WorldWideScience

Sample records for human body-weight regulation

  1. Short and long-term energy intake patterns and their implications for human body weight regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Carson C; Hall, Kevin D

    2014-07-01

    Adults consume millions of kilocalories over the course of a few years, but the typical weight gain amounts to only a few thousand kilocalories of stored energy. Furthermore, food intake is highly variable from day to day and yet body weight is remarkably stable. These facts have been used as evidence to support the hypothesis that human body weight is regulated by active control of food intake operating on both short and long time scales. Here, we demonstrate that active control of human food intake on short time scales is not required for body weight stability and that the current evidence for long term control of food intake is equivocal. To provide more data on this issue, we emphasize the urgent need for developing new methods for accurately measuring energy intake changes over long time scales. We propose that repeated body weight measurements can be used along with mathematical modeling to calculate long-term changes in energy intake and thereby quantify adherence to a diet intervention and provide dynamic feedback to individuals that seek to control their body weight.

  2. Is there evidence for a set point that regulates human body weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Manfred J; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2010-08-09

    There is evidence for the idea that there is biological (active) control of body weight at a given set point. Body weight is the product of genetic effects (DNA), epigenetic effects (heritable traits that do not involve changes in DNA), and the environment. Regulation of body weight is asymmetric, being more effective in response to weight loss than to weight gain. However, regulation may be lost or camouflaged by Western diets, suggesting that the failure of biological control is due mainly to external factors. In this situation, the body's 'set point' (i.e., a constant 'body-inherent' weight regulated by a proportional feedback control system) is replaced by various 'settling points' that are influenced by energy and macronutrient intake in order for the body to achieve a zero energy balance. In a world of abundance, a prudent lifestyle and thus cognitive control are preconditions of effective biological control and a stable body weight. This idea also impacts future genetic research on body weight regulation. Searching for the genetic background of excess weight gain in a world of abundance is misleading since the possible biological control is widely overshadowed by the effect of the environment. In regard to clinical practice, dietary approaches to both weight loss and weight gain have to be reconsidered. In underweight patients (e.g., patients with anorexia nervosa), weight gain is supported by biological mechanisms that may or may not be suppressed by hyperalimentation. To overcome weight loss-induced counter-regulation in the overweight, biological signals have to be taken into account. Computational modeling of weight changes based on metabolic flux and its regulation will provide future strategies for clinical nutrition.

  3. Adaptive thermogenesis in human body weight regulation: more of a concept than a measurable entity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulloo, A G; Jacquet, J; Montani, J-P; Schutz, Y

    2012-12-01

    According to Lavoisier, 'Life is combustion'. But to what extent humans adapt to changes in food intake through adaptive thermogenesis--by turning down the rate of heat production during energy deficit (so as to conserve energy) or turning it up during overnutrition (so as to dissipate excess calories)--has been one of the most controversial issues in nutritional sciences over the past 100 years. The debate nowadays is not whether adaptive thermogenesis exists or not, but rather about its quantitative importance in weight homoeostasis and its clinical relevance to the pathogenesis and management of obesity. Such uncertainties are likely to persist in the foreseeable future primarily because of limitations to unobtrusively measure changes in energy expenditure and body composition with high enough accuracy and precision, particularly when even small inter-individual variations in thermogenesis can, in dynamic systems and over the long term, be important in the determining weight maintenance in some and obesity and weight regain in others. This paper reviews the considerable body of evidence, albeit fragmentary, suggesting the existence of quantitatively important adaptive thermogenesis in several compartments of energy expenditure in response to altered food intake. It then discusses the various limitations that lead to over- or underestimations in its assessment, including definitional and semantics, technical and methodological, analytical and statistical. While the role of adaptive thermogenesis in human weight regulation is likely to remain more a concept than a strictly 'quantifiable' entity in the foreseeable future, the evolution of this concept continues to fuel exciting hypothesis-driven mechanistic research which contributes to advance knowledge in human metabolism and which is bound to result in improved strategies for the management of a healthy body weight. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  4. Histamine and the regulation of body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Emilie A; Knigge, Ulrich; Warberg, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Energy intake and expenditure is regulated by a complex interplay between peripheral and central factors. An exhaustive list of peptides and neurotransmitters taking part in this complex regulation of body weight exists. Among these is histamine, which acts as a central neurotransmitter. In the p......Energy intake and expenditure is regulated by a complex interplay between peripheral and central factors. An exhaustive list of peptides and neurotransmitters taking part in this complex regulation of body weight exists. Among these is histamine, which acts as a central neurotransmitter....... In the present article we review current evidence pointing at an important role of histamine in the regulation of appetite and metabolism. Studies using both knockout mouse models as well as pharmacological studies have revealed that histamine acts as an anorexigenic agent via stimulation of histamine H(1......) receptors. One effect of histamine in the regulation of appetite is to act as a mediator of the inhibitory effect of leptin on appetite. It seems that histamine may attenuate and delay the development of leptin resistance in high-fat-diet-induced obesity. Furthermore, histamine may also act to accelerate...

  5. Brain nuclear receptors and body weight regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural pathways, especially those in the hypothalamus, integrate multiple nutritional, hormonal, and neural signals, resulting in the coordinated control of body weight balance and glucose homeostasis. Nuclear receptors (NRs) sense changing levels of nutrients and hormones, and therefore play essent...

  6. Energy Balance and Body Weight Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chris Melby; Matt Hickey

    2006-01-01

    @@ KEY POINTS · Thermodynamic laws dictate that an excess of food energy intake relative to energy expenditure will lead to energy storage-an accumulation of fat. Conversely, a deficit of energy intake relative to expenditure will lead to a loss of body energy stores and a reduced body weight.

  7. A compendium of human genes regulating feeding behavior and body weight, its functional characterization and identification of GWAS genes involved in brain-specific PPI network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatieva, Elena V; Afonnikov, Dmitry A; Saik, Olga V; Rogaev, Evgeny I; Kolchanov, Nikolay A

    2016-12-22

    Obesity is heritable. It predisposes to many diseases. The objectives of this study were to create a compendium of genes relevant to feeding behavior (FB) and/or body weight (BW) regulation; to construct and to analyze networks formed by associations between genes/proteins; and to identify the most significant genes, biological processes/pathways, and tissues/organs involved in BW regulation. The compendium of genes controlling FB or BW includes 578 human genes. Candidate genes were identified from various sources, including previously published original research and review articles, GWAS meta-analyses, and OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man). All genes were ranked according to knowledge about their biological role in body weight regulation and classified according to expression patterns or functional characteristics. Substantial and overrepresented numbers of genes from the compendium encoded cell surface receptors, signaling molecules (hormones, neuropeptides, cytokines), transcription factors, signal transduction proteins, cilium and BBSome components, and lipid binding proteins or were present in the brain-specific list of tissue-enriched genes identified with TSEA tool. We identified 27 pathways from KEGG, REACTOME and BIOCARTA whose genes were overrepresented in the compendium. Networks formed by physical interactions or homological relationships between proteins or interactions between proteins involved in biochemical/signaling pathways were reconstructed and analyzed. Subnetworks and clusters identified by the MCODE tool included genes/proteins associated with cilium morphogenesis, signal transduction proteins (particularly, G protein-coupled receptors, kinases or proteins involved in response to insulin stimulus) and transcription regulation (particularly nuclear receptors). We ranked GWAS genes according to the number of neighbors in three networks and revealed 22 GWAS genes involved in the brain-specific PPI network. On the base of the most

  8. Energy density, energy intake, and body weight regulation in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, J Philip; Roberts, Susan B

    2014-11-01

    The role of dietary energy density (ED) in the regulation of energy intake (EI) is controversial. Methodologically, there is also debate about whether beverages should be included in dietary ED calculations. To address these issues, studies examining the effects of ED on EI or body weight in nonelderly adults were reviewed. Different approaches to calculating dietary ED do not appear to alter the direction of reported relations between ED and body weight. Evidence that lowering dietary ED reduces EI in short-term studies is convincing, but there are currently insufficient data to determine long-term effectiveness for weight loss. The review also identified key barriers to progress in understanding the role of ED in energy regulation, in particular the absence of a standard definition of ED, and the lack of data from multiple long-term clinical trials examining the effectiveness of low-ED diet recommendations for preventing both primary weight gain and weight regain in nonobese individuals. Long-term clinical trials designed to examine the impact of dietary ED on energy regulation, and including multiple ED calculation methods within the same study, are still needed to determine the importance of ED in the regulation of EI and body weight. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. The role of whole grains in body weight regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, J Philip; Saltzman, Edward

    2012-09-01

    Whole grain (WG)-rich diets are purported to have a variety of health benefits, including a favorable role in body weight regulation. Current dietary recommendations advocate substituting WG for refined grains (RG), because many of the beneficial bioactive components intrinsic to WG are lost during the refining process. Epidemiological studies consistently demonstrate that higher intakes of WG, but not RG, are associated with lower BMI and/or reduced risk of obesity. However, recent clinical trials have failed to support a role for WG in promoting weight loss or maintenance. Though the biochemical and structural characteristics of WG have been shown to modulate appetite, nutrient availability, and energy utilization, the capacity of WG foods to elicit these effects varies with the type and amount of grain consumed as well as the nature of its consumption. As such, WG foods differentially affect physiologic factors influencing body weight with the common practice of processing and reconstituting WG ingredients during food production likely mitigating the capacity for WG to benefit body weight regulation.

  10. Role of oxytocin signaling in the regulation of body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, James E; Ho, Jacqueline M

    2013-12-01

    Obesity and its associated metabolic disorders are growing health concerns in the US and worldwide. In the US alone, more than two-thirds of the adult population is classified as either overweight or obese [1], highlighting the need to develop new, effective treatments for these conditions. Whereas the hormone oxytocin is well known for its peripheral effects on uterine contraction during parturition and milk ejection during lactation, release of oxytocin from somatodendrites and axonal terminals within the central nervous system (CNS) is implicated in both the formation of prosocial behaviors and in the control of energy balance. Recent findings demonstrate that chronic administration of oxytocin reduces food intake and body weight in diet-induced obese (DIO) and genetically obese rodents with impaired or defective leptin signaling. Importantly, chronic systemic administration of oxytocin out to 6 weeks recapitulates the effects of central administration on body weight loss in DIO rodents at doses that do not result in the development of tolerance. Furthermore, these effects are coupled with induction of Fos (a marker of neuronal activation) in hindbrain areas (e.g. dorsal vagal complex (DVC)) linked to the control of meal size and forebrain areas (e.g. hypothalamus, amygdala) linked to the regulation of food intake and body weight. This review assesses the potential central and peripheral targets by which oxytocin may inhibit body weight gain, its regulation by anorexigenic and orexigenic signals, and its potential use as a therapy that can circumvent leptin resistance and reverse the behavioral and metabolic abnormalities associated with DIO and genetically obese models.

  11. Effects of insulin detemir and NPH insulin on body weight and appetite-regulating brain regions in human type 1 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa W van Golen

    Full Text Available Studies in rodents have demonstrated that insulin in the central nervous system induces satiety. In humans, these effects are less well established. Insulin detemir is a basal insulin analog that causes less weight gain than other basal insulin formulations, including the current standard intermediate-long acting Neutral Protamine Hagedorn (NPH insulin. Due to its structural modifications, which render the molecule more lipophilic, it was proposed that insulin detemir enters the brain more readily than other insulins. The aim of this study was to investigate whether insulin detemir treatment differentially modifies brain activation in response to food stimuli as compared to NPH insulin. In addition, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF insulin levels were measured after both treatments. Brain responses to viewing food and non-food pictures were measured using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in 32 type 1 diabetic patients, after each of two 12-week treatment periods with insulin detemir and NPH insulin, respectively, both combined with prandial insulin aspart. CSF insulin levels were determined in a subgroup. Insulin detemir decreased body weight by 0.8 kg and NPH insulin increased weight by 0.5 kg (p = 0.02 for difference, while both treatments resulted in similar glycemic control. After treatment with insulin detemir, as compared to NPH insulin, brain activation was significantly lower in bilateral insula in response to visual food stimuli, compared to NPH (p = 0.02 for right and p = 0.05 for left insula. Also, CSF insulin levels were higher compared to those with NPH insulin treatment (p = 0.003. Our findings support the hypothesis that in type 1 diabetic patients, the weight sparing effect of insulin detemir may be mediated by its enhanced action on the central nervous system, resulting in blunted activation in bilateral insula, an appetite-regulating brain region, in response to food stimuli.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00626080.

  12. Dietary glycemic index and the regulation of body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, David S

    2003-02-01

    Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity have risen precipitously in the United States and other developed countries since the 1960s, despite comprehensive public health efforts to combat this problem. Although considerable attention has been focused on decreasing dietary fat and increasing physical activity level, the potential relevance of the dietary glycemic index to obesity treatment has received comparatively little scientific notice. This review examines how the glycemic and insulinemic responses to diet may affect body weight regulation, and argues for the potential utility of low glycemic index diets in the prevention and treatment of obesity and related complications.

  13. Brain regulation of energy balance and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Liangyou

    2013-12-01

    Body weight is determined by a balance between food intake and energy expenditure. Multiple neural circuits in the brain have evolved to process information about food, food-related cues and food consumption to control feeding behavior. Numerous gastrointestinal endocrine cells produce and secrete satiety hormones in response to food consumption and digestion. These hormones suppress hunger and promote satiation and satiety mainly through hindbrain circuits, thus governing meal-by-meal eating behavior. In contrast, the hypothalamus integrates adiposity signals to regulate long-term energy balance and body weight. Distinct hypothalamic areas and various orexigenic and anorexigenic neurons have been identified to homeostatically regulate food intake. The hypothalamic circuits regulate food intake in part by modulating the sensitivity of the hindbrain to short-term satiety hormones. The hedonic and incentive properties of foods and food-related cues are processed by the corticolimbic reward circuits. The mesolimbic dopamine system encodes subjective "liking" and "wanting" of palatable foods, which is subjected to modulation by the hindbrain and the hypothalamic homeostatic circuits and by satiety and adiposity hormones. Satiety and adiposity hormones also promote energy expenditure by stimulating brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity. They stimulate BAT thermogenesis mainly by increasing the sympathetic outflow to BAT. Many defects in satiety and/or adiposity hormone signaling and in the hindbrain and the hypothalamic circuits have been described and are believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of energy imbalance and obesity.

  14. Human growth and body weight dynamics: an integrative systems model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmandad, Hazhir

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying human weight and height dynamics due to growth, aging, and energy balance can inform clinical practice and policy analysis. This paper presents the first mechanism-based model spanning full individual life and capturing changes in body weight, composition and height. Integrating previous empirical and modeling findings and validated against several additional empirical studies, the model replicates key trends in human growth including A) Changes in energy requirements from birth to old ages. B) Short and long-term dynamics of body weight and composition. C) Stunted growth with chronic malnutrition and potential for catch up growth. From obesity policy analysis to treating malnutrition and tracking growth trajectories, the model can address diverse policy questions. For example I find that even without further rise in obesity, the gap between healthy and actual Body Mass Indexes (BMIs) has embedded, for different population groups, a surplus of 14%-24% in energy intake which will be a source of significant inertia in obesity trends. In another analysis, energy deficit percentage needed to reduce BMI by one unit is found to be relatively constant across ages. Accompanying documented and freely available simulation model facilitates diverse applications customized to different sub-populations.

  15. Nutrigenomics of Body Weight Regulation: A Rationale for Careful Dissection of Individual Contributors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijer, Jaap; Hoevenaars, Femke P. M.; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie; van Schothorst, Evert M.

