemental feeding on winter elk calf:cow ratios in the southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Foley, Aaron; Cross, Paul C.; Christianson, David A; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Creely, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Several elk herds in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem are fed during winter to alleviate interactions with livestock, reduce damage to stored crops, and to manage for high elk numbers. The effects of supplemental feeding on ungulate population dynamics has rarely been examined, despite the fact that supplemental feeding is partially justified as necessary for maintaining or enhancing population growth rates. We used linear regression to assess how the presence of feedgrounds, snowpack, summer rainfall, indices of grizzly bear density and wolves per elk, elk population trend counts, brucellosis seroprevalence, and survey date were correlated with midwinter calf:cow ratios, a metric correlated with population growth, from 1983–2010 from 12 ecologically similar elk herd units (7 fed and 5 unfed) in Wyoming, USA. Our statistical approach allowed for rigorous tests of the hypotheses that supplemental feeding had positive effects on calf:cow ratios and reduced sensitivity of calf:cow ratios to bottom-up limitation relative to top-down limitation from native predators. Calf:cow ratios generally declined across all herd units over the study period and varied widely among units with feedgrounds. We found no evidence that the presence of feedgrounds had positive effects on midwinter calf:cow ratios in Wyoming. Further, fed elk showed stronger correlations with environmental factors, whereas calf:cow ratios for unfed elk showed stronger correlations with predator indices. Although we found no consistent association between winter feeding and higher calf:cow ratios, we did not assess late winter mortality and differences in human offtake between fed and unfed regions, which remain a priority for future research. 

  11. Newborn calf welfare: a review focusing on mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uetake, Katsuji

    2013-02-01

    Calf mortality control is vitally important for farmers, not only to improve animal welfare, but also to increase productivity. High calf mortality rates can be related to larger numbers of calves in a herd, employee performance, severe weather, and the neonatal period covering the first 4 weeks of life. Although the basic premise of preventing newborn calf mortality is early detection and treatment of calves at risk for failure of passive transfer of immunoglobulins, calf mortality due to infectious diseases such as acute diarrhea increases in the presence of these physical and psychological stressors. This suggests that farmers should not ignore the effects of secondary environmental factors. For prevention rather than cure, the quality of the environment should be improved, which will improve not only animal welfare but also productivity. This paper presents a review of the literature on newborn calf mortality and discusses its productivity implications. © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Characteristic of muscle involvement evaluated by CT scans in early stages of progressive muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Yumi

    1993-01-01

    Muscle CT scans were performed in order to compare the characteristic distribution of progressive muscle involvement in the early stages of Duchenne type (DMD) and Fukuyama type muscular dystrophy (FCMD). Muscle images at the levels of the 3rd lumbar vertebra, thigh and calf were assessed by visual inspection, and mean CT numbers calculated for individual muscles were statistically analysed. On visual inspection, intramuscular low density areas and muscular atrophy were observed in the muscles of older patients with either disease. These changes were, however, more extensive at thigh level in DMD, and at calf level in FCMD. Nevertheless, the mean CT numbers of muscles in which only slight changes were grossly visible on CT scans displayed progressive decreases with increasing age. Moreover, a significant negative relationship was recognizable between age and mean CT number in almost all muscles examined. Comparison of the slopes of the regression lines revealed that the so-called selective pattern of muscle involvement characteristic of the symptomatic stage had already partially manifested in the preclinical or early stages of both diseases. In FCMD, the rates of decrease in CT numbers were extremely rapid for calf muscles as compared with those in DMD, indicating that this is one reason for FCMD patients never becoming ambulatory. However, for almost all of the other muscles, the CT numbers in FCMD decreased in parallel with the corresponding CT numbers in DMD; thus, these diseases displayed a similarity in the pattern of muscle involvement, despite their different pathogenetic mechanisms and inheritance patterns. (author)

  13. Zinc Methionine Supplementation Impacts Gene and Protein Expression in Calf-fed Holstein Steers with Miniaml Impact on Feedlot Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calf-fed Holstein steers were supplemented with a zinc (Zn) methionine supplement (ZnMet; ZINPRO®; Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN) for 115±5 days prior to harvest along with zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; Zilmax®; Merck Animal Health, Summit, NJ) for the last 20 days with a 3 day withdrawal to ...

  14. Estimation of carcass composition using rib dissection of calf-fed Holstein steers supplemented zilpaterol hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvers, T J; May, N D; Reed, J A; Walter, L J; Hutcheson, J P; Lawrence, T E

    2018-04-14

    A serial harvest was conducted every 28 d from 254 to 534 d on feed (DOF) to quantify changes in growth and composition of calf-fed Holstein steers (n = 115, initial body weight (BW) = 449.2 ± 19.9 kg). One-half were supplemented with the β-2 adrenergic agonist zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; 8.33 mg/kg 100% dry matter (DM) basis) during the final 20 d followed by a 3-d withdrawal prior to harvest; the remainder was fed a non-ZH control (CON) ration. Five steers were randomly selected and harvested after 226 DOF which served as a reference point for modeling purposes. Fabricated carcass soft tissue was ground, mixed, and subsampled for proximate analysis. Moreover, following the traditional method of rib dissection which includes the 9th, 10th, and 11th rib contained within the IMPS 103 primal, the relationship of carcass chemical composition to 9-10-11 rib composition was evaluated. Carcasses in this investigation had more (P carcasses and rib dissections. Using regression procedures, models were constructed to describe the relationship of rib dissection (RD) composition including separable lean (RDSL), separable fat (RDSF), separable bone (RDSB), ether extract (RDEE), protein (RDP), moisture (RDM), and ash (RDA) with carcass composition. Carcass lean (CL), carcass fat (CF), and carcass bone (CB) were correlated (P carcass, carcass ether extract (CEE), carcass protein (CP), carcass moisture (CM), and carcass ash (CA) were correlated (P ≤ 0.01) with simple r values of 0.75, 0.31, 0.66, and 0.37, respectively. Equations to predict carcass fatness from rib dissection variables and ZH supplementation status were only able to account for 50 and 56%, of the variability of CF and CEE, respectively. Overall, the relationships quantified and equations developed in this investigation do not support use of 9/10/11 rib dissection for estimation of carcass composition of calf-fed Holstein steers.

  15. Duchenne muscular dystrophy with associated growth hormone deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoor, T.; Mahmood, A.; Shams, S.

    2003-01-01

    A patient with duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and growth hormone (GH) deficiency is described who had no clinical evidence of muscular weakness before initiation of GH replacement therapy. Treatment with human GH resulted in appearance of symptoms of easy fatigability and muscle weakness. Thorough investigations including serum creating phosphokinase (CK) levels in recommended in every patient with GH deficiency before starting GH replacement therapy. (author)

  16. MRI as outcome measure in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Grete; Dahlqvist, Julia R; Vissing, Christoffer R

    2017-01-01

    There is no effective treatment available for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type 1 (FSHD1), but emerging therapies are under way that call for a better understanding of natural history in this condition. In this prospective, longitudinal study, we used quantitative MRI to assess yearly...... disease progression in patients with FSHD1. Ambulatory patients with confirmed diagnosis of FSHD1 (25/20 men/women, age 20-75 years, FSHD score: 0-12) were tested with 359-560-day interval between tests. Using the MRI Dixon technique, muscle fat replacement was evaluated in paraspinal, thigh, and calf...... muscles. Changes were compared with those in FSHD score, muscle strength (hand-held dynamometry), 6-minute-walk-distance, 14-step-stair-test, and 5-time-sit-to-stand-test. Composite absolute fat fraction of all assessed muscles increased by 0.036 (CI 0.026-0.046, P

  17. Cardio-Muscular Conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    In the mid-sixties, Gary Graham, a Boeing designer, developed a cardiovascular conditioner for a planned Air Force orbiting laboratory. After the project was cancelled, Graham participated in space station conditioning studies for the Skylab program. Twenty years later, he used this expertise to develop the Shuttle 2000-1, a physical therapy and athletic development conditioner, available through Contemporary Designs. The machine is used by football teams, sports clinics and medical rehabilitation centers. Cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength development are promoted through both kinetic and plyometric exercises.

  18. Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy (LGMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT) Congenital Muscular Dystrophy (CMD) Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy Endocrine Myopathies Metabolic Diseases of Muscle Mitochondrial Myopathies (MM) Myotonic Dystrophy (DM) Spinal-Bulbar ...

  19. Effects of coagulating enzyme types (commercial calf rennet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of coagulating enzyme types (commercial calf rennet, Aspergillus niger var. awamori as recombinant chymosin and rhizomucor miehei as microbial rennet) on the chemical and sensory characteristics of white pickled cheese.

  20. Duchenne muscular dystrophy quantification of muscular parameters and prednisone therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenakker, Ernesto Alexander Christiaan

    2005-01-01

    The aims of the study described in this thesis were: 1. to establish reference values for muscle force, functional ability, calf circumference and echogenitcity of muscle tissue; 2. to assess disease severity in ambulant DMD patients by using these reference values;3. to determine the effects of

  1. Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis assemblages in weaned cattle on cow-calf operations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, Monica; Dargatz, David; Fayer, Ronald

    2012-02-10

    To determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in weaned beef calves on cow-calf operations in the United States, fecal specimens were collected from 819 calves (6-18 months of age) from 49 operations. After cleaning and concentration procedures to maximize recovery of cysts from feces, DNA was extracted from each of the 819 specimens. The presence of G. duodenalis was determined by nested PCR of a fragment of the SSU rRNA gene. All positive PCR products were subjected to sequence analysis. The overall sample level prevalence of Giardia was 33.5% with prevalence ranging from 0 to 100% among operations. The highest within herd prevalence of infected beef calves was found in one cow-calf operation from the South region (100%), followed by a cow-calf operation from the West region (90%), and three cow-calf operations from the Midwest region (87.5, 85, and 85%). Giardia was not detected in samples from 7 operations including 5 cow-calf operations from the South region, and 1 cow-calf operation each from the Midwest and West regions. Molecular analysis of the Giardia-positive samples identified assemblage E (or E-like) in 31.7% of all samples (260/819) and assemblage A in 1.2% (10/819). A mixed infection with assemblages A and E was observed in four calves from an operation in Midwest region. The potentially zoonotic assemblage A was detected in specimens from four operations in Midwest region. These findings indicate that most G. duodenalis found in weaned beef calves was assemblage E which represents no known zoonotic threat. However, the presence of assemblage A in a small number of animals poses a potential risk of infection to humans. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Calf health from birth to weaning. III. housing and management of calf pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Ingrid

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calfhood diseases have a major impact on the economic viability of cattle operations. A three part review series has been developed focusing on calf health from birth to weaning. In this paper, the last of the three part series, we review disease prevention and management with particular reference to pneumonia, focusing primarily on the pre-weaned calf. Pneumonia in recently weaned suckler calves is also considered, where the key risk factors are related to the time of weaning. Weaning of the suckler calf is often combined with additional stressors including a change in nutrition, environmental change, transport and painful husbandry procedures (castration, dehorning. The reduction of the cumulative effects of these multiple stressors around the time of weaning together with vaccination programmes (preconditioning can reduce subsequent morbidity and mortality in the feedlot. In most studies, calves housed individually and calves housed outdoors with shelter, are associated with decreased risk of disease. Even though it poses greater management challenges, successful group housing of calves is possible. Special emphasis should be given to equal age groups and to keeping groups stable once they are formed. The management of pneumonia in calves is reliant on a sound understanding of aetiology, relevant risk factors, and of effective approaches to diagnosis and treatment. Early signs of pneumonia include increased respiratory rate and fever, followed by depression. The single most important factor determining the success of therapy in calves with pneumonia is early onset of treatment, and subsequent adequate duration of treatment. The efficacy and economical viability of vaccination against respiratory disease in calves remains unclear.

  3. Fiber sources for complete calf starter rations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, F R; Wallenius, R W

    1980-11-01

    Complete calf starter rations containing either 1) alfalfa hay, 2) cottonseed hulls, or 3) alfalfa-beet pulp as sources of fiber were fed to Holstein heifer calves at two locations on a limited milk program from 3 days to 12 wk of age. Rations were isonitrogenous and similar in content of crude fiber and acid detergent fiber. Although growth and development were normal on all rations, calves fed the cottonseed hull ration consumed more starter and gained more body weight than calves fed the other sources of fiber. The similarity of feed efficiencies, rumen pH, and molar ratios of volatile fatty acids between rations indicated no appreciable differences in rumen development or function. The growth response of calves fed the cottonseed hull ration appeared to be a result of better ration acceptability for which no reason was evident. Calves raised at Puyallup gained more body weight than calves at Pullman, and these gains were made more efficiently. These location effects may be related to seasonal differences and greater demands for production of body heat. Although the incidence of scours was less for calves fed alfalfa hay starter, the incidence and severity of bloat were higher for that ration.

  4. Cytogenetic analysis and response to ionizing radiations in a girl with severe muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meola, G.; Barsi, L.; Velicogna, M.; Scarlato, G.; Fuhrman-Conti, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a severe X-linked condition characterized by a progressive degeneration of skeletal muscle. Mild clinical symptoms have been reported in female carriers of the DMD gene with normal karyotypes, this occurs in about 8% of DMD carriers. The degree of manifestation ranges from pseudohypertrophy of the calf muscles to moderate myopathy with proximal muscle wasting and weakness. Such manifestations can be explained on the basis of preferential inactivation of the X chromosome bearing the normal allele. The authors describe the cytogenetic analysis and the response to ionizing radiations in a severely affected girl exhibiting clinical, neurophysiological, biochemical, and histological findings of DMD

  5. Progressive dysphagia in limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Richard

    2012-02-01

    Dysphagia has not been reported in genetically confirmed limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD2B). A 40-year-old woman reported exercise-induced calf pain at age 34, followed by progressive lower and upper limb weakness. At age 38, progressive dysphagia for solids, and subsequently liquids, ensued. Endoscopic and videofluoroscopic-radiological findings indicated a myopathic swallowing disorder. Molecular genetic analysis confirmed two dysferlin gene mutations consistent with a compound heterozygote state. Progressive dysphagia should be considered as part of the expanding dysferlinopathy phenotype.

  6. A New Mouse Model of Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2I Homozygous for the Common L276I Mutation Mimicking the Mild Phenotype in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Thomas O; Vissing, John

    2015-01-01

    Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2I (LGMD2I) is caused by mutations in the Fukutin-related protein (FKRP) gene, leading to inadequate glycosylation of α-dystroglycan, an important protein linking the extracellular matrix to the cytoskeleton. We created a mouse model of the common FKRP L276I...... mutation and a hemizygous FKRP L276I knockout model. We studied histopathology and protein expression in the models at different ages and found that homozygous FKRP L276I mice developed a mild progressive myopathy with increased muscle regeneration and fibrosis starting from 1 year of age. This was likely...... in maintaining proper glycosylation of α-dystroglycan. The mild progression in the homozygous FKRP L276I model resembles that in patients with LGMD2I who are homozygous for the L276I mutation. This animal model could, therefore, be relevant for understanding the pathophysiology of and developing a treatment...

  7. Limb girdle muscular dystrophies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, John

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of the study was to describe the clinical spectrum of limb girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs), the pitfalls of the current classification system for LGMDs, and emerging therapies for these conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Close to half of all LGMD subtypes have been...... or are registered in other classification systems for muscle disease. On the contrary, diseases that fulfill classical criteria for LGMD have found no place in the LGMD classification system. These shortcomings call for revision/creation of a new classification system for LGMD. The rapidly expanding gene sequencing...... capabilities have helped to speed up new LGMD discoveries, and unveiled pheno-/genotype relations. Parallel to this progress in identifying new LGMD subtypes, emerging therapies for LGMDs are under way, but no disease-specific treatment is yet available for nonexperimental use. SUMMARY: The field of LGMD...

  8. NMR-CT in muscular disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Kiichiro; Nakano, Imaharu; Fukuda, Nobuo; Ikehira, Hiroo; Tateno, Yukio.

    1987-01-01

    Proton NMR-CT (magnetic field strength 0.1 Tesla, resonant frequency 4.5 MHz) was performed in 10 normal females and 19 Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) carriers. The mean age was 39 ± 12 years for the normal females and 42 ± 6 years for the DMD carriers. In DMD carriers, there were 4 definite, 4 probable, and 11 possible carriers. T 1 (spin-lattice relaxation time) image was obtained for a slice at the buttock, mid-thigh and calf levels respectively. T 1 values were measured for the medial portion of the gluteus maximus, the vastus lateralis of the quadriceps femoris, and the gastrocnemius. The bound water fraction (BWF) was calculated from Fullerton's equation based on the fast proton diffusion model. The following results were obtained: (1) In normal females, muscle T 1 value was highest in the gastrocnemius and lowest in the gluteus maximus. (2) In DMD carriers, T 1 values of the gluteus maximus and quadriceps femoris were significantly higher than those of the normal females. There was, however, no significant difference in T 1 value of the gastrocnemius between DMD carriers and normal females. (3) In DMD carriers, BWFs of the gluteus maximus and quadriceps femoris were significantly lower than those of the normal females. (4) In DMD carriers, no significant correlation was observed between the muscle T 1 values and the serum creatine phosphokinase values. Increased tissue water content in the lower parts of the body due to gravity is considered to be the primary cause of the high T 1 value in the gastrocnemius of normal females. The presence of the degenerating muscle fibers are presumed responsible for the high T 1 value and low BWF in the proximal muscles of DMD carriers. (author)

  9. NMR-CT in muscular disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Kiichiro; Nakano, Imaharu; Ikehira, Hiroo; Fukuda, Nobuo; Tateno, Yukio.

    1986-01-01

    Proton NMR-CT (magnetic field strength 0.1 Tesla, resonant frequency 4.5 MHz) was performed in 15 normal (NC) and 20 Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) males. The age ranged from 3 to 47 years for the NC males, and 1 to 14 years for the DMD males. In the DMD group there were one subclinical stage, 4 stage 1, 6 stage 2, 4 stage 3, and 5 stage 5 or higher patients. T 1 (longitudinal relaxation) images were obtained for three slices at the buttock, midthigh, and calf levels. The T 1 values were measured for the medial portion of the gluteus maximus, the vastus lateralis of the quadriceps femoris, the adductors, the sartorius, the gracilis, and the gastrocnemius muscles. Bound water fraction (BWF) was calculated from Fullerton's equation based on the fast diffusion model. The following results were obtained: (1) In the NC group, muscle T 1 values declined gradually with maturation under the age of 10, and became constant beyond that. The average T 1 value was 280 ms for the age group between 3 and 6 years, 270 ms for 7 and 10 years, and 260 ms for those older than 10 years. (2) Muscle BWF increased with maturation in the NC group. (3) In the DMD group, T 1 values were initially higher than normal (300 ms), declined rapidly with the progress of the disease, and reached the same low level as the subcutaneous fat (190 ms). (4) This decrease of T 1 value in DMD was not uniform for all muscles, being most prominent in the gluteus maximus and least so in the sartorius and gracilis. (5) In the early stages of DMD, the BWF was lower than normal. (J.P.N.)

  10. AAV vector encoding human VEGF165-transduced pectineus muscular flaps increase the formation of new tissue through induction of angiogenesis in an in vivo chamber for tissue engineering: A technique to enhance tissue and vessels in microsurgically engineered tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moimas, Silvia; Manasseri, Benedetto; Cuccia, Giuseppe; Stagno d'Alcontres, Francesco; Geuna, Stefano; Pattarini, Lucia; Zentilin, Lorena; Giacca, Mauro; Colonna, Michele R

    2015-01-01

    In regenerative medicine, new approaches are required for the creation of tissue substitutes, and the interplay between different research areas, such as tissue engineering, microsurgery and gene therapy, is mandatory. In this article, we report a modification of a published model of tissue engineering, based on an arterio-venous loop enveloped in a cross-linked collagen-glycosaminoglycan template, which acts as an isolated chamber for angiogenesis and new tissue formation. In order to foster tissue formation within the chamber, which entails on the development of new vessels, we wondered whether we might combine tissue engineering with a gene therapy approach. Based on the well-described tropism of adeno-associated viral vectors for post-mitotic tissues, a muscular flap was harvested from the pectineus muscle, inserted into the chamber and transduced by either AAV vector encoding human VEGF165 or AAV vector expressing the reporter gene β-galactosidase, as a control. Histological analysis of the specimens showed that muscle transduction by AAV vector encoding human VEGF165 resulted in enhanced tissue formation, with a significant increase in the number of arterioles within the chamber in comparison with the previously published model. Pectineus muscular flap, transduced by adeno-associated viral vectors, acted as a source of the proangiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor, thus inducing a consistent enhancement of vessel growth into the newly formed tissue within the chamber. In conclusion, our present findings combine three different research fields such as microsurgery, tissue engineering and gene therapy, suggesting and showing the feasibility of a mixed approach for regenerative medicine.

  11. Orocaecal transit time in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    OpenAIRE

    Korman, S H; Bar-Oz, B; Granot, E; Meyer, S

    1991-01-01

    Smooth muscle degeneration may occur in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We measured fasting orocaecal transit time in patients with advanced Duchenne muscular dystrophy and other muscular dystrophies and in healthy controls. No significant differences were found. In contrast to reports of gastric hypomotility in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, we found no evidence of impaired small intestinal motility.

  12. Contractile properties are disrupted in Becker muscular dystrophy, but not in limb girdle type 2I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løkken, Nicoline; Hedermann, Gitte; Thomsen, Carsten; Vissing, John

    2016-09-01

    We investigated whether a linear relationship between muscle strength and cross-sectional area (CSA) is preserved in calf muscles of patients with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD, n = 14) and limb-girdle type 2I muscular dystrophy (LGMD2I, n = 11), before and after correcting for muscle fat infiltration. The Dixon magnetic resonance imaging technique was used to quantify fat and calculate a fat-free contractile CSA. Strength was assessed by dynamometry. Muscle strength/CSA relationships were significantly lower in patients versus controls. The strength/contractile-CSA relationship was still severely lowered in BMD, but was almost normalized in LGMD2I. Our findings suggest close to intact contractile properties in LGMD2I, which are severely disrupted in BMD. Ann Neurol 2016;80:466-471. © 2016 American Neurological Association.

  13. Quantifying antimicrobial resistance at veal calf farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela B Bosman

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine a sampling strategy to quantify the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance on veal calf farms, based on the variation in antimicrobial resistance within and between calves on five farms. Faecal samples from 50 healthy calves (10 calves/farm were collected. From each individual sample and one pooled faecal sample per farm, 90 selected Escherichia coli isolates were tested for their resistance against 25 mg/L amoxicillin, 25 mg/L tetracycline, 0.5 mg/L cefotaxime, 0.125 mg/L ciprofloxacin and 8/152 mg/L trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (tmp/s by replica plating. From each faecal sample another 10 selected E. coli isolates were tested for their resistance by broth microdilution as a reference. Logistic regression analysis was performed to compare the odds of testing an isolate resistant between both test methods (replica plating vs. broth microdilution and to evaluate the effect of pooling faecal samples. Bootstrap analysis was used to investigate the precision of the estimated prevalence of resistance to each antimicrobial obtained by several simulated sampling strategies. Replica plating showed similar odds of E. coli isolates tested resistant compared to broth microdilution, except for ciprofloxacin (OR 0.29, p ≤ 0.05. Pooled samples showed in general lower odds of an isolate being resistant compared to individual samples, although these differences were not significant. Bootstrap analysis showed that within each antimicrobial the various compositions of a pooled sample provided consistent estimates for the mean proportion of resistant isolates. Sampling strategies should be based on the variation in resistance among isolates within faecal samples and between faecal samples, which may vary by antimicrobial. In our study, the optimal sampling strategy from the perspective of precision of the estimated levels of resistance and practicality consists of a pooled faecal sample from 20 individual animals, of which

  14. Positive radionuclide imaging of miRNA expression using RILES and the human sodium iodide symporter as reporter gene is feasible and supports a protective role of miRNA-23a in response to muscular atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Simion

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are key players in many biological processes and are considered as an emerging class of pharmacology drugs for diagnosis and therapy. However to fully exploit the therapeutic potential of miRNAs, it is becoming crucial to monitor their expression pattern using medical imaging modalities. Recently, we developed a method called RILES, for RNAi-Inducible Luciferase Expression System that relies on an engineered regulatable expression system to switch-ON the expression of the luciferase gene when a miRNA of interest is expressed in cells. Here we investigated whether replacing the luciferase reporter gene with the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS reporter gene will be also suited to monitor the expression of miRNAs in a clinical setting context. We provide evidence that radionuclide imaging of miRNA expression using hNIS is feasible although it is not as robust as when the luciferase reporter gene is used. However, under appropriate conditions, we monitored the expression of several miRNAs in cells, in the liver and in the tibialis anterior muscle of mice undergoing muscular atrophy. We demonstrated that radiotracer accumulation in transfected cells correlated with the induction of hNIS and with the expression of miRNAs detected by real time PCR. We established the kinetic of miRNA-23a expression in mice and demonstrated that this miRNA follows a biphasic expression pattern characterized by a loss of expression at a late time point of muscular atrophy. At autopsy, we found an opposite expression pattern between miRNA-23a and one of the main transcriptional target of this miRNA, APAF-1, and as downstream target, Caspase 9. Our results report the first positive monitoring of endogenously expressed miRNAs in a nuclear medicine imaging context and support the development of additional work to establish the potential therapeutic value of miRNA-23 to prevent the damaging effects of muscular atrophy.

  15. Positive radionuclide imaging of miRNA expression using RILES and the human sodium iodide symporter as reporter gene is feasible and supports a protective role of miRNA-23a in response to muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simion, Viorel; Sobilo, Julien; Clemoncon, Rudy; Natkunarajah, Sharuja; Ezzine, Safia; Abdallah, Florence; Lerondel, Stephanie; Pichon, Chantal; Baril, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key players in many biological processes and are considered as an emerging class of pharmacology drugs for diagnosis and therapy. However to fully exploit the therapeutic potential of miRNAs, it is becoming crucial to monitor their expression pattern using medical imaging modalities. Recently, we developed a method called RILES, for RNAi-Inducible Luciferase Expression System that relies on an engineered regulatable expression system to switch-ON the expression of the luciferase gene when a miRNA of interest is expressed in cells. Here we investigated whether replacing the luciferase reporter gene with the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) reporter gene will be also suited to monitor the expression of miRNAs in a clinical setting context. We provide evidence that radionuclide imaging of miRNA expression using hNIS is feasible although it is not as robust as when the luciferase reporter gene is used. However, under appropriate conditions, we monitored the expression of several miRNAs in cells, in the liver and in the tibialis anterior muscle of mice undergoing muscular atrophy. We demonstrated that radiotracer accumulation in transfected cells correlated with the induction of hNIS and with the expression of miRNAs detected by real time PCR. We established the kinetic of miRNA-23a expression in mice and demonstrated that this miRNA follows a biphasic expression pattern characterized by a loss of expression at a late time point of muscular atrophy. At autopsy, we found an opposite expression pattern between miRNA-23a and one of the main transcriptional target of this miRNA, APAF-1, and as downstream target, Caspase 9. Our results report the first positive monitoring of endogenously expressed miRNAs in a nuclear medicine imaging context and support the development of additional work to establish the potential therapeutic value of miRNA-23 to prevent the damaging effects of muscular atrophy.

  16. A 100-Year Review: Calf nutrition and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertz, A F; Hill, T M; Quigley, J D; Heinrichs, A J; Linn, J G; Drackley, J K

    2017-12-01

    The first calf paper, published in the May 1919 issue of the Journal of Dairy Science (JDS), described factors affecting birth body weight of different breeds of calves. Other studies were done on nonmilk ingredients, growth charts were developed, and early weaning was followed to conserve milk fed to calves. Calf papers did not report use of statistics to control or record variation or to determine whether treatment means were different. Many experiments were more observational than comparative. Typically fewer than 5 calves, and sometimes 1 or 2 calves, were used per treatment. During the next 20 yr, calf studies increased and included colostrum feeding, milk and milk replacer feeding, minerals and vitamins, and fats and oils. Many concepts fundamental to current knowledge and understanding of digestion, rumen development, and milk replacer formulation were developed during this period. In addition, the concept of using antibiotic growth promoters in dairy calf diets was first evaluated and developed during the 1950s. During the 20-yr period of January 1957 through December 1976, a large number of universities in the United States and 1 in Canada contributed almost 150 papers on a variety of calf-related topics. These topics included genetics, physiology of the calf, review of calf immunity, antibiotic feeding, and milk replacer ingredients. This became the golden era of calf rumen development studies, which also engendered studies of calf starter rations and ingredients. A classic review of management, feeding, and housing studies summarized research related to calf feeding and management systems up to that point with an emphasis on maintaining calf growth and health while reducing labor and feed costs. It was also during this period that metric measurements replaced English units. In the 20-yr period from 1977 to 1996, more than 400 articles on calf nutrition and management were published in JDS. With the growing research interest in calves, a paper outlining

  17. Muscular Dystrophy: Hope Through Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of muscular dystrophy appeared in 1830, when Sir Charles Bell wrote an essay about an illness that ... linked disorder to their sons but their daughters will be carriers of that disorder. Carrier females occasionally ...

  18. Edaravone is a candidate agent for spinal muscular atrophy: In vitro analysis using a human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Shiori; Funato, Michinori; Ohuchi, Kazuki; Kameyama, Tsubasa; Inagaki, Satoshi; Seki, Junko; Kawase, Chizuru; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Kaneko, Hideo; Hara, Hideaki

    2017-11-05

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an intractable disease characterized by a progressive loss of spinal motor neurons, which leads to skeletal muscle weakness and atrophy. Currently, there are no curative agents for SMA, although it is understood to be caused by reduced levels of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. Additionally, why reduced SMN protein level results in selective apoptosis in spinal motor neurons is still not understood. Our purpose in this study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of edaravone, a free radical scavenger, by using induced pluripotent stem cells from an SMA patient (SMA-iPSCs) and to address oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in spinal motor neurons. We first found that edaravone could improve impaired neural development of SMA-iPSCs-derived spinal motor neurons with limited effect on nuclear SMN protein expression. Furthermore, edaravone inhibited the generation of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species upregulated in SMA-iPSCs-derived spinal motor neurons, and reversed oxidative-stress induced apoptosis. In this study, we suggest that oxidative stress might be partly the reason for selective apoptosis in spinal motor neurons in SMA pathology, and that oxidative stress-induced apoptosis might be the therapeutic target of SMA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Uncrossed cortico-muscular projections in humans are abundant to facial muscles of the upper and lower face, but may differ between sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Urs; Hess, Christian W; Rösler, Kai M

    2005-01-01

    It is a popular concept in clinical neurology that muscles of the lower face receive predominantly crossed cortico-bulbar motor input, whereas muscles of the upper face receive additional ipsilateral, uncrossed input. To test this notion, we used focal transcranial magnetic brain stimulation to quantify crossed and uncrossed cortico-muscular projections to 6 different facial muscles (right and left Mm. frontalis, nasalis, and orbicularis oris) in 36 healthy right-handed volunteers (15 men, 21 women, mean age 25 years). Uncrossed input was present in 78% to 92% of the 6 examined muscles. The mean uncrossed: crossed response amplitude ratios were 0.74/0.65 in right/left frontalis, 0.73/0.59 in nasalis, and 0.54/0.71 in orbicularis oris; ANOVA p>0.05). Judged by the sizes of motor evoked potentials, the cortical representation of the 3 muscles was similar. The amount of uncrossed projections was different between men and women, since men had stronger left-to-left projections and women stronger right-to-right projections. We conclude that the amount of uncrossed pyramidal projections is not different for muscles of the upper from those of the lower face. The clinical observation that frontal muscles are often spared in central facial palsies must, therefore, be explained differently. Moreover, gender specific lateralization phenomena may not only be present for higher level behavioural functions, but may also affect simple systems on a lower level of motor hierarchy.

  20. Scintigraphic calf perfusion symmetry after exercise and prediction of cardiovascular events: One stone to kill two birds?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellier, Philippe; Lecouffe, Pascal; Zureik, Mahmoud

    2007-01-01

    Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is commonly associated with a high cardiovascular mortality and morbidity as a marker of plurifocal atherosclerosis. Whether exercise thallium perfusion muscular asymmetry in the legs associated with PAD has prognostic value is unknown. Such a hypothesis was evaluated in a prospective study which remains the gold standard in clinical research. Methods and results: Scintigraphic calf perfusion symmetry after exercise (SCPSE) was measured at the end of a maximal or symptom-limited treadmill exercise test in 358 patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). During the follow-up period (mean 85.3±32.8 months), 93 cardiovascular events and deaths (incident cases) occurred. Among those incident cases, the percentage of subjects with higher SCPSE values (third tertile) was 45.2%, versus 29.1% in controls (lower tertiles) (p=0.005). In stepwise multivariate analysis performed with the Cox proportional hazards model, previous CAD and SCPSE were the only significant independent predictors of prognosis. The multivariate relative risk of cardiovascular death or event in subjects with higher values of SCPSE was 1.94 (95% CI: 1.15-3.21; p<0.01). Conclusions: Scintigraphic calf perfusion asymmetry after exercise was independently associated with incident cardiovascular events in high-risk subjects. This index, which is easily and quickly calculated, could be used for evaluation of cardiovascular risk

  1. Scintigraphic calf perfusion symmetry after exercise and prediction of cardiovascular events: One stone to kill two birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, Philippe; Lecouffe, Pascal; Zureik, Mahmoud

    2007-02-01

    BackgroundPeripheral arterial disease (PAD) is commonly associated with a high cardiovascular mortality and morbidity as a marker of plurifocal atherosclerosis. Whether exercise thallium perfusion muscular asymmetry in the legs associated with PAD has prognostic value is unknown. Such a hypothesis was evaluated in a prospective study which remains the gold standard in clinical research. Methods and resultsScintigraphic calf perfusion symmetry after exercise (SCPSE) was measured at the end of a maximal or symptom-limited treadmill exercise test in 358 patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). During the follow-up period (mean 85.3±32.8 months), 93 cardiovascular events and deaths (incident cases) occurred. Among those incident cases, the percentage of subjects with higher SCPSE values (third tertile) was 45.2%, versus 29.1% in controls (lower tertiles) ( p=0.005). In stepwise multivariate analysis performed with the Cox proportional hazards model, previous CAD and SCPSE were the only significant independent predictors of prognosis. The multivariate relative risk of cardiovascular death or event in subjects with higher values of SCPSE was 1.94 (95% CI: 1.15-3.21; p<0.01). ConclusionsScintigraphic calf perfusion asymmetry after exercise was independently associated with incident cardiovascular events in high-risk subjects. This index, which is easily and quickly calculated, could be used for evaluation of cardiovascular risk.

  2. CALFED--An experiment in science and decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kimberly A.; Jacobs, Katharine L.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2003-01-01

    The CALFED Bay-Delta Program faces a challenging assignment: to develop a collaborative state-federal management plan for the complex river system and involve multiple stakeholders (primarily municipal, agricultural, and environmental entities) whose interests frequently are in direct conflict. Although many resource-management issues involve multiple stakeholders and conflict is integral to their discussion, the CALFED experience is unique because of its shared state and federal roles, the magnitude and significance of stakeholder participation, and the complexity of the scientific issues involved.

  3. Epitheliogenesis imperfecta in a crossbred Holstein calf, southwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Azizi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Epitheliogenesis imperfect (EI is a rare autosomal recessive skin defect that is clinically identified with absence of cutaneous epithelium of the limbs, muzzle and nostrils as well as oral mucous membranes. This congenital newborn desease is reported mainly in domestic animals. The present study described EI in a 13 day-old, female crossbred Holstein calf. Gross examination showed epithelium agenesis of two front and hind limbs skin around the carpal and tarsal joints, and also extensive areas of the metacarpal and metatarsal regions. The calf died 5 days after antibiotic therapy and use of topical cream.

  4. Visual laterality of calf-mother interactions in wild whales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Karenina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Behavioral laterality is known for a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Laterality in social interactions has been described for a wide range of species including humans. Although evidence and theoretical predictions indicate that in social species the degree of population level laterality is greater than in solitary ones, the origin of these unilateral biases is not fully understood. It is especially poorly studied in the wild animals. Little is known about the role, which laterality in social interactions plays in natural populations. A number of brain characteristics make cetaceans most suitable for investigation of lateralization in social contacts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Observations were made on wild beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas in the greatest breeding aggregation in the White Sea. Here we show that young calves (in 29 individually identified and in over a hundred of individually not recognized mother-calf pairs swim and rest significantly longer on a mother's right side. Further observations along with the data from other cetaceans indicate that found laterality is a result of the calves' preference to observe their mothers with the left eye, i.e., to analyze the information on a socially significant object in the right brain hemisphere. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Data from our and previous work on cetacean laterality suggest that basic brain lateralizations are expressed in the same way in cetaceans and other vertebrates. While the information on social partners and novel objects is analyzed in the right brain hemisphere, the control of feeding behavior is performed by the left brain hemisphere. Continuous unilateral visual contacts of calves to mothers with the left eye may influence social development of the young by activation of the contralateral (right brain hemisphere, indicating a possible mechanism on how behavioral lateralization may influence species life and welfare. This hypothesis is

  5. Muscular cystic hydatidosis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naspetti Riccardo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydatidosis is a zoonosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus, and ingesting eggs released through the faeces from infected dogs infects humans. The location of the hydatid cysts is mostly hepatic and/or pulmonary, whereas musculoskeletal hydatidosis is very rare. Case presentation We report an unusual case of primary muscular hydatidosis in proximity of the big adductor in a young Sicilian man. The patient, 34 years old, was admitted to the Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases for ultrasonographic detection, with successive confirmation by magnetic resonance imaging, of an ovular mass (13 × 8 cm in the big adductor of the left thigh, cyst-like, and containing several small cystic formations. Serological tests for hydatidosis gave negative results. A second drawing of blood was done 10 days after the first one and showed an increase in the antibody titer for hydatidosis. The patient was submitted to surgical excision of the lesion with perioperatory prophylaxis with albendazole. The histopathological examination of the bioptic material was not diriment in the diagnosis, therefore further tests were performed: additional serological tests for hydatidosis for the evaluation of IgE and IgG serotype (Western Blot and REAST, and molecular analysis of the excised material. These more specific serological tests gave positive results for hydatidosis, and the sequencing of the polymerase chain reaction products from the cyst evidenced E. granulosus DNA, genotype G1. Any post-surgery complications was observed during 6 following months. Conclusion Cystic hydatidosis should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of any cystic mass, regardless of its location, also in epidemiological contests less suggestive of the disease. The diagnosis should be achieved by taking into consideration the clinical aspects, the epidemiology of the disease, the imaging and immunological tests but, as demonstrated in this case, without

  6. [A swollen, painless calf caused by neurogenic muscle (pseudo)-hypertrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Zwarts, M.J.; Engelen, B.G.M. van

    2003-01-01

    Neurogenic muscle (pseudo) hypertrophy of the calf was diagnosed in a 60-year-old man, who presented with chronic, painless and unilateral calf enlargement caused by a chronic S1 radiculopathy due to a lumbar disc hernia in the L5-S1 interspace. The differential diagnosis of a swelling of the calf

  7. CALF BLOOD-FLOW AND POSTURE - DOPPLER ULTRASOUND MEASUREMENTS DURING AND AFTER EXERCISE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLEEUWEN, BE; BARENDSEN, GJ; LUBBERS, J; DEPATER, L

    To investigate the joint effects of body posture and calf muscle pump, the calf blood flow of eight healthy volunteers was measured with pulsed Doppler equipment during and after 3 min of rhythmic exercise on a calf ergometer in the supine, sitting, and standing postures. Muscle contractions

  8. Muscular atrophy in diabetic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H; Gadeberg, P C; Brock, B

    1997-01-01

    Diabetic patients with polyneuropathy develop motor dysfunction. To establish whether motor dysfunction is associated with muscular atrophy the ankle dorsal and plantar flexors of the non-dominant leg were evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging in 8 patients with symptomatic neuropathy, in 8 non...... confirmed that the atrophy predominated distally. We conclude that muscular atrophy underlies motor weakness at the ankle in diabetic patients with polyneuropathy and that the atrophy is most pronounced in distal muscles of the lower leg indicating that a length dependent neuropathic process explains...

  9. Metabolismo muscular en el ejercicio

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Martín, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Fundamentos: Cada vez son más las personas que realizan algún tipo de actividad física, pero pocas son las que poseen un verdadero conocimiento de los procesos que se desencadenan a nivel muscular y la influencia de la alimentación en la misma. El objetivo de este trabajo es ofrecer información de manera general sobre el metabolismo muscular. Métodos: Revisión bibliográfica de artículos y documentos consultando bases de datos y libros. La mayor parte del análisis ha sido ext...

  10. Benign acute childhood myositis: an unusual cause of calf pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panghaal, Vikash; Levin, Terry L. [Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Ortiz-Romero, Sara [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Lovinsky, Stephanie [Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2008-06-15

    We present a 17-year-old boy with benign acute childhood myositis (BACM) who presented with acute onset of right calf pain, swelling, and difficulty walking. The MR findings are reviewed. MR may be useful in diagnosing BACM and in differentiating it from other causes of myositis. (orig.)

  11. Benign acute childhood myositis: an unusual cause of calf pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panghaal, Vikash; Levin, Terry L.; Ortiz-Romero, Sara; Lovinsky, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    We present a 17-year-old boy with benign acute childhood myositis (BACM) who presented with acute onset of right calf pain, swelling, and difficulty walking. The MR findings are reviewed. MR may be useful in diagnosing BACM and in differentiating it from other causes of myositis. (orig.)

  12. Calf Strength Loss During Mechanical Unloading: Does It Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, K. L.; Mulavara, A.; Bloomberg, J.; Ploutz-Snyder, LL

    2016-01-01

    During the mechanical unloading of spaceflight and its ground-based analogs, muscle mass and muscle strength of the calf are difficult to preserve despite exercise countermeasures that effectively protect these parameters in the thigh. It is unclear what effects these local losses have on balance and whole body function which will be essential for successful performance of demanding tasks during future exploration missions.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: spinal muscular atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... difficulty breathing. Children with this type often have joint deformities (contractures) that impair movement. In severe cases, ... Proximal spinal muscular atrophy Washington University, St. Louis: Neuromuscular Disease Center: Spinal Muscular Atrophy Patient Support and ...

  14. Respiratory function in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wohlgemuth, M.; Horlings, G.C.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Gilhuis, H.J.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Maarel, S.M. van der; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Heijdra, Y.F.; Padberg, G.W.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that wheelchair dependency and (kypho-)scoliosis are risk factors for developing respiratory insufficiency in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, we examined 81 patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy 1 of varying degrees of severity ranging from ambulatory

  15. What Are the Types of Muscular Dystrophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... muscular dystrophy? There are more than 30 forms of muscular dystrophy (MD), with information on the primary types included in the table below. 1 Duchenne (DMD) What It Is Common Symptoms How It ...

  16. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CALF MORTALITY ON DAIRY FARMS IN KUWAIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. RAZZAQUE, M. BEDAIR, S. ABBAS AND T. AL-MUTAWA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this study was to investigate the economic impact of mortality of pre-weaned calves on dairy cattle enterprise in Kuwait. Cost/benefit analysis model was applied to two different situations: in the first situation, a baseline scenario, field survey data without intervention using 1,280 newborn calves was used in first calving season. In the second situation, the intervention scenario (improved management, 665 newborn calves were used in second calving season during the following year. Calving seasons extended for 7 months from September to March. Calf performance studies were conducted from birth to weaning. Economic model was constructed on Microsoft Excel and used to evaluate the impact of calf mortality on calf enterprise. Results showed that gross margins increased from 13 to 35% as a result of implementation of intervention measures during the second calving season over baseline scenario. A significant correlation between increased veterinary expenses and an increase in revenues (r2 = 0.65, P<0.05 was observed. If the intervention measures such as colostrum feeding, nutrition and hygiene had not been implemented, the farms would have lose income from 12 to 51% of the gross revenues. Net income was influenced by costs of feeds, veterinary services and laborers. Discounted cash flow studies on a whole farm basis revealed that the impact of interventions was small (0-3%. Calf mortality could not be isolated from whole farm for assessing its impact on dairy farm economics. Economic studies demonstrated the cost/benefits of using the improved techniques of calf rearing.

  17. The SMN1 common variant c.22 dupA in Chinese patients causes spinal muscular atrophy by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, JinLi; Qu, YuJin; Cao, YanYan; Yang, Lan; Ge, Lin; Jin, YuWei; Wang, Hong; Song, Fang

    2018-02-20

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a common autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder that is mostly caused by homozygous deletion of the SMN1 gene. Approximately 5%-10% of SMA patients are believed to have SMN1 variants. c.22 dupA (p.Ser8lysfs*23) has been identified as the most frequent variant in the Chinese SMA population and to be associated with a severe phenotype. However, the exact molecular mechanism of the variant on the pathogenesis of SMA is unclear. We observed that SMN1 mRNA and the SMN protein in the peripheral blood cells of a patient with c.22 dupA were lower than those of controls. The aim of this study is to investigate whether nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) plays a role in the mechanism of the c.22 dupA variant of the SMN1 gene as it causes SMA. Two lymphoblasts cell lines from two patients (patient 1 and 2) with the c.22 dupA, and one dermal fibroblasts cell line from patient 2 were included in our study. Two-stage validation of the NMD mechanism was supplied. We first measured the changes in the transcript levels of the SMN1 gene by real-time quantitative PCR after immortalized B-lymphoblasts and dermal fibroblasts cells of the SMA patients were treated with inhibitors of the NMD pathway, including puromycin and cyclohemide. Next, lentivirus-mediated knockdown of the key NMD factor-Up-frameshift protein 1 (UPF1)-was performed in the fibroblasts cell line to further clarify whether the variant led to NMD, as UPF1 recognizes abnormally terminated transcripts as NMD substrates during translation. SC35 1.7-kb transcripts, a physiological NMD substrate was determined to be a NMD positive gene in our experiments. The two inhibitors resulted in a dramatic escalation of the levels of the full-length SMN1 (fl-SMN1) transcripts. Additionally, the SC35 1.7-kb mRNA levels were also increased, suggesting that NMD pathway is suppressed by the two inhibitors. For the 3 cell lines, the fold increase of the SMN1 transcript levels of cycloheximide ranged

  18. Dysphagia in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wohlgemuth, M.; Swart, B.J.M. de; Kalf, J.G.; Joosten, F.B.M.; Vliet, A.M. van der; Padberg, G.W.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Dysphagia is not considered a symptom of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). In this study, the authors found that dysphagia does occur in patients with advanced FSHD showing mild involvement of the jaw and lingual muscles. Dysphagia is seldom life threatening in these patients. The

  19. Glucocorticoids for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigators at the Dubowitz Neuromuscular Centre, Great Ormond Street Hospital, and other centers in the UK, conducted a prospective longitudinal study across 17 neuromuscular centers in the UK of 360 boys aged 3-15 years with Duchenne muscular dystrophy who were treated with daily or intermittent (10 days on/10 days off prednisolone for a mean duration of 4 years.

