WorldWideScience

Sample records for human brain elasticity

  1. Are rapid changes in brain elasticity possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, K. J.

    2017-09-01

    Elastography of the brain is a topic of clinical and preclinical research, motivated by the potential for viscoelastic measures of the brain to provide sensitive indicators of pathological processes, and to assist in early diagnosis. To date, studies of the normal brain and of those with confirmed neurological disorders have reported a wide range of shear stiffness and shear wave speeds, even within similar categories. A range of factors including the shear wave frequency, and the age of the individual are thought to have a possible influence. However, it may be that short term dynamics within the brain may have an influence on the measured stiffness. This hypothesis is addressed quantitatively using the framework of the microchannel flow model, which derives the tissue stiffness, complex modulus, and shear wave speed as a function of the vascular and fluid network in combination with the elastic matrix that comprise the brain. Transformation rules are applied so that any changes in the fluid channels or the elastic matrix can be mapped to changes in observed elastic properties on a macroscopic scale. The results are preliminary but demonstrate that measureable, time varying changes in brain stiffness are possible simply by accounting for vasodynamic or electrochemical changes in the state of any region of the brain. The value of this preliminary exploration is to identify possible mechanisms and order-of-magnitude changes that may be testable in vivo by specialized protocols.

  2. Elastic behavior of brain simulants in comparison to porcine brain at different loading velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falland-Cheung, Lisa; Scholze, Mario; Hammer, Niels; Waddell, J Neil; Tong, Darryl C; Brunton, Paul A

    2018-01-01

    Blunt force impacts to the head and the resulting internal force transmission to the brain and other cranial tissue are difficult to measure. To model blunt force impact scenarios, the compressive properties resembling tissue elasticity are of importance. Therefore, this study investigated and compared the elastic behavior of gelatin, alginate, agar/glycerol and agar/glycerol/water simulant materials to that of porcine brain in a fresh and unfixed condition. Specimens, 10 × 10 × 10mm 3 , were fabricated and tested at 22°C, apart from gelatin which was conditioned to 4°C prior to testing. For comparison, fresh porcine brains were sourced and prepared to the same dimensions as the simulants. Specimens underwent compression tests at crosshead displacement rates of 2.5, 10 and 16mms -1 (equivalent to strain rates of 0.25, 1 and 1.6s -1 ), obtaining apparent elastic moduli values at different strain rate intervals (0-0.2, 0.2-0.4 and 0.4-0.5). The results of this study indicate that overall all simulant materials had an apparent elastic moduli similar in magnitude across all strain ranges compared to brain, even though comparatively higher, especially the apparent elastic moduli values of alginate. In conclusion, while agar/glycerol/water and agar/glycerol had similar apparent elastic moduli in magnitude and the closest apparent elastic moduli in the initial strain range (E 1 ), gelatin showed the most similar values to fresh porcine brain at the transitional (E 2 ) and higher strain range (E 3 ). The simulant materials and the fresh porcine brain exhibited strain rate dependent behavior, with increasing elastic moduli upon increasing loading velocities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Measurement of an Elasticity Map in the Human Cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikula, Eric R; Jester, James V; Juhasz, Tibor

    2016-06-01

    The biomechanical properties of the cornea have an important role in determining the shape of the cornea and visual acuity. Since the cornea is a nonhomogeneous tissue, it is thought that the elastic properties vary throughout the cornea. We aim to measure a map of corneal elasticity across the cornea. An acoustic radiation force elasticity microscope (ARFEM) was used to create a map of corneal elasticity in the human cornea. This ARFEM uses a low frequency, high intensity acoustic force to displace a femtosecond laser-generated microbubble, while using a high frequency, low intensity ultrasound to monitor the position of the microbubble within the cornea. From the displacement of the bubble and the magnitude of the acoustic radiation force, the local value of corneal elasticity is calculated in the direction of the displacement. Measurements were conducted at 6 locations, ranging from the central to peripheral cornea at anterior and posterior depths. The mean anterior elastic moduli were 4.2 ± 1.2, 3.4 ± 0.7, and 1.9 ± 0.7 kPa in the central, mid, and peripheral regions, respectively, while the posterior elastic moduli were 2.3 ± 0.7, 1.6 ± 0.3, and 2.9 ± 1.2 kPa in the same radial locations. We found that there is a unique distribution of elasticity axially and radially throughout the cornea.

  4. Determination of the modulus of elasticity of the human cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikh, Ahmed; Wang, Defu; Pye, David

    2007-10-01

    To determine the material behavior of the human cornea in the form of simple relationships between the modulus of elasticity and intraocular pressure (IOP) and to establish the effect of age on the material behavior. Human corneal specimens with age between 50 and 95 years were tested under inflation conditions to determine their behavior. The corneas were subjected to two extreme load rates to represent dynamic and static loading conditions. The pressure-deformation results were analyzed using shell theory to derive the relationship between the modulus of elasticity and IOP. The corneas demonstrated a nonlinear hyperelastic behavior pattern with an initial low stiffness stage and a final high stiffness stage. Despite the nonlinearity of the pressure deformation results, the relationship between the modulus of elasticity and the applied pressure was almost linear. A considerable increase was noted in the values of the modulus of elasticity associated with both age and load rate. General equations were derived to calculate the values of the secant and tangent moduli of elasticity in terms of IOP for any age greater than 50 years, and these equations are presented in a simple form suitable for use in numerical simulations. Adequate representation of corneal material behavior is essential for the accurate predictive modeling of corneal biomechanics. The material models developed in this work could be implemented in numerical simulations of refractive surgery procedures, corneal shape changes due to contact lens wear, and other applications.

  5. A family of hyperelastic models for human brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, L. Angela; Budday, Silvia; Holzapfel, Gerhard A.; Kuhl, Ellen; Goriely, Alain

    2017-09-01

    Experiments on brain samples under multiaxial loading have shown that human brain tissue is both extremely soft when compared to other biological tissues and characterized by a peculiar elastic response under combined shear and compression/tension: there is a significant increase in shear stress with increasing axial compression compared to a moderate increase with increasing axial tension. Recent studies have revealed that many widely used constitutive models for soft biological tissues fail to capture this characteristic response. Here, guided by experiments of human brain tissue, we develop a family of modeling approaches that capture the elasticity of brain tissue under varying simple shear superposed on varying axial stretch by exploiting key observations about the behavior of the nonlinear shear modulus, which can be obtained directly from the experimental data.

  6. Temperature-dependent elastic properties of brain tissues measured with the shear wave elastography method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Lin; Li, Guo-Yang; He, Ping; Mao, Ze-Qi; Cao, Yanping

    2017-01-01

    Determining the mechanical properties of brain tissues is essential in such cases as the surgery planning and surgical training using virtual reality based simulators, trauma research and the diagnosis of some diseases that alter the elastic properties of brain tissues. Here, we suggest a protocol to measure the temperature-dependent elastic properties of brain tissues in physiological saline using the shear wave elastography method. Experiments have been conducted on six porcine brains. Our results show that the shear moduli of brain tissues decrease approximately linearly with a slope of -0.041±0.006kPa/°C when the temperature T increases from room temperature (~23°C) to body temperature (~37°C). A case study has been further conducted which shows that the shear moduli are insensitive to the temperature variation when T is in the range of 37 to 43°C and will increase when T is higher than 43°C. With the present experimental setup, temperature-dependent elastic properties of brain tissues can be measured in a simulated physiological environment and a non-destructive manner. Thus the method suggested here offers a unique tool for the mechanical characterization of brain tissues with potential applications in brain biomechanics research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Educating the Human Brain. Human Brain Development Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.

    2006-01-01

    "Educating the Human Brain" is the product of a quarter century of research. This book provides an empirical account of the early development of attention and self regulation in infants and young children. It examines the brain areas involved in regulatory networks, their connectivity, and how their development is influenced by genes and…

  8. Viscoelastic parameter identification of human brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budday, S; Sommer, G; Holzapfel, G A; Steinmann, P; Kuhl, E

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the constitutive behavior of the human brain is critical to interpret the physical environment during neurodevelopment, neurosurgery, and neurodegeneration. A wide variety of constitutive models has been proposed to characterize the brain at different temporal and spatial scales. Yet, their model parameters are typically calibrated with a single loading mode and fail to predict the behavior under arbitrary loading conditions. Here we used a finite viscoelastic Ogden model with six material parameters-an elastic stiffness, two viscoelastic stiffnesses, a nonlinearity parameter, and two viscous time constants-to model the characteristic nonlinearity, conditioning, hysteresis and tension-compression asymmetry of the human brain. We calibrated the model under shear, shear relaxation, compression, compression relaxation, and tension for four different regions of the human brain, the cortex, basal ganglia, corona radiata, and corpus callosum. Strikingly, unconditioned gray matter with 0.36kPa and white matter with 0.35kPa were equally stiff, whereas conditioned gray matter with 0.52kPa was three times stiffer than white matter with 0.18kPa. While both unconditioned viscous time constants were larger in gray than in white matter, both conditioned constants were smaller. These rheological differences suggest a different porosity between both tissues and explain-at least in part-the ongoing controversy between reported stiffness differences in gray and white matter. Our unconditioned and conditioned parameter sets are readily available for finite element simulations with commercial software packages that feature Ogden type models at finite deformations. As such, our results have direct implications on improving the accuracy of human brain simulations in health and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Series elasticity of the human triceps surae muscle : Measurement by controlled-release vs. resonance methods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, AL; Boom, H; Robinson, C; Rutten, W; Neuman, M; Wijkstra, H

    1997-01-01

    With a newly developed Controlled-Release Ergometer the complete characteristic of the series elastic component can be measured in human muscles. Previous estimates were based on the resonance method: muscle elasticity was assessed from the resonance frequency of the muscle elasticity connected to a

  10. Ultrasound elasticity imaging of human posterior tibial tendon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liang

    Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) is a common degenerative condition leading to a severe impairment of gait. There is currently no effective method to determine whether a patient with advanced PTTD would benefit from several months of bracing and physical therapy or ultimately require surgery. Tendon degeneration is closely associated with irreversible degradation of its collagen structure, leading to changes to its mechanical properties. If these properties could be monitored in vivo, it could be used to quantify the severity of tendonosis and help determine the appropriate treatment. Ultrasound elasticity imaging (UEI) is a real-time, noninvasive technique to objectively measure mechanical properties in soft tissue. It consists of acquiring a sequence of ultrasound frames and applying speckle tracking to estimate displacement and strain at each pixel. The goals of my dissertation were to 1) use acoustic simulations to investigate the performance of UEI during tendon deformation with different geometries; 2) develop and validate UEI as a potentially noninvasive technique for quantifying tendon mechanical properties in human cadaver experiments; 3) design a platform for UEI to measure mechanical properties of the PTT in vivo and determine whether there are detectable and quantifiable differences between healthy and diseased tendons. First, ultrasound simulations of tendon deformation were performed using an acoustic modeling program. The effects of different tendon geometries (cylinder and curved cylinder) on the performance of UEI were investigated. Modeling results indicated that UEI accurately estimated the strain in the cylinder geometry, but underestimated in the curved cylinder. The simulation also predicted that the out-of-the-plane motion of the PTT would cause a non-uniform strain pattern within incompressible homogeneous isotropic material. However, to average within a small region of interest determined by principal component analysis (PCA

  11. Elastic Fibre System in the Shaft of Adult Human Penis | Gichangi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elastic fibres play a central role in functioning of the penis. Detailed animal studies have quantified elastic and collagen fibre content in rat and rabbit penis. Though rabbit model is similar to human penis, it is important to determine whether findings in rabbits are reproducible in humans. To determine the distribution and ...

  12. Mindboggling morphometry of human brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Forrest S.; Giard, Joachim; Stavsky, Eliezer; Lee, Noah; Rossa, Brian; Reuter, Martin; Chaibub Neto, Elias

    2017-01-01

    Mindboggle (http://mindboggle.info) is an open source brain morphometry platform that takes in preprocessed T1-weighted MRI data and outputs volume, surface, and tabular data containing label, feature, and shape information for further analysis. In this article, we document the software and demonstrate its use in studies of shape variation in healthy and diseased humans. The number of different shape measures and the size of the populations make this the largest and most detailed shape analysis of human brains ever conducted. Brain image morphometry shows great potential for providing much-needed biological markers for diagnosing, tracking, and predicting progression of mental health disorders. Very few software algorithms provide more than measures of volume and cortical thickness, while more subtle shape measures may provide more sensitive and specific biomarkers. Mindboggle computes a variety of (primarily surface-based) shapes: area, volume, thickness, curvature, depth, Laplace-Beltrami spectra, Zernike moments, etc. We evaluate Mindboggle’s algorithms using the largest set of manually labeled, publicly available brain images in the world and compare them against state-of-the-art algorithms where they exist. All data, code, and results of these evaluations are publicly available. PMID:28231282

  13. Measuring the linear and nonlinear elastic properties of brain tissue with shear waves and inverse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi; Li, Guoyang; Qian, Lin-Xue; Liang, Si; Destrade, Michel; Cao, Yanping

    2015-10-01

    We use supersonic shear wave imaging (SSI) technique to measure not only the linear but also the nonlinear elastic properties of brain matter. Here, we tested six porcine brains ex vivo and measured the velocities of the plane shear waves induced by acoustic radiation force at different states of pre-deformation when the ultrasonic probe is pushed into the soft tissue. We relied on an inverse method based on the theory governing the propagation of small-amplitude acoustic waves in deformed solids to interpret the experimental data. We found that, depending on the subjects, the resulting initial shear modulus [Formula: see text] varies from 1.8 to 3.2 kPa, the stiffening parameter [Formula: see text] of the hyperelastic Demiray-Fung model from 0.13 to 0.73, and the third- [Formula: see text] and fourth-order [Formula: see text] constants of weakly nonlinear elasticity from [Formula: see text]1.3 to [Formula: see text]20.6 kPa and from 3.1 to 8.7 kPa, respectively. Paired [Formula: see text] test performed on the experimental results of the left and right lobes of the brain shows no significant difference. These values are in line with those reported in the literature on brain tissue, indicating that the SSI method, combined to the inverse analysis, is an efficient and powerful tool for the mechanical characterization of brain tissue, which is of great importance for computer simulation of traumatic brain injury and virtual neurosurgery.

  14. Sexual differences of human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Pezeshki Rad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades there has been an increasing interest in studying the differences between males and females. These differences extend from behavioral to cognitive to micro- and macro- neuro-anatomical aspects of human biology. There have been many methods to evaluate these differences and explain their determinants. The most studied cause of this dimorphism is the prenatal sex hormones and their organizational effect on brain and behavior. However, there have been new and recent attentions to hormone's activational influences in puberty and also the effects of genomic imprinting. In this paper, we reviewed the sex differences of brain, the evidences for possible determinants of these differences and also the methods that have been used to discover them. We reviewed the most conspicuous findings with specific attention to macro-anatomical differences based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI data. We finally reviewed the findings and the many opportunities for future studies.

  15. Problems in hard and soft matter: From brain folds and Levy localization to active elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayett, David

    This thesis presents a study of condensed matter systems at different length scales. The first part presents a study of elastic instabilities in biological systems ranging from the cerebral cortex in the brain to the lining of the intestines. Such instabilities lead to a zoo of morphologies ranging from primary folds to villi and crypts to secondary folds and are brought about by growth, mechanical stresses, or a combination of the two. We propose a novel model for the description of primary folds in the cerebral cortex. Motivated by the spatial structure of the cortex, we model its elasticity as a smectic liquid crystal. With this novel description we show that vertical pulling forces via axonal tension from the brain underlying white matter can lead to buckling, which initiates the primary folds. Moreover, we are able to obtain a reasonable estimate of the critical wavelength and strain for buckling. We also model the formation of secondary folds in the cortex to obtain a more comprehensive theory. We continue this study of elastic instabilities due to growth by studying a more general system comprised of two coupled elastic membranes, one of which undergoes growth and one that does not. We employ an active formulation of growth and compare it to the one due to Rodriguez (Rodriguez). We show that different morphologies corresponding to different systems, such as the cerebral cortex and the lining of the intestines, can be obtained from our model by choosing different active stress functional forms to begin to classify the zoo of morphologies observed in seemingly different biological systems. In the second part of this thesis, to work towards a more microscopic view of biological tissues such as the brain tissue, which is composed of neurons, glial cells, and progenitor cells, we model an experiment (Theveneau) studying the dynamic interaction between neural crest cells and placodal cells in which the placodal cells run away from the neural crest cells following

  16. Contact modelling of human skin: what value to use for the modulus of elasticity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kuilenburg, Julien; Masen, Marc Arthur; van der Heide, Emile

    2012-01-01

    In modelling and understanding the contact and friction behaviour of human skin, the elastic modulus of the skin is an important input parameter. For the development of design rules for the engineering of surfaces in contact with the skin an expression that describes the relation between the elastic

  17. Brain mechanisms underlying human communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthijs L Noordzij

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Human communication has been described as involving the coding-decoding of a conventional symbol system, which could be supported by parts of the human motor system (i.e. the “mirror neurons system”. However, this view does not explain how these conventions could develop in the first place. Here we target the neglected but crucial issue of how people organize their non-verbal behavior to communicate a given intention without pre-established conventions. We have measured behavioral and brain responses in pairs of subjects during communicative exchanges occurring in a real, interactive, on-line social context. In two fMRI studies, we found robust evidence that planning new communicative actions (by a sender and recognizing the communicative intention of the same actions (by a receiver relied on spatially overlapping portions of their brains (the right posterior superior temporal sulcus. The response of this region was lateralized to the right hemisphere, modulated by the ambiguity in meaning of the communicative acts, but not by their sensorimotor complexity. These results indicate that the sender of a communicative signal uses his own intention recognition system to make a prediction of the intention recognition performed by the receiver. This finding supports the notion that our communicative abilities are distinct from both sensorimotor processes and language abilities.

  18. Brain evolution and human neuropsychology: the inferential brain hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscik, Timothy R; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    Collaboration between human neuropsychology and comparative neuroscience has generated invaluable contributions to our understanding of human brain evolution and function. Further cross-talk between these disciplines has the potential to continue to revolutionize these fields. Modern neuroimaging methods could be applied in a comparative context, yielding exciting new data with the potential of providing insight into brain evolution. Conversely, incorporating an evolutionary base into the theoretical perspectives from which we approach human neuropsychology could lead to novel hypotheses and testable predictions. In the spirit of these objectives, we present here a new theoretical proposal, the Inferential Brain Hypothesis, whereby the human brain is thought to be characterized by a shift from perceptual processing to inferential computation, particularly within the social realm. This shift is believed to be a driving force for the evolution of the large human cortex. (JINS, 2012, 18, 394-401).

  19. Brain Evolution and Human Neuropsychology: The Inferential Brain Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscik, Timothy R.; Tranel, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Collaboration between human neuropsychology and comparative neuroscience has generated invaluable contributions to our understanding of human brain evolution and function. Further cross-talk between these disciplines has the potential to continue to revolutionize these fields. Modern neuroimaging methods could be applied in a comparative context, yielding exciting new data with the potential of providing insight into brain evolution. Conversely, incorporating an evolutionary base into the theoretical perspectives from which we approach human neuropsychology could lead to novel hypotheses and testable predictions. In the spirit of these objectives, we present here a new theoretical proposal, the Inferential Brain Hypothesis, whereby the human brain is thought to be characterized by a shift from perceptual processing to inferential computation, particularly within the social realm. This shift is believed to be a driving force for the evolution of the large human cortex. PMID:22459075

  20. Distribution of Elastic Fibres in the Human Abdominal Linea Alba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The linea alba (LA) supports biomechanical stress generated by intra-abdominal pressure. It is believed to contain connective tissue fibres, which provide tensile strength and pliancy. Previous studies have dwelt on collagen fibres with scarce reports on elastic fibres. Biomechanical studies have shown that the LA has ...

  1. A micromechanics model of the elastic properties of human dentine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, J. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Balooch, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Marshall, G. W. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Restorative Dentistry; Marshall, S. J. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Restorative Dentistry

    1999-10-01

    A generalized self-consistent model of cylindrical inclusions in a homogeneous and isotropic matrix phase was used to study the effects of tubule orientation on the elastic properties of dentin. Closed form expressions for the five independent elastic constants of dentin were derived in terms of tubule concentration, and the Young's moduli and Poisson ratios of peri- and intertubular dentin. An atomic force microscope (AFM) indentation technique determined the Young's moduli of the peri- and intertubular dentin as approximately 30 GPa and 15 GPa, respectively. Over the natural variation in tubule density found in dentin, there was only a slight variation in the axial and transverse shear moduli with position in the tooth, and there was no measurable effect of tubule orientation. We conclude that tubule orientation has no appreciable effect on the elastic behavior of normal dentin, and that the elastic properties of healthy dentin can be modeled as an isotropic continuum with a Young's modulus of approximately 16 GPa and a shear modulus of 6.2 GPa.

  2. Computational Intelligence in a Human Brain Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Gaftea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the current trends in brain research domain and the current stage of development of research for software and hardware solutions, communication capabilities between: human beings and machines, new technologies, nano-science and Internet of Things (IoT devices. The proposed model for Human Brain assumes main similitude between human intelligence and the chess game thinking process. Tactical & strategic reasoning and the need to follow the rules of the chess game, all are very similar with the activities of the human brain. The main objective for a living being and the chess game player are the same: securing a position, surviving and eliminating the adversaries. The brain resolves these goals, and more, the being movement, actions and speech are sustained by the vital five senses and equilibrium. The chess game strategy helps us understand the human brain better and easier replicate in the proposed ‘Software and Hardware’ SAH Model.

  3. Analysis of sports related mTBI injuries caused by elastic wave propagation through brain tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Case

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive concussions and sub-concussions suffered by athletes have been linked to a series of sequelae ranging from traumatic encephalopathy to dementia pugilistica. A detailed finite element model of the human head was developed based on standard libraries of medical imaging. The model includes realistic material properties for the brain tissue, bone, soft tissue, and CSF, as well as the structure and properties of a protective helmet. Various impact scenarios were studied, with a focus on the strains/stresses and pressure gradients and concentrations created in the brain tissue due to propagation of waves produced by the impact through the complex internal structure of the human head. This approach has the potential to expand our understanding of the mechanism of brain injury, and to better assess the risk of delayed neurological disorders for tens of thousands of young athletes throughout the world.

  4. Internal strain estimation for quantification of human heel pad elastic modulus: A phantom study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Karen; Liebgott, Hervé; Wilhjelm, Jens E.

    2013-01-01

    heel phantoms were manufactured featuring a combination of three heel pad stiffnesses and three heel pad thicknesses to model the normal human variation. Each phantom was tested in an indentation system comprising a 7MHz linear array ultrasound transducer, working as the indentor, and a connected load....... Elastic moduli were found from the resulting stress–strain curves. The elastic moduli made it possible to distinguish eight of nine phantoms from each other according to the manufactured stiffness and showed very little dependence of the thickness. Mean elastic moduli for the three soft, the three medium...

  5. Human elastic cartilage engineering from cartilage progenitor cells using rotating wall vessel bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebe, T; Kobayashi, S; Kan, H; Suzuki, H; Yabuki, Y; Mizuno, M; Adegawa, T; Yoshioka, T; Tanaka, J; Maegawa, J; Taniguchi, H

    2012-05-01

    Transplantation of bioengineered elastic cartilage is considered to be a promising approach for patients with craniofacial defects. We have previously shown that human ear perichondrium harbors a population of cartilage progenitor cells (CPCs). The aim of this study was to examine the use of a rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor for CPCs to engineer 3-D elastic cartilage in vitro. Human CPCs isolated from ear perichondrium were expanded and differentiated into chondrocytes under 2-D culture conditions. Fully differentiated CPCs were seeded into recently developed pC-HAp/ChS (porous material consisted of collagen, hydroxyapatite, and chondroitinsulfate) scaffolds and 3-D cultivated utilizing a RWV bioreactor. 3-D engineered constructs appeared shiny with a yellowish, cartilage-like morphology. The shape of the molded scaffold was maintained after RWV cultivation. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed engraftment of CPCs inside pC-HAp/ChS. Alcian blue and Elastica Van Gieson staining showed of proteoglycan and elastic fibers, which are unique extracellular matrices of elastic cartilage. Thus, human CPCs formed elastic cartilage-like tissue after 3-D cultivation in a RWV bioreactor. These techniques may assist future efforts to reconstruct complicate structures composed of elastic cartilage in vitro. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Male microchimerism in the human female brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F N Chan

    Full Text Available In humans, naturally acquired microchimerism has been observed in many tissues and organs. Fetal microchimerism, however, has not been investigated in the human brain. Microchimerism of fetal as well as maternal origin has recently been reported in the mouse brain. In this study, we quantified male DNA in the human female brain as a marker for microchimerism of fetal origin (i.e. acquisition of male DNA by a woman while bearing a male fetus. Targeting the Y-chromosome-specific DYS14 gene, we performed real-time quantitative PCR in autopsied brain from women without clinical or pathologic evidence of neurologic disease (n=26, or women who had Alzheimer's disease (n=33. We report that 63% of the females (37 of 59 tested harbored male microchimerism in the brain. Male microchimerism was present in multiple brain regions. Results also suggested lower prevalence (p=0.03 and concentration (p=0.06 of male microchimerism in the brains of women with Alzheimer's disease than the brains of women without neurologic disease. In conclusion, male microchimerism is frequent and widely distributed in the human female brain.

  7. Fetal development of the elastic-fiber-mediated enthesis in the human middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanashi, Yoshitaka; Shibata, Shunichi; Katori, Yukio; Murakami, Gen; Abe, Shinichi; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose Francisco; Kawase, Tetsuaki

    2013-10-01

    In the human middle ear, the annular ligament of the incudostapedial joint and the insertions of the tensor tympani and stapedius muscles contain abundant elastic fibers; i.e., the elastic-fiber-mediated entheses. Hyaluronan also coexists with the elastic fibers. In the present study using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated the distribution of elastin not only in the incudostapedial joint but also in the other two joints of the middle ear in adults and fetuses. In adults, the expression of elastin did not extend out of the annular ligament composed of mature elastic fibers but clearly overlapped with it. Electron microscopic observations of the annular ligament demonstrated a few microfibrils along the elastic fibers. Thus, in contrast to the vocal cord, the middle ear entheses seemed not to contain elaunin and oxytalan fibers. In mid-term fetuses (at approximately 15-16 weeks of gestation) before opening of the external acoustic meatus, the incudostapedial joint showed abundant elastic fibers, but the incudomalleolar and stapediovestibular joints did not. At this stage, hyaluronan was not colocalized, but distributed diffusely in loose mesenchymal tissues surrounding the ear ossicles. Therefore, fetal development of elastin and elastic fibers in the middle ear entheses is unlikely to require acoustic oscillation. In late-stage fetuses (25-30 weeks), whose ear ossicles were almost the same size as those in adults, we observed bundling and branching of elastic fibers. However, hyaluronan expression was not as strong as in adults. Colocalization between elastic fibers and hyaluronan appeared to be a result of postnatal maturation of the entheses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Consumption of seaweeds and the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornish, M. Lynn; Critchley, Alan T.; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    2017-01-01

    highlighting the potential impacts of the consumption of a variety of seaweeds on human brain health and includes theories in relation to the benefits to early Homo sapiens. The emphasis is on a varied diet including macroalgae and the gut/microbe/brain axis, the importance of polyunsaturated fatty acids...

  9. Lactate fuels the human brain during exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quistorff, Bjorn; Secher, Niels H.; van Lieshout, Johannes J.

    2008-01-01

    The human brain releases a small amount of lactate at rest, and even an increase in arterial blood lactate during anesthesia does not provoke a net cerebral lactate uptake. However, during cerebral activation associated with exercise involving a marked increase in plasma lactate, the brain takes up

  10. An introduction to human brain anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forstmann, B.U.; Keuken, M.C.; Alkemade, A.; Forstmann, B.U.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2015-01-01

    This tutorial chapter provides an overview of the human brain anatomy. Knowledge of brain anatomy is fundamental to our understanding of cognitive processes in health and disease; moreover, anatomical constraints are vital for neurocomputational models and can be important for psychological

  11. Interoperable atlases of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amunts, K; Hawrylycz, M J; Van Essen, D C; Van Horn, J D; Harel, N; Poline, J-B; De Martino, F; Bjaalie, J G; Dehaene-Lambertz, G; Dehaene, S; Valdes-Sosa, P; Thirion, B; Zilles, K; Hill, S L; Abrams, M B; Tass, P A; Vanduffel, W; Evans, A C; Eickhoff, S B

    2014-10-01

    The last two decades have seen an unprecedented development of human brain mapping approaches at various spatial and temporal scales. Together, these have provided a large fundus of information on many different aspects of the human brain including micro- and macrostructural segregation, regional specialization of function, connectivity, and temporal dynamics. Atlases are central in order to integrate such diverse information in a topographically meaningful way. It is noteworthy, that the brain mapping field has been developed along several major lines such as structure vs. function, postmortem vs. in vivo, individual features of the brain vs. population-based aspects, or slow vs. fast dynamics. In order to understand human brain organization, however, it seems inevitable that these different lines are integrated and combined into a multimodal human brain model. To this aim, we held a workshop to determine the constraints of a multi-modal human brain model that are needed to enable (i) an integration of different spatial and temporal scales and data modalities into a common reference system, and (ii) efficient data exchange and analysis. As detailed in this report, to arrive at fully interoperable atlases of the human brain will still require much work at the frontiers of data acquisition, analysis, and representation. Among them, the latter may provide the most challenging task, in particular when it comes to representing features of vastly different scales of space, time and abstraction. The potential benefits of such endeavor, however, clearly outweigh the problems, as only such kind of multi-modal human brain atlas may provide a starting point from which the complex relationships between structure, function, and connectivity may be explored. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of sports related mTBI injuries caused by elastic wave propagation through brain tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Case, D.; Richer, E.

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive concussions and sub-concussions suffered by athletes have been linked to a series of sequelae ranging from traumatic encephalopathy to dementia pugilistica. A detailed finite element model of the human head was developed based on standard libraries of medical imaging. The model includes realistic material properties for the brain tissue, bone, soft tissue, and CSF, as well as the structure and properties of a protective helmet. Various impact scenarios were studied, with a focus on...

  13. Constitutional Aneuploidy in the Normal Human Brain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rehen, Stevens K; Yung, Yun C; McCreight, Matthew P; Kaushal, Dhruv; Yang, Amy H; Almeida, Beatriz S. V; Kingsbury, Marcy A; Cabral, Katia M. S; McConnell, Michael J; Anliker, Brigitte; Fontanoz, Marisa; Chun, Jerold

    2005-01-01

    .... Chromosome 21 aneuploid cells constitute approximately 4% of the estimated one trillion cells in the human brain and include non-neuronal cells and postmitotic neurons identified by the neuronspecific nuclear protein marker...

  14. 168 sections of a human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Biscotti, Rossella

    2015-01-01

    Tiré du site Internet de Boabooks: "The book displays a close up of a human brain with layers of memory and dreams visualized through a method of psychoanalysis and pharmacological propaganda. It is composed of two scientific researches that investigated the theme of memory and psychoanalysis. The first photos ever realized of sections of the human brain by psychiatric G. Jelgersma at the University of Leiden (1908-1911) are paired with the transcript of narcoanalytic sessions conducted by th...

  15. Analysis of a human brain transcriptome map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greene Jonathan R

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome wide transcriptome maps can provide tools to identify candidate genes that are over-expressed or silenced in certain disease tissue and increase our understanding of the structure and organization of the genome. Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs from the public dbEST and proprietary Incyte LifeSeq databases were used to derive a transcript map in conjunction with the working draft assembly of the human genome sequence. Results Examination of ESTs derived from brain tissues (excluding brain tumor tissues suggests that these genes are distributed on chromosomes in a non-random fashion. Some regions on the genome are dense with brain-enriched genes while some regions lack brain-enriched genes, suggesting a significant correlation between distribution of genes along the chromosome and tissue type. ESTs from brain tumor tissues have also been mapped to the human genome working draft. We reveal that some regions enriched in brain genes show a significant decrease in gene expression in brain tumors, and, conversely that some regions lacking in brain genes show an increased level of gene expression in brain tumors. Conclusions This report demonstrates a novel approach for tissue specific transcriptome mapping using EST-based quantitative assessment.

  16. MRI-based elastic-mapping method for inter-subject comparison of brain FDG-PET images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.; Huang, S.C.; Lin, K.P.; Small, G.; Phelps, M.E. [UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Inter-subject anatomic differences prohibits direct image-wise statistical evaluation of brain FDG-PET images of Alzheimer`s disease (AD) patients. In this study, we propose a MRI-based elastic-mapping method which enables image-wise evaluation. The method involves intra-subject MR-PET registration, 3-D elastic mapping of two set of MR images, and elastically transforming the co-registered PET images. The MR-PET registration used simulated PET images, which were based on segmentation of MR images. In the 3-D elastic mapping stage, first a global linear scaling was applied to compensate for brain size difference, then a deformation field was obtained by minimizing the regional sum of squared difference between the two sets of MR images. Two groups (AD patient and normal control), each with three subjects, were included in the current study. After processing, images from all subjects have similar shapes. Averaging the images across all subjects (either within the individual group or for both groups) give images indistinguishable from original single subject FDG images (i.e. without much spatial resolution loss), except with lower image noise level. The method is expected to allow statistical image-wise analysis to be performed across different subjects.

  17. In vivo measurements of human neck skin elasticity using MRI and finite element modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yunqiang; Ji, Changjin; Li, Yong; Wang, Jianxia; Zhang, Xinyue; Huang, Yaqi

    2017-04-01

    The assessment of mechanical properties of the human skin is very important in investigating the mechanism of obstructive sleep apnea, a common disorder characterized by repetitive collapse and obstruction of the upper airway during sleep. In this study, a unique method, combining magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and finite element modeling (FEM), was developed to obtain the value of the in vivo elastic modulus of the neck skin. A total of 22 subjects, 16 males and six females, were recruited to participate in the MRI studies. The changes in the airway and the neck size resulting from fluid shift from the lower body to the neck were measured based on the MR images. A two-dimensional plane strain FE model was built to simulate such changes in the neck cross-section for each subject. Solving an inverse problem using FEM by matching the measured data, we obtained the in vivo elastic modulus of the neck skin to be 1.78 ± 1.73 MPa. Results showed that the elastic modulus tended to increase with age and body mass index for these subjects. A sensitivity analysis of the muscle and fat mechanical parameters was also performed to test their effects on the predicted skin elasticity. The unique method developed in this study for measuring the in vivo elastic modulus of the neck skin is quite effective, and the skin elasticity value obtained using this method is credible. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  18. Distribution of mesoscale elastic properties and mass density in the human femoral shaft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, Daniel; Grimal, Quentin; Varga, Peter; Peyrin, Francoise; Langer, Max; Laugier, Pascal; Raum, Kay

    2015-04-01

    Cortical bone properties are determined by tissue composition and structure at several hierarchical length scales. In this study, the spatial distribution of micro- and mesoscale elastic properties within a human femoral shaft has been investigated. Microscale tissue degree of mineralization (DMB), cortical vascular porosity Ct.Po and the average transverse isotropic stiffness tensor C(Micro) of cylindrical-shaped samples (diameter: 4.4 mm, N = 56) were obtained from cortical regions between 20 and 85% of the total femur length and around the periphery (anterior, medial, posterior and lateral quadrants) by means of synchrotron radiation µCT (SRµCT) and 50-MHz scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM). Within each cylinder, the volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and the mesoscale stiffness tensor C(Meso) were derived using a numerical homogenization approach. Moreover, microelastic maps of the axial elastic coefficient c33 measured by SAM at distinct cross-sectional locations along the femur were used to construct a 3-D multiscale elastic model of the femoral shaft. Variations of vBMD (6.1%) were much lower than the variations of mesoscale elastic coefficients (11.1-21.3%). The variation of DMB was only a minor predictor for variations of the mesoscale elastic properties (0.05 ≤ R(2) ≤ 0.34). Instead, variations of the mesoscale elastic properties could be explained by variations of cortical porosity and microscale elastic properties. These data were suitable inputs for numerical evaluations and may help to unravel the relations between structure and composition on the elastic function in cortical bone.

  19. Genetic control of postnatal human brain growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dyck, Laura I; Morrow, Eric M

    2017-02-01

    Studies investigating postnatal brain growth disorders inform the biology underlying the development of human brain circuitry. This research is becoming increasingly important for the diagnosis and treatment of childhood neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism and related disorders. Here, we review recent research on typical and abnormal postnatal brain growth and examine potential biological mechanisms. Clinically, brain growth disorders are heralded by diverging head size for a given age and sex, but are more precisely characterized by brain imaging, post-mortem analysis, and animal model studies. Recent neuroimaging and molecular biological studies on postnatal brain growth disorders have broadened our view of both typical and pathological postnatal neurodevelopment. Correlating gene and protein function with brain growth trajectories uncovers postnatal biological mechanisms, including neuronal arborization, synaptogenesis and pruning, and gliogenesis and myelination. Recent investigations of childhood neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders highlight the underlying genetic programming and experience-dependent remodeling of neural circuitry. To understand typical and abnormal postnatal brain development, clinicians and researchers should characterize brain growth trajectories in the context of neurogenetic syndromes. Understanding mechanisms and trajectories of postnatal brain growth will aid in differentiating, diagnosing, and potentially treating neurodevelopmental disorders.

  20. Elastic hysteresis in human eyes is an age-dependent value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kotaro; Saito, Kei; Kameda, Toshihiro; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2013-01-01

    The elastic hysteresis phenomenon is observed when cyclic loading is applied to a viscoelastic system. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate elastic hysteresis in living human eyes against an external force. Prospective case series. Twenty-four eyes of 24 normal human subjects (mean age: 41.5 ± 10.6 years) were recruited. A non-contact tonometry process was recorded with a high-speed camera. Central corneal thickness, corneal thickness at 4 mm from the centre, corneal curvature and anterior chamber depth were measured. Intraocular pressure was also measured using Goldmann applanation tonometry and dynamic contour tonometer. Energy loss due to elastic hysteresis was calculated and graphed. The mean central corneal thickness was 552.5 ± 36.1 µm, corneal curvature was 7.84 ± 0.26 mm and anterior chamber depth was 2.83 ± 0.29 mm. The mean Goldmann applanation tonometry-intraocular pressure was 14.2 ± 2.7 mmHg and dynamic contour tonometer-intraocular pressure was 16.3 ± 3.5 mmHg. The mean energy loss due to elastic hysteresis was 3.90 × 10(-6) ± 2.49 × 10(-6) Nm. Energy loss due to elastic hysteresis correlated significantly with age (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.596, P = .0016). There were no significant correlations between energy loss due to elastic hysteresis and other measurements. Energy loss due to elastic hysteresis in the eyes of subjects was found to positively correlate with age, independent of anterior eye structure or intraocular pressure. Therefore, it is believed that the viscosity of the eye increases with age. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2012 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  1. The Human Brain Project: Creating a European Research Infrastructure to Decode the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amunts, Katrin; Ebell, Christoph; Muller, Jeff; Telefont, Martin; Knoll, Alois; Lippert, Thomas

    2016-11-02

    Decoding the human brain is perhaps the most fascinating scientific challenge in the 21st century. The Human Brain Project (HBP), a 10-year European Flagship, targets the reconstruction of the brain's multi-scale organization. It uses productive loops of experiments, medical, data, data analytics, and simulation on all levels that will eventually bridge the scales. The HBP IT architecture is unique, utilizing cloud-based collaboration and development platforms with databases, workflow systems, petabyte storage, and supercomputers. The HBP is developing toward a European research infrastructure advancing brain research, medicine, and brain-inspired information technology. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. The Molecular Basis of Human Brain Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enard, Wolfgang

    2016-10-24

    Humans are a remarkable species, especially because of the remarkable properties of their brain. Since the split from the chimpanzee lineage, the human brain has increased three-fold in size and has acquired abilities for vocal learning, language and intense cooperation. To better understand the molecular basis of these changes is of great biological and biomedical interest. However, all the about 16 million fixed genetic changes that occurred during human evolution are fully correlated with all molecular, cellular, anatomical and behavioral changes that occurred during this time. Hence, as humans and chimpanzees cannot be crossed or genetically manipulated, no direct evidence for linking particular genetic and molecular changes to human brain evolution can be obtained. Here, I sketch a framework how indirect evidence can be obtained and review findings related to the molecular basis of human cognition, vocal learning and brain size. In particular, I discuss how a comprehensive comparative approach, leveraging cellular systems and genomic technologies, could inform the evolution of our brain in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Muscle-tendon interaction and elastic energy usage in human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishikawa, Masaki; Komi, Paavo V.; Grey, Michael James

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to explore how the interaction between the fascicles and tendinous tissues is involved in storage and utilization of elastic energy during human walking. Eight male subjects walked with a natural cadence (1.4 +/- 0.1 m/s) on a 10-m-long force plate system. In vivo...

  4. In vivo measurement of the series elasticity release curve of human triceps surae muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, AL

    The force-extension characteristic of the series-elastic component of the human triceps surae muscle has been measured in vivo by means of a hydraulic controlled-release ergometer in 12 subjects. The SEC characteristic can be described by a linear relation between muscle moment and extension, with a

  5. Elasticity in ecosystem services: exploring the variable relationship between ecosystems and human well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim M. Daw

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although ecosystem services are increasingly recognized as benefits people obtain from nature, we still have a poor understanding of how they actually enhance multidimensional human well-being, and how well-being is affected by ecosystem change. We develop a concept of "ecosystem service elasticity" (ES elasticity that describes the sensitivity of human well-being to changes in ecosystems. ES Elasticity is a result of complex social and ecological dynamics and is context dependent, individually variable, and likely to demonstrate nonlinear dynamics such as thresholds and hysteresis. We present a conceptual framework that unpacks the chain of causality from ecosystem stocks through flows, goods, value, and shares to contribute to the well-being of different people. This framework builds on previous conceptualizations, but places multidimensional well-being of different people as the final element. This ultimately disaggregated approach emphasizes how different people access benefits and how benefits match their needs or aspirations. Applying this framework to case studies of individual coastal ecosystem services in East Africa illustrates a wide range of social and ecological factors that can affect ES elasticity. For example, food web and habitat dynamics affect the sensitivity of different fisheries ecosystem services to ecological change. Meanwhile high cultural significance, or lack of alternatives enhance ES elasticity, while social mechanisms that prevent access can reduce elasticity. Mapping out how chains are interlinked illustrates how different types of value and the well-being of different people are linked to each other and to common ecological stocks. We suggest that examining chains for individual ecosystem services can suggest potential interventions aimed at poverty alleviation and sustainable ecosystems while mapping out of interlinkages between chains can help to identify possible ecosystem service trade-offs and winners and

  6. Segmentation and Visualisation of Human Brain Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Hult, Roger

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis the focus is mainly on the development of segmentation techniques for human brain structures and of the visualisation of such structures. The images of the brain are both anatomical images (magnet resonance imaging (MRI) and autoradigraphy) and functional images that show blood flow (functional magnetic imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission tomograpy (SPECT)). When working with anatomical images, the structures segmented are visible as d...

  7. Seasonality in human cognitive brain responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Christelle; Muto, Vincenzo; Jaspar, Mathieu; Kussé, Caroline; Lambot, Erik; Chellappa, Sarah L; Degueldre, Christian; Balteau, Evelyne; Luxen, André; Middleton, Benita; Archer, Simon N; Collette, Fabienne; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Phillips, Christophe; Maquet, Pierre; Vandewalle, Gilles

    2016-03-15

    Daily variations in the environment have shaped life on Earth, with circadian cycles identified in most living organisms. Likewise, seasons correspond to annual environmental fluctuations to which organisms have adapted. However, little is known about seasonal variations in human brain physiology. We investigated annual rhythms of brain activity in a cross-sectional study of healthy young participants. They were maintained in an environment free of seasonal cues for 4.5 d, after which brain responses were assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while they performed two different cognitive tasks. Brain responses to both tasks varied significantly across seasons, but the phase of these annual rhythms was strikingly different, speaking for a complex impact of season on human brain function. For the sustained attention task, the maximum and minimum responses were located around summer and winter solstices, respectively, whereas for the working memory task, maximum and minimum responses were observed around autumn and spring equinoxes. These findings reveal previously unappreciated process-specific seasonality in human cognitive brain function that could contribute to intraindividual cognitive changes at specific times of year and changes in affective control in vulnerable populations.

  8. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strózik-Kotlorz, D.

    2014-01-01

    I give a brief description of the magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in the human brain examinations. MRS allows a noninvasive chemical analysis of the brain using a standard high field MR system. Nowadays, the dominant form of MR brain spectroscopy is proton spectroscopy. Two main techniques of MRS, which utilize the chemical shift of metabolites in the external magnetic field, are SVS (single voxel) and CSI (single slice). The major peaks in the spectrum of a normal brain include NAA, Cr, Cho and m-Ins, which are neuronal, energetic, membrane turnover and glial markers, respectively. In disease, two pathological metabolites can be found in the brain spectra: Lac, which is end product of anaerobic glycolysis and Lip, which is a marker of membrane breakdown, occurring in necrosis. The common way to analyze clinical spectra is to determine metabolite ratios, e.g. NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, Cho/NAA. This analysis permits a safe and noninvasive examination of the brain tissue as each disease state has its own characteristic spectroscopic image. MRS is a valuable diagnostic tool in such clinical applications as detecting brain tumors and differentiating tumors from inflammatory and infectious processes. Proton MRS is also very helpful in diagnostic of ischemic lesions, Alzheimer's disease and hepatic encephalopathy. The MRS brain spectra should always be correlated with the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) results and alone cannot make neurological diagnosis.

  9. Elastic and viscoelastic mechanical properties of brain tissues on the implanting trajectory of sub-thalamic nucleus stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Deng, Jianxin; Zhou, Jun; Li, Xueen

    2016-11-01

    Corresponding to pre-puncture and post-puncture insertion, elastic and viscoelastic mechanical properties of brain tissues on the implanting trajectory of sub-thalamic nucleus stimulation are investigated, respectively. Elastic mechanical properties in pre-puncture are investigated through pre-puncture needle insertion experiments using whole porcine brains. A linear polynomial and a second order polynomial are fitted to the average insertion force in pre-puncture. The Young's modulus in pre-puncture is calculated from the slope of the two fittings. Viscoelastic mechanical properties of brain tissues in post-puncture insertion are investigated through indentation stress relaxation tests for six interested regions along a planned trajectory. A linear viscoelastic model with a Prony series approximation is fitted to the average load trace of each region using Boltzmann hereditary integral. Shear relaxation moduli of each region are calculated using the parameters of the Prony series approximation. The results show that, in pre-puncture insertion, needle force almost increases linearly with needle displacement. Both fitting lines can perfectly fit the average insertion force. The Young's moduli calculated from the slope of the two fittings are worthy of trust to model linearly or nonlinearly instantaneous elastic responses of brain tissues, respectively. In post-puncture insertion, both region and time significantly affect the viscoelastic behaviors. Six tested regions can be classified into three categories in stiffness. Shear relaxation moduli decay dramatically in short time scales but equilibrium is never truly achieved. The regional and temporal viscoelastic mechanical properties in post-puncture insertion are valuable for guiding probe insertion into each region on the implanting trajectory.

  10. Modulus of elasticity of human periodontal ligament by optical measurement and numerical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong-Xu, Liu; Hong-Ning, Wang; Chun-Ling, Wang; Hong, Liu; Ping, Sun; Xiao, Yuan

    2011-03-01

    To determine the elastic modulus of the periodontal ligament (PDL). This study was carried out on eight human maxillary jaw segments containing central incisors. Displacements were measured under load using a laser sensing system, electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). Subsequently, finite element models presenting the same individual geometry as the respective autopsy material were developed by the software of Mimics and Ansys, based on scanning data from micro computed tomography (micro CT), to simulate tooth mobility numerically under the same force systems as were used in the experiment. Numerical force/deflection curves obtained from the models were fitted to the experimental curves by repeatedly calculating theoretical tooth deflections and varying the elasticity parameters of the human PDL. A bilinear material parameter set was assumed to simulate tooth deflections. Mean values of E₁  =  0.04 MPa, E₂  =  0.16 MPa, and ultimate strain of ε₁₂  =  7.3% were derived for the elastic behavior of the PDL. Force/deflection curves from the measurements showed a significant nonlinear behavior of elastic stiffness of the PDL. A bilinear material parameter set was suitably assumed to be a description of nonlinear properties of the PDL.

  11. Elastic wave induced by friction as a signature of human skin ageing and gender effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djaghloul, M; Morizot, F; Zahouani, H

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we propose an innovative approach based on a rotary tribometer coupled with laser velocimetry for measuring the elastic wave propagation on the skin. The method is based on a dynamic contact with the control of the normal force (Fn ), the contact length and speed. During the test a quantification of the friction force is produced. The elastic wave generated by friction is measured at the surface of the skin 35 mm from the source of friction exciter. In order to quantify the spectral range and the energy property of the wave generated, we have used laser velocimetry whose spot laser diameter is 120 μm, which samples the elastic wave propagation at a frequency which may reach 100 kHz. In this configuration, the speaker is the friction exciter and the listener the laser velocimetry. In order to perform non-invasive friction tests, the normal stress has been set to 0.3 N and the rotary velocity to 3 revolutions per second, which involves a sliding velocity of 63 mm/s. This newly developed innovative tribometer has been used for the analysis of the elastic wave propagation induced by friction on human skin during chronological ageing and gender effect. Measurements in vivo have been made on 60 healthy men and women volunteers, aged from 25 to 70. The results concerning the energy of the elastic wave signature induced by friction show a clear difference between the younger and older groups in the range of a low band of frequencies (0-200 Hz). The gender effect was marked by a 20% decrease in the energy of elastic wave propagation in the female group. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Elastic ankle muscle-tendon interactions are adjusted to produce acceleration during walking in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Dominic James; Raiteri, Brent James

    2017-11-15

    Humans and other cursorial mammals have distal leg muscles with high in-series compliance that aid locomotor economy. This muscle-tendon design is considered sub-optimal for injecting net positive mechanical work. However, humans change speed frequently when walking and any acceleration requires net positive ankle work. The present study unveiled how the muscle-tendon interaction of human ankle plantar flexors are adjusted and integrated with body mechanics to provide net positive work during accelerative walking. We found that for accelerative walking, a greater amount of active plantar flexor fascicle shortening early in the stance phase occurred and was transitioned through series elastic tissue stretch and recoil. Reorientation of the leg during early stance for acceleration allowed the ankle and whole soleus muscle-tendon complex to remain isometric while its fascicles actively shortened, stretching in-series elastic tissues for subsequent recoil and net positive joint work. This muscle-tendon behaviour is fundamentally different from constant-speed walking, where the ankle and soleus muscle-tendon complex undergo a period of negative work to store energy in series elastic tissues before subsequent recoil, minimizing net joint work. Muscles with high in-series compliance can therefore contribute to net positive work for accelerative walking and here we show a mechanism for how in human ankle muscles. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Brain activation during human male ejaculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstege, Ger; Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Paans, Anne M.J.; Meiners, Linda C.; Graaf, Ferdinand H.C.E. van der; Reinders, A.A.T.Simone

    2003-01-01

    Brain mechanisms that control human sexual behavior in general, and ejaculation in particular, are poorly understood. We used positron emission tomography to measure increases in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during ejaculation compared with sexual stimulation in heterosexual male volunteers.

  14. Brain activation during human male ejaculation revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Reinders, A. A. T. Simone; Van der Graaf, Ferdinand H. C. E.; Paans, Anne M. J.; Kortekaas, Rudie

    2007-01-01

    In a prior [O-15]-H2O positron emission tomographic study we reported brain regions involved in human male ejaculation. Here, we used another, more recently acquired data set to evaluate the methodological approach of this previous study, and discovered that part of the reported activation pattern

  15. Magnetite pollution nanoparticles in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Barbara A.; Ahmed, Imad A. M.; Karloukovski, Vassil; MacLaren, Donald A.; Foulds, Penelope G.; Allsop, David; Mann, David M. A.; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Calderon-Garciduenas, Lilian

    2016-09-01

    Biologically formed nanoparticles of the strongly magnetic mineral, magnetite, were first detected in the human brain over 20 y ago [Kirschvink JL, Kobayashi-Kirschvink A, Woodford BJ (1992) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89(16):7683-7687]. Magnetite can have potentially large impacts on the brain due to its unique combination of redox activity, surface charge, and strongly magnetic behavior. We used magnetic analyses and electron microscopy to identify the abundant presence in the brain of magnetite nanoparticles that are consistent with high-temperature formation, suggesting, therefore, an external, not internal, source. Comprising a separate nanoparticle population from the euhedral particles ascribed to endogenous sources, these brain magnetites are often found with other transition metal nanoparticles, and they display rounded crystal morphologies and fused surface textures, reflecting crystallization upon cooling from an initially heated, iron-bearing source material. Such high-temperature magnetite nanospheres are ubiquitous and abundant in airborne particulate matter pollution. They arise as combustion-derived, iron-rich particles, often associated with other transition metal particles, which condense and/or oxidize upon airborne release. Those magnetite pollutant particles which are iron-bearing nanoparticles, rather than their soluble compounds, can be transported directly into the brain, where they may pose hazard to human health.

  16. Individual differences in human brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Timothy T

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses recent scientific advances in the study of individual differences in human brain development. Focusing on structural neuroimaging measures of brain morphology and tissue properties, two kinds of variability are related and explored: differences across individuals of the same age and differences across age as a result of development. A recent multidimensional modeling study is explained, which was able to use brain measures to predict an individual's chronological age within about one year on average, in children, adolescents, and young adults between 3 and 20 years old. These findings reveal great regularity in the sequence of the aggregate brain state across different ages and phases of development, despite the pronounced individual differences people show on any single brain measure at any given age. Future research is suggested, incorporating additional measures of brain activity and function. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1389. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1389 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 The Authors. WIREs Cognitive Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. [Evolution of human brain and intelligence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, László; Janka, Zoltán

    2008-07-30

    The biological evolution, including human evolution is mainly driven by environmental changes. Accidental genetic modifications and their innovative results make the successful adaptation possible. As we know the human evolution started 7-8 million years ago in the African savannah, where upright position and bipedalism were significantly advantageous. The main drive of improving manual actions and tool making could be to obtain more food. Our ancestor got more meat due to more successful hunting, resulting in more caloric intake, more protein and essential fatty acid in the meal. The nervous system uses disproportionally high level of energy, so better quality of food was a basic condition for the evolution of huge human brain. The size of human brain was tripled during 3.5 million years, it increased from the average of 450 cm3 of Australopithecinae to the average of 1350 cm3 of Homo sapiens. A genetic change in the system controlling gene expression could happen about 200 000 years ago, which influenced the development of nervous system, the sensorimotor function and learning ability for motor processes. The appearance and stabilisation of FOXP2 gene structure as feature of modern man coincided with the first presence and quick spread of Homo sapiens on the whole Earth. This genetic modification made opportunity for human language, as the basis of abrupt evolution of human intelligence. The brain region being responsible for human language is the left planum temporale, which is much larger in left hemisphere. This shows the most typical human brain asymmetry. In this case the anatomical asymmetry means a clearly defined functional asymmetry as well, where the brain hemispheres act differently. The preference in using hands, the lateralised using of tools resulted in the brain asymmetry, which is the precondition of human language and intelligence. However, it cannot be held anymore, that only humans make tools, because our closest relatives, the chimpanzees are

  18. Native Mutant Huntingtin in Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Ellen; Valencia, Antonio; Li, Xueyi; Aronin, Neil; Kegel, Kimberly B.; Vonsattel, Jean-Paul; Young, Anne B.; Wexler, Nancy; DiFiglia, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is caused by polyglutamine expansion in the N terminus of huntingtin (htt). Analysis of human postmortem brain lysates by SDS-PAGE and Western blot reveals htt as full-length and fragmented. Here we used Blue Native PAGE (BNP) and Western blots to study native htt in human postmortem brain. Antisera against htt detected a single band broadly migrating at 575–850 kDa in control brain and at 650–885 kDa in heterozygous and Venezuelan homozygous HD brains. Anti-polyglutamine antisera detected full-length mutant htt in HD brain. There was little htt cleavage even if lysates were pretreated with trypsin, indicating a property of native htt to resist protease cleavage. A soluble mutant htt fragment of about 180 kDa was detected with anti-htt antibody Ab1 (htt-(1–17)) and increased when lysates were treated with denaturants (SDS, 8 m urea, DTT, or trypsin) before BNP. Wild-type htt was more resistant to denaturants. Based on migration of in vitro translated htt fragments, the 180-kDa segment terminated ≈htt 670–880 amino acids. If second dimension SDS-PAGE followed BNP, the 180-kDa mutant htt was absent, and 43–50 kDa htt fragments appeared. Brain lysates from two HD mouse models expressed native full-length htt; a mutant fragment formed if lysates were pretreated with 8 m urea + DTT. Native full-length mutant htt in embryonic HD140Q/140Q mouse primary neurons was intact during cell death and when cell lysates were exposed to denaturants before BNP. Thus, native mutant htt occurs in brain and primary neurons as a soluble full-length monomer. PMID:22375012

  19. Microchimerism in the human brain: More questions than answers

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, William F.N.; Nelson, J. Lee

    2013-01-01

    Recently, our group reported the presence of microchimerism (Mc) in the human brain by performing quantitative PCR on female human brain tissues to amplify male DNA. We found brain Mc to be relatively frequent in humans and widely distributed in this organ. Our data also suggested a lower prevalence of brain Mc in women without Alzheimer disease than women without neurological disease. Altogether, these findings suggest that Mc could sometimes influence health and disease of the brain. As fur...

  20. Human freedom and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhuber, Hans Helmut

    2009-06-01

    Freedom of will does exist, it is self-leadership of man based on reason and ethos. Evidence comes from truth. Determinism cannot be proved since if you try, you mean to prove a truth; but there is no truth without freedom. By contrast for freedom there are many pieces of evidence e.g. science, arts, technology. Freedom utilizes creative abstract thinking with phantasy. Freedom is graded, limited, based on nature, but not developed without good will. We perceive reliably freedom by self-consciousness and in other persons as long as we are sober. Freedom needs intelligence, but is more, it is a creative and moral virtue. The basis for freedom is phylogenesis and culture, in the individual learning and experimenting. Factors in the becoming of freedom are not only genes and environment but also self-discipline. But the creativity of free will is dangerous. Man therefore needs morale. Drives and feelings become humanized, cultural interests are developed. There is a humane nobility from long good will.

  1. Puberty and structural brain development in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herting, Megan M; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is a transitional period of physical and behavioral development between childhood and adulthood. Puberty is a distinct period of sexual maturation that occurs during adolescence. Since the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), human studies have largely examined neurodevelopment in the context of age. A breadth of animal findings suggest that sex hormones continue to influence the brain beyond the prenatal period, with both organizational and activational effects occurring during puberty. Given the animal evidence, human MRI research has also set out to determine how puberty may influence otherwise known patterns of age-related neurodevelopment. Here we review structural-based MRI studies and show that pubertal maturation is a key variable to consider in elucidating sex- and individual- based differences in patterns of human brain development. We also highlight the continuing challenges faced, as well as future considerations, for this vital avenue of research. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Elasticity-based determination of isovolumetric phases in the human heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgeti, Thomas; Beling, Mark; Hamm, Bernd; Braun, Jürgen; Sack, Ingolf

    2010-10-27

    BACKGROUND/MOTIVATION: To directly determine isovolumetric cardiac time intervals by magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) using the magnitude of the complex signal for deducing morphological information combined with the phase of the complex signal for tension-relaxation measurements. Thirty-five healthy volunteers and 11 patients with relaxation abnormalities were subjected to transthoracic wave stimulation using vibrations of approximately 25 Hz. A k-space-segmented, ECG-gated gradient-recalled echo steady-state sequence with a 500-Hz bipolar motion-encoding gradient was used for acquiring a series of 360 complex images of a short-axis view of the heart at a frame rate of less than 5.2 ms. Magnitude images were employed for measuring the cross-sectional area of the left ventricle, while phase images were used for analyzing the amplitudes of the externally induced waves. The delay between the decrease in amplitude and onset of ventricular contraction was determined in all subjects and assigned to the time of isovolumetric tension. Conversely, the delay between the increase in wave amplitude and ventricular dilatation was used for measuring the time of isovolumetric elasticity relaxation. Wave amplitudes decreased during systole and increased during diastole. The variation in wave amplitude occurred ahead of morphological changes. In healthy volunteers the time of isovolumetric elasticity relaxation was 75 ± 31 ms, which is significantly shorter than the time of isovolumetric tension of 136 ± 36 ms (P < 0.01). In patients with relaxation abnormalities (mild diastolic dysfunction, n = 11) isovolumetric elasticity relaxation was significantly prolonged, with 133 ± 57 ms (P < 0.01), whereas isovolumetric tension time was in the range of healthy controls (161 ± 45 ms; P = 0.053). The complex MRE signal conveys complementary information on cardiac morphology and elasticity, which can be combined for directly measuring isovolumetric tension and elasticity relaxation

  3. Elasticity-based determination of isovolumetric phases in the human heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braun Jürgen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Motivation To directly determine isovolumetric cardiac time intervals by magnetic resonance elastography (MRE using the magnitude of the complex signal for deducing morphological information combined with the phase of the complex signal for tension-relaxation measurements. Methods Thirty-five healthy volunteers and 11 patients with relaxation abnormalities were subjected to transthoracic wave stimulation using vibrations of approximately 25 Hz. A k-space-segmented, ECG-gated gradient-recalled echo steady-state sequence with a 500-Hz bipolar motion-encoding gradient was used for acquiring a series of 360 complex images of a short-axis view of the heart at a frame rate of less than 5.2 ms. Magnitude images were employed for measuring the cross-sectional area of the left ventricle, while phase images were used for analyzing the amplitudes of the externally induced waves. The delay between the decrease in amplitude and onset of ventricular contraction was determined in all subjects and assigned to the time of isovolumetric tension. Conversely, the delay between the increase in wave amplitude and ventricular dilatation was used for measuring the time of isovolumetric elasticity relaxation. Results Wave amplitudes decreased during systole and increased during diastole. The variation in wave amplitude occurred ahead of morphological changes. In healthy volunteers the time of isovolumetric elasticity relaxation was 75 ± 31 ms, which is significantly shorter than the time of isovolumetric tension of 136 ± 36 ms (P n = 11 isovolumetric elasticity relaxation was significantly prolonged, with 133 ± 57 ms (P P = 0.053. Conclusion The complex MRE signal conveys complementary information on cardiac morphology and elasticity, which can be combined for directly measuring isovolumetric tension and elasticity relaxation in the human heart.