    2014-01-01

    Body weight stability may imply active regulation towards a certain physiological condition, a body weight setpoint. This interpretation is ill at odds with the world-wide increase in overweight and obesity. Until now, a body weight setpoint has remained elusive and the setpoint theory did not provide practical clues for body weight reduction interventions. For this an alternative theoretical model is necessary, which is available as the settling point model. The settling point model postulates that there is little active regulation towards a predefined body weight, but that body weight settles based on the resultant of a number of contributors, represented by the individual’s genetic predisposition, in interaction with environmental and socioeconomic factors, such as diet and lifestyle. This review refines the settling point model and argues that by taking body weight regulation from a settling point perspective, the road will be opened to careful dissection of the various contributors to establishment of body weight and its regulation. This is both necessary and useful. Nutrigenomic technologies may help to delineate contributors to body weight settling. Understanding how and to which extent the different contributors influence body weight will allow the design of weight loss and weight maintenance interventions, which hopefully are more successful than those that are currently available. PMID:25338273

  16. Nutrigenomics of Body Weight Regulation: A Rationale for Careful Dissection of Individual Contributors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaap Keijer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Body weight stability may imply active regulation towards a certain physiological condition, a body weight setpoint. This interpretation is ill at odds with the world-wide increase in overweight and obesity. Until now, a body weight setpoint has remained elusive and the setpoint theory did not provide practical clues for body weight reduction interventions. For this an alternative theoretical model is necessary, which is available as the settling point model. The settling point model postulates that there is little active regulation towards a predefined body weight, but that body weight settles based on the resultant of a number of contributors, represented by the individual’s genetic predisposition, in interaction with environmental and socioeconomic factors, such as diet and lifestyle. This review refines the settling point model and argues that by taking body weight regulation from a settling point perspective, the road will be opened to careful dissection of the various contributors to establishment of body weight and its regulation. This is both necessary and useful. Nutrigenomic technologies may help to delineate contributors to body weight settling. Understanding how and to which extent the different contributors influence body weight will allow the design of weight loss and weight maintenance interventions, which hopefully are more successful than those that are currently available.

  17. Neuropeptides and anticipatory changes in behaviour and physiology: seasonal body weight regulation in the Siberian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Julian G; Tups, Alexander

    2003-11-01

    The Siberian hamster, Phodopus sungorus, is a powerful model of physiological body weight regulation. This seasonal model offers the potential to distinguish between the compensatory neuroendocrine systems that defend body weight against imposed negative energy balance, and those that are involved in the programming of the level of body weight that will be defended-a seasonally appropriate body weight. Of the known, studied, components of the hypothalamic energy balance system, the anorexogenic peptide, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), is the only candidate where gene expression changes in a manner consistent with a role in initiating or sustaining photoperiod-induced differences in body weight trajectory. Siberian hamsters effect a reversible biannual switch in leptin sensitivity in which only short day (SD)-acclimated hamsters that have undergone a reduction in body weight, adiposity and plasma leptin are sensitive to peripheral exogenous leptin. The suppressor of cytokine signalling protein, SOCS3, appears to be the molecular correlate of this seasonal sensitivity.

  18. Association between regulator of G protein signaling 9-2 and body weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey L Waugh

    Full Text Available Regulator of G protein signaling 9-2 (RGS9-2 is a protein that is highly enriched in the striatum, a brain region that mediates motivation, movement and reward responses. We identified a naturally occurring 5 nucleotide deletion polymorphism in the human RGS9 gene and found that the mean body mass index (BMI of individuals with the deletion was significantly higher than those without. A splicing reporter minigene assay demonstrated that the deletion had the potential to significantly decrease the levels of correctly spliced RGS9 gene product. We measured the weights of rats after virally transduced overexpression of RGS9-2 or the structurally related RGS proteins, RGS7, or RGS11, in the nucleus accumbens (NAc and observed a reduction in body weight after overexpression of RGS9-2 but not RGS7 or 11. Conversely, we found that the RGS9 knockout mice were heavier than their wild-type littermates and had significantly higher percentages of abdominal fat. The constituent adipocytes were found to have a mean cross-sectional area that was more than double that of corresponding cells from wild-type mice. However, food intake and locomotion were not significantly different between the two strains. These studies with humans, rats and mice implicate RGS9-2 as a factor in regulating body weight.

  19. Physical Activity Plays an Important Role in Body Weight Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Chaput

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging literature highlights the need to incorporate physical activity into every strategy intended to prevent weight gain as well as to maintain weight loss over time. Furthermore, physical activity should be part of any plan to lose weight. The stimulus of exercise provides valuable metabolic adaptations that improve energy and macronutrient balance regulation. A tight coupling between energy intake and energy expenditure has been documented at high levels of physical exercise, suggesting that exercise may improve appetite control. The regular practice of physical activity has also been reported to reduce the risk of stress-induced weight gain. A more personalized approach is recommended when planning exercise programs in a clinical weight loss setting in order to limit the compensatory changes associated to exercise-induced weight loss. With modern environment promoting overeating and sedentary behavior, there is an urgent need for a concerted action including legislative measures to promote healthy active living in order to curb the current epidemic of chronic diseases.

  20. Effects of independently altering body weight and mass on the energetic cost of a human running model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Jeffrey; Seipel, Justin

    2016-03-21

    The mechanisms underlying the metabolic cost of running, and legged locomotion in general, remain to be well understood. Prior experimental studies show that the metabolic cost of human running correlates well with the vertical force generated to support body weight, the mechanical work done, and changes in the effective leg stiffness. Further, previous work shows that the metabolic cost of running decreases with decreasing body weight, increases with increasing body weight and mass, and does not significantly change with changing body mass alone. In the present study, we seek to uncover the basic mechanism underlying this existing experimental data. We find that an actuated spring-mass mechanism representing the effective mechanics of human running provides a mechanistic explanation for the previously reported changes in the metabolic cost of human running if the dimensionless relative leg stiffness (effective stiffness normalized by body weight and leg length) is regulated to be constant. The model presented in this paper provides a mechanical explanation for the changes in metabolic cost due to changing body weight and mass which have been previously measured experimentally and highlights the importance of active leg stiffness regulation during human running.

  1. TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 is a physiological appetite and body weight regulator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Wang-Wei Tsai

    Full Text Available The TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 circulates in all humans and when overproduced in cancer leads to anorexia/cachexia, by direct action on brain feeding centres. In these studies we have examined the role of physiologically relevant levels of MIC-1/GDF15 in the regulation of appetite, body weight and basal metabolic rate. MIC-1/GDF15 gene knockout mice (MIC-1(-/- weighed more and had increased adiposity, which was associated with increased spontaneous food intake. Female MIC-1(-/- mice exhibited some additional alterations in reduced basal energy expenditure and physical activity, possibly owing to the associated decrease in total lean mass. Further, infusion of human recombinant MIC-1/GDF15 sufficient to raise serum levels in MIC-1(-/- mice to within the normal human range reduced body weight and food intake. Taken together, our findings suggest that MIC-1/GDF15 is involved in the physiological regulation of appetite and energy storage.

  2. Estrogen receptor-a in medial amygdala neurons regulates body weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrogen receptor–a (ERa) activity in the brain prevents obesity in both males and females. However, the ERa-expressing neural populations that regulate body weight remain to be fully elucidated. Here we showed that single-minded–1 (SIM1) neurons in the medial amygdala (MeA) express abundant levels ...

  3. Energy Density, Energy Intake, and Body Weight Regulation in Adults12345

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, J. Philip; Roberts, Susan B.

    2014-01-01

    The role of dietary energy density (ED) in the regulation of energy intake (EI) is controversial. Methodologically, there is also debate about whether beverages should be included in dietary ED calculations. To address these issues, studies examining the effects of ED on EI or body weight in nonelderly adults were reviewed. Different approaches to calculating dietary ED do not appear to alter the direction of reported relations between ED and body weight. Evidence that lowering dietary ED reduces EI in short-term studies is convincing, but there are currently insufficient data to determine long-term effectiveness for weight loss. The review also identified key barriers to progress in understanding the role of ED in energy regulation, in particular the absence of a standard definition of ED, and the lack of data from multiple long-term clinical trials examining the effectiveness of low-ED diet recommendations for preventing both primary weight gain and weight regain in nonobese individuals. Long-term clinical trials designed to examine the impact of dietary ED on energy regulation, and including multiple ED calculation methods within the same study, are still needed to determine the importance of ED in the regulation of EI and body weight. PMID:25398750

  4. Dynamic modeling of methylprednisolone effects on body weight and glucose regulation in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jing; DuBois, Debra C.; He, Yang; Almon, Richard R.

    2012-01-01

    Influences of methylprednisolone (MPL) and food consumption on body weight (BW), and the effects of MPL on glycemic control including food consumption and the dynamic interactions among glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids (FFA) were evaluated in normal male Wistar rats. Six groups of animals received either saline or MPL via subcutaneous infusions at the rate of 0.03, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 mg/kg/h for different treatment periods. BW and food consumption were measured twice a week. Plasma concentrations of MPL and corticosterone (CST) were determined at animal sacrifice. Plasma glucose, insulin, and FFA were measured at various times after infusion. Plasma MPL concentrations were simulated by a two-compartment model and used as the driving force in the pharmacodynamic (PD) analysis. All data were modeled using ADAPT 5. The MPL treatments caused reduction of food consumption and body weights in all dosing groups. The steroid also caused changes in plasma glucose, insulin, and FFA concentrations. Hyper-insulinemia was achieved rapidly at the first sampling time of 6 h; significant elevations of FFA were observed in all drug treatment groups; whereas only modest increases in plasma glucose were observed in the low dosing groups (0.03 and 0.1 mg/kg/h). Body weight changes were modeled by dual actions of MPL: inhibition of food consumption and stimulation of weight loss, with food consumption accounting for the input of energy for body weight. Dynamic models of glucose and insulin feedback interactions were extended to capture the major metabolic effects of FFA: stimulation of insulin secretion and inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose utilization. These models of body weight and glucose regulation adequately captured the experimental data and reflect significant physiological interactions among glucose, insulin, and FFA. These mechanism-based PD models provide further insights into the multi-factor control of this essential metabolic system. PMID:21394487

  5. Near-Perfect Synaptic Integration by Nav1.7 in Hypothalamic Neurons Regulates Body Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Tiago; Tozer, Adam; Magnus, Christopher J; Sugino, Ken; Tanaka, Shinsuke; Lee, Albert K; Wood, John N; Sternson, Scott M

    2016-06-16

    Neurons are well suited for computations on millisecond timescales, but some neuronal circuits set behavioral states over long time periods, such as those involved in energy homeostasis. We found that multiple types of hypothalamic neurons, including those that oppositely regulate body weight, are specialized as near-perfect synaptic integrators that summate inputs over extended timescales. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) are greatly prolonged, outlasting the neuronal membrane time-constant up to 10-fold. This is due to the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7 (Scn9a), previously associated with pain-sensation but not synaptic integration. Scn9a deletion in AGRP, POMC, or paraventricular hypothalamic neurons reduced EPSP duration, synaptic integration, and altered body weight in mice. In vivo whole-cell recordings in the hypothalamus confirmed near-perfect synaptic integration. These experiments show that integration of synaptic inputs over time by Nav1.7 is critical for body weight regulation and reveal a mechanism for synaptic control of circuits regulating long term homeostatic functions.

  6. Body weight regulation and obesity: dietary strategies to improve the metabolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsters, M J M; Saris, W H M

    2014-01-01

    This review discusses dietary strategies that may improve the metabolic profile and body weight regulation in obesity. Recent evidence demonstrated that long-term health effects seem to be more beneficial for low-glycemic index (GI) diets compared to high-protein diets. Still, these results need to be confirmed by other prospective cohort studies and long-term clinical trials, and the discrepancy between these study designs needs to be explored in more detail. Furthermore, the current literature is mixed with regard to the efficacy of increased meal frequency (or snacking) regimens in causing metabolic alterations, particularly in relation to body weight control. In conclusion, a growing body of evidence suggests that dietary strategies with the aim to reduce postprandial insulin response and increase fat oxidation, and that tend to restore metabolic flexibility, have a place in the prevention and treatment of obesity and associated metabolic disorders.

  7. Melanocortin receptor 4 deficiency affects body weight regulation, grooming behavior, and substrate preference in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mul, Joram D; van Boxtel, Ruben; Bergen, Dylan J M; Brans, Maike A D; Brakkee, Jan H; Toonen, Pim W; Garner, Keith M; Adan, Roger A H; Cuppen, Edwin

    2012-03-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure and has become a major health-care problem in western society. The central melanocortin system plays a crucial role in the regulation of feeding and energy expenditure, and functional loss of melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is the most common genetic cause of human obesity. In this study, we present the first functional Mc4r knockout model in the rat, resulting from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis-induced point mutation. In vitro observations revealed impaired membrane-binding and subsequent nonfunctionality of the receptor, whereas in vivo observations showed that functional loss of MC4R increased body weight, food intake, white adipose mass, and changed substrate preference. In addition, intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of Agouti-Related Protein(79-129) (AgRP(79-129)), an MC4R inverse agonist, or Melanotan-II (MTII), an MC4R agonist, did affect feeding behavior in wild-type rats but not in homozygous mutant rats, confirming complete loss of MC4R function in vivo. Finally, ICV administration of MTII induced excessive grooming behavior in wild-type rats, whereas this effect was absent in homozygous mutant rats, indicating that MTII-induced grooming behavior is exclusively regulated via MC4R pathways. Taken together, we expect that the MC4R rat model described here will be a valuable tool for studying monogenic obesity in humans. More specifically, the relative big size and increased cognitive capacity of rats as compared to mice will facilitate complex behavioral studies and detailed mechanistic studies regarding central function of MC4R, both of which ultimately may help to further understand the specific mechanisms that induce obesity during loss of MC4R function.

  8. Pancreatic polypeptide is involved in the regulation of body weight in pima Indian male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koska, Juraj; DelParigi, Angelo; de Courten, Barbora

    2004-01-01

    Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is released from the pancreas in response to a meal. In humans, low-circulating PP levels have been observed in obesity, and administration of pharmacological doses of PP has been shown to decrease food intake. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether low...... circulating PP is associated with weight gain in Pima Indians. Plasma PP concentrations were measured after an overnight fast and 30 min after a standardized mixed meal in 33 nondiabetic male subjects who had a follow-up visit 4.9 +/- 2.5 years later. Cross-sectionally, fasting and postprandial PP levels were...... negatively associated with body size and adiposity. Prospectively, the change in PP response to the meal was negatively associated with the change in body weight (r = -0.53, P = 0.002). In contrast, a high fasting PP level was positively associated with change in body weight (r = 0.45, P = 0...

  9. Mathematical modeling of the hormonal regulation of food intake and body weight : applications to caloric restriction and leptin resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquier, Marine

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of food intake and energy expenditure usually limits important loss or gain of body weight. Hormones (leptin, ghrelin, insulin) and nutrients (glucose, triglycerides) are among the main regulators of food intake. Leptin is also involved in leptin resistance, often associated with obesity and characterized by a reduced efficacy to regulate food intake. Mathematical models describing the dynamics of body weight have been used to assist clinical weight loss interventions or to stu...

  10. Body weight and ADHD: examining the role of self-regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia Choudhry

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a complex and heterogeneous childhood disorder that often coexists with other psychiatric and somatic disorders. Recently, a link between ADHD and body weight dysregulation has been reported and often interpreted as impaired self-regulation that is shared between the two conditions. The objective of this study is to investigate the relation between body weight/BMI and cognitive, emotional and motor characteristics in children with ADHD. METHODS: 284 ADHD children were stratified by weight status/BMI according to WHO classification and compared with regard to their neurocognitive characteristics, motivational style, and motor profile as assessed by a comprehensive battery of tests. All comparisons were adjusted for demographic characteristics of relevance including, socioeconomic status (SES. RESULTS: Both Obese and overweight ADHD children exhibited significantly lower SES compared to normal weight ADHD children. No significant differences were observed between the three groups with regards to their neurocognitive, emotional and motor profile. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that differences in weight/BMI are not accounted for by cognitive, motivational and motor profiles. Socio-economic characteristics are strongly associated with overweight and obesity in ADHD children and may inform strategies aimed at promoting healthier weight.