  20. BEEF CATTLE MUSCULARITY CANDIDATE GENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irida Novianti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Muscularity is a potential indicator for the selection of more productive cattle. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL for traits related to muscularity is useful to identify the genomic regions where the genes affecting muscularity reside. QTL analysis from a Limousin-Jersey double backcross herd was conducted using QTL Express software with cohort and breed as the fixed effects. Nine QTL suggested to have an association with muscularity were identified on cattle chromosomes BTA 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 12, 14 and 17. The myostatin gene is located at the centromeric end of chromosome 2 and not surprisingly, the Limousin myostatin F94L variant accounted for the QTL on BTA2. However, when the myostatin F94L genotype was included as an additional fixed effect, the QTL on BTA17 was also no longer significant. This result suggests that there may be gene(s that have epistatic effects with myostatin located on cattle chromosome 17. Based on the position of the QTL in base pairs, all the genes that reside in the region were determined using the Ensembl data base (www.ensembl.org. There were two potential candidate genes residing within these QTL regions were selected. They were Smad nuclear interacting protein 1 (SNIP1 and similar to follistatin-like 5 (FSTL5. (JIIPB 2010 Vol 20 No 1: 1-10

  1. Inherited myopathies and muscular dystrophies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardamone, Michael; Darras, Basil T.; Ryan, Monique M.

    The inherited myopathies and muscular dystrophies are a diverse group of muscle diseases presenting with common complaints and physical signs: weakness, motor delay, and respiratory and bulbar dysfunction. The myopathies are caused by genetic defects in the contractile apparatus of muscle, and

  2. Muscle MRI findings in patients with limb girdle muscular dystrophy with calpain 3 deficiency (LGMD2A) and early contractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuri, Eugenio; Bushby, Kate; Ricci, Enzo; Birchall, Daniel; Pane, Marika; Kinali, Maria; Allsop, Joanna; Nigro, Vincenzo; Sáenz, Amets; Nascimbeni, Annachiara; Fulizio, Luigi; Angelini, Corrado; Muntoni, Francesco

    2005-02-01

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A is a common variant secondary to mutations in the calpain 3 gene. A proportion of patients has early and severe contractures, which can cause diagnostic difficulties with other conditions. We report clinical and muscle magnetic resonance imaging findings in seven limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A patients (four sporadic and three familial) who had prominent and early contractures. All patients showed a striking involvement of the posterior thigh muscles. The involvement of the other thigh muscles was variable and was related to clinical severity. Young patients with minimal functional motor impairment showed a predominant involvement of the adductors and semimembranosus muscles while patients with restricted ambulation had a more diffuse involvement of the posterolateral muscles of the thigh and of the vastus intermedius with relative sparing of the vastus lateralis, sartorius and gracilis. At calf level all patients showed involvement of the soleus muscle and of the medial head of the gastrocnemius with relative sparing of the lateral head. MRI findings were correlated to those found in two patients with the phenotype of limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A without early contractures and the pattern observed was quite similar. However, the pattern observed in limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A is different from that reported in other muscle diseases such as Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy and Bethlem myopathy which have a significant clinical overlap with limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A once early contractures are present. Our results suggest that muscle MRI may help in recognising patients with limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A even when the clinical presentation overlaps with other conditions, and may therefore, be used as an additional investigation to target the appropriate biochemical and genetic tests.

  3. Cetacean mother-calf behavior observed from a small aircraft off Southern California. Animal Behavior and Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari A. Smultea

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available During early developmental stages, cetacean calves are dependent on their mothers for survival. Protection of young whales engaged in behaviors that are biologically important is critical for population recovery, so that appropriate management actions can be taken to minimize human disturbance. However, the occurrence and frequency of whale nursing and calves back-riding their mothers (both considered important to calf survival have rarely been observed nor adequately quantified or defined. Therefore, it may not always be clear when disruption is occurring. We used extended behavioral observations, still photography, and video camera footage obtained during aircraft surveys in the Southern California Bight in 2008 – 2013 to characterize cetacean mother-calf interactions. Based on observations of four mother/calf pairs (two gray whale, Eschrichtius robustus, one fin whale, Balaenoptera physalus, and one blue whale, B. musculus and one killer whale presumed mother/yearling pair (Orcinus orca, we describe bouts of nursing and calves riding on the backs of their presumed mothers, including activity duration, frequency, and relative body positioning. We conclude with specific definitions useful to wildlife conservation agencies authorizing and establishing restrictions to certain human activities when they might constitute behavioral disruptions.

  4. A mouse anti-myostatin antibody increases muscle mass and improves muscle strength and contractility in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and its humanized equivalent, domagrozumab (PF-06252616), increases muscle volume in cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Andre, Michael; Johnson, Mark; Bansal, Prashant N; Wellen, Jeremy; Robertson, Andrew; Opsahl, Alan; Burch, Peter M; Bialek, Peter; Morris, Carl; Owens, Jane

    2017-11-09

    The treatments currently approved for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a progressive skeletal muscle wasting disease, address the needs of only a small proportion of patients resulting in an urgent need for therapies that benefit all patients regardless of the underlying mutation. Myostatin is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family of ligands and is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass. Loss of myostatin has been shown to increase muscle mass and improve muscle function in both normal and dystrophic mice. Therefore, myostatin blockade via a specific antibody could ameliorate the muscle weakness in DMD patients by increasing skeletal muscle mass and function, thereby reducing patients' functional decline. A murine anti-myostatin antibody, mRK35, and its humanized analog, domagrozumab, were developed and their ability to inhibit several TGB-β ligands was measured using a cell-based Smad-activity reporter system. Normal and mdx mice were treated with mRK35 to examine the antibody's effect on body weight, lean mass, muscle weights, grip strength, ex vivo force production, and fiber size. The humanized analog (domagrozumab) was tested in non-human primates (NHPs) for changes in skeletal muscle mass and volume as well as target engagement via modulation of circulating myostatin. Both the murine and human antibodies are specific and potent inhibitors of myostatin and GDF11. mRK35 is able to increase body weight, lean mass, and muscle weights in normal mice. In mdx mice, mRK35 significantly increased body weight, muscle weights, grip strength, and ex vivo force production in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle. Further, tibialis anterior (TA) fiber size was significantly increased. NHPs treated with domagrozumab demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in lean mass and muscle volume and exhibited increased circulating levels of myostatin demonstrating target engagement. We demonstrated that the potent anti-myostatin antibody mRK35 and

  5. Deletion of exon 26 of the dystrophin gene is associated with a mild Becker muscular dystrophy phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting, Nanna; Duno, Morten; Vissing, John

    2011-01-01

    With the possible introduction of exon skipping therapy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, it has become increasingly important to know the role of each exon of the dystrophin gene to protein expression, and thus the phenotype. In this report, we present two related men with an unusually mild BMD...... calf hypertrophy was noted. Creatine kinase was normal or raised maximally to 500 U/l. The muscle biopsy was myopathic with increased fiber size variation and many internal nuclei, but no dystrophy. No comorbidity was found. In both cases, western blot showed a reduced dystrophin band. Genetic...... skipping therapy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. This report also shows that BMD may present with a normal CK....

  6. Complex Vertebral Malformation (CVM) in an Italian Holstein calf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, A.; Diana, A.; Testoni, S.; Olzi, E.

    2004-01-01

    Complex Vertebral Malformation, a congenital and lethal genetic defect of Holstein breed, has been recently observed in different Countries all over the world. In this paper the AA describe the clinical and radiological aspects of CVM in a two day old female calf. The disease was characterized by low body weight, symmetrical arthrogryposis and partial rotation of all legs and scoliosis. Calf was alert and showed physiological appetite, but was not able to maintain the quadrupedal stance. Radiographs of the vertebral column showed multiple vertebral anomalies, including hemivertebrae, fused and misshapen vertebrae and ribs and scoliosis, that affected mainly the caudal, cervical and thoracic regions. At necropsy, besides the skeleton anomalies, complex malformation of the heart was observed, which included atrial and interventricular defects and patent ductus arteriosus. This is the first case of CVM completely documented and genetically tested in Italy [it

  7. Economic Pasture-Based Cow-Calf Systems for Appalachia

    OpenAIRE

    Emenheiser, Joseph Carl

    2014-01-01

    Pasture-based beef production is well-suited for the Appalachian region of the United States. This research investigated pasture, beef cattle, and economics components within the cow-calf sector of pasture beef production, and presents implications of their interplay for the vitality of the whole system. Samples of forage DM mass and CP, ADF, NDF, and ash contents in each paddock of a rotational stocking system were collected monthly for 4 grazing seasons. Effects of month, stockpiling, hay f...

  8. Calf enlargement associated with neurologic disease: two uncommon cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, S C; Honet, J C

    1988-01-01

    Muscle enlargement and hypertrophy are rare findings in neurogenic lesions. The two in combination have been reported in cases of peripheral nerve lesions, polyneuropathy, and poliomyelitis. True and pseudo muscle hypertrophy are the two possible etiologies, whereas infiltration, stretch, or exercise of the muscle are the causative factors. We report two cases of unilateral calf enlargement, one occurring after surgery for S1 radiculopathy with associated cramping, and the other after poliomyelitis.

  9. CT findings of muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Hiroshi

    1991-01-01

    CT scans of muscles in patients with limb girdle type (LG), myotonic type (MYD) and Duchenne type (DMD) dystrophies were obtained at five different body levels: the neck, L3 vertebral body, pelvic girdle, thigh and lower leg. CT numbers, cross sectional areas (CSA) and %CSA of muscle or fat were evaluated in each muscle. The characteristic CT patterns for each type of muscular dystrophy were obtained. Compared with DMD, the gracilis and soleus were more severely damaged in LG and the biceps femoris remained relatively preserved among the hamstrings. In addition, the multifidus of the neck and sternocleidomastoid also were more severely damaged in MYD. This study suggests that CT scan will be useful in the differential diagnosis of these types of muscular dystrophy as well as in planning appropriate rehabilitation and detecting damaged muscles. (author)

  10. A Study of CAP-1002 in Ambulatory and Non-Ambulatory Patients With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-17

    Muscular Dystrophies; Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne; Muscular Disorders, Atrophic; Muscular Diseases; Neuromuscular Diseases; Nervous System Diseases; Genetic Diseases, X-Linked; Genetic Diseases, Inborn

  11. Characteristic of muscle involvement evaluated by CT scans in early stages of progressive muscular dystrophy; Comparison between Duchenne and Fukuyama types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Yumi (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1993-10-01

    Muscle CT scans were performed in order to compare the characteristic distribution of progressive muscle involvement in the early stages of Duchenne type (DMD) and Fukuyama type muscular dystrophy (FCMD). Muscle images at the levels of the 3rd lumbar vertebra, thigh and calf were assessed by visual inspection, and mean CT numbers calculated for individual muscles were statistically analysed. On visual inspection, intramuscular low density areas and muscular atrophy were observed in the muscles of older patients with either disease. These changes were, however, more extensive at thigh level in DMD, and at calf level in FCMD. Nevertheless, the mean CT numbers of muscles in which only slight changes were grossly visible on CT scans displayed progressive decreases with increasing age. Moreover, a significant negative relationship was recognizable between age and mean CT number in almost all muscles examined. Comparison of the slopes of the regression lines revealed that the so-called selective pattern of muscle involvement characteristic of the symptomatic stage had already partially manifested in the preclinical or early stages of both diseases. In FCMD, the rates of decrease in CT numbers were extremely rapid for calf muscles as compared with those in DMD, indicating that this is one reason for FCMD patients never becoming ambulatory. However, for almost all of the other muscles, the CT numbers in FCMD decreased in parallel with the corresponding CT numbers in DMD; thus, these diseases displayed a similarity in the pattern of muscle involvement, despite their different pathogenetic mechanisms and inheritance patterns. (author).

  12. Influence of protein nutrition and virginiamycin supplementation on feedlot growth performance and digestive function of calf-fed Holstein steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Chavira, J; Barreras, A; Plascencia, A; Montano, M F; Navarrete, J D; Torrentera, N; Zinn, R A

    2016-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the influence of protein and virginiamycin (VM) supplementation on feedlot growth performance, digestion, and metabolizable AA (MAA) supply of calf-fed Holstein steers. Growth performance and dietary energetics were evaluated in 120 Holstein steers (127 ± 9 kg). During the initial 112-d feeding period, a steam-flaked corn-based diet was balanced to meet either 100% (MAB) or 87% (UREA) of MAA requirements. Diets were supplemented with or without 22.5 mg/kg VM in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Subsequently (d 112 to 308), all steers received the UREA diet with or without VM. During the initial 112-d, MAB increased ADG, G:F, and dietary NE ( 0.10) across initial supplementation treatments. Overall (d 1 to 308), MAB did not affect ADG ( > 0.10) but enhanced G:F efficiency ( = 0.03) and dietary NE ( = 0.05). During the initial 112-d period and through the remainder of the experiment, VM increased G:F ( 0.10) on ruminal digestion of OM, NDF, starch, microbial efficiency, or total tract digestion of OM and NDF. The MAB increased indispensable AA flow to the small intestine ( 0.10) total tract N digestion. Extrapolating from AA supplies in the metabolism study, MAB satisfied indispensable AA requirements during the initial 112-d period, whereas the UREA diet met 73.5% and 79.2% of methionine and lysine requirements, respectively. During the subsequent periods (d 112 to 308) indispensable AA supplies exceeded theoretical requirements. We conclude that enhancements in energy utilization when diets are balanced to meet MAA requirements of calf-fed Holstein steers during the initial 112-d feedlot period remain appreciable throughout time on feed. Virginiamycin enhanced efficiency of energy utilization throughout the feedlot growing-finishing period.

  13. Evidence of epimeletic behavior involving a Pontoporia blainvillei calf (Cetacea, Pontoporiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Tonello Júnior

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper constitutes the second record of epimeletic behavior for the toninha, Pontoporia blainvillei. A toninha calf carcass was recovered at Enseada Beach, São Francisco do Sul, southern Brazil (26o13’S - 48o31’W on October 9, 2001. Its total length indicated that it was a neonate or a premature calf. The calf had many parallel scratches on it, which were freshly made and produced by adult teeth. There were scratches on the fin, flukes and flippers, and the position and size of the marks demonstrated the intention of the adult to rescue the calf. The anterior region of the body showed net marks, suggesting that the calf had been accidentally entangled. The epimeletic behavior evidenced by the tooth marks could have occurred during the entanglement and/or after its liberation, and we suggest that the causa mortis of the calf was drowning.

  14. Lesiones musculares en el deporte. Muscular injuries in sport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez Díaz, José Fernando

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenDurante la práctica de la actividad física hay una gran incidencia de lesiones musculares, si bien se han llevado a cabo pocos estudios clínicos sobre el tratamiento y la resolución de las mismas. Desde el punto de vista etiopatogénico, hay que señalar que la incidencia de lesión es mayor en aquellos músculos poliarticulares en condiciones de acumulación de fatiga y con condiciones ambientales desfavorables. La clasificación de las lesiones musculares permite distinguir entre aquellas que no afectan a la fascia produciéndose un sangrado dentro del mismo (intramuscular o bien si la fascia también se rompe, el sangrado se sitúa entre los diferentes músculos (intermuscular. El tratamiento de estas lesiones se realizará combinando reposo, compresión, aplicación de frío y elevación del área lesionada así como el desarrollo de un adecuado programa de readaptación funcional que permita al jugador incorporarse lo antes posible a la dinámica del equipo. En la actualidad se está llevando a cabo opciones terapéuticas con factores de crecimiento, terapia génica y células madre, si bien todavía no están lo suficientemente desarrolladas.AbstractDuring the practice of the physical activity there is a great effect of muscular injuries, though few clinical studies have been carried out on the treatment and the resolution of the same ones. Inside the reasons it is necessary to indicate that the effect of injury is major in those muscles you will polyarticulate in situation of fatigue and with environmental unfavorable conditions.The classification of the muscular injuries allows to distinguish between those that do not affect the fascia producing the bled intramuscular or if the fascia also breaks, the bled one places between the different muscles (intermuscular.The treatment will be realized combining rest, compression, application of cold and elevation of these injuries as well as the development of a program of functional

  15. Calf management practices and associations with herd-level morbidity and mortality on beef cow-calf operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C F; Fick, L J; Pajor, E A; Barkema, H W; Jelinski, M D; Windeyer, M C

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate calf management practices on beef cow-calf operations and determine associations with herd-level morbidity and mortality of pre-weaned calves. A 40-question survey about management practices, morbidity and mortality was administered to cow-calf producers by distributing paper surveys and by circulating an online link through various media. A total of 267 producers completed the survey. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and multivariable linear regression models. Average herd-level treatment risk for pre-weaning calf diarrhea (PCD) and bovine respiratory disease (BRD) were 4.9% and 3.0%, respectively. Average herd-level mortality within the first 24 h of life (stillbirth), from 1 to 7 days and 7 days to weaning were 2.3%, 1.1%, and 1.4%, respectively. Operations that never intervened at parturition had 4.7% higher PCD than those that occasionally did. On operations using small elastrator bands for castration, PCD was 1.9% higher than those using other methods. For every increase of 100 cows in herd size, BRD decreased by 1.1%. The association between BRD and PCD varied by when calving season began. Operations that used off-farm, frozen colostrum had a 1.1% increase in stillbirths. Operations that verified a calf had suckled had 0.7% lower mortality from 1 to 7 days of age. Those that intervened when colostrum was abnormal or that used small elastrator bands for castration had 1.9% and 1.4% higher mortality during the 1st week of life, respectively, compared with other operations. Mortality from 7 days to weaning was lower by 0.7% when calving season started in April compared with January or February and was higher by 1.0% for each additional week of calving season. Operations that intervened with colostrum consumption for assisted calvings had lower mortality from 7 days to weaning by 0.8% compared with those that did not. For every 1.0% increase in BRD, mortality from 7 days to weaning increased by 1

  16. Bilateral calf chronic compartment syndrome in an elderly male: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Siau, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Leg pain is a common presentation to the outpatient department. Bilateral calf chronic compartment syndrome is a rare cause of bilateral calf pain. Although this condition has been well documented in young athletes, it has rarely been reported in the elderly. We present the case of a 68-year-old male bodybuilder with bilateral calf chronic compartment syndrome, describe the presentation and evaluation of the condition, and provide a review of the literature herewith.

  17. Protein synthesis in muscle cultures from patients with duchenne muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionasescu, V.; Zellweger, H.; Ionasescu, R.; Lara-Braud, C.; Cancilla, P.A.

    1976-01-01

    Muscle samples for cultures were obtained from the quadriceps by open biopsy under local anesthesia in five patients with early stage of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and 10 controls. Primary cultures were grown in Eagle's Minimum Essential Medium (MEM) with 20 per cent fetal calf serum. After 4 weeks, cells were trypsinized, counted, subcultured for 5 days in MEM with 5 per cent horse serum and finally incubated for 4 h with ( 3 H) leucine. Total protein synthesis showed a significant decrease (ALF OF CONTROL VALUES) only in muscle cultures from patients with DMD. Addition of calcium chloride alone or with A23187 ionophore normalized this defect in protein synthesis. By contrast, myosin heavy chain synthesis was measured and found normal in all patients. (author)

  18. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A in Brazilian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio Veloso de Albuquerque

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Calpainopathy is an autosomal recessive limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2A caused by mutations in CAPN3 gene. Objective To present clinical and histological findings in six children with a molecular diagnosis of LGMD2A and additionally the MRI findings in two of them. Method We retrospectively assessed medical records of 6 patients with mutation on CAPN3 gene. Results All patients were female (three to 12 years. The mean of age of disease onset was 9 years. All of them showed progressive weakness with predominance in lower limbs. Other findings were scapular winging, joint contractures and calf hypertrophy. One female had a more severe phenotype than her dizygotic twin sister that was confirmed by muscle MRI. Muscle biopsies showed a dystrophic pattern in all patients. Conclusion In this cohort of children with LGMD2A, the clinical aspects were similar to adults with the same disorder.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... dystrophy occur almost exclusively in males. Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies have similar signs and symptoms and are caused ...

  20. Becker muscular dystrophy-like myopathy regarded as so-called "fatty muscular dystrophy" in a pig: a case report and its diagnostic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Aihara, Naoyuki; Mizutani, Hiroshi; Kousaka, Shinichi; Nagafuchi, Tsuneyuki; Ochiai, Mariko; Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Asai, Tetsuo; Oishi, Koji

    2014-03-01

    We describe a case of human Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD)-like myopathy that was characterized by the declined stainability of dystrophin at sarcolemma in a pig and the immunostaining for dystrophin on the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue. The present case was found in a meat inspection center. The pig looked appeared healthy at the ante-mortem inspection. Muscular abnormalities were detected after carcass dressing as pale, discolored skeletal muscles with prominent fat infiltrations and considered so-called "fatty muscular dystrophy". Microscopic examination revealed following characteristics: diffused fat infiltration into the skeletal muscle and degeneration and regeneration of the remaining skeletal muscle fibers. Any lesions that were suspected of neurogenic atrophy, traumatic muscular degeneration, glycogen storage disease or other porcine muscular disorders were not observed. The immunostaining for dystrophin was conducted and confirmed to be applicable on FFPE porcine muscular tissues and revealed diminished stainability of dystrophin at the sarcolemma in the present case. Based on the histological observations and immunostaining results, the present case was diagnosed with BMD-like myopathy associated with dystrophin abnormality in a pig. Although the genetic properties were not clear, the present BMD-like myopathy implied the occurrence of dystrophinopathy in pigs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a natural case of myopathy associated with dystrophin abnormalities in a pig.

  1. Body weight-supported training in Becker and limb girdle 2I muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bente R; Berthelsen, Martin P; Husu, Edith; Christensen, Sofie B; Prahm, Kira P; Vissing, John

    2016-08-01

    We studied the functional effects of combined strength and aerobic anti-gravity training in severely affected patients with Becker and Limb-Girdle muscular dystrophies. Eight patients performed 10-week progressive combined strength (squats, calf raises, lunges) and aerobic (walk/run, jogging in place or high knee-lift) training 3 times/week in a lower-body positive pressure environment. Closed-kinetic-chain leg muscle strength, isometric knee strength, rate of force development (RFD), and reaction time were evaluated. Baseline data indicated an intact neural activation pattern but showed compromised muscle contractile properties. Training (compliance 91%) improved functional leg muscle strength. Squat series performance increased 30%, calf raises 45%, and lunges 23%. Anti-gravity training improved closed-kinetic-chain leg muscle strength despite no changes in isometric knee extension strength and absolute RFD. The improved closed-kinetic-chain performance may relate to neural adaptation involving motor learning and/or improved muscle strength of other muscles than the weak knee extensors. Muscle Nerve 54: 239-243, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Twofold trauma of vertebral column in a calf (case report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzner, M.; Weiler, H.

    1991-01-01

    A double spinal cord trauma of an eight weeks old calf is reported, born on pasture from a heifer as a premature birth at the beginning of month 9. Observations made were rupture of intervertebral disk at the crossing of cervical to thoracic vertebrae followed by syndesmosis or synchondrosis resp., as well as a comminutet fracture of the 1st lumbar vertebra including both the adjoining vertebrae, with succeeding reactive callus formation. It is concluded that this traumatization has occurred during parturition. Motoric or sensoric disturbances were observed neither

  3. Linguine sign in musculoskeletal imaging: calf silicone implant rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duryea, Dennis; Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle; Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth E; Walker, Eric A

    2015-08-01

    Imaging findings of breast silicone implant rupture are well described in the literature. On MRI, the linguine sign indicates intracapsular rupture, while the presence of silicone particles outside the fibrous capsule indicates extracapsular rupture. The linguine sign is described as the thin, wavy hypodense wall of the implant within the hyperintense silicone on T2-weighted images indicative of rupture of the implant within the naturally formed fibrous capsule. Hyperintense T2 signal outside of the fibrous capsule is indicative of an extracapsular rupture with silicone granuloma formation. We present a rare case of a patient with a silicone calf implant rupture and discuss the MRI findings associated with this condition.

  4. Linguine sign in musculoskeletal imaging: calf silicone implant rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duryea, Dennis; Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle; Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth E.; Walker, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Imaging findings of breast silicone implant rupture are well described in the literature. On MRI, the linguine sign indicates intracapsular rupture, while the presence of silicone particles outside the fibrous capsule indicates extracapsular rupture. The linguine sign is described as the thin, wavy hypodense wall of the implant within the hyperintense silicone on T2-weighted images indicative of rupture of the implant within the naturally formed fibrous capsule. Hyperintense T2 signal outside of the fibrous capsule is indicative of an extracapsular rupture with silicone granuloma formation. We present a rare case of a patient with a silicone calf implant rupture and discuss the MRI findings associated with this condition. (orig.)

  5. Linguine sign in musculoskeletal imaging: calf silicone implant rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duryea, Dennis; Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, H066, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth E. [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Pathology, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Walker, Eric A. [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, H066, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Bethesda, MD, 20814 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Imaging findings of breast silicone implant rupture are well described in the literature. On MRI, the linguine sign indicates intracapsular rupture, while the presence of silicone particles outside the fibrous capsule indicates extracapsular rupture. The linguine sign is described as the thin, wavy hypodense wall of the implant within the hyperintense silicone on T2-weighted images indicative of rupture of the implant within the naturally formed fibrous capsule. Hyperintense T2 signal outside of the fibrous capsule is indicative of an extracapsular rupture with silicone granuloma formation. We present a rare case of a patient with a silicone calf implant rupture and discuss the MRI findings associated with this condition. (orig.)

  6. Acidification of calf bedding reduces fly development and bacterial abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, M S; Gerry, A C; McGarvey, J A; Armitage, T L; Mitloehner, F M

    2010-03-01

    Environmental stressors, such as high fly density, can affect calf well-being. Sodium bisulfate (SBS) is an acidifier that reduces the pH of flooring and bedding, creating a medium that neither bacteria nor immature flies (also known as larvae or maggots) can thrive in. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the application of SBS to a mixture of rice hull calf bedding and calf slurry (BED) to reduce house fly (Musca domestica L.) larval density and the abundance of bacteria. In experiment 1, dish pans containing 1L of BED and 3,000 house fly eggs were treated with SBS at concentrations of 0, 8.9, 17.7, and 26.5g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED (CON, LOW, MED, and HIGH, respectively), with each SBS concentration applied to 4 individual pans (16 pans total). Reapplication of the same SBS concentrations in each pan occurred 3 times/wk throughout the 23-d trial. Larval house fly survival was significantly reduced in all pans with SBS relative to CON pans, with lowest survival rates in the MED and HIGH pans (99% and 100% reduction, respectively). The mean pH for each treatment was inversely related to the SBS concentration. In experiment 2, pans containing 1L of BED and 3,000 house fly eggs were treated with either 0g of SBS (CON), 8.9g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED with reapplication of the acidifier 3 times/wk (SB3x), or 8.9g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED applied only once at 48h before the end of the 8 d-trial (SB48). Larval house fly survival and bacterial concentrations were reduced (90% larval reduction and 68% bacterial reduction) in the SB3x treatment relative to the CON. Mean pH was also reduced in SB3x pans relative to CON or SB48 pans. Overall, acidification of calf BED using the acidifier SBS resulted in a reduction of bacteria and house fly larval survival. This form of fly control might be expected to reduce adult fly production and, therefore, fly-related stress in calves.

  7. Methodology Research on Evaluating the Developmental and Retentive Capacity Level of Human Single -joint Muscular Power in Mode of Isotonic Test%应用等张模式测定人体单关节肌群功率发展与保持能力的方法学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐红旗; 张欣; 冉令华; 杨帆; 史冀鹏; 王安利; 郑秀瑗

    2011-01-01

    人体肌肉功率的发展与保持能力在完成生产劳动、日常体力活动和体育运动中具有重要的作用.本文以12名健康普通大学生为研究对象,运用模拟仿真测试评价训练系统( BTE PrimusRS)的等张测量模式来探讨人体单关节肌群功率发展与保持能力的测评方法.结果表明BTE PrimusRS系统能客观、准确地评价人体单关节肌群功率发展与保持能力的水平;此等张测试模式下,50%等长峰值肌力(或力矩)的阻力负荷设置较为合理;等长峰值肌力应采用非爆发式静力性测量模式获得.%The developmental and retentive capacity of muscular power is of great importance to human endeavor in productive labor, physical activities of daily living and sports events. Twelve healthy college students volunteered to participate in this study; the purpose was to explore the measurement method about the developmental and retentive capacity of human single -joint muscular power, combined with the mode of isotonic test on BTE PrimusRS system. The results show that BTE PrimusRS system could objectively and accurately evaluate the developmental and retentive capacity level of human single -joint muscular power. The reasonable load resistance was 50% of the isometric peak strength or torque (IPS or IPT) in the isotonic test; the mode of isometric peak strength (IPS) should be non -explosively static.

  8. Becker muscular dystrophy: an unusual presentation.

    OpenAIRE

    Thakker, P B; Sharma, A

    1993-01-01

    A 15 year old boy who presented with passing painless dark urine was found to have myoglobinuria. His creatine phosphokinase was raised, and a muscle biopsy specimen showed non-specific dystrophic changes. Subsequent DNA analysis led to the diagnosis of Becker muscular dystrophy. Myoglobinuria may be a presenting symptom of Becker muscular dystrophy.

  9. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreesen, JCFM; Bras, M; de Die-Smulders, C; Dumoulin, JCM; Cobben, JM; Evers, JLH; Smeets, HJM; Geraedts, JPM

    After Duchenne muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the most common severe neuromuscular disease in childhood. Since 1995, homozygous deletions in exon 7 of the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene have been described in >90-95% of SMA patients. However, the presence of a highly

  10. Roentgenological findings in muscular alterations of extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palvoelgyi, R.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of roentgenological findings in muscular alterations of extremities based on the author's experiences and on the literature is presented. Following a description of the normal roentgen anatomy, the alterations in different diseases of interstitial lipomatosis are demonstrated. By roentgenological examinations differt muscular lesions of the extremities can be differentiated and the clinical follow-up verified. (orig.) [de

  11. Modifying a Cow-Calf Biophysical Simulation Model for Analyses of Alternative Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutes, Jennifer L.

    Cow-calf producers in the United States, tasked with providing beef calves for the beef industry, have had a multitude of difficulties to overcome in recent years. Producers in northwest Arkansas were negatively impacted by high hay prices coupled with low beef cattle market prices due to severe drought experienced in portions of 2010, 2011, and 2012. During this time they also faced high grain prices, due to a record low harvest, combined with portions of the corn harvest diverted from human and animal feed to ethanol production. Tight lending policies of this time, reminiscent of the housing market crash in 2008, along with the negative public attention associated with high levels of greenhouse gas emissions associated with beef production, lead to a tough situation for cattle producers faced with increasing input costs, decreased revenue, and lack of access to loans. With these issues in mind, this research aimed to determine if incorporating switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) production on a cow-calf farm could serve to increase net returns, decrease income volatility, lower net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions without decreasing beef output, and provide a viable source of feedstock for a potential bio-refinery. The study determined that switchgrass is a potential solution to these problems and thus aimed to discover differences in switchgrass supply under different government policies in four northwestern counties in Arkansas to an as-yet, non-existent bio-refinery. It was determined that growing switchgrass on pastureland, once devoted to cow-calf production, is a viable enterprise diversification tool that under the right conditions could be used to improve producer financial and environmental outcomes. However, bioenergy production is slow to gain traction in the US due to adverse market conditions from low fossil fuel prices. Thus, in the US, there are only a few bio-refineries currently online and accepting lignocellulosic biomass, however none of them are

  12. Caribou calf deaths from intraspecific strife — a debatable diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank L. Miller

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available led to the deaths of several newborn barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus calves within a short period of time and on a small area. This event took place during calving in June 1958 on the calving ground of the Beverly caribou herd in the Northwest Territories. The lack of other examples of multiple deaths of newborn caribou calves from intraspecific strife and our findings on the same calving ground during a study of calf mortality in June 1981, 1982, and 1983 and a study of cow-calf behaviour in June 1981 and 1982 cause us to question the published explanation. As we rarely saw aggressive behaviour among cows and newborn calves that involved actual physical contact and none that resulted in injury or death and because we found instances of multiple killings of calves by wolves {Canis lupus we suggest that a probable alternative explanation of the 1958 findings is surplus killing by wolves. Most importantly, only direct observation of an event allows separation of a death caused by injuries due to intraspecific strife from a death caused by accidental injuries.

  13. Human Performance Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Biochemistry:Improvements in energy metabolism, muscular strength and endurance capacity have a basis in biochemical and molecular adaptations within the human body....

  14. Use of a clinical sepsis score for predicting bacteremia in neonatal dairy calves on a calf rearing farm.

    OpenAIRE

    Fecteau, G; Paré, J; Van Metre, D C; Smith, B P; Holmberg, C A; Guterbock, W; Jang, S

    1997-01-01

    In human, equine, and bovine neonates, early diagnosis of bacteremia remains a challenge for the internist. The objective of this study was to develop a predictive model for risk of bacteremia, based on a clinical evaluation system called the clinical sepsis score. Blood from 90 ill calves, 1- to 14-days-old from a calf-raising farm in the San Joaquin Valley of California was cultured. The calves were also scored according to a clinical score for hydration status, fecal appearance, general at...

  15. Loci associated with adult stature also affect calf birth survival in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Höglund, Johanna; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    growth and adult stature in several species. The QTL exhibited large effects on calf size and stature in Nordic Red cattle. Two deviant haplotypes (HAP1 and HAP2) were resolved which increased calf size at birth, and affected adult body conformation. However, the haplotypes also resulted in increased...

  16. Effects of different flooring options in outside pens of hutches on dairy calf growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growth rates of dairy calves may vary due to many different factors, including housing. The objective of this study was to determine if calf growth was affected by different flooring options in the outside penned area of a calf hutch. For this study, 33 hutches were blocked in groups of 3 by locatio...

  17. Evaluation of cottonseed oil-cake meal as a protein source in calf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    were encouraged to eat the calf starter meal by placing meal into the buckets after they had finished drinking milk. Calves were weaned at 35 days of age and thereafter they received only calf starter meal ad libitum. Fresh water was freely available from day 10. The quantity of meal offered was increased on an individual ...

  18. What do calves choose to eat and how do preferences affect calf behaviour and welfare?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, L.E.; Engel, B.; Berends, H.; Reenen, van C.G.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Calves raised for milk or meat are fed diets that differ from feral-herd calf diets and are based on the nutritional requirements of the ‘average calf’. These diets may not meet the dietary preferences of each individual calf. This study explored diet preferences in calves with free dietary choice,

  19. Emerging genetic therapies to treat Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Stanley F.; Crosbie, Rachelle H.; Miceli, M. Carrie; Spencer, Melissa J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a progressive muscle degenerative disease caused by dystrophin mutations. The purpose of this review is to highlight two emerging therapies designed to repair the primary genetic defect, called `exon skipping' and `nonsense codon suppression'. Recent findings A drug, PTC124, was identified that suppresses nonsense codon translation termination. PTC124 can lead to restoration of some dystrophin expression in human Duchenne muscular dystrophy muscles with mutations resulting in premature stops. Two drugs developed for exon skipping, PRO051 and AVI-4658, result in the exclusion of exon 51 from mature mRNA. They can restore the translational reading frame to dystrophin transcripts from patients with a particular subset of dystrophin gene deletions and lead to some restoration of dystrophin expression in affected boys' muscle in vivo. Both approaches have concluded phase I trials with no serious adverse events. Summary These novel therapies that act to correct the primary genetic defect of dystrophin deficiency are among the first generation of therapies tailored to correct specific mutations in humans. Thus, they represent paradigm forming approaches to personalized medicine with the potential to lead to life changing treatment for those affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy. PMID:19745732

  20. Why short stature is beneficial in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodor, Marko; McDonald, Craig M

    2013-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by a genetic defect resulting in absent dystrophin, yet children are able to walk when small and young but lose this ability as they grow. The mdx mouse has absent dystrophin yet does not exhibit significant disability. Allometric modeling of linearly increasing load per muscle fiber and stress on the sarcolemma with growth and exponential decline associated with loss of muscle fibers correlated with case studies and animal models of DMD. Smaller species or breeds are predictably less affected than large as follows: mdx mice muscular dystrophy (GRMD) dogs < large GRMD dogs < humans. Case reports of combined growth hormone and dystrophin deficiency show a relatively benign course of disease. Future therapeutic trials in DMD might include specific growth inhibitors in combination with standard of care treatments to delay the clinical onset and reduce the severity of disease and disability. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. [Optimal solution and analysis of muscular force during standing balance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongrui; Zheng, Hui; Liu, Kun

    2015-02-01

    The present study was aimed at the optimal solution of the main muscular force distribution in the lower extremity during standing balance of human. The movement musculoskeletal system of lower extremity was simplified to a physical model with 3 joints and 9 muscles. Then on the basis of this model, an optimum mathematical model was built up to solve the problem of redundant muscle forces. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used to calculate the single objective and multi-objective problem respectively. The numerical results indicated that the multi-objective optimization could be more reasonable to obtain the distribution and variation of the 9 muscular forces. Finally, the coordination of each muscle group during maintaining standing balance under the passive movement was qualitatively analyzed using the simulation results obtained.

  2. Implementing a novel movement-based approach to inferring parturition and neonate caribou calf survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maegwin Bonar

    Full Text Available In ungulates, parturition is correlated with a reduction in movement rate. With advances in movement-based technologies comes an opportunity to develop new techniques to assess reproduction in wild ungulates that are less invasive and reduce biases. DeMars et al. (2013, Ecology and Evolution 3:4149-4160 proposed two promising new methods (individual- and population-based; the DeMars model that use GPS inter-fix step length of adult female caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou to infer parturition and neonate survival. Our objective was to apply the DeMars model to caribou populations that may violate model assumptions for retrospective analysis of parturition and calf survival. We extended the use of the DeMars model after assigning parturition and calf mortality status by examining herd-wide distributions of parturition date, calf mortality date, and survival. We used the DeMars model to estimate parturition and calf mortality events and compared them with the known parturition and calf mortality events from collared adult females (n = 19. We also used the DeMars model to estimate parturition and calf mortality events for collared female caribou with unknown parturition and calf mortality events (n = 43 and instead derived herd-wide estimates of calf survival as well as distributions of parturition and calf mortality dates and compared them to herd-wide estimates generated from calves fitted with VHF collars (n = 134. For our data, the individual-based method was effective at predicting calf mortality, but was not effective at predicting parturition. The population-based method was more effective at predicting parturition but was not effective at predicting calf mortality. At the herd-level, the predicted distributions of parturition date from both methods differed from each other and from the distribution derived from the parturition dates of VHF-collared calves (log-ranked test: χ2 = 40.5, df = 2, p < 0.01. The predicted distributions of calf

  3. Effects of noxious stimulation to the back or calf muscles on gait stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Hug, François; Hodges, Paul W; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2015-11-26

    Gait stability is the ability to deal with small perturbations that naturally occur during walking. Changes in motor control caused by pain could affect this ability. This study investigated whether nociceptive stimulation (hypertonic saline injection) in a low back (LBP) or calf (CalfP) muscle affects gait stability. Sixteen participants walked on a treadmill at 0.94ms(-1) and 1.67ms(-1), while thorax kinematics were recorded using 3D-motion capture. From 110 strides, stability (local divergence exponent, LDE), stride-to-stride variability and root mean squares (RMS) of thorax linear velocities were calculated along the three movement axes. At 0.94ms(-1), independent of movement axes, gait stability was lower (higher LDE) and stride-to-stride variability was higher, during LBP and CalfP than no pain. This was more pronounced during CalfP, likely explained by the biomechanical function of calf muscles in gait, as supported by greater mediolateral RMS and stance time asymmetry than in LBP and no pain. At 1.67ms(-1), independent of movement axes, gait stability was greater and stride-to-stride variability was smaller with LBP than no pain and CalfP, whereas CalfP was not different from no pain. Opposite effects of LBP on gait stability between speeds suggests a more protective strategy at the faster speed. Although mediolateral RMS was greater and participants had more asymmetric stance times with CalfP than LBP and no pain, limited effect of CalfP at the faster speed could relate to greater kinematic constraints and smaller effects of calf muscle activity on propulsion at this speed. In conclusion, pain effects on gait stability depend on pain location and walking speed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Duchenne muscular dystrophy in a female with compound heterozygous contiguous exon deletions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Eri; Minami, Narihiro; Minami, Kumiko; Suzuki, Mikiya; Awashima, Takeya; Ishiyama, Akihiko; Komaki, Hirofumi; Nishino, Ichizo; Sasaki, Masayuki

    2017-06-01

    Females with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) mutations rarely exhibit clinical symptoms from childhood, although potential mechanisms for symptoms associated with DMD and BMD in females have been reported. We report the case of a female DMD patient with a clinical course indistinguishable from that of a male DMD patient, and who possessed compound heterozygous contiguous exon deletions in the dystrophin gene. She exhibited Gowers' sign, calf muscle hypertrophy, and a high serum creatine kinase level at 2 years. Her muscle pathology showed most of the fibers were negative for dystrophin immunohistochemical staining. She lost ambulation at 11 years. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis of this gene detected one copy of exons 48-53; she was found to be a BMD carrier with an in-frame deletion. Messenger RNA from her muscle demonstrated out-of-frame deletions of exons 48-50 and 51-53 occurring on separate alleles. Genomic DNA from her lymphocytes demonstrated the accurate deletion region on each allele. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a female patient possessing compound heterozygous contiguous exon deletions in the dystrophin gene, leading to DMD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Annual elk calf survival in a multiple carnivore system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eacker, Daniel R.; Hebblewhite, Mark; Proffitt, Kelly M.; Jimenez, Benjamin S.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Robinson, Hugh S.

    2016-01-01

    The realized effect of multiple carnivores on juvenile ungulate recruitment may depend on the carnivore assemblage as well as compensation from forage and winter weather severity, which may mediate juvenile vulnerability to predation in ungulates. We used a time-to-event approach to test for the effects of risk factors on annual elk (Cervus canadensis) calf survival and to estimate cause-specific mortality rates for 2 elk populations in adjacent study areas in the southern Bitterroot Valley, Montana, USA, during 2011–2014. We captured and radio-tagged 286 elk calves: 226 neonates, and 60 6-month-old calves. Summer survival probability was less variable than winter (P = 0.12) and averaged 0.55 (95% CI = 0.47–0.63), whereas winter survival varied more than summer and significantly across study years (P = 0.003) and averaged 0.73 (95% CI = 0.64–0.81). During summer, elk calf survival increased with biomass of preferred forage biomass, and was slightly lower following winters with high precipitation; exposure to mountain lion (Puma concolor) predation risk was unimportant. In contrast, during winter, we found that exposure to mountain lion predation risk influenced survival, with a weak negative effect of winter precipitation. We found no evidence that forage availability or winter weather severity mediated vulnerability to mountain lion predation risk in summer or winter (e.g., an interaction), indicating that the effect of mountain lion predation was constant regardless of spatial variation in forage or weather. Mountain lions dominated known causes of elk calf mortality in summer and winter, with estimated cause-specific mortality rates of 0.14 (95% CI = 0.09–0.20) and 0.12 (95% CI = 0.07–0.18), respectively. The effect of carnivores on juvenile ungulate recruitment varies across ecological systems depending on relative carnivore densities. Mountain lions may be the most important carnivore for ungulates, especially where grizzly

  6. Influence of environmental health in the cow-calf dyad system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayná Barcelos Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Health factors influence the cow-calf dyad system in the postpartum period until the first suckling. The use of maternity paddock is a recommended management to facilitate the monitoring of parturient cows and calves. However, side effects occur due to environmental health conditions of maternity paddock that can affect the behaviour of the cow and result in the separation of calf from the mother, undermining sucking and the formation of the cow-calf dyad. To improve the understanding of this complex and dynamic system we built a conceptual model using the technique of causal loop diagram, Figure 1. By hypothesis, the environmental variables that act in maternity paddock influence the variable "Sources of pathogens in maternity". Those sources present a positive effect (in the same direction in the infection process of the calf and cow. Thus, a recommended practice is exposing the parturient cow to pathogens in maternity for sufficient period to stimulate their immune system and build disease resistance. That process contributes to improve the quality of colostrum that will be consumed by the calf during the first hours postpartum which has the function of increasing calf immunity, minimizing the occurrence of infections. In the model, sanitary environmental factors work in two Balance feedback loops (B1 and B2. The B1 cycle refers to the production of a healthy cow with a low level of infection by means of the variables: “Vaccine”, "Stimulation of cow immune system" and "Health resistance" with delay. The variable "Cow infection" has a negative influence (in the opposite direction in the "Maternal behaviour", thus the more infected the cow, the less investment will occur in maternal behaviour. The B2 cycle refers to the calf’s health condition, which is positively influenced by “Calf infection” which, in turn, has positive influence, contributing to the increase of "Calf diseases". The increase in “Calf diseases” generates an

  7. NMR-CT in muscular disorders. Muscle T/sub 1/ values in Duchenne muscular dystrophy carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Kiichiro; Nakano, Imaharu; Fukuda, Nobuo; Ikehira, Hiroo; Tateno, Yukio

    1987-02-01

    Proton NMR-CT (magnetic field strength 0.1 Tesla, resonant frequency 4.5 MHz) was performed in 10 normal females and 19 Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) carriers. The mean age was 39 +- 12 years for the normal females and 42 +- 6 years for the DMD carriers. In DMD carriers, there were 4 definite, 4 probable, and 11 possible carriers. T/sub 1/ (spin-lattice relaxation time) image was obtained for a slice at the buttock, mid-thigh and calf levels respectively. T/sub 1/ values were measured for the medial portion of the gluteus maximus, the vastus lateralis of the quadriceps femoris, and the gastrocnemius. The bound water fraction (BWF) was calculated from Fullerton's equation based on the fast proton diffusion model. The following results were obtained: (1) In normal females, muscle T/sub 1/ value was highest in the gastrocnemius and lowest in the gluteus maximus. (2) In DMD carriers, T/sub 1/ values of the gluteus maximus and quadriceps femoris were significantly higher than those of the normal females. There was, however, no significant difference in T/sub 1/ value of the gastrocnemius between DMD carriers and normal females. (3) In DMD carriers, BWFs of the gluteus maximus and quadriceps femoris were significantly lower than those of the normal females. (4) In DMD carriers, no significant correlation was observed between the muscle T/sub 1/ values and the serum creatine phosphokinase values. Increased tissue water content in the lower parts of the body due to gravity is considered to be the primary cause of the high T/sub 1/ value in the gastrocnemius of normal females. The presence of the degenerating muscle fibers are presumed responsible for the high T/sub 1/ value and low BWF in the proximal muscles of DMD carriers.