  4. Evaluation of vascular wall elasticity of human digital arteries using alternating current-signal photoplethysmography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uangpairoj P

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pichitra Uangpairoj, Masahiro Shibata Department of Bioscience and Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Saitama, Japan Purpose: A simple method of estimating arterial elasticity in the human finger using a volume-oscillometric technique with photoplethysmography was principally studied under the various effects of age, sex, and cold-stress stimulation for testing the capability of using this technique in arterial elasticity analysis. Methods: Amplitude variations in the alternating current signal of the photoplethysmograph during a continuous change in transmural pressure were analyzed to obtain the blood pressure and the transmural pressure–relative volume difference relationship of the arteries. We first tested the effect of the occluding cuff size on the arterial elasticity analysis in eight subjects (ages 20–45 years to obtain a suitable cuff size, resulting in the selection of a middle cuff with a 22 mm diameter. Blood pressure and arterial elasticity were measured in six groups of subjects separated into three age-groups of women and men (ages 20–25, 32–45, and over 50 years for testing the effect of age and sex. Twelve subjects (ages 20–25 years also had their blood pressure and arterial elasticity measured in three conditions under the influence of the cold-stress stimulation. Results: Age, sex, and cold-stress stimulation had an impact on mean blood pressure (P < 0.0005, 0.025, whereas pulse pressure and heart rate were statistically unchanged by those factors. Furthermore, an advanced age (over 50 years was found to induce an increase in relative volume difference values (P <0.025 and upward shifting of the transmural pressure–relative volume difference relationships, whereas sex, level of mean blood pressure, and cold-stress stimulation had no influence on these forms of the index. Conclusion: This study showed the usefulness of the relative volume difference as being a mean blood pressure-independent indicator

  5. Mechanical characterization of human brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budday, S; Sommer, G; Birkl, C; Langkammer, C; Haybaeck, J; Kohnert, J; Bauer, M; Paulsen, F; Steinmann, P; Kuhl, E; Holzapfel, G A

    2017-01-15

    Mechanics are increasingly recognized to play an important role in modulating brain form and function. Computational simulations are a powerful tool to predict the mechanical behavior of the human brain in health and disease. The success of these simulations depends critically on the underlying constitutive model and on the reliable identification of its material parameters. Thus, there is an urgent need to thoroughly characterize the mechanical behavior of brain tissue and to identify mathematical models that capture the tissue response under arbitrary loading conditions. However, most constitutive models have only been calibrated for a single loading mode. Here, we perform a sequence of multiple loading modes on the same human brain specimen - simple shear in two orthogonal directions, compression, and tension - and characterize the loading-mode specific regional and directional behavior. We complement these three individual tests by combined multiaxial compression/tension-shear tests and discuss effects of conditioning and hysteresis. To explore to which extent the macrostructural response is a result of the underlying microstructural architecture, we supplement our biomechanical tests with diffusion tensor imaging and histology. We show that the heterogeneous microstructure leads to a regional but not directional dependence of the mechanical properties. Our experiments confirm that human brain tissue is nonlinear and viscoelastic, with a pronounced compression-tension asymmetry. Using our measurements, we compare the performance of five common constitutive models, neo-Hookean, Mooney-Rivlin, Demiray, Gent, and Ogden, and show that only the isotropic modified one-term Ogden model is capable of representing the hyperelastic behavior under combined shear, compression, and tension loadings: with a shear modulus of 0.4-1.4kPa and a negative nonlinearity parameter it captures the compression-tension asymmetry and the increase in shear stress under superimposed

  6. Imaging retinotopic maps in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandell, Brian A.; Winawer, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    A quarter-century ago visual neuroscientists had little information about the number and organization of retinotopic maps in human visual cortex. The advent of functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a non-invasive, spatially-resolved technique for measuring brain activity, provided a wealth of data about human retinotopic maps. Just as there are differences amongst nonhuman primate maps, the human maps have their own unique properties. Many human maps can be measured reliably in individual subjects during experimental sessions lasting less than an hour. The efficiency of the measurements and the relatively large amplitude of functional MRI signals in visual cortex make it possible to develop quantitative models of functional responses within specific maps in individual subjects. During this last quarter century, there has also been significant progress in measuring properties of the human brain at a range of length and time scales, including white matter pathways, macroscopic properties of gray and white matter, and cellular and molecular tissue properties. We hope the next twenty-five years will see a great deal of work that aims to integrate these data by modeling the network of visual signals. We don’t know what such theories will look like, but the characterization of human retinotopic maps from the last twenty-five years is likely to be an important part of future ideas about visual computations. PMID:20692278

  7. Hierarchical modularity in human brain functional networks

    CERN Document Server

    Meunier, D; Fornito, A; Ersche, K D; Bullmore, E T; 10.3389/neuro.11.037.2009

    2010-01-01

    The idea that complex systems have a hierarchical modular organization originates in the early 1960s and has recently attracted fresh support from quantitative studies of large scale, real-life networks. Here we investigate the hierarchical modular (or "modules-within-modules") decomposition of human brain functional networks, measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 18 healthy volunteers under no-task or resting conditions. We used a customized template to extract networks with more than 1800 regional nodes, and we applied a fast algorithm to identify nested modular structure at several hierarchical levels. We used mutual information, 0 < I < 1, to estimate the similarity of community structure of networks in different subjects, and to identify the individual network that is most representative of the group. Results show that human brain functional networks have a hierarchical modular organization with a fair degree of similarity between subjects, I=0.63. The largest 5 modules at ...

  8. Imaging Monoamine Oxidase in the Human Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, J. S.; Volkow, N. D.; Wang, G-J.; Logan, Jean

    1999-11-10

    Positron emission tomography (PET) studies mapping monoamine oxidase in the human brain have been used to measure the turnover rate for MAO B; to determine the minimum effective dose of a new MAO inhibitor drug lazabemide and to document MAO inhibition by cigarette smoke. These studies illustrate the power of PET and radiotracer chemistry to measure normal biochemical processes and to provide information on the effect of drug exposure on specific molecular targets.

  9. Sense of agency in the human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Haggard, P.

    2017-01-01

    In adult life, people normally know what they are doing. This experience of controlling one's own actions and, through them, the course of events in the outside world is called 'sense of agency'. It forms a central feature of human experience; however, the brain mechanisms that produce the sense of agency have only recently begun to be investigated systematically. This recent progress has been driven by the development of better measures of the experience of agency, improved design of cogniti...

  10. Sex beyond the genitalia: The human brain mosaic

    OpenAIRE

    Joel, Daphna; Berman, Zohar; Tavor, Ido; Wexler, Nadav; Gaber, Olga; Stein, Yaniv; Shefi, Nisan; Pool, Jared; Urchs, Sebastian; Margulies, Daniel S.; Liem, Franziskus; Hänggi, Jürgen; Jäncke, Lutz; Assaf, Yaniv

    2015-01-01

    Whereas a categorical difference in the genitals has always been acknowledged, the question of how far these categories extend into human biology is still not resolved. Documented sex/gender differences in the brain are often taken as support of a sexually dimorphic view of human brains ("female brain" or "male brain"). However, such a distinction would be possible only if sex/gender differences in brain features were highly dimorphic (i.e., little overlap between the forms of these features ...

  11. Towards Developmental Connectomics of the Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao eCao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Imaging connectomics based on graph theory has become an effective and unique methodological framework for studying structural and functional connectivity patterns of the developing brain. Normal brain development is characterized by continuous and significant network evolution throughout infancy, childhood and adolescence, following specific maturational patterns. Disruption of these normal changes is associated with neuropsychiatric developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In this review, we focused on the recent progresses regarding typical and atypical development of human brain networks from birth to early adulthood, using a connectomic approach. Specifically, by the time of birth, structural networks already exhibit adult-like organization, with global efficient small-world and modular structures, as well as hub regions and rich-clubs acting as communication backbones. During development, the structure networks are fine-tuned, with increased global integration and robustness and decreased local segregation, as well as the strengthening of the hubs. In parallel, functional networks undergo more dramatic changes during maturation, with both increased integration and segregation during development, as brain hubs shift from primary regions to high order functioning regions, and the organization of modules transitions from a local anatomical emphasis to a more distributed architecture. These findings suggest that structural networks develop earlier than functional networks; meanwhile functional networks demonstrate more dramatic maturational changes with the evolution of structural networks serving as the anatomical backbone. In this review, we also highlighted topologically disorganized characteristics in structural and functional brain networks in several major developmental neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g., autism spectrum disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and

  12. Brain structures in the sciences and humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-11-01

    The areas of academic interest (sciences or humanities) and area of study have been known to be associated with a number of factors associated with autistic traits. However, despite the vast amount of literature on the psychological and physiological characteristics associated with faculty membership, brain structural characteristics associated with faculty membership have never been investigated directly. In this study, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate differences in regional gray matter volume (rGMV)/regional white matter volume (rWMV) between science and humanities students to test our hypotheses that brain structures previously robustly shown to be altered in autistic subjects are related to differences in faculty membership. We examined 312 science students (225 males and 87 females) and 179 humanities students (105 males and 74 females). Whole-brain analyses of covariance revealed that after controlling for age, sex, and total intracranial volume, the science students had significantly larger rGMV in an anatomical cluster around the medial prefrontal cortex and the frontopolar area, whereas the humanities students had significantly larger rWMV in an anatomical cluster mainly concentrated around the right hippocampus. These anatomical structures have been linked to autism in previous studies and may mediate cognitive functions that characterize differences in faculty membership. The present results may support the ideas that autistic traits and characteristics of the science students compared with the humanities students share certain characteristics from neuroimaging perspectives. This study improves our understanding of differences in faculty membership which is the link among cognition, biological factors, disorders, and education (academia).

  13. Segmentation and Visualisation of Human Brain Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hult, Roger

    2003-10-01

    In this thesis the focus is mainly on the development of segmentation techniques for human brain structures and of the visualisation of such structures. The images of the brain are both anatomical images (magnet resonance imaging (MRI) and autoradiography) and functional images that show blood flow (functional magnetic imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission tomography (SPECT)). When working with anatomical images, the structures segmented are visible as different parts of the brain, e.g. the brain cortex, the hippocampus, or the amygdala. In functional images, the activity or the blood flow that be seen. Grey-level morphology methods are used in the segmentations to make tissue types in the images more homogenous and minimise difficulties with connections to outside tissue. A method for automatic histogram thresholding is also used. Furthermore, there are binary operations such as logic operation between masks and binary morphology operations. The visualisation of the segmented structures uses either surface rendering or volume rendering. For the visualisation of thin structures, surface rendering is the better choice since otherwise some voxels might be missed. It is possible to display activation from a functional image on the surface of a segmented cortex. A new method for autoradiographic images has been developed, which integrates registration, background compensation, and automatic thresholding to get faster and more reliable results than the standard techniques give.

  14. Structural brain correlates of human sleep oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletin, Jared M; van der Helm, Els; Walker, Matthew P

    2013-12-01

    Sleep is strongly conserved within species, yet marked and perplexing inter-individual differences in sleep physiology are observed. Combining EEG sleep recordings and high-resolution structural brain imaging, here we demonstrate that the morphology of the human brain offers one explanatory factor of such inter-individual variability. Gray matter volume in interoceptive and exteroceptive cortices correlated with the expression of slower NREM sleep spindle frequencies, supporting their proposed role in sleep protection against conscious perception. Conversely, and consistent with an involvement in declarative memory processing, gray matter volume in bilateral hippocampus was associated with faster NREM sleep spindle frequencies. In contrast to spindles, gray matter volume in the homeostatic sleep-regulating center of the basal forebrain/hypothalamus, together with the medial prefrontal cortex, accounted for individual differences in NREM slow wave oscillations. Together, such findings indicate that the qualitative and quantitative expression of human sleep physiology is significantly related to anatomically specific differences in macroscopic brain structure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Deconstructing Anger in the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilam, Gadi; Hendler, Talma

    2017-01-01

    Anger may be caused by a wide variety of triggers, and though it has negative consequences on health and well-being, it is also crucial in motivating to take action and approach rather than avoid a confrontation. While anger is considered a survival response inherent in all living creatures, humans are endowed with the mental flexibility that enables them to control and regulate their anger, and adapt it to socially accepted norms. Indeed, a profound interpersonal nature is apparent in most events which evoke anger among humans. Since anger consists of physiological, cognitive, subjective, and behavioral components, it is a contextualized multidimensional construct that poses theoretical and operational difficulties in defining it as a single psychobiological phenomenon. Although most neuroimaging studies have neglected the multidimensionality of anger and thus resulted in brain activations dispersed across the entire brain, there seems to be several reoccurring neural circuits subserving the subjective experience of human anger. Nevertheless, to capture the large variety in the forms and fashions in which anger is experienced, expressed, and regulated, and thus to better portray the related underlying neural substrates, neurobehavioral investigations of human anger should aim to further embed realistic social interactions within their anger induction paradigms.

  16. The human iliotibial band is specialized for elastic energy storage compared with the chimp fascia lata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Carolyn M; Arnold, Allison S; Biewener, Andrew A; Lieberman, Daniel E

    2015-08-01

    This study examines whether the human iliotibial band (ITB) is specialized for elastic energy storage relative to the chimpanzee fascia lata (FL). To quantify the energy storage potential of these structures, we created computer models of human and chimpanzee lower limbs based on detailed anatomical dissections. We characterized the geometry and force-length properties of the FL, tensor fascia lata (TFL) and gluteus maximus (GMax) in four chimpanzee cadavers based on measurements of muscle architecture and moment arms about the hip and knee. We used the chimp model to estimate the forces and corresponding strains in the chimp FL during bipedal walking, and compared these data with analogous estimates from a model of the human ITB, accounting for differences in body mass and lower extremity posture. We estimate that the human ITB stores 15- to 20-times more elastic energy per unit body mass and stride than the chimp FL during bipedal walking. Because chimps walk with persistent hip flexion, the TFL and portions of GMax that insert on the FL undergo smaller excursions (origin to insertion) than muscles that insert on the human ITB. Also, because a smaller fraction of GMax inserts on the chimp FL than on the human ITB, and thus its mass-normalized physiological cross-sectional area is about three times less in chimps, the chimp FL probably transmits smaller muscle forces. These data provide new evidence that the human ITB is anatomically derived compared with the chimp FL and potentially contributes to locomotor economy during bipedal locomotion. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Visualization of monoamine oxidase in human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, J.S.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.J.; Pappas, N.; Shea, C.; MacGregor, R.R.; Logan, J.

    1996-12-31

    Monoamine oxidase is a flavin enzyme which exists in two subtypes, MAO A and MAO B. In human brain MAO B predominates and is largely compartmentalized in cell bodies of serotonergic neurons and glia. Regional distribution of MAO B was determined by positron computed tomography with volunteers after the administration of deuterium substituted [11C]L-deprenyl. The basal ganglia and thalamus exhibited the greatest concentrations of MAO B with intermediate levels in the frontal cortex and cingulate gyrus while lowest levels were observed in the parietal and temporal cortices and cerebellum. We observed that brain MAO B increases with are in health normal subjects, however the increases were generally smaller than those revealed with post-mortem studies.

  18. Inferring human intentions from the brain data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanek, Konrad

    The human brain is a massively complex organ composed of approximately a hundred billion densely interconnected, interacting neural cells. The neurons are not wired randomly - instead, they are organized in local functional assemblies. It is believed that the complex patterns of dynamic electric...... discharges across the neural tissue are responsible for emergence of high cognitive function, conscious perception and voluntary action. The brain’s capacity to exercise free will, or internally generated free choice, has long been investigated by philosophers, psychologists and neuroscientists. Rather than...... assuming a causal power of conscious will, the neuroscience of volition is based on the premise that "mental states rest on brain processes”, and hence by measuring spatial and temporal correlates of volition in carefully controlled experiments we can infer about their underlying mind processes, including...

  19. Human brain lesion-deficit inference remapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Yee-Haur; Husain, Masud; Rees, Geraint; Nachev, Parashkev

    2014-09-01

    Our knowledge of the anatomical organization of the human brain in health and disease draws heavily on the study of patients with focal brain lesions. Historically the first method of mapping brain function, it is still potentially the most powerful, establishing the necessity of any putative neural substrate for a given function or deficit. Great inferential power, however, carries a crucial vulnerability: without stronger alternatives any consistent error cannot be easily detected. A hitherto unexamined source of such error is the structure of the high-dimensional distribution of patterns of focal damage, especially in ischaemic injury-the commonest aetiology in lesion-deficit studies-where the anatomy is naturally shaped by the architecture of the vascular tree. This distribution is so complex that analysis of lesion data sets of conventional size cannot illuminate its structure, leaving us in the dark about the presence or absence of such error. To examine this crucial question we assembled the largest known set of focal brain lesions (n = 581), derived from unselected patients with acute ischaemic injury (mean age = 62.3 years, standard deviation = 17.8, male:female ratio = 0.547), visualized with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and processed with validated automated lesion segmentation routines. High-dimensional analysis of this data revealed a hidden bias within the multivariate patterns of damage that will consistently distort lesion-deficit maps, displacing inferred critical regions from their true locations, in a manner opaque to replication. Quantifying the size of this mislocalization demonstrates that past lesion-deficit relationships estimated with conventional inferential methodology are likely to be significantly displaced, by a magnitude dependent on the unknown underlying lesion-deficit relationship itself. Past studies therefore cannot be retrospectively corrected, except by new knowledge that would render them redundant

  20. Topology preserving non-rigid image registration using time-varying elasticity model for MRI brain volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sahar; Khan, Muhammad Faisal

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we present a new non-rigid image registration method that imposes a topology preservation constraint on the deformation. We propose to incorporate the time varying elasticity model into the deformable image matching procedure and constrain the Jacobian determinant of the transformation over the entire image domain. The motion of elastic bodies is governed by a hyperbolic partial differential equation, generally termed as elastodynamics wave equation, which we propose to use as a deformation model. We carried out clinical image registration experiments on 3D magnetic resonance brain scans from IBSR database. The results of the proposed registration approach in terms of Kappa index and relative overlap computed over the subcortical structures were compared against the existing topology preserving non-rigid image registration methods and non topology preserving variant of our proposed registration scheme. The Jacobian determinant maps obtained with our proposed registration method were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. The results demonstrated that the proposed scheme provides good registration accuracy with smooth transformations, thereby guaranteeing the preservation of topology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Positive selection on gene expression in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khaitovich, Philipp; Tang, Kun; Franz, Henriette

    2006-01-01

    Recent work has shown that the expression levels of genes transcribed in the brains of humans and chimpanzees have changed less than those of genes transcribed in other tissues [1] . However, when gene expression changes are mapped onto the evolutionary lineage in which they occurred, the brain...... shows more changes than other tissues in the human lineage compared to the chimpanzee lineage [1] , [2] and [3] . There are two possible explanations for this: either positive selection drove more gene expression changes to fixation in the human brain than in the chimpanzee brain, or genes expressed...... in the brain experienced less purifying selection in humans than in chimpanzees, i.e. gene expression in the human brain is functionally less constrained. The first scenario would be supported if genes that changed their expression in the brain in the human lineage showed more selective sweeps than other genes...

  2. The Effects of Mucopolysaccharide Polysulphate on Hydration and Elasticity of Human Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rungsima Wanitphakdeedecha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mucopolysaccharide polysulphate (MPS has been used in medicine as an anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic agent for over 50 years. Its chemical structure permits considerable hydrogen bonding with adjacent water molecules, which effectively leads to hydration of the surrounding tissue. In addition, it stimulates endogenous hyaluronate synthesis, resulting in an increase in water-binding capacity and viscoelasticity of the skin. Objective. To study the efficacy of 0.1% MPS on hydration and elasticity of human skin. Methods. The first part of this study was a randomized double blind placebo-controlled study which included 60 female volunteers aged 30–45 years with dry skin, defined by Corneometer CM 825. The volunteers were treated with either 0.1% MPS or vehicle control. All subjects were asked to apply 1 g of cream to their face twice daily for a total period of 4 weeks. Skin hydration and elasticity were measured at baseline and week 4 with Corneometer CM 825 and cutometer MPA 580, respectively, at forehead and both cheeks. The second part of this study focused on the efficacy of 0.1% MPS on skin hydration after single application. 20 female volunteers aged 30–45 years with dry skin, defined by Corneometer CM 825, were recruited to the study. All subjects were asked to apply 2 g of 0.1% MPS cream on entirely randomly selected forearm. Skin hydration at the middle of both forearms was measured at baseline, immediately after application, and every 1 hour after application for a period of 10 hours. Results. 57 subjects (28 in vehicle control group, 29 in MPS completed treatment protocol. The baseline skin hydration of both groups was not significantly different (P=0.47. Hower, there was a statistically significant difference in skin hydration at 4 weeks between MPS and placebo group (P=0.01. Skin elasticity was significantly improved at week 4 in both groups (vehicle-control, P<0.01, and MPS, P<0.01. However, no

  3. Physical biology of human brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eBudday

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurodevelopment is a complex, dynamic process that involves a precisely orchestrated sequence of genetic, environmental, biochemical, and physical events. Developmental biology and genetics have shaped our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms during neurodevelopment. Recent studies suggest that physical forces play a central role in translating these cellular mechanisms into the complex surface morphology of the human brain. However, the precise impact of neuronal differentiation, migration, and connection on the physical forces during cortical folding remains unknown. Here we review the cellular mechanisms of neurodevelopment with a view towards surface morphogenesis, pattern selection, and evolution of shape. We revisit cortical folding as the instability problem of constrained differential growth in a multi-layered system. To identify the contributing factors of differential growth, we map out the timeline of neurodevelopment in humans and highlight the cellular events associated with extreme radial and tangential expansion. We demonstrate how computational modeling of differential growth can bridge the scales-from phenomena on the cellular level towards form and function on the organ level-to make quantitative, personalized predictions. Physics-based models can quantify cortical stresses, identify critical folding conditions, rationalize pattern selection, and predict gyral wavelengths and gyrification indices. We illustrate that physical forces can explain cortical malformations as emergent properties of developmental disorders. Combining biology and physics holds promise to advance our understanding of human brain development and enable early diagnostics of cortical malformations with the ultimate goal to improve treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy, autism spectrum disorders, and schizophrenia.

  4. Evolvability of Amyloidogenic Proteins in Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Makoto; Ho, Gilbert; Sugama, Shuei; Takamatsu, Yoshiki; Shimizu, Yuka; Takenouchi, Takato; Waragai, Masaaki; Masliah, Eliezer

    2018-01-01

     Currently, the physiological roles of amyloidogenic proteins (APs) in human brain, such as amyloid-β and α-synuclein, are elusive. Given that many APs arose by gene duplication and have been resistant against the pressures of natural selection, APs may be associated with some functions that are advantageous for survival of offspring. Nonetheless, evolvability is the sole physiological quality of APs that has been characterized in microorganisms such as yeast. Since yeast and human brain may share similar strategies in coping with diverse range of critical environmental stresses, the objective of this paper was to discuss the potential role of evolvability of APs in aging-associated neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Given the heterogeneity of APs in terms of structure and cytotoxicity, it is argued that APs might be involved in preconditioning against diverse stresses in human brain. It is further speculated that these stress-related APs, most likely protofibrillar forms, might be transmitted to offspring via the germline, conferring preconditioning against forthcoming stresses. Thus, APs might represent a vehicle for the inheritance of the acquired characteristics against environmental stresses. Curiously, such a characteristic of APs is reminiscent of Charles Darwin’s ‘gemmules’, imagined molecules of heritability described in his pangenesis theory. We propose that evolvability might be a physiological function of APs during the reproductive stage and neurodegenerative diseases could be a by-product effect manifested later in aging. Collectively, our evolvability hypothesis may play a complementary role in the pathophysiology of APs with the conventional amyloid cascade hypothesis. PMID:29439348

  5. Molecular biology of the human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    This book examines new methods of molecular biology that are providing valuable insights into the human brain, the genes that govern its assembly and function, and the many genetic defects that cause neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's, Cri du Chat syndrome, Huntington's disease, and bipolar depression disorder. In addition, the book reviews techniques in molecular neurobiological research, including the use of affinity reagents, chimeric receptors, and site-directed mutagenesis in localizing the ion channel and cholinergic binding site, and the application of somatic cell genetics in isolating specific chromosomes or chromosomal segments.

  6. Mouse Genetic Models of Human Brain Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste eLeung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, genetic manipulations in mice have been used in neuroscience as a major approach to investigate the in vivo function of genes and their alterations. In particular, gene targeting techniques using embryonic stem cells have revolutionized the field of mammalian genetics and have been at the forefront in the generation of numerous mouse models of human brain disorders. In this review, we will first examine childhood developmental disorders such as autism, intellectual disability, Fragile X syndrome, and Williams-Beuren syndrome. We will then explore psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and lastly, neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. We will outline the creation of these mouse models that range from single gene deletions, subtle point mutations to multi-gene manipulations, and discuss the key behavioural phenotypes of these mice. Ultimately, the analysis of the models outlined in this review will enhance our understanding of the in vivo role and underlying mechanisms of disease-related genes in both normal brain function and brain disorders, and provide potential therapeutic targets and strategies to prevent and treat these diseases.

  7. Neocortical glial cell numbers in human brains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelvig, D.P.; Pakkenberg, H.; Stark, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    Stereological cell counting was applied to post-mortem neocortices of human brains from 31 normal individuals, age 18-93 years, 18 females (average age 65 years, range 18-93) and 13 males (average age 57 years, range 19-87). The cells were differentiated in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia...... while the total astrocyte number is constant through life; finally males have a 28% higher number of neocortical glial cells and a 19% higher neocortical neuron number than females. The overall total number of neocortical neurons and glial cells was 49.3 billion in females and 65.2 billion in males......, a difference of 24% with a high biological variance. These numbers can serve as reference values in quantitative studies of the human neocortex. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11...

  8. Adaptive elastic segmentation of brain MRI via shape-model-guided evolutionary programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitiot, Alain; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

    2002-08-01

    This paper presents a fully automated segmentation method for medical images. The goal is to localize and parameterize a variety of types of structure in these images for subsequent quantitative analysis. We propose a new hybrid strategy that combines a general elastic template matching approach and an evolutionary heuristic. The evolutionary algorithm uses prior statistical information about the shape of the target structure to control the behavior of a number of deformable templates. Each template, modeled in the form of a B-spline, is warped in a potential field which is itself dynamically adapted. Such a hybrid scheme proves to be promising: by maintaining a population of templates, we cover a large domain of the solution space under the global guidance of the evolutionary heuristic, and thoroughly explore interesting areas. We address key issues of automated image segmentation systems. The potential fields are initially designed based on the spatial features of the edges in the input image, and are subjected to spatially adaptive diffusion to guarantee the deformation of the template. This also improves its global consistency and convergence speed. The deformation algorithm can modify the internal structure of the templates to allow a better match. We investigate in detail the preprocessing phase that the images undergo before they can be used more effectively in the iterative elastic matching procedure: a texture classifier, trained via linear discriminant analysis of a learning set, is used to enhance the contrast of the target structure with respect to surrounding tissues. We show how these techniques interact within a statistically driven evolutionary scheme to achieve a better tradeoff between template flexibility and sensitivity to noise and outliers. We focus on understanding the features of template matching that are most beneficial in terms of the achieved match. Examples from simulated and real image data are discussed, with considerations of

  9. Evolution of the human brain: changing brain size and the fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min S; Nguyen, Andrew D; Aryan, Henry E; U, Hoi Sang; Levy, Michael L; Semendeferi, Katerina

    2007-03-01

    Although the study of the human brain is a rapidly developing and expanding science, we must take pause to examine the historical and evolutionary events that helped shape the brain of Homo sapiens. From an examination of the human lineage to a discussion of evolutionary principles, we describe the basic principles and theories behind the evolution of the human brain. Specifically, we examine several theories concerning changes in overall brain size during hominid evolution and relate them to the fossil record. This overview is intended to provide a broad understanding of some of the controversial issues that are currently being debated in the multidisciplinary field of brain evolution research.

  10. Comparative primate neuroimaging: insights into human brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilling, James K

    2014-01-01

    Comparative neuroimaging can identify unique features of the human brain and teach us about human brain evolution. Comparisons with chimpanzees, our closest living primate relative, are critical in this endeavor. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to compare brain size development, brain structure proportions and brain aging. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been used to compare resting brain glucose metabolism. Functional MRI (fMRI) has been used to compare auditory and visual system pathways, as well as resting-state networks of connectivity. Finally, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been used to compare structural connectivity. Collectively, these methods have revealed human brain specializations with respect to development, cortical organization, connectivity, and aging. These findings inform our knowledge of the evolutionary changes responsible for the special features of the modern human mind.

  11. The capacity of the human iliotibial band to store elastic energy during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Carolyn M; Arnold, Allison S; Lieberman, Daniel E; Biewener, Andrew A

    2015-09-18

    The human iliotibial band (ITB) is a poorly understood fascial structure that may contribute to energy savings during locomotion. This study evaluated the capacity of the ITB to store and release elastic energy during running, at speeds ranging from 2-5m/s, using a model that characterizes the three-dimensional musculoskeletal geometry of the human lower limb and the force-length properties of the ITB, tensor fascia lata (TFL), and gluteus maximus (GMax). The model was based on detailed analyses of muscle architecture, dissections of 3-D anatomy, and measurements of the muscles' moment arms about the hip and knee in five cadaveric specimens. The model was used, in combination with measured joint kinematics and published EMG recordings, to estimate the forces and corresponding strains in the ITB during running. We found that forces generated by TFL and GMax during running stretch the ITB substantially, resulting in energy storage. Anterior and posterior regions of the ITB muscle-tendon units (MTUs) show distinct length change patterns, in part due to different moment arms at the hip and knee. The posterior ITB MTU likely stores more energy than the anterior ITB MTU because it transmits larger muscle forces. We estimate that the ITB stores about 1J of energy per stride during slow running and 7J during fast running, which represents approximately 14% of the energy stored in the Achilles tendon at a comparable speed. This previously unrecognized mechanism for storing elastic energy may be an adaptation to increase human locomotor economy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization and assessment of hyperelastic and elastic properties of decellularized human adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, Ehsan; Fuetterer, Lydia; Reza Mousavi, Seyed; Armstrong, Ryan C; Flynn, Lauren E; Samani, Abbas

    2014-11-28

    Decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) has shown potential as a regenerative scaffold for plastic and reconstructive surgery to augment or replace damaged or missing adipose tissue (e.g. following lumpectomy or mastectomy). The mechanical properties of soft tissue substitutes are of paramount importance in restoring the natural shape and appearance of the affected tissues, and mechanical mismatching can lead to unpredictable scar tissue formation and poor implant integration. The goal of this work was to assess the linear elastic and hyperelastic properties of decellularized human adipose tissue and compare them to those of normal breast adipose tissue. To assess the influence of the adipose depot source on the mechanical properties of the resultant decellularized scaffolds, we performed indentation tests on DAT samples sourced from adipose tissue isolated from the breast, subcutaneous abdominal region, omentum, pericardial depot and thymic remnant, and their corresponding force-displacement data were acquired. Elastic and hyperelastic parameters were estimated using inverse finite element algorithms. Subsequently, a simulation was conducted in which the estimated hyperelastic parameters were tested in a real human breast model under gravity loading in order to assess the suitability of the scaffolds for implantation. Results of these tests showed that in the human breast, the DAT would show similar deformability to that of native normal tissue. Using the measured hyperelastic parameters, we were able to assess whether DAT derived from different depots exhibited different intrinsic nonlinearities. Results showed that DAT sourced from varying regions of the body exhibited little intrinsic nonlinearity, with no statistically significant differences between the groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The human brain in numbers: a linearly scaled-up primate brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Herculano-Houzel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The human brain has often been viewed as outstanding among mammalian brains: the most cognitively able, the largest-than-expected from body size, endowed with an overdeveloped cerebral cortex that represents over 80% of brain mass, and purportedly containing 100 billion neurons and 10x more glial cells. Such uniqueness was seemingly necessary to justify the superior cognitive abilities of humans over larger-brained mammals such as elephants and whales. However, our recent studies using a novel method to determine the cellular composition of the brain of humans and other primates as well as of rodents and insectivores show that, since different cellular scaling rules apply to the brains within these orders, brain size can no longer be considered a proxy for the number of neurons in the brain. These studies also showed that the human brain is not exceptional in its cellular composition, as it was found to contain as many neuronal and nonneuronal cells as would be expected of a primate brain of its size. Additionally, the so-called overdeveloped human cerebral cortex holds only 19% of all brain neurons, a fraction that is similar to that found in other mammals. In what regards absolute numbers of neurons, however, the human brain does have two advantages compared to other mammalian brains: compared to rodents, and probably to whales and elephants as well, it is built according to the very economical, space-saving scaling rules that apply to other primates; and, among economically-built primate brains, it is the largest, hence containing the most neurons. These findings argue in favor of a view of cognitive abilities that is centered on absolute numbers of neurons, rather than on body size or encephalization, and call for a re-examination of several concepts related to the exceptionality of the human brain.

  14. The Human Brain in Numbers: A Linearly Scaled-up Primate Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2009-01-01

    The human brain has often been viewed as outstanding among mammalian brains: the most cognitively able, the largest-than-expected from body size, endowed with an overdeveloped cerebral cortex that represents over 80% of brain mass, and purportedly containing 100 billion neurons and 10× more glial cells. Such uniqueness was seemingly necessary to justify the superior cognitive abilities of humans over larger-brained mammals such as elephants and whales. However, our recent studies using a novel method to determine the cellular composition of the brain of humans and other primates as well as of rodents and insectivores show that, since different cellular scaling rules apply to the brains within these orders, brain size can no longer be considered a proxy for the number of neurons in the brain. These studies also showed that the human brain is not exceptional in its cellular composition, as it was found to contain as many neuronal and non-neuronal cells as would be expected of a primate brain of its size. Additionally, the so-called overdeveloped human cerebral cortex holds only 19% of all brain neurons, a fraction that is similar to that found in other mammals. In what regards absolute numbers of neurons, however, the human brain does have two advantages compared to other mammalian brains: compared to rodents, and probably to whales and elephants as well, it is built according to the very economical, space-saving scaling rules that apply to other primates; and, among economically built primate brains, it is the largest, hence containing the most neurons. These findings argue in favor of a view of cognitive abilities that is centered on absolute numbers of neurons, rather than on body size or encephalization, and call for a re-examination of several concepts related to the exceptionality of the human brain. PMID:19915731

  15. Left Brain to Right Brain: Notes from the Human Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumli, Francis

    1982-01-01

    Examines the implications of the left brain-right brain theory on communications styles in male-female relationships. The author contends that women tend to use the vagueness of their emotional responses manipulatively. Men need to apply rational approaches to increase clarity in communication. (AM)

  16. Listeriolysin O mediates cytotoxicity against human brain microvascular

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penetration of the brain microvascular endothelial layer is one of the routes L. monocytogenes use to breach the blood-brain barrier. Because host factors in the blood severely limit direct invasion of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) by L. monocytogenes, alternative mechanisms m...

  17. Brain-Computer Interfaces and Human-Computer Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Desney; Tan, Desney S.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2010-01-01

    Advances in cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging technologies have started to provide us with the ability to interface directly with the human brain. This ability is made possible through the use of sensors that can monitor some of the physical processes that occur within the brain that

  18. Dynamic analysis of the human brain with complex cerebral sulci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Jung-Ge; Huang, Bo-Wun; Ou, Yi-Wen; Yen, Ke-Tien; Wu, Yi-Te

    2016-07-03

    The brain is one of the most vulnerable organs inside the human body. Head accidents often appear in daily life and are easy to cause different level of brain damage inside the skull. Once the brain suffered intense locomotive impact, external injuries, falls, or other accidents, it will result in different degrees of concussion. This study employs finite element analysis to compare the dynamic characteristics between the geometric models of an assumed simple brain tissue and a brain tissue with complex cerebral sulci. It is aimed to understand the free vibration of the internal brain tissue and then to protect the brain from injury caused by external influences. Reverse engineering method is used for a Classic 5-Part Brain (C18) model produced by 3B Scientific Corporation. 3D optical scanner is employed to scan the human brain structure model with complex cerebral sulci and imported into 3D graphics software to construct a solid brain model to simulate the real complex brain tissue. Obtaining the normal mode analysis by inputting the material properties of the true human brain into finite element analysis software, and then to compare the simplified and the complex of brain models.

  19. Elastic interactions between single microcrack and single osteon microstructure of human femur cortical bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansor, N. N.; Daud, R.; Basaruddin, K. S.; Mat, F.; Bajuri, Y.; Ariffin, A. K.

    2017-09-01

    Inmultiscale Haversian system of cortical bone fracture, a homogenous bone modeling consideration is limited to only one Young modulus was significant for each cortex without having any constituents in that bone. A two dimension model of human femur cortical bone is presented by considering the anatomical positions of four cortices, e.g anterior, posterior, medial and lateral. The Haversian system is modeled under tensile loading by considering the interstitial matrix, osteon and cement line mechanical properties. The interaction between single microcrack and single osteon is evaluated using linear elastic fracture mechanics theory, and was determined using of stress intensity factor, strain energy release rate, and the critical stress intensity factor and critical strain energy release rate parameter. The results indicate that the medial cortex has the highest SIFs while the lowest was posterior cortex. The Young modulus of material was greatly influence the fracture parameters. More stiff the material, the SIF was reduced.

  20. Cristobalite and Hematite Particles in Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopani, Martin; Kopaniova, A; Trnka, M; Caplovicova, M; Rychly, B; Jakubovsky, J

    2016-11-01

    Foreign substances get into the internal environment of living bodies and accumulate in various organs. Cristobalite and hematite particles in the glial cells of pons cerebri of human brain with diagnosis of Behhet disease with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive microanalysis (EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with diffraction were identified. SEM with EDX revealed the matter of irregular micrometer-sized particles sometimes forming polyhedrons with fibrilar or stratified structure. It was found in some particles Ti, Fe, and Zn. Some particles contained Cu. TEM and electron diffraction showed particles of cristobalite and hematite. The presence of the particles can be a result of environmental effect, disruption of normal metabolism, and transformation of physiologically iron-ferrihydrite into more stable form-hematite. From the size of particles can be drawn the long-term accumulation of elements in glial cells.

  1. Changes in cognitive state alter human functional brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaak Nasser Moussa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of the brain as a whole system can be accomplished using network theory principles. Research has shown that human functional brain networks during a resting state exhibit small-world properties and high degree nodes, or hubs, localized to brain areas consistent with the default mode network (DMN. However, the study of brain networks across different tasks and or cognitive states has been inconclusive. Research in this field is important because the underpinnings of behavioral output are inherently dependent on whether or not brain networks are dynamic. This is the first comprehensive study to evaluate multiple network metrics at a voxel-wise resolution in the human brain at both the whole brain and regional level under various conditions: resting state, visual stimulation, and multisensory (auditory and visual stimulation. Our results show that despite global network stability, functional brain networks exhibit considerable task-induced changes in connectivity, efficiency, and community structure at the regional level.

  2. Cerebral Organoids Recapitulate Epigenomic Signatures of the Human Fetal Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chongyuan; Lancaster, Madeline A; Castanon, Rosa; Nery, Joseph R; Knoblich, Juergen A; Ecker, Joseph R

    2016-12-20

    Organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells recapitulate the early three-dimensional organization of the human brain, but whether they establish the epigenomic and transcriptional programs essential for brain development is unknown. We compared epigenomic and regulatory features in cerebral organoids and human fetal brain, using genome-wide, base resolution DNA methylome and transcriptome sequencing. Transcriptomic dynamics in organoids faithfully modeled gene expression trajectories in early-to-mid human fetal brains. We found that early non-CG methylation accumulation at super-enhancers in both fetal brain and organoids marks forthcoming transcriptional repression in the fully developed brain. Demethylated regions (74% of 35,627) identified during organoid differentiation overlapped with fetal brain regulatory elements. Interestingly, pericentromeric repeats showed widespread demethylation in multiple types of in vitro human neural differentiation models but not in fetal brain. Our study reveals that organoids recapitulate many epigenomic features of mid-fetal human brain and also identified novel non-CG methylation signatures of brain development. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cerebral Organoids Recapitulate Epigenomic Signatures of the Human Fetal Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongyuan Luo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells recapitulate the early three-dimensional organization of the human brain, but whether they establish the epigenomic and transcriptional programs essential for brain development is unknown. We compared epigenomic and regulatory features in cerebral organoids and human fetal brain, using genome-wide, base resolution DNA methylome and transcriptome sequencing. Transcriptomic dynamics in organoids faithfully modeled gene expression trajectories in early-to-mid human fetal brains. We found that early non-CG methylation accumulation at super-enhancers in both fetal brain and organoids marks forthcoming transcriptional repression in the fully developed brain. Demethylated regions (74% of 35,627 identified during organoid differentiation overlapped with fetal brain regulatory elements. Interestingly, pericentromeric repeats showed widespread demethylation in multiple types of in vitro human neural differentiation models but not in fetal brain. Our study reveals that organoids recapitulate many epigenomic features of mid-fetal human brain and also identified novel non-CG methylation signatures of brain development.

  4. Sodium L-ascorbate enhances elastic fibers deposition by fibroblasts from normal and pathologic human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinek, Aleksander; Kim, Hyunjun J; Wang, Yanting; Wang, Andrew; Mitts, Thomas F

    2014-09-01

    Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid), a known enhancer of collagen deposition, has also been identified as an inhibitor of elastogenesis. Present studies explored whether and how the L-ascorbic acid derivative (+) sodium L-ascorbate (SA) would affect production of collagen and elastic fibers in cultures of fibroblasts derived from normal human skin and dermal fat, as well as in explants of normal human skin, stretch-marked skin and keloids. Effects of SA on the extracellular matrix production were assessed quantitatively by PCR analyses, western blots, biochemical assay of insoluble elastin and by immuno-histochemistry. We also evaluated effects of SA on production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phosphorylation of IGF-I and insulin receptors. SA, applied in 50-200 μM concentrations, stimulates production of both collagen and elastic fibers in all tested cultures. Moreover, combination of SA with a proline hydroxylase inhibitor induces a beneficial remodelling in explants of dermal scars, resulting in the inhibition of collagen deposition and induction of new elastogenesis. Importantly, we revealed that SA stimulates elastogenesis only after intracellular influx of non-oxidized ascorbate anions (facilitated by the sodium-dependent ascorbate transporter), that causes reduction of intracellular ROS, activation of c-Src tyrosine kinase and the enhancement of IGF-1-induced phosphorylation of the IGF-1 receptor that ultimately triggers elastogenic signalling pathway. Our results endorse the use of this potent stimulator of collagen and elastin production in the treatment of wrinkled and stretch-marked skin. They also encourage inclusion of SA into therapeutic combinations with collagenogenesis inhibitors to prevent formation of dermal scars and keloids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. "Messing with the Mind: Evolutionary Challenges to Human Brain Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTHUR eSANIOTIS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The issue of brain augmentation has received considerable scientific attention over the last two decades. A key factor to brain augmentation that has been widely overlooked are the complex evolutionary processes which have taken place in evolving the human brain to its current state of functioning. Like other bodily organs, the human brain has been subject to the forces of biological adaptation. The structure and function of the brain, is very complex and only now we are beginning to understand some of the basic concepts of cognition. Therefore, this article proposes that brain-machine interfacing and nootropics are not going to produce augmented brains because we do not understand enough about how evolutionary pressures have informed the neural networks which support human cognitive faculties.

  6. From reverse transcription to human brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrenko V. V.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Reverse transcriptase from avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV was the subject of the study, from which the investi- gations of the Department of biosynthesis of nucleic acids were started. Production of AMV in grams quantities and isolation of AMV reverse transcriptase were established in the laboratory during the seventies of the past cen- tury and this initiated research on the cDNA synthesis, cloning and investigation of the structure and functions of the eukaryotic genes. Structures of salmon insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF family genes and their transcripts were determined during long-term investigations. Results of two modern techniques, microarray-ba- sed hybridization and SAGE, were used for the identification of the genes differentially expressed in astrocytic gliomas and human normal brain. Comparison of SAGE results on the genes overexpressed in glioblastoma with the results of microarray analysis revealed a limited number of common genes. 105 differentially expressed genes, common to both methods, can be included in the list of candidates for the molecular typing of glioblastoma. The first experiments on the classification of glioblastomas based on the data of the 20 genes expression were conducted by using of artificial neural network analysis. The results of these experiments showed that the expression profiles of these genes in 224 glioblastoma samples and 74 normal brain samples could be according to the Koho- nen’s maps. The CHI3L1 and CHI3L2 genes of chitinase-like cartilage protein were revealed among the most overexpressed genes in glioblastoma, which could have prognostic and diagnostic potential. Results of in vitro experiments demonstrated that both proteins, CHI3L1 and CHI3L2, may initiate the phosphorylation of ERK1/ ERK2 and AKT kinases leading to the activation of MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling cascades in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, human glioblastoma U87MG, and U373 cells. The new human cell line

  7. Energetic and nutritional constraints on infant brain development: implications for brain expansion during human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnane, Stephen C; Crawford, Michael A

    2014-12-01

    The human brain confronts two major challenges during its development: (i) meeting a very high energy requirement, and (ii) reliably accessing an adequate dietary source of specific brain selective nutrients needed for its structure and function. Implicitly, these energetic and nutritional constraints to normal brain development today would also have been constraints on human brain evolution. The energetic constraint was solved in large measure by the evolution in hominins of a unique and significant layer of body fat on the fetus starting during the third trimester of gestation. By providing fatty acids for ketone production that are needed as brain fuel, this fat layer supports the brain's high energy needs well into childhood. This fat layer also contains an important reserve of the brain selective omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), not available in other primates. Foremost amongst the brain selective minerals are iodine and iron, with zinc, copper and selenium also being important. A shore-based diet, i.e., fish, molluscs, crustaceans, frogs, bird's eggs and aquatic plants, provides the richest known dietary sources of brain selective nutrients. Regular access to these foods by the early hominin lineage that evolved into humans would therefore have helped free the nutritional constraint on primate brain development and function. Inadequate dietary supply of brain selective nutrients still has a deleterious impact on human brain development on a global scale today, demonstrating the brain's ongoing vulnerability. The core of the shore-based paradigm of human brain evolution proposes that sustained access by certain groups of early Homo to freshwater and marine food resources would have helped surmount both the nutritional as well as the energetic constraints on mammalian brain development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Lipidomics of human brain aging and Alzheimer's disease pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudí, Alba; Cabré, Rosanna; Jové, Mariona; Ayala, Victoria; Gonzalo, Hugo; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Ferrer, Isidre; Pamplona, Reinald

    2015-01-01

    Lipids stimulated and favored the evolution of the brain. Adult human brain contains a large amount of lipids, and the largest diversity of lipid classes and lipid molecular species. Lipidomics is defined as "the full characterization of lipid molecular species and of their biological roles with respect to expression of proteins involved in lipid metabolism and function, including gene regulation." Therefore, the study of brain lipidomics can help to unravel the diversity and to disclose the specificity of these lipid traits and its alterations in neural (neurons and glial) cells, groups of neural cells, brain, and fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid and plasma, thus helping to uncover potential biomarkers of human brain aging and Alzheimer disease. This review will discuss the lipid composition of the adult human brain. We first consider a brief approach to lipid definition, classification, and tools for analysis from the new point of view that has emerged with lipidomics, and then turn to the lipid profiles in human brain and how lipids affect brain function. Finally, we focus on the current status of lipidomics findings in human brain aging and Alzheimer's disease pathology. Neurolipidomics will increase knowledge about physiological and pathological functions of brain cells and will place the concept of selective neuronal vulnerability in a lipid context. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Age-related differences in the elasticity of the human cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox Cartwright, Nathaniel E; Tyrer, John R; Marshall, John

    2011-06-17

    The goal of this study was to determine age-related variation in the elasticity of the human cornea using nondestructive means. Organ cultured human corneoscleral buttons were studied. Changes in strain were measured with a radial shearing speckle pattern interferometer after an increase in intraocular pressure from 15.0 to 15.5 mm Hg. Changes in central corneal displacement were calculated by integration, and a bulk corneal Young's modulus was derived by mathematical analysis. Fifty corneas, including 17 pairs, were studied. Donors were aged between 24 and 102 years (mean, 73.1); 29 (58%) specimens were from male donors and 21 from female donors. Young's modulus of the cornea increased with age, with the line of best fit indicating an approximate doubling from 0.27 MPa at age 20 years (95% confidence interval, 0.22-0.31) to 0.52 (0.50-0.54) MPa at age 100 years (R² = 0.70). The stiffness of the human cornea increases by a factor of approximately two between the ages of 20 and 100 years. This variation is relevant to the algorithms used to predict the response to incisional and ablative refractive surgery and will also affect the formulas used to calculate intraocular pressure by applanation.

  10. Evolutionary origins of human brain and spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, Maciej; Saniotis, Arthur

    2009-12-01

    Evolving brains produce minds. Minds operate on imaginary entities. Thus they can create what does not exist in the physical world. Spirits can be deified. Perception of spiritual entities is emotional--organic. Spirituality is a part of culture while culture is an adaptive mechanism of human groups as it allows for technology and social organization to support survival and reproduction. Humans are not rational, they are emotional. Most of explanations of the world, offered by various cultures, involve an element of "fiat", a will of a higher spiritual being, or a reference to some ideal. From this the rules of behaviour are deduced. These rules are necessary to maintain social peace and allow a complex unit consisting of individuals of both sexes and all ages to function in a way ensuring their reproductive success and thus survival. There is thus a direct biological benefit of complex ideological superstructure of culture. This complex superstructure most often takes a form of religion in which logic is mixed with appeals to emotions based on images of spiritual beings. God is a consequence of natural evolution. Whether a deity is a cause of this evolution is difficult to discover, but existence of a deity cannot be questioned.

  11. Macroscopic networks in the human brain: mapping connectivity in healthy and damaged brains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, E.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    The human brain contains a network of interconnected neurons. Recent advances in functional and structural in-vivo magnetic resonance neuroimaging (MRI) techniques have provided opportunities to model the networks of the human brain on a macroscopic scale. This dissertation investigates the

  12. A Culture-Behavior-Brain Loop Model of Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shihui; Ma, Yina

    2015-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that cultural influences on brain activity are associated with multiple cognitive and affective processes. These findings prompt an integrative framework to account for dynamic interactions between culture, behavior, and the brain. We put forward a culture-behavior-brain (CBB) loop model of human development that proposes that culture shapes the brain by contextualizing behavior, and the brain fits and modifies culture via behavioral influences. Genes provide a fundamental basis for, and interact with, the CBB loop at both individual and population levels. The CBB loop model advances our understanding of the dynamic relationships between culture, behavior, and the brain, which are crucial for human phylogeny and ontogeny. Future brain changes due to cultural influences are discussed based on the CBB loop model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Liquid crystal elastomer foams with elastic properties specifically engineered as biodegradable brain tissue scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prévôt, M E; Andro, H; Alexander, S L M; Ustunel, S; Zhu, C; Nikolov, Z; Rafferty, S T; Brannum, M T; Kinsel, B; Korley, L T J; Freeman, E J; McDonough, J A; Clements, R J; Hegmann, E

    2017-12-13

    Tissue regeneration requires 3-dimensional (3D) smart materials as scaffolds to promote transport of nutrients. To mimic mechanical properties of extracellular matrices, biocompatible polymers have been widely studied and a diverse range of 3D scaffolds have been produced. We propose the use of responsive polymeric materials to create dynamic substrates for cell culture, which goes beyond designing only a physical static 3D scaffold. Here, we demonstrated that lactone- and lactide-based star block-copolymers (SBCs), where a liquid crystal (LC) moiety has been attached as a side-group, can be crosslinked to obtain Liquid Crystal Elastomers (LCEs) with a porous architecture using a salt-leaching method to promote cell infiltration. The obtained SmA LCE-based fully interconnected-porous foams exhibit a Young modulus of 0.23 ± 0.07 MPa and a biodegradability rate of around 20% after 15 weeks both of which are optimized to mimic native environments. We present cell culture results showing growth and proliferation of neurons on the scaffold after four weeks. This research provides a new platform to analyse LCE scaffold-cell interactions where the presence of liquid crystal moieties promotes cell alignment paving the way for a stimulated brain-like tissue.

  14. Metabolic costs and evolutionary implications of human brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzawa, Christopher W; Chugani, Harry T; Grossman, Lawrence I; Lipovich, Leonard; Muzik, Otto; Hof, Patrick R; Wildman, Derek E; Sherwood, Chet C; Leonard, William R; Lange, Nicholas

    2014-09-09

    The high energetic costs of human brain development have been hypothesized to explain distinctive human traits, including exceptionally slow and protracted preadult growth. Although widely assumed to constrain life-history evolution, the metabolic requirements of the growing human brain are unknown. We combined previously collected PET and MRI data to calculate the human brain's glucose use from birth to adulthood, which we compare with body growth rate. We evaluate the strength of brain-body metabolic trade-offs using the ratios of brain glucose uptake to the body's resting metabolic rate (RMR) and daily energy requirements (DER) expressed in glucose-gram equivalents (glucosermr% and glucoseder%). We find that glucosermr% and glucoseder% do not peak at birth (52.5% and 59.8% of RMR, or 35.4% and 38.7% of DER, for males and females, respectively), when relative brain size is largest, but rather in childhood (66.3% and 65.0% of RMR and 43.3% and 43.8% of DER). Body-weight growth (dw/dt) and both glucosermr% and glucoseder% are strongly, inversely related: soon after birth, increases in brain glucose demand are accompanied by proportionate decreases in dw/dt. Ages of peak brain glucose demand and lowest dw/dt co-occur and subsequent developmental declines in brain metabolism are matched by proportionate increases in dw/dt until puberty. The finding that human brain glucose demands peak during childhood, and evidence that brain metabolism and body growth rate covary inversely across development, support the hypothesis that the high costs of human brain development require compensatory slowing of body growth rate.

  15. Numerical estimation of bone density and elastic constants distribution in a human mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, J M; García-Aznar, J M; Domínguez, J; Doblaré, M

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we try to predict the distribution of bone density and elastic constants in a human mandible, based on the stress level produced by mastication loads using a mathematical model of bone remodelling. These magnitudes are needed to build finite element models for the simulation of the mandible mechanical behavior. Such a model is intended for use in future studies of the stability of implant-supported dental prostheses. Various models of internal bone remodelling, both phenomenological and more recently mechanobiological, have been developed to determine the relation between bone density and the stress level that bone supports. Among the phenomenological models, there are only a few that are also able to reproduce the level of anisotropy. These latter have been successfully applied to long bones, primarily the femur. One of these models is here applied to the human mandible, whose corpus behaves as a long bone. The results of bone density distribution and level of anisotropy in different parts of the mandible have been compared with various clinical studies, with a reasonable level of agreement.

  16. Hierarchical modelling of elastic behaviour of human enamel based on synchrotron diffraction characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Tan; Sandholzer, Michael A; Baimpas, Nikolaos; Dolbnya, Igor P; Landini, Gabriel; Korsunsky, Alexander M

    2013-11-01

    Human enamel is a hierarchical mineralized tissue with a two-level composite structure. Few studies have focused on the structure-mechanical property relationship and its link to the multi-scale architecture of human enamel, whereby the response to mechanical loading is affected not only by the rod distribution at micro-scale, but also strongly influenced by the mineral crystallite shape, and spatial arrangement and orientation. In this study, two complementary synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques, wide and small angle X-ray scattering (WAXS/SAXS) were used to obtain multi-scale quantitative information about the structure and deformation response of human enamel to in situ uniaxial compressive loading. The apparent modulus was determined linking the external load and the internal strain in hydroxyapatite (HAp) crystallites. An improved multi-scale Eshelby model is proposed taking into account the two-level hierarchical structure of enamel. This framework has been used to analyse the experimental data for the elastic lattice strain evolution within the HAp crystals. The achieved agreement between the model prediction and experiment along the loading direction validates the model and suggests that the new multi-scale approach reasonably captures the structure-property relationship for the human enamel. The ability of the model to predict multi-directional strain components is also evaluated by comparison with the measurements. The results are useful for understanding the intricate relationship between the hierarchical structure and the mechanical properties of enamel, and for making predictions of the effect of structural alterations that may occur due to the disease or treatment on the performance of dental tissues and their artificial replacements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Human brain networks function in connectome-specific harmonic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasoy, Selen; Donnelly, Isaac; Pearson, Joel

    2016-01-21

    A key characteristic of human brain activity is coherent, spatially distributed oscillations forming behaviour-dependent brain networks. However, a fundamental principle underlying these networks remains unknown. Here we report that functional networks of the human brain are predicted by harmonic patterns, ubiquitous throughout nature, steered by the anatomy of the human cerebral cortex, the human connectome. We introduce a new technique extending the Fourier basis to the human connectome. In this new frequency-specific representation of cortical activity, that we call 'connectome harmonics', oscillatory networks of the human brain at rest match harmonic wave patterns of certain frequencies. We demonstrate a neural mechanism behind the self-organization of connectome harmonics with a continuous neural field model of excitatory-inhibitory interactions on the connectome. Remarkably, the critical relation between the neural field patterns and the delicate excitation-inhibition balance fits the neurophysiological changes observed during the loss and recovery of consciousness.

  18. The immune response of the human brain to abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, Anton; Cervenka, Simon; Jonsson Fagerlund, Malin

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Surgery launches a systemic inflammatory reaction that reaches the brain and associates with immune activation and cognitive decline. Although preclinical studies have in part described this systemic-to-brain signaling pathway, we lack information on how these changes appear in humans....... This study examines the short- and long-term impact of abdominal surgery on the human brain immune system by positron emission tomography (PET) in relation to blood immune reactivity, plasma inflammatory biomarkers, and cognitive function. METHODS: Eight males undergoing prostatectomy under general...... to change in [(11) C]PBR28 binding (p = 0.027). INTERPRETATION: This study translates preclinical data on changes in the brain immune system after surgery to humans, and suggests an interplay between the human brain and the inflammatory response of the peripheral innate immune system. These findings may...

  19. Mapping human whole-brain structural networks with diffusion MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patric Hagmann

    Full Text Available Understanding the large-scale structural network formed by neurons is a major challenge in system neuroscience. A detailed connectivity map covering the entire brain would therefore be of great value. Based on diffusion MRI, we propose an efficient methodology to generate large, comprehensive and individual white matter connectional datasets of the living or dead, human or animal brain. This non-invasive tool enables us to study the basic and potentially complex network properties of the entire brain. For two human subjects we find that their individual brain networks have an exponential node degree distribution and that their global organization is in the form of a small world.

  20. From Brain-Environment Connections to Temporal Dynamics and Social Interaction: Principles of Human Brain Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Riitta

    2017-06-07

    Experimental data about brain function accumulate faster than does our understanding of how the brain works. To tackle some general principles at the grain level of behavior, I start from the omnipresent brain-environment connection that forces regularities of the physical world to shape the brain. Based on top-down processing, added by sparse sensory information, people are able to form individual "caricature worlds," which are similar enough to be shared among other people and which allow quick and purposeful reactions to abrupt changes. Temporal dynamics and social interaction in natural environments serve as further essential organizing principles of human brain function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sex beyond the genitalia: The human brain mosaic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Daphna; Berman, Zohar; Tavor, Ido; Wexler, Nadav; Gaber, Olga; Stein, Yaniv; Shefi, Nisan; Pool, Jared; Urchs, Sebastian; Margulies, Daniel S; Liem, Franziskus; Hänggi, Jürgen; Jäncke, Lutz; Assaf, Yaniv

    2015-12-15

    Whereas a categorical difference in the genitals has always been acknowledged, the question of how far these categories extend into human biology is still not resolved. Documented sex/gender differences in the brain are often taken as support of a sexually dimorphic view of human brains ("female brain" or "male brain"). However, such a distinction would be possible only if sex/gender differences in brain features were highly dimorphic (i.e., little overlap between the forms of these features in males and females) and internally consistent (i.e., a brain has only "male" or only "female" features). Here, analysis of MRIs of more than 1,400 human brains from four datasets reveals extensive overlap between the distributions of females and males for all gray matter, white matter, and connections assessed. Moreover, analyses of internal consistency reveal that brains with features that are consistently at one end of the "maleness-femaleness" continuum are rare. Rather, most brains are comprised of unique "mosaics" of features, some more common in females compared with males, some more common in males compared with females, and some common in both females and males. Our findings are robust across sample, age, type of MRI, and method of analysis. These findings are corroborated by a similar analysis of personality traits, attitudes, interests, and behaviors of more than 5,500 individuals, which reveals that internal consistency is extremely rare. Our study demonstrates that, although there are sex/gender differences in the brain, human brains do not belong to one of two distinct categories: male brain/female brain.