  11. CNS β3-adrenergic receptor activation regulates feeding behavior, white fat browning and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Jennifer E; López-Ferreras, Lorena; Chanclón, Belén; Eerola, Kim; Micallef, Peter; Skibicka, Karolina P; Wernstedt Asterholm, Ingrid

    2017-06-06

    Pharmacological β3-adrenergic receptor (β3AR) activation leads to increased mitochondrial biogenesis and activity in white adipose tissue (WAT), a process commonly referred to as "browning", and transiently increased insulin release. These effects are associated with improved metabolic function and weight loss. It is assumed that this impact of β3AR agonists is mediated solely through activation of β3ARs in adipose tissue. However, β3ARs are also found in the brain, in areas such as the brainstem and hypothalamus that provide multisynaptic innervation to brown and white adipose depots. Thus, contrary to the current adipocentric view, the CNS may also have the ability to regulate energy balance and metabolism through actions on central β3ARs. This study therefore aimed to elucidate whether CNS β3ARs can regulate browning of WAT and other aspects of metabolic regulation such as food intake control and insulin release. We found that acute central injection of β3AR agonist potently reduced food intake, body weight, and increased hypothalamic neuronal activity in rats. Acute central β3AR stimulation was also accompanied by a transient increase in circulating insulin levels. Moreover, subchronic central β3AR agonist treatment led to a browning response in both inguinal (IWAT) and gonadal WAT (GWAT), along with reduced GWAT and increased BAT mass. In high fat-high sugar fed rats subchronic central β3AR stimulation reduced body weight, chow, lard, and sucrose water intake, in addition to increasing browning of IWAT and GWAT. Collectively, our results identify the brain as a new site of action for the anorexic and browning impact of β3AR-activation. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism.

  12. Obesity Energetics: Body Weight Regulation and the Effects of Diet Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kevin D; Guo, Juen

    2017-05-01

    Weight changes are accompanied by imbalances between calorie intake and expenditure. This fact is often misinterpreted to suggest that obesity is caused by gluttony and sloth and can be treated by simply advising people to eat less and move more. Rather various components of energy balance are dynamically interrelated and weight loss is resisted by counterbalancing physiological processes. While low-carbohydrate diets have been suggested to partially subvert these processes by increasing energy expenditure and promoting fat loss, our meta-analysis of 32 controlled feeding studies with isocaloric substitution of carbohydrate for fat found that both energy expenditure (26 kcal/d; P diets. We review the components of energy balance and the mechanisms acting to resist weight loss in the context of static, settling point, and set-point models of body weight regulation, with the set-point model being most commensurate with current data. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Genetic regulation of life span, metabolism, and body weight in Pohn, a new wild-derived mouse strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Rong; Flurkey, Kevin; Meng, Qingying; Astle, Mike C; Harrison, David E

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) of longevity identified in human and mouse are significantly colocalized, suggesting that common mechanisms are involved. However, the limited number of strains that have been used in mouse longevity studies undermines the ability to identify longevity genes. We crossed C57BL/6J mice with a new wild-derived strain, Pohn, and identified two life span QTL-Ls1 and Ls2. Interestingly, homologous human longevity QTL colocalize with Ls1. We also defined new QTL for metabolic heat production and body weight. Both phenotypes are significantly correlated with life span. We found that large clone ratio, an in vitro indicator for cellular senescence, is not correlated with life span, suggesting that cell senescence and intrinsic aging are not always associated. Overall, by using Pohn mice, we identified new QTL for longevity-related traits, thus facilitating the exploration of the genetic regulation of aging.

  14. A novel approach to mechanical foot stimulation during human locomotion under body weight support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravano, S; Ivanenko, Y P; Maccioni, G; Macellari, V; Poppele, R E; Lacquaniti, F

    2011-04-01

    Input from the foot plays an essential part in perceiving support surfaces and determining kinematic events in human walking. To simulate adequate tactile pressure inputs under body weight support (BWS) conditions that represent an effective form of locomotion training, we here developed a new method of phasic mechanical foot stimulation using light-weight pneumatic insoles placed inside the shoes (under the heel and metatarsus). To test the system, we asked healthy participants to walk on a treadmill with different levels of BWS. The pressure under the stimulated areas of the feet and subjective sensations were higher at high levels of BWS and when applied to the ball and toes rather than heels. Foot stimulation did not disturb significantly the normal motor pattern, and in all participants we evoked a reliable step-synchronized triggering of stimuli for each leg separately. This approach has been performed in a general framework looking for "afferent templates" of human locomotion that could be used for functional sensory stimulation. The proposed technique can be used to imitate or partially restore surrogate contact forces under body weight support conditions.

  15. Sexual dimorphic regulation of body weight dynamics and adipose tissue lipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Verena; Bloch, Mandy; Wardat, Sami; Böhm, Christian; Maurer, Lukas; Mahmoodzadeh, Shokoufeh; Wiedmer, Petra; Spranger, Joachim; Foryst-Ludwig, Anna; Kintscher, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Successful reduction of body weight (BW) is often followed by recidivism to obesity. BW-changes including BW-loss and -regain is associated with marked alterations in energy expenditure (EE) and adipose tissue (AT) metabolism. Since these processes are sex-specifically controlled, we investigated sexual dimorphisms in metabolic processes during BW-dynamics (gain-loss-regain). Obesity was induced in C57BL/6J male (m) and female (f) mice by 15 weeks high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Subsequently BW was reduced (-20%) by caloric restriction (CR) followed by adaptive feeding, and a regain-phase. Measurement of EE, body composition, blood/organ sampling were performed after each feeding period. Lipolysis was analyzed ex-vivo in gonadal AT. Male mice exhibited accelerated BW-gain compared to females (relative BW-gain m:140.5±3.2%; f:103.7±6.5%; pregain faster in males than in females. The present study shows sex-specific dynamics during BW-gain-loss-regain. Female mice responded to CR with an increase in lipolytic activity, and augmented lipid-oxidation leading to more efficient weight loss. These processes likely involve ERα-dependent signaling in AT and sexual dimorphic regulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism.

  16. Alpha-lipoic acid reduces body weight and regulates triglycerides in obese patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanović, Azra; Prnjavorac, Besim; Jusufović, Edin; Sejdinović, Rifat

    2015-08-01

    To determine an influence of alpha-lipoic acid to reduction of body weight and regulation of total cholesterol concentration, triglycerides and glucose serum levels in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. A prospective study includes two groups of obese patients with diabetes mellitus and signs of peripheral polyneuropathia: examined group (30 patients; 15 females and 15 males), and control group (30 patients; 12 females and 18 males). All were treated with metformin (850-1700 mg/day). Examined patients were additionally treated with alpha-lipoic acid 600 mg/day during 20 weeks. Body mass index and concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose in serum were compared before and after the treatment. The group treated with 600 mg alpha-lipoic acid lost significantly more weight, and had lower triglyceride level than the control group. There were no significant differences in total cholesterol and glucose serum levels between the groups. Alpha-lipoic acid of 600 mg/day treatment have influenced weight and triglycerides loss in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. It should be considered as an important additive therapy in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  17. Predicting metabolic adaptation, body weight change, and energy intake in humans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hall, Kevin D

    2010-01-01

    .... Here, I present the first computational model that simulates how diet perturbations result in adaptations of fuel selection and energy expenditure that predict body weight and composition changes...

  18. Regulación del peso corporal y del apetito Body Weight and Appetite Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Vásquez-Machado

    2010-06-01

    capacidad reguladora del sistema de balance energético. El objetivo de este artículo es revisar avances recientes en la comprensión de los mecanismos reguladores del peso corporal y el apetito, los cuales han ampliado la visión de la fisiopatología de la obesidad, al tiempo que ofrecen diversas perspectivas para su tratamiento.Due to the fact that the obesity epidemic shows no signs of diminishing, a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms underlying energy homeostasis has become necessary. During this process energy intake is matched to energy expenditure over time, in such a way that body fuel stored in the form of adipose tissue is held constant despite daily fluctuations in caloric intake. The system that controls energy balance possesses 2 components: a short and a long-term. The short-term system is in charge of appetite regulation or the initiation and termination of individual meals. It responds basically to gut hormones or satiety signals that accumulate during eating and ultimately contribute to meal termination. Adiposity factors are circulating signals generated in proportion to the body energy storages, such as insulin and leptin, levels of which are involved in the regulation of energy balance over long intervals thereby promoting body weight stability. The central melanocortin pathway represents a crucial integration point for these signals. Melanocortin receptor ligands are synthesized by discrete neuronal populations within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and exert actions in both components of the energy balance equation. In addition to hormones, the brain also responds directly to the nutrient circulating levels. Two fuel-sensing protein kinases functioning as main regulators of body weight and food intake in the hypothalamus have been identified: mTOR and AMPK. Besides these basic homeostatic circuits, the hedonic mechanisms of feeding are important in the regulation of energy intake since they can override the energy balance

  19. Sexual Dimorphic Regulation of Body Weight Dynamics and Adipose Tissue Lipolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Verena; Bloch, Mandy; Wardat, Sami; Böhm, Christian; Maurer, Lukas; Mahmoodzadeh, Shokoufeh; Wiedmer, Petra; Spranger, Joachim; Foryst-Ludwig, Anna; Kintscher, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Background Successful reduction of body weight (BW) is often followed by recidivism to obesity. BW-changes including BW-loss and -regain is associated with marked alterations in energy expenditure (EE) and adipose tissue (AT) metabolism. Since these processes are sex-specifically controlled, we investigated sexual dimorphisms in metabolic processes during BW-dynamics (gain-loss-regain). Research Design Obesity was induced in C57BL/6J male (m) and female (f) mice by 15 weeks high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Subsequently BW was reduced (-20%) by caloric restriction (CR) followed by adaptive feeding, and a regain-phase. Measurement of EE, body composition, blood/organ sampling were performed after each feeding period. Lipolysis was analyzed ex-vivo in gonadal AT. Results Male mice exhibited accelerated BW-gain compared to females (relative BW-gain m:140.5±3.2%; f:103.7±6.5%; plipolysis in AT associated with significantly higher glycerol concentrations, lower RER-values, and increased AT expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone sensitive lipase (HSL). Analysis of AT lipolysis in estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)–deficient mice revealed a reduced lipolytic rate in the absence of ERα exclusively in females. Finally, re-feeding caused BW-regain faster in males than in females. Conclusion The present study shows sex-specific dynamics during BW-gain-loss-regain. Female mice responded to CR with an increase in lipolytic activity, and augmented lipid-oxidation leading to more efficient weight loss. These processes likely involve ERα-dependent signaling in AT and sexual dimorphic regulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism. PMID:22662224

  20. Glutamate mediates the function of melanocortin receptor 4 on sim1 neurons in body weight regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is a well-established mediator of body weight homeostasis. However, the neurotransmitter(s) that mediate MC4R function remain largely unknown; as a result, little is known about the second-order neurons of the MC4R neural pathway. Single-minded 1 (Sim1)-expressing ...

  1. Sexual dimorphic regulation of body weight dynamics and adipose tissue lipolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Benz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Successful reduction of body weight (BW is often followed by recidivism to obesity. BW-changes including BW-loss and -regain is associated with marked alterations in energy expenditure (EE and adipose tissue (AT metabolism. Since these processes are sex-specifically controlled, we investigated sexual dimorphisms in metabolic processes during BW-dynamics (gain-loss-regain. RESEARCH DESIGN: Obesity was induced in C57BL/6J male (m and female (f mice by 15 weeks high-fat diet (HFD feeding. Subsequently BW was reduced (-20% by caloric restriction (CR followed by adaptive feeding, and a regain-phase. Measurement of EE, body composition, blood/organ sampling were performed after each feeding period. Lipolysis was analyzed ex-vivo in gonadal AT. RESULTS: Male mice exhibited accelerated BW-gain compared to females (relative BW-gain m:140.5±3.2%; f:103.7±6.5%; p<0.001. In consonance, lean mass-specific EE was significantly higher in females compared to males during BW-gain. Under CR female mice reached their target-BW significantly faster than male mice (m:12.2 days; f:7.6 days; p<0.001 accompanied by a sustained sex-difference in EE. In addition, female mice predominantly downsized gonadal AT whereas the relation between gonadal and total body fat was not altered in males. Accordingly, only females exhibited an increased rate of forskolin-stimulated lipolysis in AT associated with significantly higher glycerol concentrations, lower RER-values, and increased AT expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL and hormone sensitive lipase (HSL. Analysis of AT lipolysis in estrogen receptor alpha (ERα-deficient mice revealed a reduced lipolytic rate in the absence of ERα exclusively in females. Finally, re-feeding caused BW-regain faster in males than in females. CONCLUSION: The present study shows sex-specific dynamics during BW-gain-loss-regain. Female mice responded to CR with an increase in lipolytic activity, and augmented lipid

  2. The effective dose and pattern of soybean extract administration to regulate body weight of laboratory rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilinah Hidayat

    2016-07-01

    the intake of protein and suppress appetite for short-term. Detam 1 variety is a high-quality soybean according to the Minister of Agriculture of Indonesia. Soybean protein extract Detam 1 by Deak method contains high levels of β conglycinin. The purpose of this study was to determine the effective dose of protein extract Detam 1 soybean Deak Method (PEDSDM in reducing food intake, regulate body weight, and plasma CCK level for 14 and 28 days at various dosage and pattern of treatment on male Wistar rats. Methods: There were eleven groups of treatment (n = 3, administrated with extracts at 5 mg/1x/day, 10 mg/1x/day, 20 mg/1x/day, 2.5 mg/2x/day, 5 mg/2x/day, 10 mg/2x/day and 1.7mg/3x/day, 3.4mg/3x/day, 6.7 mg/3x/day, negative control group (distilled water and positive control group (Sibutramine. Food intake (g, weight loss (g and measurement of plasma Cholecystokinin levels by ELISA (ng /ml Results: The results showed that the highest percentage decrease in food intake is: group 3.4mg /3x/ day (p <0.05, inhibition weight gain for 14 days: group 10 mg /1x/ day, for 28 days: group 1.7 mg/3x/day (p <0.05, increased plasma Cholecystokinin levels: group 20 mg /1x/day (p <0.05. Conclusions: The effective dose and pattern administrating the rats for 14 days is extract of 10 mg once a day in the morning, for 28 days is 1.7 mg three times a day. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2016;7:17-26 Keywords: Soybean var Detam 1 -effective dose - body weight - Cholecystokinin 

  3. Obesidad monogénica humana: papel del sistema leptina-melanocortina en la regulación de la ingesta de alimentos y el peso corporal en humanos Monogenic human obesity: role of the leptin-melanocortin system in the regulation of food intake and body weight in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. González Jiménez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La obesidad humana es un trastorno de origen multifactorial en el que intervienen factores tanto genéticos como ambientales. La existencia de alteraciones genéticas que dan origen a obesidades monogénicas resulta muy interesante para el estudio de los mecanismos que contribuyen a un aumento de la ingesta de energía y la acumulación de grasa en el cuerpo. La mayoría de los genes implicados en obesidad monogénica se relacionan con el sistema de la leptina-melanocortinas, de ahí la importancia de su estudio a través de mutaciones naturales en ratones. Así, se han descrito mutaciones relacionadas con obesidad humana de tipo monogénica en la leptina y su receptor, proopiomelanocortina y prohormona convertasa 1. El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido ofrecer una revisión actualizada acerca de las principales características y funcionamiento del sistema leptina-melanocortinas, así como de sus implicaciones y potencialidades en el proceso de regulación de la ingesta alimentaria y control del peso corporal.Human obesity is a disorder of multifactorial origin in which genetic and environmental factors are involved. To understand the mechanisms regulating energy intake and fat accumulation in the body, it is important to study the genetic alterations causing monogenic obesity. Most of the genes involved in monogenic obesity are associated with the leptin-melanocortin system; hence the importance of studying this system by analysing natural mutations in mice. Previous studies have described mutations in leptin and its receptor, proopiomelanocortin and prohormone convertase 1 associated with human obesity of monogenic origin. The aim of this study is to provide an updated review of the main characteristics and functioning of the leptin-melanocortin system, and its implications and potentialities in regulating food intake and body weight.