  8. NMR-CT in muscular disorders. Muscle T/sub 1/ values in Duchenne muscular dystrophy carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Kiichiro; Nakano, Imaharu; Fukuda, Nobuo; Ikehira, Hiroo; Tateno, Yukio

    1987-02-01

    Proton NMR-CT (magnetic field strength 0.1 Tesla, resonant frequency 4.5 MHz) was performed in 10 normal females and 19 Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) carriers. The mean age was 39 +- 12 years for the normal females and 42 +- 6 years for the DMD carriers. In DMD carriers, there were 4 definite, 4 probable, and 11 possible carriers. T/sub 1/ (spin-lattice relaxation time) image was obtained for a slice at the buttock, mid-thigh and calf levels respectively. T/sub 1/ values were measured for the medial portion of the gluteus maximus, the vastus lateralis of the quadriceps femoris, and the gastrocnemius. The bound water fraction (BWF) was calculated from Fullerton's equation based on the fast proton diffusion model. The following results were obtained: (1) In normal females, muscle T/sub 1/ value was highest in the gastrocnemius and lowest in the gluteus maximus. (2) In DMD carriers, T/sub 1/ values of the gluteus maximus and quadriceps femoris were significantly higher than those of the normal females. There was, however, no significant difference in T/sub 1/ value of the gastrocnemius between DMD carriers and normal females. (3) In DMD carriers, BWFs of the gluteus maximus and quadriceps femoris were significantly lower than those of the normal females. (4) In DMD carriers, no significant correlation was observed between the muscle T/sub 1/ values and the serum creatine phosphokinase values. Increased tissue water content in the lower parts of the body due to gravity is considered to be the primary cause of the high T/sub 1/ value in the gastrocnemius of normal females. The presence of the degenerating muscle fibers are presumed responsible for the high T/sub 1/ value and low BWF in the proximal muscles of DMD carriers.

  9. Merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy. Partial genetic correction in two mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuang, W; Xu, H; Vachon, P H

    1998-01-01

    Humans and mice with deficiency of the alpha2 subunit of the basement membrane protein laminin-2/merosin suffer from merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (MCMD). We have expressed a human laminin alpha2 chain transgene under the regulation of a muscle-specific creatine kinase promoter...

  10. Atrial Fibrillation in a Diarrheic Holstein Dairy Calf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar CHALMEH

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac auscultation of a 10-day-old diarrheic female Holstein dairy calf revealed irregularities in rhythm and absence of 4th heart sound. Electrocardiogram (ECG and blood sample were obtained before and after the treatment. Based on ECG and cardiac auscultation findings, atrial fibrillation (AF was diagnosed. Serum sodium, calcium and magnesium before treatment were significantly lower than their reference ranges and potassium was significantly higher. One day after treating this patient, serum electrolytes were reached to reference ranges and AF was changed to normal sinus rhythm. Based on resolving the AF after treating the patient and correcting the electrolyte imbalances, it can be suggested that electrolyte imbalances were the main cause of the occurrence of AF in the present case.

  11. Lymphoma and broncho-pneumonia in a calf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lallemand, M.; Francoz, D.; Latouche, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    A one and a half month old Holstein calf was presented with a chronic respiratory condition. Clinical examination revealed cachexia and lymphadenopathy and wheezes and crepitations on auscultation. Blood cell count indicated a non-regenerative microcytic anaemia and marked lymphopenia. Broncho-pneumonia due to Mycoplasma bovis was diagnosed after radiography and cytobacteriology of transtracheal lavage. A large cell lymphoma was suspected after finding a high proportion of large lymphocytes in a lymph node puncture aspirate. Serology for bovine leukosis was negative. A diagnosis of juvenile lymphoma associated with M. bovis broncho-pneumonia was established. The diagnosis was confirmed on post-mortem. Juvenile lymphoma is rare. Affected animals are aged between two and six months and systematically present generalised lymphadenopathy. This disease is always fatal. When an animal is presented with generalised lymphadenopathy, this condition should be eliminated by lymph node puncture of a moderately hypertrophied lymph node before other tests are performed [it

  12. Structural Organization of Muscular Elements of a Skin-Muscular Sac of Trematodes: Literature Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kanat Kambarovich Akhmetov; Irina Yurievna Chidunchi

    2015-01-01

    The issue of structural organization of muscular elements of a trematodes’ skin-muscular sac is considered in the study. Special attention is paid to an analysis of materials of preceding researches, study of foreign authors and also to additional literature reflecting peculiarities of structure of a trematodes’ body muscular system. The stated issue is insufficiently studied and calls for further researches. A comparative analysis of places of trematodes’ localization, taking into considerat...

  13. Phosphorus Spectroscopy of Calf Muscles before and after Exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wcisło, Bożena; Cichocka, Monika; Urbanik, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine 31 PMRS reference spectrum and intracellular pH of calf muscles in the dominant limb of healthy, young, male volunteers before and after intense physical effort. Examinations were performed with a 1.5 T MR system. FID CSI (Free Induction Decay Chemical Shift Imaging) sequence was used with the following parameters: TR=4000 ms, FA=90°, NEX=2 and VOI (Volume Of Interest)=8×8×8 cm 3 (512 cm 3 ) involving in calf muscles. Raw data was preprocessed using SAGE (GE) software. Authors analyzed relative concentrations ratios of selected metabolites: PCr/ATP and PCr/P i . Intracellular pH and relative concentrations ratios of each metabolite (P i , PCr, α-ATP, β-ATP, γ-ATP, ATP) were also calculated relative to the sum of concentrations of all metabolites. Results were compared with a t-test. Based on statistical analysis of results significant differences (p<0.05) were demonstrated for some of the studied metabolites and for intracellular pH. Increase in PCr concentration in relation to the sum of concentrations of all metabolites and to ATP concentration was noted. However, β-ATP, α-ATP and ATP concentrations relative to the sum of concentrations of all metabolites become reduced. Decrease in pH after physical effort was demonstrated. There were no significant differences (p<0.05) in concentrations of remaining metabolites before and after exercise. Increase in PCr concentration relative to P i concentration and decrease of P i and γ-ATP concentration relative to the sum of concentrations of all metabolites were demonstrated. The 31 PMRS method enables assessment of concentrations of phosphorus-containing metabolites as well as intercellular pH before and after exercise. This method is still under examination, but it has already shown promise as a diagnostic tool for the future

  14. Physical Therapy and Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy (FSHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical Therapy & FSHD Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy A Guide for Patients & Physical Therapists Authors: Wendy M. King, P.T., Assistant ... Shree Pandya, P.T., M.S., Assistant Professor, Neurology & Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation A publication of the FSH ...

  15. How Do People Cope with Muscular Dystrophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... topic are answered in this section. How do people cope with muscular dystrophy (MD)? Although MD presents ... improve health and quality of life. Almost all people with any form of MD experience a worsening ...

  16. Measurement of Gender Differences of Gastrocnemius Muscle and Tendon Using Sonomyography during Calf Raises: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Quan Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscles are essential to the gender-specific characteristics of human movements. Sonomyography, a new signal for quantifying muscle activation, is of great benefit to understand muscle function through monitoring the real-time muscle architectural changes. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate gender differences in the architectural changes of gastronomies muscle and tendon by using sonomyography during performing two-legged calf raising exercises. A motion analysis system was developed to extract sonomyography from ultrasound images together with kinematic and kinetic measurements. Tiny fascicle length changes among seven male subjects were observed at the initial part of calf raising, whereas the fascicle of seven female subjects shortened immediately. This result suggested that men would generate higher mechanical power output of plantar flexors to regulate their heavier body mass. In addition, the larger regression coefficient between the fascicle length and muscle force for the male subjects implied that higher muscle stiffness for the men was required in demand of maintaining their heavier body economically. The findings from the current study suggested that the body mass might play a factor in the gender difference in structural changes of muscle and tendon during motion. The sonomyography may provide valuable information in the understanding of the gender difference in human movements.

  17. Duchenne muscular dystrophy: the management of scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Adrian C.; Roper, Helen P.; Chikermane, Ashish A.; Tatman, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    This study summaries the current management of scoliosis in patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. A literature review of Medline was performed and the collected articles critically appraised. This literature is discussed to give an overview of the current management of scoliosis within Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Importantly, improvements in respiratory care, the use of steroids and improving surgical techniques have allowed patients to maintain quality of life and improved life expectancy in this patient group. PMID:27757431

  18. Muscular Oxygen Uptake Kinetics in Aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschate, J; Drescher, U; Baum, K; Eichberg, S; Schiffer, T; Latsch, J; Brixius, K; Hoffmann, U

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary oxygen uptake (V˙O2) kinetics and heart rate kinetics are influenced by age and fitness. Muscular V˙O2 kinetics can be estimated from heart rate and pulmonary V˙O2. In this study the applicability of a test using pseudo-random binary sequences in combination with a model to estimate muscular V˙O2 kinetics was tested. Muscular V˙O2 kinetics were expected to be faster than pulmonary V˙O2 kinetics, slowed in aged subjects and correlated with maximum V˙O2 and heart rate kinetics. 27 elderly subjects (73±3 years; 81.1±8.2 kg; 175±4.7 cm) participated. Cardiorespiratory kinetics were assessed using the maximum of cross-correlation functions, higher maxima implying faster kinetics. Muscular V˙O2 kinetics were faster than pulmonary V˙O2 kinetics (0.31±0.1 vs. 0.29±0.1 s; p=0.004). Heart rate kinetics were not correlated with muscular or pulmonary V˙O2 kinetics or maximum V˙O2. Muscular V˙O2 kinetics correlated with maximum V˙O2 (r=0.35; p=0.033). This suggests, that muscular V˙O2 kinetics are faster than estimates from pulmonary V˙O2 and related to maximum V˙O2 in aged subjects. In the future this experimental approach may help to characterize alterations in muscular V˙O2 under various conditions independent of motivation and maximal effort. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy: an immunohistochemical diagnostic approach Distrofias musculares de cinturas: uma abordagem diagnóstica imuno-histoquímica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio Alberto Comerlato

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The limb-girdle muscle dystrophy (LGMD represents a heterogeneous group of muscular diseases with dominant and recessive inheritance, individualized by gene mutation. A group of 56 patients, 32 males and 24 females, with suggestive LGMD diagnosis were submitted to clinical evaluation, serum muscle enzymes, electromyography, muscle biopsy, and the immunoidentification (ID of sarcoglycans (SG alpha, beta, gamma and delta, dysferlin and western blot for calpain-3. All the patients had normal ID for dystrophin (rod domain, carboxyl and amine terminal. The alpha-SG was normal in 42 patients, beta-SG in 28, beta-SG in 45, delta-SG in 32, dysferlin in 37 and calpain-3 in 9. There was a reduction in the alpha-SG in 7 patients, beta-SG in 4, gamma-SG in 2, and delta-SG in 8. There was deficiency of alpha-SG in 7 patients, beta-SG in 6, gamma-SG in 9, delta-SG in 5, dysferlin in 8, and calpain-3 in 5. The patients were grouped according the ID as sarcoglycans deficiency 18 cases, dysferlin deficiency 8 cases and calpain-3 deficiency 5 cases. Only the sarcoglycans deficiency group showed calf hypertrophy. The dysferlin deficiency group was more frequent in females and the onset was later than sarcoglycan and calpain-3 deficiency groups. The calpain-3 deficiency group occurred only in males and showed an earlier onset and weaker muscular strength.As distrofias musculares de cinturas (DMC representam grupo heterogêneo de doenças musculares com heranças autossômicas dominante ou recessivas, caracterizadas geneticamente por mutações gênicas específicas. Cinqüenta e seis pacientes, 32 masculinos e 24 femininos, com diagnóstico sugestivo de DMC, foram submetidos a avaliação clínica, dosagem séricas das enzimas musculares, eletromiografia, biópsia muscular e imunoidentificação (ID das proteínas sarcoglicanas (SG alfa, beta, gama e delta, disferlina e calpaína-3. A ID da distrofina (domínio rod e terminais carboxila e amino era normal em todos

  20. Radiographic features of Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumitt, Jason W; Essman, Stephanie C; Kornegay, Joe N; Graham, John P; Weber, William J; Berry, Clifford R

    2006-01-01

    Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy is an inherited, degenerative myopathy due to the absence of dystrophin and is used as a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy of young boys. This report describes the radiographic abnormalities of Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy in 26 dogs. The thoracic abnormalities included diaphragmatic asymmetry (18/26), diaphragmatic undulation (18/26), and gastro-esophageal hiatal hernia (6/26). Pelvic abnormalities included narrowing of the body of the ilia (14/19), ventral deviation and curvature of the tuber ischii (14/19), elongation of the obturator foramen with a decrease in opacity of the surrounding bone (12/19), and lateral flaring of the wings of the ilia (12/19). Abdominal abnormalities consisted of hepatomegaly (14/22) and poor serosal detail (12/22). The unique thoracic abnormalities were a consistent finding in affected Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy dogs. The diagnosis of muscular dystrophy should be included in the differential list if the combination of diaphragm undulation and asymmetry, and gastro-esophageal hiatal hernia are identified. These diaphragmatic abnormalities are related to hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the diaphragm. Additionally, the skeletal changes of pelvic tilt, elongation of the pelvis, widening of the obturator foramina and thinning of the ischiatic tables appear to be specific to Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy in dogs. These pelvic abnormalities are most likely secondary to bone remodeling associated with the progressive skeletal myopathy and subsequent contracture/fibrosis.

  1. Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Andrew P

    2018-01-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an adult-onset degenerative disorder of the neuromuscular system resulting in slowly progressive weakness and atrophy of the proximal limb and bulbar muscles. The disease is caused by the expansion of a CAG/glutamine tract in the amino-terminus of the androgen receptor. That SBMA exclusively affects males reflects the fact that critical pathogenic events are hormone-dependent. These include translocation of the polyglutamine androgen receptor from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and unfolding of the mutant protein. Studies of the pathology of SBMA subjects have revealed nuclear aggregates of the mutant androgen receptor, loss of lower motor neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord, and both neurogenic and myopathic changes in skeletal muscle. Mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis include toxicity in both lower motor neurons and skeletal muscle, where effects on transcription, intracellular transport, and mitochondrial function have been documented. Therapies to treat SBMA patients remain largely supportive, although experimental approaches targeting androgen action or promoting degradation of the mutant androgen receptor protein or the encoding RNA are under active study. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of confinement housing on study end-points in the calf model of cryptosporidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graef, Geneva; Hurst, Natalie J; Kidder, Lance; Sy, Tracy L; Goodman, Laura B; Preston, Whitney D; Arnold, Samuel L M; Zambriski, Jennifer A

    2018-04-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children confinement housing, and Interval Collection (IC), which permits use of box stalls. CFC mimics human challenge model methodology but it is unknown if confinement housing impacts study end-points and if data gathered via this method is suitable for generalization to human populations. Using a modified crossover study design we compared CFC and IC and evaluated the impact of housing on study end-points. At birth, calves were randomly assigned to confinement (n = 14) or box stall housing (n = 9), or were challenged with 5 x 107 C. parvum oocysts, and followed for 10 days. Study end-points included fecal oocyst shedding, severity of diarrhea, degree of dehydration, and plasma cortisol. Calves in confinement had no significant differences in mean log oocysts enumerated per gram of fecal dry matter between CFC and IC samples (P = 0.6), nor were there diurnal variations in oocyst shedding (P = 0.1). Confinement housed calves shed significantly more oocysts (P = 0.05), had higher plasma cortisol (P = 0.001), and required more supportive care (P = 0.0009) than calves in box stalls. Housing method confounds study end-points in the calf model of cryptosporidiosis. Due to increased stress data collected from calves in confinement housing may not accurately estimate the efficacy of chemotherapeutics targeting C. parvum.

  3. Cardiac involvement in patients with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2 and Becker muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveen, Marie-Louise; Thune, Jens Jakob; Køber, Lars

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the extent of cardiac involvement in patients with 1 of the 12 groups of recessively inherited limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2 (LGMD2A-L) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). DESIGN: Prospective screening. SETTING: Neuromuscular Clinic and Department of Cardiology...

  4. COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF CALF STARTER AND CONVENTIONAL RATIONS IN BUFFALO SUCKLING CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ahmad, M. A. Jabbar1, I. Ahmad2 , M. Rafique and I. Ahmad3

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four buffalo calves, having similar age and initial body weight, were divided into two groups with equal number of calves of both sexes in each group to study the effect of calf starter ration on feed intake and weight gain. Calf starter and conventional dairy rations with crude protein 18% and total digestible nutrients 75–80% along with green fodder were offered ad libitum to calves of respective groups for a period of 113 days. The average daily feed intakes were 0.95 and 0.57 kg, average daily weight gains were 0.47 and 0.34 kg and feed conversion ratio averaged 2.00 and 1.70 in calf starter and conventional groups respectively. On the overall performance, calf starter group was found better than the conventional ration.

  5. Preservation of refrigerated calf meat pieces by ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassouna, M.; Besbes, M.; Ben Hassen, A.; Mahjoub, A.; Maalej, M.

    1998-01-01

    The influence of five 60Co gamma radiation doses in the range of 1 to 5 kGy on chemical composition and bacteriological counts of pieces of calf meat, partially vacuum - packed before treatment, was studied during storage at + 4 degree C up to 28 days. In vivo thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) using dosimeters such as lithium fluoride (LiF) was used as a very sensitive procedure to control both dose delivered to the red meat and its degree of uniformity. These two parameters are generally recommended for the quality control of food irradiation process. While ionizing radiation doses of 1 or 2 kGy were unable to increase the shelf life of treated meat, doses of 3, 4 or 5 kGy were very efficient, and adequate to prevent completely the growth of microorganisms indicating faecal contamination such as total coliforms, faecal coliforms and Enterobacteriaceae; they also kept constant the contents of total mesophilic flora and maintained radioresistant psychrotrophic microflora below the value inducing superficial putrefaction of meat (10 7 CFU cntdot g -1 ) at all storage times. Pathogenic germs producing contaminating toxins in foodstuffs such as Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and anaerobic sulfite reducing bacteria were totally absent in both control and treated meat. When pieces of meat were irradiated with doses of 3, 4 or 5 kGy, microbial alcalinization and proteolysis revealed by total volatile basic nitrogen were very low during the whole storage period. In addition, total protein did not change as a result of treatment during that period. However, superficial browning and significant variations were observed in water - holding capacity and saturated and unsaturated fatty acids contents in the free fat of treated meat. Ionizing radiation doses had no effect on weight losses and even on the variations of pH after heating of ground calf meat in double boiler at 50, 70 or 90 degree C up to 1 h. However, these modifications very sensitive to cooking temperature

  6. EFFECTIVENESS OF PNF STRETCHING AND CYCLIC STRETCHING OF CALF TIGHTNESS ON COLLEGE GOING GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlesha Sirari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flexibility helps with injury prevention, the reduction of soreness following a workout, and a general sense of well-being. There are different stretching techniques and protocols for improvements in calf extensibility and flexibility. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of two techniques i.e. CYCLIC and PNF stretching which improves calf flexibility. This study was done to find the effectiveness of calf Cyclic and PNF stretching technique to improve calf flexibility. Methods: 30 subjects with age group 21-22 years were randomly allocated to 2 groups equally. Group 1(n=15 were given CYCLIC and group 2(n=15 were given PNF stretching technique. Plantar flexion was used to measure the calf tightness which was done before and after the treatment. Treatment was given for 7 days and on the 7th day the calf tightness was again measured. Results: The mean difference of the CYCLIC is 4.6 and mean difference of PNF is 4.7 which indicate that CYCLIC and PNF both are effective to improve calf flexibility but PNF is more effective than CYCLIC to improve calf flexibility. Conclusion: The neurophysiological basis of PNF, stating that the excitatory efficient of the neuromuscular spindle or the inhibitory afferent of the Golgi tendon organ (GTO or both are responsible for the effects. During PNF stretch and isometric contraction of stretched agonists for extended period may cause activation of its neuromuscular spindle. The increase in tension created during the isometric contraction of the pre – lengthened agonist contracts concentrically. Both the fascia & the spindle of the agonist adjust to the nearly lengthened position. These impulses travel via causing post synaptic inhibition of the motor neuron to agonist increasing the tension from the GTO. These impulses can override the impulses coming from the neuromuscular spindles arousing the muscle to reflexly resist to the change in length, thus helping in lengthening

  7. The effect of housing on calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campler, Magnus Robert Bertil; Munksgaard, Lene; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated how calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows were affected by housing during the final 4 wk precalving. One hundred twenty-one cows (36 primiparous and 85 multiparous) were moved either to a group pen with deep straw bedding or into frees...... that a longer period of housing on deep-bedded straw compared with freestalls with mattresses before calving may facilitate the calving process, whereas the effect on calf vitality needs further investigation....

  8. Calf blood flow at rest evaluated by thermal measurement with tissue temperature and heat flow and 133Xe clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Toshiyo; Togawa, Tatsuo; Fukuoka, Masakazu; Kawakami, Kenji.

    1982-01-01

    The regional blood flow in the calf was determined simultaneously by thermal measurement and by 133 Xe clearance technique. Calf blood flow (Ft) by thermal measurement was accounted for by the equation of the form Ft=(CdT*d+Ho-Mb)/rho sub(b)c su b(D) (Ta-Td), where Cd is thermal capacitance of the calf compartment, T*d is the change of calf tissue temperature, Ta is arterila blood temperature, Td is calf tissue temperature, Ho is the heat dissipation from the compartment to the environment, Mb is estimated metabolism of the calf tissue and rho sub(b)c sub(b) is the product of density and specific heat of blood. The healthy men were chosen for the experiments. Total calf blood flow was 2.53+-1.31ml/(min-100ml calf), and muscle blood flow was 2.63+-1.69ml/(min- 100ml muscle) and skin blood flow 7.19+-3.83ml/(min-100ml skin) measured by 133 Xe clearance. On the basis of the results, an estimate has been made of the proportions of the calf volume which can be ascribed to skin and muscle respectively. Estimated muscle and skin blood flow were correlated with total calf blood flow(r=0.98). (author)

  9. Multiple [3H]-nemonapride binding sites in calf brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmeste, D M; Tang, S W; Li, M; Fang, H

    1997-07-01

    [3H]-Nemonapride has been the ligand of choice to label D4 dopamine receptors. Its specificity was questioned when it was discovered that sigma (sigma) sites were also labeled by [3H]-nemonapride. To further characterize the binding of [3H]-nemonapride, three areas of calf brain (striatum, frontal cortex and cerebellum) were examined. In all three areas, [3H]-nemonapride labeled multiple sites. Dopaminergic and sigma sites were the most prominent. The sigma binding profile was sigma-1 like with a Ki binding profile as follows (in order of decreasing potency): haloperidol, PPAP, pentazocine, DTG, U-50488, R(+)-3-PPP. Experiments using sulpiride and pentazocine to block striatal dopaminergic and sigma sites, respectively, revealed additional, not previously characterized binding sites for [3H]-nemonapride. One component which was present in striatum but not in frontal cortex or cerebellum, had affinity for some neuroleptics and WB-4101, but not for typical serotonergic agents. Thus, [3H]-nemonapride has no selectivity for dopamine receptors unless stringent experimental conditions are met.

  10. Digestibility of cow's tritiated milk powder by calf and pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruwaene, R. van; Kirchmann, R.; Charles, P.; Hoek, J. van den

    1976-01-01

    Milk obtained from a lactating cow, maintained in a byre and fed on tritiated drinking water (266 μCi/1), was used in these experiments. Tritium moves into the different metabolic pathways that eventually produce milk. After administration of this continuous oral dose of tritiated water, the tritium content of the whole milk and of the dry matter reaches a plateau 10 days after the beginning of the ingestion of THO. Analysis of the radioactivity in the several milk constituents indicated that tritium was incorporated to different extents in different components. This in vivo tritiated milk powder was fed to two calves and three pigs in their rations. Daily samples of faeces were taken. For determining the digestibility and the incorporation of this milk powder the animals were slaughtered and several organs examined. The tritium activity was determined in the dry matter of the organs and the faeces. The data obtained in these experiments indicate that the milk powder is better absorbed by the calf if the digestibility coefficient is taken into consideration, but the milk powder is better incorporated in the organic matter of the muscle and liver of the pig. (author)

  11. Effects of elevated iodine in milk replacer on calf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, K J; Hidiroglou, M

    1990-03-01

    Calves were fed milk replacer containing .57, 10, 50, 100, or 200 ppm iodine (from ethylenediaminedihydroiodide) in DM, from 3 to 38 d of age, to estimate the minimum toxic concentration of iodine. Only the 200 ppm iodine intake reduced weight gains, DM intake, feed efficiency, and DM digestibility. At the 100 and 200 ppm iodine intakes, protein digestibility was reduced, and calves showed typical symptoms of iodine toxicity (nasal discharge, excessive tear and saliva formation, and coughing from tracheal congestion). Thyroid iodine increased with every elevation in iodine intake. Iodine in plasma, bile, and non-thyroid tissues started to increase at the 50 ppm intake and, except for muscle, tended to increase again at the 100 and 200 ppm intakes. Thus, the preruminant calf tolerated up to 50 ppm iodine in milk replacer DM for 5 wk postpartum. However, as iodine concentrations in plasma and nonthyroid tissues started to increase at 50 ppm iodine, an upper limit of 10 ppm would be more preferable.

  12. Calf Endurance and Achilles Tendon Structure in Classical Ballet Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellers, Jennifer A; van Ostrand, Katrina; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare

    2017-06-15

    Optimal lower leg function is critical for ballet dancers to meet their occupational requirements. Achilles tendon injury is particularly detrimental to ballet dancers. While standardized measures have been validated and incorporated into clinical practice for use in people with Achilles tendon injury, normative ranges specific to the dancer population have not been described. The purpose of this pilot study was to observe the performance of pre-professional ballet students and professional ballet dancers on a well-established test battery for lower leg functional performance as well as ultra-sonographic evaluation of the structure of their Achilles tendons. The dancers in this study had significantly shorter Achilles tendons than non-dancers (p = 0.016). Dancers demonstrated significantly higher maximum heel-rise height on the heel-rise test for calf endurance (p < 0.001) but performed significantly less work than non-dancers (p = 0.014). The results of this study support the use of the heel-rise test as a tool for screening and to guide rehabilitation.

  13. Genetic analysis of calf and heifer losses in Danish Holstein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuerst-Walti, B; Sørensen, Morten Kargo

    2010-01-01

    Mortality in dairy cattle is not only relevant with regard to economic losses but also to animal health and welfare. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to explore the genetic background of postnatal mortality in calves and replacement heifers in different age groups until first calving...... periods, whereas their records were kept for preceding periods. After further data editing, more than 840,000 calves and heifers born in the years 1998 to 2007 were investigated. Mortality rates were 3.23, 2.66, 0.97, 1.92, and 9.36% for the defined periods P1 to P5, respectively. For the estimation...... of genetic parameters, linear and threshold sire models were applied. Effects accounted for were the random effects herd × year × season and sire as well as the fixed effects year × month, number of dam's parity (parities >5 were set to 5), calf size, and calving ease. In total, the pedigree consisted of 4...

  14. Little Smoky Woodland Caribou Calf Survival Enhancement Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirkby G. Smith

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Little Smoky woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus herd is a boreal ecotype located in west central Alberta, Canada. This herd has declined steadily over the past decade and is currently thought to number approximately 80 animals. Factors contributing to the herds' decline appear related to elevated predator-caused mortality rates resulting from industrial caused landscape change. At current rates of decline, the herd is at risk of extirpation. A calf survival enhancement project was initiated in the first half of 2006 as a means of enhancing recruitment while other longer-term approaches were implemented. A total of 10 pregnant females were captured in early March and held in captivity until all calves were at least 3 weeks old. Before release, calves were radiocollared with expandable drop-off collars. Following release, survival of mother and offspring were tracked at intervals until the fall rut. Survival of penned calves was compared to "wild-born" calves at heel of non captive radiocollared females. This approach is compared to other techniques designed to increase recruitment in caribou.

  15. Overexpression of Latent TGFβ Binding Protein 4 in Muscle Ameliorates Muscular Dystrophy through Myostatin and TGFβ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay-Marie Lamar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Latent TGFβ binding proteins (LTBPs regulate the extracellular availability of latent TGFβ. LTBP4 was identified as a genetic modifier of muscular dystrophy in mice and humans. An in-frame insertion polymorphism in the murine Ltbp4 gene associates with partial protection against muscular dystrophy. In humans, nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in LTBP4 associate with prolonged ambulation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. To better understand LTBP4 and its role in modifying muscular dystrophy, we created transgenic mice overexpressing the protective murine allele of LTBP4 specifically in mature myofibers using the human skeletal actin promoter. Overexpression of LTBP4 protein was associated with increased muscle mass and proportionally increased strength compared to age-matched controls. In order to assess the effects of LTBP4 in muscular dystrophy, LTBP4 overexpressing mice were bred to mdx mice, a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. In this model, increased LTBP4 led to greater muscle mass with proportionally increased strength, and decreased fibrosis. The increase in muscle mass and reduction in fibrosis were similar to what occurs when myostatin, a related TGFβ family member and negative regulator of muscle mass, was deleted in mdx mice. Supporting this, we found that myostatin forms a complex with LTBP4 and that overexpression of LTBP4 led to a decrease in myostatin levels. LTBP4 also interacted with TGFβ and GDF11, a protein highly related to myostatin. These data identify LTBP4 as a multi-TGFβ family ligand binding protein with the capacity to modify muscle disease through overexpression.

  16. Overexpression of Latent TGFβ Binding Protein 4 in Muscle Ameliorates Muscular Dystrophy through Myostatin and TGFβ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar, Kay-Marie; Bogdanovich, Sasha; Gardner, Brandon B; Gao, Quan Q; Miller, Tamari; Earley, Judy U; Hadhazy, Michele; Vo, Andy H; Wren, Lisa; Molkentin, Jeffery D; McNally, Elizabeth M

    2016-05-01

    Latent TGFβ binding proteins (LTBPs) regulate the extracellular availability of latent TGFβ. LTBP4 was identified as a genetic modifier of muscular dystrophy in mice and humans. An in-frame insertion polymorphism in the murine Ltbp4 gene associates with partial protection against muscular dystrophy. In humans, nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in LTBP4 associate with prolonged ambulation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. To better understand LTBP4 and its role in modifying muscular dystrophy, we created transgenic mice overexpressing the protective murine allele of LTBP4 specifically in mature myofibers using the human skeletal actin promoter. Overexpression of LTBP4 protein was associated with increased muscle mass and proportionally increased strength compared to age-matched controls. In order to assess the effects of LTBP4 in muscular dystrophy, LTBP4 overexpressing mice were bred to mdx mice, a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. In this model, increased LTBP4 led to greater muscle mass with proportionally increased strength, and decreased fibrosis. The increase in muscle mass and reduction in fibrosis were similar to what occurs when myostatin, a related TGFβ family member and negative regulator of muscle mass, was deleted in mdx mice. Supporting this, we found that myostatin forms a complex with LTBP4 and that overexpression of LTBP4 led to a decrease in myostatin levels. LTBP4 also interacted with TGFβ and GDF11, a protein highly related to myostatin. These data identify LTBP4 as a multi-TGFβ family ligand binding protein with the capacity to modify muscle disease through overexpression.

  17. Translating golden retriever muscular dystrophy microarray findings to novel biomarkers for cardiac/skeletal muscle function in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Cristi L; Soslow, Jonathan H; Brinkmeyer-Langford, Candice L; Gupte, Manisha; Smith, Holly M; Sengsayadeth, Seng; Sawyer, Douglas B; Benson, D Woodrow; Kornegay, Joe N; Markham, Larry W

    2016-04-01

    In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), abnormal cardiac function is typically preceded by a decade of skeletal muscle disease. Molecular reasons for differences in onset and progression of these muscle groups are unknown. Human biomarkers are lacking. We analyzed cardiac and skeletal muscle microarrays from normal and golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) dogs (ages 6, 12, or 47+ mo) to gain insight into muscle dysfunction and to identify putative DMD biomarkers. These biomarkers were then measured using human DMD blood samples. We identified GRMD candidate genes that might contribute to the disparity between cardiac and skeletal muscle disease, focusing on brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and osteopontin (OPN/SPP1, hereafter indicated as SPP1). BDNF was elevated in cardiac muscle of younger GRMD but was unaltered in skeletal muscle, while SPP1 was increased only in GRMD skeletal muscle. In human DMD, circulating levels of BDNF were inversely correlated with ventricular function and fibrosis, while SPP1 levels correlated with skeletal muscle function. These results highlight gene expression patterns that could account for differences in cardiac and skeletal disease in GRMD. Most notably, animal model-derived data were translated to DMD and support use of BDNF and SPP1 as biomarkers for cardiac and skeletal muscle involvement, respectively.

  18. Between a rock and a hard place: habitat selection in female-calf humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae Pairs on the Hawaiian breeding grounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Cartwright

    Full Text Available The Au'au Channel between the islands of Maui and Lanai, Hawaii comprises critical breeding habitat for humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae of the Central North Pacific stock. However, like many regions where marine mega-fauna gather, these waters are also the focus of a flourishing local eco-tourism and whale watching industry. Our aim was to establish current trends in habitat preference in female-calf humpback whale pairs within this region, focusing specifically on the busy, eastern portions of the channel. We used an equally-spaced zigzag transect survey design, compiled our results in a GIS model to identify spatial trends and calculated Neu's Indices to quantify levels of habitat use. Our study revealed that while mysticete female-calf pairs on breeding grounds typically favor shallow, inshore waters, female-calf pairs in the Au'au Channel avoided shallow waters (<20 m and regions within 2 km of the shoreline. Preferred regions for female-calf pairs comprised water depths between 40-60 m, regions of rugged bottom topography and regions that lay between 4 and 6 km from a small boat harbor (Lahaina Harbor that fell within the study area. In contrast to other humpback whale breeding grounds, there was only minimal evidence of typical patterns of stratification or segregation according to group composition. A review of habitat use by maternal females across Hawaiian waters indicates that maternal habitat choice varies between localities within the Hawaiian Islands, suggesting that maternal females alter their use of habitat according to locally varying pressures. This ability to respond to varying environments may be the key that allows wildlife species to persist in regions where human activity and critical habitat overlap.

  19. Genetic and Early Clinical Manifestations of Females Heterozygous for Duchenne/Becker Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Riccardo; Madia, Francesca; Bartolomeo, Domenico; Trucco, Federica; Pedemonte, Marina; Traverso, Monica; Broda, Paolo; Bruno, Claudio; Zara, Federico; Minetti, Carlo; Fiorillo, Chiara

    2016-02-01

    Female carriers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), although usually asymptomatic, develop muscle weakness up to 17% of the time, and a third present cardiac abnormalities or cognitive impairment. Clinical features of DMD carriers during childhood are poorly known. We describe a cohort of pediatric DMD carriers, providing clinical, genetic, and histopathologic features, with a mean follow-up of 7 years. Fifteen females with a DMD mutation (age range 5 to 18 years) were included. Seven patients (46%) presented with clinically evident symptoms and signs such as limb girdle weakness, abnormal gait, and exercise intolerance. The other eight patients (53%) were evaluated because of an incidental finding of elevated level of creatine kinase. Creatine kinase level was elevated in all, ranging from 392 to 13,000 U/L. Calf hypertrophy was observed in eight patients (53%). No patient developed respiratory or cardiac involvement. The most frequent complication was scoliosis (46%). Four patients (29%) also presented minor learning disabilities or behavioral problems. We performed electromyography in half of patients, showing myopathic pattern in four (53%). Muscle biopsy revealed a mosaic reduction of dystrophin in nine available cases. DMD gene mutations were mostly deletions (71%), resulting in loss of reading frame in five patients (36%). The three patients who experienced the most severe disease course were affected either by a nonsense or frameshift mutation. Our analysis suggests that DMD gene mutations may be suspected in a female child with persistently elevated levels of creatine kinase. Evidence of scoliosis, calf hypertrophy, or myopathic pattern at electromyography may also be helpful, and muscle biopsy is always indicative. DMD carriers should be followed for subtle orthopedic and psychiatric complications during childhood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mitochondrial disorders in progressive muscular dystrophies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Kharlamov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature review gives data on the role of mitochondrial disorders in the pathogenesis of different progressive muscular dystrophies. It describes changes in Duchenne, limb-girdle, facial scapulohumeral (Landuzi—Degerina muscular dystrophies. The review is based on both clinical and experimental animal studies. Along with the implication of mitochondria in the pathogenesis of the diseases, it describes muscular dystrophy treatment options compensating for energy disorders and overcoming oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial studies in different muscle diseases hand physicians treatment modalities that fail to lead to recovery, but compensate for disorders caused by mutations in the genetic apparatus. 

  1. Muscular pathology: echographic and NMR imaging aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal-Suisse, P.; Beaurain, P.; Mougniot, C.

    1995-01-01

    A comparison of echographic techniques and NMR imaging has been done for the diagnosis of muscular trauma and tumor pathologies. In traumatic pathology, the echographic analysis allows to determine the complete assessment of recent muscular injuries. NMR imaging can be used in granuloma or fibrous callosity appreciation and for the analysis of deep injury (muscles and muscles-tendon junctions) and of muscular aponeurosis. Echography must be used together with color coding Doppler technique in the diagnosis of tumor pathology and for the study of slow fluxes. The recently available energy Doppler technique seems to be powerful in the study of vascularization of small expansive formations, but their extension to adjacent bone or tissue can only be appreciated using NMR imaging. (J.S.)

  2. AAV vector encoding human VEGF165–transduced pectineus muscular flaps increase the formation of new tissue through induction of angiogenesis in an in vivo chamber for tissue engineering: A technique to enhance tissue and vessels in microsurgically engineered tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Moimas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In regenerative medicine, new approaches are required for the creation of tissue substitutes, and the interplay between different research areas, such as tissue engineering, microsurgery and gene therapy, is mandatory. In this article, we report a modification of a published model of tissue engineering, based on an arterio-venous loop enveloped in a cross-linked collagen–glycosaminoglycan template, which acts as an isolated chamber for angiogenesis and new tissue formation. In order to foster tissue formation within the chamber, which entails on the development of new vessels, we wondered whether we might combine tissue engineering with a gene therapy approach. Based on the well-described tropism of adeno-associated viral vectors for post-mitotic tissues, a muscular flap was harvested from the pectineus muscle, inserted into the chamber and transduced by either AAV vector encoding human VEGF165 or AAV vector expressing the reporter gene β-galactosidase, as a control. Histological analysis of the specimens showed that muscle transduction by AAV vector encoding human VEGF165 resulted in enhanced tissue formation, with a significant increase in the number of arterioles within the chamber in comparison with the previously published model. Pectineus muscular flap, transduced by adeno-associated viral vectors, acted as a source of the proangiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor, thus inducing a consistent enhancement of vessel growth into the newly formed tissue within the chamber. In conclusion, our present findings combine three different research fields such as microsurgery, tissue engineering and gene therapy, suggesting and showing the feasibility of a mixed approach for regenerative medicine.

  3. Surface EMG signals in very late-stage of Duchenne muscular dystrophy : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobo Prat, J.; Janssen, Mariska M.H.P.; Koopman, Bart F.J.M.; Stienen, Arno H.A.; De Groot, Imelda J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Robotic arm supports aim at improving the quality of life for adults with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) by augmenting their residual functional abilities. A critical component of robotic arm supports is the control interface, as is it responsible for the human-machine interaction.

  4. Muscular and stato-kinetic functions rehabilitation by means of subaquatic stretching (hydrostretching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltàn Pàsztay

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Stretching is a physical therapeutical way for maintaining the standard parameters of the body functions from a tender to anadvanced age. The most important parameter that is influenced by the different techniques of stretching, especially byhydrostretching, is flexibility. This article presents the technique and the effects of hydrostretching on human body (onmuscular balance, strength, muscular metabolism and circulation.

  5. Progress toward Gene Therapy for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Joel R; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S

    2017-05-03

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) has been a major target for gene therapy development for nearly 30 years. DMD is among the most common genetic diseases, and isolation of the defective gene (DMD, or dystrophin) was a landmark discovery, as it was the first time a human disease gene had been cloned without knowledge of the protein product. Despite tremendous obstacles, including the enormous size of the gene and the large volume of muscle tissue in the human body, efforts to devise a treatment based on gene replacement have advanced steadily through the combined efforts of dozens of labs and patient advocacy groups. Progress in the development of DMD gene therapy has been well documented in Molecular Therapy over the past 20 years and will be reviewed here to highlight prospects for success in the imminent human clinical trials planned by several groups. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of 12 hour calf withdrawal on conception rate and calf performance of Bos indicus cattle under extensive conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escrivão, R J A; Webb, E C; Garcês, A P J T

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-two multiparous Brahman type cows with reproductive tract scoring (RTS) >/=4 at 45 days post-partum were randomly assigned to two groups of 26 cows each separated into an ad libitum suckling group (C) and treatment group (T). Calves in the T group were separated for 12 h during the night from 45 days post-partum to the onset of the breeding season. Body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) were recorded 45 days post-partum, at the start of the breeding season, and at pregnancy diagnosis. Calves were weighed at calving and weaning. Weaning weights were corrected to 205 days. BW and BCS at the onset of the breeding season were similar (p > 0.05) between the experimental groups. Calving to breeding intervals were 93 +/- 18 d and 99 +/- 22 d for T and C groups, respectively. Calving to conception intervals differed significantly between the groups (111 +/- 10 d for T and 133 +/- 19 d for C) and a similar result was obtained for the breeding to conception intervals (18 +/- 15 d for T and 31 +/- 19 d for C). Conception rates were 80% for the T group and 59% for the C group, which correlated better with BW than BCS at the onset of the breeding season. Weaning weights differed (p conception rates and improves the calf weaning weights of Bos indicus beef cattle under extensive production systems in sub-tropical conditions.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... myoclonic epilepsy Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... boxes. Description Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy (SMA-PME) is a neurological condition that causes ...

  8. A frozen-thawed in vitro-matured bovine oocyte derived calf with normal growth and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoi, T; Yamamoto, K; Koyama, N; Tachikawa, S; Suzuki, T

    1996-08-01

    The growth and fertility of a female calf obtained from a frozen-thawed bovine oocyte was assessed. The birth weight of the calf was lower than the mean birth weight of calves from in vitro fertilized embryos (IVF-controls) and calves obtained by artificial insemination (AI-controls). The growth rate of the calf up to 6 months was slower than that of the IVF-controls, but similar to that of the AI-controls. When the calf developed into a heifer (200 kg), she was inseminated with frozen semen and 280 days later delivered a male calf. The chromosoms of this cow were normal. These findings suggest that the growth and fertility of the calf derived from the frozen oocyte are normal.

  9. The muscular expression of RAS in patients with achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casselbrant, A; Kostic, S; Lönroth, H

    2015-09-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) elicits smooth muscle contractions via activation of AngII type 1 receptor (AT1R) in the intestinal wall and in sphincter regions in several species. Achalasia is a rare swallowing disorder and is characterized by a loss of the wave-like contraction that forces food through the oesophagus and a failure of the lower oesophageal sphincter to relax during swallowing. The present study was undertaken to elucidate expression and distribution of a local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the muscular layer of distal normal human oesophagus as well as in patients with achalasia using western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). AT1R, together with enzyme renin and cathepsin D expression were decreased in patients with achalasia. In contrast, the mast cells chymase, cathepsin G, neprilysin and the receptor for angiotensin 1-7 peptides, the MAS receptor, were increased in patients with achalasia. The results showed the existence of a local RAS in human oesophageal muscular layer. The enzymes responsible for AngII production are different and there has been a shift in receptor physiology from AT1R to MAS receptor in patients with achalasia. These changes in the RAS might play a significant role in the physiological motor control for patients with achalasia. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Muscular Imbalance Correction in the Power Fitness Training

    OpenAIRE

    Olga E. Aftimichuk; Alexander V. Varvarich

    2013-01-01

    Muscular imbalance is one of the manifestations of pathological-biomechanical changes in muscular-skeletal system. It is the result of tonus-power imbalance of short and relaxed muscles. Muscle shortening is the most striking sign of muscular imbalance. Hypodynamia and passive lifestyle can cause such results. The paper justifies the experimental technique of women muscular imbalances correction by means of power training. Selection of exercises, weights and machines was made, taking into acc...