  2. Brain-Computer Interface Controlled Cyborg: Establishing a Functional Information Transfer Pathway from Human Brain to Cockroach Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangye; Zhang, Dingguo

    2016-01-01

    An all-chain-wireless brain-to-brain system (BTBS), which enabled motion control of a cyborg cockroach via human brain, was developed in this work. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer interface (BCI) was used in this system for recognizing human motion intention and an optimization algorithm was proposed in SSVEP to improve online performance of the BCI. The cyborg cockroach was developed by surgically integrating a portable microstimulator that could generate invasive electrical nerve stimulation. Through Bluetooth communication, specific electrical pulse trains could be triggered from the microstimulator by BCI commands and were sent through the antenna nerve to stimulate the brain of cockroach. Serial experiments were designed and conducted to test overall performance of the BTBS with six human subjects and three cockroaches. The experimental results showed that the online classification accuracy of three-mode BCI increased from 72.86% to 78.56% by 5.70% using the optimization algorithm and the mean response accuracy of the cyborgs using this system reached 89.5%. Moreover, the results also showed that the cyborg could be navigated by the human brain to complete walking along an S-shape track with the success rate of about 20%, suggesting the proposed BTBS established a feasible functional information transfer pathway from the human brain to the cockroach brain.

  3. Toward discovery science of human brain function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswal, Bharat B; Mennes, Maarten; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2010-01-01

    Although it is being successfully implemented for exploration of the genome, discovery science has eluded the functional neuroimaging community. The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems in the brain without the constraints...... individual's functional connectome exhibits unique features, with stable, meaningful interindividual differences in connectivity patterns and strengths. Comprehensive mapping of the functional connectome, and its subsequent exploitation to discern genetic influences and brain-behavior relationships...... in the brain. To initiate discovery science of brain function, the 1000 Functional Connectomes Project dataset is freely accessible at www.nitrc.org/projects/fcon_1000/....

  4. [Survival of the fattest: the key to human brain evolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnane, Stephen C

    2006-01-01

    The circumstances of human brain evolution are of central importance to accounting for human origins, yet are still poorly understood. Human evolution is usually portrayed as having occurred in a hot, dry climate in East Africa where the earliest human ancestors became bipedal and evolved tool-making skills and language while struggling to survive in a wooded or savannah environment. At least three points need to be recognised when constructing concepts of human brain evolution : (1) The human brain cannot develop normally without a reliable supply of several nutrients, notably docosahexaenoic acid, iodine and iron. (2) At term, the human fetus has about 13 % of body weight as fat, a key form of energy insurance supporting brain development that is not found in other primates. (3) The genome of humans and chimpanzees is human brain become so much larger, and how was its present-day nutritional vulnerability circumvented during 5-6 million years of hominid evolution ? The abundant presence of fish bones and shellfish remains in many African hominid fossil sites dating to 2 million years ago implies human ancestors commonly inhabited the shores, but this point is usually overlooked in conceptualizing how the human brain evolved. Shellfish, fish and shore-based animals and plants are the richest dietary sources of the key nutrients needed by the brain. Whether on the shores of lakes, marshes, rivers or the sea, the consumption of most shore-based foods requires no specialized skills or tools. The presence of key brain nutrients and a rich energy supply in shore-based foods would have provided the essential metabolic and nutritional support needed to gradually expand the hominid brain. Abundant availability of these foods also provided the time needed to develop and refine proto-human attributes that subsequently formed the basis of language, culture, tool making and hunting. The presence of body fat in human babies appears to be the product of a long period of

  5. Ultrasound elasticity imaging for detecting intestinal fibrosis and inflammation in rats and humans with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stidham, Ryan W; Xu, Jingping; Johnson, Laura A; Kim, Kang; Moons, David S; McKenna, Barbara J; Rubin, Jonathan M; Higgins, Peter D R

    2011-09-01

    Intestinal fibrosis causes many complications of Crohn's disease (CD). Available biomarkers and imaging modalities lack sufficient accuracy to distinguish intestinal inflammation from fibrosis. Transcutaneous ultrasound elasticity imaging (UEI) is a promising, noninvasive approach for measuring tissue mechanical properties. We hypothesized that UEI could differentiate inflammatory from fibrotic bowel wall changes in both animal models of colitis and humans with CD. Female Lewis rats underwent weekly trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid enemas yielding models of acute inflammatory colitis (n = 5) and chronic intestinal fibrosis (n = 6). UEI scanning used a novel speckle-tracking algorithm to estimate tissue strain. Resected bowel segments were evaluated for evidence of inflammation and fibrosis. Seven consecutive patients with stenotic CD were studied with UEI and their resected stenotic and normal bowel segments were evaluated by ex vivo elastometry and histopathology. Transcutaneous UEI normalized strain was able to differentiate acutely inflamed (-2.07) versus chronic fibrotic (-1.10) colon in rat models of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; P = .037). Transcutaneous UEI normalized strain also differentiated stenotic (-0.87) versus adjacent normal small bowel (-1.99) in human CD (P = .0008), and this measurement also correlated well with ex vivo elastometry (r = -0.81). UEI can differentiate inflammatory from fibrotic intestine in rat models of IBD and can differentiate between fibrotic and unaffected intestine in a pilot study in humans with CD. UEI represents a novel technology with potential to become a new objective measure of progression of intestinal fibrosis. Prospective clinical studies in CD are needed. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    OpenAIRE

    Hibar, Derrek P; Stein, Jason L; Renteria, Miguel E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivières, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M; Boks, Marco P

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magn...

  7. Cell diversity and network dynamics in photosensitive human brain organoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadrato, Giorgia; Nguyen, Tuan; Macosko, Evan Z.; Sherwood, John L.; Yang, Sung Min; Berger, Daniel; Maria, Natalie; Scholvin, Jorg; Goldman, Melissa; Kinney, Justin; Boyden, Edward S.; Lichtman, Jeff; Williams, Ziv M.; McCarroll, Steven A.; Arlotta, Paola

    2017-01-01

    In vitro models of the developing brain such as 3D brain organoids offer an unprecedented opportunity to study aspects of human brain development and disease. However, it remains undefined what cells are generated within organoids and to what extent they recapitulate the regional complexity, cellular diversity, and circuit functionality of the brain. Here, we analyzed gene expression in over 80,000 individual cells isolated from 31 human brain organoids. We find that organoids can generate a broad diversity of cells, which are related to endogenous classes, including cells from the cerebral cortex and the retina. Organoids could be developed over extended periods (over 9 months) enabling unprecedented levels of maturity including the formation of dendritic spines and of spontaneously-active neuronal networks. Finally, neuronal activity within organoids could be controlled using light stimulation of photoreceptor-like cells, which may offer ways to probe the functionality of human neuronal circuits using physiological sensory stimuli. PMID:28445462

  8. Impact of Human like Cues on Human Trust in Machines: Brain Imaging and Modeling Studies for Human-Machine Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-05

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2018-0006 Impact of Human like Cues on Human Trust in Machines: Brain Imaging and Modeling Studies for Human -Machine Interactions...AND SUBTITLE Impact of Human like Cues on Human Trust in Machines: Brain Imaging and Modeling Studies for Human -Machine Interactions 5a.  CONTRACT...DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED: PB Public Release 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT When a human and an intelligent machine work together as a team, human

  9. Metabolic costs and evolutionary implications of human brain development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Chugani, Harry T.; Grossman, Lawrence I.; Lipovich, Leonard; Muzik, Otto; Hof, Patrick R.; Wildman, Derek E.; Sherwood, Chet C.; Leonard, William R.; Lange, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    The high energetic costs of human brain development have been hypothesized to explain distinctive human traits, including exceptionally slow and protracted preadult growth. Although widely assumed to constrain life-history evolution, the metabolic requirements of the growing human brain are unknown. We combined previously collected PET and MRI data to calculate the human brain’s glucose use from birth to adulthood, which we compare with body growth rate. We evaluate the strength of brain–body metabolic trade-offs using the ratios of brain glucose uptake to the body’s resting metabolic rate (RMR) and daily energy requirements (DER) expressed in glucose-gram equivalents (glucosermr% and glucoseder%). We find that glucosermr% and glucoseder% do not peak at birth (52.5% and 59.8% of RMR, or 35.4% and 38.7% of DER, for males and females, respectively), when relative brain size is largest, but rather in childhood (66.3% and 65.0% of RMR and 43.3% and 43.8% of DER). Body-weight growth (dw/dt) and both glucosermr% and glucoseder% are strongly, inversely related: soon after birth, increases in brain glucose demand are accompanied by proportionate decreases in dw/dt. Ages of peak brain glucose demand and lowest dw/dt co-occur and subsequent developmental declines in brain metabolism are matched by proportionate increases in dw/dt until puberty. The finding that human brain glucose demands peak during childhood, and evidence that brain metabolism and body growth rate covary inversely across development, support the hypothesis that the high costs of human brain development require compensatory slowing of body growth rate. PMID:25157149

  10. An anatomically comprehensive atlas of the adult human brain transcriptome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawrylycz, M.J.; Beckmann, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Neuroanatomically precise, genome-wide maps of transcript distributions are critical resources to complement genomic sequence data and to correlate functional and genetic brain architecture. Here we describe the generation and analysis of a transcriptional atlas of the adult human brain, comprising

  11. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Stein, Jason L.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H.; Loohuis, Loes M. Olde; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roiz-Santianez, Roberto; Rose, Emma J.; Salami, Alireza; Saemann, Philipp G.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; van Eijk, Kristel R.; Walters, Raymond K.; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hakobjan, Marina M. H.; Hartberg, Cecilie B.; Haukvik, Unn K.; Heister, Angelien J. G. A. M.; Hoehn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Makkinje, Remco R. R.; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A. M.; McKay, D. Reese; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C.; Puetz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A.; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S. L.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Bastin, Mark E.; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Carless, Melanie A.; Cichon, Sven; Corvin, Aiden; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Goering, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzah, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Mahnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mostert, Jeanette C.; Muehleisen, Thomas W.; Nalls, Michael A.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nilsson, Lars G.; Noethen, Markus M.; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D.; Rujescu, Dan; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R.; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A.; Valdes Hernandez, Maria C.; van't Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ashbrook, David G.; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; McMahon, Francis J.; Morris, Derek W.; Williams, Robert W.; Brunner, Han G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C.; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffman, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; Kahn, Rene S.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smoller, Jordan W.; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Voelzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cookson, Mark R.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Deary, Ian J.; Donohoe, Gary; Fernandez, Guillen; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C.; Grabe, Hans J.; Gruber, Oliver; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Joensson, Erik G.; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S.; Mecocci, Patrizia; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Simmons, Andy; Singleton, Andrew; Soininen, Hilkka; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Weale, Michael E.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Launer, Lenore J.; Seiler, Stephan; Schmidt, Reinhold; Chauhan, Ganesh; Satizabal, Claudia L.; Becker, James T.; Yanek, Lisa; van der Lee, Sven J.; Ebling, Maritza; Fischl, Bruce; Longstreth, W. T.; Greve, Douglas; Schmidt, Helena; Nyquist, Paul; Vinke, Louis N.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Xue, Luting; Mazoyer, Bernard; Bis, Joshua C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Seshadri, Sudha; Ikram, M. Arfan; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M.; Medland, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences(1). Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement(2), learning, memory(3) and motivation(4), and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease(5). To

  12. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. Hibar (Derrek); J.L. Stein; M.E. Rentería (Miguel); A. Arias-Vásquez (Alejandro); S. Desrivières (Sylvane); N. Jahanshad (Neda); R. Toro (Roberto); K. Wittfeld (Katharina); L. Abramovic (Lucija); M. Andersson (Micael); B. Aribisala (Benjamin); N.J. Armstrong (Nicola J.); M. Bernard (Manon); M.M. Bohlken (Marc M.); M.P.M. Boks (Marco); L.B.C. Bralten (Linda); A.A. Brown (Andrew); M.M. Chakravarty (M. Mallar); Q. Chen (Qiang); C.R.K. Ching (Christopher); G. Cuellar-Partida (Gabriel); A. den Braber (Anouk); S. Giddaluru (Sudheer); A.L. Goldman (Aaron L.); O. Grimm (Oliver); T. Guadalupe (Tulio); J. Hass (Johanna); G. Woldehawariat (Girma); A.J. Holmes (Avram); M. Hoogman (Martine); D. Janowitz (Deborah); T. Jia (Tianye); S. Kim (Shinseog); M. Klein (Marieke); B. Kraemer (Bernd); P.H. Lee (Phil H.); L.M. Olde Loohuis (Loes M.); M. Luciano (Michelle); C. MacAre (Christine); R. Mather; M. Mattheisen (Manuel); Y. Milaneschi (Yuri); K. Nho (Kwangsik); M. Papmeyer (Martina); A. Ramasamy (Adaikalavan); S.L. Risacher (Shannon); R. Roiz-Santiañez (Roberto); E.J. Rose (Emma); A. Salami (Alireza); P.G. Sämann (Philipp); L. Schmaal (Lianne); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); J. Shin (Jean); V.M. Strike (Vanessa); A. Teumer (Alexander); M.M.J. Van Donkelaar (Marjolein M. J.); K.R. van Eijk (Kristel); R.K. Walters (Raymond); L.T. Westlye (Lars); C.D. Whelan (Christopher); A.M. Winkler (Anderson); M.P. Zwiers (Marcel); S. Alhusaini (Saud); L. Athanasiu (Lavinia); S.M. Ehrlich (Stefan); M. Hakobjan (Marina); C.B. Hartberg (Cecilie B.); U.K. Haukvik (Unn); A.J.G.A.M. Heister (Angelien J. G. A. M.); D. Hoehn (David); D. Kasperaviciute (Dalia); D.C. Liewald (David C.); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); R.R.R. Makkinje (Remco R. R.); M. Matarin (Mar); M.A.M. Naber (Marlies A. M.); D. Reese McKay; M. Needham (Margaret); A.C. Nugent (Allison); B. Pütz (Benno); N.A. Royle (Natalie); L. Shen (Li); R. Sprooten (Roy); D. Trabzuni (Danyah); S.S.L. Van Der Marel (Saskia S. L.); K.J.E. Van Hulzen (Kimm J. E.); E. Walton (Esther); A. Björnsson (Asgeir); L. Almasy (Laura); D.J. Ames (David); S. Arepalli (Sampath); A.A. Assareh; M.E. Bastin (Mark); H. Brodaty (Henry); K. Bulayeva (Kazima); M.A. Carless (Melanie); S. Cichon (Sven); A. Corvin (Aiden); J.E. Curran (Joanne); M. Czisch (Michael); G.I. de Zubicaray (Greig); A. Dillman (Allissa); A. Duggirala (Aparna); M.D. Dyer (Matthew); S. Erk; I. Fedko (Iryna); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); T. Foroud (Tatiana); P.T. Fox (Peter); M. Fukunaga (Masaki); J. Raphael Gibbs; H.H.H. Göring (Harald H.); R.C. Green (Robert C.); S. Guelfi (Sebastian); N.K. Hansell (Narelle); C.A. Hartman (Catharina); K. Hegenscheid (Katrin); J. Heinz (Judith); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); D.J. Heslenfeld (Dirk); P.J. Hoekstra (Pieter); F. Holsboer; G. Homuth (Georg); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); M. Ikeda (Masashi); C.R. Jack Jr. (Clifford); S. Jenkinson (Sarah); R. Johnson (Robert); R. Kanai (Ryota); M. Keil (Maria); J.W. Kent (Jack W.); P. Kochunov (Peter); J.B. Kwok (John B.); S. Lawrie (Stephen); X. Liu (Xinmin); D.L. Longo (Dan L.); K.L. Mcmahon (Katie); E. Meisenzahl (Eva); I. Melle (Ingrid); S. Mohnke (Sebastian); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); J.C. Mostert (Jeanette C.); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); M.A. Nalls (Michael); T.E. Nichols (Thomas); L.G. Nilsson; M.M. Nöthen (Markus); K. Ohi (Kazutaka); R.L. Olvera (Rene); R. Perez-Iglesias (Rocio); G. Bruce Pike; S.G. Potkin (Steven); I. Reinvang (Ivar); S. Reppermund; M. Rietschel (Marcella); N. Seiferth (Nina); G.D. Rosen (Glenn D.); D. Rujescu (Dan); K. Schnell (Kerry); C.J. Schofield (Christopher); C. Smith (Colin); V.M. Steen (Vidar); J. Sussmann (Jessika); A. Thalamuthu (Anbupalam); A.W. Toga (Arthur W.); B. Traynor (Bryan); J.C. Troncoso (Juan); J. Turner (Jessica); M.C. Valdés Hernández (Maria); D. van 't Ent (Dennis); M.P. van der Brug (Marcel); N.J. van der Wee (Nic); M.J.D. van Tol (Marie-José); D.J. Veltman (Dick); A.M.J. Wassink (Annemarie); E. Westman (Eric); R.H. Zielke (Ronald H.); A.B. Zonderman (Alan B.); D.G. Ashbrook (David G.); R. Hager (Reinmar); L. Lu (Lu); F.J. Mcmahon (Francis J); D.W. Morris (Derek W); R.W. Williams (Robert W.); H.G. Brunner; M. Buckner; J.K. Buitelaar (Jan K.); W. Cahn (Wiepke); V.D. Calhoun Vince D. (V.); G. Cavalleri (Gianpiero); B. Crespo-Facorro (Benedicto); A.M. Dale (Anders); G.E. Davies (Gareth); N. Delanty; C. Depondt (Chantal); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); D.A. Drevets (Douglas); T. Espeseth (Thomas); R.L. Gollub (Randy); B.C. Ho (Beng ); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); N. Hosten (Norbert); R. Kahn (René); S. Le Hellard (Stephanie); A. Meyer-Lindenberg; B. Müller-Myhsok (B.); M. Nauck (Matthias); L. Nyberg (Lars); M. Pandolfo (Massimo); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); J.L. Roffman (Joshua); S.M. Sisodiya (Sanjay); J.W. Smoller; H. van Bokhoven (Hans); N.E.M. van Haren (Neeltje E.); H. Völzke (Henry); H.J. Walter (Henrik); M.W. Weiner (Michael); W. Wen (Wei); T.J.H. White (Tonya); I. Agartz (Ingrid); O.A. Andreassen (Ole); J. Blangero (John); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); R.M. Brouwer (Rachel); D.M. Cannon (Dara); M.R. Cookson (Mark); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); D.J. Donohoe (Dennis); G. Fernandez (Guillén); S.E. Fisher (Simon); C. Francks (Clyde); D.C. Glahn (David); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); O. Gruber (Oliver); J. Hardy (John); R. Hashimoto (Ryota); H.E. Hulshoff Pol (Hilleke); E.G. Jönsson (Erik); I. Kloszewska (Iwona); S. Lovestone (Simon); V.S. Mattay (Venkata S.); P. Mecocci (Patrizia); C. McDonald (Colm); A.M. McIntosh (Andrew); R.A. Ophoff (Roel); T. Paus (Tomas); Z. Pausova (Zdenka); M. Ryten (Mina); P.S. Sachdev (Perminder); A.J. Saykin (Andrew); A. Simmons (Andrew); A. Singleton (Andrew); H. Soininen (H.); J.M. Wardlaw (J.); M.E. Weale (Michael); D.R. Weinberger (Daniel); H.H.H. Adams (Hieab); L.J. Launer (Lenore); S. Seiler (Stephan); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); G. Chauhan (Ganesh); C.L. Satizabal (Claudia L.); J.T. Becker (James); L.R. Yanek (Lisa); S.J. van der Lee (Sven); M. Ebling (Maritza); B. Fischl (Bruce); W.T. Longstreth Jr; D. Greve (Douglas); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); P. Nyquist (Paul); L.N. Vinke (Louis N.); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); L. Xue (Luting); B. Mazoyer (Bernard); J.C. Bis (Joshua); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); S. Seshadri (Sudha); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M.J. Wright (Margaret); G. Schumann (Gunter); B. Franke (Barbara); P.M. Thompson (Paul); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate

  13. Genetic contributions to human brain morphology and intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; Schnack, H.G.; Posthuma, D.; Mandl, R.C.W.; Baaré, W.F.; van Oel, C.J.; van Haren, N.E.M.; Colins, D.L.; Evans, A.C.; Amunts, K.; Bürgel, U.; Zilles, K.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Boomsma, D.I.; Kahn, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    Variation in gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume of the adult human brain is primarily genetically determined. Moreover, total brain volume is positively correlated with general intelligence, and both share a common genetic origin. However, although genetic effects on morphology of

  14. Genetic contributions to human brain morphology and intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulshoff Pol, HE; Schnack, HG; Posthuma, D

    2006-01-01

    Variation in gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume of the adult human brain is primarily genetically determined. Moreover, total brain volume is positively correlated with general intelligence, and both share a common genetic origin. However, although genetic effects on morphology of spec...

  15. Time-Elastic Generative Model for Acceleration Time Series in Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Munoz-Organero

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Body-worn sensors in general and accelerometers in particular have been widely used in order to detect human movements and activities. The execution of each type of movement by each particular individual generates sequences of time series of sensed data from which specific movement related patterns can be assessed. Several machine learning algorithms have been used over windowed segments of sensed data in order to detect such patterns in activity recognition based on intermediate features (either hand-crafted or automatically learned from data. The underlying assumption is that the computed features will capture statistical differences that can properly classify different movements and activities after a training phase based on sensed data. In order to achieve high accuracy and recall rates (and guarantee the generalization of the system to new users, the training data have to contain enough information to characterize all possible ways of executing the activity or movement to be detected. This could imply large amounts of data and a complex and time-consuming training phase, which has been shown to be even more relevant when automatically learning the optimal features to be used. In this paper, we present a novel generative model that is able to generate sequences of time series for characterizing a particular movement based on the time elasticity properties of the sensed data. The model is used to train a stack of auto-encoders in order to learn the particular features able to detect human movements. The results of movement detection using a newly generated database with information on five users performing six different movements are presented. The generalization of results using an existing database is also presented in the paper. The results show that the proposed mechanism is able to obtain acceptable recognition rates (F = 0.77 even in the case of using different people executing a different sequence of movements and using different

  16. Toward discovery science of human brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Bharat B; Mennes, Maarten; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Gohel, Suril; Kelly, Clare; Smith, Steve M; Beckmann, Christian F; Adelstein, Jonathan S; Buckner, Randy L; Colcombe, Stan; Dogonowski, Anne-Marie; Ernst, Monique; Fair, Damien; Hampson, Michelle; Hoptman, Matthew J; Hyde, James S; Kiviniemi, Vesa J; Kötter, Rolf; Li, Shi-Jiang; Lin, Ching-Po; Lowe, Mark J; Mackay, Clare; Madden, David J; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Margulies, Daniel S; Mayberg, Helen S; McMahon, Katie; Monk, Christopher S; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Nagel, Bonnie J; Pekar, James J; Peltier, Scott J; Petersen, Steven E; Riedl, Valentin; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Rypma, Bart; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Schmidt, Sein; Seidler, Rachael D; Siegle, Greg J; Sorg, Christian; Teng, Gao-Jun; Veijola, Juha; Villringer, Arno; Walter, Martin; Wang, Lihong; Weng, Xu-Chu; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Williamson, Peter; Windischberger, Christian; Zang, Yu-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Ying; Castellanos, F Xavier; Milham, Michael P

    2010-03-09

    Although it is being successfully implemented for exploration of the genome, discovery science has eluded the functional neuroimaging community. The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems in the brain without the constraints of a priori hypotheses. Resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) constitutes a candidate approach capable of addressing this challenge. Imaging the brain during rest reveals large-amplitude spontaneous low-frequency (science of brain function, the 1000 Functional Connectomes Project dataset is freely accessible at www.nitrc.org/projects/fcon_1000/.

  17. Modal Damping Ratio and Optimal Elastic Moduli of Human Body Segments for Anthropometric Vibratory Model of Standing Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Manoj; Gupta, T C

    2017-10-01

    The present study aims to accurately estimate inertial, physical, and dynamic parameters of human body vibratory model consistent with physical structure of the human body that also replicates its dynamic response. A 13 degree-of-freedom (DOF) lumped parameter model for standing person subjected to support excitation is established. Model parameters are determined from anthropometric measurements, uniform mass density, elastic modulus of individual body segments, and modal damping ratios. Elastic moduli of ellipsoidal body segments are initially estimated by comparing stiffness of spring elements, calculated from a detailed scheme, and values available in literature for same. These values are further optimized by minimizing difference between theoretically calculated platform-to-head transmissibility ratio (TR) and experimental measurements. Modal damping ratios are estimated from experimental transmissibility response using two dominant peaks in the frequency range of 0-25 Hz. From comparison between dynamic response determined form modal analysis and experimental results, a set of elastic moduli for different segments of human body and a novel scheme to determine modal damping ratios from TR plots, are established. Acceptable match between transmissibility values calculated from the vibratory model and experimental measurements for 50th percentile U.S. male, except at very low frequencies, establishes the human body model developed. Also, reasonable agreement obtained between theoretical response curve and experimental response envelop for average Indian male, affirms the technique used for constructing vibratory model of a standing person. Present work attempts to develop effective technique for constructing subject specific damped vibratory model based on its physical measurements.

  18. Isolation of Borna Disease Virus from Human Brain Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yurie; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Shoya, Yuko; Nakaya, Takaaki; Watanabe, Makiko; Tomonaga, Keizo; Iwahashi, Kazuhiko; Ameno, Kiyoshi; Momiyama, Noriko; Taniyama, Hiroyuka; Sata, Tetsutaro; Kurata, Takeshi; de la Torre, Juan Carlos; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2000-01-01

    Serological and molecular epidemiological studies indicate that Borna disease virus (BDV) can infect humans and is possibly associated with certain neuropsychiatric disorders. We examined brain tissue collected at autopsy from four schizophrenic patients and two healthy controls for the presence of BDV markers in 12 different brain regions. BDV RNA and antigen was detected in four brain regions of a BDV-seropositive schizophrenic patient (P2) with a very recent (2 years) onset of disease. BDV markers exhibited a regionally localized distribution. BDV RNA was found in newborn Mongolian gerbils intracranially inoculated with homogenates from BDV-positive brain regions of P2. Human oligodendroglia (OL) cells inoculated with brain homogenates from BDV-positive gerbils allowed propagation and isolation of BDVHuP2br, a human brain-derived BDV. Virus isolation was also possible by transfection of Vero cells with ribonucleoprotein complexes prepared from BDV-positive human and gerbil brain tissues. BDVHuP2br was genetically closely related to but distinct from previously reported human- and animal-derived BDV sequences. PMID:10775596

  19. Sex beyond the genitalia: The human brain mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Daphna; Berman, Zohar; Tavor, Ido; Wexler, Nadav; Gaber, Olga; Stein, Yaniv; Shefi, Nisan; Pool, Jared; Urchs, Sebastian; Margulies, Daniel S.; Liem, Franziskus; Hänggi, Jürgen; Jäncke, Lutz; Assaf, Yaniv

    2015-01-01

    Whereas a categorical difference in the genitals has always been acknowledged, the question of how far these categories extend into human biology is still not resolved. Documented sex/gender differences in the brain are often taken as support of a sexually dimorphic view of human brains (“female brain” or “male brain”). However, such a distinction would be possible only if sex/gender differences in brain features were highly dimorphic (i.e., little overlap between the forms of these features in males and females) and internally consistent (i.e., a brain has only “male” or only “female” features). Here, analysis of MRIs of more than 1,400 human brains from four datasets reveals extensive overlap between the distributions of females and males for all gray matter, white matter, and connections assessed. Moreover, analyses of internal consistency reveal that brains with features that are consistently at one end of the “maleness-femaleness” continuum are rare. Rather, most brains are comprised of unique “mosaics” of features, some more common in females compared with males, some more common in males compared with females, and some common in both females and males. Our findings are robust across sample, age, type of MRI, and method of analysis. These findings are corroborated by a similar analysis of personality traits, attitudes, interests, and behaviors of more than 5,500 individuals, which reveals that internal consistency is extremely rare. Our study demonstrates that, although there are sex/gender differences in the brain, human brains do not belong to one of two distinct categories: male brain/female brain. PMID:26621705

  20. Quantitation of glial fibrillary acidic protein in human brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S; Bock, E; Warecka, K

    1980-01-01

    The glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFA) content of 58 human brain tumours was determined by quantitative immunoelectrophoresis, using monospecific antibody against GFA. Astrocytomas, glioblastomas, oligodendrogliomas, spongioblastomas, ependymomas and medulloblastomas contained relatively high...... amounts of GFA, up to 85 times the concentration in parietal grey substance of normal human brain. GFA was not found in neurinomas, meningiomas, adenomas of the hypophysis, or in a single case of metastasis of adenocarcinoma. Non-glial tumours of craniopharyngioma and haemangioblastoma were infiltrated...

  1. Optogenetic control of human neurons in organotypic brain cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, My; Avaliani, Natalia; Svensson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Optogenetics is one of the most powerful tools in neuroscience, allowing for selective control of specific neuronal populations in the brain of experimental animals, including mammals. We report, for the first time, the application of optogenetic tools to human brain tissue providing a proof......-of-concept for the use of optogenetics in neuromodulation of human cortical and hippocampal neurons as a possible tool to explore network mechanisms and develop future therapeutic strategies....

  2. Centrality of Social Interaction in Human Brain Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Riitta; Henriksson, Linda; Malinen, Sanna; Parkkonen, Lauri

    2015-10-07

    People are embedded in social interaction that shapes their brains throughout lifetime. Instead of emerging from lower-level cognitive functions, social interaction could be the default mode via which humans communicate with their environment. Should this hypothesis be true, it would have profound implications on how we think about brain functions and how we dissect and simulate them. We suggest that the research on the brain basis of social cognition and interaction should move from passive spectator science to studies including engaged participants and simultaneous recordings from the brains of the interacting persons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Outer brain barriers in rat and human development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøchner, Christian B; Holst, Camilla Bjørnbak; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Complex barriers at the brain's surface, particularly in development, are poorly defined. In the adult, arachnoid blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier separates the fenestrated dural vessels from the CSF by means of a cell layer joined by tight junctions. Outer CSF-brain barrier provides...... diffusion restriction between brain and subarachnoid CSF through an initial radial glial end feet layer covered with a pial surface layer. To further characterize these interfaces we examined embryonic rat brains from E10 to P0 and forebrains from human embryos and fetuses (6-21st weeks post...

  4. Modern human brain growth and development. Contribution to brain evolution in hominids

    OpenAIRE

    Ventrice, F

    2011-01-01

    Human phylogenetic history is directly related to brain evolution. But many biologic processes related to the appearance of this complex organ are unknown, mainly due to the fact that it is an organ composed of soft tissue, which is not sensitive to the fossilization processes. Hence, to infer human brain evolution it is essential to study the indirect evidences it leaves in the cranial bones, such as the endocranial size (cranial capacity) and shape. In this sense, the hominid fossil record ...

  5. Estimating Neural Signal Dynamics in the Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W Tyler

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Although brain imaging methods are highly effective for localizing the effects of neural activation throughout the human brain in terms of the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD response, there is currently no way to estimate the underlying neural signal dynamics in generating the BOLD response in each local activation region (except for processes slower than the BOLD time course. Knowledge of the neural signal is critical information if spatial mapping is to progress to the analysis of dynamic information flow through the cortical networks as the brain performs its tasks. We introduce an analytic approach that provides a new level of conceptualization and specificity in the study of brain processing by noninvasive methods. This technique allows us to use brain imaging methods to determine the dynamics of local neural population responses to their native temporal resolution throughout the human brain, with relatively narrow confidence intervals on many response properties. The ability to characterize local neural dynamics in the human brain represents a significant enhancement of brain imaging capabilities, with potential application from general cognitive studies to assessment of neuropathologies.

  6. Noncontact, nondestructive elasticity evaluation of sound and demineralized human dental enamel using a laser ultrasonic surface wave dispersion technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Chuan; Fleming, Simon; Lee, Yung-Chun; Law, Susan; Swain, Michael; Xue, Jing

    2009-09-01

    Laser ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods have been proposed to replace conventional in vivo dental clinical diagnosis tools that are either destructive or incapable of quantifying the elasticity of human dental enamel. In this work, a laser NDE system that can perform remote measurements on samples of small dimensions is presented. A focused laser line source is used to generate broadband surface acoustic wave impulses that are detected with a simplified optical fiber interferometer. The measured surface wave velocity dispersion spectrum is in turn used to characterize the elasticity of the specimen. The NDE system and the analysis technique are validated with measurements of different metal structures and then applied to evaluate human dental enamel. Artificial lesions are prepared on the samples to simulate different states of enamel elasticity. Measurement results for both sound and lesioned regions, as well as lesions of different severity, are clearly distinguishable from each other and fit well with physical expectations and theoretical value. This is the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that a laser-based surface wave velocity dispersion technique is successfully applied on human dental enamel, demonstrating the potential for noncontact, nondestructive in vivo detection of the development of carious lesions.

  7. Do glutathione levels decline in aging human brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Junchao; Fitzmaurice, Paul S; Moszczynska, Anna; Mattina, Katie; Ang, Lee-Cyn; Boileau, Isabelle; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Sailasuta, Napapon; Kish, Stephen J

    2016-04-01

    For the past 60 years a major theory of "aging" is that age-related damage is largely caused by excessive uncompensated oxidative stress. The ubiquitous tripeptide glutathione is a major antioxidant defense mechanism against reactive free radicals and has also served as a marker of changes in oxidative stress. Some (albeit conflicting) animal data suggest a loss of glutathione in brain senescence, which might compromise the ability of the aging brain to meet the demands of oxidative stress. Our objective was to establish whether advancing age is associated with glutathione deficiency in human brain. We measured reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in multiple regions of autopsied brain of normal subjects (n=74) aged one day to 99 years. Brain GSH levels during the infancy/teenage years were generally similar to those in the oldest examined adult group (76-99 years). During adulthood (23-99 years) GSH levels remained either stable (occipital cortex) or increased (caudate nucleus, frontal and cerebellar cortices). To the extent that GSH levels represent glutathione antioxidant capacity, our postmortem data suggest that human brain aging is not associated with declining glutathione status. We suggest that aged healthy human brains can maintain antioxidant capacity related to glutathione and that an age-related increase in GSH levels in some brain regions might possibly be a compensatory response to increased oxidative stress. Since our findings, although suggestive, suffer from the generic limitations of all postmortem brain studies, we also suggest the need for "replication" investigations employing the new (1)H MRS imaging procedures in living human brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Plastination of dissected brain specimens and Mulligan-stained sections of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeres, F M; Møller, M

    2001-12-01

    The difficulties in obtaining human brain material for teaching neuroanatomy have increased the demand for more durable brain specimens. In this paper, we describe results obtained by preparing large, plastinated, dissected human brain specimens and Mulligan-stained sections of the human brain. The brains were fixed in formalin, washed and dissected in order to visualize the fibre tracts and larger nuclei in the central nervous system. This was followed by dehydration at -20 degrees C in acetone. The specimens were then impregnated with silicone, Biodur S10, in vacuo and hardened in Biodur S6 vapour. The grey and white substance in the central nervous system as well as the larger fibre tracts and nuclei were clearly visible in the dissected, plastinated specimens. Coronal and sagittal sections of the human brain were stained according to Tompsett's modification of the Mulligan method. The sections were then dehydrated in cold acetone followed by forced impregnation with Biodur S10 and hardening. The plastinated sections stained distinctly and strongly and the nuclei in the forebrain, cerebellum and brain stem could be identified easily. The sections did not fade when exposed to light and could be easily handled in the classroom without damage. Therefore, the distinct visualization of neuroanatomical structures, the improved durability of the specimens, as well as the lack of odour make plastinated specimens and stained sections of the central nervous system a valuable tool for teaching neuroanatomy that compliments the use of wet preparations.

  9. Conscious brain-to-brain communication in humans using non-invasive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Carles; Ginhoux, Romuald; Riera, Alejandro; Nguyen, Thanh Lam; Chauvat, Hubert; Berg, Michel; Amengual, Julià L; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Ruffini, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    Human sensory and motor systems provide the natural means for the exchange of information between individuals, and, hence, the basis for human civilization. The recent development of brain-computer interfaces (BCI) has provided an important element for the creation of brain-to-brain communication systems, and precise brain stimulation techniques are now available for the realization of non-invasive computer-brain interfaces (CBI). These technologies, BCI and CBI, can be combined to realize the vision of non-invasive, computer-mediated brain-to-brain (B2B) communication between subjects (hyperinteraction). Here we demonstrate the conscious transmission of information between human brains through the intact scalp and without intervention of motor or peripheral sensory systems. Pseudo-random binary streams encoding words were transmitted between the minds of emitter and receiver subjects separated by great distances, representing the realization of the first human brain-to-brain interface. In a series of experiments, we established internet-mediated B2B communication by combining a BCI based on voluntary motor imagery-controlled electroencephalographic (EEG) changes with a CBI inducing the conscious perception of phosphenes (light flashes) through neuronavigated, robotized transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), with special care taken to block sensory (tactile, visual or auditory) cues. Our results provide a critical proof-of-principle demonstration for the development of conscious B2B communication technologies. More fully developed, related implementations will open new research venues in cognitive, social and clinical neuroscience and the scientific study of consciousness. We envision that hyperinteraction technologies will eventually have a profound impact on the social structure of our civilization and raise important ethical issues.

  10. Conscious brain-to-brain communication in humans using non-invasive technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Grau

    Full Text Available Human sensory and motor systems provide the natural means for the exchange of information between individuals, and, hence, the basis for human civilization. The recent development of brain-computer interfaces (BCI has provided an important element for the creation of brain-to-brain communication systems, and precise brain stimulation techniques are now available for the realization of non-invasive computer-brain interfaces (CBI. These technologies, BCI and CBI, can be combined to realize the vision of non-invasive, computer-mediated brain-to-brain (B2B communication between subjects (hyperinteraction. Here we demonstrate the conscious transmission of information between human brains through the intact scalp and without intervention of motor or peripheral sensory systems. Pseudo-random binary streams encoding words were transmitted between the minds of emitter and receiver subjects separated by great distances, representing the realization of the first human brain-to-brain interface. In a series of experiments, we established internet-mediated B2B communication by combining a BCI based on voluntary motor imagery-controlled electroencephalographic (EEG changes with a CBI inducing the conscious perception of phosphenes (light flashes through neuronavigated, robotized transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, with special care taken to block sensory (tactile, visual or auditory cues. Our results provide a critical proof-of-principle demonstration for the development of conscious B2B communication technologies. More fully developed, related implementations will open new research venues in cognitive, social and clinical neuroscience and the scientific study of consciousness. We envision that hyperinteraction technologies will eventually have a profound impact on the social structure of our civilization and raise important ethical issues.

  11. Optogenetic control of human neurons in organotypic brain cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, My; Avaliani, Natalia; Svensson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Optogenetics is one of the most powerful tools in neuroscience, allowing for selective control of specific neuronal populations in the brain of experimental animals, including mammals. We report, for the first time, the application of optogenetic tools to human brain tissue providing a proof-of-c......-of-concept for the use of optogenetics in neuromodulation of human cortical and hippocampal neurons as a possible tool to explore network mechanisms and develop future therapeutic strategies.......Optogenetics is one of the most powerful tools in neuroscience, allowing for selective control of specific neuronal populations in the brain of experimental animals, including mammals. We report, for the first time, the application of optogenetic tools to human brain tissue providing a proof...

  12. A combination of experimental measurement, constitutive damage model, and diffusion tensor imaging to characterize the mechanical properties of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Alireza; Rahmati, Seyed Mohammadali; Razaghi, Reza

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the mechanical properties of the human brain is deemed important as it may subject to various types of complex loadings during the Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Although many studies so far have been conducted to quantify the mechanical properties of the brain, there is a paucity of knowledge on the mechanical properties of the human brain tissue and the damage of its axon fibers under the various types of complex loadings during the Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Although many studies so far have been conducted to quantify the mechanical properties of the brain, there is a paucity of knowledge on the mechanical properties of the human brain tissue and the damage of its axon fibers under the frontal lobe of the human brain. The constrained nonlinear minimization method was employed to identify the brain coefficients according to the axial and transversal compressive data. The pseudo-elastic damage model data was also well compared with that of the experimental data and it not only up to the primary loading but also the discontinuous softening could well address the mechanical behavior of the brain tissue.

  13. Lactate fuels the human brain during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quistorff, Bjørn; Secher, Niels H; Van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2008-01-01

    lactate in proportion to the arterial concentration. Cerebral lactate uptake, together with glucose uptake, is larger than the uptake accounted for by the concomitant O(2) uptake, as reflected by the decrease in cerebral metabolic ratio (CMR) [the cerebral molar uptake ratio O(2)/(glucose+(1/2) lactate...... blockade but not with beta(1)-adrenergic blockade alone. Also, CMR decreases in response to epinephrine, suggesting that a beta(2)-adrenergic receptor mechanism enhances glucose and perhaps lactate transport across the blood-brain barrier. The pattern of CMR decrease under various forms of brain activation...

  14. Human Development XII: A Theory for the Structure and Function of the Human Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Søren Ventegodt; Tyge Dahl Hermansen; Isack Kandel; Joav Merrick

    2008-01-01

    The human brain is probably the most complicated single structure in the biological universe. The cerebral cortex that is traditionally connected with consciousness is extremely complex. The brain contains approximately 1,000,000 km of nerve fibers, indicating its enormous complexity and which makes it difficult for scientists to reveal the function of the brain. In this paper, we propose a new model for brain functions, i.e., information-guided self-organization of neural patterns, where inf...

  15. Cell-engineered human elastic chondrocytes regenerate natural scaffold in vitro and neocartilage with neoperichondrium in the human body post-transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanaga, Hiroko; Imai, Keisuke; Koga, Mika; Yanaga, Katsu

    2012-10-01

    We have developed a unique method that allows us to culture large volumes of chondrocyte expansion from a small piece of human elastic cartilage. The characteristic features of our culturing method are that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2), which promotes proliferation of elastic chondrocytes, is added to a culture medium, and that cell-engineering techniques are adopted in the multilayered culture system that we have developed. We have subsequently discovered that once multilayered chondrocytes are transplanted into a human body, differentiation induction that makes use of surrounding tissue occurs in situ, and a large cartilage block is obtained through cartinogenesis and matrix formation. We have named this method two-stage transplantation. We have clinically applied this transplantation method to the congenital ear defect, microtia, and reported successful ear reconstruction. In our present study, we demonstrated that when FGF2 was added to elastic chondrocytes, the cell count increased and the level of hyaluronic acid, which is a major extracellular matrix (ECM) component, increased. We also demonstrated that these biochemical changes are reflected in the morphology, with the elastic chondrocytes themselves producing a matrix and fibers in vitro to form a natural scaffold. We then demonstrated that inside the natural scaffold thus formed, the cells overlap, connect intercellularly to each other, and reconstruct a cartilage-like three-dimensional structure in vitro. We further demonstrated by immunohistochemical analysis and electron microscopic analysis that when the multilayered chondrocytes are subsequently transplanted into a living body (abdominal subcutaneous region) in the two-stage transplantation process, neocartilage and neoperichondrium of elastic cartilage origin are regenerated 6 months after transplantation. Further, evaluation by dynamic mechanical analysis showed the regenerated neocartilage to have the same viscoelasticity as normal auricular

  16. Toward discovery science of human brain function.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biswal, B.B.; Mennes, M.J.J.; Zuo, X.N.; Gohel, S.; Kelly, C.; Smith, S.M.; Beckmann, C.F.; Adelstein, J.S.; Buckner, R.L.; Colcombe, S.; Dogonowski, A.M.; Ernst, M.; Fair, D.; Hampson, M.; Hoptman, M.J.; Hyde, J.S.; Kiviniemi, V.J.; Kotter, R.; Li, S.J.; Lin, C.P.; Lowe, M.J.; Mackay, C.; Madden, D.J.; Madsen, K.H.; Margulies, D.S.; Mayberg, H.S.; McMahon, K.; Monk, C.S.; Mostofsky, S.H.; Nagel, B.J.; Pekar, J.J.; Peltier, S.J.; Petersen, S.E.; Riedl, V.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; Rypma, B.; Schlaggar, B.L.; Schmidt, S.; Seidler, R.D.; Siegle, G.J.; Sorg, C.; Teng, G.J.; Veijola, J.; Villringer, A.; Walter, M.; Wang, L.; Weng, X.C.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, S.; Williamson, P.; Windischberger, C.; Zang, Y.F.; Zhang, H.Y.; Castellanos, F.X.; Milham, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Although it is being successfully implemented for exploration of the genome, discovery science has eluded the functional neuroimaging community. The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems in the brain without the constraints of a

  17. Weight lifting in the human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, F.P. de

    2006-01-01

    The world, just like us, is constantly changing. Making predictions about what will happen to you when you do something (and correcting these predictions based on what is actually happening) is therefore of vital importance. An influential theory states that the brain solves this challenge by using

  18. TV, Brain Waves and Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes the procedure to test the hypothesis that subjects' brain waves in response to a television flicker (distraction) would be smaller in amplitude during television programs of high, in contrast to low, interest. Results from 12 viewers support the hypothesis. (CP)

  19. On Expression Patterns and Developmental Origin of Human Brain Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Lior; Chechik, Gal

    2016-08-01

    Anatomical substructures of the human brain have characteristic cell-types, connectivity and local circuitry, which are reflected in area-specific transcriptome signatures, but the principles governing area-specific transcription and their relation to brain development are still being studied. In adult rodents, areal transcriptome patterns agree with the embryonic origin of brain regions, but the processes and genes that preserve an embryonic signature in regional expression profiles were not quantified. Furthermore, it is not clear how embryonic-origin signatures of adult-brain expression interplay with changes in expression patterns during development. Here we first quantify which genes have regional expression-patterns related to the developmental origin of brain regions, using genome-wide mRNA expression from post-mortem adult human brains. We find that almost all human genes (92%) exhibit an expression pattern that agrees with developmental brain-region ontology, but that this agreement changes at multiple phases during development. Agreement is particularly strong in neuron-specific genes, but also in genes that are not spatially correlated with neuron-specific or glia-specific markers. Surprisingly, agreement is also stronger in early-evolved genes. We further find that pairs of similar genes having high agreement to developmental region ontology tend to be more strongly correlated or anti-correlated, and that the strength of spatial correlation changes more strongly in gene pairs with stronger embryonic signatures. These results suggest that transcription regulation of most genes in the adult human brain is spatially tuned in a way that changes through life, but in agreement with development-determined brain regions.

  20. On Expression Patterns and Developmental Origin of Human Brain Regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lior Kirsch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical substructures of the human brain have characteristic cell-types, connectivity and local circuitry, which are reflected in area-specific transcriptome signatures, but the principles governing area-specific transcription and their relation to brain development are still being studied. In adult rodents, areal transcriptome patterns agree with the embryonic origin of brain regions, but the processes and genes that preserve an embryonic signature in regional expression profiles were not quantified. Furthermore, it is not clear how embryonic-origin signatures of adult-brain expression interplay with changes in expression patterns during development. Here we first quantify which genes have regional expression-patterns related to the developmental origin of brain regions, using genome-wide mRNA expression from post-mortem adult human brains. We find that almost all human genes (92% exhibit an expression pattern that agrees with developmental brain-region ontology, but that this agreement changes at multiple phases during development. Agreement is particularly strong in neuron-specific genes, but also in genes that are not spatially correlated with neuron-specific or glia-specific markers. Surprisingly, agreement is also stronger in early-evolved genes. We further find that pairs of similar genes having high agreement to developmental region ontology tend to be more strongly correlated or anti-correlated, and that the strength of spatial correlation changes more strongly in gene pairs with stronger embryonic signatures. These results suggest that transcription regulation of most genes in the adult human brain is spatially tuned in a way that changes through life, but in agreement with development-determined brain regions.

  1. Estimation of the elastic parameters of human liver biomechanical models by means of medical images and evolutionary computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martínez, F; Rupérez, M J; Martín-Guerrero, J D; Monserrat, C; Lago, M A; Pareja, E; Brugger, S; López-Andújar, R

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a method to computationally estimate the elastic parameters of two biomechanical models proposed for the human liver. The method is aimed at avoiding the invasive measurement of its mechanical response. The chosen models are a second order Mooney-Rivlin model and an Ogden model. A novel error function, the geometric similarity function (GSF), is formulated using similarity coefficients widely applied in the field of medical imaging (Jaccard coefficient and Hausdorff coefficient). This function is used to compare two 3D images. One of them corresponds to a reference deformation carried out over a finite element (FE) mesh of a human liver from a computer tomography image, whilst the other one corresponds to the FE simulation of that deformation in which variations in the values of the model parameters are introduced. Several search strategies, based on GSF as cost function, are developed to accurately find the elastics parameters of the models, namely: two evolutionary algorithms (scatter search and genetic algorithm) and an iterative local optimization. The results show that GSF is a very appropriate function to estimate the elastic parameters of the biomechanical models since the mean of the relative mean absolute errors committed by the three algorithms is lower than 4%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. BrainNet Viewer: a network visualization tool for human brain connectomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Mingrui; Wang, Jinhui; He, Yong

    2013-01-01

    The human brain is a complex system whose topological organization can be represented using connectomics. Recent studies have shown that human connectomes can be constructed using various neuroimaging technologies and further characterized using sophisticated analytic strategies, such as graph theory. These methods reveal the intriguing topological architectures of human brain networks in healthy populations and explore the changes throughout normal development and aging and under various pathological conditions. However, given the huge complexity of this methodology, toolboxes for graph-based network visualization are still lacking. Here, using MATLAB with a graphical user interface (GUI), we developed a graph-theoretical network visualization toolbox, called BrainNet Viewer, to illustrate human connectomes as ball-and-stick models. Within this toolbox, several combinations of defined files with connectome information can be loaded to display different combinations of brain surface, nodes and edges. In addition, display properties, such as the color and size of network elements or the layout of the figure, can be adjusted within a comprehensive but easy-to-use settings panel. Moreover, BrainNet Viewer draws the brain surface, nodes and edges in sequence and displays brain networks in multiple views, as required by the user. The figure can be manipulated with certain interaction functions to display more detailed information. Furthermore, the figures can be exported as commonly used image file formats or demonstration video for further use. BrainNet Viewer helps researchers to visualize brain networks in an easy, flexible and quick manner, and this software is freely available on the NITRC website (www.nitrc.org/projects/bnv/).

  3. BrainNet Viewer: a network visualization tool for human brain connectomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingrui Xia

    Full Text Available The human brain is a complex system whose topological organization can be represented using connectomics. Recent studies have shown that human connectomes can be constructed using various neuroimaging technologies and further characterized using sophisticated analytic strategies, such as graph theory. These methods reveal the intriguing topological architectures of human brain networks in healthy populations and explore the changes throughout normal development and aging and under various pathological conditions. However, given the huge complexity of this methodology, toolboxes for graph-based network visualization are still lacking. Here, using MATLAB with a graphical user interface (GUI, we developed a graph-theoretical network visualization toolbox, called BrainNet Viewer, to illustrate human connectomes as ball-and-stick models. Within this toolbox, several combinations of defined files with connectome information can be loaded to display different combinations of brain surface, nodes and edges. In addition, display properties, such as the color and size of network elements or the layout of the figure, can be adjusted within a comprehensive but easy-to-use settings panel. Moreover, BrainNet Viewer draws the brain surface, nodes and edges in sequence and displays brain networks in multiple views, as required by the user. The figure can be manipulated with certain interaction functions to display more detailed information. Furthermore, the figures can be exported as commonly used image file formats or demonstration video for further use. BrainNet Viewer helps researchers to visualize brain networks in an easy, flexible and quick manner, and this software is freely available on the NITRC website (www.nitrc.org/projects/bnv/.

  4. Conservation of regional gene expression in mouse and human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Strand

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Many neurodegenerative diseases have a hallmark regional and cellular pathology. Gene expression analysis of healthy tissues may provide clues to the differences that distinguish resistant and sensitive tissues and cell types. Comparative analysis of gene expression in healthy mouse and human brain provides a framework to explore the ability of mice to model diseases of the human brain. It may also aid in understanding brain evolution and the basis for higher order cognitive abilities. Here we compare gene expression profiles of human motor cortex, caudate nucleus, and cerebellum to one another and identify genes that are more highly expressed in one region relative to another. We separately perform identical analysis on corresponding brain regions from mice. Within each species, we find that the different brain regions have distinctly different expression profiles. Contrasting between the two species shows that regionally enriched genes in one species are generally regionally enriched genes in the other species. Thus, even when considering thousands of genes, the expression ratios in two regions from one species are significantly correlated with expression ratios in the other species. Finally, genes whose expression is higher in one area of the brain relative to the other areas, in other words genes with patterned expression, tend to have greater conservation of nucleotide sequence than more widely expressed genes. Together these observations suggest that region-specific genes have been conserved in the mammalian brain at both the sequence and gene expression levels. Given the general similarity between patterns of gene expression in healthy human and mouse brains, we believe it is reasonable to expect a high degree of concordance between microarray phenotypes of human neurodegenerative diseases and their mouse models. Finally, these data on very divergent species provide context for studies in more closely related species that address

  5. Shortcomings of the Human Brain and Remedial Action by Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, K. Helmut

    2010-01-01

    There is no consensus as to whether, and if so, in which regard and to what extent science and religion is needed for human survival. Here a circumscribed domain is taken up: the sovereignty and sufficiency of the human brain in this context. Several of its shortcomings are pointed out. Religion and other aspects of culture are needed for remedial…

  6. Anandamide hydrolysis by human cells in culture and brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Maccarrone, M.; Stelt, M. van der; Rossi, A.; Veldink, G.A.; Finazzi Agrò, A.

    1998-01-01

    Anandamide (arachidonylethanolamide; AnNH) has important neuromodulatory and immunomodulatory activities. This lipid is rapidly taken up and hydrolyzed to arachidonate and ethanolamine in many organisms. As yet, AnNH inactivation has not been studied in humans. Here, a human brain fatty-acid amide

  7. The Evolution of Human Intelligence and the Coefficient of Additive Genetic Variance in Human Brain Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Geoffrey F.; Penke, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Most theories of human mental evolution assume that selection favored higher intelligence and larger brains, which should have reduced genetic variance in both. However, adult human intelligence remains highly heritable, and is genetically correlated with brain size. This conflict might be resolved by estimating the coefficient of additive genetic…

  8. Expression of iron-related genes in human brain and brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britton Robert S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Defective iron homeostasis may be involved in the development of some diseases within the central nervous system. Although the expression of genes involved in normal iron balance has been intensively studied in other tissues, little is known about their expression in the brain. We investigated the mRNA levels of hepcidin (HAMP, HFE, neogenin (NEO1, transferrin receptor 1 (TFRC, transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2, and hemojuvelin (HFE2 in normal human brain, brain tumors, and astrocytoma cell lines. The specimens included 5 normal brain tissue samples, 4 meningiomas, one medulloblastoma, 3 oligodendrocytic gliomas, 2 oligoastrocytic gliomas, 8 astrocytic gliomas, and 3 astrocytoma cell lines. Results Except for hemojuvelin, all genes studied had detectable levels of mRNA. In most tumor types, the pattern of gene expression was diverse. Notable findings include high expression of transferrin receptor 1 in the hippocampus and medulla oblongata compared to other brain regions, low expression of HFE in normal brain with elevated HFE expression in meningiomas, and absence of hepcidin mRNA in astrocytoma cell lines despite expression in normal brain and tumor specimens. Conclusion These results indicate that several iron-related genes are expressed in normal brain, and that their expression may be dysregulated in brain tumors.

  9. Morphology-elasticity relationships using decreasing fabric information of human trabecular bone from three major anatomical locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Thomas; Pahr, Dieter H; Zysset, Philippe K

    2013-08-01

    With improving clinical CT scanning technology, the accuracy of CT-based finite element (FE) models of the human skeleton may be ameliorated by an enhanced description of apparent level bone mechanical properties. Micro-finite element (μFE) modeling can be used to study the apparent elastic behavior of human cancellous bone. In this study, samples from the femur, radius and vertebral body were investigated to evaluate the predictive power of morphology-elasticity relationships and to compare them across different anatomical regions. μFE models of 701 trabecular bone cubes with a side length of 5.3 mm were analyzed using kinematic boundary conditions. Based on the FE results, four morphology-elasticity models using bone volume fraction as well as full, limited or no fabric information were calibrated for each anatomical region. The 5 parameter Zysset-Curnier model using full fabric information showed excellent predictive power with coefficients of determination ([Formula: see text]) of 0.98, 0.95 and 0.94 of the femur, radius and vertebra data, respectively, with mean total norm errors between 14 and 20%. A constant orthotropy model and a constant transverse isotropy model, where the elastic anisotropy is defined by the model parameters, yielded coefficients of determination between 0.90 and 0.98 with total norm errors between 16 and 25%. Neglecting fabric information and using an isotropic model led to [Formula: see text] between 0.73 and 0.92 with total norm errors between 38 and 49%. A comparison of the model regressions revealed minor but significant (phuman cancellous bone for homogenized FE models.

  10. The bilingual brain: Flexibility and control in the human cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchweitz, Augusto; Prat, Chantel

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the present review is to discuss recent cognitive neuroscientific findings concerning bilingualism. Three interrelated questions about the bilingual brain are addressed: How are multiple languages represented in the brain? how are languages controlled in the brain? and what are the real-world implications of experience with multiple languages? The review is based on neuroimaging research findings about the nature of bilingual processing, namely, how the brain adapts to accommodate multiple languages in the bilingual brain and to control which language should be used, and when. We also address how this adaptation results in differences observed in the general cognition of bilingual individuals. General implications for models of human learning, plasticity, and cognitive control are discussed.

  11. Electrical Guidance of Human Stem Cells in the Rat Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Feng Feng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited migration of neural stem cells in adult brain is a roadblock for the use of stem cell therapies to treat brain diseases and injuries. Here, we report a strategy that mobilizes and guides migration of stem cells in the brain in vivo. We developed a safe stimulation paradigm to deliver directional currents in the brain. Tracking cells expressing GFP demonstrated electrical mobilization and guidance of migration of human neural stem cells, even against co-existing intrinsic cues in the rostral migration stream. Transplanted cells were observed at 3 weeks and 4 months after stimulation in areas guided by the stimulation currents, and with indications of differentiation. Electrical stimulation thus may provide a potential approach to facilitate brain stem cell therapies.

  12. The maternal brain and its plasticity in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pilyoung; Strathearn, Lane; Swain, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Early mother-infant relationships play important roles in infants’ optimal development. New mothers undergo neurobiological changes that support developing mother-infant relationships regardless of great individual differences in those relationships. In this article, we review the neural plasticity in human mothers’ brains based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. First, we review the neural circuits that are involved in establishing and maintaining mother-infant relationships. Second, we discuss early postpartum factors (e.g., birth and feeding methods, hormones, and parental sensitivity) that are associated with individual differences in maternal brain neuroplasticity. Third, we discuss abnormal changes in the maternal brain related to psychopathology (i.e., postpartum depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance abuse) and potential brain remodeling associated with interventions. Last, we highlight potentially important future research directions to better understand normative changes in the maternal brain and risks for abnormal changes that may disrupt early mother-infant relationships. PMID:26268151

  13. Brain and Social Networks: Fundamental Building Blocks of Human Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Emily B; Bassett, Danielle S

    2017-09-01

    How do brains shape social networks, and how do social ties shape the brain? Social networks are complex webs by which ideas spread among people. Brains comprise webs by which information is processed and transmitted among neural units. While brain activity and structure offer biological mechanisms for human behaviors, social networks offer external inducers or modulators of those behaviors. Together, these two axes represent fundamental contributors to human experience. Integrating foundational knowledge from social and developmental psychology and sociology on how individuals function within dyads, groups, and societies with recent advances in network neuroscience can offer new insights into both domains. Here, we use the example of how ideas and behaviors spread to illustrate the potential of multilayer network models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Decade of the Brain 1990--2000: Maximizing human potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The US Decade of the Brain offers scientists throughout the Federal Government a unique opportunity to advance and apply scientific knowledge about the brain and nervous system. During the next 10 years, scientists hope to maximize human potential through studies of human behavior, senses and communication, learning and memory, genetic/chemical alterations, and environmental interactions. Progress in these areas should lead to reductions in mortality from brain and nervous system disorders and to improvements in the quality of life. This report identifies nine research areas that could form the basis of an integrated program in the brain and behavioral sciences. A chart summarizing the Federal activities in these nine areas may be found at the back of the report. In addition, three areas that span the nine research areas -- basic research, technology and international activities -- are considered.

  15. Fundamental Dynamical Modes Underlying Human Brain Synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Alvarado-Rojas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the long-term dynamics of widely interacting cortical and subcortical networks during the wake-sleep cycle. Using large-scale intracranial recordings of epileptic patients during seizure-free periods, we investigated local- and long-range synchronization between multiple brain regions over several days. For such high-dimensional data, summary information is required for understanding and modelling the underlying dynamics. Here, we suggest that a compact yet useful representation is given by a state space based on the first principal components. Using this representation, we report, with a remarkable similarity across the patients with different locations of electrode placement, that the seemingly complex patterns of brain synchrony during the wake-sleep cycle can be represented by a small number of characteristic dynamic modes. In this space, transitions between behavioral states occur through specific trajectories from one mode to another. These findings suggest that, at a coarse level of temporal resolution, the different brain states are correlated with several dominant synchrony patterns which are successively activated across wake-sleep states.