  4. Natural mixtures of POPs affected body weight gain and induced transcription of genes involved in weight regulation and insulin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyche, Jan L; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; Karlsson, Camilla; Stavik, Benedicte; Berg, Vidar; Skåre, Janneche Utne; Alestrøm, Peter; Ropstad, Erik

    2011-04-01

    Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions worldwide, and is associated with chronic illnesses such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and dyslipidemias (metabolic syndrome). Commonly held causes of obesity are overeating coupled with a sedentary lifestyle. However, it has also been postulated that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be related to the significant increase in the prevalence of obesity and associated diseases. In the present study, developmental and reproductive effects of lifelong exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of two natural mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were investigated using classical and molecular methods in a controlled zebrafish model. The mixtures used were extracted from burbot (Lota lota) liver originating from freshwater systems in Norway (Lake Mjøsa and Lake Losna). The concentration of POPs in the zebrafish ranged from levels detected in wild fish (Lake Mjøsa and Lake Losna), to concentrations reported in human and wildlife populations. Phenotypic effects observed in both exposure groups included (1) earlier onset of puberty, (2) elevated male/female sex ratio, and (3) increased body weight at 5 months of age. Interestingly, genome-wide transcription profiling identified functional networks of genes, in which key regulators of weight homeostasis (PPARs, glucocoricoids, CEBPs, estradiol), steroid hormone functions (glucocoricoids, estradiol, NCOA3) and insulin signaling (HNF4A, CEBPs, PPARG) occupied central positions. The increased weight and the regulation of genes associated with weight homeostasis and insulin signaling observed in the present study suggest that environmental pollution may affect the endocrine regulation of the metabolism, possibly leading to increased weight gain and obesity.

  5. Methods and Efficacy of Acupuncture for Regulating Body Weight in Different Populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Bin; LIU Zhi-cheng; YUAN Jin-hong; MAO Zhen; SHAO Qing-hua; WANG Xin-jun; WANG Si-you

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the proper methods of acupuncture and moxibustion for controlling body weight and their objects. Methods: 274 outpatients were allocated to 3observation groups: obesity, overweight and normal, using standard weight as an index. The obesity group was divided, at a ratio of 1: 1: 3, into 3 groups: fixed prescription, local treatment and treatment based on syndrome differentiation. The syndromes were classified into five types in the syndrome differentiation group. Different protocols of acupuncture and moxibustion plus auricular-plaster therapy were drawn up for treatment. Body mass index (BMI), body fat (F%),body circumferences and subcutaneous fat were evaluated in the patients before and after treatments. Results: There was a difference in the controlling effect of acupuncture on body weight among different populations. The curative effect was better in the obesity and overweight groups than in the normal group; the effective rate was 72.2%, 72.5% and 44.0%, respectively.There was also a difference in curative effect among obesity patients with different types of syndromes. The curative effects on retention of damp-heat in the stomach, stagnation of liver qi and dampness retention due to splenic hypofunction were equal but all better than those on deficiency of splenonephric yang and intemal heat due to yin deficiency. There was also a difference in curative effect among different protocols. The curative effects in the syndrome differentiation-based treatment and fixed prescription groups were equal (77.8%) but all better than that in the local treatment group (53.3%). Conclusion: Acupuncture and moxibustion is an effective way to treat obesity and overweight. Treatment based on syndrome differentiation and fixed prescription on the basis of syndrome differentiation are effective methods.

  6. Adipose tissue (P)RR regulates insulin sensitivity, fat mass and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamansurova, Zulaykho; Tan, Paul; Ahmed, Basma; Pepin, Emilie; Seda, Ondrej; Lavoie, Julie L

    2016-10-01

    We previously demonstrated that the handle-region peptide, a prorenin/renin receptor [(P)RR] blocker, reduces body weight and fat mass and may improve insulin sensitivity in high-fat fed mice. We hypothesized that knocking out the adipose tissue (P)RR gene would prevent weight gain and insulin resistance. An adipose tissue-specific (P)RR knockout (KO) mouse was created by Cre-loxP technology using AP2-Cre recombinase mice. Because the (P)RR gene is located on the X chromosome, hemizygous males were complete KO and had a more pronounced phenotype on a normal diet (ND) diet compared to heterozygous KO females. Therefore, we challenged the female mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) to uncover certain phenotypes. Mice were maintained on either diet for 9 weeks. KO mice had lower body weights compared to wild-types (WT). Only hemizygous male KO mice presented with lower total fat mass, higher total lean mass as well as smaller adipocytes compared to WT mice. Although food intake was similar between genotypes, locomotor activity during the active period was increased in both male and female KO mice. Interestingly, only male KO mice had increased O2 consumption and CO2 production during the entire 24-hour period, suggesting an increased basal metabolic rate. Although glycemia during a glucose tolerance test was similar, KO males as well as HFD-fed females had lower plasma insulin and C-peptide levels compared to WT mice, suggesting improved insulin sensitivity. Remarkably, all KO animals exhibited higher circulating adiponectin levels, suggesting that this phenotype can occur even in the absence of a significant reduction in adipose tissue weight, as observed in females and, thus, may be a specific effect related to the (P)RR. (P)RR may be an important therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity and its associated complications such as type 2 diabetes.

  7. Predicting metabolic adaptation, body weight change, and energy intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kevin D

    2010-03-01

    Complex interactions between carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism underlie the body's remarkable ability to adapt to a variety of diets. But any imbalances between the intake and utilization rates of these macronutrients will result in changes in body weight and composition. Here, I present the first computational model that simulates how diet perturbations result in adaptations of fuel selection and energy expenditure that predict body weight and composition changes in both obese and nonobese men and women. No model parameters were adjusted to fit these data other than the initial conditions for each subject group (e.g., initial body weight and body fat mass). The model provides the first realistic simulations of how diet perturbations result in adaptations of whole body energy expenditure, fuel selection, and various metabolic fluxes that ultimately give rise to body weight change. The validated model was used to estimate free-living energy intake during a long-term weight loss intervention, a variable that has never previously been measured accurately.

  8. Activation of TrkB with TAM-163 results in opposite effects on body weight in rodents and non-human primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mylène Perreault

    Full Text Available Strong genetic data link the Tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB and its major endogenous ligand brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF to the regulation of energy homeostasis, with loss-of-function mutations in either gene causing severe obesity in both mice and humans. It has previously been reported that peripheral administration of the endogenous TrkB agonist ligand neurotrophin-4 (NT-4 profoundly decreases food intake and body weight in rodents, while paradoxically increasing these same parameters in monkeys. We generated a humanized TrkB agonist antibody, TAM-163, and characterized its therapeutic potential in several models of type 2 diabetes and obesity. In vitro, TAM-163 bound to human and rodent TrkB with high affinity, activated all aspects of the TrkB signaling cascade and induced TrkB internalization and degradation in a manner similar to BDNF. In vivo, peripheral administration of TAM-163 decreased food intake and/or body weight in mice, rats, hamsters, and dogs, but increased food intake and body weight in monkeys. The magnitude of weight change was similar in rodents and non-human primates, occurred at doses where there was no appreciable penetration into deep structures of the brain, and could not be explained by differences in exposures between species. Rather, peripherally administered TAM-163 localized to areas in the hypothalamus and the brain stem located outside the blood-brain barrier in a similar manner between rodents and non-human primates, suggesting differences in neuroanatomy across species. Our data demonstrate that a TrkB agonist antibody, administered peripherally, causes species-dependent effects on body weight similar to the endogenous TrkB ligand NT-4. The possible clinical utility of TrkB agonism in treating weight regulatory disorder, such as obesity or cachexia, will require evaluation in man.

  9. Relationship among serum taurine, serum adipokines, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jeong Soon; Park, Ji Yeon; Zhao, Xu; Jeong, Jin Seok; Choi, Mi Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    Human adipose tissue is not only a storage organ but also an active endocrine organ to release adipokines. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among serum taurine and adipokine levels, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program in obese female college students. The program consisted of diet therapy, exercise, and behavior modification. After the program, body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly decreased. Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased. Also serum adiponectin level was significantly increased and serum leptin level was significantly decreased. There were no differences in serum taurine and homocysteine levels. The change of serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with change of body fat mass and percent body fat. These results may suggest that body fat loss by human body weight control program is associated with an increase in serum adiponectin in obese female college students. Therefore, further study such as taurine intervention study is needed to know more exact correlation between dietary taurine intake and serum adipokines or body composition.

  10. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms and DNA methylation markers associated with central obesity and regulation of body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goni, Leticia; Milagro, Fermín I; Cuervo, Marta; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2014-11-01

    Visceral fat is strongly associated with the development of specific obesity-related metabolic alterations. Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms seem to be involved in the development of obesity and visceral adiposity. The aims of this review are to identify the single-nucleotide polymorphisms related to central obesity and to summarize the main findings on DNA methylation and obesity. A search of the MEDLINE database was conducted to identify genome-wide association studies, meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies, and gene-diet interaction studies related to central obesity, and, in addition, studies that analyzed DNA methylation in relation to body weight regulation. A total of 8 genome-wide association studies and 9 meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies reported numerous single-nucleotide polymorphisms to be associated with central obesity. Ten studies analyzed gene-diet interactions and central obesity, while 2 epigenome-wide association studies analyzed DNA methylation patterns and obesity. Nine studies investigated the relationship between DNA methylation and weight loss, excess body weight, or adiposity outcomes. Given the development of new sequencing and omics technologies, significantly more knowledge on genomics and epigenomics of obesity and body fat distribution will emerge in the near future.

  11. Effects of green tea and its epigallocatechin (EGCG) content on body weight and fat mass in humans: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez Cisneros, Lucía Cristina; López-Uriarte, Patricia; López-Espinoza, Antonio; Navarro Meza, Mónica; Espinoza-Gallardo, Ana Cristina; Guzmán Aburto, Martha Beatriz

    2017-06-05

    The prevalence and incidence of overweight and obesity worldwide continues to increase, as well as diseases related to these conditions. This is attributed to an increase in energy intake and a decrease in energy expenditure. Consumption of green tea has been linked to a reduction in body fat and body weight. However, research on green tea has been very diverse. This review assesses the investigations that have been made with green tea and its epigallocatechin gallato (EGCG) content, evaluating its effect on body fat and body weight in humans. A search was made in the PubMed and Web of the Science databases that gave a first total result of 424 potential articles; 409 were excluded and 15 articles were used for this systematic review. Research has been very varied, however, daily consumption of green tea with doses of EGCG between 100 and 460 mg/day has shown greater effectiveness on body fat and body weight reduction in intervention periods of 12 weeks or more. In addition, the use of caffeine doses between 80 and 300 mg/day has been shown to be an important factor for this effects, when the participants did not have a high caffeine intake (> 300 mg/day) prior to the intervention.

  12. Overexpression of Jazf1 reduces body weight gain and regulates lipid metabolism in high fat diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Woo Young; Bae, Ki Beom; Kim, Sung Hyun; Yu, Dong Hun; Kim, Hei Jung; Ji, Young Rae; Park, Seo Jin; Park, Si Jun; Kang, Min-Cheol; Jeong, Ja In [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang-Joon [College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Gyu [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Inkyu [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 680 Gukchaebosang-ro, Jung-gu, Daegu 700-842 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myoung Ok [School of Animal BT Sciences, Sangju Campus, Kyungpook National University, 386 Gajang-dong, Sangju, Gyeongsangbuk-do 742-211 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Duhak, E-mail: dhyoon@knu.ac.kr [School of Animal BT Sciences, Sangju Campus, Kyungpook National University, 386 Gajang-dong, Sangju, Gyeongsangbuk-do 742-211 (Korea, Republic of); Ryoo, Zae Young, E-mail: jaewoong64@hanmail.net [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-14

    Highlights: • The expression of Jazf1 in the liver suppressed lipid accumulation. • Jazf1 significantly increases transcription of fatty acid synthase. • Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and lipid homeostasis. • Jazf1 associates the development of metabolic disorder. • Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of metabolic disorder. - Abstract: Jazf1 is a 27 kDa nuclear protein containing three putative zinc finger motifs that is associated with diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer; however, little is known about the role that this gene plays in regulation of metabolism. Recent evidence indicates that Jazf1 transcription factors bind to the nuclear orphan receptor TR4. This receptor regulates PEPCK, the key enzyme involved in gluconeogenesis. To elucidate Jazf1’s role in metabolism, we fed a 60% fat diet for up to 15 weeks. In Jazf1 overexpression mice, weight gain was found to be significantly decreased. The expression of Jazf1 in the liver also suppressed lipid accumulation and decreased droplet size. These results suggest that Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. Finally, Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of obesity and diabetes.

  13. Neuronal expression of glucosylceramide synthase in central nervous system regulates body weight and energy homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Nordström

    Full Text Available Hypothalamic neurons are main regulators of energy homeostasis. Neuronal function essentially depends on plasma membrane-located gangliosides. The present work demonstrates that hypothalamic integration of metabolic signals requires neuronal expression of glucosylceramide synthase (GCS; UDP-glucose:ceramide glucosyltransferase. As a major mechanism of central nervous system (CNS metabolic control, we demonstrate that GCS-derived gangliosides interacting with leptin receptors (ObR in the neuronal membrane modulate leptin-stimulated formation of signaling metabolites in hypothalamic neurons. Furthermore, ganglioside-depleted hypothalamic neurons fail to adapt their activity (c-Fos in response to alterations in peripheral energy signals. Consequently, mice with inducible forebrain neuron-specific deletion of the UDP-glucose:ceramide glucosyltransferase gene (Ugcg display obesity, hypothermia, and lower sympathetic activity. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV-mediated Ugcg delivery to the arcuate nucleus (Arc significantly ameliorated obesity, specifying gangliosides as seminal components for hypothalamic regulation of body energy homeostasis.

  14. Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Willer (Cristen); E.K. Speliotes (Elizabeth); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); S. Li (Shengxu); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); I.M. Heid (Iris); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); A.L. Elliott (Amanda); A.U. Jackson (Anne); C. Lamina (Claudia); G. Lettre (Guillaume); N. Lim (Noha); H.N. Lyon (Helen); S.A. McCarroll (Steven); K. Papadakis (Konstantinos); L. Qi (Lu); J.C. Randall (Joshua); R.M. Roccasecca; S. Sanna (Serena); P. Scheet (Paul); M.N. Weedon (Michael); E. Wheeler (Eleanor); J.H. Zhao; L.C. Jacobs (Leonie); I. Prokopenko (Inga); N. Soranzo (Nicole); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); N. Timpson (Nicholas); P. Almgren (Peter); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); R.N. Bergman (Richard); S. Bingham (Sheila); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); M.J. Brown (Morris); N.P. Burtt (Noël); P.S. Chines (Peter); L. Coin (Lachlan); F.S. Collins (Francis); J. Connell (John); C. Cooper (Charles); G.D. Smith; E.M. Dennison (Elaine); P. Deodhar (Parimal); M.R. Erdos (Michael); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); D.M. Evans (David); L. Gianniny (Lauren); C. Gieger (Christian); C.J. Gillson (Christopher); C. Guiducci (Candace); R. Hackett (Rachel); D. Hadley (David); A.S. Hall (Alistair); A.S. Havulinna (Aki); J. Hebebrand (Johannes); A. Hofman (Albert); B. Isomaa (Bo); T. Johnson (Toby); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); Z. Jovanovic (Zorica); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); P. Kraft (Peter); M. Kuokkanen (Mikko); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); J. Laitinen (Jaana); E. Lakatta (Edward); J. Luan; R.N. Luben (Robert); M. Mangino (Massimo); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); T. Meitinger (Thomas); A. Mulas (Antonella); P. Munroe (Patricia); N. Narisu (Narisu); A.R. Ness (Andrew); K. Northstone (Kate); S. O'Rahilly (Stephen); C. Purmann (Carolin); M.G. Rees (Matthew); M. Ridderstråle (Martin); S.M. Ring (Susan); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); A. Ruokonen (Aimo); M.S. Sandhu (Manjinder); J. Saramies (Jouko); L.J. Scott (Laura); A. Scuteri (Angelo); K. Silander (Kaisa); M.A. Sims (Matthew); K. Song (Kijoung); J. Stephens (Jonathan); S. Stevens (Suzanne); H.M. Stringham (Heather); Y.C.L. Tung (Loraine); T.T. Valle (Timo); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); K.S. Vimaleswaran (Karani); P. Vollenweider (Peter); G. Waeber (Gérard); C. Wallace (Chris); R.M. Watanabe (Richard); D. Waterworth (Dawn); N. Watkins (Nicholas); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); G. Zhai (Guangju); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); D. Altshuler (David); M. Caulfield (Mark); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); I.S. Farooqi (Sadaf); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); J.M. Guralnik (Jack); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); F.B. Hu (Frank); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); M. Laakso (Markku); V. Mooser (Vincent); K.K. Ong (Ken); W.H. Ouwehand (Willem); V. Salomaa (Veikko); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); T.D. Spector (Timothy); T. Tuomi (Tiinamaija); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); M. Uda (Manuela); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); N.J. Wareham (Nick); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); L. Groop (Leif); R.B. Hayes (Richard); D. Hunter (David); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); D. Schlessinger (David); D.P. Strachan (David); H.E. Wichmann (Erich); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); M. Boehnke (Michael); I. Barroso (Inês); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractCommon variants at only two loci, FTO and MC4R, have been reproducibly associated with body mass index (BMI) in humans. To identify additional loci, we conducted meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide association studies for BMI (n > 32,000) and followed up top signals in 14 additional cohorts