  11. Immunological identification of a high molecular weight protein as a condidate for the product of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, L.; Krstenansky, J.; Mendell, J.; Rammohan, K.W.; Gruenstein, E. (Univ. of Cincinnati College of Medicine, OH (USA))

    1988-06-01

    An oligopeptide was synthesized based on translation of the nucleotide sequence of the putative exon region of clone pERT87-25 from the gene for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Immunization of rabbits with this oligopeptide induced the formation of antibodies directed against a protein present in human, rat, and rabbit skeletal muscle. This protein, which is missing in the skeletal muscle of two patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, has a molecular mass of {approx}320-420 kDa and is clearly different from the putative Duchenne muscular dystrophy-related protein nebulin. The data suggest that this 320-420-kDa protein is produced by the Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene.

  12. Immunological identification of a high molecular weight protein as a condidate for the product of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, L.; Krstenansky, J.; Mendell, J.; Rammohan, K.W.; Gruenstein, E.

    1988-01-01

    An oligopeptide was synthesized based on translation of the nucleotide sequence of the putative exon region of clone pERT87-25 from the gene for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Immunization of rabbits with this oligopeptide induced the formation of antibodies directed against a protein present in human, rat, and rabbit skeletal muscle. This protein, which is missing in the skeletal muscle of two patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, has a molecular mass of ∼320-420 kDa and is clearly different from the putative Duchenne muscular dystrophy-related protein nebulin. The data suggest that this 320-420-kDa protein is produced by the Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene

  13. Learning about Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Genomic Medicine Working Group New Horizons and Research Patient Management Policy and Ethics Issues Quick Links for Patient Care Education All About the Human Genome Project Fact Sheets Genetic Education Resources for ...

  14. Muscular dystrophy in a family of Labrador Retrievers with no muscle dystrophin and a mild phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Natassia M; Guo, Ling T; Estrela, Elicia; Kunkel, Louis M; Zatz, Mayana; Shelton, G Diane

    2015-05-01

    Animal models of dystrophin deficient muscular dystrophy, most notably canine X-linked muscular dystrophy, play an important role in developing new therapies for human Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Although the canine disease is a model of the human disease, the variable severity of clinical presentations in the canine may be problematic for pre-clinical trials, but also informative. Here we describe a family of Labrador Retrievers with three generations of male dogs having markedly increased serum creatine kinase activity, absence of membrane dystrophin, but with undetectable clinical signs of muscle weakness. Clinically normal young male Labrador Retriever puppies were evaluated prior to surgical neuter by screening laboratory blood work, including serum creatine kinase activity. Serum creatine kinase activities were markedly increased in the absence of clinical signs of muscle weakness. Evaluation of muscle biopsies confirmed a dystrophic phenotype with both degeneration and regeneration. Further evaluations by immunofluorescence and western blot analysis confirmed the absence of muscle dystrophin. Although dystrophin was not identified in the muscles, we did not find any detectable deletions or duplications in the dystrophin gene. Sequencing is now ongoing to search for point mutations. Our findings in this family of Labrador Retriever dogs lend support to the hypothesis that, in exceptional situations, muscle with no dystrophin may be functional. Unlocking the secrets that protect these dogs from a severe clinical myopathy is a great challenge which may have important implications for future treatment of human muscular dystrophies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cardiomyopathy in becker muscular dystrophy: Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Rady; Nguyen, My-Le; Mather, Paul

    2016-06-26

    Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is an X-linked recessive disorder involving mutations of the dystrophin gene. Cardiac involvement in BMD has been described and cardiomyopathy represents the number one cause of death in these patients. In this paper, the pathophysiology, clinical evaluations and management of cardiomyopathy in patients with BMD will be discussed.

  16. Respiratory muscle training in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodillo, E; Noble-Jamieson, C M; Aber, V; Heckmatt, J Z; Muntoni, F; Dubowitz, V

    1989-01-01

    Twenty two boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy were entered into a randomised double blind crossover trial to compare respiratory muscle training with a Triflow II inspirometer and 'placebo' training with a mini peak flow meter. Supine posture was associated with significantly impaired lung function, but respiratory muscle training showed no benefit.

  17. A Drosophila model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plas, Mariska Cathelijne van der

    2008-01-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a severe X-linked disease characterized by progressive muscle wasting and sometimes mild mental retardation. The disease is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. DMD is correlated with the absence of Dp427, which is located along the sarcolemma in skeletal

  18. What Are the Treatments for Muscular Dystrophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Neurology Society. (2005). Practice parameter: Corticosteroid treatment of Duchenne dystrophy. Neurology, 64 , 13-20. Retrieved June 22, 2012, ... Statement. (2004). Respiratory care of the patient with Duchenne muscular ... American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 170, 456-465. ...

  19. Visuospatial Attention Disturbance in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moura, Maria Clara Drummond Soares; do Valle, Luiz Eduardo Ribeiro; Resende, Maria Bernadete Dutra; Pinto, Katia Osternack

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The cognitive deficits present in the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are not yet well characterized. Attention, considered to be the brain mechanism responsible for the selection of sensory stimuli, could be disturbed in DMD, contributing, at least partially, to the observed global cognitive deficit. The aim of this study was to…

  20. Brain Function in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gordon Millichap

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of dystrophin disorders in the CNS function of boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD and the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse, an animal model of DMD, is reviewed at the University of New South Wales, University of Sydney, Australia.

  1. Skull development in the muscular dystrophic mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmann, H; Kirkeby, S; Moss, M L

    1989-01-01

    Roentgencephalometric tracings of skulls of 7-week-old normal and muscular dystrophic mice were compared. A marked size reduction of the dystrophic skulls relative to the normal ones was observed. However, the visceral parts of the dystrophic skull were more reduced in size than the neural parts....

  2. Hereditary muscular dystrophies and the heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, M. C. E.; Pinto, Y. M.; Merkies, I. S. J.; de Die-Smulders, C. E. M.; Crijns, H. J. G. M.; Faber, C. G.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac disease is a common clinical manifestation of neuromuscular disorders, particularly of muscular dystrophies. Heart muscle cells as well as specialized conducting myocardial fibres may be affected by the dystrophic process. The incidence and nature of cardiac involvement vary with different

  3. Muscle specific changes in length-force characteristics of the calf muscles in the spastic Han-Wistar rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annesofie Thorup; Jensen, Bente Rona; Uhlendorf, Toni L

    2014-01-01

    length, passive stiffness and passive force of spastic GA were decreased whereas those of spastic SO were increased. No mechanical interaction between the calf muscles and TA was found. As GA was lengthened, force from SO and PL declined despite a constant muscle-tendon unit length of SO and PL. However......, the extent of this interaction was not different in the spastic rats. In conclusion, the effects of spasticity on length-force characteristics were muscle specific. The changes seen for GA and PL muscles are consistent with the changes in limb mechanics reported for human patients. Our results indicate......The purpose of the present study was to investigate muscle mechanical properties and mechanical interaction between muscles in the lower hindlimb of the spastic mutant rat. Length-force characteristics of gastrocnemius (GA), soleus (SO) and plantaris (PL) were assessed in anesthetized spastic...

  4. Calf Muscle Performance Deficits Remain 7 Years After an Achilles Tendon Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brorsson, Annelie; Grävare Silbernagel, Karin; Olsson, Nicklas; Nilsson Helander, Katarina

    2018-02-01

    Optimizing calf muscle performance seems to play an important role in minimizing impairments and symptoms after an Achilles tendon rupture (ATR). The literature lacks long-term follow-up studies after ATR that describe calf muscle performance over time. The primary aim was to evaluate calf muscle performance and patient-reported outcomes at a mean of 7 years after ATR in patients included in a prospective, randomized controlled trial. A secondary aim was to evaluate whether improvement in calf muscle performance continued after the 2-year follow-up. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Sixty-six subjects (13 women, 53 men) with a mean age of 50 years (SD, 8.5 years) were evaluated at a mean of 7 years (SD, 1 year) years after their ATR. Thirty-four subjects had surgical treatment and 32 had nonsurgical treatment. Patient-reported outcomes were evaluated with Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) and Physical Activity Scale (PAS). Calf muscle performance was evaluated with single-leg standing heel-rise test, concentric strength power heel-rise test, and single-legged hop for distance. Limb Symmetry Index (LSI = injured side/healthy side × 100) was calculated for side-to-side differences. Seven years after ATR, the injured side showed decreased values in all calf muscle performance tests ( P performance did not continue after the 2-year follow-up. Heel-rise height increased significantly ( P = .002) between the 1-year (10.8 cm) and the 7-year (11.5 cm) follow-up assessments. The median ATRS was 96 (of a possible score of 100) and the median PAS was 4 (of a possible score of 6), indicating minor patient-reported symptoms and fairly high physical activity. No significant differences were found in calf muscle performance or patient-reported outcomes between the treatment groups except for the LSI for heel-rise repetitions. Continued deficits in calf muscle endurance and strength remained 7 years after ATR. No continued improvement in calf muscle performance

  5. [Calf circumference and its association with gait speed in elderly participants at Peruvian Naval Medical Center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Villegas, Gregory Mishell; Runzer Colmenares, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the association between calf circumference and gait speed in elderly patients 65 years or older at Geriatric day clinic at Peruvian Centro Médico Naval. Cross-sectional, retrospective study. We assessed 139 participants, 65 years or older at Peruvian Centro Médico Naval including calf circumference, gait speed and Short Physical Performance Battery. With bivariate analyses and logistic regression model we search for association between variables. The age mean was 79.37 years old (SD: 8.71). 59.71% were male, the 30.97% had a slow walking speed and the mean calf circumference was 33.42cm (SD: 5.61). After a bivariate analysis, we found a calf circumference mean of 30.35cm (SD: 3.74) in the slow speed group and, in normal gait group, a mean of 33.51cm (SD: 3.26) with significantly differences. We used logistic regression to analyze association with slow gait speed, founding statistically significant results adjusting model by disability and age. Low calf circumference is associated with slow speed walk in population over 65 years old. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  6. Sport socks do not enhance calf muscle pump function but inelastic wraps do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partsch, H; Mosti, G

    2014-12-01

    Aim of the study was to measure the effect of elastic and inelastic compression on calf muscle pump function in healthy male athletes. This was an experimental study which included 21 healthy male athletes. The ejection fraction (EF) of the venous calf pump was measured comparing the effects of a variety of compression materials: 1) sport compression stockings; 2) light zinc paste bandages; 3) sport compression stockings with additional Velcro® wraps over the calf. The influence of sport stocking and wraps on the venous calibre at the largest calf circumference in the lying and standing position was investigated using MRI. Inelastic compression exerting a median pressure in the standing position of 37.5 mmHg (zinc paste) and 48 mmHg (loosely applied straps over a sport stocking) achieved a significant increase of EF up to 100%. Sport stockings alone with a standing pressure of 19-24 mmHg did not show a significant change of EF. MRI demonstrated some venous narrowing in the lying but not in the standing position. By wrapping inelastic straps over the stocking an emptying of the veins in the lying and a considerable narrowing in the standing position could be observed. Venous calf pump function in athletes is not influenced by elastic sport stockings, but inelastic wraps either alone or applied over sport stockings lead to a significant enhancement.

  7. No change in calf muscle passive stiffness after botulinum toxin injection in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhusaini, Adel A A; Crosbie, Jack; Shepherd, Roberta B; Dean, Catherine M; Scheinberg, Adam

    2011-06-01

    Stiffness and shortening of the calf muscle due to neural or mechanical factors can profoundly affect motor function. The aim of this study was to investigate non-neurally mediated calf-muscle tightness in children with cerebral palsy (CP) before and after botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injection. Sixteen children with spastic CP (seven females, nine males; eight at Gross Motor Function Classification System level I, eight at level II; age range 4-10 y) and calf muscle spasticity were tested before and during the pharmaceutically active phase after injection of BoNT-A. Measures of passive muscle compliance and viscoelastic responses, hysteresis, and the gradient of the torque-angle curve were computed and compared before and after injection. Although there was a slight, but significant increase in ankle range of motion after BoNT-A injection and a small, significant decrease in the torque required to achieve plantigrade and 5° of dorsiflexion, no significant difference in myotendinous stiffness or hysteresis were detected after BoNT-A injection. Despite any effect on neurally mediated responses, the compliance of the calf muscle was not changed and the muscle continued to offer significant resistance to passive motion of the ankle. These findings suggest that additional treatment approaches are required to supplement the effects of BoNT-A injections when managing children with calf muscle spasticity. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2011 Mac Keith Press.

  8. Histological identification of muscular sarcocystis: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Makhija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcocystis is an apicomplexan protozoan belonging to same phylum as toxoplasma. The parasite encysts inside striated muscles of its intermediate host. Humans are accidental host infected by eating food or water contaminated with oocysts or sporocysts of an infected definitive host. The infection is increasing in Southeast Asia and may be overlooked in histological sections if one is not aware of the histomorphological features. The size and shape of the bradyzoites and the appearance of the cyst wall are the reliable features to distinguish this parasite from other parasites of the same phylum. The incidence of human infection is rising in Southeast Asia and histopathology is an important method for the diagnosis of muscular infection. It is important to recognize the histomorphology of this parasite and its differentiation from similar parasites.

  9. Cardiac involvement in children with neuro-muscular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Arkhipova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many inherited neuromuscular disorders include cardiac involvement as a typical clinical feature. Among the most common of them is the group of muscular dystrophies. Dilated cardiomyopathy, ventricular arrhythmias, atrial fibrillations, atrioventricular and intraventricular conduction abnormalities, and sudden cardiac death are well known pathological findings in Duchenne muscular dystrophies, myotonic dystrophy type I and 2, Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophies and different types of limb-girdle muscular dystrophies and other disorders. Detection of cardiac pathology in patients with different muscular dystrophies is possible with ECG, echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging, which are recommended for screening and early cardioprotective treatment.

  10. Effects of ageing on adaptation during vibratory stimulation of the calf and neck muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, M; Fransson, P A; Magnusson, M

    2009-01-01

    The ability to adapt and habituate based on prior experiences is important for human movement control, fall prevention and for the ability to enhance performance during various human activities. However, little is known about the ability for the elderly to adapt to balance perturbations in the lateral direction. To determine whether adaptation, i.e., the ability to adjust postural control to handle balance perturbations better over time, differed in the elderly subjects compared with young subjects in the anteroposterior and lateral directions, and whether the site of the balance perturbation or the presence or absence of vision affected the response. Postural stability was measured as anteroposterior and lateral torque variance in a young group (n = 18 (9 female and 9 male), average age = 29.1 years) and an elderly group (n = 16 (5 female and 11 male), average age = 71.5 years) with eyes open and closed during balance perturbations from calf and neck vibrations. After a 30-s period of quiet stance, these vibrations were repeated over a period of 200 s, so the adaptive responses could be analyzed by splitting the data into 50-s periods. The adaptive responses in the anteroposterior and lateral directions were different. Adaptation in the anteroposterior direction occurred to an almost equal extent in the elderly and young, whereas adaptation in the lateral direction was markedly larger in the elderly in all tests except for neck vibration with eyes closed. Age, vision and vibration site were all influential factors for recorded body movements, but no significant combined effects were found. Balance perturbation instigates an adaptive response in the elderly in both the anteroposterior and lateral directions. However, during perturbation, age and vision are both very influential factors for the stability, thus associating the previously documented age-related decline in visual functioning with a higher risk of falls in this age range. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Muscular condition monitoring system using fiber bragg grating sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heon Young; Lee, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Fiber optic sensors (FOS) have advantages such as electromagnetic interference (EMI) immunity, corrosion resistance and multiplexing capability. For these reasons, they are widely used in various condition monitoring systems (CMS). This study investigated a muscular condition monitoring system using fiber optic sensors (FOS). Generally, sensors for monitoring the condition of the human body are based on electro-magnetic devices. However, such an electrical system has several weaknesses, including the potential for electro-magnetic interference and distortion. Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors overcome these weaknesses, along with simplifying the devices and increasing user convenience. To measure the level of muscle contraction and relaxation, which indicates the muscle condition, a belt-shaped FBG sensor module that makes it possible to monitor the movement of muscles in the radial and circumferential directions was fabricated in this study. In addition, a uniaxial tensile test was carried out in order to evaluate the applicability of this FBG sensor module. Based on the experimental results, a relationship was observed between the tensile stress and Bragg wavelength of the FBG sensors, which revealed the possibility of fabricating a muscular condition monitoring system based on FBG sensors.

  12. Muscular condition monitoring system using fiber bragg grating sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heon Young; Lee, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dae Hyun [Seoul National University of Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Fiber optic sensors (FOS) have advantages such as electromagnetic interference (EMI) immunity, corrosion resistance and multiplexing capability. For these reasons, they are widely used in various condition monitoring systems (CMS). This study investigated a muscular condition monitoring system using fiber optic sensors (FOS). Generally, sensors for monitoring the condition of the human body are based on electro-magnetic devices. However, such an electrical system has several weaknesses, including the potential for electro-magnetic interference and distortion. Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors overcome these weaknesses, along with simplifying the devices and increasing user convenience. To measure the level of muscle contraction and relaxation, which indicates the muscle condition, a belt-shaped FBG sensor module that makes it possible to monitor the movement of muscles in the radial and circumferential directions was fabricated in this study. In addition, a uniaxial tensile test was carried out in order to evaluate the applicability of this FBG sensor module. Based on the experimental results, a relationship was observed between the tensile stress and Bragg wavelength of the FBG sensors, which revealed the possibility of fabricating a muscular condition monitoring system based on FBG sensors.

  13. Viable Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis isolated from calf milk replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Irene R; Foddai, Antonio C G; Tarrant, James C; Kunkel, Brenna; Hartmann, Faye A; McGuirk, Sheila; Hansen, Chungyi; Talaat, Adel M; Collins, Michael T

    2017-12-01

    When advising farmers on how to control Johne's disease in an infected herd, one of the main recommendations is to avoid feeding waste milk to calves and instead feed calf milk replacer (CMR). This advice is based on the assumption that CMR is free of viable Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) cells, an assumption that has not previously been challenged. We tested commercial CMR products (n = 83) obtained from dairy farms around the United States by the peptide-mediated magnetic separation (PMS)-phage assay, PMS followed by liquid culture (PMS-culture), and direct IS900 quantitative PCR (qPCR). Conventional microbiological analyses for total mesophilic bacterial counts, coliforms, Salmonella, coagulase-negative staphylococci, streptococci, nonhemolytic Corynebacterium spp., and Bacillus spp. were also performed to assess the overall microbiological quality of the CMR. Twenty-six (31.3%) of the 83 CMR samples showed evidence of the presence of MAP. Seventeen (20.5%) tested positive for viable MAP by the PMS-phage assay, with plaque counts ranging from 6 to 1,212 pfu/50 mL of reconstituted CMR (average 248.5 pfu/50 mL). Twelve (14.5%) CMR samples tested positive for viable MAP by PMS-culture; isolates from all 12 of these samples were subsequently confirmed by whole-genome sequencing to be different cattle strains of MAP. Seven (8.4%) CMR samples tested positive for MAP DNA by IS900 qPCR. Four CMR samples tested positive by both PMS-based tests and 5 CMR samples tested positive by IS900 qPCR plus one or other of the PMS-based tests, but only one CMR sample tested positive by all 3 MAP detection tests applied. All conventional microbiology results were within current standards for whole milk powders. A significant association existed between higher total bacterial counts and presence of viable MAP indicated by either of the PMS-based assays. This represents the first published report of the isolation of viable MAP from CMR. Our findings raise concerns

  14. Dysferlin, annexin A1, and mitsugumin 53 are upregulated in muscular dystrophy and localize to longitudinal tubules of the T-system with stretch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Leigh B; Lemckert, Frances A; Zheng, Xi F; Tran, Jenny; Evesson, Frances J; Hawkes, Joanne M; Lek, Angela; Street, Neil E; Lin, Peihui; Clarke, Nigel F; Landstrom, Andrew P; Ackerman, Michael J; Weisleder, Noah; Ma, Jianjie; North, Kathryn N; Cooper, Sandra T

    2011-04-01

    Mutations in dysferlin cause an inherited muscular dystrophy because of defective membrane repair. Three interacting partners of dysferlin are also implicated in membrane resealing: caveolin-3 (in limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 1C), annexin A1, and the newly identified protein mitsugumin 53 (MG53). Mitsugumin 53 accumulates at sites of membrane damage, and MG53-knockout mice display a progressive muscular dystrophy. This study explored the expression and localization of MG53 in human skeletal muscle, how membrane repair proteins are modulated in various forms of muscular dystrophy, and whether MG53 is a primary cause of human muscle disease. Mitsugumin 53 showed variable sarcolemmal and/or cytoplasmic immunolabeling in control human muscle and elevated levels in dystrophic patients. No pathogenic MG53 mutations were identified in 50 muscular dystrophy patients, suggesting that MG53 is unlikely to be a common cause of muscular dystrophy in Australia. Western blot analysis confirmed upregulation of MG53, as well as of dysferlin, annexin A1, and caveolin-3 to different degrees, in different muscular dystrophies. Importantly, MG53, annexin A1, and dysferlin localize to the t-tubule network and show enriched labeling at longitudinal tubules of the t-system in overstretch. Our results suggest that longitudinal tubules of the t-system may represent sites of physiological membrane damage targeted by this membrane repair complex.

  15. Clinical Coenurosis (Coenurus Cerebralis and Associated Pathological Findings in a Calf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cumali Özkan*, Serkan Yildirim1 and Abdullah Kaya

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate clinical and pathological findings of a clinical Coenurus cerebralis case in a 10-month-old Simmental male calf. Clinical examination of the calf revealed incoordination, irregular gait, failure to hold the head straight, leftward head tilt, and circling. The animal was diagnosed with C. cerebralis and euthanazia was recommended. The autopsy demonstrated a cyst (9x7 cm in the caudal of the left cerebral hemisphere within the cranium. The cyst caused compression over the ventral portion of the left cerebral hemisphere, while a marked perforation of 3-4 cm diameter was found on the sphenoid bone. Histopathologically, hyperemia and perivascular mononuclear cell infiltration were observed. In conclusion, we found it beneficial to present the clinical and pathological findings of this calf infected with C. cerebralis which is known to be a rare clinical entity among cattle.

  16. Veterinarians’ and agricultural advisors’ perception of calf health and welfare in organic dairy production in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellingsen, Kristian; Mejdell, C. M.; Hansen, B.

    2012-01-01

    and opinions on calf health and welfare in organic dairy farming. The response rate was 52 % for veterinarians and 54 % for advisors. In direct comparison, both groups thought that the calves’ overall health status and well-being did not differ in organic and conventional dairy farming systems. However...... of respondents considered the routine of keeping calves with their mothers and the good care of the calves by stockpersons as important welfare advantages. Among all factors related to health, welfare, morbidity and mortality, low calf mortality and adequate treatment of disease and injury received the best...... scores. Body condition and growth, as well as the use of calf health recording cards, received the worst scores. The two professions differed in their views on the most important welfare challenges for calves in an organic environment: while both groups agreed on poor feed quality, veterinarians...

  17. A Case Study of Respiratory Disease in a Veal Calf Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palechek, Neil P.; Schoonderwoerd, Matt; Perry, Allen W.

    1987-01-01

    An outbreak of respiratory disease occurred in a central Alberta veal operation, after production capacity had been increased fourfold. Mortality rate reached 24.6% despite agressive antibiotic therapy. A review of the records revealed a cyclical disease pattern in each room. Weekly cleaning of occupied calf rooms was correlated with the disease pattern. Aerosols generated by a high pressure sprayer appeared to trigger transmission of respiratory pathogens in malnourished neonatal calves. Disease occurrence decreased and profitability increased sixfold after the introduction of the following measures: 1) discontinuing the use of the high pressure washer in the occupied calf rooms, 2) feeding calves a better quality milk replacer with supplemental milk for the poorest calves, 3) sale-yard calf purchases were abandoned in favor of direct buying. PMID:17422807

  18. Mucosal disease-like syndrome in a calf persistently infected by Hobi-like pestivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Lanave, Gianvito; Lucente, Maria Stella; Mari, Viviana; Varello, Katia; Losurdo, Michele; Larocca, Vittorio; Bozzetta, Elena; Cavaliere, Nicola; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2014-08-01

    A calf persistently infected with Hobi-like pestivirus displayed severe clinical signs and subsequently died. Gross lesions and histopathological changes were suggestive of hemorrhagic and necrotic inflammation involving several tissues. A Hobi-like pestivirus pair was isolated from the dead calf, i.e., cytopathogenic (CP) and noncytopathogenic (NCP) strains strictly related to each other and to Italian prototype isolates at the genetic level. Two biotype-specific real-time reverse transcription-PCR assays determined the time of the emergence of the CP virus as 1 month before the calf's death. This highest RNA titers were reached in lymphoid and nervous system tissues, whereas only traces of CP viral RNA were found in blood. In contrast, great NCP virus loads were present in all tissues and biological fluids. The present report provides new insights into the pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms of this emerging group of pestiviruses. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. A study of atriphos (ATP) action on muscular circulation in progressive muscular dystrophy by the radioactive xenon clearance technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakyrov, B.; Samardzhiev, A.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of intramuscularly and intravenously adminostered atriphos on the muscular circulation was studied with radioactive xenon in 12 children with progressive muscular dystrophy. After combined local intramuscular injection of ATP (atriphos) with the radioactive marker a 12-fold increment of muscular circulation ensues, lasting about 15 minutes. No vasodilatating effect on the muscular flow was oberved after intravenous injection of 20-40 mg of atriphos. It is believed that intramuscular administration of atriphos produced dilatation of capillaries and of the venous part of the muscular circulation. (author)

  20. Zebrafish models flex their muscles to shed light on muscular dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joachim; Currie, Peter D

    2012-11-01

    Muscular dystrophies are a group of genetic disorders that specifically affect skeletal muscle and are characterized by progressive muscle degeneration and weakening. To develop therapies and treatments for these diseases, a better understanding of the molecular basis of muscular dystrophies is required. Thus, identification of causative genes mutated in specific disorders and the study of relevant animal models are imperative. Zebrafish genetic models of human muscle disorders often closely resemble disease pathogenesis, and the optical clarity of zebrafish embryos and larvae enables visualization of dynamic molecular processes in vivo. As an adjunct tool, morpholino studies provide insight into the molecular function of genes and allow rapid assessment of candidate genes for human muscular dystrophies. This unique set of attributes makes the zebrafish model system particularly valuable for the study of muscle diseases. This review discusses how recent research using zebrafish has shed light on the pathological basis of muscular dystrophies, with particular focus on the muscle cell membrane and the linkage between the myofibre cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix.

  1. Translational Research for Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    offspring will have exons 2-4 deleted in cre-expressing tissues. 7. JAX stock 18284: 129-Acta1tm1Hrd/J The Acta1(H40Y) knock -in allele has the...Alterations in Osteopontin Modify Muscle Size in Females in Both Humans and Mice. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 45:1060-8. 54. Hosur V, Cox ML, Burzenski LM, Riding

  2. Causes and correlates of calf mortality in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khyne U Mar

    Full Text Available Juvenile mortality is a key factor influencing population growth rate in density-independent, predation-free, well-managed captive populations. Currently at least a quarter of all Asian elephants live in captivity, but both the wild and captive populations are unsustainable with the present fertility and calf mortality rates. Despite the need for detailed data on calf mortality to manage effectively populations and to minimize the need for capture from the wild, very little is known of the causes and correlates of calf mortality in Asian elephants. Here we use the world's largest multigenerational demographic dataset on a semi-captive population of Asian elephants compiled from timber camps in Myanmar to investigate the survival of calves (n = 1020 to age five born to captive-born mothers (n = 391 between 1960 and 1999. Mortality risk varied significantly across different ages and was higher for males at any age. Maternal reproductive history was associated with large differences in both stillbirth and liveborn mortality risk: first-time mothers had a higher risk of calf loss as did mothers producing another calf soon (<3.7 years after a previous birth, and when giving birth at older age. Stillbirth (4% and pre-weaning mortality (25.6% were considerably lower than those reported for zoo elephants and used in published population viability analyses. A large proportion of deaths were caused by accidents and lack of maternal milk/calf weakness which both might be partly preventable by supplementary feeding of mothers and calves and work reduction of high-risk mothers. Our results on Myanmar timber elephants with an extensive keeping system provide an important comparison to compromised survivorship reported in zoo elephants. They have implications for improving captive working elephant management systems in range countries and for refining population viability analyses with realistic parameter values in order to predict future population

  3. Effects of Calf Rearing Package Introduced to Smallholder Dairy Farms in Bahati Division, Nakuru District, Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanyasunya, T.P.; Wekesa, F.W.; Sinkeet, S.N.O.; Jong, R.; Udo, H.; Mukisira, E.A.

    1999-01-01

    A Calf rearing package of Individual (mobile) pens , milk and fodder feeding was introduced on smallholder farms of Bahati Division, Nakuru District, Kenya. The study investigated the effects of changes in Calf rearing practices on calf performance and the responses of the production systems to the investigations. 46 farmers were selected on the basis of their willingness to participate in the study and were allocated to Control (23 and Test (23). both types of farmers were trained but only test farms received building materials and forage seeds. Socio-economic and calf performance data were collected. Calves were supplemented with sweet potato vines (SPV) + Green leaf desmodium (DES) and/or fodder shrubs (FOD) Leucaena leucocephala and Sesbania sesban. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) models and Chi-square test were applied on the data collected. The study revealed that there were variations in off-farm, livestock and crop incomes. The gross Margins (GM) were higher (P < 0.01) for the test than the Control farmers. Calves raised in Test farms Demonstrated higher (P < 0.05) growth rates than those in Control farms (370 versus 307 g/d). Female calves gained (P < 0.05) 57 g/d more than mal calves.Those with assorted farm grown legumes (SPV + FOD) performed better (375 and 417 g/d, respectively) compared to those supplemented with SPV alone or not supplemented (345 and 321 g/d, respectively). Improved calf performance in Test farms suggests that, farm grown forage legumes, could be used as a cheap alternative protein supplement by resource-poor farmers. Calf mortality rates for Control farms (33%) were higher (P < 0.05) than those for Test farms (12.5%). The study concluded that the interventions/measures taken improve the overall performance of calves on-farm

  4. Raising the standards of the calf-raise test: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert-Losier, Kim; Newsham-West, Richard J; Schneiders, Anthony G; Sullivan, S John

    2009-11-01

    The calf-raise test is used by clinicians and researchers in sports medicine to assess properties of the calf muscle-tendon unit. The test generally involves repetitive concentric-eccentric muscle action of the plantar-flexors in unipedal stance and is quantified by the number of raises performed. Although the calf-raise test appears to have acceptable reliability and face validity, and is commonly used for medical assessment and rehabilitation of injuries, no universally acceptable test parameters have been published to date. A systematic review of the existing literature was conducted to investigate the consistency as well as universal acceptance of the evaluation purposes, test parameters, outcome measurements and psychometric properties of the calf-raise test. Nine electronic databases were searched during the period May 30th to September 21st 2008. Forty-nine articles met the inclusion criteria and were quality assessed. Information on study characteristics and calf-raise test parameters, as well as quantitative data, were extracted; tabulated; and statistically analysed. The average quality score of the reviewed articles was 70.4+/-12.2% (range 44-90%). Articles provided various test parameters; however, a consensus was not ascertained. Key testing parameters varied, were often unstated, and few studies reported reliability or validity values, including sensitivity and specificity. No definitive normative values could be established and the utility of the test in subjects with pathologies remained unclear. Although adapted for use in several disciplines and traditionally recommended for clinical assessment, there is no uniform description of the calf-raise test in the literature. Further investigation is recommended to ensure consistent use and interpretation of the test by researchers and clinicians.

  5. Woodland caribou calf recruitment in relation to calving/post-calving landscape composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara C. McCarthy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, Newfoundland’s woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou population has declined by an estimated 66%. Low calf recruitment has been associated to the decline, possibly triggered by increasing calf predation and/or decreasing resources. To investigate the role of landscape composition in this system, we studied the yearly (2005-2008 calving/post-calving range (CPCR of 104 satellite-collared females belonging to six herds. We mapped nine disturbance factors (e.g. roads, logging, etc, as well as vegetation cover types (e.g. coniferous, deciduous forests, etc, and determined the total area they occupied within CPCRs yearly for each herd. Using an information theoretic approach, we assessed the model that best explained variation in recruitment using these components. Based on corrected Akaike Information Criterion, the model that best explained variation in calf recruitment included total disturbance and deciduous forest area, both showing the expected negative relationship with calf recruitment. Other landscape variables among the models with ΔAICc < 2 were mixed forest, also with a suggested negative relationship, and barrens and wetlands with a significant positive trend. This study highlights the need to minimize total disturbance footprint and account for resulting changes in forest composition within CPCRs during land use planning. Expanding forestry operations and road infrastructure in critical woodland caribou habitat across Canada may additionally contribute to habitat loss via fragmentation. This in turn, may lead to range recession beyond the initial local avoidance footprint. We see the possibility of using calf recruitment models based on landscape parameters, among others, to predict the impact of new industrial developments on calf recruitment.

  6. Use of mesenteric lymphangiography in a calf with chylothorax and chyloperitoneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, A.M.; Riley, C.B.; Macdonald, D.G.; Ferguson, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    Lymphatic abnormalities resulting in chylous effusion into a body cavity are uncommon in domestic animals. In a 6-day-old calf admitted to our hospital because of failure to suckle and abdominal distention, however, mesenteric lymphangiography revealed an obstruction of lymphatic flow. Laparoscopic examination of the abdomen was unsuccessful. Fluid accumulation was resolved in this calf by drainage. In cattle with chylothorax and concurrent chyloperitoneum in which a traumatic lesion of the thoracic duct is possible, conservative management, with drainage and supportive treatment, should be attempted prior to considering surgical intervention

  7. Possible death of a buffalo calf (Syncercus caffer due to suspected heartwater (Ehrlichia ruminantium : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pfitzer

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsial organisms resembling Ehrlichia ruminantium (the causative organism of heartwater were demonstrated in brain smears and formalin-fixed brain sections derived from a buffalo calf that died on a private game reserve in northern KwaZulu-Natal. The possibility that the tick-free environment of a quarantine boma may have affected the calf 's immunity, is discussed. These findings suggest that monitoring heartwater in wild ruminants and making brain smears as a routine during post mortem evaluations of wild ruminants, should be encouraged.

  8. Delaying postpartum supplementation in cows consuming low-quality forage does not alter cow and calf productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reducing the amount of supplemental feed postpartum without affecting productivity may enhance profitability of cow-calf operations. Therefore, sixteen 2-yr-old fall calving cows were used to evaluate effects of delaying postpartum supplementation on milk production, serum metabolites, cow and calf ...

  9. A comparison of intermittent pneumatic compression of the calf and whole leg in preventing deep venous thrombosis in urological surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderdahl, D W; Henderson, S R; Hansberry, K L

    1997-05-01

    Intermittent pneumatic compression of the calf and/or thigh effectively decreases the incidence of deep venous thrombosis and other thrombotic sequelae but clinical data comparing these modalities are currently lacking. A total of 90 patients undergoing major urological surgery was randomly assigned to receive calf length or thigh length pneumatic compression for antithrombotic prophylaxis. Duplex ultrasound of the lower extremities was performed preoperatively and twice postoperatively to evaluate for deep venous thrombosis. Health care providers in the operating room, recovery room and ward were asked to compare the compression systems, and a cost analysis was performed. A total of 47 patients wore the thigh length sequential pneumatic sleeves and 43 wore calf length uniform compression systems. A pulmonary embolus without evidence of deep venous thrombosis was detected in 1 patient (2%) using the thigh length system. A thrombus was detected in the common femoral vein by duplex ultrasonography in 1 patient (2%) with the calf length system. Nursing personnel found the calf length sleeves easier to apply and more comfortable by patient account but they were satisfied with both systems. There was a significant cost savings with the calf length pneumatic compression system. Calf and thigh length pneumatic compression systems similarly decrease the risk of deep venous thrombosis in patients undergoing urological surgery. The calf length system has the added advantage of being less expensive and easier to use.

  10. Impact of an AI heifer calf rearing scheme on dairy stock development in the Western province of Sri Lanka.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nettisinghe, A.M.P.; Udo, H.M.J.; Steenstra, F.A.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of an AI heifer calf rearing scheme on dairy stock development, in a coconut grazing and a peri-urban smallholder dairy production system in the Western Province of Sri Lanka. The heifer rearing scheme included free advice on calf rearing, drugs, acaricides, minerals

  11. A case of Becker muscular dystrophy with early manifestation of cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Hyun Doo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year-old boy was admitted with chest discomfort, nausea, and dyspnea at rest. At the age of 3 years, he underwent muscle biopsy and dystrophin gene analysis owing to an enlarged calf muscle and elevated serum kinase level (6,378 U/L without overt weakness; based on the results, Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD was diagnosed. The dystrophin gene showed deletion of exons 45 to 49. He remained ambulant and could step upstairs without significant difficulties. A chest roentgenogram showed cardiomegaly (cardiothoracic ratio, 54%, and his electrocardiogram (ECG showed abnormal ST-T wave, biatrial enlargement, and left ventricular hypertrophy. The 2-dimensional and M-mode ECGs showed a severely dilated left ventricular cavity with diffuse hypokinesis. The systolic indices were reduced, including fractional shortening (9% and ejection fraction (19%. Despite receiving intensive medical treatment, he died from congestive heart failure 5 months after the initial cardiac symptoms. We report a case of BMD with early-onset dilated cardiomyopathy associated with deletion of exons 45 to 49. Early cardiomyopathy can occur in BMD patients with certain genotypes; therefore, careful follow-up is required even in patients with mild phenotypes of BMD.

  12. Effects of time of weaning, supplement, and sire breed of calf during the fall grazing period on cow and calf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, R E; Grings, E E; MacNeil, M D; Heitschmidt, R K; Haferkamp, M R; Adams, D C

    1996-07-01

    A 4-yr experiment was conducted to determine effects of protein supplementation, age at weaning, and calf sire breed on cow and calf performance during fall grazing. Each year 48 pregnant, crossbred cows nursing steer calves (mean calving date = April 8) were assigned to a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial experiment replicated in three native range pastures. Treatment factors were: 1) no supplement (NS) or an individually fed supplement (S, 3 kg of a 34% protein supplement fed to cows every 3rd d); 2) calves weaned at the beginning (W, mid to late September) or at the end (NW, mid to late December) of the trial each year; or 3) calves sired by Hereford or Charolais bulls. Data were adjusted for cow size (initial hip height and initial and final weights and condition scores) by analyses of covariance using principal component coefficients as covariates. Change in cow weight and condition score were increased by S and W (P Forage intake was decreased (P intake (forage+supplement) was not affected by S but was decreased by W (P effects of treatments were observed the next spring in cow weight, condition score, and birth weight (NW decreased birth weight by 2 kg, P effects by the next fall on weaning weights or pregnancy rates. Milk yield decreased during the experimental period, and S maintained higher milk production in late lactation (P Calf ADG was increased by S and Charolais sires (P effects of feeding a 34% protein supplement to cows were to increase calf gains and improve persistency of lactation and efficiency; 2) delaying weaning decreased cow weight and condition score; 3) effects of weaning age and protein supplementation were highly dependent on forage and environmental conditions in any given year; and 4) whatever effects existed in a given year did not carry over to effects on next year's production as measured by pregnancy rates and weaning weights.

  13. Short-term and delayed effects of mother death on calf mortality in Asian elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahdenperä, Mirkka; Mar, Khyne U; Lummaa, Virpi

    2016-01-01

    Long-lived, highly social species with prolonged offspring dependency can show long postreproductive periods. The Mother hypothesis proposes that a need for extended maternal care of offspring together with increased maternal mortality risk associated with old age select for such postreproductive survival, but tests in species with long postreproductive periods, other than humans and marine mammals, are lacking. Here, we investigate the Mother hypothesis with longitudinal data on Asian elephants from timber camps of Myanmar 1) to determine the costs of reproduction on female age-specific mortality risk within 1 year after calving and 2) to quantify the effects of mother loss on calf survival across development. We found that older females did not show an increased immediate mortality risk after calving. Calves had a 10-fold higher mortality risk in their first year if they lost their mother, but this decreased with age to only a 1.1-fold higher risk in the fifth year. We also detected delayed effects of maternal death: calves losing their mother during early ages still suffered from increased mortality risk at ages 3-4 and during adolescence but such effects were weaker in magnitude. Consequently, the Mother hypothesis could account for the first 5 years of postreproductive survival, but there were no costs of continued reproduction on the immediate maternal mortality risk. However, the observed postreproductive lifespan of females surviving to old age commonly exceeds 5 years in Asian elephants, and further studies are thus needed to determine selection for (postreproductive) lifespan in elephants and other comparably long-lived species.

  14. Muscular cysticercosis: Case report and imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmo, Neide Regina Simoes; Fiorio, Ulysses Ferreira; Clemente, Marcel Andreazza, E-mail: neideolmo@yahoo.com.br [Clinica Mult Imagem, Santos, SP (Brazil); Bastos, Eder Amaral [Universidade Metropolitana de Santos (UNIMES), Santos, SP (Brazil); Mendes, Gustavo Gomes [AC Camargo Cancer Center, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease caused by a worm of the Cestoda class. The most prevalent form affects the nervous system. This case report is from a 78-year old female patient evaluated at Clinica Mult Imagem, in the city of Santos, Brazil, who presented a form of the disease that differed from the classic neurocysticercosis, in this case muscular cysticercosis. This and other forms of manifestation justify further studies to ensure adequate recognition, diagnosis and treatment of this parasitic disease. (author)

  15. Defective myoblasts identified in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    OpenAIRE

    Blau, H M; Webster, C; Pavlath, G K

    1983-01-01

    A defect in the proliferative capacity of satellite cells, mononucleated precursors of mature muscle fibers, was found in clonal analyses of cells cultured from Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients. The total yield of myoblasts per gram of muscle biopsy was decreased to 5% of normal. Of the DMD myoblast clones obtained, a large proportion contained a morphological class of flat distended cells that had an increased generation time and ceased to proliferate beyond 100-1,000 cells but cou...

  16. Intra-muscular hemangioma: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Nayak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra-muscular hemangiomas (IMH are relatively uncommon benign vascular tumors, which account for less than 1% of all hemangiomas. IMH may be presented as a perceived sporting injury. Diagnosis of this lesion is important not only because of its rarity, but also due to dangers posed by misdiagnosis and mismanagement. They must be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained pain and swelling in muscles. IMH occurring in the oral cavity is reviewed below.

  17. Urological manifestations of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askeland, Eric J; Arlen, Angela M; Erickson, Bradley A; Mathews, Katherine D; Cooper, Christopher S

    2013-10-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a dystrophinopathy affecting males that is associated with multiple organ system complications. To our knowledge urological complications of Duchenne muscular dystrophy have been described only anecdotally to date. We reviewed the medical charts of 135 patients with Duchenne or Duchenne-Becker muscular dystrophy for demographics and disease progression, urological diagnoses, intervention and followup. Of 135 patients 67 (50%) had at least 1 documented urological diagnosis and 38 (28%) had multiple manifestations. Lower urinary tract symptoms were the most common urological diagnosis (32% of patients). Survival analysis revealed a median age at onset of lower urinary tract symptoms of 23 years (95% CI 17.7-23.9). Intervention was required in 12 patients (9%), most commonly due to nephrolithiasis. Urological morbidity increased with Duchenne muscular dystrophy progression when stratified by clinical progression. Lower urinary tract symptoms were more common in nonambulatory patients (40.7% vs 19%, p = 0.007), those with a diagnosis of scoliosis (44% vs 19.7%, p = 0.003) and/or scoliosis spine surgery (60% vs 22%, p <0.001), and those on invasive respiratory support (53% vs 29%, p = 0.046). Likewise, nephrolithiasis was more common in nonambulatory patients (10% vs 0%, p = 0.017), those with scoliosis (12% vs 0%, p = 0.004) and/or scoliosis spine surgery (20% vs 1%, p <0.001), and those on invasive respiratory support (29% vs 3%, p <0.001). Only 28% of patients with a urological manifestation were referred to urology. As these patients transition into adolescence and adulthood, the increased prevalence of urological manifestations warrants increased awareness and referral to urologists. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Disability and Survival in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Kohler, M; Clarenbach, C F; Bahler, C; Brack, T; Russi, E W; Bloch, K E

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) leads to progressive impairment of muscle function, respiratory failure and premature death. Longitudinal data on the course of physical disability and respiratory function are sparse. OBJECTIVES: To prospectively assess physical impairment and disability, respiratory function and survival in DMD patients over several years in order to describe the course of the disease with current care. METHODS: In 43 patients with DMD, aged 5-35 years, yearly a...

  19. A lesão muscular na miastenia grave: estudo de 17 casos com histoquimica muscular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lineu Cesar Werneck

    1982-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudo de 17 biópsias musculares de pacientes com miastenia grave, utilizando técnicas de coloração a fresco e histoquímica muscular. Foram encontradas 15 biópsias musculares anormais, sendo que as principais alterações foram fibras musculares angulares escuras atróficas, excesso de gotículas de gordura na membrana externa das fibras, variação no diâmetro das fibras e atrofia de fibras do tipo II. Os achados foram interpretados como denervação em 11 biópsias, atrofia de fibras do tipo II em 7, infiltrado linfocitário em 4, necrose de fibras musculares com fagocitose em 1 e em 2 biópsias não foi encontrada qualquer anormalidade. Quanto maior o tempo de doença, mais severa foi a anormalidade encontrada. Dois pacientes apresentavam timoma, um miastenia grave congênita, um artrite reumatoide, um neurite hipertrófica intersticial, um tireoidite de Hashimoto e um com síndrome miastênica concomitante. São discutidos os achados anatomopatológicos e sua possível explicação.