  16. Small-world human brain networks: Perspectives and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xuhong; Vasilakos, Athanasios V; He, Yong

    2017-06-01

    Modelling the human brain as a complex network has provided a powerful mathematical framework to characterize the structural and functional architectures of the brain. In the past decade, the combination of non-invasive neuroimaging techniques and graph theoretical approaches enable us to map human structural and functional connectivity patterns (i.e., connectome) at the macroscopic level. One of the most influential findings is that human brain networks exhibit prominent small-world organization. Such a network architecture in the human brain facilitates efficient information segregation and integration at low wiring and energy costs, which presumably results from natural selection under the pressure of a cost-efficiency balance. Moreover, the small-world organization undergoes continuous changes during normal development and ageing and exhibits dramatic alterations in neurological and psychiatric disorders. In this review, we survey recent advances regarding the small-world architecture in human brain networks and highlight the potential implications and applications in multidisciplinary fields, including cognitive neuroscience, medicine and engineering. Finally, we highlight several challenging issues and areas for future research in this rapidly growing field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Three-dimensional microtomographic imaging of human brain cortex

    CERN Document Server

    Mizutania, Ryuta; Uesugi, Kentaro; Ohyama, Masami; Takekoshi, Susumu; Osamura, R Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an x-ray microtomographic technique for imaging the three-dimensional structure of the human cerebral cortex. Neurons in the brain constitute a neural circuit as a three-dimensional network. The brain tissue is composed of light elements that give little contrast in a hard x-ray transmission image. The contrast was enhanced by staining neural cells with metal compounds. The obtained structure revealed the microarchitecture of the gray and white matter regions of the frontal cortex, which is responsible for the higher brain functions.

  18. Human-like brain hemispheric dominance in birdsong learning

    OpenAIRE

    Moorman, Sanne; Gobes, Sharon M. H.; Kuijpers, Maaike; Kerkhofs, Amber; Zandbergen, Matthijs A.; Bolhuis, Johan J.

    2012-01-01

    Unlike nonhuman primates, songbirds learn to vocalize very much like human infants acquire spoken language. In humans, Broca’s area in the frontal lobe and Wernicke’s area in the temporal lobe are crucially involved in speech production and perception, respectively. Songbirds have analogous brain regions that show a similar neural dissociation between vocal production and auditory perception and memory. In both humans and songbirds, there is evidence for lateralization of neural responsivenes...

  19. Distribution of vesicular glutamate transporters in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika eVigneault

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter in the brain. Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1-3 are responsible for uploading glutamate into synaptic vesicles. VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 are considered as specific markers of canonical glutamatergic neurons, while VGLUT3 is found in neurons previously shown to use other neurotransmitters than glutamate. Although there exists a rich literature on the localization of these glutamatergic markers in the rodent brain, little is currently known about the distribution of VGLUT1-3 in the human brain. In the present study, using subtype specific probes and antisera, we examined the localization of the three vesicular glutamate transporters in the human brain by in situ hybridization, immunoautoradiography and immunohistochemistry. We found that the VGLUT1 transcript was highly expressed in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum, whereas VGLUT2 mRNA was mainly found in the thalamus and brainstem. VGLUT3 mRNA was localized in scarce neurons within the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum and raphe nuclei. Following immunoautoradiographic labeling, intense VGLUT1- and VGLUT2-immunoreactivities were observed in all regions investigated (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, caudate-putamen, cerebellum, thalamus, amygdala, substantia nigra, raphe while VGLUT3 was absent from the thalamus and cerebellum. This extensive mapping of VGLUT1-3 in human brain reveals distributions that correspond for the most part to those previously described in rodent brains.

  20. Several methods to determine heavy metals in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrási, Erzsébet; Igaz, Sarolta; Szoboszlai, Norbert; Farkas, Éva; Ajtony, Zsolt

    1999-05-01

    The determination of naturally occurring heavy metals in various parts of the human brain is discussed. The patients had no diseases in their central nervous systems (five individuals, mean age 70 years). Twenty brain parts were selected from both hemispheres. The analysis was carried out by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis methods. Accuracy and precision of the applied techniques were tested by using standard reference materials. Two digestion methods were used to dissolve the brain samples for ICP-AES and GF-AAS. One was performed in a Parr-bomb and the second in a microwave oven. The present results show a non-homogeneous distribution of the essential elements (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) in normal human brain. Corresponding regions in both hemispheres showed an almost identical concentration of these elements. In the case of toxic elements (Pb, Cd) an average value in different brain regions can not be established because of the high variability of individual data. This study indicates that beside differences in Pb and Cd intake with foods or cigarette smoke inhalation, the main factors of the high inter-individual variability of these element concentrations in human brain parts may be a marked difference in individual elimination or accumulation capabilities.

  1. A psychology of the human brain-gut-microbiome axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P; Dinan, Timothy G; Clarke, Gerard; Cryan, John F

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, we have seen increasing research within neuroscience and biopsychology on the interactions between the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, the bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract, and the bidirectional relationship between these systems: the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Although research has demonstrated that the gut microbiota can impact upon cognition and a variety of stress-related behaviours, including those relevant to anxiety and depression, we still do not know how this occurs. A deeper understanding of how psychological development as well as social and cultural factors impact upon the brain-gut-microbiome axis will contextualise the role of the axis in humans and inform psychological interventions that improve health within the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Interventions ostensibly aimed at ameliorating disorders in one part of the brain-gut-microbiome axis (e.g., psychotherapy for depression) may nonetheless impact upon other parts of the axis (e.g., microbiome composition and function), and functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome represent a disorder of the axis, rather than an isolated problem either of psychology or of gastrointestinal function. The discipline of psychology needs to be cognisant of these interactions and can help to inform the future research agenda in this emerging field of research. In this review, we outline the role psychology has to play in understanding the brain-gut-microbiome axis, with a focus on human psychology and the use of research in laboratory animals to model human psychology.

  2. Purification and characterization of a human brain galectin-1 ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadli, A; LeCaer, J P; Bladier, D; Joubert-Caron, R; Caron, M

    1997-04-01

    Our previous studies have characterized an endogenous lectin from human brain identified as galectin-1. A soluble ligand of galectin-1 was purified from human brain by affinity chromatography and preparative electrophoresis. The purified ligand (termed HBGp82, for human brain galectin-1-binding polypeptide of 82,000 daltons) has an apparent molecular mass of 82 kDa and is glycosylated by N-linked biantennary complex structures. HBGp82 was partially characterized by microsequencing of peptide fragments. Similar peptides were found in a heat shock of protein of 90,000 daltons, hsp90. However, comparison of apparent molecular weights and matrix-assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry clearly showed that HBGp82 differs to some degree from hsp90.

  3. Phosphorylethanolamine content of human brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Y; Yokota, A; Koga, Y

    1994-12-01

    Phosphorylethanolamine (PEA) is the major component of the phosphomonoester peak detected by phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy, but the absolute concentration has not been determined. This study measured the PEA concentration in biopsy specimens of brain tumors and lobectomized cerebral cortex using high-performance liquid chromatography. The concentration of PEA was 118.5 +/- 10.0 mumol/100 g wet wt in cortex, and was significantly higher in malignant gliomas, metastatic pulmonary adenocarcinoma, and neurinoma. The concentration of PEA was especially high in pituitary adenoma, malignant lymphoma, and medulloblastoma.

  4. Human cadaver brain infusion skull model for neurosurgical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabe, Jon; Olabe, Javier; Roda, Jose Maria; Sancho, Vidal

    2011-01-01

    Microsurgical technique and anatomical knowledge require extensive laboratory training. Human cadaver models are especially valuable as they supply a good microsurgical training environment simultaneously providing authentic brain anatomy. We developed the "skull infusion model" as an extension of our previous "brain infusion model" taking it a step further maintaining simplicity but enhancing realism. Four human cadaveric brains donated for educational purposes were explanted at autopsy. The specimens were prepared cannulating carotid and vertebral arteries with plastic tubings, flushed with abundant water and fixed for 1 month in formaldehyde. They were then enclosed with white silk clothing (emulating the dura mater) and inserted into human skulls cut previously into two pieces. Tap water at a flow rate of 10 L/h was infused through the arterial tubings. Diverse microsurgical procedures were performed by two trainees, including craniotomies with microsurgical approaches and techniques such as sylvian fissure exposure, extra-intracranial and intra-intracranial bypass, approaches to the ventricles and choroidal fissure opening. The water infusion fills the arterial system, leaking into the interstitial and cisternal space and finally moistening the whole specimen. This makes vascular microsurgical techniques become extremely realistic, increasing its compliance making manipulations easier and more authentic. Standard microsurgical laboratories frequently have difficulties to work with decapitated human cadaver heads but could have human brains readily available. Using the infusion model and inserting it in a human skull makes the environment much more realistic. Its simplicity and inexpensiveness make it a good alternative for developing microsurgical techniques.

  5. Human-like brain hemispheric dominance in birdsong learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Sanne; Gobes, Sharon M H; Kuijpers, Maaike; Kerkhofs, Amber; Zandbergen, Matthijs A; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2012-07-31

    Unlike nonhuman primates, songbirds learn to vocalize very much like human infants acquire spoken language. In humans, Broca's area in the frontal lobe and Wernicke's area in the temporal lobe are crucially involved in speech production and perception, respectively. Songbirds have analogous brain regions that show a similar neural dissociation between vocal production and auditory perception and memory. In both humans and songbirds, there is evidence for lateralization of neural responsiveness in these brain regions. Human infants already show left-sided dominance in their brain activation when exposed to speech. Moreover, a memory-specific left-sided dominance in Wernicke's area for speech perception has been demonstrated in 2.5-mo-old babies. It is possible that auditory-vocal learning is associated with hemispheric dominance and that this association arose in songbirds and humans through convergent evolution. Therefore, we investigated whether there is similar song memory-related lateralization in the songbird brain. We exposed male zebra finches to tutor or unfamiliar song. We found left-sided dominance of neuronal activation in a Broca-like brain region (HVC, a letter-based name) of juvenile and adult zebra finch males, independent of the song stimulus presented. In addition, juvenile males showed left-sided dominance for tutor song but not for unfamiliar song in a Wernicke-like brain region (the caudomedial nidopallium). Thus, left-sided dominance in the caudomedial nidopallium was specific for the song-learning phase and was memory-related. These findings demonstrate a remarkable neural parallel between birdsong and human spoken language, and they have important consequences for our understanding of the evolution of auditory-vocal learning and its neural mechanisms.

  6. Measuring dopamine release in the human brain with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Psychiatry; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Wang, G.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The dopamine system is involved in the regulation of brain regions that subserve motor, cognitive and motivational behaviors. Disruptions of dopamine (DA) function have ben implicated in neurological and psychiatric illnesses including substance abuse as well as on some of the deficits associated with aging of the human brain. This has made the DA system an important topic in research in the neurosciences and neuroimaging as well as an important molecular target for drug development. Positron Emission Tomography (PET), was the first technology that enabled direct measurement of components of the DA system in the living human brain. Imaging studies of DA in the living brain have been indirect, relying on the development of radiotracers to label DA receptors, DA transporters, compounds which have specificity for the enzymes which degrade synaptic DA. Additionally, through the use of tracers that provide information on regional brain activity (ie brain glucose metabolism and cerebral blood flow) and of appropriate pharmacological interventions, it has been possible to assess the functional consequences of changes in brain DA activity. DA specific ligands have been useful in the evaluation of patients with neuropsychiatric illnesses as well as to investigate receptor blockade by antipsychotic drugs. A limitation of strategies that rely on the use of DA specific ligands is that the measures do not necessarily reflect the functional state of the dopaminergic system and that there use to study the effects of drugs is limited to the investigation of receptor or transporter occupancy. Newer strategies have been developed in an attempt to provide with information on dopamine release and on the functional responsivity of the DA system in the human brain. This in turn allows to investigate the effects of pharmacological agent in an analogous way to what is done with microdialysis techniques.

  7. Fetal microchimerism in human brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broestl, Lauren; Rubin, Joshua B; Dahiya, Sonika

    2017-09-18

    Sex differences in cancer incidence and survival, including central nervous system tumors, are well documented. Multiple mechanisms contribute to sex differences in health and disease. Recently, the presence of fetal-in-maternal microchimeric cells has been shown to have prognostic significance in breast and colorectal cancers. The frequency and potential role of these cells has not been investigated in brain tumors. We therefore selected two common primary adult brain tumors for this purpose: meningioma, which is sex hormone responsive and has a higher incidence in women, and glioblastoma, which is sex hormone independent and occurs more commonly in men. Quantitative PCR was used to detect the presence of male DNA in tumor samples from women with a positive history of male pregnancy and a diagnosis of either glioblastoma or meningioma. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for the X and Y chromosomes was used to verify the existence of intact male cells within tumor tissue. Fetal microchimerism was found in approximately 80% of glioblastoma cases and 50% of meningioma cases. No correlations were identified between the presence of microchimerism and commonly used clinical or molecular diagnostic features of disease. The impact of fetal microchimeric cells should be evaluated prospectively. © 2017 International Society of Neuropathology.

  8. In Vivo Non-Invasive Measurement of Young's Modulus of Elasticity in Human Eyes: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Arthur J; Lin, Shuai-Chun; Kazemi, Arash; McLaren, Jay W; Pruet, Christopher M; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2017-08-28

    Abnormal ocular biomechanical properties may be important for understanding the risk of glaucoma. However, there are no clinical methods for measuring standard material properties in patients. In this feasibility study we demonstrated proof-of-principle for a novel method, ultrasound surface wave elastography (USWE), to determine the in vivo Young's modulus of elasticity of corneas in normal human eyes. Twenty eyes of 10 healthy subjects (mean age 51.4±7.2;±SD, range 43-64 y) were studied. A spherical-tipped probe (3-mm diameter) was placed on closed eyelids and generated a gentle harmonic vibration at 100 Hz for 0.1 second. Wave speed propagation in the cornea was measured by USWE, and Young's modulus was calculated from the wave speed. Associations between Young's modulus and intraocular pressure (IOP), age, central corneal thickness, and axial length were explored by Pearson correlation. Statistical significance was determined by using generalized estimating equation models to account for possible correlation between fellow eyes. Mean IOP was 12.8±2.7 mm Hg. Mean wave speed in the cornea was 1.82±0.10 m/s. Young's modulus of elasticity was 696±113 kPa and was correlated with IOP (r=0.57; P=0.004), but none of the other variables (P>0.1). USWE is a novel non-invasive technique for measuring ocular biomechanical properties. Corneal Young's modulus in normal eyes is associated with IOP, consistent with measurements in cadaver eyes. Further work is needed to determine elasticity in other ocular tissues, particularly the sclera, and if elasticity is altered in glaucoma patients.

  9. Short parietal lobe connections of the human and monkey brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catani, Marco; Robertsson, Naianna; Beyh, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    The parietal lobe has a unique place in the human brain. Anatomically, it is at the crossroad between the frontal, occipital, and temporal lobes, thus providing a middle ground for multimodal sensory integration. Functionally, it supports higher cognitive functions that are characteristic...... in the medial and lateral aspects of the parietal lobe were identified in both species. A tract connecting the medial parietal cortex to the lateral inferior parietal cortex was observed in the monkey brain only. Our findings suggest a consistent pattern of intralobar parietal connections between humans...

  10. PET evaluation of the dopamine system of the human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S.; Gatley, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)]|[SUNY-Stony Brook, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-07-01

    Dopamine plays a pivotal role in the regulation and control of movement, motivation and cognition. It also is closely linked to reward, reinforcement and addiction. Abnormalities in brain dopamine are associated with many neurological and psychiatric disorders including Parkinson`s disease, schizophrenia and substance abuse. This close association between dopamine and neurological and psychiatric diseases and with substance abuse make it an important topic in research in the neurosciences and an important molecular target in drug development. PET enables the direct measurement of components of the dopamine system in the living human brain. It relies on radiotracers which label dopamine receptors, dopamine transporters, precursors of dopamine or compounds which have specificity for the enzymes which degrade dopamine. Additionally, by using tracers that provide information on regional brain metabolism or blood flow as well as neurochemically specific pharmacological interventions, PET can be used to assess the functional consequences of change in brain dopamine activity. PET dopamine measurements have been used to investigate the normal human brain and its involvement in psychiatric and neurological diseases. It has also been used in psychopharmacological research to investigate dopamine drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson`s disease and of schizophrenia as well as to investigate the effects of drugs of abuse on the dopamine system. Since various functional and neurochemical parameters can be studied in the same subject, PET enables investigation of the functional integrity of the dopamine system in the human brain and investigation of the interactions of dopamine with other neurotransmitters. This paper summarizes the different tracers and experimental strategies developed to evaluate the various elements of the dopamine system in the human brain with PET and their applications to clinical research. 254 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Gender development and the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Convincing evidence indicates that prenatal exposure to the gonadal hormone, testosterone, influences the development of children's sex-typical toy and activity interests. In addition, growing evidence shows that testosterone exposure contributes similarly to the development of other human behaviors that show sex differences, including sexual orientation, core gender identity, and some, though not all, sex-related cognitive and personality characteristics. In addition to these prenatal hormonal influences, early infancy and puberty may provide additional critical periods when hormones influence human neurobehavioral organization. Sex-linked genes could also contribute to human gender development, and most sex-related characteristics are influenced by socialization and other aspects of postnatal experience, as well. Neural mechanisms underlying the influences of gonadal hormones on human behavior are beginning to be identified. Although the neural mechanisms underlying experiential influences remain largely uninvestigated, they could involve the same neural circuitry as that affected by hormones.

  12. Modeling static and dynamic thermography of the human breast under elastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jiang; Loew, Murray H [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Wang Zhan, E-mail: loew@gwu.edu [Radiology Department, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94121 (United States)

    2011-01-07

    An abnormal thermogram has been shown to be a reliable indicator of increased risk of breast cancer. Numerical modeling techniques for thermography are proposed to quantify the complex relationships between the breast thermal behaviors and the underlying physiological/pathological conditions. Previous thermal modeling techniques did not account for gravity-induced elastic deformation arising from various body postures, nor did they suggest that a dynamic thermal procedure may be used to enhance clinical diagnosis. In this paper, 3D finite element method (FEM)-based thermal and elastic modeling techniques are developed to characterize comprehensively both the thermal and elastic properties of normal and tumorous breast tissues during static and dynamic thermography. In the steady state, gravity-induced breast deformation is found to cause an upper-lower asymmetric surface temperature contrast for sitting/standing up body posture, even though all the thermal and elastic properties are assumed uniform. Additionally, the tumor-induced surface temperature alterations are found to be caused primarily by shallow tumors and to be less sensitive to tumor size than to tumor depth. In the dynamic state, the breast exhibits distinctive temporal patterns that are associated with distinct thermal events: cold stress and thermal recovery induced by changes in the ambient temperature. Specifically, the tumor-induced thermal contrast shows an opposite initial change and delayed peak as compared with the deformation-induced thermal contrast. These findings are expected to provide a stronger foundation for, and greater specificity and precision in, thermographic diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer.

  13. Modeling static and dynamic thermography of the human breast under elastic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Zhan, Wang; Loew, Murray H.

    2011-01-01

    An abnormal thermogram has been shown to be a reliable indicator of increased risk of breast cancer. Numerical modeling techniques for thermography are proposed to quantify the complex relationships between the breast thermal behaviors and the underlying physiological/pathological conditions. Previous thermal modeling techniques did not account for gravity-induced elastic deformation arising from various body postures, nor did they suggest that a dynamic thermal procedure may be used to enhance clinical diagnosis. In this paper, 3D finite element method (FEM)-based thermal and elastic modeling techniques are developed to characterize comprehensively both the thermal and elastic properties of normal and tumorous breast tissues during static and dynamic thermography. In the steady state, gravity-induced breast deformation is found to cause an upper-lower asymmetric surface temperature contrast for sitting/standing up body posture, even though all the thermal and elastic properties are assumed uniform. Additionally, the tumor-induced surface temperature alterations are found to be caused primarily by shallow tumors and to be less sensitive to tumor size than to tumor depth. In the dynamic state, the breast exhibits distinctive temporal patterns that are associated with distinct thermal events: cold stress and thermal recovery induced by changes in the ambient temperature. Specifically, the tumor-induced thermal contrast shows an opposite initial change and delayed peak as compared with the deformation-induced thermal contrast. These findings are expected to provide a stronger foundation for, and greater specificity and precision in, thermographic diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer.

  14. Comprehensive cellular‐resolution atlas of the adult human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royall, Joshua J.; Sunkin, Susan M.; Ng, Lydia; Facer, Benjamin A.C.; Lesnar, Phil; Guillozet‐Bongaarts, Angie; McMurray, Bergen; Szafer, Aaron; Dolbeare, Tim A.; Stevens, Allison; Tirrell, Lee; Benner, Thomas; Caldejon, Shiella; Dalley, Rachel A.; Dee, Nick; Lau, Christopher; Nyhus, Julie; Reding, Melissa; Riley, Zackery L.; Sandman, David; Shen, Elaine; van der Kouwe, Andre; Varjabedian, Ani; Write, Michelle; Zollei, Lilla; Dang, Chinh; Knowles, James A.; Koch, Christof; Phillips, John W.; Sestan, Nenad; Wohnoutka, Paul; Zielke, H. Ronald; Hohmann, John G.; Jones, Allan R.; Bernard, Amy; Hawrylycz, Michael J.; Hof, Patrick R.; Fischl, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Detailed anatomical understanding of the human brain is essential for unraveling its functional architecture, yet current reference atlases have major limitations such as lack of whole‐brain coverage, relatively low image resolution, and sparse structural annotation. We present the first digital human brain atlas to incorporate neuroimaging, high‐resolution histology, and chemoarchitecture across a complete adult female brain, consisting of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion‐weighted imaging (DWI), and 1,356 large‐format cellular resolution (1 µm/pixel) Nissl and immunohistochemistry anatomical plates. The atlas is comprehensively annotated for 862 structures, including 117 white matter tracts and several novel cyto‐ and chemoarchitecturally defined structures, and these annotations were transferred onto the matching MRI dataset. Neocortical delineations were done for sulci, gyri, and modified Brodmann areas to link macroscopic anatomical and microscopic cytoarchitectural parcellations. Correlated neuroimaging and histological structural delineation allowed fine feature identification in MRI data and subsequent structural identification in MRI data from other brains. This interactive online digital atlas is integrated with existing Allen Institute for Brain Science gene expression atlases and is publicly accessible as a resource for the neuroscience community. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3127–3481, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27418273

  15. Human brain functional MRI and DTI visualization with virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Moreland, John; Zhang, Jingyu

    2011-12-01

    Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional MRI (fMRI) are two active research areas in neuroimaging. DTI is sensitive to the anisotropic diffusion of water exerted by its macromolecular environment and has been shown useful in characterizing structures of ordered tissues such as the brain white matter, myocardium, and cartilage. The diffusion tensor provides two new types of information of water diffusion: the magnitude and the spatial orientation of water diffusivity inside the tissue. This information has been used for white matter fiber tracking to review physical neuronal pathways inside the brain. Functional MRI measures brain activations using the hemodynamic response. The statistically derived activation map corresponds to human brain functional activities caused by neuronal activities. The combination of these two methods provides a new way to understand human brain from the anatomical neuronal fiber connectivity to functional activities between different brain regions. In this study, virtual reality (VR) based MR DTI and fMRI visualization with high resolution anatomical image segmentation and registration, ROI definition and neuronal white matter fiber tractography visualization and fMRI activation map integration is proposed. Rationale and methods for producing and distributing stereoscopic videos are also discussed.

  16. RGO-coated elastic fibres as wearable strain sensors for full-scale detection of human motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Qing; Wang, Qi; Zang, Siyao; Mao, Guoming; Zhang, Jinnan; Ren, Xiaomin

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we chose highly-elastic fabric fibres as the functional carrier and then simply coated the fibres with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) using plasma treatment, dip coating and hydrothermal reduction steps, finally making a wearable strain sensor. As a result, the full-scale detection of human motions, ranging from bending joints to the pulse beat, has been achieved by these sensors. Moreover, high sensitivity, good stability and excellent repeatability were realized. The good sensing performances and economical fabrication process of this wearable strain sensor have strengthened our confidence in practical applications in smart clothing, smart fabrics, healthcare, and entertainment fields.

  17. Neurospin Seminar: From the Proton to the Human Brain

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    From the Proton to the Human Brain Speaker: Prof Denis Le Bihan Abstract: The understanding of the human brain is one of the main scientific challenges of the 21st century. In the early 2000s the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) launched a program to conceive and build a “human brain explorer”, the first human MRI scanner operating at 11.7T. This scanner was envisioned to be part of the ambitious Iseult project, bridging together industrial and academic partners to push the limits of molecular neuroimaging, from mouse to man, using Ultra-High Field (UHF) MRI. In this seminar a summary of the main features of this magnet, and the neuroscience and medical targets of NeuroSpin where this outstanding instrument will be installed in 2017 will be surveyed. The unprecedented resolution and the new contrasts allowed by such UHF magnets, in combination with innovative concepts in physics and neurobiology, will allow to explore the human brain at a mesoscale at which everything remains to d...

  18. Addiction circuitry in the human brain (*).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.

    2011-09-27

    A major challenge in understanding substance-use disorders lies in uncovering why some individuals become addicted when exposed to drugs, whereas others do not. Although genetic, developmental, and environmental factors are recognized as major contributors to a person's risk of becoming addicted, the neurobiological processes that underlie this vulnerability are still poorly understood. Imaging studies suggest that individual variations in key dopamine-modulated brain circuits, including circuits involved in reward, memory, executive function, and motivation, contribute to some of the differences in addiction vulnerability. A better understanding of the main circuits affected by chronic drug use and the influence of social stressors, developmental trajectories, and genetic background on these circuits is bound to lead to a better understanding of addiction and to more effective strategies for the prevention and treatment of substance-use disorders.

  19. The sleep-deprived human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Adam J; Simon, Eti Ben; Mander, Bryce A; Greer, Stephanie M; Saletin, Jared M; Goldstein-Piekarski, Andrea N; Walker, Matthew P

    2017-07-01

    How does a lack of sleep affect our brains? In contrast to the benefits of sleep, frameworks exploring the impact of sleep loss are relatively lacking. Importantly, the effects of sleep deprivation (SD) do not simply reflect the absence of sleep and the benefits attributed to it; rather, they reflect the consequences of several additional factors, including extended wakefulness. With a focus on neuroimaging studies, we review the consequences of SD on attention and working memory, positive and negative emotion, and hippocampal learning. We explore how this evidence informs our mechanistic understanding of the known changes in cognition and emotion associated with SD, and the insights it provides regarding clinical conditions associated with sleep disruption.

  20. ``the Human BRAIN & Fractal quantum mechanics''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosary-Oyong, Se, Glory

    In mtDNA ever retrieved from Iman Tuassoly, et.al:Multifractal analysis of chaos game representation images of mtDNA''.Enhances the price & valuetales of HE. Prof. Dr-Ing. B.J. HABIBIE's N-219, in J. Bacteriology, Nov 1973 sought:'' 219 exist as separate plasmidDNA species in E.coli & Salmonella panama'' related to ``the brain 2 distinct molecular forms of the (Na,K)-ATPase..'' & ``neuron maintains different concentration of ions(charged atoms'' thorough Rabi & Heisenber Hamiltonian. Further, after ``fractal space time are geometric analogue of relativistic quantum mechanics''[Ord], sought L.Marek Crnjac: ``Chaotic fractals at the root of relativistic quantum physics''& from famous Nottale: ``Scale relativity & fractal space-time:''Application to Quantum Physics , Cosmology & Chaotic systems'',1995. Acknowledgements to HE. Mr. H. TUK SETYOHADI, Jl. Sriwijaya Raya 3, South-Jakarta, INDONESIA.

  1. Mathematical logic in the human brain: syntax.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Friedrich

    Full Text Available Theory predicts a close structural relation of formal languages with natural languages. Both share the aspect of an underlying grammar which either generates (hierarchically structured expressions or allows us to decide whether a sentence is syntactically correct or not. The advantage of rule-based communication is commonly believed to be its efficiency and effectiveness. A particularly important class of formal languages are those underlying the mathematical syntax. Here we provide brain-imaging evidence that the syntactic processing of abstract mathematical formulae, written in a first order language, is, indeed efficient and effective as a rule-based generation and decision process. However, it is remarkable, that the neural network involved, consisting of intraparietal and prefrontal regions, only involves Broca's area in a surprisingly selective way. This seems to imply that despite structural analogies of common and current formal languages, at the neural level, mathematics and natural language are processed differently, in principal.

  2. Collagen and mature elastic fibre organisation as a function of depth in the human cornea and limbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamma-Lorger, Christina S; Boote, Craig; Hayes, Sally; Moger, Julian; Burghammer, Manfred; Knupp, Carlo; Quantock, Andrew J; Sorensen, Thomas; Di Cola, Emanuela; White, Nick; Young, Robert D; Meek, Keith M

    2010-03-01

    A network of circumferentially oriented collagen fibrils exists in the periphery of the human cornea, and is thought to be pivotal in maintaining corneal biomechanical stability and curvature. However, it is unknown whether or not this key structural arrangement predominates throughout the entire corneal thickness or exists as a discrete feature at a particular tissue depth; or if it incorporates any elastic fibres and how, with respect to tissue depth, the circumcorneal annulus integrates with the orthogonally arranged collagen of the central cornea. To address these issues we performed a three-dimensional investigation of fibrous collagen and elastin architecture in the peripheral and central human cornea using synchrotron X-ray scattering and non-linear microscopy. This showed that the network of collagen fibrils circumscribing the human cornea is located in the posterior one-third of the tissue and is interlaced with significant numbers of mature elastic fibres which mirror the alignment of the collagen. The orthogonal arrangement of collagen in the central cornea is also mainly restricted to the posterior stromal layers. This information will aid the development of corneal biomechanical models aimed at explaining how normal corneal curvature is sustained and further predicting the outcome of surgical procedures. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Abnormal brain iron homeostasis in human and animal prion disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Singh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Neurotoxicity in all prion disorders is believed to result from the accumulation of PrP-scrapie (PrP(Sc, a beta-sheet rich isoform of a normal cell-surface glycoprotein, the prion protein (PrP(C. Limited reports suggest imbalance of brain iron homeostasis as a significant associated cause of neurotoxicity in prion-infected cell and mouse models. However, systematic studies on the generality of this phenomenon and the underlying mechanism(s leading to iron dyshomeostasis in diseased brains are lacking. In this report, we demonstrate that prion disease-affected human, hamster, and mouse brains show increased total and redox-active Fe (II iron, and a paradoxical increase in major iron uptake proteins transferrin (Tf and transferrin receptor (TfR at the end stage of disease. Furthermore, examination of scrapie-inoculated hamster brains at different timepoints following infection shows increased levels of Tf with time, suggesting increasing iron deficiency with disease progression. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD-affected human brains show a similar increase in total iron and a direct correlation between PrP and Tf levels, implicating PrP(Sc as the underlying cause of iron deficiency. Increased binding of Tf to the cerebellar Purkinje cell neurons of sCJD brains further indicates upregulation of TfR and a phenotype of neuronal iron deficiency in diseased brains despite increased iron levels. The likely cause of this phenotype is sequestration of iron in brain ferritin that becomes detergent-insoluble in PrP(Sc-infected cell lines and sCJD brain homogenates. These results suggest that sequestration of iron in PrP(Sc-ferritin complexes induces a state of iron bio-insufficiency in prion disease-affected brains, resulting in increased uptake and a state of iron dyshomeostasis. An additional unexpected observation is the resistance of Tf to digestion by proteinase-K, providing a reliable marker for iron levels in postmortem human brains. These

  4. The modular and integrative functional architecture of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolero, Maxwell A; Yeo, B T Thomas; D'Esposito, Mark

    2015-12-08

    Network-based analyses of brain imaging data consistently reveal distinct modules and connector nodes with diverse global connectivity across the modules. How discrete the functions of modules are, how dependent the computational load of each module is to the other modules' processing, and what the precise role of connector nodes is for between-module communication remains underspecified. Here, we use a network model of the brain derived from resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) data and investigate the modular functional architecture of the human brain by analyzing activity at different types of nodes in the network across 9,208 experiments of 77 cognitive tasks in the BrainMap database. Using an author-topic model of cognitive functions, we find a strong spatial correspondence between the cognitive functions and the network's modules, suggesting that each module performs a discrete cognitive function. Crucially, activity at local nodes within the modules does not increase in tasks that require more cognitive functions, demonstrating the autonomy of modules' functions. However, connector nodes do exhibit increased activity when more cognitive functions are engaged in a task. Moreover, connector nodes are located where brain activity is associated with many different cognitive functions. Connector nodes potentially play a role in between-module communication that maintains the modular function of the brain. Together, these findings provide a network account of the brain's modular yet integrated implementation of cognitive functions.

  5. Unveiling the mystery of visual information processing in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamant, Emanuel

    2008-08-15

    It is generally accepted that human vision is an extremely powerful information processing system that facilitates our interaction with the surrounding world. However, despite extended and extensive research efforts, which encompass many exploration fields, the underlying fundamentals and operational principles of visual information processing in human brain remain unknown. We still are unable to figure out where and how along the path from eyes to the cortex the sensory input perceived by the retina is converted into a meaningful object representation, which can be consciously manipulated by the brain. Studying the vast literature considering the various aspects of brain information processing, I was surprised to learn that the respected scholarly discussion is totally indifferent to the basic keynote question: "What is information?" in general or "What is visual information?" in particular. In the old days, it was assumed that any scientific research approach has first to define its basic departure points. Why was it overlooked in brain information processing research remains a conundrum. In this paper, I am trying to find a remedy for this bizarre situation. I propose an uncommon definition of "information", which can be derived from Kolmogorov's Complexity Theory and Chaitin's notion of Algorithmic Information. Embracing this new definition leads to an inevitable revision of traditional dogmas that shape the state of the art of brain information processing research. I hope this revision would better serve the challenging goal of human visual information processing modeling.

  6. Human-specific transcriptional networks in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Genevieve; Friedrich, Tara; Davis-Turak, Jeremy; Winden, Kellen; Oldham, Michael C.; Gao, Fuying; Chen, Leslie; Wang, Guang-Zhong; Luo, Rui; Preuss, Todd M.; Geschwind, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Understanding human-specific patterns of brain gene expression and regulation can provide key insights into human brain evolution and speciation. Here, we use next generation sequencing, and Illumina and Affymetrix microarray platforms, to compare the transcriptome of human, chimpanzee, and macaque telencephalon. Our analysis reveals a predominance of genes differentially expressed within human frontal lobe and a striking increase in transcriptional complexity specific to the human lineage in the frontal lobe. In contrast, caudate nucleus gene expression is highly conserved. We also identify gene co-expression signatures related to either neuronal processes or neuropsychiatric diseases, including a human-specific module with CLOCK as its hub gene and another module enriched for neuronal morphological processes and genes co-expressed with FOXP2, a gene important for language evolution. These data demonstrate that transcriptional networks have undergone evolutionary remodeling even within a given brain region, providing a new window through which to view the foundation of uniquely human cognitive capacities. PMID:22920253

  7. Rock magnetism linked to human brain magnetite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschvink, Joseph L.

    Magnetite has a long and distinguished career as one of the most important minerals in geophysics, as it is responsible for most of the remanent magnetization in marine sediments and the oceanic crust. It may come as a surprise to discover that it also ranks as the third or fourth most diverse mineral product formed biochemically by living organisms, and forms naturally in a variety of human tissues [Kirschvink et al., 1992].Magnetite was discovered in teeth of the Polyplacophora mollusks over 30 years ago, in magnetotactic bacteria nearly 20 years ago, in honey bees and homing pigeons nearly 15 years ago, but only recently in human tissue.

  8. Uncovering intrinsic modular organization of spontaneous brain activity in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong He

    Full Text Available The characterization of topological architecture of complex brain networks is one of the most challenging issues in neuroscience. Slow (<0.1 Hz, spontaneous fluctuations of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal in functional magnetic resonance imaging are thought to be potentially important for the reflection of spontaneous neuronal activity. Many studies have shown that these fluctuations are highly coherent within anatomically or functionally linked areas of the brain. However, the underlying topological mechanisms responsible for these coherent intrinsic or spontaneous fluctuations are still poorly understood. Here, we apply modern network analysis techniques to investigate how spontaneous neuronal activities in the human brain derived from the resting-state BOLD signals are topologically organized at both the temporal and spatial scales. We first show that the spontaneous brain functional networks have an intrinsically cohesive modular structure in which the connections between regions are much denser within modules than between them. These identified modules are found to be closely associated with several well known functionally interconnected subsystems such as the somatosensory/motor, auditory, attention, visual, subcortical, and the "default" system. Specifically, we demonstrate that the module-specific topological features can not be captured by means of computing the corresponding global network parameters, suggesting a unique organization within each module. Finally, we identify several pivotal network connectors and paths (predominantly associated with the association and limbic/paralimbic cortex regions that are vital for the global coordination of information flow over the whole network, and we find that their lesions (deletions critically affect the stability and robustness of the brain functional system. Together, our results demonstrate the highly organized modular architecture and associated topological properties in

  9. Visual dictionaries as intermediate features in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandan eRamakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The human visual system is assumed to transform low level visual features to object and scene representations via features of intermediate complexity. How the brain computationally represents intermediate features is still unclear. To further elucidate this, we compared the biologically plausible HMAX model and Bag of Words (BoW model from computer vision. Both these computational models use visual dictionaries, candidate features of intermediate complexity, to represent visual scenes, and the models have been proven effective in automatic object and scene recognition. These models however differ in the computation of visual dictionaries and pooling techniques. We investigated where in the brain and to what extent human fMRI responses to short video can be accounted for by multiple hierarchical levels of the HMAX and BoW models. Brain activity of 20 subjects obtained while viewing a short video clip was analyzed voxel-wise using a distance-based variation partitioning method. Results revealed that both HMAX and BoW explain a significant amount of brain activity in early visual regions V1, V2 and V3. However BoW exhibits more consistency across subjects in accounting for brain activity compared to HMAX. Furthermore, visual dictionary representations by HMAX and BoW explain significantly some brain activity in higher areas which are believed to process intermediate features. Overall our results indicate that, although both HMAX and BoW account for activity in the human visual system, the BoW seems to more faithfully represent neural responses in low and intermediate level visual areas of the brain.

  10. Chemical Probes for Visualizing Intact Animal and Human Brain Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hei Ming; Ng, Wai-Lung; Gentleman, Steve M; Wu, Wutian

    2017-06-22

    Newly developed tissue clearing techniques can be used to render intact tissues transparent. When combined with fluorescent labeling technologies and optical sectioning microscopy, this allows visualization of fine structure in three dimensions. Gene-transfection techniques have proved very useful in visualizing cellular structures in animal models, but they are not applicable to human brain tissue. Here, we discuss the characteristics of an ideal chemical fluorescent probe for use in brain and other cleared tissues, and offer a comprehensive overview of currently available chemical probes. We describe their working principles and compare their performance with the goal of simplifying probe selection for neuropathologists and stimulating probe development by chemists. We propose several approaches for the development of innovative chemical labeling methods which, when combined with tissue clearing, have the potential to revolutionize how we study the structure and function of the human brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Integration of letters and speech sounds in the human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Atteveldt, Nienke; Formisano, Elia; Goebel, Rainer; Blomert, Leo

    2004-01-01

    Most people acquire literacy skills with remarkable ease, even though the human brain is not evolutionarily adapted to this relatively new cultural phenomenon. Associations between letters and speech sounds form the basis of reading in alphabetic scripts. We investigated the functional neuroanatomy

  12. Quantitative MRI of the human brain at 7 tesla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polders, D.L.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes the implementation of quantitative MR methods in the human brain at 7 T. By highlighting the drawbacks and advantages of the increased field strength, the use of 7 T MRI for quantitative measurements in clinical research was demonstrated. Inhomogeneities in the transmitted RF

  13. Human brain evolution, theories of innovation, and lessons from the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 29; Issue 3. Human brain evolution, theories of innovation, and lessons from the history of technology. Alfred Gierer. Perspectives Volume 29 Issue 3 September 2004 pp 235-244. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  14. Identifying topological motif patterns of human brain functional networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yongbin; Liao, Xuhong; Yan, Chaogan; He, Yong; Xia, Mingrui

    2017-05-01

    Recent imaging connectome studies demonstrated that the human functional brain network follows an efficient small-world topology with cohesive functional modules and highly connected hubs. However, the functional motif patterns that represent the underlying information flow remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated motif patterns within directed human functional brain networks, which were derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data with controlled confounding hemodynamic latencies. We found several significantly recurring motifs within the network, including the two-node reciprocal motif and five classes of three-node motifs. These recurring motifs were distributed in distinct patterns to support intra- and inter-module functional connectivity, which also promoted integration and segregation in network organization. Moreover, the significant participation of several functional hubs in the recurring motifs exhibited their critical role in global integration. Collectively, our findings highlight the basic architecture governing brain network organization and provide insight into the information flow mechanism underlying intrinsic brain activities. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2734-2750, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Zika Virus Infects Human Fetal Brain Microglia and Induces Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Fok-Moon; Low, Donovan K S; Fan, Yiping; Tan, Jeslin J L; Lee, Bernett; Chan, Jerry K Y; Rénia, Laurent; Ginhoux, Florent; Ng, Lisa F P

    2017-04-01

    The unprecedented reemergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) has startled the world with reports of increased microcephaly in Brazil. ZIKV can infect human neural progenitors and impair brain growth. However, direct evidence of ZIKV infection in human fetal brain tissues remains elusive. Investigations were performed with brain cell preparations obtained from 9 donors. Virus infectivity was assessed by detection of virus antigen by flow cytometry together with various hematopoietic cell surface markers. Virus replication was determined by viral RNA quantification. Cytokine levels in supernatant obtained from virus-infected fetal brain cells were measured simultaneously in microbead-based immunoassays. We also show that ZIKV infection was particularly evident in hematopoietic cells with microglia, the brain-resident macrophage population being one of the main targets. Infection induces high levels of proinflammatory immune mediators such as interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1). Our results highlight an important role for microglia and neuroinflammation during congenital ZIKV pathogenesis.

  16. Ex-vivo MR Volumetry of Human Brain Hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrotsou, Aikaterini; Bennett, David A.; Schneider, Julie A.; Dawe, Robert J.; Golak, Tom; Leurgans, Sue E.; Yu, Lei; Arfanakis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this work were to: a) develop an approach for ex-vivo MR volumetry of human brain hemispheres that does not contaminate the results of histopathological examination, b) longitudinally assess regional brain volumes postmortem, and c) investigate the relationship between MR volumetric measurements performed in-vivo and ex-vivo. Methods An approach for ex-vivo MR volumetry of human brain hemispheres was developed. Five hemispheres from elderly subjects were imaged ex-vivo longitudinally. All datasets were segmented. The longitudinal behavior of volumes measured ex-vivo was assessed. The relationship between in-vivo and ex-vivo volumetric measurements was investigated in seven elderly subjects imaged both ante-mortem and postmortem. Results The presented approach for ex-vivo MR volumetry did not contaminate the results of histopathological examination. For a period of 6 months postmortem, within-subject volume variation across time points was substantially smaller than inter-subject volume variation. A close linear correspondence was detected between in-vivo and ex-vivo volumetric measurements. Conclusion Regional brain volumes measured with the presented approach for ex-vivo MR volumetry remain relatively unchanged for a period of 6 months postmortem. Furthermore, the linear relationship between in-vivo and ex-vivo MR volumetric measurements suggests that the presented approach captures information linked to ante-mortem macrostructural brain characteristics. PMID:23440751

  17. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Stein, Jason L.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivières, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H.; Olde Loohuis, Loes M.; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rose, Emma J.; Salami, Alireza; Sämann, Philipp G.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; van Eijk, Kristel R.; Walters, Raymond K.; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hakobjan, Marina M. H.; Hartberg, Cecilie B.; Haukvik, Unn K.; Heister, Angelien J. G. A. M.; Hoehn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Makkinje, Remco R. R.; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A. M.; McKay, D. Reese; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C.; Pütz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A.; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S. L.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Bastin, Mark E.; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Carless, Melanie A.; Cichon, Sven; Corvin, Aiden; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Göring, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mostert, Jeanette C.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Nalls, Michael A.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nilsson, Lars G.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D.; Rujescu, Dan; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R.; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A.; Valdés Hernández, Maria C.; van ’t Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ashbrook, David G.; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; McMahon, Francis J.; Morris, Derek W.; Williams, Robert W.; Brunner, Han G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C.; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; Kahn, René S.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smoller, Jordan W.; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cookson, Mark R.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Deary, Ian J.; Donohoe, Gary; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C.; Grabe, Hans J.; Gruber, Oliver; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Jönsson, Erik G.; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S.; Mecocci, Patrizia; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Simmons, Andy; Singleton, Andrew; Soininen, Hilkka; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Weale, Michael E.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Launer, Lenore J.; Seiler, Stephan; Schmidt, Reinhold; Chauhan, Ganesh; Satizabal, Claudia L.; Becker, James T.; Yanek, Lisa; van der Lee, Sven J.; Ebling, Maritza; Fischl, Bruce; Longstreth, W. T.; Greve, Douglas; Schmidt, Helena; Nyquist, Paul; Vinke, Louis N.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Xue, Luting; Mazoyer, Bernard; Bis, Joshua C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Seshadri, Sudha; Ikram, M. Arfan; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M.; Medland, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences1. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement2, learning, memory3 and motivation4, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease2. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume5 and intracranial volume6. These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 × 10−33; 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability inhuman brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction. PMID:25607358

  18. Topological isomorphisms of human brain and financial market networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vértes, Petra E; Nicol, Ruth M; Chapman, Sandra C; Watkins, Nicholas W; Robertson, Duncan A; Bullmore, Edward T

    2011-01-01

    Although metaphorical and conceptual connections between the human brain and the financial markets have often been drawn, rigorous physical or mathematical underpinnings of this analogy remain largely unexplored. Here, we apply a statistical and graph theoretic approach to the study of two datasets - the time series of 90 stocks from the New York stock exchange over a 3-year period, and the fMRI-derived time series acquired from 90 brain regions over the course of a 10-min-long functional MRI scan of resting brain function in healthy volunteers. Despite the many obvious substantive differences between these two datasets, graphical analysis demonstrated striking commonalities in terms of global network topological properties. Both the human brain and the market networks were non-random, small-world, modular, hierarchical systems with fat-tailed degree distributions indicating the presence of highly connected hubs. These properties could not be trivially explained by the univariate time series statistics of stock price returns. This degree of topological isomorphism suggests that brains and markets can be regarded broadly as members of the same family of networks. The two systems, however, were not topologically identical. The financial market was more efficient and more modular - more highly optimized for information processing - than the brain networks; but also less robust to systemic disintegration as a result of hub deletion. We conclude that the conceptual connections between brains and markets are not merely metaphorical; rather these two information processing systems can be rigorously compared in the same mathematical language and turn out often to share important topological properties in common to some degree. There will be interesting scientific arbitrage opportunities in further work at the graph-theoretically mediated interface between systems neuroscience and the statistical physics of financial markets.

  19. The song system of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven; Martinez, Michael J; Hodges, Donald A; Fox, Peter T; Parsons, Lawrence M

    2004-08-01

    Although sophisticated insights have been gained into the neurobiology of singing in songbirds, little comparable knowledge exists for humans, the most complex singers in nature. Human song complexity is evidenced by the capacity to generate both richly structured melodies and coordinated multi-part harmonizations. The present study aimed to elucidate this multi-faceted vocal system by using 15O-water positron emission tomography to scan "listen and respond" performances of amateur musicians either singing repetitions of novel melodies, singing harmonizations with novel melodies, or vocalizing monotonically. Overall, major blood flow increases were seen in the primary and secondary auditory cortices, primary motor cortex, frontal operculum, supplementary motor area, insula, posterior cerebellum, and basal ganglia. Melody repetition and harmonization produced highly similar patterns of activation. However, whereas all three tasks activated secondary auditory cortex (posterior Brodmann Area 22), only melody repetition and harmonization activated the planum polare (BA 38). This result implies that BA 38 is responsible for an even higher level of musical processing than BA 22. Finally, all three of these "listen and respond" tasks activated the frontal operculum (Broca's area), a region involved in cognitive/motor sequence production and imitation, thereby implicating it in musical imitation and vocal learning.

  20. Regional mechanical properties of human brain tissue for computational models of traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finan, John D; Sundaresh, Sowmya N; Elkin, Benjamin S; McKhann, Guy M; Morrison, Barclay

    2017-06-01

    To determine viscoelastic shear moduli, stress relaxation indentation tests were performed on samples of human brain tissue resected in the course of epilepsy surgery. Through the use of a 500µm diameter indenter, regional mechanical properties were measured in cortical grey and white matter and subregions of the hippocampus. All regions were highly viscoelastic. Cortical grey matter was significantly more compliant than the white matter or hippocampus which were similar in modulus. Although shear modulus was not correlated with the age of the donor, cortex from male donors was significantly stiffer than from female donors. The presented material properties will help to populate finite element models of the brain as they become more anatomically detailed. We present the first mechanical characterization of fresh, post-operative human brain tissue using an indentation loading mode. Indentation generates highly localized data, allowing structure-specific mechanical properties to be determined from small tissue samples resected during surgery. It also avoids pitfalls of cadaveric tissue and allows data to be collected before degenerative processes alter mechanical properties. To correctly predict traumatic brain injury, finite element models must calculate intracranial deformation during head impact. The functional consequences of injury depend on the anatomical structures injured. Therefore, morbidity depends on the distribution of deformation across structures. Accurate prediction of structure-specific deformation requires structure-specific mechanical properties. This data will facilitate deeper understanding of the physical mechanisms that lead to traumatic brain injury. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Brain lactate metabolism in humans with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, Mauro; Levine, Joshua M; Frangos, Suzanne; Maloney-Wilensky, Eileen; Carrera, Emmanuel; Daniel, Roy T; Levivier, Marc; Magistretti, Pierre J; LeRoux, Peter D

    2012-05-01

    Lactate is central for the regulation of brain metabolism and is an alternative substrate to glucose after injury. Brain lactate metabolism in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been fully elucidated. Thirty-one subarachnoid hemorrhage patients monitored with cerebral microdialysis (CMD) and brain oxygen (PbtO(2)) were studied. Samples with elevated CMD lactate (>4 mmol/L) were matched to PbtO(2) and CMD pyruvate and categorized as hypoxic (PbtO(2) 119 μmol/L) versus nonhyperglycolytic. Median per patient samples with elevated CMD lactate was 54% (interquartile range, 11%-80%). Lactate elevations were more often attributable to cerebral hyperglycolysis (78%; interquartile range, 5%-98%) than brain hypoxia (11%; interquartile range, 4%-75%). Mortality was associated with increased percentage of samples with elevated lactate and brain hypoxia (28% [interquartile range 9%-95%] in nonsurvivors versus 9% [interquartile range 3%-17%] in survivors; P=0.02) and lower percentage of elevated lactate and cerebral hyperglycolysis (13% [interquartile range, 1%-87%] versus 88% [interquartile range, 27%-99%]; P=0.07). Cerebral hyperglycolytic lactate production predicted good 6-month outcome (odds ratio for modified Rankin Scale score, 0-3 1.49; CI, 1.08-2.05; P=0.016), whereas increased lactate with brain hypoxia was associated with a reduced likelihood of good outcome (OR, 0.78; CI, 0.59-1.03; P=0.08). Brain lactate is frequently elevated in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients, predominantly because of hyperglycolysis rather than hypoxia. A pattern of increased cerebral hyperglycolytic lactate was associated with good long-term recovery. Our data suggest that lactate may be used as an aerobic substrate by the injured human brain.

  2. Xanthine oxidase activity regulates human embryonic brain cells growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevorkian G. A.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Involvement of Xanthine Oxidase (XO; EC1.1.3.22 in cellular proliferation and differentiation has been suggested by the numerous investigations. We have proposed that XO might have undoubtedly important role during the development, maturation as well as the death of human embryos brain cells. Methods. Human abortion material was utilized for the cultivation of brain cells (E90. XO activity was measured by the formation of uric acid in tissue. Cell death was detected by the utility of Trypan Blue dye. Results. Allopurinol suppressed the XO activity in the brain tissue (0.12 ± 0.02; 0.20 ± 0.03 resp., p < 0.05. On day 12th the number of cells in the culture treated with the Allopurinol at the early stage of development was higher in comparison with the Control (2350.1 ± 199.0 vs 2123 ± 96 and higher in comparison with the late period of treatment (1479.6 ± 103.8, p < < 0.05. In all groups, the number of the dead cells was less than in Control, indicating the protective nature of Allopurinol as an inhibitor of XO. Conclusions. Allopurinol initiates cells proliferation in case of the early treatment of the human brain derived cell culture whereas at the late stages it has an opposite effect.

  3. The nicotinic cholinergic system function in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nees, Frauke

    2015-09-01

    Research on the nicotinic cholinergic system function in the brain was previously mainly derived from animal studies, yet, research in humans is growing. Up to date, findings allow significant advances on the understanding of nicotinic cholinergic effects on human cognition, emotion and behavior using a range of functional brain imaging approaches such as pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography. Studies provided insights across various mechanistic psychological domains using different tasks as well as at rest in both healthy individuals and patient populations, with so far partly mixed results reporting both enhancements and decrements of neural activity related to the nicotinic cholinergic system. Moreover, studies on the relation between brain structure and the nicotinic cholinergic system add important information in this context. The present review summarizes the current status of human brain imaging studies and presents the findings within a theoretical and clinical perspective as they may be useful not only for an advancement of the understanding of basic nicotinic cholinergic-related mechanisms, but also for the development and integration of psychological and pharmacological treatment approaches. Patterns of functional neuroanatomy and neural circuitry across various cognitive and emotional domains may be used as neuropsychological markers of mental disorders such as addiction, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson disease or schizophrenia, where nicotinic cholinergic system changes are characteristic. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mapping the calcitonin receptor in human brain stem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bower, Rebekah L; Eftekhari, Sajedeh; Waldvogel, Henry J

    2016-01-01

    understanding of these hormone systems by mapping CTR expression in the human brain stem, specifically the medulla oblongata. Widespread CTR-like immunoreactivity was observed throughout the medulla. Dense CTR staining was noted in several discrete nuclei, including the nucleus of the solitary tract...... receptors (AMY) are a heterodimer formed by the coexpression of CTR with receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). CTR with RAMP1 responds potently to both amylin and CGRP. The brain stem is a major site of action for circulating amylin and is a rich site of CGRP binding. This study aimed to enhance our...

  5. Human cadaver brain infusion model for neurosurgical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabe, Jon; Olabe, Javier; Sancho, Vidal

    2009-12-01

    Microneurosurgical technique and anatomical knowledge require extensive laboratory training before mastering these skills. There are diverse training models based on synthetic materials, anesthetized animals, cadaver animals, or human cadaver. Human cadaver models are especially beneficial because they are the closest to live surgery with the greatest disadvantage of lacking hemodynamic factors. We developed the "brain infusion model" to provide a simple but realistic training method minimizing animal use or needs for special facilities. Four human cadaveric brains donated for educational purposes were explanted at autopsy. Carotids and vertebral arteries were cannulated with plastic tubes and fixed with suture. Water was flushed through the tubings until the whole arterial vasculature was observed as clean. The cannulated specimens were fixed with formaldehyde. Tap water infusion at a flow rate of 10 L/h was infused through the arterial tubings controlled with a drip regulator filling the arterial tree and leaking into the interstitial and cisternal space. Multiple microneurosurgical procedures were performed by 4 trainees. Cisternal and vascular dissection was executed in a very realistic fashion. Bypass anastomosis was created as well as aneurysm simulation with venous pouches. Vessel and aneurysm clipping and rupture situations were emulated and solution techniques were trained. Standard microsurgical laboratories regularly have scarce opportunities for working with decapitated human cadaver heads but could have human brains readily available. The human brain infusion model presents a realistic microneurosurgical training method. It is inexpensive and easy to set up. Such simplicity provides the adequate environment for developing microsurgical techniques. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Exploiting elasticity: Modeling the influence of neural control on mechanics and energetics of ankle muscle-tendons during human hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Benjamin D; Sawicki, Gregory S

    2014-07-21

    We present a simplified Hill-type model of the human triceps surae-Achilles tendon complex working on a gravitational-inertial load during cyclic contractions (i.e. vertical hopping). Our goal was to determine the role that neural control plays in governing muscle, or contractile element (CE), and tendon, or series elastic element (SEE), mechanics and energetics within a compliant muscle-tendon unit (MTU). We constructed a 2D parameter space consisting of many combinations of stimulation frequency and magnitude (i.e. neural control strategies). We compared the performance of each control strategy by evaluating peak force and average positive mechanical power output for the system (MTU) and its respective components (CE, SEE), force-length (F-L) and -velocity (F-V) operating point of the CE during active force production, average metabolic rate for the CE, and both MTU and CE apparent efficiency. Our results suggest that frequency of stimulation plays a primary role in governing whole-MTU mechanics. These include the phasing of both activation and peak force relative to minimum MTU length, average positive power, and apparent efficiency. Stimulation amplitude was primarily responsible for governing average metabolic rate and within MTU mechanics, including peak force generation and elastic energy storage and return in the SEE. Frequency and amplitude of stimulation both played integral roles in determining CE F-L operating point, with both higher frequency and amplitude generally corresponding to lower CE strains, reduced injury risk, and elimination of the need for passive force generation in the CE parallel elastic element (PEE). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A human-specific de novo protein-coding gene associated with human brain functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Yun Li

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To understand whether any human-specific new genes may be associated with human brain functions, we computationally screened the genetic vulnerable factors identified through Genome-Wide Association Studies and linkage analyses of nicotine addiction and found one human-specific de novo protein-coding gene, FLJ33706 (alternative gene symbol C20orf203. Cross-species analysis revealed interesting evolutionary paths of how this gene had originated from noncoding DNA sequences: insertion of repeat elements especially Alu contributed to the formation of the first coding exon and six standard splice junctions on the branch leading to humans and chimpanzees, and two subsequent substitutions in the human lineage escaped two stop codons and created an open reading frame of 194 amino acids. We experimentally verified FLJ33706's mRNA and protein expression in the brain. Real-Time PCR in multiple tissues demonstrated that FLJ33706 was most abundantly expressed in brain. Human polymorphism data suggested that FLJ33706 encodes a protein under purifying selection. A specifically designed antibody detected its protein expression across human cortex, cerebellum and midbrain. Immunohistochemistry study in normal human brain cortex revealed the localization of FLJ33706 protein in neurons. Elevated expressions of FLJ33706 were detected in Alzheimer's brain samples, suggesting the role of this novel gene in human-specific pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. FLJ33706 provided the strongest evidence so far that human-specific de novo genes can have protein-coding potential and differential protein expression, and be involved in human brain functions.

  8. Brain-Computer Interfaces Revolutionizing Human-Computer Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Graimann, Bernhard; Allison, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) establishes a direct output channel between the human brain and external devices. BCIs infer user intent via direct measures of brain activity and thus enable communication and control without movement. This book, authored by experts in the field, provides an accessible introduction to the neurophysiological and signal-processing background required for BCI, presents state-of-the-art non-invasive and invasive approaches, gives an overview of current hardware and software solutions, and reviews the most interesting as well as new, emerging BCI applications. The book is intended not only for students and young researchers, but also for newcomers and other readers from diverse backgrounds keen to learn about this vital scientific endeavour.

  9. Is the Social Brain Theory Applicable to Human Individual Differences? Relationship between Sociability Personality Dimension and Brain Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Horváth

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Our study intends to examine whether the social brain theory is applicable to human individual differences. According to the social brain theory primates have larger brains as it could be expected from their body sizes due to the adaptation to a more complex social life. Regarding humans there were few studies about the relationship between theory of mind and frontal and temporal brain lobes. We hypothesized that these brain lobes, as well as the whole cerebrum and neocortex are in connection with the Sociability personality dimension that is associated with individuals' social lives. Our findings support this hypothesis as Sociability correlated positively with the examined brain structures if we control the effects of body size differences and age. These results suggest that the social brain theory can be extended to human interindividual differences and they have some implications to personality psychology too.

  10. Is the social brain theory applicable to human individual differences? Relationship between sociability personality dimension and brain size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Klára; Martos, János; Mihalik, Béla; Bódizs, Róbert

    2011-06-17

    Our study intends to examine whether the social brain theory is applicable to human individual differences. According to the social brain theory primates have larger brains as it could be expected from their body sizes due to the adaptation to a more complex social life. Regarding humans there were few studies about the relationship between theory of mind and frontal and temporal brain lobes. We hypothesized that these brain lobes, as well as the whole cerebrum and neocortex are in connection with the Sociability personality dimension that is associated with individuals' social lives. Our findings support this hypothesis as Sociability correlated positively with the examined brain structures if we control the effects of body size differences and age. These results suggest that the social brain theory can be extended to human interindividual differences and they have some implications to personality psychology too.

  11. Deformation of the human brain induced by mild acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayly, P V; Cohen, T S; Leister, E P; Ajo, D; Leuthardt, E C; Genin, G M

    2005-08-01

    Rapid deformation of brain matter caused by skull acceleration is most likely the cause of concussion, as well as more severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The inability to measure deformation directly has led to disagreement and confusion about the biomechanics of concussion and TBI. In the present study, brain deformation in human volunteers was measured directly during mild, but rapid, deceleration of the head (20-30 m/sec2 peak, approximately 40 msec duration), using an imaging technique originally developed to measure cardiac deformation. Magnetic resonance image sequences with imposed "tag" lines were obtained at high frame rates by repeating the deceleration and acquiring a subset of image data each repetition. Displacements of points on tag lines were used to estimate the Lagrangian strain tensor field. Qualitative (visual) and quantitative (strain) results illustrate clearly the deformation of brain matter due to occipital deceleration. Strains of 0.02-0.05 were typical during these events (0.05 strain corresponds roughly to a 5% change in the dimension of a local tissue element). Notably, compression in frontal regions and stretching in posterior regions were observed. The motion of the brain appears constrained by structures at the frontal base of the skull; it must pull away from such constraints before it can compress against the occipital bone. This mechanism is consistent with observations of contrecoup injury in occipital impact.