  15. Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Willer (Cristen); E.K. Speliotes (Elizabeth); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); S. Li (Shengxu); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); I.M. Heid (Iris); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); A.L. Elliott (Amanda); A.U. Jackson (Anne); C. Lamina (Claudia); G. Lettre (Guillaume); N. Lim (Noha); H.N. Lyon (Helen); S.A. McCarroll (Steven); K. Papadakis (Konstantinos); L. Qi (Lu); J.C. Randall (Joshua); R.M. Roccasecca; S. Sanna (Serena); P. Scheet (Paul); M.N. Weedon (Michael); E. Wheeler (Eleanor); J.H. Zhao; L.C. Jacobs (Leonie); I. Prokopenko (Inga); N. Soranzo (Nicole); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); P. Almgren (Peter); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); R.N. Bergman (Richard); S. Bingham (Sheila); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); M.J. Brown (Morris); N.P. Burtt (Noël); P.S. Chines (Peter); L. Coin (Lachlan); F.S. Collins (Francis); J. Connell (John); C. Cooper (Charles); G.D. Smith; E.M. Dennison (Elaine); P. Deodhar (Parimal); M.R. Erdos (Michael); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); D.M. Evans (David); L. Gianniny (Lauren); C. Gieger (Christian); C.J. Gillson (Christopher); C. Guiducci (Candace); R. Hackett (Rachel); D. Hadley (David); A.S. Hall (Alistair); A.S. Havulinna (Aki); J. Hebebrand (Johannes); A. Hofman (Albert); B. Isomaa (Bo); T. Johnson (Toby); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); Z. Jovanovic (Zorica); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); P. Kraft (Peter); M. Kuokkanen (Mikko); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); J. Laitinen (Jaana); E. Lakatta (Edward); J. Luan; R.N. Luben (Robert); M. Mangino (Massimo); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); T. Meitinger (Thomas); A. Mulas (Antonella); P. Munroe (Patricia); N. Narisu (Narisu); A.R. Ness (Andrew); K. Northstone (Kate); S. O'Rahilly (Stephen); C. Purmann (Carolin); M.G. Rees (Matthew); M. Ridderstråle (Martin); S.M. Ring (Susan); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); A. Ruokonen (Aimo); M.S. Sandhu (Manjinder); J. Saramies (Jouko); L.J. Scott (Laura); A. Scuteri (Angelo); K. Silander (Kaisa); M.A. Sims (Matthew); K. Song (Kijoung); J. Stephens (Jonathan); S. Stevens (Suzanne); H.M. Stringham (Heather); Y.C.L. Tung (Loraine); T.T. Valle (Timo); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); K.S. Vimaleswaran (Karani); P. Vollenweider (Peter); G. Waeber (Gérard); C. Wallace (Chris); R.M. Watanabe (Richard); D. Waterworth (Dawn); N. Watkins (Nicholas); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); G. Zhai (Guangju); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); D. Altshuler (David); M. Caulfield (Mark); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); I.S. Farooqi (Sadaf); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); J.M. Guralnik (Jack); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); F.B. Hu (Frank); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); M. Laakso (Markku); V. Mooser (Vincent); K.K. Ong (Ken); W.H. Ouwehand (Willem); V. Salomaa (Veikko); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); T.D. Spector (Timothy); T. Tuomi (Tiinamaija); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); M. Uda (Manuela); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); N.J. Wareham (Nick); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); L. Groop (Leif); R.B. Hayes (Richard); D. Hunter (David); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); D. Schlessinger (David); D.P. Strachan (David); H.E. Wichmann (Erich); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); M. Boehnke (Michael); I. Barroso (Inês); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractCommon variants at only two loci, FTO and MC4R, have been reproducibly associated with body mass index (BMI) in humans. To identify additional loci, we conducted meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide association studies for BMI (n > 32,000) and followed up top signals in 14 additional cohorts

  16. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and reduction of body weight pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from InQpharm Europe Ltd, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the United Kingdom, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and reduction of body weight. The Panel considers that the food is sufficiently characterised. A reduction in body weight is a beneficial physiological effect for overweight individuals. The applicant identified a total of four human intervention studies which investigated the effects of the aqueous extract from white kidney bean on body weight as being pertinent to the claim. No conclusions could be drawn from two of these four studies. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that one human intervention study showed an effect of the standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean in reducing body weight when consumed for 12 weeks, that the reduction in body weight was mostly through a reduction in body fat and that the effect of the standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean on body weight was supported by a second study of shorter duration. However, the Panel also took into account that the first study was at risk of bias, that the supportive study suffered from methodological limitations and that no evidence was provided for a mechanism by which the standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean could exert the claimed effect. The Panel concludes that the evidence provided is insufficient to establish a cause and effect relationship between the consumption of the standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and reduction of body weight.

  17. Dynamic interplay among homeostatic, hedonic, and cognitive feedback circuits regulating body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kevin D; Hammond, Ross A; Rahmandad, Hazhir

    2014-07-01

    Obesity is associated with a prolonged imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, both of which are regulated by multiple feedback processes within and across individuals. These processes constitute 3 hierarchical control systems-homeostatic, hedonic, and cognitive-with extensive interaction among them. Understanding complex eating behavior requires consideration of all 3 systems and their interactions. Existing models of these processes are widely scattered, with relatively few attempts to integrate across mechanisms. We briefly review available empirical evidence and dynamic models, discussing challenges and potential for better integration. We conclude that developing richer models of dynamic interplay among systems should be a priority in the future study of obesity and that systems science modeling offers the potential to aid in this goal.

  18. Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willer, Cristen J; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Loos, Ruth J F; Li, Shengxu; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Heid, Iris M; Berndt, Sonja I; Elliott, Amanda L; Jackson, Anne U; Lamina, Claudia; Lettre, Guillaume; Lim, Noha; Lyon, Helen N; McCarroll, Steven A; Papadakis, Konstantinos; Qi, Lu; Randall, Joshua C; Roccasecca, Rosa Maria; Sanna, Serena; Scheet, Paul; Weedon, Michael N; Wheeler, Eleanor; Zhao, Jing Hua; Jacobs, Leonie C; Prokopenko, Inga; Soranzo, Nicole; Tanaka, Toshiko; Timpson, Nicholas J; Almgren, Peter; Bennett, Amanda; Bergman, Richard N; Bingham, Sheila A; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brown, Morris; Burtt, Noël P; Chines, Peter; Coin, Lachlan; Collins, Francis S; Connell, John M; Cooper, Cyrus; Smith, George Davey; Dennison, Elaine M; Deodhar, Parimal; Elliott, Paul; Erdos, Michael R; Estrada, Karol; Evans, David M; Gianniny, Lauren; Gieger, Christian; Gillson, Christopher J; Guiducci, Candace; Hackett, Rachel; Hadley, David; Hall, Alistair S; Havulinna, Aki S; Hebebrand, Johannes; Hofman, Albert; Isomaa, Bo; Jacobs, Kevin B; Johnson, Toby; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jovanovic, Zorica; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kraft, Peter; Kuokkanen, Mikko; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laitinen, Jaana; Lakatta, Edward G; Luan, Jian'an; Luben, Robert N; Mangino, Massimo; McArdle, Wendy L; Meitinger, Thomas; Mulas, Antonella; Munroe, Patricia B; Narisu, Narisu; Ness, Andrew R; Northstone, Kate; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Purmann, Carolin; Rees, Matthew G; Ridderstråle, Martin; Ring, Susan M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Ruokonen, Aimo; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Saramies, Jouko; Scott, Laura J; Scuteri, Angelo; Silander, Kaisa; Sims, Matthew A; Song, Kijoung; Stephens, Jonathan; Stevens, Suzanne; Stringham, Heather M; Tung, Y C Loraine; Valle, Timo T; Van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Wallace, Chris; Watanabe, Richard M; Waterworth, Dawn M; Watkins, Nicholas; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zhai, Guangju; Zillikens, M Carola; Altshuler, David; Caulfield, Mark J; Chanock, Stephen J; Farooqi, I Sadaf; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack M; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hu, Frank B; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Laakso, Markku; Mooser, Vincent; Ong, Ken K; Ouwehand, Willem H; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Spector, Timothy D; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uda, Manuela; Uitterlinden, André G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Frayling, Timothy M; Groop, Leif C; Hayes, Richard B; Hunter, David J; Mohlke, Karen L; Peltonen, Leena; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Wichmann, H-Erich; McCarthy, Mark I; Boehnke, Michael; Barroso, Inês; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Hirschhorn, Joel N

    2009-01-01

    Common variants at only two loci, FTO and MC4R, have been reproducibly associated with body mass index (BMI) in humans. To identify additional loci, we conducted meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide association studies for BMI (n > 32,000) and followed up top signals in 14 additional cohorts (n > 59,000). We strongly confirm FTO and MC4R and identify six additional loci (P monogenic forms of obesity, the role of the CNS in predisposition to obesity.

  19. Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Willer, Cristen J.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Li, Shengxu; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Heid, Iris M.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Elliott, Amanda L.; Anne U. Jackson; Lamina, Claudia; Lettre, Guillaume; Lim, Noha; Lyon, Helen N; McCarroll, Steven A.; Papadakis, Konstantinos

    2008-01-01

    textabstractCommon variants at only two loci, FTO and MC4R, have been reproducibly associated with body mass index (BMI) in humans. To identify additional loci, we conducted meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide association studies for BMI (n > 32,000) and followed up top signals in 14 additional cohorts (n > 59,000). We strongly confirm FTO and MC4R and identify six additional loci (P < 5 × 10-8): TMEM18, KCTD15, GNPDA2, SH2B1, MTCH2 and NEGR1 (where a 45-kb deletion polymorphism is a candidate ca...

  20. Weight Self-Regulation Process in Adolescence: The Relationship between Control Weight Attitudes, Behaviors, and Body Weight Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pich, Jordi; Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents' self-control weight behaviors were assessed (N = 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008) in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image, and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT), we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed) would be motivated either by a "promotion focus" (to show an attractive body), or a "prevention focus" (to avoid social rejection of fatness), or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13 and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were "Not at all" concerned about weight gain, and girls' percentages decreased to 13 and 11%, respectively. By contrast, 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to become slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious, emotional (self-defense), and cognitive (dissonance) mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty), and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics.

  1. Weight self-regulation process in adolescence: the relationship between control weight attitudes, behaviors and body weight status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi ePich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents’ self-control weight behaviors were assessed (n= 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008 in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT, we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed would be motivated either by a promotion focus (to show an attractive body, a prevention focus (to avoid social rejection of fatness, or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13% and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were Not at all concerned about weight gain, and girls’ percentages decreased to 13% and 11% respectively. By contrast 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious emotional (self-defense and cognitive (dissonance mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics.

  2. SH2B1 regulation of energy balance, body weight, and glucose metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangyou; Rui

    2014-01-01

    The Src homology 2B(SH2B)family members(SH2B1,SH2B2 and SH2B3)are adaptor signaling proteins containing characteristic SH2 and PH domains.SH2B1(also called SH2-B and PSM)and SH2B2(also called APS)are able to form homo-or hetero-dimers via their N-terminal dimerization domains.Their C-terminal SH2 domains bind to tyrosyl phosphorylated proteins,including Janus kinase 2(JAK2),TrkA,insulin receptors,insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors,insulin receptor substrate-1(IRS1),and IRS2.SH2B1 enhances leptin signaling by both stimulating JAK2 activity and assembling a JAK2/IRS1/2 signaling complex.SH2B1 promotes insulin signaling by both enhancing insulin receptor catalytic activity and protecting against dephosphorylation of IRS proteins.Accordingly,genetic deletion of SH2B1 results in severe leptin resistance,insulin resistance,hyperphagia,obesity,and type 2 diabetes in mice.Neuronspecific overexpression of SH2B1βtransgenes protects against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.SH2B1 in pancreaticβcells promotesβcell expansion and insulin secretion to counteract insulin resistance in obesity.Moreover,numerous SH2B1 mutations are genetically linked to leptin resistance,insulin resistance,obesity,and type 2 diabetes in humans.Unlike SH2B1,SH2B2 and SH2B3 are not required for the maintenance of normal energy and glucose homeostasis.The metabolic function of the SH2B family is conserved from insects to humans.

  3. Marijuana and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2014-07-01

    Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as "the munchies"). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status-i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases body weight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and body weight.

  4. Is the vagus nerve stimulation a way to decrease body weight in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugajski, Andrzej; Gil, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and its complications constitute an important health problem in growing number of people. Behavioral and pharmacological treatment is not much effective and surgical treatment carries too many threats. Promising method to be used is pharmacological or electric manipulation of vagus nerves. Regulation of food intake and energy utilization is a complex process regulated by centers in hypothalamus and brainstem which are receiving information from the peripheral via afferent neural pathways and sending peripherally adequate instructions by efferent neural pathways. In these signals conduction an important role plays vagus nerve. Additionally central nervous system stays under influence of endocrine, paracrine and neuroendocrine signals taking part in these regulations, functioning directly onto the centre or on the afferent neural endings. 80-90% fibers of vagus nerve are afferent fibers, so their action is mainly afferent, but possible contribution of the efferent fibers cannot be excluded. Efferent stimulation induces motility and secretion in the intestinal tract. Afferent unmyelinated C-type fibres of the vagus nerve are more sensitive and easily electrically stimulated. Information from vagus nerve is transmitted to nucleus tractus solitarius, which has projections to nucleus arcuate of the medio-basal hypothalamus, involved in the control of feeding behavior. It is suggested, that interaction onto the vagus nerve (stimulation or blocking) can be an alternative for other ways of obesity treatment. Through the manipulation of the vagus nerve activity the goal is achieved by influence on central nervous system regulating the energy homeostasis.

  5. Effect of antidepressants on body weight, ethology and tumor growth of human pancreatic carcinoma xenografts in nude mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of mirtazapine and fluoxetine, representatives of the noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA) and se- lective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepres- sant respectively, on body weight, ingestive behavior, locomotor activity and tumor growth of human pancre- atic carcinoma xenografts in nude mice. METHODS: A subcutaneous xenograft model of hu- man pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990 was estab- lished in nude mice. The tumor-bearing mice were ran- domly divided into mirtazapine group [10 mg/(kg'd)], (an equivalent normal saline solution) (7 mice in each group). Doses of all drugs were administered orally, once a day for 42 d. Tumor volume and body weight were measured biweekly. Food intake was recorded once a week. Locomotor activity was detected weekly using an open field test (OFT). RESULTS: Compared to the fluoxetine, mirtazapine significantly increased food intake from d 14 to 42 and attenuated the rate of weight loss from d 28 to 42 (t = 4.38, P = 10.89, P < 0.01). These effects disappeared in the mirtazapine and fluoxetine groups during 2-6 wk. The grooming activity was higher in the mirtazapine group than in the fluoxetine group (10.1 ± 2.1 vs 7.1 ± 1.9 ) (t = 2.40, P < 0.05) in the second week. There was no significant difference in tumor vol- ume and tumor weight of the three groups. CONCLUSION: Mirtazapine and fluoxetine have no effect on the growth of pancreatic tumor. However, mirtazapine can significantly increase food intake and improve nutrition compared with fluoxetine in a pan- creatic cancer mouse model.