  20. Proximal spinal muscular atrophy: current orthopedic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haaker G

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Gerrit Haaker, Albert Fujak Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany Abstract: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a hereditary neuromuscular disease of lower motor neurons that is caused by a defective "survival motor neuron" (SMN protein that is mainly associated with proximal progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Although SMA involves a wide range of disease severity and a high mortality and morbidity rate, recent advances in multidisciplinary supportive care have enhanced quality of life and life expectancy. Active research for possible treatment options has become possible since the disease-causing gene defect was identified in 1995. Nevertheless, a causal therapy is not available at present, and therapeutic management of SMA remains challenging; the prolonged survival is increasing, especially orthopedic, respiratory and nutritive problems. This review focuses on orthopedic management of the disease, with discussion of key aspects that include scoliosis, muscular contractures, hip joint disorders, fractures, technical devices, and a comparative approach of conservative and surgical treatment. Also emphasized are associated complications including respiratory involvement, perioperative care and anesthesia, nutrition problems, and rehabilitation. The SMA disease course can be greatly improved with adequate therapy with established orthopedic procedures in a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach. Keywords: spinal muscular atrophy, scoliosis, contractures, fractures, lung function, treatment, rehabilitation, surgery, ventilation, nutrition, perioperative management

  1. Management of myocardial damage in muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Takuhisa

    2011-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a fatal complication in many muscular dystrophy cases and has become the most common cause of death in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) since 2001. HF deaths in DMD occur in young patients and increase, along with respiratory failure, in older patients. Managing HF, therefore, is the most important component of DMD treatment. Management of HF is necessary in DMD patients of all ages because myocardial damage progresses regardless of age and disability. Electrocardiography, echocardiography, myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and natriuretic peptides are used for the diagnosis of myocardial damage and chronic HF. Tissue Doppler echocardiography is in particularly useful for early detection of minute myocardial damage and dysfunction in DMD. The first-line drugs for chronic HF are angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and the prognosis of DMD patients has been improved using these drugs and beta-blockers. Diuretics are added in the presence of pulmonary congestion. Digoxin is most effective at a blood level of 0.5-0.8 ng/mL because of its pharmacokinetics in DMD. Surgical treatment may be necessary in cases of intractable HF. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (biventricular pacing), a treatment with an artificial pacemaker, is indicated for cases that meet specific criteria, including HF with ventricular dyssynchrony. Applications of partial left ventriculectomy (Batista procedure) and left ventricular assist devices in muscular dystrophy are likely in the near future. (author)

  2. Understanding the Process of Fibrosis in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacine Kharraz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrosis is the aberrant deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM components during tissue healing leading to loss of its architecture and function. Fibrotic diseases are often associated with chronic pathologies and occur in a large variety of vital organs and tissues, including skeletal muscle. In human muscle, fibrosis is most readily associated with the severe muscle wasting disorder Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, caused by loss of dystrophin gene function. In DMD, skeletal muscle degenerates and is infiltrated by inflammatory cells and the functions of the muscle stem cells (satellite cells become impeded and fibrogenic cells hyperproliferate and are overactivated, leading to the substitution of skeletal muscle with nonfunctional fibrotic tissue. Here, we review new developments in our understanding of the mechanisms leading to fibrosis in DMD and several recent advances towards reverting it, as potential treatments to attenuate disease progression.

  3. Parental attitudes toward newborn screening for Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy and spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Molly F; Hughes, Sarah C; Hache, Lauren P; Naylor, Edwin W; Abdel-Hamid, Hoda Z; Barmada, M Michael; Dobrowolski, Steven F; Stickler, David E; Clemens, Paula R

    2014-06-01

    Disease inclusion in the newborn screening (NBS) panel should consider the opinions of those most affected by the outcome of screening. We assessed the level and factors that affect parent attitudes regarding NBS panel inclusion of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). The attitudes toward NBS for DMD, BMD, and SMA were surveyed and compared for 2 categories of parents, those with children affected with DMD, BMD, or SMA and expectant parents unselected for known family medical history. The level of support for NBS for DMD, BMD, and SMA was 95.9% among parents of children with DMD, BMD, or SMA and 92.6% among expectant parents. There was strong support for NBS for DMD, BMD, and SMA in both groups of parents. Given advances in diagnostics and promising therapeutic approaches, discussion of inclusion in NBS should continue. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Ankle-foot orthoses that restrict dorsiflexion improve walking in polio survivors with calf muscle weakness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeger, Hilde E.; Bus, Sicco A.; Brehm, Merel-Anne; Nollet, Frans

    2014-01-01

    In polio survivors with calf muscle weakness, dorsiflexion-restricting ankle-foot orthoses (DR-AFOs) aim to improve gait in order to reduce walking-related problems such as instability or increased energy cost. However, evidence on the efficacy of DR-AFOs in polio survivors is lacking. We

  5. Fore limb bilateral polydactyly and ocular dermoid in a Holstein Friesian calf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spadari, A.; Spinella, G.; Venturini, A.; Gentile, A.

    2003-01-01

    A clinical case of polydactyly in fore limbs of a Holstein Friesian calf was radiographically and ultrasonographically examined and thus was surgically treated by amputation of the first right digit and of the first left digit, the latter present in a vestigial form. Furthermore, a ocular dermoid cyst was removed in the same animal [it

  6. Movement and spatial proximity patterns of rangeland-raised Raramuri Criollo cow-calf pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to compare movement patterns of nursing vs. nonnursing mature cows and to characterize cow-calf proximity patterns in two herds of Raramuri Criollo cattle. Herds grazed rangeland pastures in southern New Mexico (4355 ha) and west-central Chihuahua, Mexico (633 ha)'' A...

  7. A rare cause of calf swelling: the Morel-Lavallee lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moriarty, J M

    2011-03-01

    Calf swelling is a common clinical presentation with a wide and varied differential diagnosis. The Morel-Lavallee is a rare cause of subcutaneous swelling, caused by post-traumatic shearing of the hypodermis from the underlying fascia. The potential space so created fills with blood, lymph and necrotic fat giving specific findings on MR evaluation.

  8. Anatomy, death, and preservation of a woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) calf, Yamal Peninsula, northwest Siberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisher, Daniel C.; Tikhonov, Alexei N.; Kosintsev, Pavel A.; Rountrey, Adam N.; Buigues, Bernard; van der Plicht, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    A well-preserved woolly mammoth calf found in northwest Siberia offers unique opportunities to investigate mammoth anatomy, behavior, life history and taphonomy. Analysis of the fluvial setting where the specimen was found suggests it was derived from eroding bluffs during ice-out flooding in June

  9. Integrating scientific knowledge into large-scale restoration programs: the CALFED Bay-Delta Program experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, K.A.; Short, A.

    2009-01-01

    Integrating science into resource management activities is a goal of the CALFED Bay-Delta Program, a multi-agency effort to address water supply reliability, ecological condition, drinking water quality, and levees in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of northern California. Under CALFED, many different strategies were used to integrate science, including interaction between the research and management communities, public dialogues about scientific work, and peer review. This paper explores ways science was (and was not) integrated into CALFED's management actions and decision systems through three narratives describing different patterns of scientific integration and application in CALFED. Though a collaborative process and certain organizational conditions may be necessary for developing new understandings of the system of interest, we find that those factors are not sufficient for translating that knowledge into management actions and decision systems. We suggest that the application of knowledge may be facilitated or hindered by (1) differences in the objectives, approaches, and cultures of scientists operating in the research community and those operating in the management community and (2) other factors external to the collaborative process and organization.

  10. Effect of calf sex on some productive, reproductive and health traits in Holstein cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chegini, A.; Hossein-Zadeh, N.G.; Hosseini-Moghadam, H.

    2015-01-01

    Records of Holstein cows from March 1992 to April 2008 from 194 large herds and comprising from 402,716 records for productive traits to 178,344 records of somatic cell count were used to study the effect of calf sex in different parities and calving season on the subsequent productive, reproductive and health traits in Holstein cows. T-test procedure of SAS software was used to investigate the effect of calf sex and season of calving on aforementioned traits. Cows with female calves had higher milk and fat yield, persistency of milk and fat yield and longer lactation length, while cows that gave birth to male calves had shorter calving interval and longer productive life. Also, cows with female calves had higher milk yield per day of lactation in the first two parities, but there was no difference in milk yield per day of lactation for parities ≥ 3. There was no relationship among mean somatic cell count and sex of born calf. Fall calves had the highest adjusted milk yield and milk yield per day of lactation, however, winter calves had the longest lactation lengthand productive life and the highest somatic cell count. Results from this study demonstrate that it seems necessary to consider the effect of calf sex on aforementioned traits when making decision to use sexed semen or conventional semen. (Author)

  11. Replacing lactose from calf milk replacers : effects on digestion and post-absorptive metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary PhD thesis Myrthe S. Gilbert

    Replacing lactose from calf milk replacers – Effects on digestion and post-absorptive metabolism

    Veal calves are fed milk replacer (MR) and solid feed. The largest part of the energy provided to veal calves

  12. Gamma-ray decontamination of a milk substitute for calf feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasco, M. I.; Roberti, A.; Horak, Celina I.; Narvaiz, Patricia; Kairiyama, Eulogia

    1999-01-01

    A contaminated milk substitute for calf feeding has been irradiated to reduce the content of bacteria and fungi. The results of microbiological, chemical and physico-chemical studies demonstrate that an irradiation doses of 7 kGy reduce to an acceptable level the content of contaminants without damaging the milk substitute. (author)

  13. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype SAT 3 in Long-Horned Ankole Calf, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom

    2015-01-01

    After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest...

  14. Connective tissue injury in calf muscle tears and return to play: MRI correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ashutosh; Entwisle, Tom; Schneider, Michal; Brukner, Peter; Connell, David

    2017-10-26

    The aim of our study was to assess a group of patients with calf muscle tears and evaluate the integrity of the connective tissue boundaries and interfaces. Further, we propose a novel MRI grading system based on integrity of the connective tissue and assess any correlation between the grading score and time to return to play. We have also reviewed the anatomy of the calf muscles. We retrospectively evaluated 100 consecutive patients with clinical suspicion and MRI confirmation of calf muscle injury. We evaluated each calf muscle tear with MRI for the particular muscle injured, location of injury within the muscle and integrity of the connective tissue structure at the interface. The muscle tears were graded 0-3 depending on the degree of muscle and connective tissue injury. The time to return to play for each patient and each injury was found from the injury records and respective sports doctors. In 100 patients, 114 injuries were detected. Connective tissue involvement was observed in 63 out of 100 patients and failure (grade 3 injury) in 18. Mean time to return to play with grade 0 injuries was 8 days, grade 1 tears was 17 days, grade 2 tears was 25 days and grade 3 tears was 48 days (pmuscle tears. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. A fatal case of complicated congenital peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia in a Holstein calf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Keltie A.; Britton, Ann P.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia is a rare condition most commonly reported in cats and dogs. A 6-week-old Holstein heifer calf with a congenital peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia complicated by a perforated abomasal ulcer is described. The clinical signs and pathological findings are compared with those reported in other species. PMID:24155464

  16. A fatal case of complicated congenital peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia in a Holstein calf

    OpenAIRE

    Hicks, Keltie A.; Britton, Ann P.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia is a rare condition most commonly reported in cats and dogs. A 6-week-old Holstein heifer calf with a congenital peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia complicated by a perforated abomasal ulcer is described. The clinical signs and pathological findings are compared with those reported in other species.

  17. Effect of calf sex on some productive, reproductive and health traits in Holstein cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chegini, A.; Hossein-Zadeh, N.G.; Hosseini-Moghadam, H.

    2015-07-01

    Records of Holstein cows from March 1992 to April 2008 from 194 large herds and comprising from 402,716 records for productive traits to 178,344 records of somatic cell count were used to study the effect of calf sex in different parities and calving season on the subsequent productive, reproductive and health traits in Holstein cows. T-test procedure of SAS software was used to investigate the effect of calf sex and season of calving on aforementioned traits. Cows with female calves had higher milk and fat yield, persistency of milk and fat yield and longer lactation length, while cows that gave birth to male calves had shorter calving interval and longer productive life. Also, cows with female calves had higher milk yield per day of lactation in the first two parities, but there was no difference in milk yield per day of lactation for parities ≥ 3. There was no relationship among mean somatic cell count and sex of born calf. Fall calves had the highest adjusted milk yield and milk yield per day of lactation, however, winter calves had the longest lactation lengthand productive life and the highest somatic cell count. Results from this study demonstrate that it seems necessary to consider the effect of calf sex on aforementioned traits when making decision to use sexed semen or conventional semen. (Author)

  18. a note on tntensive weaner calf production fro]ii dairy cows

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    creep feeding under these conditions demanded atten- tion. Naudd (1964) reported that out cf a total of 9l dairy herds investigated in the Republic of South Africa. only 3l e; of the herds suckled calves. ln 869oof the cases only one calf per cow was suckled. This differs conl- pletely from the practice in Britain where more than ...

  19. Factors associated with night-time calf muscle cramps: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Fiona; Chuter, Vivienne; Burns, Joshua

    2013-03-01

    Although highly prevalent and painful, night-time calf muscle cramping is poorly understood, and no treatment has shown consistent efficacy or safety. One hundred sixty adults were recruited from New South Wales, Australia, including 80 who had night-time calf cramping at least once per week and 80 age- and gender-matched adults who did not. Participants were assessed using reliable tests of lower limb strength, flexibility, morphometrics, circulation, and sensation, and were questioned about health and lifestyle factors, diet, medications, exercise, symptomatology, sleeping habits, and footwear. Conditional logistic regression identified 3 factors independently associated with night-time calf muscle cramps: muscle twitching (OR 4.6, 95% CI 1.6-15.5, P = 0.01); lower limb tingling (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.6-10.3, P = 0.003); and foot dorsiflexion weakness (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03, P = 0.002), which represented other measures of lower limb weakness in the model. Night-time calf muscle cramps were associated with markers of neurological dysfunction and potential musculoskeletal therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  20. Therapeutic strategies to address neuronal nitric oxide synthase deficiency and the loss of nitric oxide bioavailability in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpani, Cara A; Hayes, Alan; Rybalka, Emma

    2017-05-25

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is a rare and fatal neuromuscular disease in which the absence of dystrophin from the muscle membrane induces a secondary loss of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and the muscles capacity for endogenous nitric oxide synthesis. Since nitric oxide is a potent regulator of skeletal muscle metabolism, mass, function and regeneration, the loss of nitric oxide bioavailability is likely a key contributor to the chronic pathological wasting evident in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. As such, various therapeutic interventions to re-establish either the neuronal nitric oxide synthase protein deficit or the consequential loss of nitric oxide synthesis and bioavailability have been investigated in both animal models of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and in human clinical trials. Notably, the efficacy of these interventions are varied and not always translatable from animal model to human patients, highlighting a complex interplay of factors which determine the downstream modulatory effects of nitric oxide. We review these studies herein.

  1. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy in Brazilian children: clinical, histological and molecular characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Veloso Albuquerque

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD are a heterogeneous group of genetic muscular dystrophies, involving 16 autosomal recessive subtypes and eight autosomal dominant subtypes. Autosomal recessive dystrophy is far more common than autosomal dominant dystrophy, particularly in children. The clinical course in this group is characterized by progressive proximal weakness, initially in pelvic and after in shoulder-girdle musculature, varying from very mild to severe degree. Significant overlap of clinical phenotypes, with genetic and clinical heterogeneity, constitutes the rule for this group of diseases. Muscle biopsies are useful for histopathologic and immunolabeling studies, and DNA analysis is the gold standard to establish the specific form of muscular dystrophy. Objectives: The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical, histological and molecular aspects in children with LGMD who attend a big public neuromuscular centre in our country to determine the frequency of different forms. Method: Thirty seven patients were classified as LGMD and included in this analysis. The study period extended from 2009-2012. The female to male ratio was 3:1. The age of onset ranged from two to 13 years, mean 7,5 years. Onset in the first decade was seen in 90%. Results: The initial clinical signs included: frequent falls (22 cases, difficulty in climbing stairs (13 cases, walk on tip toes (2 cases, difficulty in rising from the floor (2 cases and difficulty on walking (1 case. The serum CK levels were high in all cases. Among the 37 patients, 15 (40,5% were classified as sarcoglycanopathies (LGMD2C-F, five (13,5% as dysferlinopathy (LGMD2B, five (13,5% as calpainopathy (LGMD2A. Mutations in LMNA gene (LGMD1B, FKRP gene (LGMDI and caveolin gene (LGMD 1C were identified in two (5,5%, two (5,5% and one patient (2,5%, respectively. In seven of 37 cases (19% it was impossible to determine specific diagnosis. Calf hypertrophy, scapular winging and scoliosis

  2. Prevalence of muscular dystrophy in patients with muscular disorders in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Hajinaghi Tehrani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Muscular dystrophy is a group of diseases that is characterized by progressive muscle wasting and the weakness of variable distribution and severity. On the basis of the distribution of predominant muscle weakness, there are many different kinds of muscular dystrophy. Some dystrophies are especially frequent in certain populations. There are no studies on the prevalence of muscular dystrophy in Iran. This study was aimed to survey the prevalence of muscular dystrophy among Iranian patients with muscular disorders. This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 1000 patients with musculoskeletal disorders who visited the dystrophy association of Bou-Ali Hospital (Tehran from June 2014 to June 2016. Patients’ data were extracted using a checklist that included age, gender, age of onset, family history, findings from clinical diagnostic tests and types of muscular dystrophy. The clinical findings were the results of genetic tests; EMG-NCV; para-clinical findings, including LDH and CPK; and pathological findings. All data were analyzed by SPSS V.22 (IBM Inc., NY with Chi Square and One way ANOVA tests. All analyses were performed with P = 0.05 considered as the threshold of statistical significant. Out of the 337 patients studied, 262 (77.7% were male and 75 (22.3% were female. Subjects had a mean (± SD age of 26.08 (± 11.86 years with an age range of 3 to 59 years. The most common types of muscular dystrophy were found to be Duchenne dystrophy (131 cases, 38.9%, limb-girdle dystrophy (91 cases, 27%, Becker dystrophy (58 cases, 17.2%, FSHD dystrophy (31 cases, 9.2%, and SMA (26 cases, 7.7%, respectively. The results showed that a statistically significant relationship between dystrophy types and gender, age, family history, age of diagnosis, CPK and LDH levels (P < 0.001. There were no statistical relationship between dystrophy types and pathological findings (P = 0.57, EMG-NCV test results (P = 0.062, and genetic findings (P = 0

  3. Distrofia muscular de Emery-Dreifuss: relato de caso Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucila Moreira Carsten

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A distrofia muscular de Emery-Dreifuss é uma forma de distrofia muscular freqüentemente associada a contraturas articulares e defeitos de condução cardíaca, que pode ser causada pela deficiência da proteína emerina na membrana nuclear interna das fibras musculares. Descrevemos o caso de um homem de 19 anos com diminuição de força muscular, hipotrofia nas cinturas escapular e pélvica, disfagia, contraturas articulares em cotovelos e tornozelos, apresentando história familiar compatível com herança ligada ao cromossomo X. A investigação mostrou creatinaquinase sérica elevada, eletrocardiograma com bloqueio atrioventricular de primeiro grau e bloqueio de ramo direito, eletroneuromiografia normal, biópsia muscular com alterações miopáticas e a análise por imuno-histoquímica mostrou deficiência de emerina. São discutidas as manifestações clínicas e genéticas, alterações laboratoriais e eletroneuromiográficas, bem como, a importância do estudo do padrão de herança no aconselhamento genético destas famílias.The Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy is a form of muscular dystrophy that frequently presents early contractures and cardiac conduction defects, caused by emerin deficiency in the inner nuclear membrane of the muscular fibers. A 19-years-old man it presented muscle weakness and hypotrophy in the proximal upper and lower limbs, dysphagia and early contractures in elbows and ankles, with familiar history compatible with X-linked inheritance form. The investigation showed increased serum creatinekinase levels electrocardiogram had a first degree atrioventricular block and right bundle branch block normal electromyography and nerve conduction study muscle biopsy disclosed myopathic characteristics and nuclear protein immunohystochemical analysis showed deficiency of emerin. The clinical and genetics manifestations, laboratorial and electromyography changes, as well as, the study of the pattern of inheritance for

  4. Recent developments in the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and spinal muscular atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Wendy K. M.

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric neuromuscular disorders comprise a large variety of disorders that can be classified based on their neuroanatomical localization, patterns of weakness, and laboratory test results. Over the last decade, the field of translational research has been active with many ongoing clinical trials. This is particularly so in two common pediatric neuromuscular disorders: Duchenne muscular dystrophy and spinal muscular atrophy. Although no definitive therapy has yet been found, numerous active areas of research raise the potential for novel therapies in these two disorders, offering hope for improved quality of life and life expectancy for affected individuals. PMID:23634188

  5. CALF CIRCUMFERENCE AT BIRTH: A SCREENING METHOD FOR DETECTION OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low Birth Weight (LBW babies run a higher risk of morbidity and mortality in the perinatal period. However, in our country where almost 70-80% births take place at home and peripheral hospitals, taking accurate weight is a problem due to unavailability of weighing scale and trained personnel. Hence there is a constant search for newer methods to detect LBW babies so that early interventions can be instituted. Various authors have used different surrogate anthropometric measurements from different parts of our country. In the present study, an attempt was made to validate the feasibility of using calf circumference as a predictor of LBW babies that can be used by a trained or untrained person. Objectives: To study various anthropometric measurements including calf circumference in newborns and to correlate various measurements with birth weight. Methods: The present study was conducted in the department of Social & Preventive Medicine, MLB Medical College, Jhansi (UP for a period of one year. The study included 1100 consecutively delivered neonates in the maternity ward of MLB Medical College Hospital, Jhansi (UP. The birth weight (Wt, crown heel length (CHL, crown rump length (CRL, head circumference (HC, chest circumference (CC, mid arm circumference (MAC, thigh circumference (TC and calf circumference (CC by standard techniques. All the measurements were taken by a single person throughout the study period with in 24 hours of delivery. Standard statistical methods were adopted for determination of critical limit, sensitivity, specificity and correlation coefficient of different anthropometric measurements in relation to birth weight. Results: Analysis of data indicates that out of 1100 newborns, 55.64% were low birth weight. The percentage of newborns > 2500gm was 44.36. Overall average birth weight was 2348 ± 505gm. Out of 1100 newborns, 608 (55.27% were males and 492 (44.73% were females. Average birth weight for males was 2412

  6. Cognitive and Neurobehavioral Profile in Boys With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihani, Rudaina; Smile, Sharon; Yoon, Grace; Dupuis, Annie; Mosleh, Maureen; Snider, Andrea; McAdam, Laura

    2015-10-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a progressive neuromuscular condition that has a high rate of cognitive and learning disabilities as well as neurobehavioral disorders, some of which have been associated with disruption of dystrophin isoforms. Retrospective cohort of 59 boys investigated the cognitive and neurobehavioral profile of boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Full-scale IQ of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. MRI assessment of calf injuries in Australian Football League players: findings that influence return to play

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterworth, George; Wein, Sara; Rotstein, Andrew H.; Gorelik, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Calf muscle strains have become increasingly prevalent in recent seasons of the Australian Football League (AFL) and represent a significant cause of time lost from competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between MRI features of calf muscle strains and games missed and to thereby identify parameters that are of prognostic value. A retrospective analysis of MRI scans of AFL players with calf strains referred to a musculoskeletal radiology clinic over a 5-year period (2008-2012) was performed. The muscle(s) and muscle component affected, the site and size of strain, and the presence of an intramuscular tendon tear or intermuscular fluid were recorded. These data were cross-referenced with whether a player missed at least one game. Imaging features of prognostic value were thus identified. Sixty-three athletes had MRI scans for calf muscle strains. Soleus strains were more common than strains of other muscles. Players with soleus strains were more likely to miss at least one game if they had multiple muscle involvement (p = 0.017), musculotendinous junction strains (p = 0.046), and deep strains (p = 0.036). In a combined analysis of gastrocnemius and soleus strains, intramuscular tendon tears were observed in a significantly greater proportion of players who missed games (p = 0.010). Amongst AFL players with calf injuries, there is an association between missing at least one game and multiple muscle involvement, musculotendinous junction strains, deep strain location, and intramuscular tendon tears. In this setting, MRI may therefore provide prognostic information to help guide return-to-play decisions. (orig.)

  8. MRI assessment of calf injuries in Australian Football League players: findings that influence return to play

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterworth, George; Wein, Sara; Rotstein, Andrew H. [Victoria House Medical Imaging, Prahran, Victoria (Australia); Gorelik, Alexandra [Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Melbourne Epicentre, Parkville (Australia)

    2017-03-15

    Calf muscle strains have become increasingly prevalent in recent seasons of the Australian Football League (AFL) and represent a significant cause of time lost from competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between MRI features of calf muscle strains and games missed and to thereby identify parameters that are of prognostic value. A retrospective analysis of MRI scans of AFL players with calf strains referred to a musculoskeletal radiology clinic over a 5-year period (2008-2012) was performed. The muscle(s) and muscle component affected, the site and size of strain, and the presence of an intramuscular tendon tear or intermuscular fluid were recorded. These data were cross-referenced with whether a player missed at least one game. Imaging features of prognostic value were thus identified. Sixty-three athletes had MRI scans for calf muscle strains. Soleus strains were more common than strains of other muscles. Players with soleus strains were more likely to miss at least one game if they had multiple muscle involvement (p = 0.017), musculotendinous junction strains (p = 0.046), and deep strains (p = 0.036). In a combined analysis of gastrocnemius and soleus strains, intramuscular tendon tears were observed in a significantly greater proportion of players who missed games (p = 0.010). Amongst AFL players with calf injuries, there is an association between missing at least one game and multiple muscle involvement, musculotendinous junction strains, deep strain location, and intramuscular tendon tears. In this setting, MRI may therefore provide prognostic information to help guide return-to-play decisions. (orig.)

  9. MRI assessment of calf injuries in Australian Football League players: findings that influence return to play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, George; Wein, Sara; Gorelik, Alexandra; Rotstein, Andrew H

    2017-03-01

    Calf muscle strains have become increasingly prevalent in recent seasons of the Australian Football League (AFL) and represent a significant cause of time lost from competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between MRI features of calf muscle strains and games missed and to thereby identify parameters that are of prognostic value. A retrospective analysis of MRI scans of AFL players with calf strains referred to a musculoskeletal radiology clinic over a 5-year period (2008-2012) was performed. The muscle(s) and muscle component affected, the site and size of strain, and the presence of an intramuscular tendon tear or intermuscular fluid were recorded. These data were cross-referenced with whether a player missed at least one game. Imaging features of prognostic value were thus identified. Sixty-three athletes had MRI scans for calf muscle strains. Soleus strains were more common than strains of other muscles. Players with soleus strains were more likely to miss at least one game if they had multiple muscle involvement (p = 0.017), musculotendinous junction strains (p = 0.046), and deep strains (p = 0.036). In a combined analysis of gastrocnemius and soleus strains, intramuscular tendon tears were observed in a significantly greater proportion of players who missed games (p = 0.010). Amongst AFL players with calf injuries, there is an association between missing at least one game and multiple muscle involvement, musculotendinous junction strains, deep strain location, and intramuscular tendon tears. In this setting, MRI may therefore provide prognostic information to help guide return-to-play decisions.

  10. Heterosis and direct effects for Charolais-sired calf weight and growth, cow weight and weight change, and ratios of cow and calf weights and weight changes across warm season lactation in Romosinuano, Angus, and F cows in Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Burke, J M; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W

    2016-01-01

    The use of Brahman in cow-calf production offers some adaptation to the harsh characteristics of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Criollo breeds, such as the Romosinuano, may have similar adaptation. The objectives were to estimate genetic effects in Romosinuano, Angus, and crossbred cows for their weights, weights of their calves, and ratios (calf weight:cow weight and cow weight change:calf weight gain) across lactation and to assess the influence of forage on traits and estimates. Cows ( = 91) were bred to Charolais bulls after their second parity. Calves ( = 214) were born from 2006 to 2009. Cows and calves were weighed in early (April and June), mid- (July), and late lactation (August and October). Animal was a random effect in analyses of calf data; sire was random in analyses of cow records and ratios. Fixed effects investigated included calf age, calf sex, cow age-year combinations, sire breed of cow, dam breed of cow, and interactions. Subsequent analyses evaluated the effect of forage grazed: endophyte-free or endophyte-infected tall fescue. Estimates of maternal heterosis for calf weight ranged from 9.3 ± 4.3 to 15.4 ± 5.7 kg from mid-lactation through weaning ( cow) were -6.8 ± 3.0 and -8.9 ± 4.2 kg for weights recorded in April and June. Calf weights and weight gains from birth were greater ( cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue except in mid-summer. Cow weight change from April to each time was negative for Angus cows and lower ( Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue were heavier ( cows had the lowest ( cow weight change:calf weight gain, indicating an energy-deficit condition. Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue had more negative ( cow weight, 7.9 ± 3.0 to 15.8 ± 5.0 kg for cow weight change, and 0.07 ± 0.03 to 0.27 ± 0.1 for cow weight change:calf weight gain. Direct Romosinuano effects ranged from 14.8 ± 4.2 to 49.8 ± 7.7 kg for cow weight change and 0.2 ± 0.04 to 0.51 ± 0.14 for cow weight change:calf weight gain. The adaptive

  11. The Effect of Calf Gender on Milk Production in Seasonal Calving Cows and Its Impact on Genetic Evaluations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie K Hess

    Full Text Available Gender of the calf whose birth initiates lactation could influence whole lactation milk yield of the dam due to hormonal influences on mammary gland development, or through calf gender effects on gestation length. Fetal gender could influence late lactation yields because cows become pregnant at peak lactation. The effects of calf gender sequences in parities 1-3 were assessed by separately fitting animal models to datasets from New Zealand comprising 274 000 Holstein Friesian and 85 000 Jersey cows, decreasing to 12 000 and 4 000 cows by parity 3. The lactation initiated by the birth of a female rather than a male calf was associated with a 0.33-1.1% (p≤0.05 higher milk yield. Female calf gender had carryover effects associated with higher milk yield in second lactations for Holstein Friesians (0.24%; p = 0.01 and third lactations for Jerseys (1.1%; p = 0.01. Cows giving birth to bull calves have 2 day longer gestations, which reduces lactation length in seasonal calving herds. Adding a covariate for lactation length to the animal model eroded some of these calf gender effects, such that calving a female led to higher milk yield only for second lactation Holstein Friesians (1.6%; p = 0.002. The interval centering method generates lower estimates of whole lactation yield when Wood's lactation curves are shifted to the right by 2 days for male calves and this explained the higher yield in female calves when differences in lactation length were considered. Correlations of estimated breeding values between models including or excluding calf gender sequence were 1.00 for bulls or cows. Calf gender primarily influences milk yield through increased gestation length of male calves, and bias associated with the interval centering method used to estimate whole lactation milk yields. Including information on calf gender is unlikely to have an effect on selection response in New Zealand dairy cattle.

  12. Muscular anatomy of the Podocoryna carnea hydrorhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Leo W; Anderson, Christopher; Bolton, Edward W

    2013-01-01

    The muscular anatomy of the athecate hydroid Podocoryna carnea hydrorhiza is elucidated. The polyp-stolon junction is characterized by an opening, here called the chloe, in the otherwise continuous hydrorhizal perisarc. The chloe is elliptical when the polyp first arises, but takes on a more complex outline as multiple stolons anastomose to communicate with that polyp. Surrounding the polyp base are spots, here called anchors, which autofluoresce at the same wavelengths as perisarc and which, like perisarc, contain chitin as assessed by Calcofluor White, Congo Red and wheat germ agglutinin staining. Anchors remain after living tissues are digested using KOH. Collagen IV staining indicates that the mesoglea is pegged to the anchors and rhodamine phallodin staining detects cytoskeletal F-actin fibers of the basal epidermis surrounding the anchors. Longitudinal muscle fibers of the polyp broaden at the polyp base and are inserted into the mesoglea of the underlying stolon, but were neither observed to extend along the stolonal axis nor to attach to the anchors. Circular muscular fibers of the polyp extend into stolons as a dense collection of strands running along the proximal-distal axis of the stolon. These gastrodermal axial muscular fibers extend to the stolon tip. Epidermal cells at the stolon tip and the polyp bud display a regular apical latticework of F-actin staining. A similar meshwork of F-actin staining was found in the extreme basal epidermis of all stolons. Immunohistochemical staining for tubulin revealed nerves at stolon tips, but at no other hydrorhizal locations. These studies bear on the mechanisms by which the stolon tip and polyp bud pulsate, the manner in which the stolon lumen closes, and on the developmental origin of the basal epidermis of the hydrorhiza.

  13. Nose muscular dynamics: the tip trigonum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figallo, E E; Acosta, J A

    2001-10-01

    In 1995, the senior author (E.E.F.) published an article in which he described the musculus digastricus septi nasi labialis. In the article presented here, work carried out by anatomists and other researchers who, over the last two centuries, studied nose muscular dynamics is described. The present study is based on Gray's Anatomy, which, in 1858, first described the nasal tip muscles, along with the other nasal muscles. Later works not only used different terminology for these muscles but also ignored some, creating tremendous confusion. The study presented here provides an update of the exact terms, location, insertions, and muscle functions of the muscles of the nose. Each nose muscle is described with regard to the two portions able to produce separate contractions. In this study, the term "dual function" is used and characterizes the nasal mimetic muscles that do not have well-defined fascia. Therefore, there is doubt about the existence of a real nasal superficial muscle aponeurotic system. The musculus myrtiformis seems to have a dual function, inserting in the canine fosse and in the periosteum of the central incisors, forming two portions-one to the septum and the other to the nostril-each of which has specific functions. This study has been based on research in physiognomy, the science of expression. With regard to the basis for nose expressions, common anatomical research is excluded because it provides a different view of the dynamics studied to date. The term trigonum musculare apicis nasi defines the interaction of the musculi compressor narium minor and dilator naris anterior, connecting with the columellar bundle of the musculus digastricus and levering the nasal spine. This muscular trigone creates circular concentric and eccentric movements of the nasal tip.

  14. A comparison of swallowing dysfunction in Becker muscular dystrophy and Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuka; Kawakami, Michiyuki; Wada, Ayako; Otsuka, Tomoyoshi; Muraoka, Kaori; Liu, Meigen

    2018-06-01

    Swallowing dysfunction has been reported in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), but has not been studied in Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). The aims of this study were to report the characteristics of swallowing dysfunction in BMD compared with DMD. The study participants were 18 patients with BMD and 18 patients with DMD. All the patients were examined using videofluorography during swallowing of 5 mL of fluid. The penetration-aspiration scale (P-A scale) and the videofluorographic dysphagia scale (VDS) were used to evaluate dysphagia. Swinyard functional ability stage was not significantly different between the BMD and DMD groups. Rate of aspiration, P-A scale score, and total VDS score did not differ across groups, but the VDS item score for laryngeal elevation was lower in the BMD group than in the DMD group (median scores 4.5 and 9, respectively; p Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) was not well known. Eighteen patients with BMD and 18 patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy were examined with videofluorography. Patients with BMD have swallowing problems similar to those observed in patients with DMD.

  15. Força e arquitetura muscular do gémeo interno na bomba muscular venosa

    OpenAIRE

    Peixoto, Flávia; Pinto, Ângela; Kozlova, Veronika; Crisóstomo, Rute

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: Avaliar e comparar a Força Muscular (FM), Amplitude de Movimento (ADM) e Arquitetura Muscular da bomba muscular venosa em sujeitos com e sem Insuficiência Venosa Crónica (IVC). Relevância: A IVC provoca alterações na função da bomba muscular venosa, no entanto, pouco se conhece acerca das suas repercussões físicas e funcionais. Amostra: Sujeitos com IVC (alterações da tróficas, e úlcera ativa/cicatrizada) e saudáveis. Foram avaliados 33 sujeitos dos quais foram analis...

  16. [Complete atrioventricular block in Duchenne muscular dystrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuru, Satoshi; Tanahashi, Tamotsu; Matsumoto, Shinjirou; Kitamura, Tetsuya; Konagaya, Masaaki

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of complete atrioventricular (AV) block in a 40-year-old patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). While he was bed-ridden and required mechanical ventilation, his cardiac involvement was mild. He had the deletion of exon 45-52 in the dystrophin gene. He underwent transient complete AV block and came to require pacemaker implantation due to recurrence of complete AV block ten days after the first attack. Electrophysiological study revealed mild prolonged AH and HV interval. Although DMD patients with AV block have been rarely reported so far, attention should be paid to AV block for patients who prolonged their lives.

  17. Spinal muscular atrophy present in children

    OpenAIRE

    Garófalo Gómez, Nicolás; Zaldívar Vaillant, Tatiana; Vargas Díaz, José; Rojas Massipe, Edelsia; Novoa López, Lucía

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN. Las atrofias musculares espinales en la infancia (AME) son trastornos genéticos autosómicos recesivos, caracterizados por degeneración de las motoneuronas espinales y bulbares. El presente estudio tuvo el objetivo principal de describir las principales características clínicas en una serie de niños con AME. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de los pacientes con AME atendidos en el Instituto de Neurología y Neurocirugía de Cuba, entre enero de 1997 y diciembre de 2001....

  18. Merosin/laminin-2 and muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Engvall, E

    1996-01-01

    structural organization of domains, some of which have been assigned biological activities, including self-assembly and interactions with other proteins. The particular importance of laminins for the formation and stability of cell adhesion complexes is highlighted in severe inherited diseases of muscle...... and skin. Merosin is the collective name for laminins that share a common subunit, the laminin alpha 2 chain. Merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) is caused by mutations in the laminin alpha 2 chain gene. The skin disease Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa is caused by mutations...

  19. Muscular cysticercosis: Case report and imaging findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide Regina Simões Olmo

    Full Text Available Summary Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease caused by a worm of the Cestoda class. The most prevalent form affects the nervous system. This case report is from a 78-year-old female patient evaluated at Clínica Mult Imagem, in the city of Santos, Brazil, who presented a form of the disease that differed from the classic neurocysticercosis, in this case muscular cysticercosis. This and other forms of manifestation justify further studies to ensure adequate recognition, diagnosis and treatment of this parasitic disease.

  20. Calf birth weight, gestation length, calving ease, and neonatal calf mortality in Holstein, Jersey, and crossbred cows in a pasture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, K; Maltecca, C; Cassady, J P; Baloche, G; Williams, C M; Washburn, S P

    2013-01-01

    Holstein (HH), Jersey (JJ), and crosses of these breeds were mated to HH or JJ bulls to form purebreds, reciprocal crosses, backcrosses, and other crosses in a rotational mating system. The herd was located at the Center for Environmental Farming Systems in Goldsboro, North Carolina. Data for calf birth weight (CBW), calving ease (0 for unassisted, n=1,135, and 1 for assisted, n=96), and neonatal calf mortality (0 for alive, n=1,150, and 1 for abortions recorded after mid-gestation, stillborn, and dead within 48 h, n=81) of calves (n=1,231) were recorded over 9 calving seasons from 2003 through 2011. Gestation length (GL) was calculated as the number of days from last insemination to calving. Linear mixed models for CBW and GL included fixed effects of sex, parity (first vs. later parities), twin status, and 6 genetic groups: HH, JJ, reciprocal F(1) crosses (HJ, JH), crosses >50% Holsteins (HX) and crosses >50% Jerseys (JX), where sire breed is listed first. The CBW model also included GL as a covariate. Logistic regression for calving ease and neonatal calf mortality included fixed effects of sex, parity, and genetic group. Genetic groups were replaced by linear regression using percentage of HH genes as coefficients on the above models and included as covariates to determine various genetic effects. Year and dam were included as random effects in all models. Female calves (27.57±0.54 kg), twins (26.39±1.0 kg), and calves born to first-parity cows (27.67±0.56 kg) had lower CBW than respective male calves (29.53±0.53 kg), single births (30.71±0.19 kg), or calves born to multiparous cows (29.43±0.52 kg). Differences in genetic groups were observed for CBW and GL. Increased HH percentage in the calf increased CBW (+9.3±0.57 kg for HH vs. JJ calves), and increased HH percentage in the dams increased CBW (+1.71±0.53 kg for calves from HH dams vs. JJ dams); JH calves weighed 1.33 kg more than reciprocal HJ calves. Shorter GL was observed for twin births (272.6

  1. Tadalafil alleviates muscle ischemia in patients with Becker muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elizabeth A.; Barresi, Rita; Byrne, Barry J.; Tsimerinov, Evgeny I.; Scott, Bryan L.; Walker, Ashley E.; Gurudevan, Swaminatha V.; Anene, Francine; Elashoff, Robert M.; Thomas, Gail D.; Victor, Ronald G.

    2013-01-01

    Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is a progressive X-linked muscle wasting disease for which there is no treatment. Like Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), BMD is caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin, a structural cytoskeletal protein that also targets other proteins to the muscle sarcolemma. Among these is neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOSμ), which requires certain spectrin-like repeats in dystrophin’s rod domain and the adaptor protein α-syntrophin to be targeted to the sarcolemma. When healthy skeletal muscle is subjected to exercise, sarcolemmal nNOSμ-derived nitric oxide (NO) attenuates local α-adrenergic vasoconstriction thereby optimizing perfusion of muscle. We found previously that this protective mechanism is defective—causing functional muscle ischemia—in dystrophin-deficient muscles of the mdx mouse (a model of DMD) and of children with DMD, in whom nNOSμ is mislocalized to the cytosol instead of the sarcolemma. Here, we report that this protective mechanism also is defective in men with BMD in whom the most common dystrophin mutations disrupt sarcolemmal targeting of nNOSμ. In these men, the vasoconstrictor response, measured as a decrease in muscle oxygenation, to reflex sympathetic activation is not appropriately attenuated during exercise of the dystrophic muscles. In a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over trial, we show that functional muscle ischemia is alleviated and normal blood flow regulation fully restored in the muscles of men with BMD by boosting NO-cGMP signaling with a single dose of the drug tadalafil, a phosphodiesterase (PDE5A) inhibitor. These results further support an essential role for sarcolemmal nNOSμ in the normal modulation of sympathetic vasoconstriction in exercising human skeletal muscle and implicate the NO-cGMP pathway as a putative new target for treating BMD. PMID:23197572

  2. Tadalafil alleviates muscle ischemia in patients with Becker muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elizabeth A; Barresi, Rita; Byrne, Barry J; Tsimerinov, Evgeny I; Scott, Bryan L; Walker, Ashley E; Gurudevan, Swaminatha V; Anene, Francine; Elashoff, Robert M; Thomas, Gail D; Victor, Ronald G

    2012-11-28

    Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is a progressive X-linked muscle wasting disease for which there is no treatment. Like Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), BMD is caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin, a structural cytoskeletal protein that also targets other proteins to the muscle sarcolemma. Among these is neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOSμ), which requires certain spectrin-like repeats in dystrophin's rod domain and the adaptor protein α-syntrophin to be targeted to the sarcolemma. When healthy skeletal muscle is subjected to exercise, sarcolemmal nNOSμ-derived NO attenuates local α-adrenergic vasoconstriction, thereby optimizing perfusion of muscle. We found previously that this protective mechanism is defective-causing functional muscle ischemia-in dystrophin-deficient muscles of the mdx mouse (a model of DMD) and of children with DMD, in whom nNOSμ is mislocalized to the cytosol instead of the sarcolemma. We report that this protective mechanism also is defective in men with BMD in whom the most common dystrophin mutations disrupt sarcolemmal targeting of nNOSμ. In these men, the vasoconstrictor response, measured as a decrease in muscle oxygenation, to reflex sympathetic activation is not appropriately attenuated during exercise of the dystrophic muscles. In a randomized placebo-controlled crossover trial, we show that functional muscle ischemia is alleviated and normal blood flow regulation is fully restored in the muscles of men with BMD by boosting NO-cGMP (guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate) signaling with a single dose of the drug tadalafil, a phosphodiesterase 5A inhibitor. These results further support an essential role for sarcolemmal nNOSμ in the normal modulation of sympathetic vasoconstriction in exercising human skeletal muscle and implicate the NO-cGMP pathway as a putative new target for treating BMD.

  3. Relaci??n entre la masa muscular, la densidad mineral ??sea, la fuerza muscular, la aptitud funcional y la calidad muscular en personas mayores

    OpenAIRE

    Pati??o Villada, Fredy Alonso

    2015-01-01

    294 p. La tesis pretende determinar la frecuencia de la sarcopenia y osteporosis , problemas que afectan a la salud de las personas mayores, y analizar la relaci??n entre la masa muscular, la densidad mineral ??sea (DMO), la fuerza muscular, la aptitud funcional y la calidad muscular (CM). La muestra estudiada fue la formada por un grupo de 83 hombres y 175 mujeres mayores de Le??n (Espa??a). El estudio transversal eval??a ??ndices de masa grasa y densidad mineral ??sea y niveles d...

  4. Effects of black bear relocation on elk calf recruitment at Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarkovich, J.; Clark, J.D.; Murrow, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research from 2001 to 2006 on an experimentally released elk (Cervus elaphus) population at Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP or Park) indicated that calf recruitment (i.e., calves reaching 1 yr of age per adult female elk) was low (0.306, total SE = 0.090) resulting in low or negative population growth (λ = 0.996, 95% CI = 0.945–1.047). Black bear (Ursus americanus) predation was the primary calf mortality factor. From 2006 to 2008, we trapped and relocated 49 bears (30 of which were radiocollared) from the primary calving areas in the Park and radiomonitored 67 (28 M:39 F) adult elk and 42 calves to compare vital rates and population growth with the earlier study. A model with annual calf recruitment rate correlating with the number of bears relocated each year was supported (ΔAICc = 0.000; β = 0.070, 95% CI = 0.028–0.112) and a model with annual calf recruitment differing from before to during bear relocation revealed an increase to 0.544 (total SE = 0.098; β = −1.092, 95% CI = −1.180 to −0.375). Using vital rates and estimates of process standard errors observed during our study, 25-yr simulations maintained a mean positive growth rate in 100% of the stochastic trials with λ averaging 1.118 (95% CI = 1.096–1.140), an increase compared with rates before bear relocation. A life table response experiment revealed that increases in population growth were mostly (67.1%) due to changes in calf recruitment. We speculate that behavioral adaptation of the elk since release also contributed to the observed increases in recruitment and population growth. Our results suggest that managers interested in elk reintroduction within bear range should consider bear relocation as a temporary means of increasing calf recruitment.