  12. Pulsatile cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linninger, Andreas A; Tsakiris, Cristian; Zhu, David C; Xenos, Michalis; Roycewicz, Peter; Danziger, Zachary; Penn, Richard

    2005-04-01

    Disturbances of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow in the brain can lead to hydrocephalus, a condition affecting thousands of people annually in the US. Considerable controversy exists about fluid and pressure dynamics, and about how the brain responds to changes in flow patterns and compression in hydrocephalus. This paper presents a new model based on the first principles of fluid mechanics. This model of fluid-structure interactions predicts flows and pressures throughout the brain's ventricular pathways consistent with both animal intracranial pressure (ICP) measurements and human CINE phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging data. The computations provide approximations of the tissue deformations of the brain parenchyma. The model also quantifies the pulsatile CSF motion including flow reversal in the aqueduct as well as the changes in ICPs due to brain tissue compression. It does not require the existence of large transmural pressure differences as the force for ventricular expansion. Finally, the new model gives an explanation of communicating hydrocephalus and the phenomenon of asymmetric hydrocephalus.

  13. The maternal brain and its plasticity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pilyoung; Strathearn, Lane; Swain, James E

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". Early mother-infant relationships play important roles in infants' optimal development. New mothers undergo neurobiological changes that support developing mother-infant relationships regardless of great individual differences in those relationships. In this article, we review the neural plasticity in human mothers' brains based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. First, we review the neural circuits that are involved in establishing and maintaining mother-infant relationships. Second, we discuss early postpartum factors (e.g., birth and feeding methods, hormones, and parental sensitivity) that are associated with individual differences in maternal brain neuroplasticity. Third, we discuss abnormal changes in the maternal brain related to psychopathology (i.e., postpartum depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance abuse) and potential brain remodeling associated with interventions. Last, we highlight potentially important future research directions to better understand normative changes in the maternal brain and risks for abnormal changes that may disrupt early mother-infant relationships. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mapping human brain lesions and their functional consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnath, Hans-Otto; Sperber, Christoph; Rorden, Christopher

    2018-01-15

    Neuroscience has a long history of inferring brain function by examining the relationship between brain injury and subsequent behavioral impairments. The primary advantage of this method over correlative methods is that it can tell us if a certain brain region is necessary for a given cognitive function. In addition, lesion-based analyses provide unique insights into clinical deficits. In the last decade, statistical voxel-based lesion behavior mapping (VLBM) emerged as a powerful method for understanding the architecture of the human brain. This review illustrates how VLBM improves our knowledge of functional brain architecture, as well as how it is inherently limited by its mass-univariate approach. A wide array of recently developed methods appear to supplement traditional VLBM. This paper provides an overview of these new methods, including the use of specialized imaging modalities, the combination of structural imaging with normative connectome data, as well as multivariate analyses of structural imaging data. We see these new methods as complementing rather than replacing traditional VLBM, providing synergistic tools to answer related questions. Finally, we discuss the potential for these methods to become established in cognitive neuroscience and in clinical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Human Brain Stem Structures Respond Differentially to Noxious Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eRitter

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Concerning the physiological correlates of pain, the brain stem is considered to be one core region that is activated by noxious input. In animal studies, different slopes of skin heating (SSH with noxious heat led to activation in different columns of the midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG. The present study aimed at finding a method for differentiating structures in PAG and other brain stem structures, which are associated with different qualities of pain in humans according to the structures that were associated with different behavioral significances to noxious thermal stimulation in animals. Brain activity was studied by fMRI in healthy subjects in response to steep and shallow SSH with noxious heat. We found differential activation to different SSH in the PAG and the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM. In a second experiment we demonstrate that the different SSH were associated with different pain qualities. Our experiments provide evidence that brainstem structures, i.e. the PAG and the RVM, become differentially activated by different SSH. Therefore, different SSH can be utilized when brain stem structures are investigated and when it is aimed to activate these structures differentially. Moreover, percepts of first pain were elicited by shallow SSH whereas percepts of second pain were elicited by steep SSH. The stronger activation of these brain stem structures to SSH, eliciting percepts of second vs. first pain, might be of relevance for activating different coping strategies in response to the noxious input with the two types of SSH.

  16. The Speculative Neuroscience of the Future Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Dielenberg

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The hallmark of our species is our ability to hybridize symbolic thinking with behavioral output. We began with the symmetrical hand axe around 1.7 mya and have progressed, slowly at first, then with greater rapidity, to producing increasingly more complex hybridized products. We now live in the age where our drive to hybridize has pushed us to the brink of a neuroscientific revolution, where for the first time we are in a position to willfully alter the brain and hence, our behavior and evolution. Nootropics, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, deep brain stimulation (DBS and invasive brain mind interface (BMI technology are allowing humans to treat previously inaccessible diseases as well as open up potential vistas for cognitive enhancement. In the future, the possibility exists for humans to hybridize with BMIs and mobile architectures. The notion of self is becoming increasingly extended. All of this to say: are we in control of our brains, or are they in control of us?

  17. Semi-automatic ROI placement system for analysis of brain PET images based on elastic model. Application to diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohyama, Masashi; Mishina, Masahiro; Kitamura, Shin; Katayama, Yasuo [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan); Senda, Michio; Tanizaki, Naoki; Ishii, Kenji

    2000-02-01

    PET with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is a useful technique to image cerebral glucose metabolism and to detect patients with Alzheimer's disease in the early stage, in which characteristic temporoparietal hypometabolism is visualized. We have developed a new system, in which the standard brain ROI atlas made of networks of segments is elastically transformed to match the subject brain images, so that standard ROIs defined on the segments are placed on the individual brain images and are used to measure radioactivity over each brain region. We applied this methods to Alzheimer's disease. This method was applied to the images of 10 normal subjects (ages 55 +/- 12) and 21 patients clinically diagnosed as Alzheimer's disease (age 61 +/- 10). The FDG uptake reflecting glucose metabolism was evaluated with SUV, i.e. decay corrected radioactivity divided by injected dose per body weight in (Bq/ml)/(Bq/g). The system worked all right in every subject including those with extensive hypometabolism. Alzheimer patients showed markedly lower in the parietal cortex (4.0-4.1). When the threshold value of FDG uptake in the parietal lobe was set as 5 (Bq/ml)/(Bq/g), we could discriminate the patients with Alzheimer's disease from the normal subjects. The sensitivity was 86% and the specificity was 90%. This system can assist diagnosis of FDG images and may be useful for treating data of a large number of subjects; e.g. when PET is applied to health screening. (author)

  18. A Novel Human Body Area Network for Brain Diseases Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kai; Xu, Tianlang

    2016-10-01

    Development of wireless sensor and mobile communication technology provide an unprecedented opportunity for realizing smart and interactive healthcare systems. Designing such systems aims to remotely monitor the health and diagnose the diseases for users. In this paper, we design a novel human body area network for brain diseases analysis, which is named BABDA. Considering the brain is one of the most complex organs in the human body, the BABDA system provides four function modules to ensure the high quality of the analysis result, which includes initial data collection, data correction, data transmission and comprehensive data analysis. The performance evaluation conducted in a realistic environment with several criteria shows the availability and practicability of the BABDA system.

  19. Magnetic Deposits of Iron Oxides in the Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makohusová Miroslava

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Deposits of iron oxides in the human brain (globus pallidus are visible under electron microscopy as object of regular and or/irregular shape but giving sharp diffraction patterns in the transmission mode. The SQUID magnetometry reveals that the magnetization curves decline form an ideal Langevin function due to the dominating diamagnetism of organic tissue. The fitting procedure yields the quantitative characteristics of the overall magnetization curves that were further processed by statistical multivariate methods

  20. Human brain arteriovenous malformations express lymphatic-associated genes

    OpenAIRE

    Shoemaker, Lorelei D.; Fuentes, Laurel F; Santiago, Shauna M; Allen, Breanna M; Cook, Douglas J.; Steinberg, Gary K.; Chang, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are devastating, hemorrhage-prone, cerebrovascular lesions characterized by well-defined feeding arteries, draining vein(s) and the absence of a capillary bed. The endothelial cells (ECs) that comprise AVMs exhibit a loss of arterial and venous specification. Given the role of the transcription factor COUP-TFII in vascular development, EC specification, and pathological angiogenesis, we examined human AVM tissue to determine if COUP-FTII may ...

  1. Dynamic Network Centrality Summarizes Learning in the Human Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Mantzaris, Alexander V.; Bassett, Danielle S.; Wymbs, Nicholas F.; Estrada, Ernesto; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J; Grafton, Scott T.; Higham, Desmond J.

    2012-01-01

    We study functional activity in the human brain using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and recently developed tools from network science. The data arise from the performance of a simple behavioural motor learning task. Unsupervised clustering of subjects with respect to similarity of network activity measured over three days of practice produces significant evidence of `learning', in the sense that subjects typically move between clusters (of subjects whose dynamics are similar) as time ...

  2. A mechanistic account of value computation in the human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Philiastides, Marios G.; Biele, Guido; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2010-01-01

    To make decisions based on the value of different options, we often have to combine different sources of probabilistic evidence. For example, when shopping for strawberries on a fruit stand, one uses their color and size to infer—with some uncertainty—which strawberries taste best. Despite much progress in understanding the neural underpinnings of value-based decision making in humans, it remains unclear how the brain represents different sources of probabilistic evidence and how they are use...

  3. Investigation of G72 (DAOA expression in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirsch Steven

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphisms at the G72/G30 locus on chromosome 13q have been associated with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder in more than ten independent studies. Even though the genetic findings are very robust, the physiological role of the predicted G72 protein has thus far not been resolved. Initial reports suggested G72 as an activator of D-amino acid oxidase (DAO, supporting the glutamate dysfunction hypothesis of schizophrenia. However, these findings have subsequently not been reproduced and reports of endogenous human G72 mRNA and protein expression are extremely limited. In order to better understand the function of this putative schizophrenia susceptibility gene, we attempted to demonstrate G72 mRNA and protein expression in relevant human brain regions. Methods The expression of G72 mRNA was studied by northern blotting and semi-quantitative SYBR-Green and Taqman RT-PCR. Protein expression in human tissue lysates was investigated by western blotting using two custom-made specific anti-G72 peptide antibodies. An in-depth in silico analysis of the G72/G30 locus was performed in order to try and identify motifs or regulatory elements that provide insight to G72 mRNA expression and transcript stability. Results Despite using highly sensitive techniques, we failed to identify significant levels of G72 mRNA in a variety of human tissues (e.g. adult brain, amygdala, caudate nucleus, fetal brain, spinal cord and testis human cell lines or schizophrenia/control post mortem BA10 samples. Furthermore, using western blotting in combination with sensitive detection methods, we were also unable to detect G72 protein in a number of human brain regions (including cerebellum and amygdala, spinal cord or testis. A detailed in silico analysis provides several lines of evidence that support the apparent low or absent expression of G72. Conclusion Our results suggest that native G72 protein is not normally present in the tissues that we analysed

  4. Imaging synaptic density in the living human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnema, Sjoerd J; Nabulsi, Nabeel B; Eid, Tore; Detyniecki, Kamil; Lin, Shu-Fei; Chen, Ming-Kai; Dhaher, Roni; Matuskey, David; Baum, Evan; Holden, Daniel; Spencer, Dennis D; Mercier, Joël; Hannestad, Jonas; Huang, Yiyun; Carson, Richard E

    2016-07-20

    Chemical synapses are the predominant neuron-to-neuron contact in the central nervous system. Presynaptic boutons of neurons contain hundreds of vesicles filled with neurotransmitters, the diffusible signaling chemicals. Changes in the number of synapses are associated with numerous brain disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy. However, all current approaches for measuring synaptic density in humans require brain tissue from autopsy or surgical resection. We report the use of the synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) radioligand [(11)C]UCB-J combined with positron emission tomography (PET) to quantify synaptic density in the living human brain. Validation studies in a baboon confirmed that SV2A is an alternative synaptic density marker to synaptophysin. First-in-human PET studies demonstrated that [(11)C]UCB-J had excellent imaging properties. Finally, we confirmed that PET imaging of SV2A was sensitive to synaptic loss in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Thus, [(11)C]UCB-J PET imaging is a promising approach for in vivo quantification of synaptic density with several potential applications in diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Functional interactions as big data in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2013-11-01

    Noninvasive studies of human brain function hold great potential to unlock mysteries of the human mind. The complexity of data generated by such studies, however, has prompted various simplifying assumptions during analysis. Although this has enabled considerable progress, our current understanding is partly contingent upon these assumptions. An emerging approach embraces the complexity, accounting for the fact that neural representations are widely distributed, neural processes involve interactions between regions, interactions vary by cognitive state, and the space of interactions is massive. Because what you see depends on how you look, such unbiased approaches provide the greatest flexibility for discovery.

  6. Effects of psychotropic drugs on brain plasticity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulzen, Michael; Veselinovic, Tanja; Gründer, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Although neurotransmitter-based hypotheses still prevail current thinking about the mechanism of action of psychotropic drugs, recent insight into the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders has unveiled a range of new therapeutic actions of the drugs used to treat those disorders. Especially antidepressants seem to exert at least some of their effects via restoration of synaptic/neuronal plasticity. In addition, there is increasing evidence that several of the second-generation antipsychotics and some anticonvulsants affect neuronal survival/apoptosis as well as synaptic plasticity. Most of this evidence stems from work in animals. In this review, we will focus on the evidence for neuroplastic effects of psychotropic drugs in humans being aware of the fact that most of the data are derived from animals and that volumetric studies in humans can only indicate structural plasticity and not necessarily functional plasticity. However, as the data from human studies are rather poor and inconclusive, and sometimes even conflicting, it seems impossible to draw general conclusions. Until now studies on neuroplasticity in humans can only explain small pieces of the effects of psychotropic drugs on brain plasticity in humans. Nevertheless, future prospects for the development of new drugs targeting brain plasticity will be of importance and will complete this overview.

  7. Characterization of passive elastic properties of the human medial gastrocnemius muscle belly using supersonic shear imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïsetti, Olivier; Hug, François; Bouillard, Killian; Nordez, Antoine

    2012-04-05

    The passive elastic properties of a muscle-tendon complex are usually estimated from the relationship between the joint angle and the passive resistive torque, although the properties of the different structures crossing the joint cannot be easily assessed. This study aimed to determine the passive mechanical properties of the gastrocnemius medialis muscle (GM) using supersonic shear imaging (SSI) that allows the measurement of localized muscle shear modulus (μ). The SSI of the GM was taken for 7 subjects during passive ankle dorsiflexion at a range of knee positions performed on an isokinetic dynamometer. The relationship between normalized μ and the length of the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon units (GMTU) was very well fitted to an exponential model (0.944knee fully extended was calculated. The μ-length relationship was highly correlated with the force-length (0.964knee extended were similar to that reconstructed from all knee angles and displayed good intra-session reliability (for α, SEM: 9.7 m(-1); CV: 7.5%; ICC: 0.652; for l(0), SEM: 0.002 m; CV: 0.4%; ICC: 0.992). These findings indicate that SSI may provide an indirect estimation of passive muscle force, and highlight its clinical applicability to evaluate the passive properties of mono- and bi-articular muscles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. P16INK4a Positive Cells in Human Skin Are Indicative of Local Elastic Fiber Morphology, Facial Wrinkling, and Perceived Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaijer, Mariëtte E C; Gunn, David A; Adams, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    Senescent cells are more prevalent in aged human skin compared to young, but evidence that senescent cells are linked to other biomarkers of aging is scarce. We counted cells positive for the tumor suppressor and senescence associated protein p16INK4a in sun-protected upper-inner arm skin biopsies......INK4a positive cells were significantly associated with age-associated elastic fiber morphologic characteristics, such as longer and a greater number of elastic fibers. The p16INK4a positive epidermal cells (identified as primarily melanocytes) were also significantly associated with more facial...... wrinkles and a higher perceived age. Participants in the lowest tertile of epidermal p16INK4a counts looked 3 years younger than those in the highest tertile, independently of chronological age and elastic fiber morphology. In conclusion, p16INK4a positive cell numbers in sun-protected human arm skin...

  9. MR-visible brain water content in human acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Rosenbaum, S; Sperling, B

    1999-01-01

    Quantification of metabolite concentrations by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in the human brain using water as an internal standard is based on the assumption that water content does not change significantly in pathologic brain tissue. To test this, we used 1H-MRS to estimate...... brain water content during the course of cerebral infarction. Measurements were performed serially in the acute, subacute, and chronic phase of infarction. Fourteen patients with acute cerebral infarction were examined as well as 9 healthy controls. To correlate with regional cerebral blood flow (r......CBF from Day 0-3 to Day 4-7 (p = 0.050) and from Day 0-3 to Day 8-21 (p = 0.028). No correlation between rCBF and water content was found. Water content in ischemic brain tissue increased significantly between Day 4-7 after stroke. This should be considered when performing quantitative 1H-MRS using water...

  10. A new microcontroller-based human brain hypothermia system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapidere, Metin; Ahiska, Raşit; Güler, Inan

    2005-10-01

    Many studies show that artificial hypothermia of brain in conditions of anesthesia with the rectal temperature lowered down to 33 degrees C produces pronounced prophylactic effect protecting the brain from anoxia. Out of the methods employed now in clinical practice for reducing the oxygen consumption by the cerebral tissue, the most efficacious is craniocerebral hypothermia (CCH). It is finding even more extensive application in cardiovascular surgery, neurosurgery, neurorenimatology and many other fields of medical practice. In this study, a microcontroller-based designed human brain hypothermia system (HBHS) is designed and constructed. The system is intended for cooling and heating the brain. HBHS consists of a thermoelectric hypothermic helmet, a control and a power unit. Helmet temperature is controlled by 8-bit PIC16F877 microcontroller which is programmed using MPLAB editor. Temperature is converted to 10-bit digital and is controlled automatically by the preset values which have been already entered in the microcontroller. Calibration is controlled and the working range is tested. Temperature of helmet is controlled between -5 and +46 degrees C by microcontroller, with the accuracy of +/-0.5 degrees C.

  11. Regional selection of the brain size regulating gene CASC5 provides new insight into human brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Hu, Enzhi; Wang, Zhenbo; Liu, Jiewei; Li, Jin; Li, Ming; Chen, Hua; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi; Su, Bing

    2017-02-01

    Human evolution is marked by a continued enlargement of the brain. Previous studies on human brain evolution focused on identifying sequence divergences of brain size regulating genes between humans and nonhuman primates. However, the evolutionary pattern of the brain size regulating genes during recent human evolution is largely unknown. We conducted a comprehensive analysis of the brain size regulating gene CASC5 and found that in recent human evolution, CASC5 has accumulated many modern human specific amino acid changes, including two fixed changes and six polymorphic changes. Among human populations, 4 of the 6 amino acid polymorphic sites have high frequencies of derived alleles in East Asians, but are rare in Europeans and Africans. We proved that this between-population allelic divergence was caused by regional Darwinian positive selection in East Asians. Further analysis of brain image data of Han Chinese showed significant associations of the amino acid polymorphic sites with gray matter volume. Hence, CASC5 may contribute to the morphological and structural changes of the human brain during recent evolution. The observed between-population divergence of CASC5 variants was driven by natural selection that tends to favor a larger gray matter volume in East Asians.

  12. Organizational Principles of Abstract Words in the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaosha; Wu, Wei; Ling, Zhenhua; Xu, Yangwen; Fang, Yuxing; Wang, Xiaoying; Binder, Jeffrey R; Men, Weiwei; Gao, Jia-Hong; Bi, Yanchao

    2017-11-23

    words constitute nearly half of the human lexicon and are critically associated with human abstract thoughts, yet little is known about how they are represented in the brain. We tested the neural basis of 2 classical cognitive notions of abstract meaning representation: by linguistic contexts and by semantic features. We collected fMRI BOLD responses for 360 abstract words and built theoretical representational models from state-of-the-art corpus-based natural language processing models and behavioral ratings of semantic features. Representational similarity analyses revealed that both linguistic contextual and semantic feature similarity affected the representation of abstract concepts, but in distinct neural levels. The corpus-based similarity was coded in the high-level linguistic processing system, whereas semantic feature information was reflected in distributed brain regions and in the principal component space derived from whole-brain activation patterns. These findings highlight the multidimensional organization and the neural dissociation between linguistic contextual and featural aspects of abstract concepts. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Canonical Genetic Signatures of the Adult Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawrylycz, Michael; Miller, Jeremy A.; Menon, Vilas; Feng, David; Dolbeare, Tim; Guillozet-Bongaarts, Angela L.; Jegga, Anil G.; Aronow, Bruce J.; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Bernard, Amy; Glasser, Matthew F.; Dierker, Donna L.; Menche, Jörge; Szafer, Aaron; Collman, Forrest; Grange, Pascal; Berman, Kenneth A.; Mihalas, Stefan; Yao, Zizhen; Stewart, Lance; Barabási, Albert-László; Schulkin, Jay; Phillips, John; Ng, Lydia; Dang, Chinh; Haynor, David R.; Jones, Allan; Van Essen, David C.; Koch, Christof; Lein, Ed

    2015-01-01

    The structure and function of the human brain are highly stereotyped, implying a conserved molecular program responsible for its development, cellular structure, and function. We applied a correlation-based metric of “differential stability” (DS) to assess reproducibility of gene expression patterning across 132 structures in six individual brains, revealing meso-scale genetic organization. The highest DS genes are highly biologically relevant, with enrichment for brain-related biological annotations, disease associations, drug targets, and literature citations. Using high DS genes we identified 32 anatomically diverse and reproducible gene expression signatures, which represent distinct cell types, intracellular components, and/or associations with neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Genes in neuron-associated compared to non-neuronal networks showed higher preservation between human and mouse; however, many diversely-patterned genes displayed dramatic shifts in regulation between species. Finally, highly consistent transcriptional architecture in neocortex is correlated with resting state functional connectivity, suggesting a link between conserved gene expression and functionally relevant circuitry. PMID:26571460

  14. Pathological Tau Strains from Human Brains Recapitulate the Diversity of Tauopathies in Nontransgenic Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Sneha; Guo, Jing L; Changolkar, Lakshmi; Stieber, Anna; McBride, Jennifer D; Silva, Luisa V; He, Zhuohao; Zhang, Bin; Gathagan, Ronald J; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M Y

    2017-11-22

    Pathological tau aggregates occur in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative tauopathies. It is not clearly understood why tauopathies vary greatly in the neuroanatomical and histopathological patterns of tau aggregation, which contribute to clinical heterogeneity in these disorders. Recent studies have shown that tau aggregates may form distinct structural conformations, known as tau strains. Here, we developed a novel model to test the hypothesis that cell-to-cell transmission of different tau strains occurs in nontransgenic (non-Tg) mice, and to investigate whether there are strain-specific differences in the pattern of tau transmission. By injecting pathological tau extracted from postmortem brains of AD (AD-tau), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP-tau), and corticobasal degeneration (CBD-tau) patients into different brain regions of female non-Tg mice, we demonstrated the induction and propagation of endogenous mouse tau aggregates. Specifically, we identified differences in tau strain potency between AD-tau, CBD-tau, and PSP-tau in non-Tg mice. Moreover, differences in cell-type specificity of tau aggregate transmission were observed between tau strains such that only PSP-tau and CBD-tau strains induce astroglial and oligodendroglial tau inclusions, recapitulating the diversity of neuropathology in human tauopathies. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the neuronal connectome, but not the tau strain, determines which brain regions develop tau pathology. Finally, CBD-tau- and PSP-tau-injected mice showed spatiotemporal transmission of glial tau pathology, suggesting glial tau transmission contributes to the progression of tauopathies. Together, our data suggest that different tau strains determine seeding potency and cell-type specificity of tau aggregation that underlie the diversity of human tauopathies. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Tauopathies show great clinical and neuropathological heterogeneity, despite the fact that tau aggregates in each disease

  15. Consequences of traumatic brain injury for human vergence dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Christopher W; Likova, Lora T; Mineff, Kristyo N; Elsaid, Anas M; Nicholas, Spero C

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury involving loss of consciousness has focal effects in the human brainstem, suggesting that it may have particular consequences for eye movement control. This hypothesis was investigated by measurements of vergence eye movement parameters. Disparity vergence eye movements were measured for a population of 123 normally sighted individuals, 26 of whom had suffered diffuse traumatic brain injury (dTBI) in the past, while the remainder served as controls. Vergence tracking responses were measured to sinusoidal disparity modulation of a random-dot field. Disparity vergence step responses were characterized in terms of their dynamic parameters separately for the convergence and divergence directions. The control group showed notable differences between convergence and divergence dynamics. The dTBI group showed significantly abnormal vergence behavior on many of the dynamic parameters. The results support the hypothesis that occult injury to the oculomotor control system is a common residual outcome of dTBI.

  16. Memory-related brain lateralisation in birds and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Sanne; Nicol, Alister U

    2015-03-01

    Visual imprinting in chicks and song learning in songbirds are prominent model systems for the study of the neural mechanisms of memory. In both systems, neural lateralisation has been found to be involved in memory formation. Although many processes in the human brain are lateralised--spatial memory and musical processing involves mostly right hemisphere dominance, whilst language is mostly left hemisphere dominant--it is unclear what the function of lateralisation is. It might enhance brain capacity, make processing more efficient, or prevent occurrence of conflicting signals. In both avian paradigms we find memory-related lateralisation. We will discuss avian lateralisation findings and propose that birds provide a strong model for studying neural mechanisms of memory-related lateralisation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. A Map for Social Navigation in the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Rita Morais; Mendelsohn, Avi; Grossman, Yael; Williams, Christian Hamilton; Shapiro, Matthew; Trope, Yaacov; Schiller, Daniela

    2015-07-01

    Deciphering the neural mechanisms of social behavior has propelled the growth of social neuroscience. The exact computations of the social brain, however, remain elusive. Here we investigated how the human brain tracks ongoing changes in social relationships using functional neuroimaging. Participants were lead characters in a role-playing game in which they were to find a new home and a job through interactions with virtual cartoon characters. We found that a two-dimensional geometric model of social relationships, a "social space" framed by power and affiliation, predicted hippocampal activity. Moreover, participants who reported better social skills showed stronger covariance between hippocampal activity and "movement" through "social space." The results suggest that the hippocampus is crucial for social cognition, and imply that beyond framing physical locations, the hippocampus computes a more general, inclusive, abstract, and multidimensional cognitive map consistent with its role in episodic memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Supramodal representations of perceived emotions in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelen, Marius V; Atkinson, Anthony P; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2010-07-28

    Basic emotional states (such as anger, fear, and joy) can be similarly conveyed by the face, the body, and the voice. Are there human brain regions that represent these emotional mental states regardless of the sensory cues from which they are perceived? To address this question, in the present study participants evaluated the intensity of emotions perceived from face movements, body movements, or vocal intonations, while their brain activity was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Using multivoxel pattern analysis, we compared the similarity of response patterns across modalities to test for brain regions in which emotion-specific patterns in one modality (e.g., faces) could predict emotion-specific patterns in another modality (e.g., bodies). A whole-brain searchlight analysis revealed modality-independent but emotion category-specific activity patterns in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and left superior temporal sulcus (STS). Multivoxel patterns in these regions contained information about the category of the perceived emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness) across all modality comparisons (face-body, face-voice, body-voice), and independently of the perceived intensity of the emotions. No systematic emotion-related differences were observed in the overall amplitude of activation in MPFC or STS. These results reveal supramodal representations of emotions in high-level brain areas previously implicated in affective processing, mental state attribution, and theory-of-mind. We suggest that MPFC and STS represent perceived emotions at an abstract, modality-independent level, and thus play a key role in the understanding and categorization of others' emotional mental states.

  19. The evolution of distributed association networks in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Randy L; Krienen, Fenna M

    2013-12-01

    The human cerebral cortex is vastly expanded relative to other primates and disproportionately occupied by distributed association regions. Here we offer a hypothesis about how association networks evolved their prominence and came to possess circuit properties vital to human cognition. The rapid expansion of the cortical mantle may have untethered large portions of the cortex from strong constraints of molecular gradients and early activity cascades that lead to sensory hierarchies. What fill the gaps between these hierarchies are densely interconnected networks that widely span the cortex and mature late into development. Limitations of the tethering hypothesis are discussed as well as its broad implications for understanding critical features of the human brain as a byproduct of size scaling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Social Rewards and Social Networks in the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareri, Dominic S; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2014-08-01

    The rapid development of social media and social networking sites in human society within the past decade has brought about an increased focus on the value of social relationships and being connected with others. Research suggests that we pursue socially valued or rewarding outcomes-approval, acceptance, reciprocity-as a means toward learning about others and fulfilling social needs of forming meaningful relationships. Focusing largely on recent advances in the human neuroimaging literature, we review findings highlighting the neural circuitry and processes that underlie pursuit of valued rewarding outcomes across non-social and social domains. We additionally discuss emerging human neuroimaging evidence supporting the idea that social rewards provide a gateway to establishing relationships and forming social networks. Characterizing the link between social network, brain, and behavior can potentially identify contributing factors to maladaptive influences on decision making within social situations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Comparative Analysis of the Macroscale Structural Connectivity in the Macaque and Human Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goulas, A.; Bastiani, M.; Bezgin, G.; Uylings, H.B.M.; Roebroeck, A.; Stiers, P.

    2014-01-01

    The macaque brain serves as a model for the human brain, but its suitability is challenged by unique human features, including connectivity reconfigurations, which emerged during primate evolution. We perform a quantitative comparative analysis of the whole brain macroscale structural connectivity

  2. Infection and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines in human brain vascular pericytes by human cytomegalovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcendor Donald J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infections can result in CNS abnormalities in newborn babies including vision loss, mental retardation, motor deficits, seizures, and hearing loss. Brain pericytes play an essential role in the development and function of the blood–brain barrier yet their unique role in HCMV dissemination and neuropathlogy has not been reported. Methods Primary human brain vascular pericytes were exposed to a primary clinical isolate of HCMV designated ‘SBCMV’. Infectivity was analyzed by microscopy, immunofluorescence, Western blot, and qRT-PCR. Microarrays were performed to identify proinflammatory cytokines upregulated after SBCMV exposure, and the results validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR methodology. In situ cytokine expression of pericytes after exposure to HCMV was examined by ELISA and in vivo evidence of HCMV infection of brain pericytes was shown by dual-labeled immunohistochemistry. Results HCMV-infected human brain vascular pericytes as evidenced by several markers. Using a clinical isolate of HCMV (SBCMV, microscopy of infected pericytes showed virion production and typical cytomegalic cytopathology. This finding was confirmed by the expression of major immediate early and late virion proteins and by the presence of HCMV mRNA. Brain pericytes were fully permissive for CMV lytic replication after 72 to 96 hours in culture compared to human astrocytes or human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC. However, temporal transcriptional expression of pp65 virion protein after SBCMV infection was lower than that seen with the HCMV Towne laboratory strain. Using RT-PCR and dual-labeled immunofluorescence, proinflammatory cytokines CXCL8/IL-8, CXCL11/ITAC, and CCL5/Rantes were upregulated in SBCMV-infected cells, as were tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta, and interleukin-6 (IL-6. Pericytes exposed to SBCMV elicited

  3. Infection and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines in human brain vascular pericytes by human cytomegalovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections can result in CNS abnormalities in newborn babies including vision loss, mental retardation, motor deficits, seizures, and hearing loss. Brain pericytes play an essential role in the development and function of the blood–brain barrier yet their unique role in HCMV dissemination and neuropathlogy has not been reported. Methods Primary human brain vascular pericytes were exposed to a primary clinical isolate of HCMV designated ‘SBCMV’. Infectivity was analyzed by microscopy, immunofluorescence, Western blot, and qRT-PCR. Microarrays were performed to identify proinflammatory cytokines upregulated after SBCMV exposure, and the results validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methodology. In situ cytokine expression of pericytes after exposure to HCMV was examined by ELISA and in vivo evidence of HCMV infection of brain pericytes was shown by dual-labeled immunohistochemistry. Results HCMV-infected human brain vascular pericytes as evidenced by several markers. Using a clinical isolate of HCMV (SBCMV), microscopy of infected pericytes showed virion production and typical cytomegalic cytopathology. This finding was confirmed by the expression of major immediate early and late virion proteins and by the presence of HCMV mRNA. Brain pericytes were fully permissive for CMV lytic replication after 72 to 96 hours in culture compared to human astrocytes or human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC). However, temporal transcriptional expression of pp65 virion protein after SBCMV infection was lower than that seen with the HCMV Towne laboratory strain. Using RT-PCR and dual-labeled immunofluorescence, proinflammatory cytokines CXCL8/IL-8, CXCL11/ITAC, and CCL5/Rantes were upregulated in SBCMV-infected cells, as were tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Pericytes exposed to SBCMV elicited higher levels of IL-6

  4. Multi-dimensional dynamics of human electromagnetic brain activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo eKida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetoencephalography (MEG and electroencephalography (EEG are invaluable neuroscientific tools for unveiling human neural dynamics in three dimensions (space, time, and frequency, which are associated with a wide variety of perceptions, cognition, and actions. MEG/EEG also provides different categories of neuronal indices including activity magnitude, connectivity, and network properties along the three dimensions. In the last 20 years, interest has increased in inter-regional connectivity and complex network properties assessed by various sophisticated scientific analyses. We herein review the definition, computation, short history, and pros and cons of connectivity and complex network (graph-theory analyses applied to MEG/EEG signals. We briefly describe recent developments in source reconstruction algorithms essential for source-space connectivity and network analyses. Furthermore, we discuss a relatively novel approach used in MEG/EEG studies to examine the complex dynamics represented by human brain activity. The correct and effective use of these neuronal metrics provides a new insight into the multi-dimensional dynamics of the neural representations of various functions in the complex human brain.

  5. Multi-Dimensional Dynamics of Human Electromagnetic Brain Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Emi; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2015-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) are invaluable neuroscientific tools for unveiling human neural dynamics in three dimensions (space, time, and frequency), which are associated with a wide variety of perceptions, cognition, and actions. MEG/EEG also provides different categories of neuronal indices including activity magnitude, connectivity, and network properties along the three dimensions. In the last 20 years, interest has increased in inter-regional connectivity and complex network properties assessed by various sophisticated scientific analyses. We herein review the definition, computation, short history, and pros and cons of connectivity and complex network (graph-theory) analyses applied to MEG/EEG signals. We briefly describe recent developments in source reconstruction algorithms essential for source-space connectivity and network analyses. Furthermore, we discuss a relatively novel approach used in MEG/EEG studies to examine the complex dynamics represented by human brain activity. The correct and effective use of these neuronal metrics provides a new insight into the multi-dimensional dynamics of the neural representations of various functions in the complex human brain.

  6. Why our brains cherish humanity: Mirror neurons and colamus humanitatem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Skoyles

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Commonsense says we are isolated. After all, our bodies are physically separate. But Seneca’s colamus humanitatem, and John Donne’s observation that “no man is an island” suggests we are neither entirely isolated nor separate. A recent discovery in neuroscience—that of mirror neurons—argues that the brain and the mind is neither built nor functions remote from what happens in other individuals. What are mirror neurons? They are brain cells that process both what happens to or is done by an individual, and, as it were, its perceived “refl ection,” when that same thing happens or is done by another individual. Thus, mirror neurons are both activated when an individual does a particular action, and when that individual perceives that same action done by another. The discovery of mirror neurons suggests we need to radically revise our notions of human nature since they offer a means by which we may not be so separated as we think. Humans unlike other apes are adapted to mirror interact nonverbally when together. Notably, our faces have been evolved to display agile and nimble movements. While this is usually explained as enabling nonverbal communication, a better description would be nonverbal commune based upon mirror neurons. I argue we cherish humanity, colamus humanitatem, because mirror neurons and our adapted mirror interpersonal interface blur the physical boundaries that separate us.

  7. Studying variability in human brain aging in a population-based German cohort—rationale and design of 1000BRAINS

    OpenAIRE

    Svenja eCaspers; Susanne eMoebus; Silke eLux; Noreen ePundt; Holger eSchütz; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Vincent eGras; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Sandro eRomanzetti; Tony eStöcker; Rüdiger eStirnberg; Kirlangic, Mehmet E.; Martina eMinnerop; Peter ePieperhoff; Ulrich eMödder

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing 1000 brains study (1000BRAINS) is an epidemiological and neuroscientific investigation of structural and functional variability in the human brain during aging. The two recruitment sources are the 10-year follow-up cohort of the German Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR) Study, and the HNR MultiGeneration Study cohort, which comprises spouses and offspring of HNR subjects. The HNR is a longitudinal epidemiological investigation of cardiovascular risk factors, with a comprehensive collectio...

  8. Accelerated evolution of the ASPM gene controlling brain size begins prior to human brain expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalay Kouprina

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Primary microcephaly (MCPH is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global reduction in cerebral cortical volume. The microcephalic brain has a volume comparable to that of early hominids, raising the possibility that some MCPH genes may have been evolutionary targets in the expansion of the cerebral cortex in mammals and especially primates. Mutations in ASPM, which encodes the human homologue of a fly protein essential for spindle function, are the most common known cause of MCPH. Here we have isolated large genomic clones containing the complete ASPM gene, including promoter regions and introns, from chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and rhesus macaque by transformation-associated recombination cloning in yeast. We have sequenced these clones and show that whereas much of the sequence of ASPM is substantially conserved among primates, specific segments are subject to high Ka/Ks ratios (nonsynonymous/synonymous DNA changes consistent with strong positive selection for evolutionary change. The ASPM gene sequence shows accelerated evolution in the African hominoid clade, and this precedes hominid brain expansion by several million years. Gorilla and human lineages show particularly accelerated evolution in the IQ domain of ASPM. Moreover, ASPM regions under positive selection in primates are also the most highly diverged regions between primates and nonprimate mammals. We report the first direct application of TAR cloning technology to the study of human evolution. Our data suggest that evolutionary selection of specific segments of the ASPM sequence strongly relates to differences in cerebral cortical size.

  9. Accelerated evolution of the ASPM gene controlling brain size begins prior to human brain expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouprina, Natalay; Pavlicek, Adam; Mochida, Ganeshwaran H; Solomon, Gregory; Gersch, William; Yoon, Young-Ho; Collura, Randall; Ruvolo, Maryellen; Barrett, J Carl; Woods, C Geoffrey; Walsh, Christopher A; Jurka, Jerzy; Larionov, Vladimir

    2004-05-01

    Primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global reduction in cerebral cortical volume. The microcephalic brain has a volume comparable to that of early hominids, raising the possibility that some MCPH genes may have been evolutionary targets in the expansion of the cerebral cortex in mammals and especially primates. Mutations in ASPM, which encodes the human homologue of a fly protein essential for spindle function, are the most common known cause of MCPH. Here we have isolated large genomic clones containing the complete ASPM gene, including promoter regions and introns, from chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and rhesus macaque by transformation-associated recombination cloning in yeast. We have sequenced these clones and show that whereas much of the sequence of ASPM is substantially conserved among primates, specific segments are subject to high Ka/Ks ratios (nonsynonymous/synonymous DNA changes) consistent with strong positive selection for evolutionary change. The ASPM gene sequence shows accelerated evolution in the African hominoid clade, and this precedes hominid brain expansion by several million years. Gorilla and human lineages show particularly accelerated evolution in the IQ domain of ASPM. Moreover, ASPM regions under positive selection in primates are also the most highly diverged regions between primates and nonprimate mammals. We report the first direct application of TAR cloning technology to the study of human evolution. Our data suggest that evolutionary selection of specific segments of the ASPM sequence strongly relates to differences in cerebral cortical size.

  10. Alcohol's Effects on the Brain: Neuroimaging Results in Humans and Animal Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Natalie M Zahr; Adolf Pfefferbaum

    2017-01-01

    ... into the effects of chronic alcoholism on the human brain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have distinguished alcohol-related brain effects that are permanent from those that are reversible with abstinence...

  11. brain-coX: investigating and visualising gene co-expression in seven human brain transcriptomic datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freytag, Saskia; Burgess, Rosemary; Oliver, Karen L; Bahlo, Melanie

    2017-06-08

    The pathogenesis of neurological and mental health disorders often involves multiple genes, complex interactions, as well as brain- and development-specific biological mechanisms. These characteristics make identification of disease genes for such disorders challenging, as conventional prioritisation tools are not specifically tailored to deal with the complexity of the human brain. Thus, we developed a novel web-application-brain-coX-that offers gene prioritisation with accompanying visualisations based on seven gene expression datasets in the post-mortem human brain, the largest such resource ever assembled. We tested whether our tool can correctly prioritise known genes from 37 brain-specific KEGG pathways and 17 psychiatric conditions. We achieved average sensitivity of nearly 50%, at the same time reaching a specificity of approximately 75%. We also compared brain-coX's performance to that of its main competitors, Endeavour and ToppGene, focusing on the ability to discover novel associations. Using a subset of the curated SFARI autism gene collection we show that brain-coX's prioritisations are most similar to SFARI's own curated gene classifications. brain-coX is the first prioritisation and visualisation web-tool targeted to the human brain and can be freely accessed via http://shiny.bioinf.wehi.edu.au/freytag.s/ .

  12. The representation of biological classes in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Andrew C; Guntupalli, J Swaroop; Gors, Jason; Hanke, Michael; Halchenko, Yaroslav O; Wu, Yu-Chien; Abdi, Hervé; Haxby, James V

    2012-02-22

    Evidence of category specificity from neuroimaging in the human visual system is generally limited to a few relatively coarse categorical distinctions-e.g., faces versus bodies, or animals versus artifacts-leaving unknown the neural underpinnings of fine-grained category structure within these large domains. Here we use fMRI to explore brain activity for a set of categories within the animate domain, including six animal species-two each from three very different biological classes: primates, birds, and insects. Patterns of activity throughout ventral object vision cortex reflected the biological classes of the stimuli. Specifically, the abstract representational space-measured as dissimilarity matrices defined between species-specific multivariate patterns of brain activity-correlated strongly with behavioral judgments of biological similarity of the same stimuli. This biological class structure was uncorrelated with structure measured in retinotopic visual cortex, which correlated instead with a dissimilarity matrix defined by a model of V1 cortex for the same stimuli. Additionally, analysis of the shape of the similarity space in ventral regions provides evidence for a continuum in the abstract representational space-with primates at one end and insects at the other. Further investigation into the cortical topography of activity that contributes to this category structure reveals the partial engagement of brain systems active normally for inanimate objects in addition to animate regions.

  13. MR-visible brain water content in human acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Rosenbaum, S; Sperling, B

    1999-01-01

    CBF) SPECT-scanning using 99mTc-HMPAO as flow tracer was performed in the patients. Mean water content (SD) in the infarct area was 37.7 (5.1); 41.8 (4.8); 35.2 (5.4); and 39.3 (5.1) mol x [kg wet weight](-1) at 0-3; 4-7; 8-21; and >180 days after stroke, respectively. Water content increased between Day 0......Quantification of metabolite concentrations by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in the human brain using water as an internal standard is based on the assumption that water content does not change significantly in pathologic brain tissue. To test this, we used 1H-MRS to estimate...... brain water content during the course of cerebral infarction. Measurements were performed serially in the acute, subacute, and chronic phase of infarction. Fourteen patients with acute cerebral infarction were examined as well as 9 healthy controls. To correlate with regional cerebral blood flow (r...

  14. Mobile phone types and SAR characteristics of the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ae-Kyoung; Hong, Seon-Eui; Kwon, Jong-Hwa; Choi, Hyung-Do; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2017-04-01

    Mobile phones differ in terms of their operating frequency, outer shape, and form and location of the antennae, all of which affect the spatial distributions of their electromagnetic field and the level of electromagnetic absorption in the human head or brain. For this paper, the specific absorption rate (SAR) was calculated for four anatomical head models at different ages using 11 numerical phone models of different shapes and antenna configurations. The 11 models represent phone types accounting for around 86% of the approximately 1400 commercial phone models released into the Korean market since 2002. Seven of the phone models selected have an internal dual-band antenna, and the remaining four possess an external antenna. Each model was intended to generate an average absorption level equivalent to that of the same type of commercial phone model operating at the maximum available output power. The 1 g peak spatial SAR and ipsilateral and contralateral brain-averaged SARs were reported for all 11 phone models. The effects of the phone type, phone position, operating frequency, and age of head models on the brain SAR were comprehensively determined.

  15. Unmasking Language Lateralization in Human Brain Intrinsic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvoy, Mark; Mitra, Anish; Coalson, Rebecca S; d'Avossa, Giovanni; Keidel, James L; Petersen, Steven E; Raichle, Marcus E

    2016-04-01

    Lateralization of function is a fundamental feature of the human brain as exemplified by the left hemisphere dominance of language. Despite the prominence of lateralization in the lesion, split-brain and task-based fMRI literature, surprisingly little asymmetry has been revealed in the increasingly popular functional imaging studies of spontaneous fluctuations in the fMRI BOLD signal (so-called resting-state fMRI). Here, we show the global signal, an often discarded component of the BOLD signal in resting-state studies, reveals a leftward asymmetry that maps onto regions preferential for semantic processing in left frontal and temporal cortex and the right cerebellum and a rightward asymmetry that maps onto putative attention-related regions in right frontal, temporoparietal, and parietal cortex. Hemispheric asymmetries in the global signal resulted from amplitude modulation of the spontaneous fluctuations. To confirm these findings obtained from normal, healthy, right-handed subjects in the resting-state, we had them perform 2 semantic processing tasks: synonym and numerical magnitude judgment and sentence comprehension. In addition to establishing a new technique for studying lateralization through functional imaging of the resting-state, our findings shed new light on the physiology of the global brain signal. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. [Biodynamics of the hip joint. The elasticity of the human femur and its importance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzl, H R

    1976-01-22

    Pauwels' biomechanical analysis of hip joint function shows that the dynamic forces acting on the joint can be large. In these techniques, spring mechanisms are being used to neutralize dynamic forces. The question remains as to whether such a mechanism in humans exists in the vicinity of the hip joint, i.e. in the femur. Fresh human femoral bones were put under axial stress and their qualities examined. Different spring qualities were found in the various femora; and by comparing these, 6 groups were established which were then subjected to statistical analysis. More than half the bones examined possessed good spring qualities. A practical example proves that the spring qualities of the femur are apt to absorb a considerable amount of kinetic energy during the axial stress and thus lessen the vertical mechanical strain vector of the hip joint.

  17. Stable functional networks exhibit consistent timing in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapeton, Julio I; Inati, Sara K; Zaghloul, Kareem A

    2017-03-01

    Despite many advances in the study of large-scale human functional networks, the question of timing, stability, and direction of communication between cortical regions has not been fully addressed. At the cellular level, neuronal communication occurs through axons and dendrites, and the time required for such communication is well defined and preserved. At larger spatial scales, however, the relationship between timing, direction, and communication between brain regions is less clear. Here, we use a measure of effective connectivity to identify connections between brain regions that exhibit communication with consistent timing. We hypothesized that if two brain regions are communicating, then knowledge of the activity in one region should allow an external observer to better predict activity in the other region, and that such communication involves a consistent time delay. We examine this question using intracranial electroencephalography captured from nine human participants with medically refractory epilepsy. We use a coupling measure based on time-lagged mutual information to identify effective connections between brain regions that exhibit a statistically significant increase in average mutual information at a consistent time delay. These identified connections result in sparse, directed functional networks that are stable over minutes, hours, and days. Notably, the time delays associated with these connections are also highly preserved over multiple time scales. We characterize the anatomic locations of these connections, and find that the propagation of activity exhibits a preferred posterior to anterior temporal lobe direction, consistent across participants. Moreover, networks constructed from connections that reliably exhibit consistent timing between anatomic regions demonstrate features of a small-world architecture, with many reliable connections between anatomically neighbouring regions and few long range connections. Together, our results demonstrate

  18. The brain's silent messenger: using selective attention to decode human thought for brain-based communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naci, Lorina; Cusack, Rhodri; Jia, Vivian Z; Owen, Adrian M

    2013-05-29

    The interpretation of human thought from brain activity, without recourse to speech or action, is one of the most provoking and challenging frontiers of modern neuroscience. In particular, patients who are fully conscious and awake, yet, due to brain damage, are unable to show any behavioral responsivity, expose the limits of the neuromuscular system and the necessity for alternate forms of communication. Although it is well established that selective attention can significantly enhance the neural representation of attended sounds, it remains, thus far, untested as a response modality for brain-based communication. We asked whether its effect could be reliably used to decode answers to binary (yes/no) questions. Fifteen healthy volunteers answered questions (e.g., "Do you have brothers or sisters?") in the fMRI scanner, by selectively attending to the appropriate word ("yes" or "no"). Ninety percent of the answers were decoded correctly based on activity changes within the attention network. The majority of volunteers conveyed their answers with less than 3 min of scanning, suggesting that this technique is suited for communication in a reasonable amount of time. Formal comparison with the current best-established fMRI technique for binary communication revealed improved individual success rates and scanning times required to detect responses. This novel fMRI technique is intuitive, easy to use in untrained participants, and reliably robust within brief scanning times. Possible applications include communication with behaviorally nonresponsive patients.

  19. Telomere length modulation in human astroglial brain tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico La Torre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomeres alteration during carcinogenesis and tumor progression has been described in several cancer types. Telomeres length is stabilized by telomerase (h-TERT and controlled by several proteins that protect telomere integrity, such as the Telomere Repeat-binding Factor (TRF 1 and 2 and the tankyrase-poli-ADP-ribose polymerase (TANKs-PARP complex. OBJECTIVE: To investigate telomere dysfunction in astroglial brain tumors we analyzed telomeres length, telomerase activity and the expression of a panel of genes controlling the length and structure of telomeres in tissue samples obtained in vivo from astroglial brain tumors with different grade of malignancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight Low Grade Astrocytomas (LGA, 11 Anaplastic Astrocytomas (AA and 11 Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM samples were analyzed. Three samples of normal brain tissue (NBT were used as controls. Telomeres length was assessed through Southern Blotting. Telomerase activity was evaluated by a telomere repeat amplification protocol (TRAP assay. The expression levels of TRF1, TRF2, h-TERT and TANKs-PARP complex were determined through Immunoblotting and RT-PCR. RESULTS: LGA were featured by an up-regulation of TRF1 and 2 and by shorter telomeres. Conversely, AA and GBM were featured by a down-regulation of TRF1 and 2 and an up-regulation of both telomerase and TANKs-PARP complex. CONCLUSIONS: In human astroglial brain tumours, up-regulation of TRF1 and TRF2 occurs in the early stages of carcinogenesis determining telomeres shortening and genomic instability. In a later stage, up-regulation of PARP-TANKs and telomerase activation may occur together with an ADP-ribosylation of TRF1, causing a reduced ability to bind telomeric DNA, telomeres elongation and tumor malignant progression.

  20. Selectively altering belief formation in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharot, Tali; Kanai, Ryota; Marston, David; Korn, Christoph W; Rees, Geraint; Dolan, Raymond J

    2012-10-16

    Humans form beliefs asymmetrically; we tend to discount bad news but embrace good news. This reduced impact of unfavorable information on belief updating may have important societal implications, including the generation of financial market bubbles, ill preparedness in the face of natural disasters, and overly aggressive medical decisions. Here, we selectively improved people's tendency to incorporate bad news into their beliefs by disrupting the function of the left (but not right) inferior frontal gyrus using transcranial magnetic stimulation, thereby eliminating the engrained "good news/bad news effect." Our results provide an instance of how selective disruption of regional human brain function paradoxically enhances the ability to incorporate unfavorable information into beliefs of vulnerability.

  1. Generation of iPSC-derived Human Brain Organoids to Model Early Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Elke; Gopalakrishnan, Jay

    2017-04-14

    The restricted availability of suitable in vitro models that can reliably represent complex human brain development is a significant bottleneck that limits the translation of basic brain research into clinical application. While induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have replaced the ethically questionable human embryonic stem cells, iPSC-based neuronal differentiation studies remain descriptive at the cellular level but fail to adequately provide the details that could be derived from a complex, 3D human brain tissue. This gap is now filled through the application of iPSC-derived, 3D brain organoids, "Brains in a dish," that model many features of complex human brain development. Here, a method for generating iPSC-derived, 3D brain organoids is described. The organoids can help with modeling autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH), a rare human neurodevelopmental disorder. A widely accepted explanation for the brain malformation in MCPH is a depletion of the neural stem cell pool during the early stages of human brain development, a developmental defect that is difficult to recreate or prove in vitro. To study MCPH, we generated iPSCs from patient-derived fibroblasts carrying a mutation in the centrosomal protein CPAP. By analyzing the ventricular zone of microcephaly 3D brain organoids, we showed the premature differentiation of neural progenitors. These 3D brain organoids are a powerful in vitro system that will be instrumental in modeling congenital brain disorders induced by neurotoxic chemicals, neurotrophic viral infections, or inherited genetic mutations.

  2. Three cortical stages of colour processing in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeki, S; Marini, L

    1998-09-01

    We used the technique of functional magnetic resonance imaging to chart the colour pathways in the human brain beyond V4. We asked subjects to view objects that were dressed in natural and unnatural colours as well as their achromatic counterparts and compared the activity produced in the brain by each condition. The results showed that both naturally and unnaturally coloured objects activate a pathway extending from V1 to V4, though not overlapping totally the activity produced by viewing abstract coloured Mondrian scenes. Normally coloured objects activated, in addition, more anterior parts of the fusiform gyrus, the hippocampus and the ventrolateral frontal cortex. Abnormally coloured objects, by contrast, activated the dorsolateral frontal cortex. A study of the cortical covariation produced by these activations revealed that activity in large parts of the occipital lobe covaried with each. These results, considered against the background of previous physiological and clinical studies, allow us to discern three broad cortical stages of colour processing in the human brain. The first is based on V1 and possibly V2 and is concerned mainly with registering the presence and intensity of different wavelengths, and with wavelength differencing. The second stage is based on V4 and is concerned with automatic colour constancy operations, without regard to memory, judgement and learning. The third stage, based on the inferior temporal and frontal cortex, is more concerned with object colours. The results we report, as well as the schema that we suggest, also allow us to reconcile the computational theory of Land, implemented without regard to cognitive factors such as memory and learning, and the cognitive systems of Helmholtz and Hering, which view such factors as critical in the determination of colours.

  3. Sexual dimorphism of the human brain: myth and reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, M A; Swaab, D F

    1991-01-01

    Many neuroanatomical sex differences have been identified in both animals and humans, which may form the neural bases for sex-specific behavior and reproductive as well as non-reproductive functions. The present essay gives a brief review of the findings on sex differences in the human brain. Our observations on the human hypothalamus revealed that the shape of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)--a structure involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms and reproductive cycles--is elongated in females and more spherical in males. In addition, an extremely large SCN was observed in the brains of homosexual men who died from AIDS. Both the volume of the SCN and the number of vasopressin neurons were about twice as large as in a male reference group. In contrast to the SCN, in which only shape differences were found in relation to gender, the volume and cell number of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) showed a marked sexual dimorphism. The mean volume of the SDN-POA was 2.2 times larger in males than in females and contained about twice as many cells. The function of this sexually dimorphic area in humans is not known, but presumably it is involved in the control of male sexual behavior. The fact that no differences in either volume or cell number were observed between the SDN-POAs of homo- and heterosexual men indicates a selectivity of the SCN in this respect and contradicts the view that male homosexuals have a 'female' hypothalamus.

  4. Hypnosis and imaging of the living human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Mathieu; Raz, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Over more than two decades, studies using imaging techniques of the living human brain have begun to explore the neural correlates of hypnosis. The collective findings provide a gripping, albeit preliminary, account of the underlying neurobiological mechanisms involved in hypnotic phenomena. While substantial advances lend support to different hypotheses pertaining to hypnotic modulation of attention, control, and monitoring processes, the complex interactions among the many mediating variables largely hinder our ability to isolate robust commonalities across studies. The present account presents a critical integrative synthesis of neuroimaging studies targeting hypnosis as a function of suggestion. Specifically, hypnotic induction without task-specific suggestion is examined, as well as suggestions concerning sensation and perception, memory, and ideomotor response. The importance of carefully designed experiments is highlighted to better tease apart the neural correlates that subserve hypnotic phenomena. Moreover, converging findings intimate that hypnotic suggestions seem to induce specific neural patterns. These observations propose that suggestions may have the ability to target focal brain networks. Drawing on evidence spanning several technological modalities, neuroimaging studies of hypnosis pave the road to a more scientific understanding of a dramatic, yet largely evasive, domain of human behavior.

  5. Language representation in the human brain: evidence from cortical mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, S C; Mandybur, G T; Buckingham, H W; Andy, O J

    2000-09-01

    The manner in which the human brain processes grammatical-syntactic and lexical-semantic functions has been extensively debated in neurolinguistics. The discreteness and selectivity of the representation of syntactic-morphological properties in the dominant frontal cortex and the representation of the lexical-semantics in the temporo-parietal cortex have been questioned. Three right-handed adult male neurosurgical patients undergoing left craniotomy for intractable seizures were evaluated using various grammatical and semantic tasks during cortical mapping. The sampling of language tasks consisted of trials with stimulation (experimental) and without stimulation (control) from sites in the dominant fronto-temporo-parietal cortex The sampling of language implicated a larger cortical area devoted to language (syntactic-morphological and lexical-semantic) tasks. Further, a large part of the fronto-parieto-temporal cortex was involved with syntactic-morphological functions. However, only the parieto-temporal sites were implicated with the ordering of lexicon in sentence construction. These observations suggest that the representation of language in the human brain may be columnar or multilayered. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  6. Flow distributions and spatial correlations in human brain capillary networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorthois, Sylvie; Peyrounette, Myriam; Larue, Anne; Le Borgne, Tanguy

    2015-11-01

    The vascular system of the human brain cortex is composed of a space filling mesh-like capillary network connected upstream and downstream to branched quasi-fractal arterioles and venules. The distribution of blood flow rates in these networks may affect the efficiency of oxygen transfer processes. Here, we investigate the distribution and correlation properties of blood flow velocities from numerical simulations in large 3D human intra-cortical vascular network (10000 segments) obtained from an anatomical database. In each segment, flow is solved from a 1D non-linear model taking account of the complex rheological properties of blood flow in microcirculation to deduce blood pressure, blood flow and red blood cell volume fraction distributions throughout the network. The network structural complexity is found to impart broad and spatially correlated Lagrangian velocity distributions, leading to power law transit time distributions. The origins of this behavior (existence of velocity correlations in capillary networks, influence of the coupling with the feeding arterioles and draining veins, topological disorder, complex blood rheology) are studied by comparison with results obtained in various model capillary networks of controlled disorder. ERC BrainMicroFlow GA615102, ERC ReactiveFronts GA648377.

  7. Gaze-and-brain-controlled interfaces for human-computer and human-robot interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishkin S. L.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human-machine interaction technology has greatly evolved during the last decades, but manual and speech modalities remain single output channels with their typical constraints imposed by the motor system’s information transfer limits. Will brain-computer interfaces (BCIs and gaze-based control be able to convey human commands or even intentions to machines in the near future? We provide an overview of basic approaches in this new area of applied cognitive research. Objective. We test the hypothesis that the use of communication paradigms and a combination of eye tracking with unobtrusive forms of registering brain activity can improve human-machine interaction. Methods and Results. Three groups of ongoing experiments at the Kurchatov Institute are reported. First, we discuss the communicative nature of human-robot interaction, and approaches to building a more e cient technology. Specifically, “communicative” patterns of interaction can be based on joint attention paradigms from developmental psychology, including a mutual “eye-to-eye” exchange of looks between human and robot. Further, we provide an example of “eye mouse” superiority over the computer mouse, here in emulating the task of selecting a moving robot from a swarm. Finally, we demonstrate a passive, noninvasive BCI that uses EEG correlates of expectation. This may become an important lter to separate intentional gaze dwells from non-intentional ones. Conclusion. The current noninvasive BCIs are not well suited for human-robot interaction, and their performance, when they are employed by healthy users, is critically dependent on the impact of the gaze on selection of spatial locations. The new approaches discussed show a high potential for creating alternative output pathways for the human brain. When support from passive BCIs becomes mature, the hybrid technology of the eye-brain-computer (EBCI interface will have a chance to enable natural, fluent, and the

  8. Gaze-and-brain-controlled interfaces for human-computer and human-robot interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishkin S. L.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human-machine interaction technology has greatly evolved during the last decades, but manual and speech modalities remain single output channels with their typical constraints imposed by the motor system’s information transfer limits. Will brain-computer interfaces (BCIs and gaze-based control be able to convey human commands or even intentions to machines in the near future? We provide an overview of basic approaches in this new area of applied cognitive research. Objective. We test the hypothesis that the use of communication paradigms and a combination of eye tracking with unobtrusive forms of registering brain activity can improve human-machine interaction. Methods and Results. Three groups of ongoing experiments at the Kurchatov Institute are reported. First, we discuss the communicative nature of human-robot interaction, and approaches to building a more e cient technology. Specifically, “communicative” patterns of interaction can be based on joint attention paradigms from developmental psychology, including a mutual “eye-to-eye” exchange of looks between human and robot. Further, we provide an example of “eye mouse” superiority over the computer mouse, here in emulating the task of selecting a moving robot from a swarm. Finally, we demonstrate a passive, noninvasive BCI that uses EEG correlates of expectation. This may become an important lter to separate intentional gaze dwells from non-intentional ones. Conclusion. The current noninvasive BCIs are not well suited for human-robot interaction, and their performance, when they are employed by healthy users, is critically dependent on the impact of the gaze on selection of spatial locations. The new approaches discussed show a high potential for creating alternative output pathways for the human brain. When support from passive BCIs becomes mature, the hybrid technology of the eye-brain-computer (EBCI interface will have a chance to enable natural, fluent, and the

  9. Human Development XII: A Theory for the Structure and Function of the Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is probably the most complicated single structure in the biological universe. The cerebral cortex that is traditionally connected with consciousness is extremely complex. The brain contains approximately 1,000,000 km of nerve fibers, indicating its enormous complexity and which makes it difficult for scientists to reveal the function of the brain. In this paper, we propose a new model for brain functions, i.e., information-guided self-organization of neural patterns, where information is provided from the abstract wholeness of the biophysical system of an organism (often called the true self, or the “soul””. We present a number of arguments in favor of this model that provide self-conscious control over the thought process or cognition. Our arguments arise from analyzing experimental data from different research fields: histology, anatomy, electroencephalography (EEG, cerebral blood flow, neuropsychology, evolutionary studies, and mathematics. We criticize the popular network theories as the consequence of a simplistic, mechanical interpretation of reality (philosophical materialism applied to the brain. We demonstrate how viewing brain functions as information-guided self-organization of neural patterns can explain the structure of conscious mentation; we seem to have a dual hierarchical representation in the cerebral cortex: one for sensation-perception and one for will-action. The model explains many of our unique mental abilities to think, memorize, associate, discriminate, and make abstractions. The presented model of the conscious brain also seems to be able to explain the function of the simpler brains, such as those of insects and hydra.