  6. OPTIMIZATION OF THE HUMAN DIET TO MAINTAIN BODY WEIGHT, TAKING INTO ACCOUNT DIFFERENT TYPES OF METABOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorko N. K.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A diet of a modern man affects the formation of a healthy lifestyle very highly. It supplies the body with the main and irreplaceable nutrients, mineral components and energy. The Russian Federation population surveys, which were carried out by government agencies of the country show us that there is a lack of many nutrients with high nutritional value. Russian market is gradually stuffed with food products which have high nutritional value. For the maintenance of health, active longevity, and for improving their performance, people must consume their organism with all the necessary nutrients. That's why achieving an optimal balance among the nutrients is one of the important question of vital activity. In this article, there were considered optimization approaches to human diet with considering different types of metabolism and maintain weight with using economic and mathematical methods. Also in this article you can find the calculated values of the daily values depending on your calorie eating plan, anthropometric parameters and energy expenditure. We obtained daily value of calories and distributed basic food components- carbohydrates, proteins and fats, and also we calculate the optimal diet for the results of each type of physique - ectomorph, endomorph and mesomorph

  7. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Slendesta® Potato Extract and reduction of body weight pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Kemin Foods LC, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Slendesta® Potato Extract and reduction of body weight. The food constituent, Slendesta® Potato Extract, that is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, a reduction of body weight, is a beneficial physiological effect for overweight individuals. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that all four human intervention studies from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim did not show an effect of Slendesta® Potato Extract on the reduction of body weight. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of Slendesta® Potato Extract and reduction of body weight.

  8. Regulation of appetite, satiation, and body weight by enteroendocrine cells. Part 2: therapeutic potential of enteroendocrine cells in the treatment of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posovszky, Carsten; Wabitsch, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is an epidemic and medical issue. Investigating the pathways regulating appetite, food intake, and body weight is crucial to find strategies for the prevention and treatment of obesity. In the context of therapeutic strategies, we focus here on the potential of enteroendocrine cells (EECs) and their secreted hormones in the regulation of body weight. We review the role of the enteroendocrine system during weight loss after lifestyle intervention or after bariatric surgery. We discuss the therapeutic potential of EECs and their hormones as targets for new treatment strategies. In fact, targeting nutrient receptors of EECs with a nutritional approach, pharmaceutical agents or prebiotics delivered to the lumen may provide a promising new approach. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Weight Self-Regulation Process in Adolescence: The Relationship between Control Weight Attitudes, Behaviors, and Body Weight Status

    OpenAIRE

    Jordi ePich; Maria del Mar eBibiloni; Antoni ePons; Tur, Josep A

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents’ self-control weight behaviors were assessed (N = 1961; 12–17 years old; 2007–2008) in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image, and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT), we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed) would be motivated either by a “promotion focus” (to show a...

  10. Mechanisms affecting neuroendocrine and epigenetic regulation of body weight and onset of puberty: potential implications in the child born small for gestational age (SGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Christian L; Sathyanarayana, Sheela

    2012-06-01

    Signaling peptides produced in peripheral tissues such as gut, adipose tissue, and pancreas communicate with brain centers, such as hypothalamus and hindbrain to manage energy homeostasis. These regulatory mechanisms of energy intake and storage have evolved during long periods of hunger in the evolution of man to protect the species from extinction. It is now clear that these circuitries are influenced by prenatal and postnatal environmental factors including endocrine disruptive chemicals. Hypothalamic appetite regulatory systems develop and mature in utero and early infancy, and involve signaling pathways that are important also for the regulation of puberty onset. Recent studies in humans and animals have shown that metabolic pathways involved in regulation of growth, body weight gain and sexual maturation are largely affected by epigenetic programming that can impact both current and future generations. In particular, intrauterine and early infantile developmental phases of high plasticity are susceptible to factors that affect metabolic programming that therefore, affect metabolic function throughout life. In children born small for gestational age, poor nutritional conditions during gestation can modify metabolic systems to adapt to expectations of chronic undernutrition. These children are potentially poorly equipped to cope with energy-dense diets and are possibly programmed to store as much energy as possible, leading to later obesity, metabolic syndrome, disturbed regulation of normal puberty and early onset of cardiovascular disease. Most cases of disturbed energy balance are likely a result of a combination of genetics, epigenetics and environment. This review will discuss potential mechanisms linking intrauterine growth retardation with changes in growth, energy homeostasis and sexual maturation.

  11. A systematic review of the effect of oral glucocorticoids on energy intake, appetite, and body weight in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthon, Bronwyn S; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley K; Wood, Lisa G

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is a serious risk factor for chronic disease, and commonly prescribed oral glucocorticoids (OCS) may be contributing to the prevalence of obesity. The objective of this review was to assess the impact of OCS on obesity in humans through effects on body weight (BW), energy intake, appetite, and body composition. An electronic search of English language peer-reviewed studies from 1973 up to March 2012 was conducted using Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. Original studies that addressed the effects of OCS on appetite, energy intake, BW, or body composition in adults were considered eligible. Data from 21 studies with objectively measured outcomes were extracted and assessed for quality using standardized tools. The publication year varied from 1986 to 2013, and the sample size, from 6 to 189. Energy intake was measured in 6 studies; BW, in 19 studies; energy expenditure, in 3 studies; body composition, in 6 studies; and appetite was evaluated in 3 studies. Short-term oral glucocorticoid therapy may result in small increases in energy intake but does not appear to result in increased BW, possibly due to an increase in energy expenditure. Long-term therapy may result in clinically significant weight gain. Within-subject variation due to metabolism and physical activity levels confounds the relationship. A dose-response relationship of oral glucocorticoid therapy on energy intake, appetite, BW, or body composition was not found. Additional well-designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials that use standardized doses of OCS and assess the effects on appetite, energy intake, BW, and composition are strongly justified to confirm the findings of this review.

  12. Do Lactation-Induced Changes in Ghrelin, Glucagon-Like Peptide-1, and Peptide YY Influence Appetite and Body Weight Regulation during the First Postpartum Year?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Enette Larson-Meyer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether fasting and meal-induced appetite-regulating hormones are altered during lactation and associated with body weight retention after childbearing, we studied 24 exclusively breastfeeding women (BMI = 25.2 ± 3.6 kg/m2 at 4-5 weeks postpartum and 20 never-pregnant controls (BMI = 24.0 ± 3.1 kg/m2. Ghrelin, PYY, GLP-1, and appetite ratings were measured before/and 150 minutes after a standardized breakfast and 60 minutes after an ad libitum lunch. Body weight/composition were measured at 6 and 12 months. Fasting and area under-the-curve responses for appetite-regulating hormones did not differ between lactating and control groups; ghrelinacyl, however, tended to track higher after the standardized breakfast in lactating women and was higher (p6.0 kg. The retainers had greater (p<0.05 postmeal ghrelin rebound responses following breakfast. Overall these studies do not support the hypothesis that appetite-regulating hormones are altered during lactation and associated with postpartum weight retention. Altered ghrelin responses, however, deserve further exploration.

  13. Do Lactation-Induced Changes in Ghrelin, Glucagon-Like Peptide-1, and Peptide YY Influence Appetite and Body Weight Regulation during the First Postpartum Year?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Schueler, Jessica; Kyle, Erin; Austin, Kathleen J; Hart, Ann Marie; Alexander, Brenda M

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether fasting and meal-induced appetite-regulating hormones are altered during lactation and associated with body weight retention after childbearing, we studied 24 exclusively breastfeeding women (BMI = 25.2 ± 3.6 kg/m(2)) at 4-5 weeks postpartum and 20 never-pregnant controls (BMI = 24.0 ± 3.1 kg/m(2)). Ghrelin, PYY, GLP-1, and appetite ratings were measured before/and 150 minutes after a standardized breakfast and 60 minutes after an ad libitum lunch. Body weight/composition were measured at 6 and 12 months. Fasting and area under-the-curve responses for appetite-regulating hormones did not differ between lactating and control groups; ghrelinacyl, however, tended to track higher after the standardized breakfast in lactating women and was higher (p 6.0 kg. The retainers had greater (p < 0.05) postmeal ghrelin rebound responses following breakfast. Overall these studies do not support the hypothesis that appetite-regulating hormones are altered during lactation and associated with postpartum weight retention. Altered ghrelin responses, however, deserve further exploration.

  14. Discovery of an Orally Bioavailable Benzimidazole Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) Inhibitor That Suppresses Body Weight Gain in Diet-Induced Obese Dogs and Postprandial Triglycerides in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Katsumasa; Chatelain, Ricardo; Clairmont, Kevin B; Commerford, Renee; Coppola, Gary M; Daniels, Thomas; Forster, Cornelia J; Gilmore, Thomas A; Gong, Yongjin; Jain, Monish; Kanter, Aaron; Kwak, Youngshin; Li, Jingzhou; Meyers, Charles D; Neubert, Alan D; Szklennik, Paul; Tedesco, Vivienne; Thompson, James; Truong, David; Yang, Qing; Hubbard, Brian K; Serrano-Wu, Michael H

    2017-06-08

    Modification of a gut restricted class of benzimidazole DGAT1 inhibitor 1 led to 9 with good oral bioavailability. The key structural changes to 1 include bioisosteric replacement of the amide with oxadiazole and α,α-dimethylation of the carboxylic acid, improving DGAT1 potency and gut permeability. Since DGAT1 is expressed in the small intestine, both 1 and 9 can suppress postprandial triglycerides during acute oral lipid challenges in rats and dogs. Interestingly, only 9 was found to be effective in suppressing body weight gain relative to control in a diet-induced obese dog model, suggesting the importance of systemic inhibition of DGAT1 for body weight control. 9 has advanced to clinical investigation and successfully suppressed postprandial triglycerides during an acute meal challenge in humans.

  15. Body weight management effect of burdock (Arctium lappa L.) root is associated with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in human HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Daih-Huang; Hung, Ming-Chi; Hung, Chao-Ming; Liu, Li-Min; Chen, Fu-An; Shieh, Po-Chuen; Ho, Chi-Tang; Way, Tzong-Der

    2012-10-01

    Burdock (Arcticum lappa L.) root is used in folk medicine and also as a vegetable in Asian countries. In the present study, burdock root treatment significantly reduced body weight in rats. To evaluate the bioactive compounds, we successively extracted the burdock root with ethanol (AL-1), and fractionated it with n-hexane (AL-2), ethyl acetate (AL-3), n-butanol (AL-4), and water (AL-5). Among these fractions, AL-2 contained components with the most effective hypolipidemic potential in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. AL-2 decreased the expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and inhibited the activity of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) by stimulating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through the LKB1 pathway. Three active compounds were identified from the AL-2, namely α-linolenic acid, methyl α-linolenate, and methyl oleate. These results suggest that burdock root is expected to be useful for body weight management.

  16. Human cranial vault thickness in a contemporary sample of 1097 autopsy cases: relation to body weight, stature, age, sex and ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boer, H H Hans; Van der Merwe, A E Lida; Soerdjbalie-Maikoe, V Vidija

    2016-09-01

    The relation between human cranial vault thickness (CVT) and various elements of the physical anthropological biological profile is subject of ongoing discussion. Some results seem to indicate no correlation between CVT and the biological profile of the individual, whereas other results suggest that CVT measurements might be useful for identification purposes. This study assesses the correlation between CVT and body weight, stature, age, sex, and ancestry by reviewing data of 1097 forensic autopsies performed at the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI). In subadults (younger than 19 years of age at the time of death), all frontal, temporal, and occipital CVT measurements correlated moderately to strongly with indicators of growth (body weight, stature, and age). Neither sex nor ancestry correlated significantly with cranial thickness. In adults, body weight correlated with all CVT measurements. No meaningful correlation was found between CVT and stature or age. Females showed to have thicker frontal bones, and the occipital region was thicker in the Negroid subsample. All correlation in the adult group was weak, with the distribution of cranial thickness overlapping for a great deal between the groups. Based on these results, it was concluded that CVT generally cannot be used as an indicator for any part of the biological profile.

  17. Central Administration of 1-Deoxynojirimycin Attenuates Hypothalamic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Regulates Food Intake and Body Weight in Mice with High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongwan; Yun, Eun-Young; Quan, Fu-Shi; Park, Seung-Won; Goo, Tae-Won

    2017-01-01

    The α-glucosidase inhibitor, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), is widely used for its antiobesity and antidiabetic effects. Researchers have demonstrated that DNJ regulates body weight by increasing adiponectin levels, which affects energy intake and prevents diet-induced obesity. However, the mechanism by which centrally administered DNJ exerts anorexigenic effects has not been studied until now. We investigated the effect of DNJ in the hypothalamus of mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Results showed that intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of DNJ reduced hypothalamic ER stress, which activated the leptin-induced Janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway to cause appetite suppression. We conclude that DNJ may reduce obesity by moderating feeding behavior and ER stress in the hypothalamic portion of the central nervous system (CNS).

  18. Central Administration of 1-Deoxynojirimycin Attenuates Hypothalamic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Regulates Food Intake and Body Weight in Mice with High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongwan Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The α-glucosidase inhibitor, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ, is widely used for its antiobesity and antidiabetic effects. Researchers have demonstrated that DNJ regulates body weight by increasing adiponectin levels, which affects energy intake and prevents diet-induced obesity. However, the mechanism by which centrally administered DNJ exerts anorexigenic effects has not been studied until now. We investigated the effect of DNJ in the hypothalamus of mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Results showed that intracerebroventricular (ICV administration of DNJ reduced hypothalamic ER stress, which activated the leptin-induced Janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2/signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3 signaling pathway to cause appetite suppression. We conclude that DNJ may reduce obesity by moderating feeding behavior and ER stress in the hypothalamic portion of the central nervous system (CNS.

  19. Oxidative Stress in the Hypothalamus: the Importance of Calcium Signaling and Mitochondrial ROS in Body Weight Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyengesi, Erika; Paxinos, George; Andrews, Zane B

    2012-12-01

    A considerable amount of evidence shows that reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mammalian brain are directly responsible for cell and tissue function and dysfunction. Excessive reactive oxygen species contribute to various conditions including inflammation, diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative diseases, tumor formation, and mental disorders such as depression. Increased intracellular calcium levels have toxic roles leading to cell death. However, the exact connection between reactive oxygen production and high calcium stress is not yet fully understood. In this review, we focus on the role of reactive oxygen species and calcium stress in hypothalamic arcuate neurons controlling feeding. We revisit the role of NPY and POMC neurons in the regulation of appetite and energy homeostasis, and consider how ROS and intracellular calcium levels affect these neurons. These novel insights give a new direction to research on hypothalamic mechanisms regulating energy homeostasis and may offer novel treatment strategies for obesity and type-2 diabetes.

  20. Effects of bariatric surgery on the level of hormones that regulate body weight. What is the basis of success?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Yur'evna Babenko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth of obesity and type 2 diabetes incidence has made bariatric surgery a widespread method of treatment. The effectiveness of bariatricoperations in the treatment of obesity and related metabolic diseases is thoroughly highlighted in medical literature. However, the resultsof surgery do not always correlate with type of operation. As before, the mechanisms have not been fully studied of how the bariatric surgeryinfluence on insulinresistance, entero-insulin axes, adipokines. Understanding such mechanisms will allow us to determine more precisely theindications relating to surgical treatment, and enhance the effectiveness of surgery in specific patient. The review is focusing on the influence ofvarious types of bariatric surgery on the level of adipokines and incretines that participate in regulation of appetite and of fat and carbohydratemetabolism. The article elaborates modern concepts related to the impact of bariatric operations on metabolic disorders in obesity.

  1. Postprandial Energy Metabolism in the Regulation of Body Weight: Is there a Mechanistic Role for Dietary Calcium?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario J. Soares

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been much interest in the mechanisms by which calcium may attenuate weight gain or accelerate body fat loss. This review focuses on postprandial energy metabolism and indicates that dietary calcium increases whole body fat oxidation after single and multiple meals. There is, as yet, no conclusive evidence for a greater diet induced thermogenesis, an increased lipolysis or suppression of key lipogenic enzyme systems. There is however convincing evidence that higher calcium intakes promote a modest energy loss through increased fecal fat excretion. Overall, there is a role for dietary calcium in human energy metabolism. Future studies need to define threshold intakes for metabolic and gastrointestinal outcomes.