  5. Cardiac involvement of progressive muscular dystrophy (Becker type, Limb-girdle type and Fukuyama type) evaluated by radionuclide method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamachi, Shigeki; Inoue, Kenjiro; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Ono, Seiji; Ohnishi, Takashi; Futami, Shigemi; Watanabe, Katsushi; Hayashi, Tohru

    1994-01-01

    Tl-201 SPECT and Tc-99m-Human serum albumin (HSA) multigated radionuclide ventriculography were performed on 11 patients with progressive muscular dystrophy (Becker type 2, Fukuyama type 2, Limb-girdle type 7) to evaluate myocardial involvement. Hypoperfusion was detected in 8 patients on Tl-201 SPECT. Decreases in both systolic function (left ventricular ejection fraction; LVEF) and diastolic function (peak filling rate; PFR) were also seen in these patients. A high incidence of myocardial involvement of these kinds of progressive muscular dystrophy was suggested. (author)

  6. Cardiac involvement of progressive muscular dystrophy (Becker type, Limb-girdle type and Fukuyama type) evaluated by radionuclide method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagamachi, Shigeki; Inoue, Kenjiro; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Ono, Seiji; Ohnishi, Takashi; Futami, Shigemi; Watanabe, Katsushi; Hayashi, Tohru [Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan)

    1994-02-01

    Tl-201 SPECT and Tc-99m-Human serum albumin (HSA) multigated radionuclide ventriculography were performed on 11 patients with progressive muscular dystrophy (Becker type 2, Fukuyama type 2, Limb-girdle type 7) to evaluate myocardial involvement. Hypoperfusion was detected in 8 patients on Tl-201 SPECT. Decreases in both systolic function (left ventricular ejection fraction; LVEF) and diastolic function (peak filling rate; PFR) were also seen in these patients. A high incidence of myocardial involvement of these kinds of progressive muscular dystrophy was suggested. (author).

  7. Immunological identification of a high molecular weight protein as a candidate for the product of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Kao, L; Krstenansky, J; Mendell, J; Rammohan, K W; Gruenstein, E

    1988-01-01

    An oligopeptide was synthesized based on translation of the nucleotide sequence of the putative exon region of clone pERT87-25 from the gene for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Immunization of rabbits with this oligopeptide induced the formation of antibodies directed against a protein present in human, rat, and rabbit skeletal muscle. This protein, which is missing in the skeletal muscle of two patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, has a molecular mass of approximately equal to 320-420 kDa...

  8. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Gene Therapy in the Canine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked lethal muscle disease caused by dystrophin deficiency. Gene therapy has significantly improved the outcome of dystrophin-deficient mice. Yet, clinical translation has not resulted in the expected benefits in human patients. This translational gap is largely because of the insufficient modeling of DMD in mice. Specifically, mice lacking dystrophin show minimum dystrophic symptoms, and they do not respond to the gene therapy vector in the same way as human patients do. Further, the size of a mouse is hundredfolds smaller than a boy, making it impossible to scale-up gene therapy in a mouse model. None of these limitations exist in the canine DMD (cDMD) model. For this reason, cDMD dogs have been considered a highly valuable platform to test experimental DMD gene therapy. Over the last three decades, a variety of gene therapy approaches have been evaluated in cDMD dogs using a number of nonviral and viral vectors. These studies have provided critical insight for the development of an effective gene therapy protocol in human patients. This review discusses the history, current status, and future directions of the DMD gene therapy in the canine model. PMID:25710459

  9. Muscular subunits transplantation for facial reanimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazan André Salo Buslik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To present an alternative technique for reconstruction of musculocutaneous damages in the face transferring innervated subsegments(subunits of the latissimus dorsi flap for replacement of various facial mimetic muscles. METHODS: One clinical case of trauma with skin and mimetic muscles damage is described as an example of the technique. The treatment was performed with microsurgical transfer of latissimus dorsi muscle subunits. Each subunit present shape and dimensions of the respective mimetic muscles replaced. The origin, insertions and force vectors for the mimicmuscle lost were considered. Each subsegment has its own arterial and venous supply with a motor nerve component for the muscular unit. RESULTS: Pre and one year postoperative photos registration of static and dynamic mimic aspects, as well as digital electromyography digital data of the patients were compared. The transplanted muscular units presented myoeletric activity, fulfilling both the functional and cosmetic aspect. CONCLUSION: This technique seems to be a promising way to deal with the complex musculocutaneous losses of the face as well as facial palsy.

  10. Muscle MRI findings in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerevini, Simonetta; Caliendo, Giandomenico; Falini, Andrea [IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Neuroradiology Unit, Head and Neck Department, Milan (Italy); Scarlato, Marina; Previtali, Stefano Carlo [IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Department of Neurology, INSPE and Division of Neuroscience, Milan (Italy); Maggi, Lorenzo; Pasanisi, Barbara; Morandi, Lucia [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico ' ' Carlo Besta' ' , Neuromuscular Diseases and Neuroimmunology Unit, Milan (Italy); Cava, Mariangela [IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Department of Radiology and Center for Experimental Imaging, Milan (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is characterized by extremely variable degrees of facial, scapular and lower limb muscle involvement. Clinical and genetic determination can be difficult, as molecular analysis is not always definitive, and other similar muscle disorders may have overlapping clinical manifestations. Whole-body muscle MRI examination for fat infiltration, atrophy and oedema was performed to identify specific patterns of muscle involvement in FSHD patients (30 subjects), and compared to a group of control patients (23) affected by other myopathies (NFSHD). In FSHD patients, we detected a specific pattern of muscle fatty replacement and atrophy, particularly in upper girdle muscles. The most frequently affected muscles, including paucisymptomatic and severely affected FSHD patients, were trapezius, teres major and serratus anterior. Moreover, asymmetric muscle involvement was significantly higher in FSHD as compared to NFSHD patients. In conclusion, muscle MRI is very sensitive for identifying a specific pattern of involvement in FSHD patients and in detecting selective muscle involvement of non-clinically testable muscles. Muscle MRI constitutes a reliable tool for differentiating FSHD from other muscular dystrophies to direct diagnostic molecular analysis, as well as to investigate FSHD natural history and follow-up of the disease. (orig.)

  11. Clinico-epidemiologic characteristics of spinal muscular atrophy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    Deletion;. Chromosome 5;. Mutations. Abstract Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is characterized by progressive hypotonia and muscular weakness because of progressive degeneration of alpha motor neuron from anterior horn cells in the spinal cord. It is inherited by an autosomal recessive pattern. The precise frequency of ...

  12. Morphologic imaging in muscular dystrophies and inflammatory myopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degardin, Adrian; Lacour, Arnaud; Vermersch, Patrick; Morillon, David; Cotten, Anne; Stojkovic, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    To determine if magnetic resonance imaging (MR imaging) is useful in the diagnostic workup of muscular dystrophies and idiopathic inflammatory myopathies for describing the topography of muscle involvement. MR imaging was performed in 31 patients: 8 with dystrophic myotony types 1 (n = 4) or 2 (n = 4); 11 with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, including dysferlinopathy, calpainopathy, sarcoglycanopathy, and dystrophy associated with fukutin-related protein mutation; 3 with Becker muscular dystrophy; and 9 with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, including polymyositis, dermatomyositis, and sporadic inclusion body myositis. Analysis of T1 images enabled us to describe the most affected muscles and the muscles usually spared for each muscular disease. In particular, examination of pelvis, thigh, and leg muscles demonstrated significant differences between the muscular diseases. On STIR images, hyperintensities were present in 62% of our patients with muscular dystrophies. A specific pattern of muscular involvement was established for each muscular disease. Hyperintensities observed on STIR images precede fatty degeneration and are not specific for inflammatory myopathies. (orig.)

  13. Dysphagia in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Assessed by Validated Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Sally K.; Garrod, Rachel; Hart, Nicholas; Miller, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Background: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) leads to progressive muscular weakness and death, most typically from respiratory complications. Dysphagia is common in DMD; however, the most appropriate swallowing assessments have not been universally agreed and the symptoms of dysphagia remain under-reported. Aims: To investigate symptoms of…

  14. Upper limb function in adults with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Bartels (Bart); R.F. Pangalila (Robert); M.P. Bergen (Michael); N.A.M. Cobben (Nicolle); H.J. Stam (Henk); M.E. Roebroeck (Marij)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractTo determine upper limb function and associated factors in adults with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: A sample of 70 men with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (age range 20-43 years). Methods: General motor function and, in particular, upper limb distal

  15. Limb girdle muscular dystrophy due to mutations in POMT2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Sofie Thurø; Johnson, Katherine; Stojkovic, Tanya

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mutations in the gene coding for protein O-mannosyl-transferase 2 (POMT2) are known to cause severe congenital muscular dystrophy, and recently, mutations in POMT2 have also been linked to a milder limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) phenotype, named LGMD type 2N (LGMD2N). Only four...

  16. Morphologic imaging in muscular dystrophies and inflammatory myopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degardin, Adrian; Lacour, Arnaud; Vermersch, Patrick [CHU de Lille, Clinique neurologique, Lille (France); Morillon, David; Cotten, Anne [CHRU de Lille, Service de Radiologie Osteoarticulaire, Hopital Roger Salengro, Lille (France); Stojkovic, Tanya [G-H Pitie-Salpetriere, Institut de Myologie, Paris (France)

    2010-12-15

    To determine if magnetic resonance imaging (MR imaging) is useful in the diagnostic workup of muscular dystrophies and idiopathic inflammatory myopathies for describing the topography of muscle involvement. MR imaging was performed in 31 patients: 8 with dystrophic myotony types 1 (n = 4) or 2 (n = 4); 11 with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, including dysferlinopathy, calpainopathy, sarcoglycanopathy, and dystrophy associated with fukutin-related protein mutation; 3 with Becker muscular dystrophy; and 9 with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, including polymyositis, dermatomyositis, and sporadic inclusion body myositis. Analysis of T1 images enabled us to describe the most affected muscles and the muscles usually spared for each muscular disease. In particular, examination of pelvis, thigh, and leg muscles demonstrated significant differences between the muscular diseases. On STIR images, hyperintensities were present in 62% of our patients with muscular dystrophies. A specific pattern of muscular involvement was established for each muscular disease. Hyperintensities observed on STIR images precede fatty degeneration and are not specific for inflammatory myopathies. (orig.)

  17. Upper Body Muscular Endurance Among Children 2-5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl P.; And Others

    The upper body muscular endurance of males and females 2-5 years of age was assessed, and relationships relative to sex, age, endurance and selected anthropometric measures were investigated. None of the relationships were found to be of practical predicative value; while upper body muscular strength increased with age, no significant differences…

  18. Primary muscular hydatid: preoperative diagnosis Throught computerized tomography and ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macho Fernandez, J.M.; Marin Cardenas, M.A.; Mazas Artasona, L.; Lample Lacasa, C.; Otero Sierra, C.; Hernandez Navarrete, M.J.; Gomez-Pereda, R.

    1995-01-01

    Primary muscular hydatid disease, is extremely rare,- but not exceptional-, comparatively with other atypical localization. In this article the authors revised 474 patients with hydatid disease over a ten years period. Three cases of primary muscular localization were found. The ultrasonography and computed tomography facilitates the preoperative diagnosis. (Author) 40 refs

  19. Muscular hamartoma of the breast: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Byeong Seong; Park, Jeong Mi

    2002-01-01

    Muscular hamartoma is a variant of breast hamartoma shown at microscopic examination to be composed of abundant smooth muscle cells. We report a case of muscular hamartoma occurring in a 35-year-old woman with an incidentally discovered breast mass, and confirmed by excisional biopsy. We also describe the radiologic and pathologic findings

  20. Congenital Cutaneous Panadnexal Papillomatous Hamartomas in a Calf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veiga, I. B.; Welle, M.; Agerholm, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    Several cauliflower-like alopecic masses arose on the head of an otherwise healthy, full-term newborn Jersey × Belgian blue heifer, which was humanely destroyed shortly after birth due to the severity of the skin lesions. Microscopically, the masses were composed of multiple papillary projections...

  1. Calf muscle volume estimates: Implications for Botulinum toxin treatment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Thomsen, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    An optimal botulinum toxin dose may be related to the volume of the targeted muscle. We investigated the suitability of using ultrasound and anthropometry to estimate gastrocnemius and soleus muscle volume. Gastrocnemius and soleus muscle thickness was measured in 11 cadaveric human legs, using...

  2. Genetic modifiers of Duchenne and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, Rylie M; Alexander, Matthew S

    2018-01-01

    Muscular dystrophy is defined as the progressive wasting of skeletal muscles that is caused by inherited or spontaneous genetic mutations. Next-generation sequencing has greatly improved the accuracy and speed of diagnosis for different types of muscular dystrophy. Advancements in depth of coverage, convenience, and overall reduced cost have led to the identification of genetic modifiers that are responsible for phenotypic variability in affected patients. These genetic modifiers have been postulated to explain key differences in disease phenotypes, including age of loss of ambulation, steroid responsiveness, and the presence or absence of cardiac defects in patients with the same form of muscular dystrophy. This review highlights recent findings on genetic modifiers of Duchenne and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophies based on animal and clinical studies. These genetic modifiers hold great promise to be developed into novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of muscular dystrophies. Muscle Nerve 57: 6-15, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Why is muscularity sexy? Tests of the fitness indicator hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, David A; Haselton, Martie G

    2007-08-01

    Evolutionary scientists propose that exaggerated secondary sexual characteristics are cues of genes that increase offspring viability or reproductive success. In six studies the hypothesis that muscularity is one such cue is tested. As predicted, women rate muscular men as sexier, more physically dominant and volatile, and less committed to their mates than nonmuscular men. Consistent with the inverted-U hypothesis of masculine traits, men with moderate muscularity are rated most attractive. Consistent with past research on fitness cues, across two measures, women indicate that their most recent short-term sex partners were more muscular than their other sex partners (ds = .36, .47). Across three studies, when controlling for other characteristics (e.g., body fat), muscular men rate their bodies as sexier to women (partial rs = .49-.62) and report more lifetime sex partners (partial rs = .20-.27), short-term partners (partial rs = .25-.28), and more affairs with mated women (partial r = .28).

  4. Local and Systemic Changes in Pain Sensitivity After 4 Weeks of Calf Muscle Stretching in a Nonpainful Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Cecilie; Zangger, Graziella; Hansen, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stretching is often used in clinical practice for a variety of purposes, including pain therapy. The possible mechanism behind the effect of stretching remains to be clarified. AIM: To investigate whether 4 weeks of unilateral stretching of the calf muscles would affect local...... and central pain sensitivity. METHOD: This study was a randomized assessor-blinded clinical study. Healthy participants (age 18 to 40) were included and randomized. Participants in the intervention group were instructed to perform 2 stretching exercises targeting the calf muscles; 3 times 30 seconds, 7 days...... a week for 4 weeks on the dominant leg. Participants in the control group were instructed not to do any stretching for 4 weeks. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) and temporal summation (TS) of pressure pain were measured on the stretched calf, the contra-lateral calf, and contra-lateral lower arm using...

  5. Atrofia muscular espinal en el niño Spinal muscular atrophy present in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Garófalo Gómez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. Las atrofias musculares espinales en la infancia (AME son trastornos genéticos autosómicos recesivos, caracterizados por degeneración de las motoneuronas espinales y bulbares. El presente estudio tuvo el objetivo principal de describir las principales características clínicas en una serie de niños con AME. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de los pacientes con AME atendidos en el Instituto de Neurología y Neurocirugía de Cuba, entre enero de 1997 y diciembre de 2001. Se recopilaron los datos de 35 pacientes, 4 de ellos, fetos con confirmación prenatal de AME. Se precisaron las principales características clínicas, electromiográficas, de la biopsia muscular y de los estudios genéticos moleculares realizados en cada caso. RESULTADOS. La AME de tipo II resultó la forma clínica más frecuente (58 %, seguida por la AME de tipo I (42 %. Las principales manifestaciones clínicas resultaron la debilidad muscular generalizada con predominio proximal en extremidades, asociada a hipotonía y arreflexia osteotendinosa. La deleción de los exones 7 y 8 del gen SMN1 se detectó en 20 de 23 casos estudiados (87 %.INTRODUCTION: Spinal muscular atrophies (SMA in childhood are autosomal recessive genetic disorders, characterized by spinal and bulbar motoneurons degenerations. Aim of present paper was to describe the main clinical features in a series of children presenting SMA. METHODS: A retrospective study of patients with SMA seen in the Neurology and Neurosurgery Institute of Cuba from January, 2997 and December, 2001 was made. Data from 35 patients were available; four of them were fetus with prenatal confirmation of SMA. Main clinical, electromyography, muscular biopsy, and of molecular genetic studies performed in each case were determined. RESULTS: Type II SMA was the more frequent clinical presentation (58%, followed by type I SMA (42,%. Main clinical manifestations were a systemic muscular weakness with

  6. A rare case of monozygotic iniodymic diprosopiasis in a German Holstein calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jim; Behn, Holger; Freick, Markus

    2017-06-01

    Craniofacial duplication abnormity is a rare phenomenon in buiatric practice. This report attends to a male German Holstein calf which could be classified as a diprosopic iniodymus. A fetus exhibiting a doubled face was delivered after fetotomy. To our knowledge, this is the first description of diprosopiasis with two cranial cavities as well as two separate encephala in a calf showing the potential extent of duplication. Throughout this work also the question is answered of whether this malformation in a bovine species arose from one embryo or rather, there is a dizygotic background by genotyping of tissue samples from both parts of the diprosopus. Regarding etiology, not only hereditary dispositions including among others a failed function of the signaling molecule Sonic hedgehog mediating regulation of craniofacial morphogenesis, but also incompletely separated monozygotic twins are discussed.

  7. Seven-legged calf: Dipygus with an extra foreleg at the pelvic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraga, T.; Abe, M.; Iwasa, K.; Takehana, K.; Tetsuka, M.

    1989-01-01

    A male Holstein-Friesian calf with seven legs was examined macroscopically and radiographically. External features included two normal forelimbs, two normal hindlimbs (lateral hindlimbs), and two abnormal hindlimbs (medial hindlimbs) which were underdeveloped. Also, a rudimentary forelimb, which was attached to the pelvic region, was observed between both the medial hindlimbs. It consisted of an underdeveloped humerus, a duplicated ulna, several carpal bones, a partially duplicated metacarpal bone and three digits with three hoofs. This leg was connected with two sets of coxae by a irregular-shaped bone considered the vestigial vertebrae and ribs. Two penises and scrotums, three kidneys and testes were also observed. This calf is the first case of dipygus associated with pygopagus parasiticus in cattle. Based on these findings, the pathogenesis of this rare anomaly was briefly discussed from an embryological point of view

  8. Trailer microclimate and calf welfare during fall-run transportation of beef calves in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhawk, C; Janzen, E; González, L A; Crowe, T; Kastelic, J; Pajor, E; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S

    2014-11-01

    Twenty-four commercial loads of beef calves (BW 300 ± 52 kg, mean ± SD) were evaluated for associations among transportation factors, in-transit microclimate, and calf welfare. Transport factors evaluated included vehicle speed, space allowance, compartment within trailer, and transit duration. Calves were transported for 7 h 44 min ± 4 h 15 min, with space allowances ranging from 0.56 to 1.17 m(2)/animal. Compartment within trailer, space allowance, and vehicle speed did not affect the difference between compartment ceiling-level and ambient temperatures during a 30-min period of steady-state microclimate. During the steady-state period, a 1°C increase in ambient temperature above the mean of 5.6°C was associated with a 0.62°C decrease in the difference between ceiling-level and ambient temperature (P ratio; P profitability and calf welfare.

  9. CONGENITAL NUTRITIONAL MYODEGENERATION (WHITE MUSCLE DISEASE) IN A GIRAFFE ( GIRAFFA CAMELOPARDALIS) CALF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Jan H; Klip, Fokko C; Kik, Marja J L

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that vitamin E and selenium deficiencies in domestic ruminants can lead to white muscle disease. After a clinically normal gestation period at Ouwehand Zoo in the Netherlands, a newborn giraffe ( Giraffa camelopardalis) calf showed clinical signs of white muscle disease almost immediately after birth. The calf was rejected by the mother and was euthanized 3 days later because of deterioration of clinical signs. At necropsy, pulmonary edema and pallor of skeletal and heart muscles was noted. Histologically, there was hyaline degeneration of skeletal muscle myocytes and pulmonary edema. Blood concentrations of vitamin E were ≤ 0.7 mg/L. Based on clinical, biochemical, and gross and microscopic pathological findings, congenital nutritional myodegeneration was diagnosed. This case of neonatal white muscle disease is particularly remarkable given that the diet of the dam contained more than the recommended amount of vitamin E.

  10. Clinical and morphological study of calf enlargement following S-1 radiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo J. M. Nascimento

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Calf enlargement following sciatica is a rare condition. It is reported the case of a 28-year-old woman who complained of repeated episodes of lower back pain radiating into the left buttock and foot. One year after the beginning of her symptoms, she noticed enlargement of her left calf. X-ray studies disclosed L5-S1 disk degeneration. EMG showed muscle denervation with normal motor conduction velocity. Open biopsies of the gastrocnemius muscles were performed. The left gastrocnemius muscle showed hypertrophic type 2 fibers in comparison with the right gastrocnemius. Electron microscopy showed mildly increased number of mitochondria in these fibers. A satisfactory explanation for denervation hypertrophy has yet to be provided.

  11. Mitochondrial dysfunction in calf muscles of patients with combined peripheral arterial disease and diabetes type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard Pedersen, Brian; Bækgaard, Niels; Quistorff, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study elucidate the effects on muscle mitochondrial function in patients suffering from combined peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the relation to patient symptoms and treatment. METHODS: Near Infra Red Spectroscopy (NIRS) calf muscle exercise tests...... were conducted on Forty subjects, 15 (PAD), 15 (PAD+T2D) and 10 healthy age matched controls (CTRL) recruited from the vascular outpatient clinic at Gentofte County Hospital, Denmark. Calf muscle biopsies (~ 80 mg) (Gastrocnemius and Anterior tibial muscles) were sampled and mitochondrial function...... group. This was confirmed by a ~30% reduction in oxygen consumption in the muscle biopsy tests for the PAD+T2D compared to the PAD group (P

  12. Computed tomographic findings in a calf with actinomycosis: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, T.; Al-Sobayil, F.; Kurwasawa, T.; Nakade, T.; Floeck, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this report a case of actinomycosis in a five-month-old Holstein calf is described. The patient displayed a hard and immobile swelling in the mandible and fever. Computed tomography (CT) imaging of the skull was performed under deep sedation and revealed an asymmetrical appearance of the mandible with the presence of intra-mandibular hypodense lesions. Haematologic and serum biochemical profiles revealed leukocytosis, neutrophilia, hypoalbuminaemia and hypergammaglobulinaemia. Treatment consisted of flushing the lesion and administration of antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The calf responded to therapy and had recovered almost completely four months later. The present case indicates that CT is an effective non-invasive means of identifying mandibular lesions in cattle

  13. Signs and symptoms of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and Becker muscular dystrophy among carriers in the Netherlands : a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwaard, EM; Bakker, E; Ippel, PF; Oosterwijk, JC; Majoor-Krakauer, DF; Leschot, NJ; Van Essen, AJ; Brunner, HG; van der Wouw, PA; Wilde, AAM; de Visser, Marianne

    1999-01-01

    Background Carriers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) may show muscle weakness or dilated cardiomyopathy. Studies focusing on skeletal-muscle involvement were done before DNA analysis was possible. We undertook a cross-sectional study in a population of

  14. Signs and symptoms of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and Becker muscular dystrophy among carriers in The Netherlands: a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwaard, E. M.; Bakker, E.; Ippel, P. F.; Oosterwijk, J. C.; Majoor-Krakauer, D. F.; Leschot, N. J.; van Essen, A. J.; Brunner, H. G.; van der Wouw, P. A.; Wilde, A. A.; de Visser, M.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Carriers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) may show muscle weakness or dilated cardiomyopathy. Studies focusing on skeletal-muscle involvement were done before DNA analysis was possible. We undertook a cross-sectional study in a population of

  15. Association between cow reproduction and calf growth traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in a multibreed herd of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzo, M A; Rae, D O; Lanhart, S E; Hembry, F G; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the association between 4 cow reproductive and weight traits, and 2 preweaning calf traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis (0 = negative, 1 = suspect, 2 = weak-positive, and 3 = positive) in a multibreed herd of cows ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman (B). Cow data were 624 gestation lengths (GL), 358 records of time open (TO), 605 calving intervals (CI), and 1240 weight changes from November to weaning in September (WC) from 502 purebred and crossbred cows. Calf data consisted of 956 birth weights (BWT), and 923 weaning weights adjusted to 205 d of age (WW205) from 956 purebred and crossbred calves. Traits were analyzed individually using multibreed mixed models that assumed homogeneity of variances across breed groups. Covariances among random effects were assumed to be zero. Fixed effects were year, age of cow, sex of calf, year x age of cow interaction (except WC), age of cow x sex of calf interaction (only for WC), and covariates for B fraction of sire and cow, heterosis of cow and calf, and ELISA score. Random effects were sire (except for TO and CI), dam, and residual. Regression estimates of cow and calf traits on ELISA scores indicated that lower cow fertility (longer TO), lower ability of cows to maintain weight (negative WC), lower calf BWT, and lower calf WW205 were associated with higher cow ELISA scores. Further research on the effects of subclinical paratuberculosis in beef cattle at regional and national levels seems advisable considering the large potential economic cost of this disease.

  16. Isolated tear of the tendon to the medial head of gastrocnemius presenting as a painless lump in the calf

    OpenAIRE

    Watura, Christopher; Harries, William

    2009-01-01

    We report on a case of isolated tear of the medial head of gastrocnemius tendon. The patient presented with a painless lump in the right calf and denied any prior history of trauma or strain to the leg. A longitudinal split of the tendon was demonstrated at ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There were no other abnormalities and the gastrocnemius muscle was normal. There are no reports in the literature of isolated gastrocnemius tendon tear. To date the calf muscle complex injur...

  17. Pseudohypertrophy of the calf muscles in a patient with diabetic neuropathy: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Jin; Lee, Young Hwan; Jung, Kyung Jae; Park, Young Chan; Kim, Ho Kyun; Kim, Ok Dong

    2007-01-01

    Partial or complete loss of innervation of skeletal muscle leads to muscle weakness and atrophic changes, resulting in decreased muscle volume with fatty replacement. Rarely, enlargement of the affected muscle may occur, related to two processes: true hypertrophy and pseudohypertrophy. We report CT and MR findings of the pseudohypertrophy of calf muscles, especially the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, in a patient with diabetic neuropathy that showed increased muscle volume with diffuse fatty replacement and the presence of scanty muscle fibers

  18. Pseudohypertrophy of the calf muscles in a patient with diabetic neuropathy: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Jin; Lee, Young Hwan; Jung, Kyung Jae; Park, Young Chan; Kim, Ho Kyun; Kim, Ok Dong [School of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    Partial or complete loss of innervation of skeletal muscle leads to muscle weakness and atrophic changes, resulting in decreased muscle volume with fatty replacement. Rarely, enlargement of the affected muscle may occur, related to two processes: true hypertrophy and pseudohypertrophy. We report CT and MR findings of the pseudohypertrophy of calf muscles, especially the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, in a patient with diabetic neuropathy that showed increased muscle volume with diffuse fatty replacement and the presence of scanty muscle fibers.

  19. Estimation of normal hydration in dialysis patients using whole body and calf bioimpedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fansan; Kotanko, Peter; Handelman, Garry J; Raimann, Jochen G; Liu, Li; Carter, Mary; Kuhlmann, Martin K; Seibert, Eric; Leonard, Edward F; Levin, Nathan W

    2011-07-01

    Prescription of an appropriate dialysis target weight (dry weight) requires accurate evaluation of the degree of hydration. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a state of normal hydration (DW(cBIS)) as defined by calf bioimpedance spectroscopy (cBIS) and conventional whole body bioimpedance spectroscopy (wBIS) could be characterized in hemodialysis (HD) patients and normal subjects (NS). wBIS and cBIS were performed in 62 NS (33 m/29 f) and 30 HD patients (16 m/14 f) pre- and post-dialysis treatments to measure extracellular resistance and fluid volume (ECV) by the whole body and calf bioimpedance methods. Normalized calf resistivity (ρ(N)(,5)) was defined as resistivity at 5 kHz divided by the body mass index. The ratio of wECV to total body water (wECV/TBW) was calculated. Measurements were made at baseline (BL) and at DW(cBIS) following the progressive reduction of post-HD weight over successive dialysis treatments until the curve of calf extracellular resistance is flattened (stabilization) and the ρ(N)(,5) was in the range of NS. Blood pressures were measured pre- and post-HD treatment. ρ(N)(,5) in males and females differed significantly in NS. In patients, ρ(N)(,5) notably increased with progressive decrease in body weight, and systolic blood pressure significantly decreased pre- and post-HD between BL and DW(cBIS) respectively. Although wECV/TBW decreased between BL and DW(cBIS), the percentage of change in wECV/TBW was significantly less than that in ρ(N)(,5) (-5.21 ± 3.2% versus 28 ± 27%, p hydration between BL and DW(cBIS).

  20. External fixation of the metacarpal fracture with transcortical pins and fiberglass east in Simmental calf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, E.A.N.; Camargo, L.M.

    2003-01-01

    A six-month-old 245 kg male Simmental calf was referred to the Veterinary Hospital in Cuiabá, MT, with closed comminuted diaphyseal fracture in metacarpus. It was given preference to external fixation as means of fracture immobilization, and transcortical pins and fiberglass cast were used. This technique showed effective immobilization of the fracture, less expensive and feasible to be done in the field [pt

  1. Evaluation of cottonseed oil-cake meal as a protein source in calf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jersey and Holstein calves weighed 21.4±0.5 and 35.9±1.4 kg respectively at the start of the experiment. There were no differences between calf starter meals containing CSOCM or SBOCM (p > 0.05) in respect of feed intake, growth rate or efficiency of feed conversion. Average daily gain of Jersey and Holstein heifer ...

  2. CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS IN EXERCISE PERFORMANCE: IMPLICATIONS FOR HORMONAL AND MUSCULAR ADAPTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weipeng Teo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Almost all physiological and biochemical processes within the human body follow a circadian rhythm (CR. In humans, the suprachiasmatic nucleus regulates sleep- wake cycle and other daily biorhythms in line with solar time. Due to such daily physiological fluctuations, several investigations on neuromuscular performance have reported a distinct CR during exercise. Generally, peak performances have been found to occur in the early evening, at approximately the peak of core body temperature. The increase in core body temperature has been found to increase energy metabolism, improve muscle compliance and facilitate actin-myosin crossbridging. In addition, steroidal hormones such as testosterone (T and cortisol (C also display a clear CR. The role of T within the body is to maintain anabolism through the process of protein synthesis. By contrast, C plays a catabolic function and is involved in the response of stress. Due to the anabolic and catabolic nature of both T and C, it has been postulated that a causal relationship may exist between the CR of T and C and muscular performance. This review will therefore discuss the effects of CR on physical performance and its implications for training. Furthermore, this review will examine the impact of muscular performance on CR in hormonal responses and whether could variations in T and C be potentially beneficial for muscular adaptation

  3. Expression of the Murine Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Gene in Muscle and Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Jeffrey S.; Pearlman, Joel A.; Muzny, Donna M.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Ranier, Joel E.; Reeves, Alice A.; Caskey, C. Thomas

    1988-03-01

    Complementary DNA clones were isolated that represent the 5' terminal 2.5 kilobases of the murine Duchenne muscular dystrophy (Dmd) messenger RNA (mRNA). Mouse Dmd mRNA was detectable in skeletal and cardiac muscle and at a level approximately 90 percent lower in brain. Dmd mRNA is also present, but at much lower than normal levels, in both the muscle and brain of three different strains of dystrophic mdx mice. The identification of Dmd mRNA in brain raises the possibility of a relation between human Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene expression and the mental retardation found in some DMD males. These results also provide evidence that the mdx mutations are allelic variants of mouse Dmd gene mutations.

  4. Muscular Christianity in contemporary South Africa: The case of the Mighty Men Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siphiwe Dube

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on key aspects of Muscular Christianity identified through this movement’s literature, this article ventures that the major contemporary Evangelical Christian men’s movement in South Africa, the Mighty Men Conference (MMC, draws on and harkens back to the concerns of the Victorian era of Muscular Christianity. Moreover, the article argues that this reversion should be of concern in the context of a post-apartheid and postcolonial South Africa where both women’s rights and human rights (especially encompassing racial equality now form the core of the country’s identity. In other words, the MMC’s call to men to reclaim their top position is problematic even while it comes from a place of concern regarding the changing role of men in a transitional South African landscape.

  5. Para-muscular and trans-muscular approaches to the lumbar inter-vertebral foramen: an anatomical comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poetscher, Arthur Werner; Ribas, Guilherme Carvalhal; Yasuda, Alexandre; Nishikuni, Koshiro

    2005-03-01

    Foraminal and extra-foraminal disc herniations comprise up to 11.7% of all lumbar disc herniations. Facetectomy, which had been the classic approach, is now recognized as cause of pain and instability after surgery. Otherwise, posterior lateral approaches through a trans-muscular or a para-muscular technique offer no significant damage to key structures for spinal stability. The surgical anatomy of these approaches has already been described, but they were not compared. In order to quantify the angle of vision towards the intervertebral foramen offered by each technique, 12 fresh cadavers were dissected and studied regarding these approaches. The angle presented by trans-muscular approach was wider in all studied lumbar levels. Surgery through the trans-muscular approach is performed with a better working angle, requiring a smaller resection of surrounding tissues. Therefore, minor surgical trauma can be expected. Our measurements support previously published data that point the trans-muscular approach as the best surgical option.

  6. Effects of trehalose supplementation on cell viability and oxidative stress variables in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Gang; Wang, Yan-Hua; Han, Cong; Hu, Shan; Wang, Li-Qiang; Hu, Jian-Hong

    2015-06-01

    Trehalose is widely used for cryopreservation of various cells and tissues. Until now, the effect of trehalose supplementation on cell viability and antioxidant enzyme activity in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue remains unexplored. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of varying doses of trehalose in cryomedia on cell viability and key antioxidant enzymes activities in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue. Bovine calf testicular tissue samples were collected and cryopreserved in the cryomedias containing varying doses (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%; v/v) of trehalose, respectively. Cell viability, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione (GSH) content and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were measured and analyzed. The results showed that cell viability, T-AOC activity, SOD activity, CAT activity and GSH content of frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue was decreased compared with that of fresh group (Pcell viability and antioxidant enzyme activity (SOD and CAT) among frozen-thawed groups (P0.05). In conclusion, the cryomedia added 15% trehalose reduced the oxidative stress and improved the cryoprotective effect of bovine calf testicular tissue. Further studies are required to obtain more concrete results on the determination of antioxidant capacity of trehalose in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the calf muscle mass and architecture in elderly patients with and without sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyumcu, Mehmet Emin; Halil, Meltem; Kara, Özgür; Çuni, Bledjan; Çağlayan, Gökhan; Güven, Serdar; Yeşil, Yusuf; Arık, Güneş; Yavuz, Burcu Balam; Cankurtaran, Mustafa; Özçakar, Levent

    2016-01-01

    To sonographically assess the muscle mass and architecture of sarcopenic elderly subjects, and to explore the utility of ultrasound (US) measurements in predicting sarcopenia. One hundred elderly subjects were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Mean age value of our study population was 73.08±6.18years. The diagnosis of sarcopenia was confirmed by measuring fat-free mass index (using bioelectrical impedance analysis) and handgrip strength. Calf circumference was measured and US evaluations comprised bilateral gastrocnemius muscle (MG) thickness, fascicle length and pennate angles; subcutaneous fat and dermis thicknesses in the calf. Bilateral muscle thickness and fascicle length values were significantly lower in patients with sarcopenia (both psarcopenia (all values>76.92%). Gastrocnemius muscle thickness and fascicle length values are lower in sarcopenic elderly and these two parameters can serve as alternative measurements for predicting/quantifying sarcopenia. Calf circumference measurements alone may not be appropriate for assessing sarcopenia. Instead, US imaging can conveniently be used to evaluate different compartments of the musculoskelal system in (sarcopenic) elderly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Suppressing immature house and stable flies in outdoor calf hutches with sand, gravel, and sawdust bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtmann, E T

    1991-11-01

    Sand, gravel, sawdust, and pine shavings were used as bedding in outdoor calf hutches and compared with straw relative to the density of immature (maggot) house flies, Musca domestica, and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans. In 6-wk field trials, average densities of house and stable fly maggots in concrete mix sand ranged from only .3 to 1.6 and 0 to .1 maggots/L, respectively; pea size gravel bedding also strongly suppressed densities from less than .1 to .3 and less than .1 to .1 maggots/L, respectively. These densities represent reductions of 76 to greater than 99% relative to straw bedding, but both sand and gravel compacted and became soiled with calf feces, which resulted in unacceptable bedding sanitation and foul odors. Densities of house and stable fly maggots in pine shavings did not differ from those in straw bedding. Nevertheless, in sawdust bedding, maggot density was limited to averages of 1.4 to 8.3 house and 9.8 to 11.8 stable fly maggots/L; this represented reductions of 45 to 91% relative to straw. In a follow-up trial, house and stable fly maggot densities in sawdust averaged 11.3 and 43.9 maggots/L, respectively, reductions of 77 and 46%. These findings suggest that bedding calf hutches with sawdust during warm weather can be useful as an ecologically sound approach to controlling muscoid fly populations on dairy farms.

  9. Fate and implications of /sup 203/Pb ingestion in a dairy cow and a calf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, G D; McIntyre, D R; Vattuone, G M

    1971-01-01

    Experiments were performed to study the internal transport and biological availability of radioactive lead that could be produced and released in certain types of nuclear cratering events, especially lead 203 and lead 210. A lactating dairy cow was used for the metabolic experiments, and a calf was used for the tissue distribution study. Urine, feces, blood, and milk samples from the cow were analyzed for each 24 hour period. Blood plasma and representative organs and tissues were removed from the calf and analyzed. Results showed a total recovery of 94.768% of the /sup 203/Pb in the feces, urine and milk of the cow by 144 hr. Approximately 85% was recovered in the feces in the first 48 hr. The total secretion in urine during 144 hr. was 0.173%, while the total secretion in milk was 0.190. These results reveal the slow, incomplete absorption of lead from the digestive tract. In the calf the tissue distribution of the absorbed lead shows that the erythrocytes represents the largest pool of lead in respect to recovery value. The tissue data confirm the known pattern of distribution of inorganic lead in soft tissues, with the highest concentrations in the liver and kidneys.

  10. [Uterine torsion in cattle--therapy and consequences for calf and cow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erteld, E; Krohn, J; Dzhakupov, I T; Wehrend, A

    2014-01-01

    To summarize the available literature on the therapy of uterine torsion in cattle and the consequences for cow and calf. Analysis of the literature using electronic libraries (PubMed, Medline), German veterinary medical journals and obstetrical textbooks. The therapy includes the attempt to rotate the uterus back into its physiological position. Direct and indirect methods of retorsion are available and applied according to the case conditions. Subsequently, the extraction of the calf can be performed via vaginal delivery or caesarean section. The presence of uterine torsion always leads to dystocia. Following a successful retorsion, the time and degree of uterine torsion strongly influence the progress of the birth. The prognosis also depends on the aforementioned factors and varies between good to unsuccessful. The vitality of the calf displays great variation depending on the literature (14-90%), however, is generally greater under field than clinical conditions. Focussing on the puerperal development of the cow, all grades from mild irritations of the uterine involution to fatal complications occur. The influence on fertility depends on the progress of the birth and existing secondary complications. The risk for electrolyte disturbances is increased (approximately 50%) as is the risk of birth-associated injuries (approximately 20%). The incidence of placental retention varies widely between different authors (3-52%).

  11. The impact of dystocia on dairy calf health, welfare, performance and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrier, A C; Haskell, M J; Birch, S; Bagnall, A; Bell, D J; Dickinson, J; Macrae, A I; Dwyer, C M

    2013-01-01

    Up to one-third of dairy calves are born after dystocia and this is a major cause of calf mortality. This study investigated the neonatal physiology, survival, health and subsequent growth of dairy calves following dystocia and is the first longitudinal study to analyse multiple effects and to look beyond the perinatal period. A total of 455 live born Holstein calves (N: No assistance, n=360; FN: Farmer assistance but normally presented calf, n=82; FM: Farmer assistance of malpresented calf, n=13) were followed from birth to first service (heifers) or until leaving the farm (bulls). Compared to N calves, FN and FM animals had higher salivary cortisol concentrations at day 1 (PDystocia had no biologically significant impact on rectal temperature throughout the first 4 days (P>0.05). During the first 60 days, FM calves had a higher proportion of days with non-routine health treatments (Pdystocia category (P>0.05). Calves which survive dystocia experience lower passive immunity transfer, higher mortality and higher indicators of physiological stress. Such calves have poorer welfare in the neonatal period and possibly beyond. Strategies need to be implemented to improve the subsequent health and welfare of such calves and to lower the incidence of dystocia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Patterns of stillbirth and dystocia in Ontario cow-calf herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, J J; Allen, O B; Martin, S W; Alves, D M

    1992-01-01

    The association between a number of individual animal and herd level factors and calving problems in beef cows and heifers were examined. Data were from the 1987 calving season for a subset of 123 herds which maintained individual-animal records, from a sample of 180 randomly selected Ontario cow-calf herds. The median herd dystocia rate was 5.8% and 24.4% of herds had no dystocias. The median herd stillbirth rate was 2.8%, and 33.3% of herds had no stillbirths. Dystocias and stillbirths were much more common in heifers than in cows. Separate statistical models of dystocia and stillbirth for cows and heifers were created. Dystocia in cows was associated with calf sex, previous calving assistance and large breed type and birth weight. Variations in 1987 cow herd dystocia rates were associated with calving season, location and density, and the herd dystocia rate in 1986. Dystocia in heifers was associated with large breed type and calf birth weight. Herd-level management practices associated with increased heifer dystocia rates included breeding heifers to calve earlier than cows and rearing heifers together with the cow herd. Stillbirths for both cows and heifers were associated with calving assistance, particularly hard assistance. Herd-level management and other factors were unassociated with stillbirths. PMID:1586893

  13. Duodenal ileus caused by a calf feeding nipple in a cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerspach Christian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this report was to describe duodenal obstruction caused by a rubber foreign body in a cow. Case Presentation The clinical, biochemical and ultrasonographic findings in a five-year-old Swiss Braunvieh cow with duodenal ileus caused by a calf feeding nipple are described. The main clinical signs were anorexia, ruminal tympany, decreased faecal output and abomasal reflux syndrome. Ultrasonographic examination revealed reticular hyperactivity and a dilated duodenum. A diagnosis of duodenal ileus was made and the cow underwent right-flank laparotomy, which revealed a dilation of the cranial part of the duodenum because of obstruction by a pliable foreign body. This was identified via enterotomy as a calf feeding nipple. The cow was healthy at the time of discharge four days after surgery and went on to complete a successful lactation. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first description of duodenal obstruction by a calf feeding nipple. This is an interesting case, which broadens the spectrum of the causes of duodenal ileus, which is usually caused by obstruction of the duodenum by a phytobezoar.

  14. Prevention of deep vein thrombosis after total knee arthroplasty. Coumadin versus pneumatic calf compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, W A

    1991-10-01

    The rate of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) without prophylaxis has been reported as high as 84%. Coumadin anticoagulation and pneumatic calf compression (PCC) boots are two current therapies that have been thought to be effective in reducing this high rate of DVT. To investigate these two methods, a nonrandomized prospective study was designed. The first group involved treating 48 consecutive knee arthroplasties with a regimen of coumadin anticoagulation. The second group involved 81 consecutive knee arthroplasties treated with sequential PCC boots. Bilateral lower extremity venography was performed between the eighth and tenth hospital postoperative days. The overall incidence of DVT in the coumadin group was 33%, with 29% having calf thrombi and 6% having thigh thrombi. The overall incidence of DVT in the boot group was 31%, with 27% having calf thrombi and 6% having thigh thrombi. In both groups, there were no treatment-related complications. Cost analysis of the administration of each type of therapy showed coumadin to be approximately 50% more expensive than PCC boots. Although coumadin and PCC boot therapy are safe and effective in reducing the incidence of DVT after TKA, there are economic factors that make the latter a more favorable option.

  15. Serum creatinine level: a supplemental index to distinguish Duchenne muscular dystrophy from Becker muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huili; Zhu, Yuling; Sun, Yiming; Liang, Yingyin; Li, Yaqin; Zhang, Yu; Deng, Langhui; Wen, Xingxuan; Zhang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    To improve assessment of dystrophinopathy, the aim of this study was to identify whether serum creatinine (Crn) level reflects disease severity. Biochemical, Vignos score, and genetic data were collected on 212 boys with dystrophinopathy. Serum Crn level had a strong inverse correlation with Vignos score by simple correlation (r = -0.793) and partial correlation analysis after adjustment for age, height, and weight (r = -0.791; both P Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) patients than Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients at ages 4, 5, 7, and 9 yr (all P < 0.0125). After adjusting for age, height, and weight, BMD patients still had a significantly higher serum Crn level than DMD patients (β = 7.140,  t = 6.277,  P < 0.01). Serum Crn level reflected disease severity and may serve as a supplemental index to distinguish DMD from BMD in clinical practice.

  16. Guidelines for the Perianesthesia Care of the Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy/Becker Muscular Dystrophy Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliod, Barbara A; Ash, Rebecca A

    2016-12-01

    More patients suffering with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) are presenting to perianesthesia settings for emergent and nonemergent treatment and care. A group of collaborative health care providers at Rush University Medical Center in Chicago developed a multidisciplinary DMD/BMD Task Force to study this disorder and create a set of guidelines to aid those engaging in the planning, execution of care, and recovery of this unique population in the perianesthesia setting. Attention to detail, well-executed preplanning, meticulous awareness of the patient, and prearranged implementation and intervention has proven to offset potential problems and complications and is the key to a successful perianesthesia period. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Muscular response to the first three months of deflazacort treatment in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L; Petersson, S J; Illum, N O

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients are often treated with glucocorticoids; yet their precise molecular action remains unknown. METHODS: We investigated muscle biopsies from nine boys with DMD (aged: 7,6±2,8 yrs.) collected before and after three months of deflazacort treatment...... into the molecular actions of glucocorticoids in DMD at the mRNA level, and we show that multiple regulatory pathways are influenced. This information can be important in the development of new treatments....