  10. A digital interactive human brain atlas based on Chinese visible human datasets for anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiyu; Ran, Xu; Zhang, Shaoxiang; Tan, Liwen; Qiu, Mingguo

    2014-01-01

    As we know, the human brain is one of the most complicated organs in the human body, which is the key and difficult point in neuroanatomy and sectional anatomy teaching. With the rapid development and extensive application of imaging technology in clinical diagnosis, doctors are facing higher and higher requirement on their anatomy knowledge. Thus, to cultivate medical students to meet the needs of medical development today and to improve their ability to read and understand radiographic images have become urgent challenges for the medical teachers. In this context, we developed a digital interactive human brain atlas based on the Chinese visible human datasets for anatomy teaching (available for free download from http://www.chinesevisiblehuman.com/down/DHBA.rar). The atlas simultaneously provides views in all 3 primary planes of section. The main structures of the human brain have been anatomically labeled in all 3 views. It is potentially useful for anatomy browsing, user self-testing, and automatic student assessment. In a word, it is interactive, 3D, user friendly, and free of charge, which can provide a new, intuitive means for anatomy teaching.

  11. Evolution of human brain functions: the functional structure of human consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloninger, C Robert

    2009-11-01

    The functional structure of self-aware consciousness in human beings is described based on the evolution of human brain functions. Prior work on heritable temperament and character traits is extended to account for the quantum-like and holographic properties (i.e. parts elicit wholes) of self-aware consciousness. Cladistic analysis is used to identify the succession of ancestors leading to human beings. The functional capacities that emerge along this lineage of ancestors are described. The ecological context in which each cladogenesis occurred is described to illustrate the shifting balance of evolution as a complex adaptive system. Comparative neuroanatomy is reviewed to identify the brain structures and networks that emerged coincident with the emergent brain functions. Individual differences in human temperament traits were well developed in the common ancestor shared by reptiles and humans. Neocortical development in mammals proceeded in five major transitions: from early reptiles to early mammals, early primates, simians, early Homo, and modern Homo sapiens. These transitions provide the foundation for human self-awareness related to sexuality, materiality, emotionality, intellectuality, and spirituality, respectively. The functional structure of human self-aware consciousness is concerned with the regulation of five planes of being: sexuality, materiality, emotionality, intellectuality, and spirituality. Each plane elaborates neocortical functions organized around one of the five special senses. The interactions among these five planes gives rise to a 5 x 5 matrix of subplanes, which are functions that coarsely describe the focus of neocortical regulation. Each of these 25 neocortical functions regulates each of five basic motives or drives that can be measured as temperaments or basic emotions related to fear, anger, disgust, surprise, and happiness/sadness. The resulting 5 x 5 x 5 matrix of human characteristics provides a general and testable model of the

  12. In vivo areal modulus of elasticity estimation of the human tympanic membrane system: modelling of middle ear mechanical function in normal young and aged ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaihede, Michael; Liao, Donghua; Gregersen, Hans

    2007-02-07

    The quasi-static elastic properties of the tympanic membrane system can be described by the areal modulus of elasticity determined by a middle ear model. The response of the tympanic membrane to quasi-static pressure changes is determined by its elastic properties. Several clinical problems are related to these, but studies are few and mostly not comparable. The elastic properties of membranes can be described by the areal modulus, and these may also be susceptible to age-related changes reflected by changes in the areal modulus. The areal modulus is determined by the relationship between membrane tension and change of the surface area relative to the undeformed surface area. A middle ear model determined the tension-strain relationship in vivo based on data from experimental pressure-volume deformations of the human tympanic membrane system. The areal modulus was determined in both a younger (n = 10) and an older (n = 10) group of normal subjects. The areal modulus for lateral and medial displacement of the tympanic membrane system was smaller in the older group (mean = 0.686 and 0.828 kN m(-1), respectively) compared to the younger group (mean = 1.066 and 1.206 kN m(-1), respectively), though not significantly (2p = 0.10 and 0.11, respectively). Based on the model the areal modulus was established describing the summated elastic properties of the tympanic membrane system. Future model improvements include exact determination of the tympanic membrane area accounting for its shape via 3D finite element analyses. In vivo estimates of Young's modulus in this study were a factor 2-3 smaller than previously found in vitro. No significant age-related differences were found in the elastic properties as expressed by the areal modulus.

  13. Reconsolidation of human memory: brain mechanisms and clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars; Nader, Karim; Pruessner, Jens C

    2014-08-15

    The processes of memory formation and storage are complex and highly dynamic. Once memories are consolidated, they are not necessarily fixed but can be changed long after storage. In particular, seemingly stable memories may re-enter an unstable state when they are retrieved, from which they must be re-stabilized during a process known as reconsolidation. During reconsolidation, memories are susceptible to modifications again, thus providing an opportunity to update seemingly stable memories. While initial demonstrations of memory reconsolidation came mainly from animal studies, evidence for reconsolidation in humans is now accumulating as well. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of human memory reconsolidation. After a summary of findings on the reconsolidation of human fear and episodic memory, we focus particularly on recent neuroimaging data that provide first insights into how reconsolidation processes are implemented in the human brain. Finally, we discuss the implications of memory modifications during reconsolidation for the treatment of mental disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and drug addiction. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The influence of scaffold elasticity on germ layer specification of human embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoldan, Janet; Karagiannis, Emmanouil D.; Lee, Christopher Y.; Anderson, Daniel G.; Langer, Robert; Levenberg, Shulamit

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical forces are critical to embryogenesis, specifically, in the lineage-specification gastrulation phase, whereupon the embryo is transformed from a simple spherical ball of cells to a multi-layered organism, containing properly organized endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm germ layers. Several reports have proposed that such directed and coordinated movements of large cell collectives are driven by cellular responses to cell deformations and cell-generated forces. To better understand these environmental-induced cell changes, we have modeled the germ layer formation process by culturing human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) on three dimensional (3D) scaffolds with stiffness engineered to model that found in specific germ layers. We show that differentiation to each germ layer was promoted by a different stiffness threshold of the scaffolds, reminiscent of the forces exerted during the gastrulation process. The overall results suggest that three dimensional (3D) scaffolds can recapitulate the mechanical stimuli required for directing hESC differentiation and that these stimuli can play a significant role in determining hESC fate. PMID:21963156

  15. Human brain arteriovenous malformations express lymphatic-associated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Lorelei D; Fuentes, Laurel F; Santiago, Shauna M; Allen, Breanna M; Cook, Douglas J; Steinberg, Gary K; Chang, Steven D

    2014-12-01

    Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are devastating, hemorrhage-prone, cerebrovascular lesions characterized by well-defined feeding arteries, draining vein(s) and the absence of a capillary bed. The endothelial cells (ECs) that comprise AVMs exhibit a loss of arterial and venous specification. Given the role of the transcription factor COUP-TFII in vascular development, EC specification, and pathological angiogenesis, we examined human AVM tissue to determine if COUP-FTII may have a role in AVM disease biology. We examined 40 human brain AVMs by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and qRT-PCR for the expression of COUP-TFII as well as other genes involved in venous and lymphatic development, maintenance, and signaling. We also examined proliferation and EC tube formation with human umbilical ECs (HUVEC) following COUP-TFII overexpression. We report that AVMs expressed COUP-TFII, SOX18, PROX1, NFATC1, FOXC2, TBX1, LYVE1, Podoplanin, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, contained Ki67-positive cells and heterogeneously expressed genes involved in Hedgehog, Notch, Wnt, and VEGF signaling pathways. Overexpression of COUP-TFII alone in vitro resulted in increased EC proliferation and dilated tubes in an EC tube formation assay in HUVEC. This suggests AVM ECs are further losing their arterial/venous specificity and acquiring a partial lymphatic molecular phenotype. There was significant correlation of gene expression with presence of clinical edema and acute hemorrhage. While the precise role of these genes in the formation, stabilization, growth and risk of hemorrhage of AVMs remains unclear, these findings have potentially important implications for patient management and treatment choice, and opens new avenues for future work on AVM disease mechanisms.

  16. Medical Ultrasonic Elasticity Imaging Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Mok Keun [Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, Daejin University, Pocheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Breast and prostate tumors or cancers tend to be stiffer than the surrounding normal tissue. However, the difference in echogenicity between cancerous and normal tissues is not clearly distinguishable in ultrasound B-mode imaging. Thus, imaging the stiffness contrast between the two different tissue types helps to diagnose lesions quantitatively, and such a method of imaging the elasticity of human tissue is termed ultrasound elasticity imaging. Recently, elasticity imaging has become an effective complementary diagnostic modality along with ultrasound B-mode imaging. This paper presents various elasticity imaging methods that have been reported up to now and describes their characteristics and principles of operation.

  17. Elastic Beanstalk

    CERN Document Server

    Vliet, Jurg; Wel, Steven; Dowd, Dara

    2011-01-01

    While it's always been possible to run Java applications on Amazon EC2, Amazon's Elastic Beanstalk makes the process easier-especially if you understand how it works beneath the surface. This concise, hands-on book not only walks you through Beanstalk for deploying and managing web applications in the cloud, you'll also learn how to use this AWS tool in other phases of development. Ideal if you're a developer familiar with Java applications or AWS, Elastic Beanstalk provides step-by-step instructions and numerous code samples for building cloud applications on Beanstalk that can handle lots

  18. Brain Imaging of Human Sexual Response : Recent Developments and Future Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruesink, Gerben B; Georgiadis, Janniko R

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Review: The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive summary of the latest developments in the experimental brain study of human sexuality, focusing on brain connectivity during the sexual response. Recent Findings: Stable patterns of brain activation have been established for

  19. Human subcortical brain asymmetries in 15,847 people worldwide reveal effects of age and sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guadalupe, Tulio; Mathias, Samuel R.; Vanerp, Theo G. M.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Abe, Yoshinari; Abramovic, Lucija; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Arolt, Volker; Artiges, Eric; Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Baboyan, Vatche G.; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bastin, Mark E.; Baune, Bernhard T.; Blangero, John; Bokde, Arun L. . W.; Boedhoe, Premika S. . W.; Bose, Anushree; Brem, Silvia; Brodaty, Henry; Bromberg, Uli; Brooks, Samantha; Buechel, Christian; Buitelaar, Jan; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cattrell, Anna; Cheng, Yuqi; Conrod, Patricia J.; Conzelmann, Annette; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Crivello, Fabrice; Dannlowski, Udo; De Zubicaray, Greig I.; De Zwarte, Sonja M. C.; Deary, Ian J.; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Doan, Nhat Trung; Donohoe, Gary; Dorum, Erlend S.; Ehrlich, Stefan; Espeseth, Thomas; Fernandez, Guillen; Flor, Herta; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Frouin, Vincent; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gallinat, Jurgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gill, Michael; Suarez, Andrea Gonzalez; Gowland, Penny; Grabe, Hans J.; Grotegerd, Dominik; Gruber, Oliver; Hagenaars, Saskia; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hauser, Tobias U.; Heinz, Andreas; Hibar, Derrek P.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hoogman, Martine; Howells, Fleur M.; Hu, Hao; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Huyser, Chaim; Ittermann, Bernd; Jahanshad, Neda; Jonsson, Erik G.; Jurk, Sarah; Kahn, Rene S.; Kelly, Sinead; Kraemer, Bernd; Kugel, Harald; Kwon, Jun Soo; Lemaitre, Herve; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Lochner, Christine; Luciano, Michelle; Marquand, Andre F.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Martinez-Zalacain, Ignacio; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mataix-Cols, David; Mather, Karen; McDonald, Colm; McMahon, Katie L.; Medland, Sarah E.; Menchon, Jose M.; Morris, Derek W.; Mothersill, Omar; Maniega, Susana Munoz; Mwangi, Benson; Nakamae, Takashi; Nakao, Tomohiro; Narayanaswaamy, Janardhanan C.; Nees, Frauke; Nordvik, Jan E.; Onnink, A. Marten H.; Opel, Nils; Ophoff, Roel; Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillere; Orfanos, Dimitri Papadopoulos; Pauli, Paul; Paus, Tomas; Poustka, Luise; Reddy, Janardhan Y. C.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Roiz-Santianez, Roberto; Roos, Annerine; Royle, Natalie A.; Sachdev, Perminder; Sanchez-Juan, Pascual; Schmaal, Lianne; Schumann, Gunter; Shumskaya, Elena; Smolka, Michael N.; Soares, Jair C.; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Stein, Dan J.; Strike, Lachlan T.; Toro, Roberto; Turner, Jessica A.; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Uhlmann, Anne; Hernandez, Maria Valdes; Van den Heuvel, Odile A.; Van der Meer, Dennis; Van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Veltman, Dick J.; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Vetter, Nora C.; Vuletic, Daniella; Walitza, Susanne; Walter, Henrik; Walton, Esther; Wang, Zhen; Wardlaw, Joanna; Wen, Wei; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Robert; Wittfeld, Katharina; Wolfers, Thomas; Wright, Margaret J.; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiufeng; Yun, Je-Yeon; Zhao, JingJing; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M.; Glahn, David C.; Mazoyer, Bernard; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde

    2017-01-01

    The two hemispheres of the human brain differ functionally and structurally. Despite over a century of research, the extent to which brain asymmetry is influenced by sex, handedness, age, and genetic factors is still controversial. Here we present the largest ever analysis of subcortical brain

  20. A new methodology for the in vivo estimation of the elastic constants that characterize the patient-specific biomechanical behavior of the human cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, M A; Rupérez, M J; Martínez-Martínez, F; Monserrat, C; Larra, E; Güell, J L; Peris-Martínez, C

    2015-01-02

    This work presents a methodology for the in vivo characterization of the complete biomechanical behavior of the human cornea of each patient. Specifically, the elastic constants of a hyperelastic, second-order Ogden model were estimated for 24 corneas corresponding to 12 patients. The finite element method was applied to simulate the deformation of human corneas due to non-contact tonometry, and an iterative search controlled by a genetic heuristic was used to estimate the elastic parameters that most closely approximates the simulated deformation to the real one. The results from a synthetic experiment showed that these parameters can be estimated with an error of about 5%. The results of 24 in vivo corneas showed an overlap of about 90% between simulation and real deformed cornea and a modified Hausdorff distance of 25 μm, which indicates the great accuracy of the proposed methodology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Localization of brain activation by umami taste in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuko; Goto, Tazuko K; Tokumori, Kenji; Yoshiura, Takashi; Kobayashi, Koji; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Honda, Hiroshi; Ninomiya, Yuzo; Yoshiura, Kazunori

    2011-08-11

    There are no credible data to support the notion that individual taste qualities have dedicated pathways leading from the tongue to the end of the pathway in the brain. Moreover, the insular cortex is activated not only by taste but also by non-taste information from oral stimuli. These responses are invariably excitatory, and it is difficult to determine whether they are sensory, motor, or proprioceptive in origin. Furthermore, umami is a more unfamiliar and complex taste than other basic tastes. Considering these issues, it may be effective to minimize somatosensory stimuli, oral movement, and psychological effects in a neuroimaging study to elicit cerebral activity by pure umami on the human tongue. For this purpose, we developed an original taste delivery system for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies for umami. Then, we compared the results produced by two authorized models, namely, the block design model and event-related design model, to decide the appropriate model for detecting activation by umami. Activation by the umami taste was well localized in the insular cortex using our new system and block design model analysis. The peaks of the activated areas in the middle insular cortex by umami were very close to another prototypical taste quality (salty). Although we have to carefully interpret the perceiving intensities and brain activations by taste from different sessions, this study design might be effective for detecting the accession area in the cortex of pure umami taste on the tongue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Consequences of Traumatic Brain Injury for Human Vergence Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W Tyler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Traumatic brain injury involving loss of consciousness has focal effects in the human brainstem, suggesting that it may have particular consequences for eye movement control. This hypothesis was investigated by measurements of vergence eye movement parameters.Methods: Disparity vergence eye movements were measured for a population of 123 normally-sighted individuals, 26 of whom had suffered diffuse traumatic brain injury (dTBI in the past, while the remainder served as controls. Vergence tracking responses were measured to sinusoidal disparity modulation of a random-dot field. Disparity vergence step responses were characterized in terms of their dynamic parameters separately for the convergence and divergence directions.Results: The control group showed notable differences between convergence and divergence dynamics. The dTBI group showed significantly abnormal vergence behavior on many of the dynamic parameters.Conclusions: The support the hypothesis that occult injury to the oculomotor control system is a common residual outcome of dTBI.

  3. Motor Skill Acquisition Promotes Human Brain Myelin Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimal Lakhani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience-dependent structural changes are widely evident in gray matter. Using diffusion weighted imaging (DWI, the neuroplastic effect of motor training on white matter in the brain has been demonstrated. However, in humans it is not known whether specific features of white matter relate to motor skill acquisition or if these structural changes are associated to functional network connectivity. Myelin can be objectively quantified in vivo and used to index specific experience-dependent change. In the current study, seventeen healthy young adults completed ten sessions of visuomotor skill training (10,000 total movements using the right arm. Multicomponent relaxation imaging was performed before and after training. Significant increases in myelin water fraction, a quantitative measure of myelin, were observed in task dependent brain regions (left intraparietal sulcus [IPS] and left parieto-occipital sulcus. In addition, the rate of motor skill acquisition and overall change in myelin water fraction in the left IPS were negatively related, suggesting that a slower rate of learning resulted in greater neuroplastic change. This study provides the first evidence for experience-dependent changes in myelin that are associated with changes in skilled movements in healthy young adults.

  4. The functional connectivity landscape of the human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratislav Mišić

    Full Text Available Functional brain networks emerge and dissipate over a primarily static anatomical foundation. The dynamic basis of these networks is inter-regional communication involving local and distal regions. It is assumed that inter-regional distances play a pivotal role in modulating network dynamics. Using three different neuroimaging modalities, 6 datasets were evaluated to determine whether experimental manipulations asymmetrically affect functional relationships based on the distance between brain regions in human participants. Contrary to previous assumptions, here we show that short- and long-range connections are equally likely to strengthen or weaken in response to task demands. Additionally, connections between homotopic areas are the most stable and less likely to change compared to any other type of connection. Our results point to a functional connectivity landscape characterized by fluid transitions between local specialization and global integration. This ability to mediate functional properties irrespective of spatial distance may engender a diverse repertoire of cognitive processes when faced with a dynamic environment.

  5. Human brain activity with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qingming; Chance, Britton

    1999-09-01

    Human brain activity was studied with a real time functional Near-InfraRed Imager (fNIRI). The imager has 16 measurement channels and covers 4 cm by 9 cm detection area. Brain activities in occipital, motor and prefrontal area were studied with the fNIRI. In prefrontal stimulation, language cognition, analogies, forming memory for new associations, emotional thinking, and mental arithmetic were carried out. Experimental results measured with fNIRI are demonstrated in this paper. It was shown that fNIRI technique is able to reveal the occipital activity during visual stimulation, and co-register well with results of fMRI in the motor cortex activity during finger tapping. In the studies of the effects of left prefrontal lobe on forming memory for new associations, it is shown that left prefrontal lobe activated more under deep conditions than that under shallow encoding, especially the dorsal part. In the studies of emotional thinking, it was shown that the responses were different between positive- negative emotional thinking and negative-positive emotional thinking. In mental arithmetic studies, higher activation was found in the first task than in the second, regardless of the difficulty, and higher activation was measured in subtraction of 17 than in subtraction of 3.

  6. Frequency-based similarity detection of structures in human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Dave I.; Siadat, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-03-01

    Advancements in 3D scanning and volumetric imaging methods have motivated researchers to tackle new challenges related to storing, retrieving and comparing 3D models, especially in medical domain. Comparing natural rigid shapes and detecting subtle changes in 3D models of brain structures is of great importance. Precision in capturing surface details and insensitivity to shape orientation are highly desirable properties of good shape descriptors. In this paper, we propose a new method, Spherical Harmonics Distance (SHD), which leverages the power of spherical harmonics to provide more accurate representation of surface details. At the same time, the proposed method incorporates the features of a shape distribution method (D2) and inherits its insensitivity to shape orientation. Comparing SHD to a spherical harmonics based method (SPHARM) shows that the performance of the proposed method is less sensitive to rotation. Also, comparing SHD to D2 shows that the proposed method is more accurate in detecting subtle changes. The performance of the proposed method is verified by calculating the Fisher measure (FM) of extracted feature vectors. The FM of the vectors generated by SHD on average shows 27 times higher values than that of D2. Our preliminary results show that SHD successfully combines desired features from two different methods and paves the way towards better detection of subtle dissimilarities among natural rigid shapes (e.g. structures of interest in human brain). Detecting these subtle changes can be instrumental in more accurate diagnosis, prognosis and treatment planning.

  7. Online social network size is reflected in human brain structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, R; Bahrami, B; Roylance, R; Rees, G

    2012-04-07

    The increasing ubiquity of web-based social networking services is a striking feature of modern human society. The degree to which individuals participate in these networks varies substantially for reasons that are unclear. Here, we show a biological basis for such variability by demonstrating that quantitative variation in the number of friends an individual declares on a web-based social networking service reliably predicted grey matter density in the right superior temporal sulcus, left middle temporal gyrus and entorhinal cortex. Such regions have been previously implicated in social perception and associative memory, respectively. We further show that variability in the size of such online friendship networks was significantly correlated with the size of more intimate real-world social groups. However, the brain regions we identified were specifically associated with online social network size, whereas the grey matter density of the amygdala was correlated both with online and real-world social network sizes. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the size of an individual's online social network is closely linked to focal brain structure implicated in social cognition.

  8. The brain's functional network architecture reveals human motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Grit; Morishima, Yosuke; Leiberg, Susanne; Sul, Sunhae; Fehr, Ernst

    2016-03-04

    Goal-directed human behaviors are driven by motives. Motives are, however, purely mental constructs that are not directly observable. Here, we show that the brain's functional network architecture captures information that predicts different motives behind the same altruistic act with high accuracy. In contrast, mere activity in these regions contains no information about motives. Empathy-based altruism is primarily characterized by a positive connectivity from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to the anterior insula (AI), whereas reciprocity-based altruism additionally invokes strong positive connectivity from the AI to the ACC and even stronger positive connectivity from the AI to the ventral striatum. Moreover, predominantly selfish individuals show distinct functional architectures compared to altruists, and they only increase altruistic behavior in response to empathy inductions, but not reciprocity inductions. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Comparative evaluation of hepatitis B surface antigen-loaded elastic liposomes and ethosomes for human dendritic cell uptake and immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Dinesh; Mishra, Pradyumna Kumar; Dabadghao, Sunil; Dubey, Vaibhav; Nahar, Manoj; Jain, Narendra K

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate two vesicular carrier systems, ethosomes and elastic liposomes loaded with hepatitis B surface antigen, for in vitro qualitative and quantitative uptake by human dendritic cells (DCs) and ability to stimulate T lymphocytes. Quantitative uptake of antigen-loaded carriers was documented by flow cytometry, and internalization of the systems by the DCs was studied using spectral bioimaging. Ability of antigen-pulsed DCs to stimulate autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes and levels of TH1/TH2 cytokines were also examined using flow cytometry. Both vesicular carrier systems as antigen delivery modules and DCs as antigen-presenting cells were able to generate a protective immune response. However, ethosomes were found to have higher internalizing ability and immunogenicity in comparison with elastic liposomes. These properties of ethosomes coupled with their skin-navigating potential, make it an attractive vehicle for development of a transcutaneous vaccine against hepatitis B in preference to elastic liposomes. Two carrier systems for more potent vaccine administration - ethosomes and elastic liposomes loaded with hepatitis B surface antigen - are compared. Ethosomes demonstrated higher internalizing ability and immunogenicity. Due to their known skin-navigating potential, ethosomes may represent an attractive vehicle for development of a transcutaneous vaccine against hepatitis B. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An investigation to determine if a single validated density-elasticity relationship can be used for subject specific finite element analyses of human long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Sebastian; Göttlinger, Michael; Augat, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Subject-specific FE-models of human long bones have to predict mechanical parameters with sufficient accuracy to be applicable in a clinical setting. One of the main aspects in subject-specific FE-models of bones regarding accuracy is the modeling of the material inhomogeneity. The goal of this study was therefore to develop FE-models of human femurs and investigate if a single validated density-elasticity relationship can be used for subject specific finite element analyses of human long bones, when the task is to predict the bone's mechanical response to load. To this aim, 23 human cadaver femurs were tested in axial compression with a load of 1000 N. Strains, local displacements, and axial bone stiffness were determined. Subject-specific FE-models were developed for each bone based on quantitative CT-scans. Three different density-elasticity relationships were retrieved from the literature, and were implemented in the FE-models. The predicted mechanical values depended largely on the used equation. The most reasonable equation showed a mean error of -11% in strain prediction, a mean error of -23% in local displacement prediction, and a mean error of +23% in axial stiffness prediction. The scatter of the predictions was very low in all three categories of measurements with a 1.96 standard deviation of about 30% to the mean errors. In conclusion, a framework for subject-specific FE-models was developed that was able to predict surface strains and bone deformation with good accuracy by using a single density-elasticity relationship. However, it was also found that the most appropriate density-elasticity relationship was specimen-specific. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Human Brain Activity Related to the Tactile Perception of Stickiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Jiwon; Kim, Junsuk; Ryu, Jaekyun; Park, Jang-Yeon; Chung, Soon-Cheol; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2017-01-01

    While the perception of stickiness serves as one of the fundamental dimensions for tactile sensation, little has been elucidated about the stickiness sensation and its neural correlates. The present study investigated how the human brain responds to perceived tactile sticky stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To evoke tactile perception of stickiness with multiple intensities, we generated silicone stimuli with varying catalyst ratios. Also, an acrylic sham stimulus was prepared to present a condition with no sticky sensation. From the two psychophysics experiments–the methods of constant stimuli and the magnitude estimation—we could classify the silicone stimuli into two groups according to whether a sticky perception was evoked: the Supra-threshold group that evoked sticky perception and the Infra-threshold group that did not. In the Supra-threshold vs. Sham contrast analysis of the fMRI data using the general linear model (GLM), the contralateral primary somatosensory area (S1) and ipsilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) showed significant activations in subjects, whereas no significant result was found in the Infra-threshold vs. Sham contrast. This result indicates that the perception of stickiness not only activates the somatosensory cortex, but also possibly induces higher cognitive processes. Also, the Supra- vs. Infra-threshold contrast analysis revealed significant activations in several subcortical regions, including the pallidum, putamen, caudate and thalamus, as well as in another region spanning the insula and temporal cortices. These brain regions, previously known to be related to tactile discrimination, may subserve the discrimination of different intensities of tactile stickiness. The present study unveils the human neural correlates of the tactile perception of stickiness and may contribute to broadening the understanding of neural mechanisms associated with tactile perception. PMID:28163677

  12. A collaborative brain-computer interface for improving human performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Wang

    Full Text Available Electroencephalogram (EEG based brain-computer interfaces (BCI have been studied since the 1970s. Currently, the main focus of BCI research lies on the clinical use, which aims to provide a new communication channel to patients with motor disabilities to improve their quality of life. However, the BCI technology can also be used to improve human performance for normal healthy users. Although this application has been proposed for a long time, little progress has been made in real-world practices due to technical limits of EEG. To overcome the bottleneck of low single-user BCI performance, this study proposes a collaborative paradigm to improve overall BCI performance by integrating information from multiple users. To test the feasibility of a collaborative BCI, this study quantitatively compares the classification accuracies of collaborative and single-user BCI applied to the EEG data collected from 20 subjects in a movement-planning experiment. This study also explores three different methods for fusing and analyzing EEG data from multiple subjects: (1 Event-related potentials (ERP averaging, (2 Feature concatenating, and (3 Voting. In a demonstration system using the Voting method, the classification accuracy of predicting movement directions (reaching left vs. reaching right was enhanced substantially from 66% to 80%, 88%, 93%, and 95% as the numbers of subjects increased from 1 to 5, 10, 15, and 20, respectively. Furthermore, the decision of reaching direction could be made around 100-250 ms earlier than the subject's actual motor response by decoding the ERP activities arising mainly from the posterior parietal cortex (PPC, which are related to the processing of visuomotor transmission. Taken together, these results suggest that a collaborative BCI can effectively fuse brain activities of a group of people to improve the overall performance of natural human behavior.

  13. Gorilla and Orangutan Brains Conform to the Primate Cellular Scaling Rules: Implications for Human Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Kaas, Jon H.

    2011-01-01

    Gorillas and orangutans are primates at least as large as humans, but their brains amount to about one third of the size of the human brain. This discrepancy has been used as evidence that the human brain is about 3 times larger than it should be for a primate species of its body size. In contrast to the view that the human brain is special in its size, we have suggested that it is the great apes that might have evolved bodies that are unusually large, on the basis of our recent finding that the cellular composition of the human brain matches that expected for a primate brain of its size, making the human brain a linearly scaled-up primate brain in its number of cells. To investigate whether the brain of great apes also conforms to the primate cellular scaling rules identified previously, we determine the numbers of neuronal and other cells that compose the orangutan and gorilla cerebella, use these numbers to calculate the size of the brain and of the cerebral cortex expected for these species, and show that these match the sizes described in the literature. Our results suggest that the brains of great apes also scale linearly in their numbers of neurons like other primate brains, including humans. The conformity of great apes and humans to the linear cellular scaling rules that apply to other primates that diverged earlier in primate evolution indicates that prehistoric Homo species as well as other hominins must have had brains that conformed to the same scaling rules, irrespective of their body size. We then used those scaling rules and published estimated brain volumes for various hominin species to predict the numbers of neurons that composed their brains. We predict that Homo heidelbergensis and Homo neanderthalensis had brains with approximately 80 billion neurons, within the range of variation found in modern Homo sapiens. We propose that while the cellular scaling rules that apply to the primate brain have remained stable in hominin evolution (since they

  14. Morphometric variability of precuneus in relation to gender and the hemisphere of human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Spasojević Goran; Malobabić Slobodan; Šuščević Dušan; Miljković Željka

    2004-01-01

    Precuneus, a quadrangular gyrus of the medial surface of the human parietal lobe, is bound by three primary brain sulci and by superior hemispheric border. Precise encephalometric data about precuneus are important in the studies of brain lateralization, sex dimorphism, and brain functions in general. In this study, total and visible (exstrasulcal) surface area of the precuneus were measured on 50 brains of the adult persons (31 male, and 29 female), together with the investigation of its rel...

  15. The distribution of melanopsin (OPN4) protein in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissilä, Juuso S; Mänttäri, Satu K; Särkioja, Terttu T; Tuominen, Hannu J; Takala, Timo E; Kiviniemi, Vesa J; Sormunen, Raija T; Saarela, Seppo Y O; Timonen, Markku J

    2017-01-01

    Until now, melanopsin (OPN4) - a specialized photopigment being responsive especially to blue light wavelengths - has not been found in the human brain at protein level outside the retina. More specifically, OPN4 has only been found in about 2% of retinal ganglion cells (i.e. in intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells), and in a subtype of retinal cone-cells. Given that Allen Institute for Brain Science has described a wide distribution of OPN4 mRNA in two human brains, we aimed to investigate whether OPN4 is present in the human brain also at protein level. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, as well as immunoelectron microscopy, were used to analyse the existence and distribution of OPN4 protein in 18 investigated areas of the human brain in samples obtained in forensic autopsies from 10 male subjects (54 ± 3.5 years). OPN4 protein expression was found in all subjects, and, furthermore, in 5 out of 10 subjects in all investigated brain areas localized in membranous compartments and cytoplasmic vesicles of neurons. To our opinion, the wide distribution of OPN4 in central areas of the human brain evokes a question whether ambient light has important straight targets in the human brain outside the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT). Further studies are, however, needed to investigate the putative physiological phototransductive actions of inborn OPN4 protein outside the RHT in the human brain.

  16. Rotational elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliev, Dmitri

    2017-04-01

    We consider an infinite three-dimensional elastic continuum whose material points experience no displacements, only rotations. This framework is a special case of the Cosserat theory of elasticity. Rotations of material points are described mathematically by attaching to each geometric point an orthonormal basis that gives a field of orthonormal bases called the coframe. As the dynamical variables (unknowns) of our theory, we choose the coframe and a density. We write down the general dynamic variational functional for our rotational theory of elasticity, assuming our material to be physically linear but the kinematic model geometrically nonlinear. Allowing geometric nonlinearity is natural when dealing with rotations because rotations in dimension three are inherently nonlinear (rotations about different axes do not commute) and because there is no reason to exclude from our study large rotations such as full turns. The main result of the talk is an explicit construction of a class of time-dependent solutions that we call plane wave solutions; these are travelling waves of rotations. The existence of such explicit closed-form solutions is a non-trivial fact given that our system of Euler-Lagrange equations is highly nonlinear. We also consider a special case of our rotational theory of elasticity which in the stationary setting (harmonic time dependence and arbitrary dependence on spatial coordinates) turns out to be equivalent to a pair of massless Dirac equations. The talk is based on the paper [1]. [1] C.G.Boehmer, R.J.Downes and D.Vassiliev, Rotational elasticity, Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, 2011, vol. 64, p. 415-439. The paper is a heavily revised version of preprint https://arxiv.org/abs/1008.3833

  17. 5-HT radioligands for human brain imaging with PET and SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paterson, Louise M; Kornum, Birgitte R; Nutt, David J

    2013-01-01

    The serotonergic system plays a key modulatory role in the brain and is the target for many drug treatments for brain disorders either through reuptake blockade or via interactions at the 14 subtypes of 5-HT receptors. This review provides the history and current status of radioligands used...... for positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) imaging of human brain serotonin (5-HT) receptors, the 5-HT transporter (SERT), and 5-HT synthesis rate. Currently available radioligands for in vivo brain imaging of the 5-HT system in humans include antagonists...... to image serotonergic targets is of high interest, and successful evaluation in humans is leading to invaluable insight into normal and abnormal brain function, emphasizing the need for continued development of both SPECT and PET radioligands for human brain imaging....

  18. Comparative analysis of the macroscale structural connectivity in the macaque and human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Goulas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The macaque brain serves as a model for the human brain, but its suitability is challenged by unique human features, including connectivity reconfigurations, which emerged during primate evolution. We perform a quantitative comparative analysis of the whole brain macroscale structural connectivity of the two species. Our findings suggest that the human and macaque brain as a whole are similarly wired. A region-wise analysis reveals many interspecies similarities of connectivity patterns, but also lack thereof, primarily involving cingulate regions. We unravel a common structural backbone in both species involving a highly overlapping set of regions. This structural backbone, important for mediating information across the brain, seems to constitute a feature of the primate brain persevering evolution. Our findings illustrate novel evolutionary aspects at the macroscale connectivity level and offer a quantitative translational bridge between macaque and human research.

  19. Human Emotion Detection via Brain Waves Study by Using Electroencephalogram (EEG)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    W.O. A.S. Wan Ismail; M. Hanif; S. B. Mohamed; Noraini Hamzah; Zairi Ismael Rizman

    2016-01-01

    .... This research was conducted to detect or identify human emotion via the study of brain waves. In addition, the research aims to develop computer software that can detect human emotions quickly and easily...

  20. Mapping a2 Adrenoceptors of the Human Brain with 11C-Yohimbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nahimi, Adjmal; Jakobsen, Steen; Munk, Ole

    2015-01-01

    A previous study from this laboratory suggested that 11C-yohimbine, a selective α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, is an appropriate ligand for PET of α2 adrenoceptors that passes readily from blood to brain tissue in pigs but not in rodents. To test usefulness in humans, we determined blood–brain...... adrenoceptors in human brain had the highest values in cortical areas and hippocampus, with moderate values in subcortical structures, as found also in vitro. The results confirm the usefulness of the tracer 11C-yohimbine for mapping α2 adrenoceptors in human brain in vivo....

  1. Studying frequency processing of the brain to enhance long-term memory and develop a human brain protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Wernher; Du, Shengzhi; Balt, Karlien

    2015-01-01

    The temporal lobe in conjunction with the hippocampus is responsible for memory processing. The gamma wave is involved with this process. To develop a human brain protocol, a better understanding of the relationship between gamma and long-term memory is vital. A more comprehensive understanding of the human brain and specific analogue waves it uses will support the development of a human brain protocol. Fifty-eight participants aged between 6 and 60 years participated in long-term memory experiments. It is envisaged that the brain could be stimulated through binaural beats (sound frequency) at 40 Hz (gamma) to enhance long-term memory capacity. EEG recordings have been transformed to sound and then to an information standard, namely ASCII. Statistical analysis showed a proportional relationship between long-term memory and gamma activity. Results from EEG recordings indicate a pattern. The pattern was obtained through the de-codification of an EEG recording to sound and then to ASCII. Stimulation of gamma should enhance long term memory capacity. More research is required to unlock the human brains' protocol key. This key will enable the processing of information directly to and from human memory via gamma, the hippocampus and the temporal lobe.

  2. Steady-state properties of sodium channels from healthy and tumorous human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenkel, C.; Wartenberg, H. C.; Duch, D. S.; Urban, B. W.

    1998-01-01

    This extensive bilayer study of unpurified human brain channels from non-diseased and tumorous human brain involves more than 300 lipid bilayer experiments. Single channel conductances and subconductances, single channel fractional open times, the voltage-dependence of tetrodotoxin (TTX) block and

  3. Noninvasive quantification of human brain antioxidant concentrations after an intravenous bolus of vitamin C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Until now, antioxidant based initiatives for preventing dementia have lacked a means to detect deficiency or measure pharmacologic effect in the human brain in situ. Objective: Our objective was to apply a novel method to measure key human brain antioxidant concentrations throughout the ...

  4. Toward defining the anatomo-proteomic puzzle of the human brain: An integrative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Irigoyen, Joaquín; Labarga, Alberto; Zabaleta, Aintzane; de Morentin, Xabier Martínez; Perez-Valderrama, Estela; Zelaya, María Victoria; Santamaria, Enrique

    2015-10-01

    The human brain is exceedingly complex, constituted by billions of neurons and trillions of synaptic connections that, in turn, define ∼900 neuroanatomical subdivisions in the adult brain (Hawrylycz et al. An anatomically comprehensive atlas of the human brain transcriptome. Nature 2012, 489, 391-399). The human brain transcriptome has revealed specific regional transcriptional signatures that are regulated in a spatiotemporal manner, increasing the complexity of the structural and molecular organization of this organ (Kang et al. Spatio-temporal transcriptome of the human brain. Nature 2011, 478, 483-489). During the last decade, neuroproteomics has emerged as a powerful approach to profile neural proteomes using shotgun-based MS, providing complementary information about protein content and function at a global level. Here, we revise recent proteome profiling studies performed in human brain, with special emphasis on proteome mapping of anatomical macrostructures, specific subcellular compartments, and cerebrospinal fluid. Moreover, we have performed an integrative functional analysis of the protein compilation derived from these large-scale human brain proteomic studies in order to obtain a comprehensive view of human brain biology. Finally, we also discuss the potential contribution of our meta-analysis to the Chromosome-centric Human Proteome Project initiative. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. The human sexual response cycle : Brain imaging evidence linking sex to other pleasures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgiadis, J. R.; Kringelbach, M. L.

    Sexual behavior is critical to species survival, yet comparatively little is known about the neural mechanisms in the human brain. Here we systematically review the existing human brain imaging literature on sexual behavior and show that the functional neuroanatomy of sexual behavior is comparable

  6. Temperament, character and serotonin activity in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuominen, L; Salo, J; Hirvonen, J

    2013-01-01

    The psychobiological model of personality by Cloninger and colleagues originally hypothesized that interindividual variability in the temperament dimension 'harm avoidance' (HA) is explained by differences in the activity of the brain serotonin system. We assessed brain serotonin transporter (5-HTT...

  7. Increasing honesty in humans with noninvasive brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maréchal, Michel André; Cohn, Alain; Ugazio, Giuseppe; Ruff, Christian C

    2017-04-25

    Honesty plays a key role in social and economic interactions and is crucial for societal functioning. However, breaches of honesty are pervasive and cause significant societal and economic problems that can affect entire nations. Despite its importance, remarkably little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms supporting honest behavior. We demonstrate that honesty can be increased in humans with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Participants (n = 145) completed a die-rolling task where they could misreport their outcomes to increase their earnings, thereby pitting honest behavior against personal financial gain. Cheating was substantial in a control condition but decreased dramatically when neural excitability was enhanced with tDCS. This increase in honesty could not be explained by changes in material self-interest or moral beliefs and was dissociated from participants' impulsivity, willingness to take risks, and mood. A follow-up experiment (n = 156) showed that tDCS only reduced cheating when dishonest behavior benefited the participants themselves rather than another person, suggesting that the stimulated neural process specifically resolves conflicts between honesty and material self-interest. Our results demonstrate that honesty can be strengthened by noninvasive interventions and concur with theories proposing that the human brain has evolved mechanisms dedicated to control complex social behaviors.

  8. Absence of human cytomegalovirus infection in childhood brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardi, Iacopo; Lucchesi, Maurizio; Becciani, Sabrina; Facchini, Ludovica; Guidi, Milena; Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Moriondo, Maria; Baroni, Gianna; Stival, Alessia; Farina, Silvia; Genitori, Lorenzo; de Martino, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a common human pathogen which induces different clinical manifestations related to the age and the immune conditions of the host. HCMV infection seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of adult glioblastomas. The aim of our study was to detect the presence of HCMV in high grade gliomas and other pediatric brain tumors. This hypothesis might have important therapeutic implications, offering a new target for adjuvant therapies. Among 106 pediatric patients affected by CNS tumors we selected 27 patients with a positive HCMV serology. The serological analysis revealed 7 patients with positive HCMV IGG (≥14 U/mL), whom had also a high HCMV IgG avidity, suggesting a more than 6 months-dated infection. Furthermore, HCMV IGM were positive (≥22 U/mL) in 20 patients. Molecular and immunohistochemical analyses were performed in all the 27 samples. Despite a positive HCMV serology, confirmed by ELISA, no viral DNA was shown at the PCR analysis in the patients' neoplastic cells. At immunohistochemistry, no expression of HCMV antigens was observed in tumoral cells. Our results are in agreement with recent results in adults which did not evidence the presence of HCMV genome in glioblastoma lesions. We did not find any correlation between HCMV infection and pediatric CNS tumors.

  9. Evidence for Functional Networks within the Human Brain's White Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Michael; Nitzan, Mor; Bick, Atira S; Levin, Netta; Arzy, Shahar

    2017-07-05

    brain. However, most fMRI studies ignored a major part of the brain, the white-matter, discarding signals from it as arising from noise. Here we use resting-state fMRI data from 176 subjects to show that signals from the human white-matter contain meaningful information. We identify 12 functional networks composed of interacting long-distance white-matter tracts. Moreover, we show that these networks are highly correlated to resting-state gray-matter networks, highlighting their functional role. Our findings enable reinterpretation of many existing fMRI datasets, and suggest a new way to explore the white-matter role in cognition and its disturbances in neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/376394-14$15.00/0.

  10. Exceptional evolutionary divergence of human muscle and brain metabolomes parallels human cognitive and physical uniqueness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozek, Katarzyna; Wei, Yuning; Yan, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Metabolite concentrations reflect the physiological states of tissues and cells. However, the role of metabolic changes in species evolution is currently unknown. Here, we present a study of metabolome evolution conducted in three brain regions and two non-neural tissues from humans, chimpanzees......, macaque monkeys, and mice based on over 10,000 hydrophilic compounds. While chimpanzee, macaque, and mouse metabolomes diverge following the genetic distances among species, we detect remarkable acceleration of metabolome evolution in human prefrontal cortex and skeletal muscle affecting neural and energy...... metabolism pathways. These metabolic changes could not be attributed to environmental conditions and were confirmed against the expression of their corresponding enzymes. We further conducted muscle strength tests in humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. The results suggest that, while humans are characterized...

  11. Exceptional evolutionary divergence of human muscle and brain metabolomes parallels human cognitive and physical uniqueness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Bozek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolite concentrations reflect the physiological states of tissues and cells. However, the role of metabolic changes in species evolution is currently unknown. Here, we present a study of metabolome evolution conducted in three brain regions and two non-neural tissues from humans, chimpanzees, macaque monkeys, and mice based on over 10,000 hydrophilic compounds. While chimpanzee, macaque, and mouse metabolomes diverge following the genetic distances among species, we detect remarkable acceleration of metabolome evolution in human prefrontal cortex and skeletal muscle affecting neural and energy metabolism pathways. These metabolic changes could not be attributed to environmental conditions and were confirmed against the expression of their corresponding enzymes. We further conducted muscle strength tests in humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. The results suggest that, while humans are characterized by superior cognition, their muscular performance might be markedly inferior to that of chimpanzees and macaque monkeys.

  12. Exceptional Evolutionary Divergence of Human Muscle and Brain Metabolomes Parallels Human Cognitive and Physical Uniqueness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozek, Katarzyna; Wei, Yuning; Yan, Zheng; Liu, Xiling; Xiong, Jieyi; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Tomita, Masaru; Pääbo, Svante; Pieszek, Raik; Sherwood, Chet C.; Hof, Patrick R.; Ely, John J.; Steinhauser, Dirk; Willmitzer, Lothar; Bangsbo, Jens; Hansson, Ola; Call, Josep; Giavalisco, Patrick; Khaitovich, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    Metabolite concentrations reflect the physiological states of tissues and cells. However, the role of metabolic changes in species evolution is currently unknown. Here, we present a study of metabolome evolution conducted in three brain regions and two non-neural tissues from humans, chimpanzees, macaque monkeys, and mice based on over 10,000 hydrophilic compounds. While chimpanzee, macaque, and mouse metabolomes diverge following the genetic distances among species, we detect remarkable acceleration of metabolome evolution in human prefrontal cortex and skeletal muscle affecting neural and energy metabolism pathways. These metabolic changes could not be attributed to environmental conditions and were confirmed against the expression of their corresponding enzymes. We further conducted muscle strength tests in humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. The results suggest that, while humans are characterized by superior cognition, their muscular performance might be markedly inferior to that of chimpanzees and macaque monkeys. PMID:24866127

  13. Fractional Diffusion Based Modelling and Prediction of Human Brain Response to External Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Namazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human brain response is the result of the overall ability of the brain in analyzing different internal and external stimuli and thus making the proper decisions. During the last decades scientists have discovered more about this phenomenon and proposed some models based on computational, biological, or neuropsychological methods. Despite some advances in studies related to this area of the brain research, there were fewer efforts which have been done on the mathematical modeling of the human brain response to external stimuli. This research is devoted to the modeling and prediction of the human EEG signal, as an alert state of overall human brain activity monitoring, upon receiving external stimuli, based on fractional diffusion equations. The results of this modeling show very good agreement with the real human EEG signal and thus this model can be used for many types of applications such as prediction of seizure onset in patient with epilepsy.

  14. Human capital in European peripheral regions: brain - drain and brain - gain

    OpenAIRE

    Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Project goal - The overall goal of the project is to build a legitimate transnational network to transfer ideas and experiences and implement measures to reduce brain drain and foster brain gain while reinforcing the economical and spatial development of peripheral regions in NWE. This means a higher quality of life for the inhabitants of these regions combined with a healthy environment. To reach this goal, the project group will study the effects of brain drain/brain gain, co-ordinate appro...

  15. Endocannabinoids modulate human blood–brain barrier permeability in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hind, William H; Tufarelli, Cristina; Neophytou, Maria; Anderson, Susan I; England, Timothy J; O'Sullivan, Saoirse E

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Endocannabinoids alter permeability at various epithelial barriers, and cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoid levels are elevated by stroke, with potential neuroprotective effects. We therefore explored the role of endocannabinoids in modulating blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability in normal conditions and in an ischaemia/reperfusion model. Experimental Approach Human brain microvascular endothelial cell and astrocyte co-cultures modelled the BBB. Ischaemia was modelled by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and permeability was measured by transepithelial electrical resistance. Endocannabinoids or endocannabinoid-like compounds were assessed for their ability to modulate baseline permeability or OGD-induced hyperpermeability. Target sites of action were investigated using receptor antagonists and subsequently identified with real-time PCR. Key Results Anandamide (10 μM) and oleoylethanolamide (OEA, 10 μM) decreased BBB permeability (i.e. increased resistance). This was mediated by cannabinoid CB2 receptors, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels, calcitonin gene-regulated peptide (CGRP) receptor (anandamide only) and PPARα (OEA only). Application of OEA, palmitoylethanolamide (both PPARα mediated) or virodhamine (all 10 μM) decreased the OGD-induced increase in permeability during reperfusion. 2-Arachidonoyl glycerol, noladin ether and oleamide did not affect BBB permeability in normal or OGD conditions. N-arachidonoyl-dopamine increased permeability through a cytotoxic mechanism. PPARα and γ, CB1 receptors, TRPV1 channels and CGRP receptors were expressed in both cell types, but mRNA for CB2 receptors was only present in astrocytes. Conclusion and Implication The endocannabinoids may play an important modulatory role in normal BBB physiology, and also afford protection to the BBB during ischaemic stroke, through a number of target sites. PMID:25651941

  16. Endocannabinoids modulate human blood-brain barrier permeability in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hind, William H; Tufarelli, Cristina; Neophytou, Maria; Anderson, Susan I; England, Timothy J; O'Sullivan, Saoirse E

    2015-06-01

    Endocannabinoids alter permeability at various epithelial barriers, and cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoid levels are elevated by stroke, with potential neuroprotective effects. We therefore explored the role of endocannabinoids in modulating blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in normal conditions and in an ischaemia/reperfusion model. Human brain microvascular endothelial cell and astrocyte co-cultures modelled the BBB. Ischaemia was modelled by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and permeability was measured by transepithelial electrical resistance. Endocannabinoids or endocannabinoid-like compounds were assessed for their ability to modulate baseline permeability or OGD-induced hyperpermeability. Target sites of action were investigated using receptor antagonists and subsequently identified with real-time PCR. Anandamide (10 μM) and oleoylethanolamide (OEA, 10 μM) decreased BBB permeability (i.e. increased resistance). This was mediated by cannabinoid CB2 receptors, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels, calcitonin gene-regulated peptide (CGRP) receptor (anandamide only) and PPARα (OEA only). Application of OEA, palmitoylethanolamide (both PPARα mediated) or virodhamine (all 10 μM) decreased the OGD-induced increase in permeability during reperfusion. 2-Arachidonoyl glycerol, noladin ether and oleamide did not affect BBB permeability in normal or OGD conditions. N-arachidonoyl-dopamine increased permeability through a cytotoxic mechanism. PPARα and γ, CB1 receptors, TRPV1 channels and CGRP receptors were expressed in both cell types, but mRNA for CB2 receptors was only present in astrocytes. The endocannabinoids may play an important modulatory role in normal BBB physiology, and also afford protection to the BBB during ischaemic stroke, through a number of target sites. © 2015 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Human-specific hypomethylation of CENPJ, a key brain size regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Lin, Qiang; Su, Bing

    2014-03-01

    Both the enlarged brain and concurrent highly developed cognitive skills are often seen as distinctive characteristics that set humans apart from other primates. Despite this obvious differentiation, the genetic mechanisms that underlie such human-specific traits are not clearly understood. In particular, whether epigenetic regulations may play a key role in human brain evolution remain elusive. In this study, we used bisulfite sequencing to compare the methylation patterns of four known genes that regulate brain size (ASPM, CDK5RAP2, CENPJ, and MCPH1) in the prefrontal cortex among several primate species spanning the major lineages of primates (i.e., humans, great apes, lesser apes, and Old World monkeys). The results showed a human-specific hypomethylation in the 5' UTR of CENPJ in the brain, where methylation levels among humans are only about one-third of those found among nonhuman primates. Similar methylation patterns were also detected in liver, kidney, and heart tissues, although the between-species differences were much less pronounced than those in the brain. Further in vitro methylation assays indicated that the methylation status of the CENPJ promoter could influence its expression. We also detected a large difference in CENPJ expression in the human and nonhuman primate brains of both adult individuals and throughout the major stages of fetal brain development. The hypomethylation and comparatively high expression of CENPJ in the central nervous system of humans suggest that a human-specific--and likely heritable--epigenetic modification likely occurred during human evolution, potentially leading to a much larger neural progenitor pool during human brain development, which may have eventually contributed to the dramatically enlarged brain and highly developed cognitive abilities associated with humans.

  18. Disease association and inter-connectivity analysis of human brain specific co-expressed functional modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kimin; Hwang, Taeho; Cha, Kihoon; Yi, Gwan-Su

    2015-12-16

    In the recent studies, it is suggested that the analysis of transcriptomic change of functional modules instead of individual genes would be more effective for system-wide identification of cellular functions. This could also provide a new possibility for the better understanding of difference between human and chimpanzee. In this study, we analyzed to find molecular characteristics of human brain functions from the difference of transcriptome between human and chimpanzee's brain using the functional module-centric co-expression analysis. We performed analysis of brain disease association and systems-level connectivity of species-specific co-expressed functional modules. Throughout the analyses, we found human-specific functional modules and significant overlap between their genes in known brain disease genes, suggesting that human brain disorder could be mediated by the perturbation of modular activities emerged in human brain specialization. In addition, the human-specific modules having neurobiological functions exhibited higher networking than other functional modules. This finding suggests that the expression of neural functions are more connected than other functions, and the resulting high-order brain functions could be identified as a result of consolidated inter-modular gene activities. Our result also showed that the functional module based transcriptome analysis has a potential to expand molecular understanding of high-order complex functions like cognitive abilities and brain disorders.

  19. Brain development in rodents and humans: Identifying benchmarks of maturation and vulnerability to injury across species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Bridgette D.; Blomgren, Klas; Gimlin, Kayleen; Ferriero, Donna M.; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic and traumatic brain injuries are leading causes of long-term mortality and disability in infants and children. Although several preclinical models using rodents of different ages have been developed, species differences in the timing of key brain maturation events can render comparisons of vulnerability and regenerative capacities difficult to interpret. Traditional models of developmental brain injury have utilized rodents at postnatal day 7–10 as being roughly equivalent to a term human infant, based historically on the measurement of post-mortem brain weights during the 1970s. Here we will examine fundamental brain development processes that occur in both rodents and humans, to delineate a comparable time course of postnatal brain development across species. We consider the timing of neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, gliogenesis, oligodendrocyte maturation and age-dependent behaviors that coincide with developmentally regulated molecular and biochemical changes. In general, while the time scale is considerably different, the sequence of key events in brain maturation is largely consistent between humans and rodents. Further, there are distinct parallels in regional vulnerability as well as functional consequences in response to brain injuries. With a focus on developmental hypoxicischemic encephalopathy and traumatic brain injury, this review offers guidelines for researchers when considering the most appropriate rodent age for the developmental stage or process of interest to approximate human brain development. PMID:23583307

  20. Rate of evolution in brain-expressed genes in humans and other primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurng-Yi Wang

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Brain-expressed genes are known to evolve slowly in mammals. Nevertheless, since brains of higher primates have evolved rapidly, one might expect acceleration in DNA sequence evolution in their brain-expressed genes. In this study, we carried out full-length cDNA sequencing on the brain transcriptome of an Old World monkey (OWM and then conducted three-way comparisons among (i mouse, OWM, and human, and (ii OWM, chimpanzee, and human. Although brain-expressed genes indeed appear to evolve more rapidly in species with more advanced brains (apes > OWM > mouse, a similar lineage effect is observable for most other genes. The broad inclusion of genes in the reference set to represent the genomic average is therefore critical to this type of analysis. Calibrated against the genomic average, the rate of evolution among brain-expressed genes is probably lower (or at most equal in humans than in chimpanzee and OWM. Interestingly, the trend of slow evolution in coding sequence is no less pronounced among brain-specific genes, vis-à-vis brain-expressed genes in general. The human brain may thus differ from those of our close relatives in two opposite directions: (i faster evolution in gene expression, and (ii a likely slowdown in the evolution of protein sequences. Possible explanations and hypotheses are discussed.

  1. Aerobic glycolysis in the human brain is associated with development and neotenous gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Manu S.; Hawrylycz, Michael; Miller, Jeremy A.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Raichle, Marcus E.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Aerobic glycolysis (AG), i.e., non-oxidative metabolism of glucose despite the presence of abundant oxygen, accounts for 10–12% of glucose used by the adult human brain. AG varies regionally in the resting state. Brain AG may support synaptic growth and remodeling; however, data supporting this hypothesis are sparse. Here, we report on investigations on the role of AG in the human brain. Meta-analysis of prior brain glucose and oxygen metabolism studies demonstrates that AG increases during childhood, precisely when synaptic growth rates are highest. In resting adult humans, AG correlates with persistence of gene expression typical of infancy (transcriptional neoteny). In brain regions with the highest AG, we find increased gene expression related to synapse formation and growth. In contrast, regions high in oxidative glucose metabolism express genes related to mitochondria and synaptic transmission. Our results suggest that brain AG supports developmental processes, particularly those required for synapse formation and growth. PMID:24411938

  2. Brain barriers and functional interfaces with sequential appearance of ABC efflux transporters during human development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgård, Kjeld; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M.; Holst, Camilla B.

    2017-01-01

    Adult brain is protected from entry of drugs and toxins by specific mechanisms such as ABC (ATP-binding Cassette) efflux transporters. Little is known when these appear in human brain during development. Cellular distribution of three main ABC transporters (ABCC1, ABCG2, ABCB1) was determined...... at blood-brain barriers and interfaces in human embryos and fetuses in first half of gestation. Antibodies against claudin-5 and-11 and antibodies to α-fetoprotein were used to describe morphological and functional aspects of brain barriers. First exchange interfaces to be established, probably at 4...... three transporters. Results provide evidence for sequential establishment of brain exchange interfaces and spatial and temporal timetable for three main ABC transporters in early human brain....

  3. Elastic moduli of normal and pathological human breast tissues: an inversion-technique-based investigation of 169 samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Abbas; Zubovits, Judit; Plewes, Donald

    2007-03-01

    Understanding and quantifying the mechanical properties of breast tissues has been a subject of interest for the past two decades. This has been motivated in part by interest in modelling soft tissue response for surgery planning and virtual-reality-based surgical training. Interpreting elastography images for diagnostic purposes also requires a sound understanding of normal and pathological tissue mechanical properties. Reliable data on tissue elastic properties are very limited and those which are available tend to be inconsistent, in part as a result of measurement methodology. We have developed specialized techniques to measure tissue elasticity of breast normal tissues and tumour specimens and applied them to 169 fresh ex vivo breast tissue samples including fat and fibroglandular tissue as well as a range of benign and malignant breast tumour types. Results show that, under small deformation conditions, the elastic modulus of normal breast fat and fibroglandular tissues are similar while fibroadenomas were approximately twice the stiffness. Fibrocystic disease and malignant tumours exhibited a 3-6-fold increased stiffness with high-grade invasive ductal carcinoma exhibiting up to a 13-fold increase in stiffness compared to fibrogalndular tissue. A statistical analysis showed that differences between the elastic modulus of the majority of those tissues were statistically significant. Implications for the specificity advantages of elastography are reviewed.

  4. Elastic moduli of normal and pathological human breast tissues: an inversion-technique-based investigation of 169 samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samani, Abbas [Department of Medical Biophysics/Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Western Ontario, Medical Sciences Building, London, Ontario, N6A 5C1 (Canada); Zubovits, Judit [Department of Anatomic Pathology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M4N 3M5 (Canada); Plewes, Donald [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2007-03-21

    Understanding and quantifying the mechanical properties of breast tissues has been a subject of interest for the past two decades. This has been motivated in part by interest in modelling soft tissue response for surgery planning and virtual-reality-based surgical training. Interpreting elastography images for diagnostic purposes also requires a sound understanding of normal and pathological tissue mechanical properties. Reliable data on tissue elastic properties are very limited and those which are available tend to be inconsistent, in part as a result of measurement methodology. We have developed specialized techniques to measure tissue elasticity of breast normal tissues and tumour specimens and applied them to 169 fresh ex vivo breast tissue samples including fat and fibroglandular tissue as well as a range of benign and malignant breast tumour types. Results show that, under small deformation conditions, the elastic modulus of normal breast fat and fibroglandular tissues are similar while fibroadenomas were approximately twice the stiffness. Fibrocystic disease and malignant tumours exhibited a 3-6-fold increased stiffness with high-grade invasive ductal carcinoma exhibiting up to a 13-fold increase in stiffness compared to fibrogalndular tissue. A statistical analysis showed that differences between the elastic modulus of the majority of those tissues were statistically significant. Implications for the specificity advantages of elastography are reviewed.