  2. Chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos triggered body weight increase and memory impairment depending on human apoE polymorphisms in a targeted replacement mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris-Sampedro, Fiona; Basaure, Pia; Reverte, Ingrid; Cabré, Maria; Domingo, José L; Colomina, Maria Teresa

    2015-05-15

    Despite restrictions on their use, humans are still constantly exposed to organophosphates (OPs). A huge number of studies have ratified the neurotoxic effects of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and suggested its association with neurodegenerative diseases, but data are still scarce. Human apolipoprotein E (apoE) plays an important role in lipid transport and distribution. In humans, the apoE4 isoform has been linked to an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). ApoE3 is the most prevalent isoform worldwide, and has been often established as the healthful one. The current study, performed in targeted replacement (TR) adult male mice, aimed to inquire whether genetic variations of the human apoE respond differently to a chronic dietary challenge with CPF. At four/five months of age, mice carrying apoE2, apoE3 or apoE4 were pair-fed a diet supplemented with CPF at 0 or 2mg/kg body weight/day for 13weeks. Cholinergic signs were monitored daily and body weight changes weekly. In the last week of treatment, learning and memory were assessed in a Barnes maze task. Dietary CPF challenge increased body weight only in apoE3 mice. Differences in the acquisition and retention of the Barnes maze were attributed to apoE genetic differences. Our results showed that apoE4 mice performed worse than apoE2 and apoE3 carriers in the acquisition period of the spatial task, and that apoE2 mice had poorer retention than the other two genotypes. On the other hand, CPF increased the search velocity of apoE2 subjects during the acquisition period. Retention was impaired only in CPF-exposed apoE3 mice. These results underline that gene×environment interactions need to be taken into account in epidemiological studies. Given that apoE3, the most common polymorphism in humans, has proved to be the most sensitive to CPF, the potential implications for human health merit serious thought.

  3. Full-length huntingtin levels modulate body weight by influencing insulin-like growth factor 1 expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouladi, Mahmoud A; Xie, Yuanyun; Skotte, Niels Henning

    2010-01-01

    body weight by modulating the IGF-1 pathway. Plasma IGF-1 levels correlate with body weight and htt levels in the transgenic YAC mice expressing human htt. The effect of htt on IGF-1 expression is independent of CAG size. No effect on body weight is observed in transgenic YAC mice expressing...... and decreases the body weight of YAC128 animals to WT levels. Furthermore, given the ubiquitous expression of IGF-1 within the central nervous system, we also examined the impact of FL htt levels on IGF-1 expression in different regions of the brain, including the striatum, cerebellum of YAC18, YAC128......Levels of full-length huntingtin (FL htt) influence organ and body weight, independent of polyglutamine length. The growth hormone-insulin like growth factor-1 (GH-IGF-1) axis is well established as a regulator of organ growth and body weight. In this study, we investigate the involvement...

  4. Green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate reduces body weight with regulation of multiple genes expression in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mak-Soon; Kim, Chong-Tai; Kim, Yangha

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antiobesity effect of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in diet-induced obese mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed on a high-fat diet for 8 weeks to induce obesity. Subsequently they were divided into 3 groups and were maintained on a high-fat control diet or high-fat diets supplemented with 0.2 or 0.5% EGCG (w/w) for a further 8 weeks. Changes in the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism and fatty acid oxidation were analyzed in white adipose tissue, together with biometric and blood parameters. Experimental diets supplemented with EGCG resulted in reduction of body weight and mass of various adipose tissues in a dose-dependent manner. EGCG diet also considerably lowered the levels of plasma triglyceride and liver lipid. In the epididymal white adipose tissue of EGCG diet-fed mice, the mRNA levels of adipogenic genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma), CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-alpha (C/EBP-alpha), regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (aP2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were significantly decreased. However, the mRNA levels of carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), as well as lipolytic genes such as hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), were significantly increased. These results suggest that green tea EGCG effectively reduces adipose tissue mass and ameliorates plasma lipid profiles in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. These effects might be at least partially mediated via regulation of the expression of multiple genes involved in adipogenesis, lipolysis, beta-oxidation and thermogenesis in white adipose tissue. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Pharmacological actions of the peptide hormone amylin in the long-term regulation of food intake, food preference, and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of amylin to reduce acute food intake in rodents is well established. Longer-term administration in rats (up to 24 days) shows a concomitant reduction in body weight, suggesting energy intake plays a significant role in mediating amylin-induced weight loss. The current set of experiments...

  6. Personality disorders and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Johanna Catherine; Xu, Haiyong; French, Michael T; Ettner, Susan L

    2014-01-01

    We examine the impact of Axis II personality disorders (PDs) on body weight. PDs are psychiatric conditions that develop early in life from a mixture of genetics and environment, are persistent, and lead to substantial dysfunction for the affected individual. The defining characteristics of PDs conceptually link them with body weight, but the direction of the relationship likely varies across PD type. To investigate these links, we analyze data from Wave II of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions. We measure body weight with the body mass index (BMI) and a dichotomous indicator for obesity (BMI≥30). We find that women with PDs have significantly higher BMI and are more likely to be obese than otherwise similar women. We find few statistically significant or economically meaningful effects for men. Paranoid, schizotypal, and avoidant PDs demonstrate the strongest adverse impacts on women's body weight while dependent PD may be protective against elevated body weight among men. Findings from unconditional quantile regressions demonstrate a positive gradient between PDs and BMI in that the effects are greater for higher BMI respondents.

  7. Central Sirt1 regulates body weight and energy expenditure along with the POMC-derived peptide α-MSH and the processing enzyme CPE production in diet-induced obese male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Nicole E; Steger, Jennifer S; Toorie, Anika M; Yang, Jonathan Z; Stuart, Ronald; Nillni, Eduardo A

    2014-07-01

    In the periphery, the nutrient-sensing enzyme Sirtuin 1 (silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 [Sirt1]) reduces body weight in diet-induced obese (DIO) rodents. However, the role of Sirt1 in the brain, particularly the hypothalamus, in body weight and energy balance regulation is debated. Among the first studies to reveal that central Sirt1 regulates body weight came from experiments in our laboratory using Sprague Dawley rats. In that study, central inhibition of Sirt1 decreased body weight and food intake as a result of a Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1)-mediated increase in the anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and decrease in the orexigenic Agouti-related peptide in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Here, we demonstrate that central inhibition of Sirt1 in DIO decreased body weight and increased energy expenditure at higher levels as compared with the lean counterpart. Brain Sirt1 inhibition in DIO increased acetylated FoxO1, which, in turn, increased phosphorylated FoxO1 via improved insulin/pAKT signaling. Elevated acetylated FoxO1 and phosphorylated FoxO1 increased POMC along with the α-MSH maturation enzyme carboxypeptidase E, which resulted in more of the bioactive POMC product α-MSH released into the paraventricular nucleus. Increased in α-MSH led to augmented TRH levels and circulating T3 levels (thyroid hormone). These results indicate that inhibiting hypothalamic Sirt1 in DIO enhances the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, which stimulates energy expenditure. Because we show that blocking central Sirt1 causes physiological changes that promote a negative energy balance in an obese individual, our results support brain Sirt1 as a significant target for weight loss therapeutics.

  8. Relationship of adipokine to insulin sensitivity and glycemic regulation in obese women: The effect of body weight reduction by caloric restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velojić-Golubović Milena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Visceral fat is highly active metabolic and endocrine tissue which secretes many adipokines that act both on local and systemic level. It is believed that adipokines and "low-grade inflammatory state" represent a potential link between obesity, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Leptin and adiponectin are considered to be the most important adipokines with the potential metabolic and cardiovascular effects. Body weight loss improves insulin sensitivity and decreases risk for most complications associated with obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of moderate loss of body weight on the level of leptin and adiponectin, insulin sensitivity and abnormalities of glycoregulation in obese women, to determine whether and to what extent the secretory products of adipose tissue, leptin and adiponectin contribute to insulin sensitivity, as well as to assess their relationship and influence on glycemia and insulinemia during the period of losing body weight using a calorie restricted diet. Methods. The study involved 90 obese female subjects (BMI

  9. Psychological workload and body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Gyntelberg, F; Heitmann, B L

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: According to Karasek's Demand/Control Model, workload can be conceptualized as job strain, a combination of psychological job demands and control in the job. High job strain may result from high job demands combined with low job control. Aim To give an overview of the literature...... on the association between obesity and psychological workload. METHOD: We carried out a review of the associations between psychological workload and body weight in men and women. In total, 10 cross-sectional studies were identified. RESULTS: The review showed little evidence of a general association between...... psychological workload and body mass index. Only weak positive associations were found, and only between elements of psychological workload and overall body weight. For body fat distribution, two out of three studies showed a positive association in men, but the associations became insignificant after...

  10. Does low-energy sweetener consumption affect energy intake and body weight? A systematic review, including meta-analyses, of the evidence from human and animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, P J; Hogenkamp, P S; de Graaf, C; Higgs, S; Lluch, A; Ness, A R; Penfold, C; Perry, R; Putz, P; Yeomans, M R; Mela, D J

    2016-03-01

    By reducing energy density, low-energy sweeteners (LES) might be expected to reduce energy intake (EI) and body weight (BW). To assess the totality of the evidence testing the null hypothesis that LES exposure (versus sugars or unsweetened alternatives) has no effect on EI or BW, we conducted a systematic review of relevant studies in animals and humans consuming LES with ad libitum access to food energy. In 62 of 90 animal studies exposure to LES did not affect or decreased BW. Of 28 reporting increased BW, 19 compared LES with glucose exposure using a specific 'learning' paradigm. Twelve prospective cohort studies in humans reported inconsistent associations between LES use and body mass index (-0.002 kg m(-)(2) per year, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.009 to 0.005). Meta-analysis of short-term randomized controlled trials (129 comparisons) showed reduced total EI for LES versus sugar-sweetened food or beverage consumption before an ad libitum meal (-94 kcal, 95% CI -122 to -66), with no difference versus water (-2 kcal, 95% CI -30 to 26). This was consistent with EI results from sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (10 comparisons). Meta-analysis of sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (4 weeks to 40 months) showed that consumption of LES versus sugar led to relatively reduced BW (nine comparisons; -1.35 kg, 95% CI -2.28 to -0.42), and a similar relative reduction in BW versus water (three comparisons; -1.24 kg, 95% CI -2.22 to -0.26). Most animal studies did not mimic LES consumption by humans, and reverse causation may influence the results of prospective cohort studies. The preponderance of evidence from all human randomized controlled trials indicates that LES do not increase EI or BW, whether compared with caloric or non-caloric (for example, water) control conditions. Overall, the balance of evidence indicates that use of LES in place of sugar, in children and adults, leads to reduced EI and BW, and possibly also

  11. Does low-energy sweetener consumption affect energy intake and body weight? A systematic review, including meta-analyses, of the evidence from human and animal studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, P.J.; Hogenkamp, P.S.; Graaf, de Kees; Higgs, S.; Lluch, A.; Ness, A.R.; Penfold, C.; Perry, R.; Putz, P.; Yeomans, M.R.; Mela, D.J.

    2016-01-01

    By reducing energy density, low-energy sweeteners (LES) might be expected to reduce energy intake (EI) and body weight (BW). To assess the totality of the evidence testing the null hypothesis that LES exposure (versus sugars or unsweetened alternatives) has no effect on EI or BW, we conducted a s

  12. Does low-energy sweetener consumption affect energy intake and body weight? A systematic review, including meta-analyses, of the evidence from human and animal studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, P.J.; Hogenkamp, P.S.; Graaf, de Kees; Higgs, S.; Lluch, A.; Ness, A.R.; Penfold, C.; Perry, R.; Putz, P.; Yeomans, M.R.; Mela, D.J.

    2016-01-01

    By reducing energy density, low-energy sweeteners (LES) might be expected to reduce energy intake (EI) and body weight (BW). To assess the totality of the evidence testing the null hypothesis that LES exposure (versus sugars or unsweetened alternatives) has no effect on EI or BW, we conducted a

  13. Surfactant protein D of the innate immune defence is inversely associated with human obesity and SP-D deficiency infers increased body weight in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, G.L.; Hjelmborg, J.V.B.; Leth-Larsen, R.

    2006-01-01

    of the present study was to describe the association between serum SP-D and weight, waist circumference or BMI, and furthermore to observe body weight development in SP-D-deficient (Spd-/-) mice. As a part of the Danish population-based twin study (GEMINAKAR) on the metabolic syndrome, we analysed 1476 Danish...

  14. Heritability of body weight: moving beyond genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, P; Lauria, F; Siani, A

    2010-12-01

    Obesity is a complex disease, arising from the interaction between several genetic and environmental factors. Until recently, the genetic basis of complex diseases in general, and of obesity in particular, were poorly characterized. While the relatively rare monogenic and syndromic forms of obesity clearly recognize a genetic origin, the actual worldwide epidemics of obesity represent a challenge for the identification of the genetic factors involved, being likely the effect of several loci each having a subtle influence on the phenotypic expression. Progress in DNA analysis techniques and in computational tools, and the increasing level of characterization of the variability of the human genome has recently allowed to study comprehensively the association between genetic variants and obesity. To date, well-conducted and powered genome-wide association studies allowed to consistently identify genomic regions - lying on different chromosomes and affecting different metabolic pathways - influencing the predisposition to the accumulation of body fat, ultimately leading to overweight and obesity. However, the population attributable risk for obesity linked to the most statistically significant loci, like FTO and MC4R, remains discouragingly low, explaining only small fractions of the overall variance of body weight. In the last few years, the role of the complex interaction between genetic determinants and environmental factors in the rapid global increase of obesity has been further challenged by the entry of new players, that is the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation, summarized under the emerging discipline of epigenetics. The key challenge now is to move from the identification of causal genes and variants to the integration of different "omics" disciplines, finally allowing the molecular understanding of obesity and related conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana and Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze (green tea extracts and reduction of body weight pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Nutrilinks Sarl, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Cyprus, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana and Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze (green tea extracts and reduction of body weight. The Panel considers that the food constituent which is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, reduction of body weight, is a beneficial physiological effect for overweight subjects. One human intervention study from which no conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim was provided by the applicant. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana and Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze (green tea extracts and a reduction in body weight.

  16. Body weight, metabolism and clock genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanquetta Melissa M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biological rhythms are present in the lives of almost all organisms ranging from plants to more evolved creatures. These oscillations allow the anticipation of many physiological and behavioral mechanisms thus enabling coordination of rhythms in a timely manner, adaption to environmental changes and more efficient organization of the cellular processes responsible for survival of both the individual and the species. Many components of energy homeostasis exhibit circadian rhythms, which are regulated by central (suprachiasmatic nucleus and peripheral (located in other tissues circadian clocks. Adipocyte plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, the signaling of satiety and cellular differentiation and proliferation. Also, the adipocyte circadian clock is probably involved in the control of many of these functions. Thus, circadian clocks are implicated in the control of energy balance, feeding behavior and consequently in the regulation of body weight. In this regard, alterations in clock genes and rhythms can interfere with the complex mechanism of metabolic and hormonal anticipation, contributing to multifactorial diseases such as obesity and diabetes. The aim of this review was to define circadian clocks by describing their functioning and role in the whole body and in adipocyte metabolism, as well as their influence on body weight control and the development of obesity.

  17. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to phaseolamine and reduction in body weight (ID 1701) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to phaseolamine and reduction in body weight. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food...