  18. Pain in adolescents with spinal muscular atrophy and Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, Christina; Kroksmark, Anna-Karin

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence, nature and scope of pain in adolescents with spinal muscular atrophy and Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy and whether the pain differs between diagnostic groups or between adolescents with different ambulation status. Furthermore to study the consequences of pain and to identify pain-exacerbating and pain-relieving factors. In a national survey, fifty-five adolescents with spinal muscular atrophy and dystrophinopathy completed a questionnaire assessing pain frequency, duration, location using a body map, intensity and discomfort using visual analogue scales, pain interference using a modified version of Brief Pain Inventory and factors exacerbating and relieving pain. Sixty-nine per cent of the adolescents reported pain during the past three months and 50% reported chronic pain. The pain prevalence did not differ significantly between diagnostic groups or between ambulators and non-ambulators. The average pain intensity was graded as mild and the worst pain as moderate. The pain typically occurred weekly, most frequently in the neck/back or legs. General activity and mood were the areas that were most affected by pain. Common pain-exacerbating factors were sitting, too much movement/activity and being lifted or transferred. Pain is a frequent problem in adolescents with spinal muscular atrophy and dystrophinopathy. The assessments used enable an understanding both of the nature and scope of pain and of the impact of pain in everyday life. The study highlights the importance of assessing pain in a systematic manner and offering an individual approach to interventions designed to reduce pain in this population. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fibroblast cultures in duchenne muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionasescu, V.; Lara-Braud, C.; Zellweger, H.; Ionasescu, R.; Burmeister, L.

    1977-01-01

    Primary skin fibroblast cultures were grown from forearm pinch skin biopsies obtained from 24 patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and ten normal controls matched for sex and age. The first subcultures were grown for 7 days and incubated with L-( 3 H)-proline for 24 hours. Intracellular collagen incoption was significantly decreased (2.2 X) and extracellular collagen incorporation significantly increased (1.8 X) in fibroblast cultures from patients with DMD by both collagenase assay and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The synthesis of noncollagen proteins showed low values from the DMD fibroblast cultures. The alterations in synthesis and secretion of collagen and noncollagen proteins were characteristic only for the log phase of DMD fibroblasts. (author)

  20. Natural history of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing KE

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is X-linked recessive hereditary disease. DMD gene mutations result in dystrophin deficiency, which causes not only muscle movement disorders but also scoliosis, cognitive dysfunction, urinary tract diseases, respiratory diseases and heart diseases. Most patients die in early adult for respiratory and circulatory failure. Early multidisciplinary therapies will significantly delay disease progression and improve patients' quality of life. However, DMD diagnosis and treatment exist significantly time delay now. In this study, we review the natural history of DMD, including motor, cognitive, respiratory and heart function, for improving DMD early recognition, diagnosis and treatment, so as to benefit DMD patients. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.05.004

  1. The Importance of Muscular Strength: Training Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchomel, Timothy J; Nimphius, Sophia; Bellon, Christopher R; Stone, Michael H

    2018-04-01

    This review covers underlying physiological characteristics and training considerations that may affect muscular strength including improving maximal force expression and time-limited force expression. Strength is underpinned by a combination of morphological and neural factors including muscle cross-sectional area and architecture, musculotendinous stiffness, motor unit recruitment, rate coding, motor unit synchronization, and neuromuscular inhibition. Although single- and multi-targeted block periodization models may produce the greatest strength-power benefits, concepts within each model must be considered within the limitations of the sport, athletes, and schedules. Bilateral training, eccentric training and accentuated eccentric loading, and variable resistance training may produce the greatest comprehensive strength adaptations. Bodyweight exercise, isolation exercises, plyometric exercise, unilateral exercise, and kettlebell training may be limited in their potential to improve maximal strength but are still relevant to strength development by challenging time-limited force expression and differentially challenging motor demands. Training to failure may not be necessary to improve maximum muscular strength and is likely not necessary for maximum gains in strength. Indeed, programming that combines heavy and light loads may improve strength and underpin other strength-power characteristics. Multiple sets appear to produce superior training benefits compared to single sets; however, an athlete's training status and the dose-response relationship must be considered. While 2- to 5-min interset rest intervals may produce the greatest strength-power benefits, rest interval length may vary based an athlete's training age, fiber type, and genetics. Weaker athletes should focus on developing strength before emphasizing power-type training. Stronger athletes may begin to emphasize power-type training while maintaining/improving their strength. Future research should

  2. Occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Neospora caninum in Alberta cow-calf operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruvot, M; Kutz, S; Barkema, H W; De Buck, J; Orsel, K

    2014-11-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and Neospora caninum (NC) are two pathogens causing important production limiting diseases in the cattle industry. Significant impacts of MAP and NC have been reported on dairy cattle herds, but little is known about the importance, risk factors and transmission patterns in western Canadian cow-calf herds. In this cross-sectional study, the prevalence of MAP and NC infection in southwest Alberta cow-calf herds was estimated, risk factors for NC were identified, and the reproductive impacts of the two pathogens were assessed. Blood and fecal samples were collected from 840 cows on 28 cow-calf operations. Individual cow and herd management information was collected by self-administered questionnaires and one-on-one interviews. Bayesian estimates of the true prevalence of MAP and NC were computed, and bivariable and multivariable statistical analysis were done to assess the association between the NC serological status and ranch management risk factors, and the clinical effects of the two pathogens. Bayesian estimates of true prevalence indicated that 20% (95% probability interval: 8-38%) of herds had at least one MAP-positive cow, with a within-herd prevalence in positive herds of 22% (8-45%). From the Bayesian posterior distributions of NC prevalence, the median herd-level prevalence was 66% (33-95%) with 10% (4-21%) cow-level prevalence in positive herds. Multivariable analysis indicated that introducing purchased animals in the herd might increase the risk of NC. The negative association of NC with proper carcass disposal and presence of horses on ranch (possibly in relation to herd monitoring and guarding activities), may suggest the importance of wild carnivores in the dynamics of this pathogen in the study area. We also observed an association between MAP and NC serological status and the number of abortions. Additional studies should be done to further examine specific risk factors for MAP and NC, assess the

  3. Migratory herds of wildebeests and zebras indirectly affect calf survival of giraffes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Derek E; Kissui, Bernard M; Kiwango, Yustina A; Bond, Monica L

    2016-12-01

    In long-distance migratory systems, local fluctuations in the predator-prey ratio can exhibit extreme variability within a single year depending upon the seasonal location of migratory species. Such systems offer an opportunity to empirically investigate cyclic population density effects on short-term food web interactions by taking advantage of the large seasonal shifts in migratory prey biomass.We utilized a large-mammal predator-prey savanna food web to evaluate support for hypotheses relating to the indirect effects of "apparent competition" and "apparent mutualism" from migratory ungulate herds on survival of resident megaherbivore calves, mediated by their shared predator. African lions ( Panthera leo ) are generalist predators whose primary, preferred prey are wildebeests ( Connochaetes taurinus ) and zebras ( Equus quagga ), while lion predation on secondary prey such as giraffes ( Giraffa camelopardalis ) may change according to the relative abundance of the primary prey species.We used demographic data from five subpopulations of giraffes in the Tarangire Ecosystem of Tanzania, East Africa, to test hypotheses relating to direct predation and indirect effects of large migratory herds on calf survival of a resident megaherbivore. We examined neonatal survival via apparent reproduction of 860 adult females, and calf survival of 449 giraffe calves, during three precipitation seasons over 3 years, seeking evidence of some effect on neonate and calf survival as a consequence of the movements of large herds of migratory ungulates.We found that local lion predation pressure (lion density divided by primary prey density) was significantly negatively correlated with giraffe neonatal and calf survival probabilities. This supports the apparent mutualism hypothesis that the presence of migratory ungulates reduces lion predation on giraffe calves.Natural predation had a significant effect on giraffe calf and neonate survival, and could significantly affect giraffe

  4. The golden retriever model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornegay, Joe N

    2017-05-19

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked disease caused by mutations in the DMD gene and loss of the protein dystrophin. The absence of dystrophin leads to myofiber membrane fragility and necrosis, with eventual muscle atrophy and contractures. Affected boys typically die in their second or third decade due to either respiratory failure or cardiomyopathy. Despite extensive attempts to develop definitive therapies for DMD, the standard of care remains prednisone, which has only palliative benefits. Animal models, mainly the mdx mouse and golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) dog, have played a key role in studies of DMD pathogenesis and treatment development. Because the GRMD clinical syndrome is more severe than in mice, better aligning with the progressive course of DMD, canine studies may translate better to humans. The original founder dog for all GRMD colonies worldwide was identified in the early 1980s before the discovery of the DMD gene and dystrophin. Accordingly, analogies to DMD were initially drawn based on similar clinical features, ranging from the X-linked pattern of inheritance to overlapping histopathologic lesions. Confirmation of genetic homology between DMD and GRMD came with identification of the underlying GRMD mutation, a single nucleotide change that leads to exon skipping and an out-of-frame DMD transcript. GRMD colonies have subsequently been established to conduct pathogenetic and preclinical treatment studies. Simultaneous with the onset of GRMD treatment trials, phenotypic biomarkers were developed, allowing definitive characterization of treatment effect. Importantly, GRMD studies have not always substantiated findings from mdx mice and have sometimes identified serious treatment side effects. While the GRMD model may be more clinically relevant than the mdx mouse, usage has been limited by practical considerations related to expense and the number of dogs available. This further complicates ongoing broader concerns about

  5. Laminin alpha2 deficiency and muscular dystrophy; genotype-phenotype correlation in mutant mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, L T; Zhang, X U; Kuang, W

    2003-01-01

    2, lacking domain VI. Interestingly, all mutants lack laminin alpha2 in peripheral nerve. We have demonstrated previously, that overexpression of the human laminin alpha2 in skeletal muscle in dy(2J)/dy(2J) and dy(W)/dy(W) mice under the control of a striated muscle-specific creatine kinase promoter......Deficiency of laminin alpha2 is the cause of one of the most severe muscular dystrophies in humans and other species. It is not yet clear how particular mutations in the laminin alpha2 chain gene affect protein expression, and how abnormal levels or structure of the protein affect disease. Animal...

  6. Binding of Bisphenol-F, a bisphenol analogue, to calf thymus DNA by multi-spectroscopic and molecular docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Afia; Ahmad, Masood

    2017-08-01

    BPF (Bisphenol-F), a member of the bisphenol family, having a wide range of industrial applications is gradually replacing Bisphenol-A. It is a recognized endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC). EDCs have been implicated in increased incidences of breast, prostate and testis cancers besides diabetes, obesity and decreased fertility. Due to the adverse effects of EDCs on human health, attempts have been directed towards their mechanism of toxicity especially at the molecular level. Hence, to understand the mechanism at the DNA level, interaction of BPF with calf thymus DNA was studied employing multi-spectroscopic, voltammetric and molecular docking techniques. Fluorescence spectra, cyclic voltammetry (CV), circular dichroism (CD) and molecular docking studies of BPF with DNA were suggestive of minor groove binding of BPF. UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectra suggested static quenching due to complex formation between BPF and ctDNA. Hoechst 33258 (HO) and ethidium bromide (EB) displacement studies further confirmed such mode of BPF interaction. Thermodynamic and molecular docking parameters revealed the mechanism of binding of BPF with ctDNA to be favorable and spontaneous due to negative ΔG and occurring through hydrogen bonds and van der waals interactions. BPF induced DNA cleavage under in vitro conditions by plasmid nicking assay suggested it to be genotoxic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A rare subclinical or mild type of Becker muscular dystrophy caused by a single exon 48 deletion of the dystrophin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimowski, Janusz G; Pilch, Jacek; Pawelec, Magdalena; Purzycka, Joanna K; Kubalska, Jolanta; Ziora-Jakutowicz, Karolina; Dudzińska, Magdalena; Zaremba, Jacek

    2017-08-01

    In the material of 227 families with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), we found nine non-consanguineous families with 17 male individuals carrying a rare mutation-a single exon 48 deletion of the dystrophin gene-who were affected with a very mild or subclinical form of BMD. They were usually detected thanks to accidental findings of elevated serum creatine phosphokinase (sCPK). A thorough clinical analysis of the carriers, both children (12) and adults (5), revealed in some of them muscle hypotonia (10/17) and/or very mild muscle weakness (9/17), as well as decreased tendon reflexes (6/17). Adults, apart from very mild muscle weakness and calf hypertrophy in some, had no significant abnormalities on neurological assessments and had good exercise tolerance. Parents of the children carriers of the exon 48 deletion are usually unaware of their children being affected, and possibly at risk of developing life-threatening cardiomyopathy. The same concerns the adult male carriers. Therefore, the authors postulate undertaking preventive measures such as cascade screening of the relatives of the probands. Newborn screening programmes of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)/BMD based on sCPK marked increase may be considered.

  8. Vibration-related extrusion of capillary blood from the calf musculature depends upon directions of vibration of the leg and of the gravity vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakar, Halil Ibrahim; Doğan, Serfiraz; Kara, Sadık; Rittweger, Jörn; Rawer, Rainer; Zange, Jochen

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of vibration of the whole lower leg on the content and the oxygenation of hemoglobin in the unloaded relaxed lateral gastrocnemius muscle. Vibration was applied orthogonal to and in parallel with leg axis to examine whether the extrusion of blood depends on an alignment of main vessel direction, axis of vibration and gravity. The blood volume in the muscles was altered by horizontal and 30° upright body posture. Fifteen male subjects were exposed to 4 sets of experiments with both vibration directions and both tilt angles applied in permutated order. The absence of voluntary muscular activity and the potential occurrence of compound action potentials by stretch reflexes were monitored using electromyography. Total hemoglobin and tissue saturation index were measured with near infrared spectroscopy. Changes of lower leg circumference were measured with strain gauge system placed around the calf. Vibration caused decrease in tHb and increase in TSI indicating extrusion of predominantly venous blood from the muscle. In 30° tilted position, muscles contained more blood at baseline and vibration ejected more blood from the muscle compared with horizontal posture (p < 0.01). At 30° tilting deeper drop in tHb and steeper increase in TSI (p < 0.01) were observed when vibration was applied in parallel with the length axis of muscle. It is concluded that the vibration extrudes more blood in 30° head up posture and the vibration applied in parallel with the length axis of the muscle is more effective than orthogonal vibration.

  9. Current Translational Research and Murine Models For Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Merryl; Echigoya, Yusuke; Fukada, So-ichiro; Yokota, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked genetic disorder characterized by progressive muscle degeneration. Mutations in the DMD gene result in the absence of dystrophin, a protein required for muscle strength and stability. Currently, there is no cure for DMD. Since murine models are relatively easy to genetically manipulate, cost effective, and easily reproducible due to their short generation time, they have helped to elucidate the pathobiology of dystrophin deficiency and to assess therapies for treating DMD. Recently, several murine models have been developed by our group and others to be more representative of the human DMD mutation types and phenotypes. For instance, mdx mice on a DBA/2 genetic background, developed by Fukada et al., have lower regenerative capacity and exhibit very severe phenotype. Cmah-deficient mdx mice display an accelerated disease onset and severe cardiac phenotype due to differences in glycosylation between humans and mice. Other novel murine models include mdx52, which harbors a deletion mutation in exon 52, a hot spot region in humans, and dystrophin/utrophin double-deficient (dko), which displays a severe dystrophic phenotype due the absence of utrophin, a dystrophin homolog. This paper reviews the pathological manifestations and recent therapeutic developments in murine models of DMD such as standard mdx (C57BL/10), mdx on C57BL/6 background (C57BL/6-mdx), mdx52, dystrophin/utrophin double-deficient (dko), mdxβgeo, Dmd-null, humanized DMD (hDMD), mdx on DBA/2 background (DBA/2-mdx), Cmah-mdx, and mdx/mTRKO murine models. PMID:27854202

  10. Actovegin, a non-prohibited drug increases oxidative capacity in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergård, Stine D; Dela, Flemming; Helge, Jørn W

    2016-01-01

    Actovegin, a deproteinized haemodialysate of calf blood, is suggested to have ergogenic properties, but this potential effect has never been investigated in human skeletal muscle. To investigate this purported ergogenic effect, we measured the mitochondrial respiratory capacity in permeabilized h...

  11. Genetics and emerging treatments for Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, Nicolas; Alfano, Lindsay; Flanigan, Kevin M

    2015-06-01

    Mutations in the DMD gene result in Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy due to absent or altered expression of the dystrophin protein. The more severe Duchenne muscular dystrophy typically presents around ages 2 to 5 with gait disturbance, and historically has led to the loss of ambulation by age 12. It is important for the practicing pediatrician, however, to be aware of other presenting signs, such as delayed motor or cognitive milestones, or elevated serum transaminases. Becker muscular dystrophy is milder, often presenting after age 5, with ambulation frequently preserved past 20 years and sometimes into late decades. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. CT finding and cerebrospinal fluid proteins in muscular dystrophy patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirase, Tsutomu; Ide, Masami; Araki, Shukuro; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Kawasaki, Shoichiro; Imamura, Shigehiro.

    1983-01-01

    We analyzed the microcomponents of protein fractions in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with various types of muscular dystrophy. The degenerative pattern is characterized by an increase in the prealbumin and a decrease in the γ-globulin fraction is shown in the Duchenne and congenital muscular dystrophy. The increase in CSF IgG, γ-globulin fraction is shown in the myotonic dystrophy. In addition to the abnormality of IQ, EEG, and brain CT, abnormal CSF proteins obviously suggest the presence of CNS involvement in muscular dystrophy. (author)

  13. CT finding and cerebrospinal fluid proteins in muscular dystrophy patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirase, Tsutomu; Ide, Masami; Araki, Shukuro; Okamoto, Hiroshi (Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Kawasaki, Shoichiro; Imamura, Shigehiro

    1983-06-01

    We analyzed the microcomponents of protein fractions in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with various types of muscular dystrophy. The degenerative pattern is characterized by an increase in the prealbumin and a decrease in the ..gamma..-globulin fraction is shown in the Duchenne and congenital muscular dystrophy. The increase in CSF IgG, ..gamma..-globulin fraction is shown in the myotonic dystrophy. In addition to the abnormality of IQ, EEG, and brain CT, abnormal CSF proteins obviously suggest the presence of CNS involvement in muscular dystrophy.

  14. MR imaging of fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy; a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Yoo Kyung; Koo, Hae Soo; Park, Ki Deuk

    2000-01-01

    Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy is a genetic disease and common in Japan. The typical clinical features are hypotonia with an early infantile onset and severe developmental delay. The diagnosis is based on pathologic evidence of muscular dystrophy revealed by biopsy or an increased serum creatine kinase levels. Involvement of the brain is characterized by abnormal cerebral cortical dysplasia, cerebellar dysplasia, and white matter changes. We encountered a case of Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy in which brain MRI findings were typical, and present this case together with a review of the literature

  15. Imaging Flow Cytometry Analysis to Identify Differences of Survival Motor Neuron Protein Expression in Patients With Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Reiko; Arakawa, Masayuki; Kaneko, Kaori; Otsuki, Noriko; Aoki, Ryoko; Saito, Kayoko

    2016-08-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the deficient expression of survival motor neuron protein in motor neurons. A major goal of disease-modifying therapy is to increase survival motor neuron expression. Changes in survival motor neuron protein expression can be monitored via peripheral blood cells in patients; therefore we tested the sensitivity and utility of imaging flow cytometry for this purpose. After the immortalization of peripheral blood lymphocytes from a human healthy control subject and two patients with spinal muscular atrophy type 1 with two and three copies of SMN2 gene, respectively, we used imaging flow cytometry analysis to identify significant differences in survival motor neuron expression. A bright detail intensity analysis was used to investigate differences in the cellular localization of survival motor neuron protein. Survival motor neuron expression was significantly decreased in cells derived from patients with spinal muscular atrophy relative to those derived from a healthy control subject. Moreover, survival motor neuron expression correlated with the clinical severity of spinal muscular atrophy according to SMN2 copy number. The cellular accumulation of survival motor neuron protein was also significantly decreased in cells derived from patients with spinal muscular atrophy relative to those derived from a healthy control subject. The benefits of imaging flow cytometry for peripheral blood analysis include its capacities for analyzing heterogeneous cell populations; visualizing cell morphology; and evaluating the accumulation, localization, and expression of a target protein. Imaging flow cytometry analysis should be implemented in future studies to optimize its application as a tool for spinal muscular atrophy clinical trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Resistance training in patients with limb-girdle and becker muscular dystrophies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveen, Marie-Louise; Andersen, Søren P; Ingelsrud, Lina H

    2013-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of strength training in patients with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD).......In this study we investigated the effect of strength training in patients with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD)....

  17. [Supplementary device for a dynamometer to evaluate and register muscular endurance indices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoshenko, D A; Bokser, O Ia

    1986-01-01

    In practice of psychophysiologic research muscular endurance index is used for estimation of CNS function. Muscular endurance index is defined as relative time needed for maintaining the preset muscular effort. The described device widens the possibilities of a digital dynamometer for automatic estimation and recording of muscular endurance index in real time.

  18. Nearby grandmother enhances calf survival and reproduction in Asian elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahdenperä, Mirkka; Mar, Khyne U; Lummaa, Virpi

    2016-06-10

    Usually animals reproduce into old age, but a few species such as humans and killer whales can live decades after their last reproduction. The grandmother hypothesis proposes that such life-history evolved through older females switching to invest in their existing (grand)offspring, thereby increasing their inclusive fitness and selection for post-reproductive lifespan. However, positive grandmother effects are also found in non-menopausal taxa, but evidence of their associated fitness effects is rare and only a few tests of the hypothesis in such species exist. Here we investigate the grandmother effects in Asian elephants. Using a multigenerational demographic dataset on semi-captive elephants in Myanmar, we found that grandcalves from young mothers (years) had 8 times lower mortality risk if the grandmother resided with her grandcalf compared to grandmothers residing elsewhere. Resident grandmothers also decreased their daughters' inter-birth intervals by one year. In contrast to the hypothesis predictions, the grandmother's own reproductive status did not modify such grandmother benefits. That elephant grandmothers increased their inclusive fitness by enhancing their daughter's reproductive rate and success irrespective of their own reproductive status suggests that fitness-enhancing grandmaternal effects are widespread, and challenge the view that grandmother effects alone select for menopause coupled with long post-reproductive lifespan.

  19. A splice site mutation in laminin-α2 results in a severe muscular dystrophy and growth abnormalities in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana A Gupta

    Full Text Available Congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited muscle disorders. In patients, muscle weakness is usually present at or shortly after birth and is progressive in nature. Merosin deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (MDC1A is a form of CMD caused by a defect in the laminin-α2 gene (LAMA2. Laminin-α2 is an extracellular matrix protein that interacts with the dystrophin-dystroglycan (DGC complex in membranes providing stability to muscle fibers. In an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis screen to develop zebrafish models of neuromuscular diseases, we identified a mutant fish that exhibits severe muscular dystrophy early in development. Genetic mapping identified a splice site mutation in the lama2 gene. This splice site is highly conserved in humans and this mutation results in mis-splicing of RNA and a loss of protein function. Homozygous lama2 mutant zebrafish, designated lama2(cl501/cl501, exhibited reduced motor function and progressive degeneration of skeletal muscles and died at 8-15 days post fertilization. The skeletal muscles exhibited damaged myosepta and detachment of myofibers in the affected fish. Laminin-α2 deficiency also resulted in growth defects in the brain and eye of the mutant fish. This laminin-α2 deficient mutant fish represents a novel disease model to develop therapies for modulating splicing defects in congenital muscular dystrophies and to restore the muscle function in human patients with CMD.

  20. Effects of Reducing Antimicrobial Use and Applying a Cleaning and Disinfection Program in Veal Calf Farming: Experiences from an Intervention Study to Control Livestock-Associated MRSA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Dorado-García

    Full Text Available With the ultimate aim of containing the emergence of resistant bacteria, a Dutch policy was set in place in 2010 promoting a reduction of antimicrobial use (AMU in food-producing animals. In this context, a study evaluated strategies to curb livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA. Fifty-one veal calf farms were assigned to one of 3 study arms: RAB farms reducing antimicrobials by protocol; RAB-CD farms reducing antimicrobials by protocol and applying a cleaning and disinfection program; and Control farms without interventions. MRSA carriage was tested in week 0 and week 12 of 2 consecutive production cycles in farmers, family members and veal calves. Interventions were validated and a cyclic rise in MRSA-prevalence in animals was shown with a more moderate increase in RAB farms. Prevalence in humans declined parallel over time in the study arms but RAB farms were at the lowest MRSA levels from the beginning of the study. In RAB-CD farms, human and animal prevalence did not differ from Control farms and MRSA air loads were significantly higher than in the other study arms. Mimicking the national trend, an overall AMU decrease (daily dosages per animal per cycle (DDDA/C was observed over 4 pre-study and the 2 study cycles; this trend did not have a significant effect on a set of evaluated farm technical parameters. AMU was positively associated with MRSA across study arms (ORs per 10 DDDA/C increase = 1.26 for both humans (p = 0.07 and animals (p = 0.12 in first cycle. These results suggest that AMU reduction might be a good strategy for curbing MRSA in veal calf farming, however the specific cleaning and disinfecting program in RAB-CD farms was not effective. The drop in MRSA prevalence in people during the study could be attributed to the observed long-term AMU decreasing trend.

  1. Effects of Reducing Antimicrobial Use and Applying a Cleaning and Disinfection Program in Veal Calf Farming: Experiences from an Intervention Study to Control Livestock-Associated MRSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorado-García, Alejandro; Graveland, Haitske; Bos, Marian E H; Verstappen, Koen M; Van Cleef, Brigitte A G L; Kluytmans, Jan A J W; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Heederik, Dick J J

    2015-01-01

    With the ultimate aim of containing the emergence of resistant bacteria, a Dutch policy was set in place in 2010 promoting a reduction of antimicrobial use (AMU) in food-producing animals. In this context, a study evaluated strategies to curb livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA). Fifty-one veal calf farms were assigned to one of 3 study arms: RAB farms reducing antimicrobials by protocol; RAB-CD farms reducing antimicrobials by protocol and applying a cleaning and disinfection program; and Control farms without interventions. MRSA carriage was tested in week 0 and week 12 of 2 consecutive production cycles in farmers, family members and veal calves. Interventions were validated and a cyclic rise in MRSA-prevalence in animals was shown with a more moderate increase in RAB farms. Prevalence in humans declined parallel over time in the study arms but RAB farms were at the lowest MRSA levels from the beginning of the study. In RAB-CD farms, human and animal prevalence did not differ from Control farms and MRSA air loads were significantly higher than in the other study arms. Mimicking the national trend, an overall AMU decrease (daily dosages per animal per cycle (DDDA/C)) was observed over 4 pre-study and the 2 study cycles; this trend did not have a significant effect on a set of evaluated farm technical parameters. AMU was positively associated with MRSA across study arms (ORs per 10 DDDA/C increase = 1.26 for both humans (p = 0.07) and animals (p = 0.12 in first cycle)). These results suggest that AMU reduction might be a good strategy for curbing MRSA in veal calf farming, however the specific cleaning and disinfecting program in RAB-CD farms was not effective. The drop in MRSA prevalence in people during the study could be attributed to the observed long-term AMU decreasing trend.

  2. Acute irradiation and muscular fibrosis. Development and characteristics in the pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefaix, J.L.; Daburon, F.; Remy, J.

    1989-01-01

    This study was performed in an experimental porcin model of acute local irradiation chosen to simulate human accidents. It enabled to determine the development and the physiopathological characteristics of the fibrous tissue which developed in skeletal muscle. In the first month after irradiation the strong inflammatory reaction initiating the radiation induced fibrosis was characterized by edema as visualized on NMR imaging and by acute phase reactant protein changes, associated with elevations of local and general temperatures in irradiated animals. At the margin of the irradiated tissue, atypical fibroblasts isolated among collagen bundles or bunched in nodullary reinforcement were seen associated with intense capillary neogenesis. Several months after irradiation normal skeletal muscle was replaced by atrophic fibrosis delimited by an inflammatory perifibrotic tissue. The muscular fibrosis was characterized by a high atypical fibroblasts density and by an inflammatory distribution pattern of collagen types I, III, IV, laminin, fibronectin and fibrinogen as visualized by immunohistochemical methods. Biochemical results showed an increase in collagen content and synthesis in fibrotic tissue whereas perifibrotic zone synthesized more non collagenous proteins compared with the normal muscle. The contributions of granulation tissue, cellular mediators and inhibition of muscular regeneration to maintain the atrophic character of the muscular radiation induced fibrosis are discussed [fr

  3. Regulatory T cells suppress muscle inflammation and injury in muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalta, S. Armando; Rosenthal, Wendy; Martinez, Leonel; Kaur, Amanjot; Sparwasser, Tim; Tidball, James G.; Margeta, Marta; Spencer, Melissa J.; Bluestone, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that regulatory T cells (Tregs) modulate muscle injury and inflammation in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Although Tregs were largely absent in the muscle of wildtype mice and normal human muscle, they were present in necrotic lesions, displayed an activated phenotype and showed increased expression of interleukin (IL)-10 in dystrophic muscle from mdx mice. Depletion of Tregs exacerbated muscle injury and the severity of muscle inflammation, which was characterized by an enhanced interferon-gamma (IFNγ) response and activation of M1 macrophages. To test the therapeutic value of targeting Tregs in muscular dystrophy, we treated mdx mice with IL-2/anti-IL-2 complexes (IL-2c), and found that Tregs and IL-10 concentrations were increased in muscle, resulting in reduced expression of cyclooygenase-2 and decreased myofiber injury. These findings suggest that Tregs modulate the progression of muscular dystrophy by suppressing type 1 inflammation in muscle associated with muscle fiber injury, and highlight the potential of Treg-modulating agents as therapeutics for DMD. PMID:25320234

  4. Characterization of dystrophin deficient rats: a new model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcher, Thibaut; Lafoux, Aude; Tesson, Laurent; Remy, Séverine; Thepenier, Virginie; François, Virginie; Le Guiner, Caroline; Goubin, Helicia; Dutilleul, Maéva; Guigand, Lydie; Toumaniantz, Gilles; De Cian, Anne; Boix, Charlotte; Renaud, Jean-Baptiste; Cherel, Yan; Giovannangeli, Carine; Concordet, Jean-Paul; Anegon, Ignacio; Huchet, Corinne

    2014-01-01

    A few animal models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are available, large ones such as pigs or dogs being expensive and difficult to handle. Mdx (X-linked muscular dystrophy) mice only partially mimic the human disease, with limited chronic muscular lesions and muscle weakness. Their small size also imposes limitations on analyses. A rat model could represent a useful alternative since rats are small animals but 10 times bigger than mice and could better reflect the lesions and functional abnormalities observed in DMD patients. Two lines of Dmd mutated-rats (Dmdmdx) were generated using TALENs targeting exon 23. Muscles of animals of both lines showed undetectable levels of dystrophin by western blot and less than 5% of dystrophin positive fibers by immunohistochemistry. At 3 months, limb and diaphragm muscles from Dmdmdx rats displayed severe necrosis and regeneration. At 7 months, these muscles also showed severe fibrosis and some adipose tissue infiltration. Dmdmdx rats showed significant reduction in muscle strength and a decrease in spontaneous motor activity. Furthermore, heart morphology was indicative of dilated cardiomyopathy associated histologically with necrotic and fibrotic changes. Echocardiography showed significant concentric remodeling and alteration of diastolic function. In conclusion, Dmdmdx rats represent a new faithful small animal model of DMD.

  5. Phenotype-Genotype Analysis of Chinese Patients with Early-Onset LMNA-Related Muscular Dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Tan

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the correlation between the phenotype and genotype of Chinese patients with early-onset lamin A (LMNA-related muscular dystrophy (MD. The clinical and myopathological data of 21 Chinese pediatric patients with early-onset LMNA-related MD were collected and analyzed. LMNA gene mutation analysis was performed by direct sequencing of genomic DNA. Sublocalization of wild-type and mutant proteins were observed by immunofluorescence using cultured fibroblasts and human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293 cell. Seven patients were diagnosed with Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD and 14 were diagnosed with LMNA-associated congenital muscular dystrophy (L-CMD. Four biopsy specimens from the L-CMD cases exhibited inflammatory changes. Abnormal nuclear morphology was observed with both transmission electron microscopy and lamin A/C staining. We identified 10 novel and nine known LMNA gene mutations in the 21 patients. Some mutations (c.91G>A, c.94_96delAAG, c.116A>G, c.745C>T, c.746G>A, and c.1580G>C were well correlated with EDMD or L-CMD. LMNA-related MD has a common symptom triad of muscle weakness, joint contractures, and cardiac involvement, but the severity of symptoms and disease progression differ greatly. Inflammatory change in biopsied muscle is a characteristic of early-stage L-CMD. Phenotype-genotype analysis determines that some mutations are well correlated with LMNA-related MD.

  6. EEG windowed statistical wavelet scoring for evaluation and discrimination of muscular artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vialatte, François-Benoit; Cichocki, Andrzej; Solé-Casals, Jordi

    2008-01-01

    EEG recordings are usually corrupted by spurious extra-cerebral artifacts, which should be rejected or cleaned up by the practitioner. Since manual screening of human EEGs is inherently error prone and might induce experimental bias, automatic artifact detection is an issue of importance. Automatic artifact detection is the best guarantee for objective and clean results. We present a new approach, based on the time–frequency shape of muscular artifacts, to achieve reliable and automatic scoring. The impact of muscular activity on the signal can be evaluated using this methodology by placing emphasis on the analysis of EEG activity. The method is used to discriminate evoked potentials from several types of recorded muscular artifacts—with a sensitivity of 98.8% and a specificity of 92.2%. Automatic cleaning of EEG data is then successfully realized using this method, combined with independent component analysis. The outcome of the automatic cleaning is then compared with the Slepian multitaper spectrum based technique introduced by Delorme et al (2007 Neuroimage 34 1443–9)

  7. Coenzyme Q10 Status as a Determinant of Muscular Strength in Two Independent Cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Fischer

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with sarcopenia, which is a loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 is involved in several important functions that are related to bioenergetics and protection against oxidative damage; however, the role of CoQ10 as a determinant of muscular strength is not well documented. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the determinants of muscular strength by examining hand grip force in relation to CoQ10 status, gender, age and body mass index (BMI in two independent cohorts (n = 334, n = 967. Furthermore, peak flow as a function of respiratory muscle force was assessed. Spearman's correlation revealed a significant positive association between CoQ10/cholesterol level and hand grip in the basic study population (p<0.01 as well as in the validation population (p<0.001. In the latter, we also found a negative correlation with the CoQ10 redox state (p<0.01, which represents a lower percentage of the reduced form of CoQ10 (ubiquinol in subjects who exhibit a lower muscular strength. Furthermore, the age of the subjects showed a negative correlation with hand grip (p<0.001, whereas BMI was positively correlated with hand grip (p<0.01, although only in the normal weight subgroup (BMI <25 kg/m2. Analysis of the covariance (ANCOVA with hand grip as the dependent variable revealed CoQ10/cholesterol as a determinant of muscular strength and gender as the strongest effector of hand grip. In conclusion, our data suggest that both a low CoQ10/cholesterol level and a low percentage of the reduced form of CoQ10 could be an indicator of an increased risk of sarcopenia in humans due to their negative associations to upper body muscle strength, peak flow and muscle mass.

  8. Dystrophin analysis in carriers of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwaard, Edo M.; Ginjaar, Ieke B.; Bakker, Egbert; de Visser, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    Associations between clinical phenotype (muscle weakness, dilated cardiomyopathy) and dystrophin abnormalities in muscle tissue among definite carriers of Duchenne (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) were investigated. No associations between dystrophin abnormalities and clinical variables in

  9. Experimental investigation of muscular neurotization in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, R

    1987-01-01

    Reinnervation of a free muscle graft by nerves from an adjacent intact muscle is called muscular neurotization. This paper investigates the mechanisms and stimuli responsible for muscular neurotization in the rat. Sternohyoid or sternomastoid muscles were transplanted as free muscle grafts to the ventral surface of an intact sternohyoid muscle (feeder muscle). After several weeks the graft and underlying feeder muscle were removed together, frozen, serially sectioned, stained, and carefully examined for the presence or absence of nerves. It was concluded from a series of experiments that in this model muscular neurotization is a form of nerve regeneration. In order for muscular neurotization to occur, it is necessary to have (1) injury to the nerves of the intact feeder muscle and (2) a pathway upon which the regenerating nerves may grow into the graft.

  10. A new chart for weight control in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, R D; Edwards, R H

    1988-01-01

    Weight control is desirable in the muscle wasting conditions. A new chart is presented to allow the prediction of an ideal weight, free of excess fat, specifically for boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  11. Nonmuscular involvement in merosin-negative congenital muscular dystrophy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilhuis, H.J.; Donkelaar, H.J. ten; Tanke, R.B.; Vingerhoets, D.M.; Zwarts, M.J.; Verrips, A.; Gabreëls, F.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The spectrum of nonmuscular involvement in six children with merosin-negative congenital muscular dystrophy is described. In all children, biochemical, neuroradiologic, cardiac, and neurophysiologic studies were performed. Cerebral structures that were myelinated at gestation, including internal

  12. How Physicians Support Mothers of Children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Haruo; Saito, Toshio; Matsumura, Tsuyoshi; Shibata, Saki; Iwata, Yuko; Fujimura, Harutoshi; Shinno, Susumu; Imura, Osamu

    2015-09-01

    Communicating about Duchenne muscular dystrophy and its prognosis can be difficult for affected children and their family. We focused on how physicians provide support to the mothers of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy who have difficulty communicating about the condition with their child. The eligible participants were certified child neurologists of the Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Participants responded to questionnaires consisting of free descriptions of a vignette of a child with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and a mother. We analyzed 263 responses of the participants. We found 4 themes on advising mothers, involving encouraging communication, family autonomy, supporting family, and considering the child's concerns. These results provide a better understanding of the communication between physicians and family members who need help sharing information with a child with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. These findings will assist clinical practitioners in supporting families and the affected children throughout the course of their illness. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Predictive factors for masticatory performance in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, H.W. van; Engel-Hoek, L. van den; Steenks, M.H.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Creugers, N.H.; Groot, I.J.M. de; Kalaykova, S.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) report masticatory and swallowing problems. Such problems may cause complications such as choking, and feeling of food sticking in the throat. We investigated whether masticatory performance in DMD is objectively impaired, and explored predictive

  14. Strength training and albuterol in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooi, EL; Vogels, OJM; van Asseldonk, RJGP; Lindeman, E; Hendriks, JCM; Wohlgemuth, M; van der Maarel, SM; Padberg, GW

    2004-01-01

    Background: In animals and healthy volunteers beta2-adrenergic agonists increase muscle strength and mass, in particular when combined with strength training. In patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) albuterol may exert anabolic effects. The authors evaluated the effect of

  15. Molecular Mechanisms of Neurodegeneration in Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is an autosomal recessive motor neuron disease with a high incidence and is the most common genetic cause of infant mortality. SMA is primarily characterized by degeneration of the spinal motor neurons that leads to skeletal muscle atrophy followed by symmetric limb paralysis, respiratory failure, and death. In humans, mutation of the Survival Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1 gene shifts the load of expression of SMN protein to the SMN2 gene that produces low levels of full-length SMN protein because of alternative splicing, which are sufficient for embryonic development and survival but result in SMA. The molecular mechanisms of the (a regulation of SMN gene expression and (b degeneration of motor neurons caused by low levels of SMN are unclear. However, some progress has been made in recent years that have provided new insights into understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of SMA pathogenesis. In this review, we have briefly summarized recent advances toward understanding of the molecular mechanisms of regulation of SMN levels and signaling mechanisms that mediate neurodegeneration in SMA.

  16. Mechanomyography versus Electromyography, in monitoring the muscular fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarata Mihai T

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of the mechanomyogram (MMG which detects muscular vibrations generated by fused individual fiber twitches has been refined. The study addresses a comparison of the MMG and surface electromyogram (SEMG in monitoring muscle fatigue. Methods The SEMG and MMG were recorded simultaneously from the same territory of motor units in two muscles (Biceps, Brachioradialis of the human (n = 18, during sustained contraction at 25 % MVC (maximal voluntary contraction. Results The RMS (root mean square of the SEMG and MMG increased with advancing fatigue; MF (median frequency of the PSD (power density spectra progressively decreased from the onset of the contraction. These findings (both muscles, all subjects, demonstrate both through the SEMG and MMG a central component of the fatigue. The MF regression slopes of MMG were closer to each other between men and women (Biceps 1.55%; Brachialis 13.2% than were the SEMG MF slopes (Biceps 25.32%; Brachialis 17.72%, which shows a smaller inter-sex variability for the MMG vs. SEMG. Conclusion The study presents another quantitative comparison (MF, RMS of MMG and SEMG, showing that MMG signal can be used for indication of the degree of muscle activation and for monitoring the muscle fatigue when the application of SEMG is not feasible (chronical implants, adverse environments contaminated by electrical noise.

  17. Inflammatory response to strenuous muscular exercise in man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Camus

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the humoral and cellular changes occurring during strenuous muscular work in humans, the concept of inflammatory response to exercise (IRE is developed. The main indices of IRE consist of signs of an acute phase response, leucocytosis and leucocyte activation, release of inflammatory mediators, tissue damage and cellular infiltrates, production of free radicals, activation of complement, and coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways. Depending on exercise intensity and duration, it seems likely that muscle and/or associated connective tissue damage, contact system activation due to shear stress on endothelium and endotoxaemia could be the triggering mechanisms of IRE. Although this phenomenon can be considered in most cases as a physiological process associated with tissue repair, exaggerated IRE could have physiopathological consequences. On the other hand, the influence of several factors such as age, sex, training, hormonal status, nutrition, anti-inflammatory drugs, and the extent to which IRE could be a potential risk for subjects undergoing intense physical training require further study.

  18. Modern Human Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Byeong Yong; Lee Dong Kyeong

    2005-08-01

    These are the titles of each chapter. They are as in the following; design of human-centerdness, human machine system, information processing process, sense of human, user interface, elements of human body, vital dynamics, measurement of reaction of human body, estimation and management of working environment, mental characteristic of human, human error, group, organization and leadership, safety supervision, process analysis, time studying, work sampling, work factor and methods time measurement, introduction of muscular skeletal disease and program of preventive management.

  19. Modern Human Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Byeong Yong; Lee Dong Kyeong

    2005-08-15

    These are the titles of each chapter. They are as in the following; design of human-centerdness, human machine system, information processing process, sense of human, user interface, elements of human body, vital dynamics, measurement of reaction of human body, estimation and management of working environment, mental characteristic of human, human error, group, organization and leadership, safety supervision, process analysis, time studying, work sampling, work factor and methods time measurement, introduction of muscular skeletal disease and program of preventive management.

  20. Distrofia muscular progressiva: alguns aspectos do diagnõstico diferencial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvio Saraiva

    1960-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors call attention to some clinical entities which are less known and more difficult to recognize and with which differential diagnosis of progressive muscular dystrophy should be made (infantile spinal muscular atrophy, amyotonia congenita, congenital acute anterior poliomyelitis, anthro-griposis multiplex, von Gierke's disease, central core disease, chronical polymyositis and dermatomyositis, thyrotoxic myopathy and menopausal dys- trophy. The importance of muscle biopsy in the differential diagnosis is emphasized.

  1. Pulmonary Endpoints in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. A Workshop Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finder, Jonathan; Mayer, Oscar Henry; Sheehan, Daniel; Sawnani, Hemant; Abresch, R Ted; Benditt, Joshua; Birnkrant, David J; Duong, Tina; Henricson, Erik; Kinnett, Kathi; McDonald, Craig M; Connolly, Anne M

    2017-08-15

    Development of novel therapeutics for treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) has led to clinical trials that include pulmonary endpoints that allow assessment of respiratory muscle status, especially in nonambulatory subjects. Parent Project Muscular Dystrophy (PPMD) convened a workshop in Bethesda, Maryland, on April 14 and 15, 2016, to summarize published respiratory data in DMD and give guidance to clinical researchers assessing the effect of interventions on pulmonary outcomes in DMD.

  2. Muscle Dysmorphia and the Perception of Men's Peer Muscularity Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Linda; DeCusati, Frank

    2016-11-01

    Research suggests that peer muscularity norms preferences are related to men's body image, but little information is known about how perceptions of specific peer group norms preferences are related to men's body image disturbances and specific health behaviors. This study investigated how men perceived the muscularity preferences of male, female, close, and distant peers and whether the perceptions of specific peer preferences were related to muscle dysmorphia and steroid use. Data on muscle dysmorphia and the perceptions of peer muscularity norms were collected from 117 male college students. Results indicated that men perceived distant and male peers as having the most exaggerated preferences for muscularity and that those perceptions were not an accurate reflection of their distant male peers' reported preferences. Results also indicated that perceptions of close female peer muscularity preferences were predictive of symptoms of muscle dysmorphia, but this relationship did not exist for other peer groups, suggesting that the perceptions of close female peer preferences may play a role in the development of muscle dysmorphia. No relationship was found between perceptions of peer muscularity preferences and steroid use. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Oxidative muscular injury and its relevance to hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asayama, K; Kato, K

    1990-01-01

    In experimental hyperthyroidism, acceleration of lipid peroxidation occurs in heart and slow-oxidative muscles, suggesting the contribution of reactive oxygen species to the muscular injury caused by thyroid hormones. This article reviews various models of oxidative muscular injury and considers the relevance of the accompanying metabolic derangements to thyrotoxic myopathy and cardiomyopathy, which are the major complications of hyperthyroidism. The muscular injury models in which reactive oxygen species are supposed to play a role are ischemia/reperfusion syndrome, exercise-induced myopathy, heart and skeletal muscle diseases related to the nutritional deficiency of selenium and vitamin E and related disorders, and genetic muscular dystrophies. These models provide evidence that mitochondrial function and the glutathione-dependent antioxidant system are important for the maintenance of the structural and functional integrity of muscular tissues. Thyroid hormones have a profound effect on mitochondrial oxidative activity, synthesis and degradation of proteins and vitamin E, the sensitivity of the tissues to catecholamine, the differentiation of muscle fibers, and the levels of antioxidant enzymes. The large volume of circumstantial evidence presented here indicates that hyperthyroid muscular tissues undergo several biochemical changes that predispose them to free radical-mediated injury.