  5. Elastic moduli of normal and pathological human breast tissues: an inversion-technique-based investigation of 169 samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Abbas; Zubovits, Judit; Plewes, Donald

    2007-03-21

    Understanding and quantifying the mechanical properties of breast tissues has been a subject of interest for the past two decades. This has been motivated in part by interest in modelling soft tissue response for surgery planning and virtual-reality-based surgical training. Interpreting elastography images for diagnostic purposes also requires a sound understanding of normal and pathological tissue mechanical properties. Reliable data on tissue elastic properties are very limited and those which are available tend to be inconsistent, in part as a result of measurement methodology. We have developed specialized techniques to measure tissue elasticity of breast normal tissues and tumour specimens and applied them to 169 fresh ex vivo breast tissue samples including fat and fibroglandular tissue as well as a range of benign and malignant breast tumour types. Results show that, under small deformation conditions, the elastic modulus of normal breast fat and fibroglandular tissues are similar while fibroadenomas were approximately twice the stiffness. Fibrocystic disease and malignant tumours exhibited a 3-6-fold increased stiffness with high-grade invasive ductal carcinoma exhibiting up to a 13-fold increase in stiffness compared to fibrogalndular tissue. A statistical analysis showed that differences between the elastic modulus of the majority of those tissues were statistically significant. Implications for the specificity advantages of elastography are reviewed.

  6. The Human Brainnetome Atlas: A New Brain Atlas Based on Connectional Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lingzhong; Li, Hai; Zhuo, Junjie; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Jiaojian; Chen, Liangfu; Yang, Zhengyi; Chu, Congying; Xie, Sangma; Laird, Angela R; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-08-01

    The human brain atlases that allow correlating brain anatomy with psychological and cognitive functions are in transition from ex vivo histology-based printed atlases to digital brain maps providing multimodal in vivo information. Many current human brain atlases cover only specific structures, lack fine-grained parcellations, and fail to provide functionally important connectivity information. Using noninvasive multimodal neuroimaging techniques, we designed a connectivity-based parcellation framework that identifies the subdivisions of the entire human brain, revealing the in vivo connectivity architecture. The resulting human Brainnetome Atlas, with 210 cortical and 36 subcortical subregions, provides a fine-grained, cross-validated atlas and contains information on both anatomical and functional connections. Additionally, we further mapped the delineated structures to mental processes by reference to the BrainMap database. It thus provides an objective and stable starting point from which to explore the complex relationships between structure, connectivity, and function, and eventually improves understanding of how the human brain works. The human Brainnetome Atlas will be made freely available for download at http://atlas.brainnetome.org, so that whole brain parcellations, connections, and functional data will be readily available for researchers to use in their investigations into healthy and pathological states. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Brain Organization into Resting State Networks Emerges at Criticality on a Model of the Human Connectome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimovici, Ariel; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Balenzuela, Pablo; Chialvo, Dante R.

    2013-04-01

    The relation between large-scale brain structure and function is an outstanding open problem in neuroscience. We approach this problem by studying the dynamical regime under which realistic spatiotemporal patterns of brain activity emerge from the empirically derived network of human brain neuroanatomical connections. The results show that critical dynamics unfolding on the structural connectivity of the human brain allow the recovery of many key experimental findings obtained from functional magnetic resonance imaging, such as divergence of the correlation length, the anomalous scaling of correlation fluctuations, and the emergence of large-scale resting state networks.

  8. The Human Brain Encodes Event Frequencies While Forming Subjective Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    d’Acremont, Mathieu; Schultz, Wolfram; Bossaerts, Peter

    2015-01-01

    To make adaptive choices, humans need to estimate the probability of future events. Based on a Bayesian approach, it is assumed that probabilities are inferred by combining a priori, potentially subjective, knowledge with factual observations, but the precise neurobiological mechanism remains unknown. Here, we study whether neural encoding centers on subjective posterior probabilities, and data merely lead to updates of posteriors, or whether objective data are encoded separately alongside subjective knowledge. During fMRI, young adults acquired prior knowledge regarding uncertain events, repeatedly observed evidence in the form of stimuli, and estimated event probabilities. Participants combined prior knowledge with factual evidence using Bayesian principles. Expected reward inferred from prior knowledge was encoded in striatum. BOLD response in specific nodes of the default mode network (angular gyri, posterior cingulate, and medial prefrontal cortex) encoded the actual frequency of stimuli, unaffected by prior knowledge. In this network, activity increased with frequencies and thus reflected the accumulation of evidence. In contrast, Bayesian posterior probabilities, computed from prior knowledge and stimulus frequencies, were encoded in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus. Here activity increased for improbable events and thus signaled the violation of Bayesian predictions. Thus, subjective beliefs and stimulus frequencies were encoded in separate cortical regions. The advantage of such a separation is that objective evidence can be recombined with newly acquired knowledge when a reinterpretation of the evidence is called for. Overall this study reveals the coexistence in the brain of an experience-based system of inference and a knowledge-based system of inference. PMID:23804108

  9. Multivariate segmentation of fMRI for human brain mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Tianhu; Udupa, Jayaram K.

    2000-04-01

    fMRI has provided a new option to study cognitive phenomena. Recent developments in medical image processing and analysis allow researchers to study more elaborate cognitive tasks from a wide perspective. These techniques include Statistical Parametric Mapping, Subspace Modeling and Maximum Likelihood Estimation, and Spatio-temporal Analysis using Random Fields. Their common weakness is the assumption of the statistical independence among the image pixels. We have developed a multivariate segmentation method to functional MRI analysis for human brain function study based on the second-order statistics of images. It consists of four steps: (1) detecting the number of the distinctive image regions, (2) generating the scores and determining their rank, (3) forming score plots and clustering in the feature space, (4) projecting clusters from the feature space to the image space to generate object images. We have validated this method on the simulated and fMRI images. The theoretical and experimental results obtained by using this method were in good agreement. The relations between this method and other multivariate image analysis methods are discussed.

  10. Sleep-dependent motor memory plasticity in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, M P; Stickgold, R; Alsop, D; Gaab, N; Schlaug, G

    2005-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates a role for sleep in off-line memory processing, specifically in post-training consolidation. In humans, sleep has been shown to trigger overnight learning on a motor-sequence memory task, while equivalent waking periods produce no such improvement. But while the behavioral characteristics of sleep-dependent motor learning become increasingly well characterized, the underlying neural basis remains unknown. Here we present functional magnetic resonance imaging data demonstrating a change in the representation of a motor memory after a night of sleep. Subjects trained on a motor-skill memory and 12 hours later, after either sleep or wake, were retested during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Following sleep relative to wake, regions of increased activation were expressed in the right primary motor cortex, medial prefrontal lobe, hippocampus and left cerebellum; changes that can support faster motor output and more precise mapping of key-press movements. In contrast, signal decreases were identified in parietal cortices, the left insular cortex, temporal pole and fronto-polar region, reflecting a reduced need for conscious spatial monitoring and a decreased emotional task burden. This evidence of an overnight, systems-level change in the representation of a motor memory holds important implications for acquiring real-life skills and in clinical rehabilitation following brain trauma, such as stroke.

  11. Differential Phasing between Circadian Clocks in the Brain and Peripheral Organs in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Hughey, Jacob J; Butte, Atul J

    2016-01-01

    The daily timing of mammalian physiology is coordinated by circadian clocks throughout the body. Although measurements of clock gene expression indicate that these clocks in mice are normally in phase with each other, the situation in humans remains unclear. We used publicly available data from five studies, comprising over 1000 samples, to compare the phasing of circadian gene expression in human brain and human blood. Surprisingly, after controlling for age, clock gene expression in brain w...

  12. Global differential expression of genes located in the Down Syndrome Critical Region in normal human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Julio Cesar; Fajardo, Dianora; Peña, Angela; Sánchez, Adalberto; Domínguez, Martha C; Satizábal, José María; García-Vallejo, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    The information of gene expression obtained from databases, have made possible the extraction and analysis of data related with several molecular processes involving not only in brain homeostasis but its disruption in some neuropathologies; principally in Down syndrome and the Alzheimer disease. To correlate the levels of transcription of 19 genes located in the Down Syndrome Critical Region (DSCR) with their expression in several substructures of normal human brain. There were obtained expression profiles of 19 DSCR genes in 42 brain substructures, from gene expression values available at the database of the human brain of the Brain Atlas of the Allen Institute for Brain Sciences", (http://human.brain-map.org/). The co-expression patterns of DSCR genes in brain were calculated by using multivariate statistical methods. Highest levels of gene expression were registered at caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens and putamen among central areas of cerebral cortex. Increased expression levels of RCAN1 that encode by a protein involved in signal transduction process of the CNS were recorded for PCP4 that participates in the binding to calmodulin and TTC3; a protein that is associated with differentiation of neurons. That previously identified brain structures play a crucial role in the learning process, in different class of memory and in motor skills. The precise regulation of DSCR gene expression is crucial to maintain the brain homeostasis, especially in those areas with high levels of gene expression associated with a remarkable process of learning and cognition.

  13. Human sexual behavior related to pathology and activity of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komisaruk, Barry R; Rodriguez Del Cerro, Maria Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Reviewed in this chapter are: (1) correlations among human sexual behavior, brain pathology, and brain activity, including caveats regarding the interpretation of "cause and effect" among these factors, and the degree to which "hypersexuality" and reported changes in sexual orientation correlated with brain pathology are uniquely sexual or are attributable to a generalized disinhibition of brain function; (2) the effects, in some cases inhibitory, in others facilitatory, on sexual behavior and motivation, of stroke, epileptic seizures, traumatic brain injury, and brain surgery; and (3) insights into sexual motivation and behavior recently gained from functional brain imaging research and its interpretive limitations. We conclude from the reviewed research that the neural orchestra underlying the symphony of human sexuality comprises, rather than brain "centers," multiple integrated brain systems, and that there are more questions than answers in our understanding of the control of human sexual behavior by the brain - a level of understanding that is still in embryonic form. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Multimodal MRI Study of Human Brain Connectivity: Cognitive Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sala Llonch, Roser

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This thesis has been elaborated as a compendium of 6 research studies, in which we have used a variety of methods related with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) with the objective to characterize brain connectivity and its relationship with cognition in young and aged subjects and in preclinical Alzheimers Disease (AD). Brain Connectivity refers to any pattern of links connecting different areas of the brain. It can be stud­ied at its functional level, by using functional MR...

  15. BrainSegNet: a convolutional neural network architecture for automated segmentation of human brain structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Raghav; Majumdar, Aabhas; Sivaswamy, Jayanthi

    2017-04-01

    Automated segmentation of cortical and noncortical human brain structures has been hitherto approached using nonrigid registration followed by label fusion. We propose an alternative approach for this using a convolutional neural network (CNN) which classifies a voxel into one of many structures. Four different kinds of two-dimensional and three-dimensional intensity patches are extracted for each voxel, providing local and global (context) information to the CNN. The proposed approach is evaluated on five different publicly available datasets which differ in the number of labels per volume. The obtained mean Dice coefficient varied according to the number of labels, for example, it is [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] for datasets with the least (32) and the most (134) number of labels, respectively. These figures are marginally better or on par with those obtained with the current state-of-the-art methods on nearly all datasets, at a reduced computational time. The consistently good performance of the proposed method across datasets and no requirement for registration make it attractive for many applications where reduced computational time is necessary.

  16. The wiring economy principle: connectivity determines anatomy in the human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Raj

    Full Text Available Minimization of the wiring cost of white matter fibers in the human brain appears to be an organizational principle. We investigate this aspect in the human brain using whole brain connectivity networks extracted from high resolution diffusion MRI data of 14 normal volunteers. We specifically address the question of whether brain anatomy determines its connectivity or vice versa. Unlike previous studies we use weighted networks, where connections between cortical nodes are real-valued rather than binary off-on connections. In one set of analyses we found that the connectivity structure of the brain has near optimal wiring cost compared to random networks with the same number of edges, degree distribution and edge weight distribution. A specifically designed minimization routine could not find cheaper wiring without significantly degrading network performance. In another set of analyses we kept the observed brain network topology and connectivity but allowed nodes to freely move on a 3D manifold topologically identical to the brain. An efficient minimization routine was written to find the lowest wiring cost configuration. We found that beginning from any random configuration, the nodes invariably arrange themselves in a configuration with a striking resemblance to the brain. This confirms the widely held but poorly tested claim that wiring economy is a driving principle of the brain. Intriguingly, our results also suggest that the brain mainly optimizes for the most desirable network connectivity, and the observed brain anatomy is merely a result of this optimization.

  17. Mechanical characterization of human brain tumors from patients and comparison to potential surgical phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Daniel C; Rubiano, Andrés; Dyson, Kyle; Simmons, Chelsey S

    2017-01-01

    While mechanical properties of the brain have been investigated thoroughly, the mechanical properties of human brain tumors rarely have been directly quantified due to the complexities of acquiring human tissue. Quantifying the mechanical properties of brain tumors is a necessary prerequisite, though, to identify appropriate materials for surgical tool testing and to define target parameters for cell biology and tissue engineering applications. Since characterization methods vary widely for soft biological and synthetic materials, here, we have developed a characterization method compatible with abnormally shaped human brain tumors, mouse tumors, animal tissue and common hydrogels, which enables direct comparison among samples. Samples were tested using a custom-built millimeter-scale indenter, and resulting force-displacement data is analyzed to quantify the steady-state modulus of each sample. We have directly quantified the quasi-static mechanical properties of human brain tumors with effective moduli ranging from 0.17-16.06 kPa for various pathologies. Of the readily available and inexpensive animal tissues tested, chicken liver (steady-state modulus 0.44 ± 0.13 kPa) has similar mechanical properties to normal human brain tissue while chicken crassus gizzard muscle (steady-state modulus 3.00 ± 0.65 kPa) has similar mechanical properties to human brain tumors. Other materials frequently used to mimic brain tissue in mechanical tests, like ballistic gel and chicken breast, were found to be significantly stiffer than both normal and diseased brain tissue. We have directly compared quasi-static properties of brain tissue, brain tumors, and common mechanical surrogates, though additional tests would be required to determine more complex constitutive models.

  18. Mechanical characterization of human brain tumors from patients and comparison to potential surgical phantoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C Stewart

    Full Text Available While mechanical properties of the brain have been investigated thoroughly, the mechanical properties of human brain tumors rarely have been directly quantified due to the complexities of acquiring human tissue. Quantifying the mechanical properties of brain tumors is a necessary prerequisite, though, to identify appropriate materials for surgical tool testing and to define target parameters for cell biology and tissue engineering applications. Since characterization methods vary widely for soft biological and synthetic materials, here, we have developed a characterization method compatible with abnormally shaped human brain tumors, mouse tumors, animal tissue and common hydrogels, which enables direct comparison among samples. Samples were tested using a custom-built millimeter-scale indenter, and resulting force-displacement data is analyzed to quantify the steady-state modulus of each sample. We have directly quantified the quasi-static mechanical properties of human brain tumors with effective moduli ranging from 0.17-16.06 kPa for various pathologies. Of the readily available and inexpensive animal tissues tested, chicken liver (steady-state modulus 0.44 ± 0.13 kPa has similar mechanical properties to normal human brain tissue while chicken crassus gizzard muscle (steady-state modulus 3.00 ± 0.65 kPa has similar mechanical properties to human brain tumors. Other materials frequently used to mimic brain tissue in mechanical tests, like ballistic gel and chicken breast, were found to be significantly stiffer than both normal and diseased brain tissue. We have directly compared quasi-static properties of brain tissue, brain tumors, and common mechanical surrogates, though additional tests would be required to determine more complex constitutive models.

  19. Mechanical characterization of human brain tumors from patients and comparison to potential surgical phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiano, Andrés; Dyson, Kyle; Simmons, Chelsey S.

    2017-01-01

    While mechanical properties of the brain have been investigated thoroughly, the mechanical properties of human brain tumors rarely have been directly quantified due to the complexities of acquiring human tissue. Quantifying the mechanical properties of brain tumors is a necessary prerequisite, though, to identify appropriate materials for surgical tool testing and to define target parameters for cell biology and tissue engineering applications. Since characterization methods vary widely for soft biological and synthetic materials, here, we have developed a characterization method compatible with abnormally shaped human brain tumors, mouse tumors, animal tissue and common hydrogels, which enables direct comparison among samples. Samples were tested using a custom-built millimeter-scale indenter, and resulting force-displacement data is analyzed to quantify the steady-state modulus of each sample. We have directly quantified the quasi-static mechanical properties of human brain tumors with effective moduli ranging from 0.17–16.06 kPa for various pathologies. Of the readily available and inexpensive animal tissues tested, chicken liver (steady-state modulus 0.44 ± 0.13 kPa) has similar mechanical properties to normal human brain tissue while chicken crassus gizzard muscle (steady-state modulus 3.00 ± 0.65 kPa) has similar mechanical properties to human brain tumors. Other materials frequently used to mimic brain tissue in mechanical tests, like ballistic gel and chicken breast, were found to be significantly stiffer than both normal and diseased brain tissue. We have directly compared quasi-static properties of brain tissue, brain tumors, and common mechanical surrogates, though additional tests would be required to determine more complex constitutive models. PMID:28582392

  20. Tick-borne encephalitis virus infects human brain microvascular endothelial cells without compromising blood-brain barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palus, Martin; Vancova, Marie; Sirmarova, Jana; Elsterova, Jana; Perner, Jan; Ruzek, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    Alteration of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a hallmark of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), a life-threating human viral neuroinfection. However, the mechanism of BBB breakdown during TBE, as well as TBE virus (TBEV) entry into the brain is unclear. Here, primary human microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) were infected with TBEV to study interactions with the BBB. Although the number of infected cells was relatively low in culture (10 6 pfu/ml). Infection did not induce any significant changes in the expression of key tight junction proteins or upregulate the expression of cell adhesion molecules, and did not alter the highly organized intercellular junctions between HBMECs. In an in vitro BBB model, the virus crossed the BBB via a transcellular pathway without compromising the integrity of the cell monolayer. The results indicate that HBMECs may support TBEV entry into the brain without altering BBB integrity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The hubs of the human connectome are generally implicated in the anatomy of brain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Nicolas A; Mechelli, Andrea; Scott, Jessica; Carletti, Francesco; Fox, Peter T; McGuire, Philip; Bullmore, Edward T

    2014-08-01

    Brain networks or 'connectomes' include a minority of highly connected hub nodes that are functionally valuable, because their topological centrality supports integrative processing and adaptive behaviours. Recent studies also suggest that hubs have higher metabolic demands and longer-distance connections than other brain regions, and therefore could be considered biologically costly. Assuming that hubs thus normally combine both high topological value and high biological cost, we predicted that pathological brain lesions would be concentrated in hub regions. To test this general hypothesis, we first identified the hubs of brain anatomical networks estimated from diffusion tensor imaging data on healthy volunteers (n = 56), and showed that computational attacks targeted on hubs disproportionally degraded the efficiency of brain networks compared to random attacks. We then prepared grey matter lesion maps, based on meta-analyses of published magnetic resonance imaging data on more than 20 000 subjects and 26 different brain disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging lesions that were common across all brain disorders were more likely to be located in hubs of the normal brain connectome (P brain disorders had lesions that were significantly more likely to be located in hubs (P human brain networks are more likely to be anatomically abnormal than non-hubs in many (if not all) brain disorders. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  2. mRNA Transcriptomics of Galectins Unveils Heterogeneous Organization in Mouse and Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian John

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Galectins, a family of non-classically secreted, β-galactoside binding proteins is involved in several brain disorders; however no systematic knowledge on the normal neuroanatomical distribution and functions of galectins exits. Hence, the major purpose of this study was to understand spatial distribution and predict functions of galectins in brain and also compare the degree of conservation vs. divergence between mouse and human species. The latter objective was required to determine the relevance and appropriateness of studying galectins in mouse brain which may ultimately enable us to extrapolate the findings to human brain physiology and pathologies.Results: In order to fill this crucial gap in our understanding of brain galectins, we analyzed the in situ hybridization (ISH and microarray data of adult mouse and human brain respectively, from the Allen Brain Atlas, to resolve each galectin-subtype’s spatial distribution across brain distinct cytoarchitecture. Next, transcription factors (TFs that may regulate galectins were identified using TRANSFAC software and the list obtained was further curated to sort TFs on their confirmed transcript expression in the adult brain. Galectin-TF cluster analysis, gene-ontology annotations and co-expression networks were then extrapolated to predict distinct functional relevance of each galectin in the neuronal processes. Data shows that galectins have highly heterogeneous expression within and across brain sub-structures and are predicted to be the crucial targets of brain enriched TFs. Lgals9 had maximal spatial distribution across mouse brain with inferred predominant roles in neurogenesis while LGALS1 was ubiquitously expressed in human. Limbic region associated with learning, memory and emotions and substantia nigra associated with motor movements showed strikingly high expression of LGALS1 and LGALS8 in human vs. mouse brain. The overall expression profile of galectin-8 was most

  3. Human Behavior, Learning, and the Developing Brain: Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Donna, Ed.; Fischer, Kurt W., Ed.; Dawson, Geraldine, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume brings together leading authorities from multiple disciplines to examine the relationship between brain development and behavior in typically developing children. Presented are innovative cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that shed light on brain-behavior connections in infancy and toddlerhood through adolescence. Chapters…

  4. Hierarchical Functional Modularity in the Resting-State Human Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrarini, L.; Veer, I.M.; Baerends, E.; van Tol, M.J.; Renken, R.J.; van der Wee, N.J.A.; Veltman, D.J.; Aleman, A.; Zitman, F.G.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; van Buchem, M.A.; Reiber, J.H.C.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; Milles, J.

    2009-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that anatomically distinct brain regions are functionally connected during the resting state. Basic topological properties in the brain functional connectivity (BFC) map have highlighted the BFC's small-world topology. Modularity, a

  5. Hierarchical Functional Modularity in the Resting-State Human Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrarini, Luca; Veer, Ilya M.; Baerends, Evelinda; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Renken, Remco J.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Veltman, Dirk. J.; Aleman, Andre; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; van Buchem, Mark A.; Reiber, Johan H. C.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Milles, Julien

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that anatomically distinct brain regions are functionally connected during the resting state. Basic topological properties in the brain functional connectivity (BFC) map have highlighted the BFC's small-world topology. Modularity, a

  6. Evolution of the human brain: design without a designer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, M.A.; Kaas, John

    2017-01-01

    The evolutionary expansion of the brain is among the most distinctive morphological features of mammals. During the past decades, considerable progress has been made in explaining brain evolution in terms of physical and adaptive principles. The objective of this chapter is to present current

  7. Higher cortical modulation of pain perception in the human brain: Psychological determinant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Andrew Cn

    2009-10-01

    Pain perception and its genesis in the human brain have been reviewed recently. In the current article, the reports on pain modulation in the human brain were reviewed from higher cortical regulation, i.e. top-down effect, particularly studied in psychological determinants. Pain modulation can be examined by gene therapy, physical modulation, pharmacological modulation, psychological modulation, and pathophysiological modulation. In psychological modulation, this article examined (a) willed determination, (b) distraction, (c) placebo, (d) hypnosis, (e) meditation, (f) qi-gong, (g) belief, and (h) emotions, respectively, in the brain function for pain modulation. In each, the operational definition, cortical processing, neuroimaging, and pain modulation were systematically deliberated. However, not all studies had featured the brain modulation processing but rather demonstrated potential effects on human pain. In our own studies on the emotional modulation on human pain, we observed that emotions could be induced from music melodies or pictures perception for reduction of tonic human pain, mainly in potentiation of the posterior alpha EEG fields, likely resulted from underneath activities of precuneous in regulation of consciousness, including pain perception. To sum, higher brain functions become the leading edge research in all sciences. How to solve the information bit of thinking and feeling in the brain can be the greatest challenge of human intelligence. Application of higher cortical modulation of human pain and suffering can lead to the progress of social humanity and civilization.

  8. Intrinsic and Task-Evoked Network Architectures of the Human Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Michael W.; Bassett, Danielle S.; Power, Jonathan D.; Braver, Todd S.; Petersen, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    Many functional network properties of the human brain have been identified during rest and task states, yet it remains unclear how the two relate. We identified a whole-brain network architecture present across dozens of task states that was highly similar to the resting-state network architecture. The most frequent functional connectivity strengths across tasks closely matched the strengths observed at rest, suggesting this is an “intrinsic”, standard architecture of functional brain organiz...

  9. Elasticity changes in the large arteries of human limbs in response to cycle ergometry performed with upper and lower limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhbich, B I; Roifman, M D

    1989-01-01

    At rest and after cycle ergometry the elastic properties of the large arteries of limbs of healthy men were examined using an original non-invasive quantitative oscillometric method. It has been shown that in response to muscle work performed with the legs there is a decrease of the effective inner radius, and an increase of the characteristic impedance modulus and bulk modulus and of the elastic resistance of the intact and relaxed wall in the large arteries in the upper limbs. All these changes testify to an increase of vascular tension in the upper limbs. In response to work performed with the hands, there is an increase of the effective inner radius of large arteries of the upper limbs, a large increase of the pulsatile blood volume increment of the intact vessels and a decrease of the characteristic impedance modulus, of the bulk modulus and of the elastic resistance of the intact arterial wall. These changes indicate a decrease of the vascular tension of these arteries. In response to work performed either with the legs or with the hands a decrease of the effective inner radius of large arteries and an increase of the elastic resistance of the relaxed arterial wall were observed in the lower limbs, all these changes indicating relatively small changes in tone of these vessels. It is concluded that the wall tension of large arteries supplying blood to the muscles of non-working limbs is increased. Vascular tension changes in the arteries in working limbs are accounted for by the superimposition of centrally originating vasoconstriction with local vasodilatation, which also affects large arteries.

  10. Evolution, development, and plasticity of the human brain: from molecules to bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka eHrvoj-Mihic

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Neuroanatomical, molecular, and paleontological evidence is examined in light of human brain evolution. The brain of extant humans differs from the brains of other primates in its overall size and organization, and differences in size and organization of specific cortical areas and subcortical structures implicated into complex cognition and social and emotional processing. The human brain is also characterized by functional lateralizations, reflecting specializations of the cerebral hemispheres in humans for different types of processing, facilitating fast and reliable communication between neural cells in an enlarged brain. The features observed in the adult brain reflect human-specific patterns of brain development. Compared to the brains of other primates, the human brain takes longer to mature, promoting an extended period for establishing cortical microcircuitry and its modifications. Together, these features may underlie the prolonged period of learning and acquisition of technical and social skills necessary for survival, creating a unique cognitive and behavioral niche typical of our species.The neuroanatomical findings are in concordance with molecular analyses, which suggest a trend toward heterochrony in the expression of genes implicated in different functions. These include synaptogenesis, neuronal maturation and plasticity in humans, mutations in genes implicated in neurite outgrowth and plasticity, and an increased role of regulatory mechanisms, potentially promoting fast modification of neuronal morphologies in response to new computational demands. At the same time, endocranial casts of fossil hominins provide an insight into the timing of the emergence of uniquely human features in the course of evolution. We conclude by proposing several ways of combining comparative neuroanatomy, molecular biology and insights gained from fossil endocasts in future research.

  11. Driving and driven architectures of directed small-world human brain functional networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaogan Yan

    Full Text Available Recently, increasing attention has been focused on the investigation of the human brain connectome that describes the patterns of structural and functional connectivity networks of the human brain. Many studies of the human connectome have demonstrated that the brain network follows a small-world topology with an intrinsically cohesive modular structure and includes several network hubs in the medial parietal regions. However, most of these studies have only focused on undirected connections between regions in which the directions of information flow are not taken into account. How the brain regions causally influence each other and how the directed network of human brain is topologically organized remain largely unknown. Here, we applied linear multivariate Granger causality analysis (GCA and graph theoretical approaches to a resting-state functional MRI dataset with a large cohort of young healthy participants (n = 86 to explore connectivity patterns of the population-based whole-brain functional directed network. This directed brain network exhibited prominent small-world properties, which obviously improved previous results of functional MRI studies showing weak small-world properties in the directed brain networks in terms of a kernel-based GCA and individual analysis. This brain network also showed significant modular structures associated with 5 well known subsystems: fronto-parietal, visual, paralimbic/limbic, subcortical and primary systems. Importantly, we identified several driving hubs predominantly located in the components of the attentional network (e.g., the inferior frontal gyrus, supplementary motor area, insula and fusiform gyrus and several driven hubs predominantly located in the components of the default mode network (e.g., the precuneus, posterior cingulate gyrus, medial prefrontal cortex and inferior parietal lobule. Further split-half analyses indicated that our results were highly reproducible between two

  12. Human capital in European peripheral regions: brain - drain and brain - gain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Project goal - The overall goal of the project is to build a legitimate transnational network to transfer ideas and experiences and implement measures to reduce brain drain and foster brain gain while reinforcing the economical and spatial development of peripheral regions in NWE. This means a

  13. A reproducible brain tumour model established from human glioblastoma biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xingang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing clinically relevant animal models of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM remains a challenge, and many commonly used cell line-based models do not recapitulate the invasive growth patterns of patient GBMs. Previously, we have reported the formation of highly invasive tumour xenografts in nude rats from human GBMs. However, implementing tumour models based on primary tissue requires that these models can be sufficiently standardised with consistently high take rates. Methods In this work, we collected data on growth kinetics from a material of 29 biopsies xenografted in nude rats, and characterised this model with an emphasis on neuropathological and radiological features. Results The tumour take rate for xenografted GBM biopsies were 96% and remained close to 100% at subsequent passages in vivo, whereas only one of four lower grade tumours engrafted. Average time from transplantation to the onset of symptoms was 125 days ± 11.5 SEM. Histologically, the primary xenografts recapitulated the invasive features of the parent tumours while endothelial cell proliferations and necrosis were mostly absent. After 4-5 in vivo passages, the tumours became more vascular with necrotic areas, but also appeared more circumscribed. MRI typically revealed changes related to tumour growth, several months prior to the onset of symptoms. Conclusions In vivo passaging of patient GBM biopsies produced tumours representative of the patient tumours, with high take rates and a reproducible disease course. The model provides combinations of angiogenic and invasive phenotypes and represents a good alternative to in vitro propagated cell lines for dissecting mechanisms of brain tumour progression.

  14. The glucocorticoid receptor in the limbic system of the human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) are important mediators of the stress response in mammals including humans. GCs are released from the adrenal in response to stress and affect numerous processes in the body and brain. Their levels are controlled via negative feedback exerted by GC binding to brain

  15. Use of Neuroimaging to Clarify How Human Brains Perform Mental Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze participants' levels of hemoglobin as they performed arithmetic mental calculations using Optical Topography (OT, helmet type brain-scanning system, also known as Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy or fNIRS). A central issue in cognitive neuroscience involves the study of how the human brain encodes and…

  16. Natural Learning for a Connected World: Education, Technology, and the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Renate N.; Caine, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    Why do video games fascinate kids so much that they will spend hours pursuing a difficult skill? Why don't they apply this kind of intensity to their schoolwork? These questions are answered by the authors who pioneered brain/mind learning with the publication of "Making Connections: Teaching and the Human Brain". In their new book, "Natural…

  17. Differential effect of spinal cord injury and functional impairment on human brain activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curt, A; Bruehlmeier, M; Leenders, KL; Roelcke, U; Dietz, [No Value

    Reorganization of human brain function after spinal cord injury (SCI) has been shown in electrophysiological studies. However, it is less clear how far changes of brain activation in SCI patients are influenced by the extent of SCI (neuronal lesion) or the consequent functional impairment. Positron

  18. The Human Nervous System: A Framework for Teaching and the Teaching Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    The teaching brain is a new concept that mirrors the complex, dynamic, and context-dependent nature of the learning brain. In this article, I use the structure of the human nervous system and its sensing, processing, and responding components as a framework for a re-conceptualized teaching system. This teaching system is capable of responses on an…

  19. Early human brain development : the impact of periconceptional maternal and fetal factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.V. Koning (Irene)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractEarly human brain development is an extremely complex process which is highly susceptible to genetic and environmental conditions. These factors may cause subtle changes in early brain development and subsequent neurodevelopmental impairment. The main objective of this thesis is to

  20. Brain, nutrition and metabolism : Studies in lean, obese and insulin resistant humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, R.I.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis describes studies on the effects of obesity, weight loss and meal timing on the human brain and glucose metabolism. We investigated effects of meal timing during a hypocaloric diet and weight loss on brain serotonin transporters (SERT) and dopamine transporters (DAT), neuronal activity

  1. Distribution of Non-Persistent Endocrine Disruptors in Two Different Regions of the Human Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Meer, Thomas P; Artacho-Cordón, Francisco; Swaab, Dick F

    2017-01-01

    Non-persistent endocrine disrupting chemicals (npEDCs) can affect multiple organs and systems in the body. Whether npEDCs can accumulate in the human brain is largely unknown. The major aim of this pilot study was to examine the presence of environmental phenols and parabens in two distinct brain...

  2. Distribution of Non-Persistent Endocrine Disruptors in Two Different Regions of the Human Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, Thomas P van der; Artacho-Cordón, Francisco; Swaab, Dick F; Struik, Dicky; Makris, Konstantinos C; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Frederiksen, Hanne; Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V van

    2017-01-01

    Non-persistent endocrine disrupting chemicals (npEDCs) can affect multiple organs and systems in the body. Whether npEDCs can accumulate in the human brain is largely unknown. The major aim of this pilot study was to examine the presence of environmental phenols and parabens in two distinct brain

  3. H-1 chemical shift imaging characterization of human brain tumor and edema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijens, PE; Oudkerk, M

    Longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) relaxation times of metabolites in human brain tumor, peritumoral edema, and unaffected brain tissue were assessed from point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) H-1 chemical shift imaging results at different repetition times (TR = 1500 and 5000 ms; T1: n = 19) and

  4. Variable ATP yields and uncoupling of oxygen consumption in human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Albert; Aanerud, Joel; Peterson, Ericka

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of brain oxidative metabolism values among healthy humans is astoundingly wide for a measure that reflects normal brain function and is known to change very little with most changes of brain function. It is possible that the part of the oxygen consumption rate that is coupled to ....... Thus the hypothetical threshold of oxygen metabolism coupled to ATP turnover in all subjects is no more than 70% of the average oxygen consumption of that population.......The distribution of brain oxidative metabolism values among healthy humans is astoundingly wide for a measure that reflects normal brain function and is known to change very little with most changes of brain function. It is possible that the part of the oxygen consumption rate that is coupled...... to ATP turnover is the same in all healthy human brains, with different degrees of uncoupling explaining the variability of total oxygen consumption among people. To test the hypothesis that about 75% of the average total oxygen consumption of human brains is common to all individuals, we determined...

  5. Notch-1 Signalling Is Activated in Brain Arteriovenous Malformations in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZhuGe, Qichuan; Zhong, Ming; Zheng, WeiMing; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Mao, XiaoOu; Xie, Lin; Chen, Gourong; Chen, Yongmei; Lawton, Michael T.; Young, William L.; Greenberg, David A.; Jin, Kunlin

    2009-01-01

    A role for the Notch signalling pathway in the formation of arteriovenous malformations during development has been suggested. However, whether Notch signalling is involved in brain arteriovenous malformations in humans remains unclear. Here, we performed immunohistochemistry on surgically resected brain arteriovenous malformations and found that,…

  6. MRI Segmentation of the Human Brain: Challenges, Methods, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despotović, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Image segmentation is one of the most important tasks in medical image analysis and is often the first and the most critical step in many clinical applications. In brain MRI analysis, image segmentation is commonly used for measuring and visualizing the brain's anatomical structures, for analyzing brain changes, for delineating pathological regions, and for surgical planning and image-guided interventions. In the last few decades, various segmentation techniques of different accuracy and degree of complexity have been developed and reported in the literature. In this paper we review the most popular methods commonly used for brain MRI segmentation. We highlight differences between them and discuss their capabilities, advantages, and limitations. To address the complexity and challenges of the brain MRI segmentation problem, we first introduce the basic concepts of image segmentation. Then, we explain different MRI preprocessing steps including image registration, bias field correction, and removal of nonbrain tissue. Finally, after reviewing different brain MRI segmentation methods, we discuss the validation problem in brain MRI segmentation. PMID:25945121

  7. The Connectome Visualization Utility: Software for Visualization of Human Brain Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LaPlante, R.A.; Douw, L.; Tang, W.; Stufflebeam, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    In analysis of the human connectome, the connectivity of the human brain is collected from multiple imaging modalities and analyzed using graph theoretical techniques. The dimensionality of human connectivity data is high, and making sense of the complex networks in connectomics requires

  8. ALFY-Controlled DVL3 Autophagy Regulates Wnt Signaling, Determining Human Brain Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Rotem; Harel, Tamar; Markus, Barak; Perez, Yonatan; Bakhrat, Anna; Cohen, Idan; Volodarsky, Michael; Feintsein-Linial, Miora; Chervinski, Elana; Zlotogora, Joel; Sivan, Sara; Birnbaum, Ramon Y; Abdu, Uri; Shalev, Stavit; Birk, Ohad S

    2016-03-01

    Primary microcephaly is a congenital neurodevelopmental disorder of reduced head circumference and brain volume, with fewer neurons in the cortex of the developing brain due to premature transition between symmetrical and asymmetrical cellular division of the neuronal stem cell layer during neurogenesis. We now show through linkage analysis and whole exome sequencing, that a dominant mutation in ALFY, encoding an autophagy scaffold protein, causes human primary microcephaly. We demonstrate the dominant effect of the mutation in drosophila: transgenic flies harboring the human mutant allele display small brain volume, recapitulating the disease phenotype. Moreover, eye-specific expression of human mutant ALFY causes rough eye phenotype. In molecular terms, we demonstrate that normally ALFY attenuates the canonical Wnt signaling pathway via autophagy-dependent removal specifically of aggregates of DVL3 and not of Dvl1 or Dvl2. Thus, autophagic attenuation of Wnt signaling through removal of Dvl3 aggregates by ALFY acts in determining human brain size.

  9. Counteracting radio frequency inhomogeneity in the human brain at 7 Tesla using strongly modulating pulses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boulant, N; Mangin, J-F; Amadon, A

    2009-01-01

    We report flip angle and spoiled gradient echo measurements at 7 Tesla on human brains in three-dimensional imaging, using strongly modulating pulses to counteract the transmitted radiofrequency inhomogeneity problem...

  10. Brain functional magnetic resonance imaging response to glucose and fructose infusions in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: In animals, intracerebroventricular glucose and fructose have opposing effects on appetite and weight regulation. In humans, functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies during carbohydrate ingestion suggest that glucose may regulate HT signaling but are potentially confoun...

  11. ALFY-Controlled DVL3 Autophagy Regulates Wnt Signaling, Determining Human Brain Size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotem Kadir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary microcephaly is a congenital neurodevelopmental disorder of reduced head circumference and brain volume, with fewer neurons in the cortex of the developing brain due to premature transition between symmetrical and asymmetrical cellular division of the neuronal stem cell layer during neurogenesis. We now show through linkage analysis and whole exome sequencing, that a dominant mutation in ALFY, encoding an autophagy scaffold protein, causes human primary microcephaly. We demonstrate the dominant effect of the mutation in drosophila: transgenic flies harboring the human mutant allele display small brain volume, recapitulating the disease phenotype. Moreover, eye-specific expression of human mutant ALFY causes rough eye phenotype. In molecular terms, we demonstrate that normally ALFY attenuates the canonical Wnt signaling pathway via autophagy-dependent removal specifically of aggregates of DVL3 and not of Dvl1 or Dvl2. Thus, autophagic attenuation of Wnt signaling through removal of Dvl3 aggregates by ALFY acts in determining human brain size.

  12. Convergent transcriptional specializations in the brains of humans and song-learning birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfenning, Andreas R.; Hara, Erina; Whitney, Osceola

    2014-01-01

    convergent gene expression specializations in specific song and speech brain regions of avian vocal learners and humans. The strongest shared profiles relate bird motor and striatal song-learning nuclei, respectively, with human laryngeal motor cortex and parts of the striatum that control speech production......Song-learning birds and humans share independently evolved similarities in brain pathways for vocal learning that are essential for song and speech and are not found in most other species. Comparisons of brain transcriptomes of song-learning birds and humans relative to vocal nonlearners identified...... and learning. Most of the associated genes function in motor control and brain connectivity. Thus, convergent behavior and neural connectivity for a complex trait are associated with convergent specialized expression of multiple genes....

  13. Nonlinear Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y. B.; Ogden, R. W.

    2001-05-01

    This collection of papers by leading researchers in the field of finite, nonlinear elasticity concerns itself with the behavior of objects that deform when external forces or temperature gradients are applied. This process is extremely important in many industrial settings, such as aerospace and rubber industries. This book covers the various aspects of the subject comprehensively with careful explanations of the basic theories and individual chapters each covering a different research direction. The authors discuss the use of symbolic manipulation software as well as computer algorithm issues. The emphasis is placed firmly on covering modern, recent developments, rather than the very theoretical approach often found. The book will be an excellent reference for both beginners and specialists in engineering, applied mathematics and physics.

  14. Blood-Brain Barrier Imaging in Human Neuropathologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veksler, Ronel; Shelef, Ilan; Friedman, Alon

    2014-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is essential for normal function of the brain, and its role in many brain pathologies has been the focus of numerous studies during the last decades. Dysfunction of the BBB is not only being shown in numerous brain diseases, but animal studies have indicated that it plays a direct key role in the genesis of neurovascular dysfunction and associated neurodegeneration. As such evidence accumulates, the need for robust and clinically applicable methods for minimally invasive assessment of BBB integrity is becoming urgent. This review provides an introduction to BBB imaging methods in the clinical scenario. First, imaging modalities are reviewed, with a focus on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). We then proceed to review image analysis methods, including quantitative and semi-quantitative methods. The advantages and limitations of each approach are discussed, and future directions and questions are highlighted. PMID:25453223

  15. A Mind of Three Minds: Evolution of the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Paul D.

    1978-01-01

    The author examines the evolutionary and neural roots of a triune intelligence comprised of a primal mind, an emotional mind, and a rational mind. A simple brain model and some definitions of unfamiliar behavioral terms are included. (Author/MA)

  16. Contorted and ordinary body postures in the human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cross, E.S.; Mackie, E.C.; Wolford, G.; Hamilton, A.F.D.C.

    2010-01-01

    Social interaction and comprehension of non-verbal behaviour requires a representation of people's bodies. Research into the neural underpinnings of body representation implicates several brain regions including extrastriate and fusiform body areas (EBA and FBA), superior temporal sulcus (STS),

  17. Human speech- and reading-related genes display partially overlapping expression patterns in the marmoset brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Masaki; Okanoya, Kazuo; Koike, Taku; Sasaki, Erika; Okano, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Shigeru; Iriki, Atsushi

    2014-06-01

    Language is a characteristic feature of human communication. Several familial language impairments have been identified, and candidate genes for language impairments already isolated. Studies comparing expression patterns of these genes in human brain are necessary to further understanding of these genes. However, it is difficult to examine gene expression in human brain. In this study, we used a non-human primate (common marmoset; Callithrix jacchus) as a biological model of the human brain to investigate expression patterns of human speech- and reading-related genes. Expression patterns of speech disorder- (FoxP2, FoxP1, CNTNAP2, and CMIP) and dyslexia- (ROBO1, DCDC2, and KIAA0319) related genes were analyzed. We found the genes displayed overlapping expression patterns in the ocular, auditory, and motor systems. Our results enhance understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying language impairments. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Wide distribution of immunoreactive renin in nerve cells of human brain.

    OpenAIRE

    Slater, E E; Defendini, R; Zimmerman, E A

    1980-01-01

    By use of the indirect peroxidase-antiperoxidase complex immunocytochemical technique, antibody to purified human renal renin was applied to formalin-fixed paraffin sections of human cadaver brain. Immune reaction products were observed in most nerve cells in all areas of the brain examined; staining was limited to the soma and proximal dendrites. These experiments have confirmed the presence of a renin-like substance in central nervous tissue and suggest a more generalized function for "brai...

  19. The 5-HT2A receptor binding pattern in the human brain is strongly genetically determined

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Lars H; Arfan, Haroon; Haugbol, Steven

    2007-01-01

    With the appropriate radiolabeled tracers, positron emission tomography (PET) enables in vivo human brain imaging of markers for neurotransmission, including neurotransmitter synthesis, receptors, and transporters. Whereas structural imaging studies have provided compelling evidence that the human...... brain anatomy is largely genetically determined, it is currently unknown to what degree neuromodulatory markers are subjected to genetic and environmental influence. Changes in serotonin 2A (5-HT(2A)) receptors have been reported to occur in various neuropsychiatric disorders and an association between...

  20. Metabolic constraint imposes tradeoff between body size and number of brain neurons in human evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca-Azevedo, Karina; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2012-01-01

    Despite a general trend for larger mammals to have larger brains, humans are the primates with the largest brain and number of neurons, but not the largest body mass. Why are great apes, the largest primates, not also those endowed with the largest brains? Recently, we showed that the energetic cost of the brain is a linear function of its numbers of neurons. Here we show that metabolic limitations that result from the number of hours available for feeding and the low caloric yield of raw foo...

  1. Blood-brain transfer of Pittsburgh compound B in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjedde, Albert; Aanerud, Joel; Braendgaard, Hans; Rodell, Anders B

    2013-01-01

    In the labeled form, the Pittsburgh compound B (2-(4'-{N-methyl-[(11)C]}methyl-aminophenyl)-6-hydroxy-benzothiazole, [(11)C]PiB), is used as a biomarker for positron emission tomography (PET) of brain β-amyloid deposition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The permeability of [(11)C]PiB in the blood-brain barrier is held to be high but the permeability-surface area product and extraction fractions in patients or healthy volunteers are not known. We used PET to determine the clearance associated with the unidrectional blood-brain transfer of [(11)C]PiB and the corresponding cerebral blood flow rates in frontal lobe, whole cerebral cortex, and cerebellum of patients with Alzheimer's disease and healthy volunteers. Regional cerebral blood flow rates differed significantly between the two groups. Thus, regional and whole-brain permeability-surface area products were identical, in agreement with the observation that numerically, but insignificantly, unidirectional blood-brain clearances are lower and extraction fractions higher in the patients. The evidence of unchanged permeability-surface area products in the patients implies that blood flow changes can be deduced from the unidirectional blood-brain clearances of [(11)C]PiB in the patients.

  2. White matter sexual dimorphism of the adult human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourisly Ali K.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sex-biased psychophysiology, behavior, brain function, and conditions are extensive, yet underlying structural brain mechanisms remain unclear. There is contradicting evidence regarding sexual dimorphism when it comes to brain structure, and there is still no consensus on whether or not there exists such a dimorphism for brain white matter. Therefore, we conducted a voxel-based morphometry (VBM analysis along with global volume analysis for white matter across sex. We analyzed 384 T1-weighted MRI brain images (192 male, 192 female to investigate any differences in white matter (WM between males and females. In the VBM analysis, we found males to have larger WM, compared to females, in occipital, temporal, insular, parietal, and frontal brain regions. In contrast, females showed only one WM region to be significantly larger than males: the right postcentral gyrus in the parietal lobe region. Although, on average, males showed larger global WM volume, we did not find any significant difference in global WM volume between males and females.

  3. Delineating Neural Structures of Developmental Human Brains with Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Huang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The human brain anatomy is characterized by dramatic structural changes during fetal development. It is extraordinarily complex and yet its origin is a simple tubular structure. Revealing detailed anatomy at different stages of brain development not only aids in understanding this highly ordered process, but also provides clues to detect abnormalities caused by genetic or environmental factors. However, anatomical studies of human brain development during the fetal period are surprisingly scarce and histology-based atlases have become available only recently. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI measures water diffusion to delineate the underlying neural structures. The high contrasts derived from DTI can be used to establish the brain atlas. With DTI tractography, coherent neural structures, such as white matter tracts, can be three-dimensionally reconstructed. The primary eigenvector of the diffusion tensor can be further explored to characterize microstructures in the cerebral wall of the developmental brains. In this mini-review, the application of DTI in order to reveal the structures of developmental fetal brains has been reviewed in the above-mentioned aspects. The fetal brain DTI provides a unique insight for delineating the neural structures in both macroscopic and microscopic levels. The resultant DTI database will provide structural guidance for the developmental study of human fetal brains in basic neuroscience, and reference standards for diagnostic radiology of premature newborns.

  4. Contribution of Neuroimaging Studies to Understanding Development of Human Cognitive Brain Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyo Morita

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Humans experience significant physical and mental changes from birth to adulthood, and a variety of perceptual, cognitive, and motor functions mature over the course of approximately 20 years following birth. To deeply understand such developmental processes, merely studying behavioral changes is not sufficient; simultaneous investigation of the development of the brain may lead us to more comprehensive understanding. Recent advances in noninvasive neuroimaging technologies largely contribute to this understanding. Here, it is very important to consider the development of the brain from the perspectives of structure and function because both structure and function of the human brain mature slowly. In this review, we first discuss the process of structural brain development, i.e., how the structure of the brain, which is crucial when discussing functional brain development, changes with age. Second, we introduce some representative studies and the latest studies related to the functional development of the brain, particularly for visual, facial recognition, and social cognition functions, all of which are important for humans. Finally, we summarize how brain science can contribute to developmental study and discuss the challenges that neuroimaging should address in the future.

  5. Systems biology of human epilepsy applied to patients with brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Sandeep; Shah, Aashit K; Barkmeier, Daniel T; Loeb, Jeffrey A

    2013-12-01

    Epilepsy is a disease of recurrent seizures that can be associated with a wide variety of acquired and developmental brain lesions. Current medications for patients with epilepsy can suppress seizures; they do not cure or modify the underlying disease process. On the other hand, surgical removal of focal brain regions that produce seizures can be curative. This surgical procedure can be more precise with the placement of intracranial recording electrodes to identify brain regions that generate seizure activity as well as those that are critical for normal brain function. The detail that goes into these surgeries includes extensive neuroimaging, electrophysiology, and clinical data. Combined with precisely localized tissues removed, these data provide an unparalleled opportunity to learn about the interrelationships of many "systems" in the human brain not possible in just about any other human brain disorder. Herein, we describe a systems biology approach developed to study patients who undergo brain surgery for epilepsy and how we have begun to apply these methods to patients whose seizures are associated with brain tumors. A central goal of this clinical and translational research program is to improve our understanding of epilepsy and brain tumors and to improve diagnosis and treatment outcomes of both. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.

  6. SAMPLING INTENSITY WITH FIXED PRECISION WHEN ESTIMATING VOLUME OF HUMAN BRAIN COMPARTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiannon Maudsley

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cavalieri sampling and point counting are frequently applied in combination with magnetic resonance (MR imaging to estimate the volume of human brain compartments. Current practice involves arbitrarily choosing the number of sections and sampling intensity within each section, and subsequently applying error prediction formulae to estimate the precision. The aim of this study is to derive a reference table for researchers who are interested in estimating the volume of brain regions, namely grey matter, white matter, and their union, to a given precision. In particular, this table, which is based on subsampling of a large brain data set obtained from coronal MR images, offers a recommendation for the minimum number of sections and mean number of points per section that are required to achieve a pre-defined coefficient of error of the volume estimator. Further analysis onMR brain data from a second human brain shows that the sampling intensity recommended is appropriate.

  7. Associating transcription factors and conserved RNA structures with gene regulation in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecker, Nikolai; Seemann, Stefan E.; Silahtaroglu, Asli

    2017-01-01

    Anatomical subdivisions of the human brain can be associated with different neuronal functions. This functional diversification is reflected by differences in gene expression. By analyzing post-mortem gene expression data from the Allen Brain Atlas, we investigated the impact of transcription...... factors (TF) and RNA secondary structures on the regulation of gene expression in the human brain. First, we modeled the expression of a gene as a linear combination of the expression of TFs. We devised an approach to select robust TF-gene interactions and to determine localized contributions to gene...

  8. The evolution of the brain, the human nature of cortical circuits and intellectual creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier eDeFelipe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The tremendous expansion and the differentiation of the neocortex constitute two major events in the evolution of the mammalian brain. The increase in size and complexity of our brains opened the way to a spectacular development of cognitive and mental skills. This expansion during evolution facilitated the addition of archetypical microcircuits, which increased the complexity of the human brain and contributed to its uniqueness. However, fundamental differences even exist between distinct mammalian species. Here, we shall discuss the issue of our humanity from a neurobiological and historical perspective.

  9. Sexual differentiation of the human brain: relevance for gender identity, transsexualism and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaab, D F

    2004-12-01

    Male sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior are thought, on the basis of experiments in rodents, to be caused by androgens, following conversion to estrogens. However, observations in human subjects with genetic and other disorders show that direct effects of testosterone on the developing fetal brain are of major importance for the development of male gender identity and male heterosexual orientation. Solid evidence for the importance of postnatal social factors is lacking. In the human brain, structural diferences have been described that seem to be related to gender identity and sexual orientation.

  10. Resting-state fMRI: a window into human brain plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Carrillo, Belén; Mackey, Allyson P; Bunge, Silvia A

    2014-10-01

    Although brain plasticity is greatest in the first few years of life, the brain continues to be shaped by experience throughout adulthood. Advances in fMRI have enabled us to examine the plasticity of large-scale networks using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) correlations measured at rest. Resting-state functional connectivity analysis makes it possible to measure task-independent changes in brain function and therefore could provide unique insights into experience-dependent brain plasticity in humans. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis that resting-state functional connectivity reflects the repeated history of co-activation between brain regions. To this end, we review resting-state fMRI studies in the sensory, motor, and cognitive learning literature. This body of research provides evidence that the brain's resting-state functional architecture displays dynamic properties in young adulthood. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Studying variability in human brain aging in a population-based German cohort – Rationale and design of 1000BRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja eCaspers

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing 1000 brains study (1000BRAINS is an epidemiological and neuroscientific investigation of structural and functional variability in the human brain during aging. The two recruitment sources are the 10-year follow-up cohort of the German Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR Study, and the HNR MultiGeneration Study cohort, which comprises spouses and offspring of HNR subjects. The HNR is a longitudinal epidemiological investigation of cardiovascular risk factors, with a comprehensive collection of clinical, laboratory, socioeconomic, and environmental data from population-based subjects aged 45-75 years on inclusion. HNR subjects underwent detailed assessments in 2000, 2006, and 2011, and completed annual postal questionnaires on health status. 1000BRAINS accesses these HNR data and applies a separate protocol comprising: neuropsychological tests of attention, memory, executive functions & language; examination of motor skills; ratings of personality, life quality, mood & daily activities; analysis of laboratory and genetic data; and state-of-the-art magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 3 Tesla of the brain. The latter includes (i 3D-T1- and 3D-T2-weighted scans for structural analyses and myelin mapping; (ii three diffusion imaging sequences optimized for diffusion tensor imaging, high-angular resolution diffusion imaging for detailed fibre tracking and for diffusion kurtosis imaging; (iii resting-state and task-based functional MRI; and (iv fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and MR angiography for the detection of vascular lesions and the mapping of white matter lesions. The unique design of 1000BRAINS allows: (i comprehensive investigation of various influences including genetics, environment and health status on variability in brain structure and function during aging; and (ii identification of the impact of selected influencing factors on specific cognitive subsystems and their anatomical correlates.

  12. Studying variability in human brain aging in a population-based German cohort-rationale and design of 1000BRAINS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspers, Svenja; Moebus, Susanne; Lux, Silke; Pundt, Noreen; Schütz, Holger; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Gras, Vincent; Eickhoff, Simon B; Romanzetti, Sandro; Stöcker, Tony; Stirnberg, Rüdiger; Kirlangic, Mehmet E; Minnerop, Martina; Pieperhoff, Peter; Mödder, Ulrich; Das, Samir; Evans, Alan C; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Erbel, Raimund; Cichon, Sven; Nöthen, Markus M; Sturma, Dieter; Bauer, Andreas; Jon Shah, N; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing 1000 brains study (1000BRAINS) is an epidemiological and neuroscientific investigation of structural and functional variability in the human brain during aging. The two recruitment sources are the 10-year follow-up cohort of the German Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR) Study, and the HNR MultiGeneration Study cohort, which comprises spouses and offspring of HNR subjects. The HNR is a longitudinal epidemiological investigation of cardiovascular risk factors, with a comprehensive collection of clinical, laboratory, socioeconomic, and environmental data from population-based subjects aged 45-75 years on inclusion. HNR subjects underwent detailed assessments in 2000, 2006, and 2011, and completed annual postal questionnaires on health status. 1000BRAINS accesses these HNR data and applies a separate protocol comprising: neuropsychological tests of attention, memory, executive functions and language; examination of motor skills; ratings of personality, life quality, mood and daily activities; analysis of laboratory and genetic data; and state-of-the-art magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 3 Tesla) of the brain. The latter includes (i) 3D-T1- and 3D-T2-weighted scans for structural analyses and myelin mapping; (ii) three diffusion imaging sequences optimized for diffusion tensor imaging, high-angular resolution diffusion imaging for detailed fiber tracking and for diffusion kurtosis imaging; (iii) resting-state and task-based functional MRI; and (iv) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and MR angiography for the detection of vascular lesions and the mapping of white matter lesions. The unique design of 1000BRAINS allows: (i) comprehensive investigation of various influences including genetics, environment and health status on variability in brain structure and function during aging; and (ii) identification of the impact of selected influencing factors on specific cognitive subsystems and their anatomical correlates.

  13. Skull and cerebrospinal fluid effects on microwave radiation propagation in human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, M. A.; Zarei, M.; Akhlaghipour, N.; Niknam, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    The determination of microwave absorption distribution in the human brain is necessary for the detection of brain tumors using thermo-acoustic imaging and for removing them using hyperthermia treatment. In contrast to ionizing radiation, hyperthermia treatment can be applied to remove tumors inside the brain without the concern of including secondary malignancies, which typically form from the neuronal cells of the septum pellucidum. The aim of this study is to determine the microwave absorption distribution in an adult human brain and to study the effects of skull and cerebrospinal fluid on the propagation of microwave radiation inside the brain. To this end, we simulate the microwave absorption distribution in a realistic adult brain model (Colin 27) using the mesh-based Monte Carlo (MMC) method. This is because in spite of there being other numerical methods, the MMC does not require a large memory, even for complicated geometries, and its algorithm is simple and easy to implement with low computational cost. The brain model is constructed using high-resolution (1 mm isotropic voxel) and low noise magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and its volume contains 181×217×181 voxels, covering the brain completely. Using the MMC method, the radiative transport equation is solved and the absorbed microwave energy distribution in different brain regions is obtained without any fracture or anomaly. The simulation results show that the skull and cerebrospinal fluid guide the microwave radiation and suppress its penetration through deep brain compartments as a shielding factor. These results reveal that the MMC can be used to predict the amount of required energy to increase the temperature inside the tumour during hyperthermia treatment. Our results also show why a deep tumour inside an adult human brain cannot be efficiently treated using hyperthermia treatment. Finally, the accuracy of the presented numerical method is verified using the signal flow graph technique.

  14. Blood-Brain Transfer of Pittsburgh Compound B in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert eGjedde

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the labeled form, the Pittsburgh compound B (2-(4’-{N-methyl-[11C]}methyl-aminophenyl-6-hydroxybenzothiazole,[11C]PiB, is used as a biomarker for positron emission tomography (PET of brain □-amyloiddeposition in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The permeability of [11C]PiB in the blood-brain barrier is held tobe high but the permeability-surface area product and extraction fractions in patients or healthy volunteersare not known. We used PET to determine the clearance associated with the unidrectional blood-braintransfer of [11C]PiB and the corresponding cerebral blood flow rates in frontal lobe, whole cerebral cortex,and cerebellum of patients with Alzheimer’s disease and healthy volunteers. Regional cerebral blood flowrates differed significantly between the two groups, but regional and whole-brain permeability-surface areaproducts were identical, in agreement with the observation that numerically, but insignificantly, unidirectionalblood-brain clearances are lower and extraction fractions higher in the patients. The evidence of unchangedpermeability-surface area products in the patients implies that blood flow changes can be deduced from theunidirectional blood-brain clearances of [11C]PiB in the patients.

  15. In vivo evaluation of the elastic anisotropy of the human Achilles tendon using shear wave dispersion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brum, J.; Bernal, M.; Gennisson, J. L.; Tanter, M.

    2014-02-01

    Non-invasive evaluation of the Achilles tendon elastic properties may enhance diagnosis of tendon injury and the assessment of recovery treatments. Shear wave elastography has shown to be a powerful tool to estimate tissue mechanical properties. However, its applicability to quantitatively evaluate tendon stiffness is limited by the understanding of the physics on the shear wave propagation in such a complex medium. First, tendon tissue is transverse isotropic. Second, tendons are characterized by a marked stiffness in the 400 to 1300 kPa range (i.e. fast shear waves). Hence, the shear wavelengths are greater than the tendon thickness leading to guided wave propagation. Thus, to better understand shear wave propagation in tendons and consequently to properly estimate its mechanical properties, a dispersion analysis is required. In this study, shear wave velocity dispersion was measured in vivo in ten Achilles tendons parallel and perpendicular to the tendon fibre orientation. By modelling the tendon as a transverse isotropic viscoelastic plate immersed in fluid it was possible to fully describe the experimental data (deviation<1.4%). We show that parallel to fibres the shear wave velocity dispersion is not influenced by viscosity, while it is perpendicularly to fibres. Elasticity (found to be in the range from 473 to 1537 kPa) and viscosity (found to be in the range from 1.7 to 4 Pa.s) values were retrieved from the model in good agreement with reported results.

  16. The human infant brain: A neural architecture able to learn language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine

    2017-02-01

    To understand the type of neural computations that may explain how human infants acquire their native language in only a few months, the study of their neural architecture is necessary. The development of brain imaging techniques has opened the possibilities of studying human infants without discomfort, and although these studies are still sparse, several characteristics are noticeable in the human infant's brain: first, parallel and hierarchical processing pathways are observed before intense exposure to speech with an efficient temporal coding in the left hemisphere and, second, frontal regions are involved from the start in infants' cognition. These observations are certainly not sufficient to explain language acquisition but illustrate a new approach that relies on a better description of infants' brain activity during linguistic tasks, which is compared to results in animals and human adults to clarify the neural bases of language in humans.