  4. Quantitative analysis of muscular wastings of lower limbs in Duchenne muscular dystrophy by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horikawa, Hirosei; Konagaya, Masaaki; Takayanagi, Tetsuya; Otsuji, Hideaki

    1985-01-01

    We quantitatively evaluated the muscular wastings of lower extremities in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) by computed tomography (CT). The subjects were 21 cases of DMD (an ambulant case and 20 wheelchair-ridden cases, ages ranging from 10 to 21 years old) and 4 control males. The CT scan was carried out at the mid-level between lesser trochanter and medial condyle of femur and the largest diameter level of lower leg. The density and the cross-sectional area of each muscle were measured on the CT image. The average CT number of normal muscle was varying from 40 to 60, as well as that of fat was -115. Then we calculated CT index of each muscle denoted as follows: CT index = [average CT number of muscle-(-115)] X(cross-sectional area of each muscle). The measurements of muscle strength and serum CK level were performed and their relationships to CT index were examined. The results were achieved as follows: 1) Wheelchair-ridden cases with DMD showed severe decrease in the average CT number and the CT index of each muscle with normal controls. With progression, the average CT number and the CT index were reduced. But gracilis muscle and sartorius muscle were relatively spared in comparison with other muscles. 2) There was positive correlation between the CT index and the muscle strength in triceps surae muscle, hamstrings muslce and quardriceps femoris muscle. 3) The CT index of whole thigh muscles and that of whole lower leg muscles were highly correlated to serum CK level. These results suggest that the quantitative analysis of muscle CT is an useful measurement for assessement of muscular wastings in DMD. (author)

  5. EFFECT OF MUSCLE ENERGY TECHNIQUE ON FLEXIBILITY OF HAMSTRING AND CALF MUSCLES AND SPRINTING PERFORMANCE IN SPRINTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prasad Naik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Muscle energy technique is used for restoring normal tone in hypertonic muscles, strengthening weak muscles, preparing muscle for subsequent stretching, one of the main uses of this method is to normalize joint range which may help in increase flexibility and performance in sprinters. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of muscle energy technique on flexibility of hamstrings and calf muscles and sprinting performance in sprinters. The objective of the study is to determine the muscle energy technique on hamstrings and calf muscle flexibility and sprinting performance in sprinters by using goniometer and timing of sprinting performance. Method: The study design is an experimental study in which 30 male sprinters were recruited in this study. The study sample included all male healthy sprinters, aged between 15 -30 years. All subjects received warm up, muscle energy technique and cool down exercises daily for a period of 6weeks.The outcome measures are 90°-90°popliteal angle for assessing hamstring flexibility and ROM of ankle joint for calf muscles by universal goniometer and sprinting performance time by using stopwatch. Results: Independent t-test and paired t- test are used to analyse the data. A significant difference was found between pre and post values of hamstring and calf muscle flexibility and sprinting performance after the analysis in this study. Conclusion: This study shows that there was a significant effect of MET on hamstring and calf muscle flexibility and sprinting performance.

  6. Performance of Angus and Brangus cow-calf pairs grazing Alicia bermudagrass and common bermudagrass-dallisgrass pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, W E; Gates, R N; Blouin, D C; Saxton, A M; Nelson, B D

    1997-07-01

    This research was designed to examine genotype x environment interactions in cow-calf growth performance of grazing animals. Angus and Brangus cow-calf pairs (minimum of six per breed) were allowed to rotationally graze (14-d intervals) treatment pastures from approximately May through early October in each of 2 yr. Treatment pastures contained relatively pure stands of Alicia bermudagrass (AP) or a mixed stand of common bermudagrass and dallisgrass (CDP). Forage allowance was equalized, using "put-and-take" cow-calf pairs, among forage and breed types at the initiation of each 14-d grazing interval. Forage samples were obtained in each paddock at the initiation of each grazing interval. Forage CP concentration was greater (P < .05; 13.5 vs 11.6%) and NDF concentration was less (P < .05; 63.8 vs 70.6%) for CDP than for AP. Daily weight loss was similar for Angus and Brangus cows, but it was greater (P < .05) for cows grazing AP than for cows grazing CDP. Calf ADG during the grazing season was 35% greater (P < .05) for CDP than for AP pastures and was 23% greater (P < .01) for Brangus than for Angus calves. Relative performance of Angus and Brangus cow-calf pairs was consistent between forages; no breed x forage interactions were observed.

  7. Genome-wide association for heifer reproduction and calf performance traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanno, Everestus C; Plastow, Graham; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn; Miller, Stephen P; Baron, Vern; Ominski, Kimberly; Basarab, John A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify SNP markers that associate with variation in beef heifer reproduction and performance of their calves. A genome-wide association study was performed by means of the generalized quasi-likelihood score (GQLS) method using heifer genotypes from the BovineSNP50 BeadChip and estimated breeding values for pre-breeding body weight (PBW), pregnancy rate (PR), calving difficulty (CD), age at first calving (AFC), calf birth weight (BWT), calf weaning weight (WWT), and calf pre-weaning average daily gain (ADG). Data consisted of 785 replacement heifers from three Canadian research herds, namely Brandon Research Centre, Brandon, Manitoba, University of Alberta Roy Berg Kinsella Ranch, Kinsella, Alberta, and Lacombe Research Centre, Lacombe, Alberta. After applying a false discovery rate correction at a 5% significance level, a total of 4, 3, 3, 9, 6, 2, and 1 SNPs were significantly associated with PBW, PR, CD, AFC, BWT, WWT, and ADG, respectively. These SNPs were located on chromosomes 1, 5-7, 9, 13-16, 19-21, 24, 25, and 27-29. Chromosomes 1, 5, and 24 had SNPs with pleiotropic effects. New significant SNPs that impact functional traits were detected, many of which have not been previously reported. The results of this study support quantitative genetic studies related to the inheritance of these traits, and provides new knowledge regarding beef cattle quantitative trait loci effects. The identification of these SNPs provides a starting point to identify genes affecting heifer reproduction traits and performance of their calves (BWT, WWT, and ADG). They also contribute to a better understanding of the biology underlying these traits and will be potentially useful in marker- and genome-assisted selection and management.

  8. The influence of protein free calf blood extract eye gel on dry eye after pterygium surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Ni Ji

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the influence of protein free calf blood extract eye gel on dry eye after pterygium surgery. METHODS: Thirty six patients(40 eyeswith primary nasal pterygium were enrolled in this study, which were divided into study group and control group randomly, with 20 eyes in each group. All patients received pterygium excision and limbal stem cell autograft surgery and tobramicin dexamethasone eye drops after surgery. Patients of the study group received protein free calf blood extract eye gel while those of the control group received 0.1% sodium hyaluronate eye drops furthermore. Ocular surface disease index(OSDIquestionnaire, tear film break-up time(BUTand Schirmer's Ⅰ test Ⅰ(SⅠtwere carried before and 3 months after surgery to evaluate the dry eye degree of the patients. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference between the age, gender and size of the pterygium of the study and control groups preoperatively. There was no statistical difference between the OSDI(2.33±1.02 vs 2.32±0.93, BUT(8.80±2.48 vs 8.35±2.28seconds and SⅠt(4.30±2.30 vs 4.40±2.44of the two groups preoperatively. There was statistical difference between the OSDI(1.45±0.47 vs 1.81±0.60, BUT(11.20±2.07 vs 9.50±2.40seconds and SⅠt(8.35±3.13 vs 6.35±2.18of the two groups 3 months postoperatively, which was also different from that of the preoperative data correspondingly. CONCLUSION: Protein free calf blood extract eye gel could reduce the dry eye after pterygium surgery.

  9. Environmental Decision Analysis: Meeting the Challenges of Making Good Decisions at CALFED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire D Tomkins

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a methodology to support decision making at CALFED based on the principles of decision analysis, an analytical approach to decision making designed to handle complex decisions involving both uncertainty and multiple dimensions of value. The impetus for such an approach is a recognized need to enhance communication between scientists and management and between program elements within CALFED. In addition, the environmental decision analysis framework supports both the explicit representation of uncertainty in the decision problem and communication about risk, important elements of most environmental management decisions. The decision analysis cycle consists of four phases: 1 formulate, 2 evaluate, 3 appraise, and 4 decide. In phase one, we identify the objectives and also the alternatives, or possible actions. To facilitate inter-comparison between proposed actions, we recommend formulation of a set of common metrics for CALFED. In our pilot study, we introduced common metrics for salinity, winter-run Chinook salmon survival, and habitat health. The second phase focuses on quantifying possible impacts on the set of metrics, drawing on existing data, model runs, and expert opinions. For the evaluation phase, we employ tools such as decision trees to assess the system-wide impacts of a given action. In the final phase, tools such as expected cost-benefit analysis, value contribution diagrams, and 3-D tradeoff plots aid communication between various stakeholders, scientists, and managers. While decision analysis provides a spectrum of decision support tools, we emphasize that it does not dictate a solution but rather enhances communication about tradeoffs associated with different actions.

  10. Calf Augmentation and Restoration: Long-Term Results and the Review of the Reported Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niechajev, Igor; Krag, Christen

    2017-10-01

    Augmentation or reconstruction of the calves is indicated in patients with thin legs, for bodybuilders, or when there is a defect after an injury or illness. The principle of placing implants under the investing crural fascia was worked out in the 1980s. The senior author (I.N.) introduced many technical modifications and improvements for this operation, among them the new instrument, an inserter for the calf implants. Presented patient material is unique in that the more challenging reconstructive cases almost equal the numbers of the aesthetic cases. During the years 1991 through 2016, 50 patients underwent 60 calf contour corrections. Indications were aesthetic in 23 patients, six were bodybuilders, and 21 underwent lower leg reconstruction because of deformity caused by illness. According to evaluation by the surgeon, excellent-to-good results were obtained in 30 out of 37 followed patients. Patients rated their results as very good (18), good (10), acceptable (7) and bad (2). One 28-year-old professional bodybuilder sustained acute anterior compartment syndrome in one leg. Implants were removed 16 h after surgery, but he developed ischaemia in the anterior compartment leading to the necrosis of muscles. After several surgical operations, including microsurgical transfer of the innervated central caput of the quadriceps femoris muscle, he could resume his bodybuilding activities. Other complications were minor and manageable. Calf augmentation, performed properly, has evolved to be a safe, efficient and aesthetically pleasing operation. The possibility of acute compartment syndrome should be kept in mind. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  11. Forced oscillation technique in spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauld, Leanne M; Keeling, Lucy A; Shackleton, Claire E; Sly, Peter D

    2014-09-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) causes respiratory compromise that is difficult to assess in young children. The forced oscillation technique (FOT) is commercially available for children as young as 2 years of age and is nonvolitional. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of FOT in young children with SMA. Children with SMA aged resistance at 8 Hz (Rrs8) (mean z score, +0.66; SD, 1.34; P = .12) were abnormal. Four children performed spirometry. Linear relationships to Xrs8 exist: FVC (R2, 0.54), unassisted PCF (R2, 0.33), assisted PCF (R2, 0.43), and AHI (R2, 0.32). Over 12 months, Xrs8z score worsened (rate of change of +1.08, P change +0.51, P .05) was found between clinical characteristics and FOT values. FOT is feasible in young children with SMA, with abnormal values of reactance and resistance on grouped data, worsening over 12 months. Xrs8 is related to respiratory tests used to monitor progress in SMA (FVC, PCF, AHI). Further research on the value of FOT in managing individuals is warranted.

  12. Optimizing Bone Health in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason L. Buckner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by progressive muscle weakness, with eventual loss of ambulation and premature death. The approved therapy with corticosteroids improves muscle strength, prolongs ambulation, and maintains pulmonary function. However, the osteoporotic impact of chronic corticosteroid use further impairs the underlying reduced bone mass seen in DMD, leading to increased fragility fractures of long bones and vertebrae. These serious sequelae adversely affect quality of life and can impact survival. The current clinical issues relating to bone health and bone health screening methods in DMD are presented in this review. Diagnostic studies, including biochemical markers of bone turnover and bone mineral density by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, as well as spinal imaging using densitometric lateral spinal imaging, and treatment to optimize bone health in patients with DMD are discussed. Treatment with bisphosphonates offers a method to increase bone mass in these children; oral and intravenous bisphosphonates have been used successfully although treatment is typically reserved for children with fractures and/or bone pain with low bone mass by DXA.

  13. Bilateral idiopathic calf muscle hypertrophy: an exceptional cause of unsightly leg curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlin, C; Chaput, B; Rivier, F; Doucet, J C; Bigorre, M; Captier, G

    2015-04-01

    The authors present the management of a young female patient who presented with longstanding bilateral calf muscle hypertrophy, with no known cause. Taking into account the patient's wishes and the fact that the hypertrophy was mainly located in the posteromedial compartment, we chose to carry out a subtotal bilateral resection of medial gastrocnemius muscles. This procedure was performed with an harmonic scalpel, permitting a excellent cosmetic result while avoiding complications or functional impairment. After a reviewing of the commonly used techniques, the authors discuss the chosen surgical approach taking into account its clinical particularity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Maternal body size and condition determine calf growth rates in southern right whales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Fredrik; Vivier, Fabien; Charlton, Claire

    2018-01-01

    The cost of reproduction is a key parameter determining a species' life history strategy. Despite exhibiting some of the fastest offspring growth rates among mammals, the cost of reproduction in baleen whales is largely unknown since standard field metabolic techniques cannot be applied. We...... quantified the cost of reproduction for southern right whales Eubalaena australis over a 3 mo breeding season. We did this by determining the relationship between calf growth rate and maternal rate of loss in energy reserves, using repeated measurements of body volume obtained from unmanned aerial vehicle...... period, and highlights the importance of sufficient maternal energy reserves for reproduction in this capital breeding species....

  15. Estimation of normal hydration in dialysis patients using whole body and calf bioimpedance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Fansan; Kotanko, Peter; Handelman, Garry J; Raimann, Jochen G; Liu, Li; Carter, Mary; Kuhlmann, Martin K; Seibert, Eric; Levin, Nathan W; Leonard, Edward F

    2011-01-01

    Prescription of an appropriate dialysis target weight (dry weight) requires accurate evaluation of the degree of hydration. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a state of normal hydration (DW cBIS ) as defined by calf bioimpedance spectroscopy (cBIS) and conventional whole body bioimpedance spectroscopy (wBIS) could be characterized in hemodialysis (HD) patients and normal subjects (NS). wBIS and cBIS were performed in 62 NS (33 m/29 f) and 30 HD patients (16 m/14 f) pre- and post-dialysis treatments to measure extracellular resistance and fluid volume (ECV) by the whole body and calf bioimpedance methods. Normalized calf resistivity (ρ N,5 ) was defined as resistivity at 5 kHz divided by the body mass index. The ratio of wECV to total body water (wECV/TBW) was calculated. Measurements were made at baseline (BL) and at DW cBIS following the progressive reduction of post-HD weight over successive dialysis treatments until the curve of calf extracellular resistance is flattened (stabilization) and the ρ N,5 was in the range of NS. Blood pressures were measured pre- and post-HD treatment. ρ N,5 in males and females differed significantly in NS. In patients, ρ N,5 notably increased with progressive decrease in body weight, and systolic blood pressure significantly decreased pre- and post-HD between BL and DW cBIS respectively. Although wECV/TBW decreased between BL and DW cBIS , the percentage of change in wECV/TBW was significantly less than that in ρ N,5 (−5.21 ± 3.2% versus 28 ± 27%, p < 0.001). This establishes the use of ρ N,5 as a new comparator allowing a clinician to incrementally monitor removal of extracellular fluid from patients over the course of dialysis treatments. The conventional whole body technique using wECV/TBW was less sensitive than the use of ρ N,5 to measure differences in body hydration between BL and DW cBIS

  16. On the Formation of Thymine Photodimers in Thymine Single Strands and Calf Thymus DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Lisbeth Munksgård; Hoffmann, S.V.; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted

    2014-01-01

    a principal component analysis of the CD spectra, we extract fingerprint spectra of both the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and the pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoadduct (64PP). Extending the CD measurements to the vacuum ultraviolet region in combination with systematic examinations of size effects...... of terminal thymines, i.e., the reaction does not occur preferentially at the extremities of the single strands as previously stated. It is even possible to form two dimers with only two bridging thymines. Finally, experiments conducted on calf thymus DNA provided a similar signature of the photodimer...

  17. Foot Drop after Ethanol Embolization of Calf Vascular Malformation: A Lesson on Nerve Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tay, Vincent Khwee-Soon; Mohan, P. Chandra; Liew, Wendy Kein Meng; Mahadev, Arjandas; Tay, Kiang Hiong

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol is often used in sclerotherapy to treat vascular malformations. Nerve injury is a known complication of this procedure. However, the management of this complication is not well described in literature. This case describes a 10-year-old boy with a slow flow vascular malformation in the right calf who underwent transarterial ethanol embolization following prior unsuccessful direct percutaneous sclerotherapy. The development of a dense foot drop that subsequently recovered is described, and the management of this uncommon but distressful complication is discussed

  18. Foot Drop after Ethanol Embolization of Calf Vascular Malformation: A Lesson on Nerve Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tay, Vincent Khwee-Soon, E-mail: vincentkstay@gmail.com [Singapore General Hospital, Department of Plastic, Reconstructive, and Aesthetic Surgery (Singapore); Mohan, P. Chandra, E-mail: chandra.mohan@sgh.com.sg [Singapore General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore); Liew, Wendy Kein Meng, E-mail: wendy.liew.km@kkh.com.sg [KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatrics (Neurology Service) (Singapore); Mahadev, Arjandas, E-mail: arjandas.mahadev@kkh.com.sg [KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery (Singapore); Tay, Kiang Hiong, E-mail: tay.kiang.hiong@sgh.com.sg [Singapore General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore)

    2013-08-01

    Ethanol is often used in sclerotherapy to treat vascular malformations. Nerve injury is a known complication of this procedure. However, the management of this complication is not well described in literature. This case describes a 10-year-old boy with a slow flow vascular malformation in the right calf who underwent transarterial ethanol embolization following prior unsuccessful direct percutaneous sclerotherapy. The development of a dense foot drop that subsequently recovered is described, and the management of this uncommon but distressful complication is discussed.

  19. New photo-convertible reactions of blue-fluorescent calf α-crystallin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, E.

    1979-01-01

    Both native blue fluorescent α-crystalline from calf lenses and UV (300 nm)-irradiated blue-fluorescent α-crystalline, when further irradiated with 365 nm-UV light, produce photo-products capable of emitting a new fluorescence at 455 nm. Illumination of the photo-products with 420 nm visible light regenerates the original fluorescence at 420-425 nm. In addition, another fluorescence at 400 nm has also been found in UV (300 nm)-irradiated blue-fluorescent α-crystallin, when exposed to 365 nm-UV light. (author)

  20. Effects of repeated transport on Holstein calf post-transport behavior and feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams-Progar, A L; Friend, T H; Holub, G A; Krenek, A J; Garey, S M; Terrill, C L

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have determined that stress causes decreases in feed intake and efficiency in livestock, but the effect of repeated transport on these parameters has not been well studied. This study determined how repeated transport affected calf post-transport behavior, feed intake, ADG, and feed conversion. Thirty-six 4-mo-old Holstein steer calves were housed in groups of 6 with each group randomly assigned to either transport or control treatments. Each calf was assigned to an individual Calan gate feeder and feed intake was recorded daily. Transport calves were transported for 6 h in their groups in a 7.3 by 2.4 m gooseneck trailer divided into 3 compartments, at an average density of 0.87 m/calf, every 7 d for 5 consecutive weeks. After return to their home pens, behavior was recorded for transported calves at 5-min intervals for 1 h. Calf ADG and feed conversion were analyzed in a mixed model ANOVA, whereas feed intake was analyzed as a repeated measure in a mixed model ANOVA. Post-transport, calves followed a pattern of drinking, eating, and then lying down. The highest (82 ± 5% calves) and lowest (0 ± 5% calves) incidences of eating behavior occurred 10 and 60 min post-transport, respectively. Control calves had a higher feed intake than transported calves overall (7.29 ± 0.22 kg for control and 6.91 ± 0.21 kg for transport; = 0.01), for the feeding posttreatment (6.78 ± 0.27 kg for control and 6.01 ± 0.28 kg for transport; = 0.007), and the day after treatment (7.83 ± 0.23 kg for control and 7.08 ± 0.15 kg for transport; = 0.02). Feed intake for the feeding post-transport for transport calves significantly decreased after the second transport but increased with each successive transport ( < 0.0001). Overall, control calves had higher ADG than transported calves (1.34 ± 0.13 kg/d for control and 1.15 ± 0.12 kg/d for transport; = 0.006). No significant difference ( = 0.12) between treatments was detected for feed conversion. These results

  1. Brain abscess in a Japanese Black calf: Utility of computed tomography (CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khodery, S.; Yamada, K.; Aoki, D.; Kamio, K.; Kishimoto, M.; Shimizu, J.; Kobayashi, Y.; Ishii, M.; Inokuma, H.; Yamauchi, S.; Matsui, T.

    2008-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was used for diagnosis of brain abscess in a 6-month-old, Japanese Black calf presented with neurological dysfunction, compulsive circling and vision disturbance. CT images showed asymmetric lateral ventricles, and presence of intra-cranial multiple low absorption lesions surrounded by capsule suggestive of abscess in the right cerebral hemisphere. Postmortem examination revealed marked swelling of right cerebral hemisphere and olfactory bulb. Multilocular large abscess containing creamy pus was found to occupy most area of periventricular and lateral ventricle. Fusobacterium necrophrum was isolated from the abscess contents as the causative agent. These results demonstrate that CT is useful tool for tentative diagnosis of bovine brain abscess

  2. Gene Expression Profiling in Slow-Type Calf Soleus Muscle of 30 Days Space-Flown Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Gambara

    Full Text Available Microgravity exposure as well as chronic disuse are two main causes of skeletal muscle atrophy in animals and humans. The antigravity calf soleus is a reference postural muscle to investigate the mechanism of disuse-induced maladaptation and plasticity of human and rodent (rats or mice skeletal musculature. Here, we report microgravity-induced global gene expression changes in space-flown mouse skeletal muscle and the identification of yet unknown disuse susceptible transcripts found in soleus (a mainly slow phenotype but not in extensor digitorum longus (a mainly fast phenotype dorsiflexor as functional counterpart to soleus. Adult C57Bl/N6 male mice (n = 5 flew aboard a biosatellite for 30 days on orbit (BION-M1 mission, 2013, a sex and age-matched cohort were housed in standard vivarium cages (n = 5, or in a replicate flight habitat as ground control (n = 5. Next to disuse atrophy signs (reduced size and myofiber phenotype I to II type shift as much as 680 differentially expressed genes were found in the space-flown soleus, and only 72 in extensor digitorum longus (only 24 genes in common compared to ground controls. Altered expression of gene transcripts matched key biological processes (contractile machinery, calcium homeostasis, muscle development, cell metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress response. Some transcripts (Fzd9, Casq2, Kcnma1, Ppara, Myf6 were further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Besides previous reports on other leg muscle types we put forth for the first time a complete set of microgravity susceptible gene transcripts in soleus of mice as promising new biomarkers or targets for optimization of physical countermeasures and rehabilitation protocols to overcome disuse atrophy conditions in different clinical settings, rehabilitation and spaceflight.

  3. Validity of soft-tissue thickness of calf measured using MRI for assessing unilateral lower extremity lymphoedema secondary to cervical and endometrial cancer treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Qing; Li, Yulai; Chen, Tian-Wu; Yao, Yuan; Zhao, Zizhou; Li, Yang; Xu, Jianrong; Jiang, Zhaohua; Hu, Jiani

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether soft-tissue thickness of the calf measured using MRI could be valid for assessing unilateral lower extremity lymphoedema (LEL) secondary to cervical and endometrial cancer treatments. Materials and methods: Seventy women with unilateral LEL and 25 without LEL after cervical or endometrial cancer treatments underwent MRI examinations of their calves. Total thickness of soft-tissue (TT), muscle thickness (MT), and subcutaneous tissue thickness (STT) of the calf, and the difference between the affected and contralateral unaffected calf regarding TT (DTT), MT (DMT), and STT (DSTT) were obtained using fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging in the middle of the calves. The volume of the calf and difference in volume (DV) between calves were obtained by the method of water displacement. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the validity of MRI measurements by volume measurements in staging LEL. Results: There was a close correlation between volume and TT for the affected (r = 0.927) or unaffected calves (r = 0.896). STT of the affected calf, and DTT or DSTT of the calves were closely correlated with volume of the affected calf or DV of the calves (all p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed significant differences in TT, STT, volume of the affected calf, DTT, DSTT, and DV between stages except in volume of the affected calf or in DV between stage 0 and 1. For staging LEL, DSTT showed the best discrimination ability among all the parameters. Conclusions: Soft-tissue thickness of the calf measured at MRI could be valid for quantitatively staging unilateral LEL, and DSTT of the calves could be the best classifying factor. - Highlights: • The soft tissue thickness of calves on MRI could quantitatively assess secondary LEL. • Calf soft tissue thickness indicated concurrent or construct validity of calf volume. • The difference of subcutaneous tissue thickness of calves could be used to stage LEL

  4. Isolated tear of the tendon to the medial head of gastrocnemius presenting as a painless lump in the calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watura, Christopher; Harries, William

    2009-01-01

    We report on a case of isolated tear of the medial head of gastrocnemius tendon. The patient presented with a painless lump in the right calf and denied any prior history of trauma or strain to the leg. A longitudinal split of the tendon was demonstrated at ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There were no other abnormalities and the gastrocnemius muscle was normal. There are no reports in the literature of isolated gastrocnemius tendon tear. To date the calf muscle complex injury described in this area is tearing of the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle, sometimes referred to as "tennis leg". We conclude that an isolated tear of the tendon to the medial head of gastrocnemius should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a lump or swelling in the upper medial area of the calf and we recommend ultrasound or MRI as the investigations of choice.

  5. Occurrence of hypospadias in a 2 month old male Holstein calf along with cryptorchidism and umbilical hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    akbar arfaei akhoole

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypospadias is a congenital problem reported in dogs, sheep and goats and occurrence of this anomaly in calves is rare. In fact, hypospadias is congenital absence of the urethra. In October 2015, a client attended the veterinary clinic for treatment of a 2 month old calf. Physical examination was performed following anamnesis. Vital signs including heart and respiratory rates, body temperature and peristaltic movements of the gastrointestinal system were normal. Examination of the urinary system revealed aplasia of the urethra at the perineum from beneath the rectum to the end of the penis and the calf was diagnosed with hypospadias. Physical examination also revealed the presence of an umbilical hernia with diameter of 6 cm and cryptorchidism. After diagnosis, the defect was corrected by surgical method to alleviate its side effects. Six months after surgical correction, the calf had satisfactory growth rate.

  6. Serum Creatinine Level: A Supplemental Index to Distinguish Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy from Becker Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huili Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To improve assessment of dystrophinopathy, the aim of this study was to identify whether serum creatinine (Crn level reflects disease severity. Methods. Biochemical, Vignos score, and genetic data were collected on 212 boys with dystrophinopathy. Results. Serum Crn level had a strong inverse correlation with Vignos score by simple correlation (r=-0.793 and partial correlation analysis after adjustment for age, height, and weight (r=-0.791; both P<0.01. Serum Crn level was significantly higher in patients with in-frame than out-of-frame mutations (Z=-4.716, P<0.01 and in Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD patients than Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD patients at ages 4, 5, 7, and 9 yr (all P<0.0125. After adjusting for age, height, and weight, BMD patients still had a significantly higher serum Crn level than DMD patients (β=7.140, t=6.277, P<0.01. Conclusions. Serum Crn level reflected disease severity and may serve as a supplemental index to distinguish DMD from BMD in clinical practice.

  7. [Specific features of Becker Muscular Dystrophy patients and female carriers of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magot, A; Mercier, S; Péréon, Y

    2015-12-01

    Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) was first described in 1955 and linked to the DMD gene in 1987. Compared to Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), clinical onset of BMD usually occurs after the age of 12 and wheelchair is required after the age of 16. BMD is characterized by generalized weakness first affecting limb girdle muscles, hypertrophy of the calves and cardiomyopathy in males. Some patients have only mild symptoms such as cramps or elevated serum creatine kinases (SCK) throughout all their lives. SCK levels are usually elevated. Muscle biopsy (immunohistochemistry or immunoblotting) shows a dystrophic pattern with abnormal dystrophin staining. Diagnosis is confirmed by DMD gene sequencing. Deletions or duplications of one or several exons are identified in the majority of cases. A multidisciplinary approach is recommended for the care management of these patients with a particular attention to the cardiomyopathy, which is typically responsible for death but can be prevented by specific treatment. X-linked dilated cardiomyopathies linked to DMD gene are a phenotypic continuum of BMD. Some female carriers of DMD mutations exhibit clinical symptoms of variable severity, often milder and beginning later than in males. The cardiomyopathy is the most frequent feature that should be especially monitored in these patients. Genetic counselling should be systematically proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. The pH heterogeneity in human calf muscle during neuromuscular electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzig, Norman; Rzanny, Reinhard; Moll, Kevin; Gussew, Alexander; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Siebert, Tobias

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to examine pH heterogeneity during fatigue induced by neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) using phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 31 P-MRS). It is hypothesized that three pH components would occur in the 31 P-MRS during fatigue, representing three fiber types. The medial gastrocnemius of eight subjects was stimulated within a 3-Tesla whole body MRI scanner. The maximal force during stimulation (F stim ) was examined by a pressure sensor. Phosphocreatine (PCr), adenosintriphosphate, inorganic phosphate (Pi), and the corresponding pH were estimated by a nonvolume-selective 31 P-MRS using a small loop coil at rest and during fatigue. During fatigue, F stim and PCr decreased to 27% and 33% of their initial levels, respectively. In all cases, the Pi peak increased when NMES was started and split into three different peaks. Based on the single Pi peaks during fatigue, an alkaline (6.76 ± 0.08), a medium (6.40 ± 0.06), and an acidic (6.09 ± 0.05) pH component were observed compared to the pH (7.02 ± 0.02) at rest. It is suggested that NMES is able to induce pH heterogeneity in the medial gastrocnemius, and that the single Pi peaks represent the different muscle fiber types of the skeletal muscle. Magn Reson Med 77:2097-2106, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  9. Feasibility of measuring thermoregulation during RF heating of the human calf muscle using MR based methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonis, Frank F J; Petersen, Esben T; Lagendijk, JJW; van den Berg, CAT

    PURPOSE: One of the main safety concerns in MR is heating of the subject due to radiofrequency (RF) exposure. Recently was shown that local peak temperatures can reach dangerous values and the most prominent parameter for accurate temperature estimations is thermoregulation. Therefore, the goal of

  10. Mitochondrial Respiration after One Session of Calf Raise Exercise in Patients with Peripheral Vascular Disease and Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaardenburgh, Michel; Wohlwend, Martin; Rognmo, Øivind; Mattsson, Erney J R

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential for energy production in the muscle cell and for this they are dependent upon a sufficient supply of oxygen by the circulation. Exercise training has shown to be a potent stimulus for physiological adaptations and mitochondria play a central role. Whether changes in mitochondrial respiration are seen after exercise in patients with a reduced circulation is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the time course and whether one session of calf raise exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration in the calf muscle of patients with peripheral vascular disease. One group of patients with peripheral vascular disease (n = 11) and one group of healthy older adults (n = 11) were included. Patients performed one session of continuous calf raises followed by 5 extra repetitions after initiation of pain. Healthy older adults performed 100 continuous calf raises. Gastrocnemius muscle biopsies were collected at baseline and 15 minutes, one hour, three hours and 24 hours after one session of calf raise exercise. A multi substrate (octanoylcarnitine, malate, adp, glutamate, succinate, FCCP, rotenone) approach was used to analyze mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized fibers. Mixed-linear model for repeated measures was used for statistical analyses. Patients with peripheral vascular disease have a lower baseline respiration supported by complex I and they increase respiration supported by complex II at one hour post-exercise. Healthy older adults increase respiration supported by electron transfer flavoprotein and complex I at one hour and 24 hours post-exercise. Our results indicate a shift towards mitochondrial respiration supported by complex II as being a pathophysiological component of peripheral vascular disease. Furthermore exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration already after one session of calf raise exercise in patients with peripheral vascular disease and healthy older adults. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01842412.

  11. A novel approach to sonographic examination in a patient with a calf muscle tear: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Carl PC

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Rupture of the distal musculotendinous junction of the medial head of the gastrocnemius, also known as "tennis leg", can be readily examined using a soft tissue ultrasound. Loss of muscle fiber continuity and the occurrence of bloody fluid accumulation can be observed using ultrasound with the patient in the prone position; however, some cases may have normal ultrasound findings in this conventional position. We report a case of a middle-aged man with tennis leg. Ultrasound examination had normal findings during the first two attempts. During the third attempt, with the patient's calf muscles examined in an unconventional knee flexed position, sonographic findings resembling tennis leg were detected. Case presentation A 60-year-old man in good health visited our rehabilitation clinic complaining of left calf muscle pain. On suspicion of a ruptured left medial head gastrocnemius muscle, a soft tissue ultrasound examination was performed. An ultrasound examination revealed symmetrical findings of bilateral calf muscles without evidence of muscle rupture. A roentgenogram of the left lower limb did not reveal any bony lesions. An ultrasound examination one week later also revealed negative sonographic findings. However, he still complained of persistent pain in his left calf area. A different ultrasound examination approach was then performed with the patient lying in the supine position with his knee flexed at 90 degrees. The transducer was then placed pointing upwards to examine the muscles and well-defined anechoic fluid collections with areas of hypoechoic surroundings were observed. Conclusion For patients suffering from calf muscle area pain and suspicion of tennis leg, a soft tissue ultrasound is a simple tool to confirm the diagnosis. However, in the case of negative sonographic findings, we recommend trying a different positional approach to examine the calf muscles by ultrasound before the diagnosis of tennis leg can

  12. A novel approach to sonographic examination in a patient with a calf muscle tear: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Carl Pc; Tang, Simon Ft; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Chen, Ruo Li; Hsu, Rex Ch; Wu, Chin-Wen; Chen, Max Jl

    2009-06-25

    Rupture of the distal musculotendinous junction of the medial head of the gastrocnemius, also known as "tennis leg", can be readily examined using a soft tissue ultrasound. Loss of muscle fiber continuity and the occurrence of bloody fluid accumulation can be observed using ultrasound with the patient in the prone position; however, some cases may have normal ultrasound findings in this conventional position. We report a case of a middle-aged man with tennis leg. Ultrasound examination had normal findings during the first two attempts. During the third attempt, with the patient's calf muscles examined in an unconventional knee flexed position, sonographic findings resembling tennis leg were detected. A 60-year-old man in good health visited our rehabilitation clinic complaining of left calf muscle pain. On suspicion of a ruptured left medial head gastrocnemius muscle, a soft tissue ultrasound examination was performed. An ultrasound examination revealed symmetrical findings of bilateral calf muscles without evidence of muscle rupture. A roentgenogram of the left lower limb did not reveal any bony lesions. An ultrasound examination one week later also revealed negative sonographic findings. However, he still complained of persistent pain in his left calf area. A different ultrasound examination approach was then performed with the patient lying in the supine position with his knee flexed at 90 degrees. The transducer was then placed pointing upwards to examine the muscles and well-defined anechoic fluid collections with areas of hypoechoic surroundings were observed. For patients suffering from calf muscle area pain and suspicion of tennis leg, a soft tissue ultrasound is a simple tool to confirm the diagnosis. However, in the case of negative sonographic findings, we recommend trying a different positional approach to examine the calf muscles by ultrasound before the diagnosis of tennis leg can be ruled out.

  13. The effect of calf neuromuscular electrical stimulation and intermittent pneumatic compression on thigh microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Shayan; Immins, Tikki; Wainwright, Thomas W

    2017-05-01

    This study compares the effectiveness of a neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) device and an intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) device on enhancing microcirculatory blood flow in the thigh of healthy individuals, when stimulation is carried out peripherally at the calf. Blood microcirculation of ten healthy individuals was recorded using laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) technique. A region of interest (ROI) was marked on each participant thigh. The mean flux within the ROI was calculated at four states: rest, NMES device with visible muscle actuation (VMA), NMES device with no visible muscle actuation (NVMA) and IPC device. Both NMES and IPC devices increased blood flow in the thigh when stimulation was carried out peripherally at the calf. The NMES device increased mean blood perfusion from baseline by 399.8% at the VMA state and 150.6% at the NVMA state, IPC device increased the mean blood perfusion by 117.3% from baseline. The NMES device at VMA state increased microcirculation by more than a factor of 3 in contrast to the IPC device. Even at the NVMA state, the NMES device increased blood flow by 23% more than the IPC device. Given the association between increased microcirculation and reduced oedema, NMES may be a more effective modality than IPC at reducing oedema, therefore further research is needed to explore this. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Electrically induced muscle cramps induce hypertrophy of calf muscles in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, M; Moser, M; Montag, J; McCourt, M; Tenner, D; Mester, J

    2015-06-01

    Skeletal muscles usually cramp at short lengths, where the tension that can be exerted by muscle fibers is low. Since high tension is an important anabolic stimulus, it is questionable if cramps can induce hypertrophy and strength gains. In the present study we investigated if electrically induced cramps (EIMCs) can elicit these adaptations. 15 healthy male adults were randomly assigned to an intervention (IG; n=10) and a control group (CG; n=5). The cramp protocol (CP) applied twice a week to one leg of the IG, consisted of 3x6 EIMCs, of 5 s each. Calf muscles of the opposite leg were stimulated equally, but were hindered from cramping by fixating the ankle at 0° plantar flexion (nCP). After six weeks, the cross sectional area of the triceps surae was similarly increased in both the CP (+9.0±3.4%) and the nCP (+6.8±3.7%). By contrast, force of maximal voluntary contractions, measured at 0° and 30° plantar flexion, increased significantly only in nCP (0°: +8.5±8.8%; 30°: 11.7±13.7%). The present data indicate that muscle cramps can induce hypertrophy in calf muscles, though lacking high tension as an important anabolic stimulus.

  15. A method for the estimation of hydration state during hemodialysis using a calf bioimpedance technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, F; Kuhlmann, M K; Kotanko, P; Seibert, E; Leonard, E F; Levin, N W

    2008-06-01

    Although many methods have been utilized to measure degrees of body hydration, and in particular to estimate normal hydration states (dry weight, DW) in hemodialysis (HD) patients, no accurate methods are currently available for clinical use. Biochemcial measurements are not sufficiently precise and vena cava diameter estimation is impractical. Several bioimpedance methods have been suggested to provide information to estimate clinical hydration and nutritional status, such as phase angle measurement and ratio of body fluid compartment volumes to body weight. In this study, we present a calf bioimpedance spectroscopy (cBIS) technique to monitor calf resistance and resistivity continuously during HD. Attainment of DW is defined by two criteria: (1) the primary criterion is flattening of the change in the resistance curve during dialysis so that at DW little further change is observed and (2) normalized resistivity is in the range of observation of healthy subjects. Twenty maintenance HD patients (12 M/8 F) were studied on 220 occasions. After three baseline (BL) measurements, with patients at their DW prescribed on clinical grounds (DW(Clin)), the target post-dialysis weight was gradually decreased in the course of several treatments until the two dry weight criteria outlined above were met (DW(cBIS)). Post-dialysis weight was reduced from 78.3 +/- 28 to 77.1 +/- 27 kg (p hydration status. Since no current techniques have been developed to detect DW as precisely, it is suggested as a standard to be evaluated clinically.

  16. Crosslinking and photoreaction of ozone-oxidized calf-lens alpha-crystallin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, E.

    1982-01-01

    Direct-photo-oxidation, singlet oxygen-oxidation, or photosensitized oxidation can modify lens crystallins, causing an increase in blue fluorescence and covalent crosslinking. A relationship between these changes has not been elucidated. We now report results from experiments with ozone oxidation. When calf-lens alpha-crystallin is treated with zone oxidation. When calf-lens alpha-crystallin is treated with ozone, new absorption, fluorescence, and phosphorescence, which are characteristic of the oxidized product of tryptophan (N-formylkynurenine), appear at 320, 435, and 445 nm, respectively. In addition, in this ozonization of alpha-crystallin, its polypeptides are crosslinked by nondisulfide bonds. Irradiation of ozone-treated alpha-crystallin with near-ultraviolet (365 nm) light increases crosslinking and reduces the 320 nm absorbance with a concomitant appearance of a new absorption at about 420 nm. This photoproduct exhibits an intense fluorescence around 450 nm and a weak phosphorescence at 510 nm, with excitation peaks at 400, 415, and 422 nm. These findings are essentially the same as those observed in photo-oxidized alpha-crystallin, suggesting the involvement of the same tryptophan oxidized product in the modification of the lens protein

  17. Production of a cloned calf from a fetal fibroblast cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello M.R.B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the in vitro and in vivo development of bovine nuclear-transferred embryos. A bovine fetal fibroblast culture was established and used as nucleus donor. Slaughterhouse oocytes were matured in vitro for 18 h before enucleation. Enucleated oocytes were fused with fetal fibroblasts with an electric stimulus and treated with cytochalasin D and cycloheximide for 1 h followed by cycloheximide alone for 4 h. Reconstructed embryos were cultured for 7-9 days and those which developed to blastocysts were transferred to recipient cows. Of 191 enucleated oocytes, 83 (43.5% were successfully fused and 24 (28.9% developed to blastocysts. Eighteen freshly cloned blastocysts were transferred to 14 recipients, 5 (27.8% of which were pregnant on day 35 and 3 (16.7% on day 90. Of the three cows that reached the third trimester, one recipient died of hydrallantois 2 months before term, one aborted fetus was recovered at 8 months of gestation, and one delivered by cesarian section a healthy cloned calf. Today, the cloned calf is 15 months old and presents normal body development (378 kg and sexual behavior (libido and semen characteristics.

  18. Interaction of a copper (II) complex containing an artificial sweetener (aspartame) with calf thymus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Khodaei, Mohammad Mehdi; Kashanian, Soheila; Kheirdoosh, Fahimeh

    2014-01-01

    A copper (II) complex containing aspartame (APM) as ligand, Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O, was synthesized and characterized. In vitro binding interaction of this complex with native calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was studied at physiological pH. The interaction was studied using different methods: spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric, competition experiment, circular dichroism (CD) and viscosimetric techniques. Hyperchromicity was observed in UV absorption band of Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O. A strong fluorescence quenching reaction of DNA to Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O was observed and the binding constants (Kf) and corresponding numbers of binding sites (n) were calculated at different temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (ΔH) and entropy change (ΔS) were calculated to be+89.3 kJ mol(-1) and+379.3 J mol(-1) K(-1) according to Van't Hoff equation which indicated that reaction is predominantly entropically driven. Experimental results from spectroscopic methods were comparable and further supported by viscosity measurements. We suggest that Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O interacts with calf thymus DNA via a groove interaction mode with an intrinsic binding constant of 8×10+4 M(-1). Binding of this copper complex to DNA was found to be stronger compared to aspartame which was studied recently. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A 1D pulse wave propagation model of the hemodynamics of calf muscle pump function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, J M T; Leguy, C A D; Huberts, W; Narracott, A J; Rittweger, J; van de Vosse, F N

    2015-07-01

    The calf muscle pump is a mechanism which increases venous return and thereby compensates for the fluid shift towards the lower body during standing. During a muscle contraction, the embedded deep veins collapse and venous return increases. In the subsequent relaxation phase, muscle perfusion increases due to increased perfusion pressure, as the proximal venous valves temporarily reduce the distal venous pressure (shielding). The superficial and deep veins are connected via perforators, which contain valves allowing flow in the superficial-to-deep direction. The aim of this study is to investigate and quantify the physiological mechanisms of the calf muscle pump, including the effect of venous valves, hydrostatic pressure, and the superficial venous system. Using a one-dimensional pulse wave propagation model, a muscle contraction is simulated by increasing the extravascular pressure in the deep venous segments. The hemodynamics are studied in three different configurations: a single artery-vein configuration with and without valves and a more detailed configuration including a superficial vein. Proximal venous valves increase effective venous return by 53% by preventing reflux. Furthermore, the proximal valves shielding function increases perfusion following contraction. Finally, the superficial system aids in maintaining the perfusion during the contraction phase and reduces the refilling time by 37%. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Relative strengths of the calf muscles based on MRI volume measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Clifford L; Thawait, Gaurav K; Kwon, John Y; Machado, Antonio; Boyle, James W; Campbell, John; Carrino, John A

    2012-05-01

    In 1985, Silver et al. published a cadaver study which determined the relative order of strength of the muscles in the calf. Muscle strength, which is proportional to volume, was obtained by dissecting out the individual muscles, weighing them, and then multiplying by the specific gravity. No similar studies have been performed using {\\it in vivo} measurements of muscle volume. Ten normal subjects underwent 3-Tesla MRI's of both lower extremities using non-fat-saturated T2 SPACE sequences. The volume for each muscle was determined by tracing the muscle contour on sequential axial images and then interpolating the volume using imaging software. The results from this study differ from Silver's original article. The lateral head of the gastrocnemius was found to be stronger than the tibialis anterior muscle. The FHL and EDL muscles were both stronger than the peroneus longus. There was no significant difference in strength between the peroneus longus and brevis muscles. This revised order of muscle strengths in the calf based on in vivo MRI findings may assist surgeons in determining the optimal tendons to transfer in order to address muscle weakness and deformity.