  17. A nanoengineered peptidic delivery system with specificity for human brain capillary endothelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Linping; Moghimi, Seyed Moein

    2016-01-01

    avidity of the majority of the so-called ‘brain-specific’ nanoparticles to the brain capillary endothelial cells has been poor, even during in vitro conditions. We have addressed this issue and designed a versatile peptidic nanoplatform with high binding avidity to the human cerebral capillary endothelial...... cells. This was achieved by selecting an appropriate phage-derived peptide with high specificity for human brain capillary endothelial cells, which following careful structural modifications spontaneously formed a nanoparticle-fiber network. The peptidic network was characterized fully and its uptake...... by the human brain capillary endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3 was confirmed by live-cell fluorescent microscopy and quantified by flow cytometry. Recognition and internalization was medicated by two receptors leading to endolysosomal accumulation. Furthermore, the network was capable of delivering functional si...

  18. Autometallographic silver enhancement of zinc sulfide crystals created in cryostat sections from human brain biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danscher, G; Juhl, S; Stoltenberg, M

    1997-01-01

    We present a new technique that allows zinc ions in synaptic and secretory vesicles of biopsy and early autopsy material (Human brain biopsies, or other tissue......, and it is demonstrated that zinc ions in the human neocortex are located in synaptic vesicles. In the few human biopsies analyzed thus far, the light microscopic pattern created by the silver-enhanced ZEN terminals resembles that seen in the neocortex of rat brain. The technique has been applied to cryostat sections...... from neocortex biopsies of five individuals undergoing brain surgery. Biopsies from three patients resulted in satisfactory AMG-stained sections. Rat brains removed and frozen immediately after decapitation constituted the material on which the present technique was developed. Such material results...

  19. The Identification of Aluminum in Human Brain Tissue Using Lumogallion and Fluorescence Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Ambreen; King, Andrew; Troakes, Claire; Exley, Christopher

    2016-10-18

    Aluminum in human brain tissue is implicated in the etiologies of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease. While methods for the accurate and precise measurement of aluminum in human brain tissue are widely acknowledged, the same cannot be said for the visualization of aluminum. Herein we have used transversely-heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry to measure aluminum in the brain of a donor with Alzheimer's disease, and we have developed and validated fluorescence microscopy and the fluor lumogallion to show the presence of aluminum in the same tissue. Aluminum is observed as characteristic orange fluorescence that is neither reproduced by other metals nor explained by autofluorescence. This new and relatively simple method to visualize aluminum in human brain tissue should enable more rigorous testing of the aluminum hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (and other neurological conditions) in the future.

  20. Comparative Methylome Analyses Identify Epigenetic Regulatory Loci of Human Brain Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendizabal, Isabel; Shi, Lei; Keller, Thomas E; Konopka, Genevieve; Preuss, Todd M; Hsieh, Tzung-Fu; Hu, Enzhi; Zhang, Zhe; Su, Bing; Yi, Soojin V

    2016-11-01

    How do epigenetic modifications change across species and how do these modifications affect evolution? These are fundamental questions at the forefront of our evolutionary epigenomic understanding. Our previous work investigated human and chimpanzee brain methylomes, but it was limited by the lack of outgroup data which is critical for comparative (epi)genomic studies. Here, we compared whole genome DNA methylation maps from brains of humans, chimpanzees and also rhesus macaques (outgroup) to elucidate DNA methylation changes during human brain evolution. Moreover, we validated that our approach is highly robust by further examining 38 human-specific DMRs using targeted deep genomic and bisulfite sequencing in an independent panel of 37 individuals from five primate species. Our unbiased genome-scan identified human brain differentially methylated regions (DMRs), irrespective of their associations with annotated genes. Remarkably, over half of the newly identified DMRs locate in intergenic regions or gene bodies. Nevertheless, their regulatory potential is on par with those of promoter DMRs. An intriguing observation is that DMRs are enriched in active chromatin loops, suggesting human-specific evolutionary remodeling at a higher-order chromatin structure. These findings indicate that there is substantial reprogramming of epigenomic landscapes during human brain evolution involving noncoding regions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  1. Linking brains and brawn: exercise and the evolution of human neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichlen, David A; Polk, John D

    2013-01-07

    The hunting and gathering lifestyle adopted by human ancestors around 2 Ma required a large increase in aerobic activity. High levels of physical activity altered the shape of the human body, enabling access to new food resources (e.g. animal protein) in a changing environment. Recent experimental work provides strong evidence that both acute bouts of exercise and long-term exercise training increase the size of brain components and improve cognitive performance in humans and other taxa. However, to date, researchers have not explored the possibility that the increases in aerobic capacity and physical activity that occurred during human evolution directly influenced the human brain. Here, we hypothesize that proximate mechanisms linking physical activity and neurobiology in living species may help to explain changes in brain size and cognitive function during human evolution. We review evidence that selection acting on endurance increased baseline neurotrophin and growth factor signalling (compounds responsible for both brain growth and for metabolic regulation during exercise) in some mammals, which in turn led to increased overall brain growth and development. This hypothesis suggests that a significant portion of human neurobiology evolved due to selection acting on features unrelated to cognitive performance.

  2. Linking brains and brawn: exercise and the evolution of human neurobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichlen, David A.; Polk, John D.

    2013-01-01

    The hunting and gathering lifestyle adopted by human ancestors around 2 Ma required a large increase in aerobic activity. High levels of physical activity altered the shape of the human body, enabling access to new food resources (e.g. animal protein) in a changing environment. Recent experimental work provides strong evidence that both acute bouts of exercise and long-term exercise training increase the size of brain components and improve cognitive performance in humans and other taxa. However, to date, researchers have not explored the possibility that the increases in aerobic capacity and physical activity that occurred during human evolution directly influenced the human brain. Here, we hypothesize that proximate mechanisms linking physical activity and neurobiology in living species may help to explain changes in brain size and cognitive function during human evolution. We review evidence that selection acting on endurance increased baseline neurotrophin and growth factor signalling (compounds responsible for both brain growth and for metabolic regulation during exercise) in some mammals, which in turn led to increased overall brain growth and development. This hypothesis suggests that a significant portion of human neurobiology evolved due to selection acting on features unrelated to cognitive performance. PMID:23173208

  3. Sensitivity to musical structure in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Josh H.; Norman-Haignere, Sam; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from brain-damaged patients suggests that regions in the temporal lobes, distinct from those engaged in lower-level auditory analysis, process the pitch and rhythmic structure in music. In contrast, neuroimaging studies targeting the representation of music structure have primarily implicated regions in the inferior frontal cortices. Combining individual-subject fMRI analyses with a scrambling method that manipulated musical structure, we provide evidence of brain regions sensitive to musical structure bilaterally in the temporal lobes, thus reconciling the neuroimaging and patient findings. We further show that these regions are sensitive to the scrambling of both pitch and rhythmic structure but are insensitive to high-level linguistic structure. Our results suggest the existence of brain regions with representations of musical structure that are distinct from high-level linguistic representations and lower-level acoustic representations. These regions provide targets for future research investigating possible neural specialization for music or its associated mental processes. PMID:23019005

  4. 5-HT Radioligands for Human Brain Imaging With PET and SPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Louise M.; Kornum, Birgitte R.; Nutt, David J.; Pike, Victor W.; Knudsen, Gitte M.

    2014-01-01

    The serotonergic system plays a key modulatory role in the brain and is the target for many drug treatments for brain disorders either through reuptake blockade or via interactions at the 14 subtypes of 5-HT receptors. This review provides the history and current status of radioligands used for positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) imaging of human brain serotonin (5-HT) receptors, the 5-HT transporter (SERT), and 5-HT synthesis rate. Currently available radioligands for in vivo brain imaging of the 5-HT system in humans include antagonists for the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT4 receptors, and for SERT. Here we describe the evolution of these radioligands, along with the attempts made to develop radioligands for additional serotonergic targets. We describe the properties needed for a radioligand to become successful and the main caveats. The success of a PET or SPECT radioligand can ultimately be assessed by its frequency of use, its utility in humans, and the number of research sites using it relative to its invention date, and so these aspects are also covered. In conclusion, the development of PET and SPECT radioligands to image serotonergic targets is of high interest, and successful evaluation in humans is leading to invaluable insight into normal and abnormal brain function, emphasizing the need for continued development of both SPECT and PET radioligands for human brain imaging. PMID:21674551

  5. Human high intelligence is involved in spectral redshift of biophotonic activities in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Wang, Niting; Li, Zehua; Xiao, Fangyan; Dai, Jiapei

    2016-08-02

    Human beings hold higher intelligence than other animals on Earth; however, it is still unclear which brain properties might explain the underlying mechanisms. The brain is a major energy-consuming organ compared with other organs. Neural signal communications and information processing in neural circuits play an important role in the realization of various neural functions, whereas improvement in cognitive function is driven by the need for more effective communication that requires less energy. Combining the ultraweak biophoton imaging system (UBIS) with the biophoton spectral analysis device (BSAD), we found that glutamate-induced biophotonic activities and transmission in the brain, which has recently been demonstrated as a novel neural signal communication mechanism, present a spectral redshift from animals (in order of bullfrog, mouse, chicken, pig, and monkey) to humans, even up to a near-infrared wavelength (∼865 nm) in the human brain. This brain property may be a key biophysical basis for explaining high intelligence in humans because biophoton spectral redshift could be a more economical and effective measure of biophotonic signal communications and information processing in the human brain.

  6. Brain stem auditory evoked responses in human infants and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecox, K.; Galambos, R.

    1974-01-01

    Brain stem evoked potentials were recorded by conventional scalp electrodes in infants (3 weeks to 3 years of age) and adults. The latency of one of the major response components (wave V) is shown to be a function both of click intensity and the age of the subject; this latency at a given signal strength shortens postnatally to reach the adult value (about 6 msec) by 12 to 18 months of age. The demonstrated reliability and limited variability of these brain stem electrophysiological responses provide the basis for an optimistic estimate of their usefulness as an objective method for assessing hearing in infants and adults.

  7. General solutions to poroviscoelastic model of hydrocephalic human brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabian, Amin; Abousleiman, Younane

    2011-12-21

    Hydrocephalus is a well-known disorder of brain fluidic system. It is commonly associated with complexities in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation in brain. In this paper, hydrocephalus and shunting surgery which is used in its treatment are modeled. Brain tissues are considered to follow a poroviscoelastic constitutive model in order to address the effects of time dependence of mechanical properties of soft tissues and fluid flow hydraulics. Our solution draws from Biot's theory of poroelasticity, generalized to account for viscoelastic effects through the correspondence principle. Geometrically, the brain is conceived to be spherically symmetric, where the ventricles are assumed to be a hollow concentric space filled with cerebrospinal fluid. A generalized Kelvin model is considered for the rheological properties of brain tissues. The solution presented is useful in the analysis of the disorder of hydrocephalus as well as the treatment associated with it, namely, ventriclostomy surgery. The sensitivity of the solution to various factors such as aqueduct blockage level and trabeculae stiffness is thoroughly analyzed using numerical examples. Results indicate that partial aqueduct stenosis may be a cause of hydrocephalus. However, only severe occlusion of the aqueduct can cause a significant increase in the ventricle and brain's extracellular fluid pressure. Ventriculostomy shunts are commonly used as a remedy to hydrocephalus. They serve to reduce the ventricular pressure to the normal level. However, sensitivity analysis on the shunt's fluid deliverability parameter has shown that inappropriate design or selection of design shunt may cause under-drainage or over-drainage of the ventricles. Excessive drainage of CSF may increase the normal tensile stress on trabeculae. It can cause rupture of superior cerebral veins or damage to trabeculae or even brain tissues which in turn may lead to subdural hematoma, a common side-effect of the surgery. These Post

  8. Spatial-temporal transcriptional dynamics of long non-coding RNAs in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Qin; Wang, Ze-Lin; Poon, Ming-Wai; Yang, Jian-Hua

    2017-08-15

    The functional architecture of the human brain is greatly determined by the temporal and spatial regulation of the transcription process. However, the spatial and temporal transcriptional landscape of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) during human brain development remains poorly understood. Here, we report the genome-wide lncRNA transcriptional analysis in an extensive series of 1340 post-mortem human brain specimens collected from 16 regions spanning the period from early embryo development to late adulthood. We discovered that lncRNA transcriptome dramatically changed during fetal development, while transited to a surprisingly relatively stable state after birth till the late adulthood. We also discovered that the transcription map of lncRNAs was spatially different, and that this spatial difference was developmentally regulated. Of the 16 brain regions explored (cerebellar cortex, thalamus, striatum, amygdala, hippocampus and 11 neocortex areas), cerebellar cortex showed the most distinct lncRNA expression features from all remaining brain regions throughout the whole developmental period, reflecting its unique developmental and functional features. Furthermore, by characterizing the functional modules and cellular processes of the spatial-temporal dynamic lncRNAs, we found that they were significantly associated with the RNA processing, neuron differentiation and synaptic signal transportation processes. Furthermore, we found that many lncRNAs associated with the neurodegenerative Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases were co-expressed in the fetal development of the human brain, and affected the convergent biological processes. In summary, our study provides a comprehensive map for lncRNA transcription dynamics in human brain development, which might shed light on the understanding of the molecular underpinnings of human brain function and disease. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Spontaneous functional network dynamics and associated structural substrates in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xuhong; Yuan, Lin; Zhao, Tengda; Dai, Zhengjia; Shu, Ni; Xia, Mingrui; Yang, Yihong; Evans, Alan; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Recent imaging connectomics studies have demonstrated that the spontaneous human brain functional networks derived from resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) include many non-trivial topological properties, such as highly efficient small-world architecture and densely connected hub regions. However, very little is known about dynamic functional connectivity (D-FC) patterns of spontaneous human brain networks during rest and about how these spontaneous brain dynamics are constrained by the underlying structural connectivity. Here, we combined sub-second multiband R-fMRI data with graph-theoretical approaches to comprehensively investigate the dynamic characteristics of the topological organization of human whole-brain functional networks, and then employed diffusion imaging data in the same participants to further explore the associated structural substrates. At the connection level, we found that human whole-brain D-FC patterns spontaneously fluctuated over time, while homotopic D-FC exhibited high connectivity strength and low temporal variability. At the network level, dynamic functional networks exhibited time-varying but evident small-world and assortativity architecture, with several regions (e.g., insula, sensorimotor cortex and medial prefrontal cortex) emerging as functionally persistent hubs (i.e., highly connected regions) while possessing large temporal variability in their degree centrality. Finally, the temporal characteristics (i.e., strength and variability) of the connectional and nodal properties of the dynamic brain networks were significantly associated with their structural counterparts. Collectively, we demonstrate the economical, efficient, and flexible characteristics of dynamic functional coordination in large-scale human brain networks during rest, and highlight their relationship with underlying structural connectivity, which deepens our understandings of spontaneous brain network dynamics in humans. PMID:26388757

  10. Spontaneous Functional Network Dynamics and Associated Structural Substrates in the Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhong eLiao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent imaging connectomics studies have demonstrated that the spontaneous human brain functional networks derived from resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI include many non-trivial topological properties, such as highly efficient small-world architecture and densely connected hub regions. However, very little is known about dynamic functional connectivity (D-FC patterns of spontaneous human brain networks during rest and about how these spontaneous brain dynamics are constrained by the underlying structural connectivity. Here, we combined sub-second multiband R-fMRI data with graph-theoretical approaches to comprehensively investigate the dynamic characteristics of the topological organization of human whole-brain functional networks, and then employed diffusion imaging data in the same participants to further explore the associated structural substrates. At the connection level, we found that human whole-brain D-FC patterns spontaneously fluctuated over time, while homotopic D-FC exhibited high connectivity strength and low temporal variability. At the network level, dynamic functional networks exhibited time-varying but evident small-world and assortativity architecture, with several regions (e.g., insula, sensorimotor cortex and medial prefrontal cortex emerging as functionally persistent hubs (i.e., highly connected regions while possessing large temporal variability in their degree centrality. Finally, the temporal characteristics (i.e., strength and variability of the connectional and nodal properties of the dynamic brain networks were significantly associated with their structural counterparts. Collectively, we demonstrate the economical, efficient and flexible characteristics of dynamic functional coordination in large-scale human brain networks during rest, and highlight their relationship with underlying structural connectivity, which deepens our understandings of spontaneous brain network dynamics in humans.

  11. Watching brain TV and playing brain ball exploring novel BCI strategies using real-time analysis of human intracranial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerbi, Karim; Freyermuth, Samson; Minotti, Lorella; Kahane, Philippe; Berthoz, Alain; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe

    2009-01-01

    A large body of evidence from animal studies indicates that motor intention can be decoded via multiple single-unit recordings or from local field potentials (LFPs) recorded not only in primary motor cortex, but also in premotor or parietal areas. In humans, reports of invasive data acquisition for the purpose of BCI developments are less numerous and signal selection for optimal control still remains poorly investigated. Here we report on our recent implementation of a real-time analysis platform for the investigation of ongoing oscillations in human intracerebral recordings and review various results illustrating its utility for the development of novel brain-computer and brain-robot interfaces. Our findings show that the insight gained both from off-line experiments and from online functional exploration can be used to guide future selection of the sites and frequency bands to be used in a translation algorithm such as the one needed for a BCI-driven cursor control. Overall, the findings reported with our online spectral analysis platforms (Brain TV and Brain Ball) indicate the feasibility of online functional exploration via intracranial recordings in humans and outline the direct benefits of this approach for the improvement of invasive BCI strategies in humans. In particular, our findings suggest that current BCI performance may be improved by using signals recorded from various systems previously unexplored in the context of BCI research such as the oscillatory activity recorded in the oculomotor networks as well as higher cognitive processes including working memory, attention, and mental calculation networks. Finally, we discuss current limitations of the methodology and outline future paths for innovative BCI research.

  12. Global gene expression profiling of healthy human brain and its application in studying neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Simarjeet K; Guda, Chittibabu

    2017-04-18

    Brain function is governed by precise regulation of gene expression across its anatomically distinct structures; however, the expression patterns of genes across hundreds of brain structures are not clearly understood. Here, we describe a gene expression model, which is representative of the healthy human brain transcriptome by using data from the Allen Brain Atlas. Our in-depth gene expression profiling revealed that 84% of genes are expressed in at least one of the 190 brain structures studied. Hierarchical clustering based on gene expression profiles delineated brain regions into structurally tiered spatial groups and we observed striking enrichment for region-specific processes. Further, weighted co-expression network analysis identified 19 robust modules of highly correlated genes enriched with functional associations for neurogenesis, dopamine signaling, immune regulation and behavior. Also, structural distribution maps of major neurotransmission systems in the brain were generated. Finally, we developed a supervised classification model, which achieved 84% and 81% accuracies for predicting autism- and Parkinson's-implicated genes, respectively, using our expression model as a baseline. This study represents the first use of global gene expression profiling from healthy human brain to develop a disease gene prediction model and this generic methodology can be applied to study any neurological disorder.

  13. Lifespan Development of the Human Brain Revealed by Large-Scale Network Eigen-Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Fan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Imaging connectomics based on graph theory has become an effective and unique methodological framework for studying functional connectivity patterns of the developing and aging brain. Normal brain development is characterized by continuous and significant network evolution through infancy, childhood, and adolescence, following specific maturational patterns. Normal aging is related to some resting state brain networks disruption, which are associated with certain cognitive decline. It is a big challenge to design an integral metric to track connectome evolution patterns across the lifespan, which is to understand the principles of network organization in the human brain. In this study, we first defined a brain network eigen-entropy (NEE based on the energy probability (EP of each brain node. Next, we used the NEE to characterize the lifespan orderness trajectory of the whole-brain functional connectivity of 173 healthy individuals ranging in age from 7 to 85 years. The results revealed that during the lifespan, the whole-brain NEE exhibited a significant non-linear decrease and that the EP distribution shifted from concentration to wide dispersion, implying orderness enhancement of functional connectome over age. Furthermore, brain regions with significant EP changes from the flourishing (7–20 years to the youth period (23–38 years were mainly located in the right prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia, and were involved in emotion regulation and executive function in coordination with the action of the sensory system, implying that self-awareness and voluntary control performance significantly changed during neurodevelopment. However, the changes from the youth period to middle age (40–59 years were located in the mesial temporal lobe and caudate, which are associated with long-term memory, implying that the memory of the human brain begins to decline with age during this period. Overall, the findings suggested that the human connectome

  14. Glucose-Coated Gold Nanoparticles Transfer across Human Brain Endothelium and Enter Astrocytes In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromnicova, Radka; Davies, Heather A.; Sreekanthreddy, Peddagangannagari; Romero, Ignacio A.; Lund, Torben; Roitt, Ivan M.; Phillips, James B.; Male, David K.

    2013-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier prevents the entry of many therapeutic agents into the brain. Various nanocarriers have been developed to help agents to cross this barrier, but they all have limitations, with regard to tissue-selectivity and their ability to cross the endothelium. This study investigated the potential for 4 nm coated gold nanoparticles to act as selective carriers across human brain endothelium and subsequently to enter astrocytes. The transfer rate of glucose-coated gold nanoparticles across primary human brain endothelium was at least three times faster than across non-brain endothelia. Movement of these nanoparticles occurred across the apical and basal plasma membranes via the cytosol with relatively little vesicular or paracellular migration; antibiotics that interfere with vesicular transport did not block migration. The transfer rate was also dependent on the surface coating of the nanoparticle and incubation temperature. Using a novel 3-dimensional co-culture system, which includes primary human astrocytes and a brain endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3, we demonstrated that the glucose-coated nanoparticles traverse the endothelium, move through the extracellular matrix and localize in astrocytes. The movement of the nanoparticles through the matrix was >10 µm/hour and they appeared in the nuclei of the astrocytes in considerable numbers. These nanoparticles have the correct properties for efficient and selective carriers of therapeutic agents across the blood-brain barrier. PMID:24339894

  15. Glucose-coated gold nanoparticles transfer across human brain endothelium and enter astrocytes in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Gromnicova

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier prevents the entry of many therapeutic agents into the brain. Various nanocarriers have been developed to help agents to cross this barrier, but they all have limitations, with regard to tissue-selectivity and their ability to cross the endothelium. This study investigated the potential for 4 nm coated gold nanoparticles to act as selective carriers across human brain endothelium and subsequently to enter astrocytes. The transfer rate of glucose-coated gold nanoparticles across primary human brain endothelium was at least three times faster than across non-brain endothelia. Movement of these nanoparticles occurred across the apical and basal plasma membranes via the cytosol with relatively little vesicular or paracellular migration; antibiotics that interfere with vesicular transport did not block migration. The transfer rate was also dependent on the surface coating of the nanoparticle and incubation temperature. Using a novel 3-dimensional co-culture system, which includes primary human astrocytes and a brain endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3, we demonstrated that the glucose-coated nanoparticles traverse the endothelium, move through the extracellular matrix and localize in astrocytes. The movement of the nanoparticles through the matrix was >10 µm/hour and they appeared in the nuclei of the astrocytes in considerable numbers. These nanoparticles have the correct properties for efficient and selective carriers of therapeutic agents across the blood-brain barrier.

  16. Imaging structural and functional connectivity: towards a unified definition of human brain organization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guye, Maxime; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe

    2008-08-01

    Diffusion tractography and functional/effective connectivity MRI provide a better understanding of the structural and functional human brain connectivity. This review will underline the major recent methodological developments and their exceptional respective contributions to physiological and pathophysiological studies in vivo. We will also emphasize the benefits provided by computational models of complex networks such as graph theory. Imaging structural and functional brain connectivity has revealed the complex brain organization into large-scale networks. Such an organization not only permits the complex information segregation and integration during high cognitive processes but also determines the clinical consequences of alterations encountered in development, ageing, or neurological diseases. Recently, it has also been demonstrated that human brain networks shared topological properties with the so-called 'small-world' mathematical model, allowing a maximal efficiency with a minimal energy and wiring cost. Separately, magnetic resonance tractography and functional MRI connectivity have both brought new insights into brain organization and the impact of injuries. The small-world topology of structural and functional human brain networks offers a common framework to merge structural and functional imaging as well as dynamical data from electrophysiology that might allow a comprehensive definition of the brain organization and plasticity.

  17. Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles in the Human Brain Stem, Cerebellum and Cerebral Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    Full Text Available The human brain is one of the most mysterious tissues in the body. Our knowledge of the human brain is limited due to the complexity of its structure and the microscopic nature of connections between brain regions and other tissues in the body. In this study, we analyzed the gene expression profiles of three brain regions-the brain stem, cerebellum and cerebral cortex-to identify genes that are differentially expressed among these different brain regions in humans and to obtain a list of robust, region-specific, differentially expressed genes by comparing the expression signatures from different individuals. Feature selection methods, specifically minimum redundancy maximum relevance and incremental feature selection, were employed to analyze the gene expression profiles. Sequential minimal optimization, a machine-learning algorithm, was employed to examine the utility of selected genes. We also performed a literature search, and we discuss the experimental evidence for the important physiological functions of several highly ranked genes, including NR2E1, DAO, and LRRC7, and we give our analyses on a gene (TFAP2B that have not been investigated or experimentally validated. As a whole, the results of our study will improve our ability to predict and understand genes related to brain regionalization and function.

  18. A PET study on brain control of micturition in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, BFM; Willemsen, ATM; Holstege, G

    Although the brain plays a crucial role in the control of micturition, little is known about the structures involved. Identification of these areas is important because their dysfunction is thought to cause urge incontinence, a major problem in the elderly. In the cat, three areas in the brainstem

  19. Abnormal brain iron homeostasis in human and animal prion disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Ajay; Isaac, Alfred Orina; Luo, Xiu; Mohan, Maradumane L; Cohen, Mark L; Chen, Fusong; Kong, Qingzhong; Bartz, Jason; Singh, Neena

    2009-01-01

    ...)), a beta-sheet rich isoform of a normal cell-surface glycoprotein, the prion protein (PrP(C)). Limited reports suggest imbalance of brain iron homeostasis as a significant associated cause of neurotoxicity in prion-infected cell and mouse models...

  20. Neural Correlates of Socioeconomic Status in the Developing Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Kimberly G.; Houston, Suzanne M.; Kan, Eric; Sowell, Elizabeth R.

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in childhood are associated with remarkable differences in cognitive and socio-emotional development during a time when dramatic changes are occurring in the brain. Yet, the neurobiological pathways through which socioeconomic status (SES) shapes development remain poorly understood. Behavioral evidence suggests that…

  1. Evolution of the human brain : when bigger is better

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, Michel A

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies of the brain in mammals suggest that there are general architectural principles governing its growth and evolutionary development. We are beginning to understand the geometric, biophysical and energy constraints that have governed the evolution and functional organization of the

  2. Human brain activation during sexual stimulation of the penis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgiadis, [No Value; Holstege, G; Georgiadis, Janniko R.

    2005-01-01

    Penile sensory information is essential for reproduction, but almost nothing is known about how sexually salient inputs from the penis are processed in the brain. We used positron emission tomography to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during various stages of male sexual performance.

  3. Blood-brain transfer of Pittsburgh compound B in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Albert; Aanerud, Joel; Braendgaard, Hans

    2013-01-01

    In the labeled form, the Pittsburgh compound B (2-(4'-{N-methyl-[(11)C]}methyl-aminophenyl)-6-hydroxy-benzothiazole, [(11)C]PiB), is used as a biomarker for positron emission tomography (PET) of brain β-amyloid deposition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The permeability of [(11)C]PiB in the blood...

  4. Frequency-specific network topologies in the resting human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuntaro eSasai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A community is a set of nodes with dense inter-connections, while there are sparse connections between different communities. A hub is a highly connected node with high centrality. It has been shown that both communities and hubs exist simultaneously in the brain’s functional connectivity network, as estimated by correlations among low-frequency spontaneous fluctuations in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI signal changes (0.01–0.10 Hz. This indicates that the brain has a spatial organization that promotes both segregation and integration of information. Here, we demonstrate that frequency-specific network topologies that characterize segregation and integration also exist within this frequency range. In investigating the coherence spectrum among 87 brain regions, we found that two frequency bands, 0.01–0.03 Hz (very low frequency [VLF] band and 0.07–0.09 Hz (low frequency [LF] band, mainly contributed to functional connectivity. Comparing graph theoretical indices for the VLF and LF bands revealed that the network in the former had a higher capacity for information segregation between identified communities than the latter. Hubs in the VLF band were mainly located within the anterior cingulate cortices, whereas those in the LF band were located in the posterior cingulate cortices and thalamus. Thus, depending on the timescale of brain activity, at least two distinct network topologies contributed to information segregation and integration. This suggests that the brain intrinsically has timescale-dependent functional organizations.

  5. Exclusive neuronal expression of SUCLA2 in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobolyi, Arpád; Ostergaard, Elsebet; Bagó, Attila G

    2015-01-01

    SUCLA2 encodes the ATP-forming β subunit (A-SUCL-β) of succinyl-CoA ligase, an enzyme of the citric acid cycle. Mutations in SUCLA2 lead to a mitochondrial disorder manifesting as encephalomyopathy with dystonia, deafness and lesions in the basal ganglia. Despite the distinct brain pathology asso...

  6. Two Dream Machines: Television and the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Caren J.

    Research into brain physiology and dream psychology have helped to illuminate the biological purposes and processes of dreaming. Physical and functional characteristics shared by dreaming and television include the perception of visual and auditory images, operation in a binary mode, and the encoding of visual information. Research is needed in…

  7. A Spotlight on Bridging Microscale and Macroscale Human Brain Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Martijn P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304820466; Yeo, B T Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We place a spotlight on the emerging trend of jointly studying the micro- and macroscale organization of nervous systems. We discuss the pioneering studies of Ding et al. (2016) and Glasser et al. (2016) in the context of growing efforts to combine and integrate multiple features of brain

  8. Neuroglobin and Cytoglobin expression in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Kelsen, Jesper; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Neuroglobin and Cytoglobin are new members of the heme-globin family. Both globins are primarily expressed in neurons of the brain and retina. Neuroglobin and Cytoglobin have been suggested as novel therapeutic targets in various neurodegenerative diseases based on their oxygen binding and cell p...

  9. Family poverty affects the rate of human infant brain growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jamie L; Hair, Nicole; Shen, Dinggang G; Shi, Feng; Gilmore, John H; Wolfe, Barbara L; Pollak, Seth D

    2013-01-01

    Living in poverty places children at very high risk for problems across a variety of domains, including schooling, behavioral regulation, and health. Aspects of cognitive functioning, such as information processing, may underlie these kinds of problems. How might poverty affect the brain functions underlying these cognitive processes? Here, we address this question by observing and analyzing repeated measures of brain development of young children between five months and four years of age from economically diverse backgrounds (n = 77). In doing so, we have the opportunity to observe changes in brain growth as children begin to experience the effects of poverty. These children underwent MRI scanning, with subjects completing between 1 and 7 scans longitudinally. Two hundred and three MRI scans were divided into different tissue types using a novel image processing algorithm specifically designed to analyze brain data from young infants. Total gray, white, and cerebral (summation of total gray and white matter) volumes were examined along with volumes of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Infants from low-income families had lower volumes of gray matter, tissue critical for processing of information and execution of actions. These differences were found for both the frontal and parietal lobes. No differences were detected in white matter, temporal lobe volumes, or occipital lobe volumes. In addition, differences in brain growth were found to vary with socioeconomic status (SES), with children from lower-income households having slower trajectories of growth during infancy and early childhood. Volumetric differences were associated with the emergence of disruptive behavioral problems.

  10. Family poverty affects the rate of human infant brain growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie L Hanson

    Full Text Available Living in poverty places children at very high risk for problems across a variety of domains, including schooling, behavioral regulation, and health. Aspects of cognitive functioning, such as information processing, may underlie these kinds of problems. How might poverty affect the brain functions underlying these cognitive processes? Here, we address this question by observing and analyzing repeated measures of brain development of young children between five months and four years of age from economically diverse backgrounds (n = 77. In doing so, we have the opportunity to observe changes in brain growth as children begin to experience the effects of poverty. These children underwent MRI scanning, with subjects completing between 1 and 7 scans longitudinally. Two hundred and three MRI scans were divided into different tissue types using a novel image processing algorithm specifically designed to analyze brain data from young infants. Total gray, white, and cerebral (summation of total gray and white matter volumes were examined along with volumes of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Infants from low-income families had lower volumes of gray matter, tissue critical for processing of information and execution of actions. These differences were found for both the frontal and parietal lobes. No differences were detected in white matter, temporal lobe volumes, or occipital lobe volumes. In addition, differences in brain growth were found to vary with socioeconomic status (SES, with children from lower-income households having slower trajectories of growth during infancy and early childhood. Volumetric differences were associated with the emergence of disruptive behavioral problems.

  11. Astrocyte cultures derived from human brain tissue express angiotensinogen mRNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milsted, A.; Barna, B.P.; Ransohoff, R.M.; Brosnihan, K.B.; Ferrario, C.M. (Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH (USA))

    1990-08-01

    The authors have identified human cultured cell lines that are useful for studying angiotensinogen gene expression and its regulation in the central nervous system. A model cell system of human central nervous system origin expressing angiotensinogen has not previously been available. Expression of angiotensinogen mRNA appears to be a basal property of noninduced human astrocytes, since astrocytic cell lines derived from human glioblastomas or nonneoplastic human brain tissue invariably produced angiotensinogen mRNA. In situ hybridization histochemistry revealed that angiotensinogen mRNA production was not limited to a subpopulation of astrocytes because >99% of cells in these cultures contained angiotensinogen mRNA. These cell lines will be useful in studies of the molecular mechanisms controlling angiotensin synthesis and the role of biologically active angiotensin in the human brain by allowing the authors to examine regulation of expression of the renin-angiotensin system in human astrocyte cultures.

  12. The neurophysiology of language: Insights from non-invasive brain stimulation in the healthy human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa

    2015-09-01

    With the advent of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS), a new decade in the study of language has started. NIBS allows for testing the functional relevance of language-related brain activation and enables the researcher to investigate how neural activation changes in response to focal perturbations. This review focuses on the application of NIBS in the healthy brain. First, some basic mechanisms will be introduced and the prerequisites for carrying out NIBS studies of language are addressed. The next section outlines how NIBS can be used to characterize the contribution of the stimulated area to a task. In this context, novel approaches such as multifocal transcranial magnetic stimulation and the condition-and-perturb approach are discussed. The third part addresses the combination of NIBS and neuroimaging in the study of plasticity. These approaches are particularly suited to investigate short-term reorganization in the healthy brain and may inform models of language recovery in post-stroke aphasia. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bringing CLARITY to the human brain: visualization of Lewy pathology in three dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, A K L; Hurry, M E D; Ng, O T W; DeFelice, J; Lai, H M; Pearce, R K B; Wong, G T-C; Chang, R C-C; Gentleman, S M

    2016-10-01

    CLARITY is a novel technique which enables three-dimensional visualization of immunostained tissue for the study of circuitry and spatial interactions between cells and molecules in the brain. In this study, we aimed to compare methodological differences in the application of CLARITY between rodent and large human post mortem brain samples. In addition, we aimed to investigate if this technique could be used to visualize Lewy pathology in a post mortem Parkinson's brain. Rodent and human brain samples were clarified and immunostained using the passive version of the CLARITY technique. Samples were then immersed in different refractive index matching media before mounting and visualizing under a confocal microscope. We found that tissue clearing speed using passive CLARITY differs according to species (human vs. rodents), brain region and degree of fixation (fresh vs. formalin-fixed tissues). Furthermore, there were advantages to using specific refractive index matching media. We have applied this technique and have successfully visualized Lewy body inclusions in three dimensions within the nucleus basalis of Meynert, and the spatial relationship between monoaminergic fibres and Lewy pathologies among nigrostriatal fibres in the midbrain without the need for physical serial sectioning of brain tissue. The effective use of CLARITY on large samples of human tissue opens up many potential avenues for detailed pathological and morphological studies. © 2015 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Neuropathological Society.

  14. What is feasible with imaging human brain function and connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugurbil, Kamil

    2016-10-05

    When we consider all of the methods we employ to detect brain function, from electrophysiology to optical techniques to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we do not really have a 'golden technique' that meets all of the needs for studying the brain. We have methods, each of which has significant limitations but provide often complimentary information. Clearly, there are many questions that need to be answered about fMRI, which unlike other methods, allows us to study the human brain. However, there are also extraordinary accomplishments or demonstration of the feasibility of reaching new and previously unexpected scales of function in the human brain. This article reviews some of the work we have pursued, often with extensive collaborations with other co-workers, towards understanding the underlying mechanisms of the methodology, defining its limitations, and developing solutions to advance it. No doubt, our knowledge of human brain function has vastly expanded since the introduction of fMRI. However, methods and instrumentation in this dynamic field have evolved to a state that discoveries about the human brain based on fMRI principles, together with information garnered at a much finer spatial and temporal scale through other methods, are poised to significantly accelerate in the next decade.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. What is feasible with imaging human brain function and connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    When we consider all of the methods we employ to detect brain function, from electrophysiology to optical techniques to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we do not really have a ‘golden technique’ that meets all of the needs for studying the brain. We have methods, each of which has significant limitations but provide often complimentary information. Clearly, there are many questions that need to be answered about fMRI, which unlike other methods, allows us to study the human brain. However, there are also extraordinary accomplishments or demonstration of the feasibility of reaching new and previously unexpected scales of function in the human brain. This article reviews some of the work we have pursued, often with extensive collaborations with other co-workers, towards understanding the underlying mechanisms of the methodology, defining its limitations, and developing solutions to advance it. No doubt, our knowledge of human brain function has vastly expanded since the introduction of fMRI. However, methods and instrumentation in this dynamic field have evolved to a state that discoveries about the human brain based on fMRI principles, together with information garnered at a much finer spatial and temporal scale through other methods, are poised to significantly accelerate in the next decade. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience’. PMID:27574313

  16. Topological organization of the human brain functional connectome across the lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Cao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human brain function undergoes complex transformations across the lifespan. We employed resting-state functional MRI and graph-theory approaches to systematically chart the lifespan trajectory of the topological organization of human whole-brain functional networks in 126 healthy individuals ranging in age from 7 to 85 years. Brain networks were constructed by computing Pearson's correlations in blood-oxygenation-level-dependent temporal fluctuations among 1024 parcellation units followed by graph-based network analyses. We observed that the human brain functional connectome exhibited highly preserved non-random modular and rich club organization over the entire age range studied. Further quantitative analyses revealed linear decreases in modularity and inverted-U shaped trajectories of local efficiency and rich club architecture. Regionally heterogeneous age effects were mainly located in several hubs (e.g., default network, dorsal attention regions. Finally, we observed inverse trajectories of long- and short-distance functional connections, indicating that the reorganization of connectivity concentrates and distributes the brain's functional networks. Our results demonstrate topological changes in the whole-brain functional connectome across nearly the entire human lifespan, providing insights into the neural substrates underlying individual variations in behavior and cognition. These results have important implications for disease connectomics because they provide a baseline for evaluating network impairments in age-related neuropsychiatric disorders.

  17. Expression of CD44 splice variants in human primary brain tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaaijk, P.; Troost, D.; Morsink, F.; Keehnen, R. M.; Leenstra, S.; Bosch, D. A.; Pals, S. T.

    1995-01-01

    Expression of CD44, particularly of certain splice variants, has been linked to tumor progression and metastatic potential in a number of different animal and human cancers. Although differential expression of CD44 standard epitopes (CD44s) in human brain tumors has been reported, the expression of

  18. Low-field MRI for studies of human pulmonary physiology and traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alyssa; Devience, Stephen; Rosen, Matthew; Walsworth, Ronald

    2011-05-01

    We describe recent progress on the development of an open-access low-magnetic-field MRI system for studies of human pulmonary physiology and traumatic brain injury. Low-field MRI benefits from reduced magnetic susceptibility effects and can provide high-resolution images of the human body when used with hyperpolarized media such as 3He and 129Xe.

  19. A High-Resolution In Vivo Atlas of the Human Brain's Serotonin System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliveau, Vincent; Ganz, Melanie; Feng, Ling; Ozenne, Brice; Højgaard, Liselotte; Fisher, Patrick M; Svarer, Claus; Greve, Douglas N; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2017-01-04

    The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system modulates many important brain functions and is critically involved in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we present a high-resolution, multidimensional, in vivo atlas of four of the human brain's 5-HT receptors (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT4) and the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT). The atlas is created from molecular and structural high-resolution neuroimaging data consisting of positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans acquired in a total of 210 healthy individuals. Comparison of the regional PET binding measures with postmortem human brain autoradiography outcomes showed a high correlation for the five 5-HT targets and this enabled us to transform the atlas to represent protein densities (in picomoles per milliliter). We also assessed the regional association between protein concentration and mRNA expression in the human brain by comparing the 5-HT density across the atlas with data from the Allen Human Brain atlas and identified receptor- and transporter-specific associations that show the regional relation between the two measures. Together, these data provide unparalleled insight into the serotonin system of the human brain. We present a high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET)- and magnetic resonance imaging-based human brain atlas of important serotonin receptors and the transporter. The regional PET-derived binding measures correlate strongly with the corresponding autoradiography protein levels. The strong correlation enables the transformation of the PET-derived human brain atlas into a protein density map of the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system. Next, we compared the regional receptor/transporter protein densities with mRNA levels and uncovered unique associations between protein expression and density at high detail. This new in vivo neuroimaging atlas of the 5-HT system not only provides insight in the human brain's regional protein synthesis

  20. Human brain evolution: harnessing the genomics (r)evolution to link genes, cognition, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Genevieve; Geschwind, Daniel H

    2010-10-21

    The evolution of the human brain has resulted in numerous specialized features including higher cognitive processes such as language. Knowledge of whole-genome sequence and structural variation via high-throughput sequencing technology provides an unprecedented opportunity to view human evolution at high resolution. However, phenotype discovery is a critical component of these endeavors and the use of nontraditional model organisms will also be critical for piecing together a complete picture. Ultimately, the union of developmental studies of the brain with studies of unique phenotypes in a myriad of species will result in a more thorough model of the groundwork the human brain was built upon. Furthermore, these integrative approaches should provide important insights into human diseases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Novel theory of the human brain: information-commutation basis of architecture and principles of operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryukhovetskiy AS

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Andrey S Bryukhovetskiy Center for Biomedical Technologies, Federal Research and Clinical Center for Specialized Types of Medical Assistance and Medical Technologies of the Federal Medical Biological Agency, NeuroVita Clinic of Interventional and Restorative Neurology and Therapy, Moscow, Russia Abstract: Based on the methodology of the informational approach and research of the genome, proteome, and complete transcriptome profiles of different cells in the nervous tissue of the human brain, the author proposes a new theory of information-commutation organization and architecture of the human brain which is an alternative to the conventional systemic connective morphofunctional paradigm of the brain framework. Informational principles of brain operation are defined: the modular principle, holographic principle, principle of systematicity of vertical commutative connection and complexity of horizontal commutative connection, regulatory principle, relay principle, modulation principle, “illumination” principle, principle of personalized memory and intellect, and principle of low energy consumption. The author demonstrates that the cortex functions only as a switchboard and router of information, while information is processed outside the nervous tissue of the brain in the intermeningeal space. The main structural element of information-commutation in the brain is not the neuron, but information-commutation modules that are subdivided into receiver modules, transmitter modules, and subscriber modules, forming a vertical architecture of nervous tissue in the brain as information lines and information channels, and a horizontal architecture as central, intermediate, and peripheral information-commutation platforms. Information in information-commutation modules is transferred by means of the carriers that are characteristic to the specific information level from inductome to genome, transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, secretome, and magnetome

  2. Brain Tumor Tropism of Transplanted Human Neural Stem Cells Is Induced by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Ole Schmidt

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs offers a new potential therapeutic approach as a cell-based delivery system for gene therapy in brain tumors. This is based on the unique capacity of NSCs to migrate throughout the brain and to target invading tumor cells. However, the signals controlling the targeted migration of transplanted NSCs are poorly defined. We analyzed the in vitro and in vivo effects of angiogenic growth factors and protein extracts from surgical specimens of brain tumor patients on NSC migration. Here, we demonstrate that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is able to induce a long-range attraction of transplanted human NSCs from distant sites in the adult brain. Our results indicate that tumorupregulated VEGF and angiogenic-activated microvasculature are relevant guidance signals for NSC tropism toward brain tumors.

  3. Endurance training enhances BDNF release from the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Brassard, Patrice; Wissenberg, Mads

    2010-01-01

    The circulating level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is reduced in patients with major depression and type-2 diabetes. Because acute exercise increases BDNF production in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, we hypothesized that endurance training would enhance the release of BDNF from...... exercise. At baseline, the training group (58 + or - 106 ng x 100 g(-1) x min(-1), means + or - SD) and the control group (12 + or - 17 ng x 100 g(-1) x min(-1)) had a similar release of BDNF from the brain at rest. Three months of endurance training enhanced the resting release of BDNF to 206 + or - 108...... ng x 100 g(-1) x min(-1) (P exercise. Additionally, eight mice completed a 5-wk treadmill running training protocol that increased the BDNF mRNA expression...

  4. Entropy quantification of human brain spatio-temporal dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezard, Laurent; Martinerie, Jacques; Müller-Gerking, Johannes; Varela, Francisco J.; Renault, Bernard

    We present a procedure to quantify spatio-temporal dynamics applied here to brain surface recordings during three distinct cognitive tasks. The method uses 19 sites of EEG recording as spatial embedding for the reconstruction of trajectories, global and local linear indices, and non-linear forecasting methods to quantify the global and local information loss of the dynamics (K-entropy). We show that K-entropy can differentiate between raw and multivariate phase random surrogate data in a significant percentage of EEG segments, and that relevant non-linear indices are best studied in time segments not longer than 4s. We also find a certain complementarity between local non-linear and linear indices for the discrimination between the three cognitive tasks. Moreover, localized projections onto electrode site of K-entropy provide a new kind of brain mapping with functional significance.

  5. Predicting the knowledge-recklessness distinction in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilares, Iris; Wesley, Michael J; Ahn, Woo-Young; Bonnie, Richard J; Hoffman, Morris; Jones, Owen D; Morse, Stephen J; Yaffe, Gideon; Lohrenz, Terry; Montague, P Read

    2017-03-21

    Criminal convictions require proof that a prohibited act was performed in a statutorily specified mental state. Different legal consequences, including greater punishments, are mandated for those who act in a state of knowledge, compared with a state of recklessness. Existing research, however, suggests people have trouble classifying defendants as knowing, rather than reckless, even when instructed on the relevant legal criteria. We used a machine-learning technique on brain imaging data to predict, with high accuracy, which mental state our participants were in. This predictive ability depended on both the magnitude of the risks and the amount of information about those risks possessed by the participants. Our results provide neural evidence of a detectable difference in the mental state of knowledge in contrast to recklessness and suggest, as a proof of principle, the possibility of inferring from brain data in which legally relevant category a person belongs. Some potential legal implications of this result are discussed.

  6. Human brain somatic representation: a functional magnetic resonance mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Romo, Juan; Rojas, Rafael; Salgado, Perla; Sánchez-Cortázar, Julián; Vazquez-Vela, Arturo; Barrios, Fernando A.

    2001-10-01

    Central nervous system studies of injury and plasticity for the reorganization in the phantom limb sensation area presented. In particular functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) mapping of the somatic and motor cortex of amputee patients, in the case of referred sensations. Using fMRI we can show the correlation between structure and functional field and study the reorganization due to plasticity in the brain.

  7. Visualizing the site of drug action in living human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhara, Tetsuya [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    PET is the only technique available to date to measure molecular interactions in vivo, but the basic mechanism of molecular interaction in vivo is not yet fully understood. However, PET can allow visualization of various phenomena which we can not observe with in vitro techniques. Progress in PET study will provide a new viewpoint for drug development and the study of molecular mechanism in the brain. (J.P.N.)

  8. Insights into human brain: Vitamin A in neuropsychiatry and ophtalmology

    OpenAIRE

    Dragan M. Pavlović; Pavlović, Aleksandra; Totić-Poznanović, Sanja; Božić, Marija M.; Đorđević, Jelena R.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin A is a liposoluble vitamin essential for brain function and vision, and is obtained only through food as retinol or as carotenoids. The active metabolite is retinoic acid (RA), which participates in cognitive processes in the hippocampus, particularly in learning and spatial functions as well as in neurogenesis. Retinoic acid is essential for the vision and the maintenance of the cornea, biological rhythms, mucosa defense against infections and regulation of many genes (one sixth of t...

  9. Long chain fatty acids in early human brain development

    OpenAIRE

    Gina Fernanda Lenis-Zamudio; Mario Delgado-Noguera

    2012-01-01

    The Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (LCPUFA) are essential substances for brain growth period, it have also potential effects on the prevention of chronic diseases, allergic and immune system modulation. The maternal diet, genetical predisposition and geographical variability, influence the levels of these substances transferred to the children during pregnancy and lactation. Until now, the evidence is controversial with regard to supplementation with these substances to improve child´...

  10. Can the common brain parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, influence human culture?

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin D Lafferty

    2006-01-01

    The latent prevalence of a long-lived and common brain parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, explains a statistically significant portion of the variance in aggregate neuroticism among populations, as well as in the ‘neurotic’ cultural dimensions of sex roles and uncertainty avoidance. Spurious or non-causal correlations between aggregate personality and aspects of climate and culture that influence T. gondii transmission could also drive these patterns. A link between culture and T. gondii hypothetic...

  11. Brain perihematoma genomic profile following spontaneous human intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rosell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH represents about 15% of all strokes and is associated with high mortality rates. Our aim was to identify the gene expression changes and biological pathways altered in the brain following ICH. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twelve brain samples were obtained from four deceased patients who suffered an ICH including perihematomal tissue (PH and the corresponding contralateral white (CW and grey (CG matter. Affymetrix GeneChip platform for analysis of over 47,000 transcripts was conducted. Microarray Analysis Suite 5.0 was used to process array images and the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis System was used to analyze biological mechanisms and functions of the genes. We identified 468 genes in the PH areas displaying a different expression pattern with a fold change between -3.74 and +5.16 when compared to the contralateral areas (291 overexpressed and 177 underexpressed. The top genes which appeared most significantly overexpressed in the PH areas codify for cytokines, chemokines, coagulation factors, cell growth and proliferation factors while the underexpressed codify for proteins involved in cell cycle or neurotrophins. Validation and replication studies at gene and protein level in brain samples confirmed microarray results. CONCLUSIONS: The genomic responses identified in this study provide valuable information about potential biomarkers and target molecules altered in the perihematomal regions.

  12. Neuroanatomical abnormalities in chronic tinnitus in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjamian, Peyman; Hall, Deborah A.; Palmer, Alan R.; Allan, Thomas W.; Langers, Dave R.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we review studies that have investigated brain morphology in chronic tinnitus in order to better understand the underlying pathophysiology of the disorder. Current consensus is that tinnitus is a disorder involving a distributed network of peripheral and central pathways in the nervous system. However, the precise mechanism remains elusive and it is unclear which structures are involved. Given that brain structure and function are highly related, identification of anatomical differences may shed light upon the mechanism of tinnitus generation and maintenance. We discuss anatomical changes in the auditory cortex, the limbic system, and prefrontal cortex, among others. Specifically, we discuss the gating mechanism of tinnitus and evaluate the evidence in support of the model from studies of brain anatomy. Although individual studies claim significant effects related to tinnitus, outcomes are divergent and even contradictory across studies. Moreover, results are often confounded by the presence of hearing loss. We conclude that, at present, the overall evidence for structural abnormalities specifically related to tinnitus is poor. As this area of research is expanding, we identify some key considerations for research design and propose strategies for future research. PMID:24892904

  13. Human brain diffusion tensor imaging at submillimeter isotropic resolution on a 3Tesla clinical MRI scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hing-Chiu; Sundman, Mark; Petit, Laurent; Guhaniyogi, Shayan; Chu, Mei-Lan; Petty, Christopher; Song, Allen W; Chen, Nan-kuei

    2015-09-01

    The advantages of high-resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been demonstrated in a recent post-mortem human brain study (Miller et al., NeuroImage 2011;57(1):167-181), showing that white matter fiber tracts can be much more accurately detected in data at a submillimeter isotropic resolution. To our knowledge, in vivo human brain DTI at a submillimeter isotropic resolution has not been routinely achieved yet because of the difficulty in simultaneously achieving high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in DTI scans. Here we report a 3D multi-slab interleaved EPI acquisition integrated with multiplexed sensitivity encoded (MUSE) reconstruction, to achieve high-quality, high-SNR and submillimeter isotropic resolution (0.85×0.85×0.85mm(3)) in vivo human brain DTI on a 3Tesla clinical MRI scanner. In agreement with the previously reported post-mortem human brain DTI study, our in vivo data show that the structural connectivity networks of human brains can be mapped more accurately and completely with high-resolution DTI as compared with conventional DTI (e.g., 2×2×2mm(3)). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dynamic Multi-Coil Shimming of the Human Brain at 7 Tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juchem, Christoph; Nixon, Terence W.; McIntyre, Scott; Boer, Vincent O.; Rothman, Douglas L.; de Graaf, Robin A.

    2011-01-01

    High quality magnetic field homogenization of the human brain (i.e. shimming) for MR imaging and spectroscopy is a demanding task. The susceptibility differences between air and tissue are a longstanding problem as they induce complex field distortions in the prefrontal cortex and the temporal lobes. To date, the theoretical gains of high field MR have only been realized partially in the human brain due to limited magnetic field homogeneity. A novel shimming technique for the human brain is presented that is based on the combination of non-orthogonal basis fields from 48 individual, circular coils. Custom-built amplifier electronics enabled the dynamic application of the multi-coil shim fields in a slice-specific fashion. Dynamic multi-coil (DMC) shimming is shown to eliminate most of the magnetic field inhomogeneity apparent in the human brain at 7 Tesla and provided improved performance compared to state-of-the-art dynamic shim updating with zero through third order spherical harmonic functions. The novel technique paves the way for high field MR applications of the human brain for which excellent magnetic field homogeneity is a prerequisite. PMID:21824794

  15. Intergenic and repeat transcription in human, chimpanzee and macaque brains measured by RNA-Seq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augix Guohua Xu

    Full Text Available Transcription is the first step connecting genetic information with an organism's phenotype. While expression of annotated genes in the human brain has been characterized extensively, our knowledge about the scope and the conservation of transcripts located outside of the known genes' boundaries is limited. Here, we use high-throughput transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq to characterize the total non-ribosomal transcriptome of human, chimpanzee, and rhesus macaque brain. In all species, only 20-28% of non-ribosomal transcripts correspond to annotated exons and 20-23% to introns. By contrast, transcripts originating within intronic and intergenic repetitive sequences constitute 40-48% of the total brain transcriptome. Notably, some repeat families show elevated transcription. In non-repetitive intergenic regions, we identify and characterize 1,093 distinct regions highly expressed in the human brain. These regions are conserved at the RNA expression level across primates studied and at the DNA sequence level across mammals. A large proportion of these transcripts (20% represents 3'UTR extensions of known genes and may play roles in alternative microRNA-directed regulation. Finally, we show that while transcriptome divergence between species increases with evolutionary time, intergenic transcripts show more expression differences among species and exons show less. Our results show that many yet uncharacterized evolutionary conserved transcripts exist in the human brain. Some of these transcripts may play roles in transcriptional regulation and contribute to evolution of human-specific phenotypic traits.

  16. Galectin-1 suppresses methamphetamine induced neuroinflammation in human brain microvascular endothelial cells: Neuroprotective role in maintaining blood brain barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Neil U; Aalinkeel, R; Reynolds, J L; Nair, B B; Sykes, D E; Mammen, M J; Schwartz, S A; Mahajan, S D

    2015-10-22

    Methamphetamine (Meth) abuse can lead to the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity leading to compromised CNS function. The role of Galectins in the angiogenesis process in tumor-associated endothelial cells (EC) is well established; however no data are available on the expression of Galectins in normal human brain microvascular endothelial cells and their potential role in maintaining BBB integrity. We evaluated the basal gene/protein expression levels of Galectin-1, -3 and -9 in normal primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC) that constitute the BBB and examined whether Meth altered Galectin expression in these cells, and if Galectin-1 treatment impacted the integrity of an in-vitro BBB. Our results showed that BMVEC expressed significantly higher levels of Galectin-1 as compared to Galectin-3 and -9. Meth treatment increased Galectin-1 expression in BMVEC. Meth induced decrease in TJ proteins ZO-1, Claudin-3 and adhesion molecule ICAM-1 was reversed by Galectin-1. Our data suggests that Galectin-1 is involved in BBB remodeling and can increase levels of TJ proteins ZO-1 and Claudin-3 and adhesion molecule ICAM-1 which helps maintain BBB tightness thus playing a neuroprotective role. Galectin-1 is thus an important regulator of immune balance from neurodegeneration to neuroprotection, which makes it an important therapeutic agent/target in the treatment of drug addiction and other neurological conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evolution of the human ASPM gene, a major determinant of brain size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianzhi

    2003-12-01

    The size of human brain tripled over a period of approximately 2 million years (MY) that ended 0.2-0.4 MY ago. This evolutionary expansion is believed to be important to the emergence of human language and other high-order cognitive functions, yet its genetic basis remains unknown. An evolutionary analysis of genes controlling brain development may shed light on it. ASPM (abnormal spindle-like microcephaly associated) is one of such genes, as nonsense mutations lead to primary microcephaly, a human disease characterized by a 70% reduction in brain size. Here I provide evidence suggesting that human ASPM went through an episode of accelerated sequence evolution by positive Darwinian selection after the split of humans and chimpanzees but before the separation of modern non-Africans from Africans. Because positive selection acts on a gene only when the gene function is altered and the organismal fitness is increased, my results suggest that adaptive functional modifications occurred in human ASPM and that it may be a major genetic component underlying the evolution of the human brain.

  18. Computational Elastic Knots

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Xin

    2013-05-01

    Elastic rods have been studied intensively since the 18th century. Even now the theory of elastic rods is still developing and enjoying popularity in computer graphics and physical-based simulation. Elastic rods also draw attention from architects. Architectural structures, NODUS, were constructed by elastic rods as a new method of form-finding. We study discrete models of elastic rods and NODUS structures. We also develop computational tools to find the equilibria of elastic rods and the shape of NODUS. Applications of elastic rods in forming torus knot and closing Bishop frame are included in this thesis.

  19. Energy landscape and dynamics of brain activity during human bistable perception.

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, T; Masuda, N.; Megumi, F.; Kanai, R.; Rees, G.

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in the structure of parietal and prefrontal cortex predict the stability of bistable visual perception. However, the mechanisms linking such individual differences in brain structures to behaviour remain elusive. Here we demonstrate a systematic relationship between the dynamics of brain activity, cortical structure and behaviour underpinning bistable perception. Using fMRI in humans, we find that the activity dynamics during bistable perception are well described as fl...

  20. Development of Spatial and Verbal Working Memory Capacity in the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Moriah E.; Race, Elizabeth; Burrows, Brittany; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Glover, Gary H.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2009-01-01

    A core aspect of working memory (WM) is the capacity to maintain goal-relevant information in mind, but little is known about how this capacity develops in the human brain. We compared brain activation, via fMRI, between children (ages 7-12 years) and adults (ages 20-29 years) performing tests of verbal and spatial WM with varying amounts (loads)…

  1. Demonstration of brain noise on human EEG signals in perception of bistable images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubov, Vadim V.; Runnova, Anastasiya E.; Kurovskaya, Maria K.; Pavlov, Alexey N.; Koronovskii, Alexey A.; Hramov, Alexander E.

    2016-03-01

    In this report we studied human brain activity in the case of bistable visual perception. We proposed a new approach for quantitative characterization of this activity based on analysis of EEG oscillatory patterns and evoked potentials. Accordingly to theoretical background, obtained experimental EEG data and results of its analysis we studied a characteristics of brain activity during decision-making. Also we have shown that decisionmaking process has the special patterns on the EEG data.

  2. Molecular Mechanism of Adult Neurogenesis and its Association with Human Brain Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in neuroscience challenge the old dogma that neurogenesis occurs only during embryonic development. Mounting evidence suggests that functional neurogenesis occurs throughout adulthood. This review article discusses molecular factors that affect adult neurogenesis, including morphogens, growth factors, neurotransmitters, transcription factors, and epigenetic factors. Furthermore, we summarize and compare current evidence of associations between adult neurogenesis and human brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and brain tumors.

  3. Comparison of regional gene expression differences in the brains of the domestic dog and human

    OpenAIRE

    Kennerly Erin; Thomson Susanne; Olby Natasha; Breen Matthew; Gibson Greg

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Comparison of the expression profiles of 2,721 genes in the cerebellum, cortex and pituitary gland of three American Staffordshire terriers, one beagle and one fox hound revealed regional expression differences in the brain but failed to reveal marked differences among breeds, or even individual dogs. Approximately 85 per cent (42 of 49 orthologue comparisons) of the regional differences in the dog are similar to those that differentiate the analogous human brain regions. A smaller p...

  4. Interactive specialization: a domain-general framework for human functional brain development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark H

    2011-01-01

    A domain-general framework for interpreting data on human functional brain development is presented. Assumptions underlying the general theory and predictions derived from it are discussed. Developmental functional neuroimaging data from the domains of face processing, social cognition, word learning and reading, executive control, and brain resting states are used to assess these predictions. Finally, potential criticisms of the framework are addressed and challenges for the future presented. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Simultaneous measurement of glucose transport and utilization in the human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Shestov, Alexander A.; Uzay E. Emir; Kumar, Anjali; Henry, Pierre-Gilles; Seaquist, Elizabeth R.; Öz, Gülin

    2011-01-01

    Glucose is the primary fuel for brain function, and determining the kinetics of cerebral glucose transport and utilization is critical for quantifying cerebral energy metabolism. The kinetic parameters of cerebral glucose transport, KMt and Vmaxt, in humans