  18.  Surfactant Protein D of the Innate Immune Defence is Inversely Associated with Human Obesity and SP-D Deficiency Infers Increased Body Weight in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Grith Lykke; Hjelmborg, Jacob v. B.; Leth-Larsen, Rikke

    2006-01-01

    of the present study was to describe the association between serum SP-D and weight, waist circumference or BMI, and furthermore to observe body weight development in SP-D-deficient (Spd-/-) mice. As a part of the Danish population-based twin study (GEMINAKAR) on the metabolic syndrome, we analysed 1476 Danish...... twins for serum SP-D and investigated associations with weight, waist circumference and BMI by multiple regression analysis. Serum SP-D was significantly and inversely associated with weight (P = 0.001) and waist circumference in men (P

  19. Intraventricular administration of Tenebrio molitor larvae extract regulates food intake and body weight in mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Minchul; Kim, Jongwan; Moon, Seong-Su; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Kim, Mi-Ae

    2017-08-01

    We recently reported the in vitro and in vivo antiobesity effects of Tenebrio molitor larvae, a traditional food in many countries, but it remains unknown how the larvae affect appetite regulation in mice with diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that the extract of T molitor larvae mediates appetite by regulating neuropeptide expression. We investigated T molitor larvae extract's (TME's) effects on anorexigenesis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced orexigenic neuropeptide expression in the hypothalami of obese mice. Intracerebroventricular TME administration suppressed feeding by down-regulating the expression of the orexigenic neuropeptides neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein. T molitor larvae extract significantly reduced the expression of ER stress response genes. These results suggest that TME and its bioactive components are potential therapeutics for obesity and ER stress-driven disease states. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Distinguishing Emotional Co-Regulation From Co-Dysregulation: An Investigation of Emotional Dynamics and Body-Weight in Romantic Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Rebecca G.; Barnard, Kobus; Butler, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    Well-regulated emotions, both within people and between relationship partners, play a key role in facilitating health and well-being. The present study examined 39 heterosexual couples’ joint weight status (both partners are healthy-weight, both overweight, one healthy-weight and one overweight) as a predictor of two interpersonal emotional patterns during a discussion of their shared lifestyle choices. The first pattern, co-regulation, is one in which partners’ coupled emotions show a dampening pattern over time and ultimately return to homeostatic levels. The second, co-dysregulation, is one in which partners’ coupled emotions are amplified away from homeostatic balance. We demonstrate how a coupled linear oscillator (CLO) model (Butner, Amazeen, & Mulvey, 2005) can be used to distinguish co-regulation from co-dysregulation. As predicted, healthy-weight couples and mixed-weight couples in which the man was heavier than the woman displayed co-regulation, but overweight couples and mixed-weight couples in which the woman was heavier showed co-dysregulation. These results suggest that heterosexual couples in which the woman is overweight may face formidable co-regulatory challenges that could undermine both partners’ well-being. The results also demonstrate the importance of distinguishing between various interpersonal emotional dynamics for understanding connections between interpersonal emotions and health. PMID:25664951

  1. IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the West African plant Irvingia gabonensis, significantly reduces body weight and improves metabolic parameters in overweight humans in a randomized double-blind placebo controlled investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbofung Carl MF

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent in vitro study indicates that IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the traditional West African food plant Irvingia gabonensis, favorably impacts adipogenesis through a variety of critical metabolic pathways including PPAR gamma, leptin, adiponectin, and glycerol-3 phosphate dehydrogenase. This study was therefore aimed at evaluating the effects of IGOB131, an extract of Irvingia gabonensis, on body weight and associated metabolic parameters in overweight human volunteers. Methods The study participants comprised of 102 healthy, overweight and/or obese volunteers (defined as BMI > 25 kg/m2 randomly divided into two groups. The groups received on a daily basis, either 150 mg of IGOB131 or matching placebo in a double blinded fashion, 30–60 minutes before lunch and dinner. At baseline, 4, 8 and 10 weeks of the study, subjects were evaluated for changes in anthropometrics and metabolic parameters to include fasting lipids, blood glucose, C-reactive protein, adiponectin, and leptin. Results Significant improvements in body weight, body fat, and waist circumference as well as plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, blood glucose, C-reactive protein, adiponectin and leptin levels were observed in the IGOB131 group compared with the placebo group. Conclusion Irvingia gabonensis administered 150 mg twice daily before meals to overweight and/or obese human volunteers favorably impacts body weight and a variety of parameters characteristic of the metabolic syndrome. This is the first double blind randomized placebo controlled clinical trial regarding the anti-obesity and lipid profile modulating effects of an Irvingia gabonensis extract. The positive clinical results, together with our previously published mechanisms of gene expression modulation related to key metabolic pathways in lipid metabolism, provide impetus for much larger clinical studies. Irvingia gabonensis extract may prove to be a useful tool in dealing with the

  2. Maintaining ideal body weight counseling sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brammer, S.H.

    1980-10-09

    The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.

  3. High tobacco consumption lowers body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winsløw, Ulrik C; Rode, Line; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conflicting evidence has been found regarding the association between high tobacco consumption and body weight among smokers. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco consumption is causally associated with low body weight. METHODS: We conducted a Mendelian randomization study...... with a genetic variant in CHRNA3 (rs1051730) as proxy for high tobacco consumption. The cohort consisted of 80,342 participants from the Copenhagen General Population Study, with details on body weight, smoking habits and CHRNA3 genotype, including 15,220 current smokers. RESULTS: In observational analyses, high...... tobacco consumption was associated with high body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-hip ratio. In multivariable adjusted models a 1-cigarette/day higher tobacco consumption was associated with 0.05 kg (95% confidence interval 0.02; 0.08) higher body weight, 0.02 kg...

  4. Neurotrophic Factor Control of Satiety and Body Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baoji; Xie, Xiangyang

    2016-01-01

    Energy balance, the relationship between energy intake and expenditure, is regulated by a complex interplay of hormones, brain circuits and peripheral tissues. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived cytokine that suppresses appetite and increases energy expenditure. Ironically, obese individuals have high levels of plasma leptin and are resistant to leptin treatment. Neurotrophic factors, particularly ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are also important for the control of body weight. CNTF can overcome leptin resistance to reduce body weight, although CNTF and leptin activate similar signalling cascades. Mutations in the gene for BDNF lead to insatiable appetite and severe obesity. PMID:27052383

  5. Body weight independently affects articular cartilage catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, W Matt; Winward, Jason G; Pardo, Michael Becker; Hopkins, J Ty; Seeley, Matthew K

    2015-06-01

    Although obesity is associated with osteoarthritis, it is unclear whether body weight (BW) independently affects articular cartilage catabolism (i.e., independent from physiological factors that also accompany obesity). The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the independent effect of BW on articular cartilage catabolism associated with walking. A secondary purpose was to determine how decreased BW influenced cardiovascular response due to walking. Twelve able-bodied subjects walked for 30 minutes on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill during three sessions: control (unadjusted BW), +40%BW, and -40%BW. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) was measured immediately before (baseline) and after, and 15 and 30 minutes after the walk. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured every three minutes during the walk. Relative to baseline, average serum COMP concentration was 13% and 5% greater immediately after and 15 minutes after the walk. Immediately after the walk, serum COMP concentration was 14% greater for the +40%BW session than for the -40%BW session. HR and RPE were greater for the +40%BW session than for the other two sessions, but did not differ between the control and -40%BW sessions. BW independently influences acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response due to walking: as BW increases, so does acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response. These results indicate that lower-body positive pressure walking may benefit certain individuals by reducing acute articular cartilage catabolism, due to walking, while maintaining cardiovascular response. Key pointsWalking for 30 minutes with adjustments in body weight (normal body weight, +40% and -40% body weight) significantly influences articular cartilage catabolism, measured via serum COMP concentration.Compared to baseline levels, walking with +40% body weight and normal body weight both elicited significant increases in

  6. Parental perception of preschool child body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett-Wright, Dawn

    2011-10-01

    Obesity in preschoolers has risen dramatically in the last decade. Although studies have demonstrated that parents of preschoolers have incorrect perceptions of their child's body weight, little is known about the factors that may be associated with these perceptions. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between parental perceptions of preschool child body weight and parental psychosocial factors. Quantitative analyses included descriptive statistics, correlations, and regression analyses. More than one third of the children in the sample were at risk for being overweight or were already overweight. However, less than 6% of parents felt that their child had an elevated body weight. Results from univariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that the parent's health literacy level was a significant predictor of the accuracy of their perceptions regarding their child's body weight (p perceptions. Results from this study indicate that assessing parental perceptions of preschool child body weight can help providers accurately understand how parents view their children and lead to tailored educational interventions. In addition, the results support previous research suggesting that parental health literacy is a key to providing high-quality family-centered care.

  7. Surfactant protein D of the innate immune defence is inversely associated with human obesity and SP-D deficiency infers increased body weight in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, G.L.; Hjelmborg, J.V.B.; Leth-Larsen, R.

    2006-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a key regulator of pathogen-induced inflammation. SP-D is further involved in lipid homeostasis in mouse lung and circulation and recent data have demonstrated that the body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) is influenced by genes in common with SP-D. The objective of th.......0001) in males on normal chow. Fat percentage was significantly increased by 17% in the Spd-/- male mice (P = 0.003). We conclude, that there is an association between low levels or absent SP-D and obesity....

  8. Does higher education reduce body weight?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Jane; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann

    education on body weight according to subgroups of parental income background. To uncover the causal relationship between higher education and body weight, we use a reform of the Danish student grant scheme, which involved a grant increase of approximately 60% in 1988. When using this reform as instrumental...... variable, we find no effect among men of higher education on the probability of being either overweight or healthy-weighted. However, we find suggestive evidence that the effect differs by income background. Amongst men who grew up in low-income households, enrolling in higher education increases......The prevalence of obesity and overweight has increased in almost all Western countries in the past twenty to thirty years, with social disparities in many of these countries. This paper contributes to the literature on the relation between education and body weight by studying the effect of higher...

  9. Does higher education reduce body weight?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Jane; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight has increased in almost all Western countries in the past twenty to thirty years, with social disparities in many of these countries. This paper contributes to the literature on the relation between education and body weight by studying the effect of higher...... education on body weight according to subgroups of parental income background. To uncover the causal relationship between higher education and body weight, we use a reform of the Danish student grant scheme, which involved a grant increase of approximately 60% in 1988. When using this reform as instrumental...... variable, we find no effect among men of higher education on the probability of being either overweight or healthy-weighted. However, we find suggestive evidence that the effect differs by income background. Amongst men who grew up in low-income households, enrolling in higher education increases...

  10. Effect of Various Protein Sources on Body Weight Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnevik, Alexander Krokedal

    Background: Due to the increasing prevalence of obesity, finding effective dietary strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance is of great interest. High protein diets are reported to protect against diet-induced obesity, however less is known about how different protein sources affect body...... with the consumption of lean meat in Western background diets was only evident with free access to the diets, most likely due to differences in body composition. We purpose that the beneficial effects of lean seafood consumption in relation to body weight regulation may be due to an enrichment of the amino acids...... weight regulation. We aimed to investigate how various protein sources influenced body weight development and glucose metabolism by feeding obesity prone male C57/BL6 mice various protein sources in different background diets. Results: In high fat/high sucrose diets (HF/HS), high fat/high protein diets...

  11. Natural products and body weight control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the review was to summarise the effect of some commonly available natural products used for body weight management. We collected data from PubMed and scientific journals. There are numerous publications on this topic, however we have summarized the most commonly available and potent natural products from recent 53 publications. The natural products analyzed in this paper include catechins, capsaicin, conjugated linoleic acid, fucoxanthin, soy isoflavone, glabridin, astaxanthin and cyaniding-3-glucoside. These natural products are effective and safe for body weight management. Further studies need to be conducted to investigate the mechanism of action, metabolism, long term safety and side effects of these natural products, as well as interactions between these natural products with dietary components.

  12. Modelling body weight, dieting and obesity traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Paolo Nicola

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a theoretical investigation into why losing weight is so difficult even in the absence of rational addiction, time-inconsistent preferences or bounded rationality. We add to the existing literature by focusing on the role that individual metabolism has on weight loss. The results from the theoretical model provide multiple steady states and a threshold revealing a situation of "obesity traps" that the individual must surpass in order to successfully lose weight. Any weight-loss efforts that the individual undertakes have to surpass such threshold in order to result in permanent weight loss, otherwise the individual will gradually regain weight and converge to his or her previous body weight.

  13. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to medium-chain triglycerides and reduction in body weight (ID 643, 677, 1614) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health claims in relation to medium-chain triglycerides and reduction in body weight. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article ...

  14. Aspectos atuais da regulação do peso corporal: ação da leptina no desequilíbrio energético Recent aspects of body weight regulation: leptin's action on the energetic misbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Donato Júnior

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A obesidade já é considerada epidemia global, com taxas de insucesso em seu tratamento a longo prazo de mais de 90%. A descoberta da leptina, um peptídeo sintetizado principalmente pelos adipócitos, abriu novas fronteiras no estudo do tratamento da obesidade. Constatou-se que a leptina, por meio do controle de sua concentração na circulação, poderia ser um sinalizador do estado energético e do tamanho das reservas de gordura, ao atuar em um circuito de retroalimentação, cuja função é de manter o peso corporal estável, independentemente de variações diárias no consumo de energia. Porém, esse circuito apresenta falhas na maioria dos indivíduos que se tornam obesos (baixa responsividade pela alta concentração de leptina que esses indivíduos apresentam, o que levou à hipótese da "resistência à leptina". Entretanto, essa revisão sugere que a função fisiológica da leptina é a de um hormônio que "impede" a perda de peso, pois, as repercussões fisiológicas da redução da concentração de leptina são muito mais intensas comparadas ao seu aumento, pelo menos em seres humanos. Dessa forma, o que se convencionou chamar de resistência à leptina expressa apenas o fato, inerente aos seres humanos, de que a elevada concentração de leptina produz somente pequena ação fisiológica.Nowadays obesity can be considered a global epidemic illness, though it shows a long-term treatment failure index higher than 90%. Research work on leptin, which is a peptide mainly produced by fat cells, lead to a breakthrough for medical obesity treatment. It has been found out that leptin - through control of its concentration, could be a marker of the energetic status and depot of fat amounts in cells as well. This occurs by acting in a feedback circuit which function is to maintain body weight stable - this independently of food intake variations. Hence, if this circuit presents failures, as i.e. low response to high leptin concentration

  15. The defence of body weight: a physiological basis for weight regain after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumithran, Priya; Proietto, Joseph

    2013-02-01

    Although weight loss can usually be achieved by restricting food intake, the majority of dieters regain weight over the long-term. In the hypothalamus, hormonal signals from the gastrointestinal tract, adipose tissue and other peripheral sites are integrated to influence appetite and energy expenditure. Diet-induced weight loss is accompanied by several physiological changes which encourage weight regain, including alterations in energy expenditure, substrate metabolism and hormone pathways involved in appetite regulation, many of which persist beyond the initial weight loss period. Safe effective long-term strategies to overcome these physiological changes are needed to help facilitate maintenance of weight loss. The present review, which focuses on data from human studies, begins with an outline of body weight regulation to provide the context for the subsequent discussion of short- and long-term physiological changes which accompany diet-induced weight loss.

  16. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to diacylglycerol (DAG) oil and reduction of body weight pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claim related to diacylglycerol oil and reduction of body weight. The food constituent, diacylglycerol (DAG) oil, and the food constituents, vegetable oils of similar fatty acid composition containing mostly (>90%) triacylglycerol (TAG), which DAG oil should replace in order to obtain the claimed effect......Following an application from Kao Corporation, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the United Kingdom, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health...

  17. SNPs of melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) associated with body weight in Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ruixia; Zhang, Yibo; Du, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), which is associated with inherited human obesity, is involoved in food intake and body weight of mammals. To study the relationships between MC4R gene polymorphism and body weight in Beagle dogs, we detected and compared the nucleotide sequence of the whole coding region and 3'- and 5'- flanking regions of the dog MC4R gene (1214 bp). In 120 Beagle dogs, two SNPs (A420C, C895T) were identified and their relation with body weight was analyzed with RFLP-PCR method. The results showed that the SNP at A420C was significantly associated with canine body weight trait when it changed amino acid 101 of the MC4R protein from asparagine to threonine, while canine body weight variations were significant in female dogs when MC4R nonsense mutation at C895T. It suggested that the two SNPs might affect the MC4R gene's function which was relative to body weight in Beagle dogs. Therefore, MC4R was a candidate gene for selecting different size dogs with the MC4R SNPs (A420C, C895T) being potentially valuable as a genetic marker.

  18. Impaired nutrient signaling and body weight control in a Na+ neutral amino acid cotransporter (Slc6a19)-deficient mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröer, Angelika; Juelich, Torsten; Vanslambrouck, Jessica M; Tietze, Nadine; Solomon, Peter S; Holst, Jeff; Bailey, Charles G; Rasko, John E J; Bröer, Stefan

    2011-07-29

    Amino acid uptake in the intestine and kidney is mediated by a variety of amino acid transporters. To understand the role of epithelial neutral amino acid uptake in whole body homeostasis, we analyzed mice lacking the apical broad-spectrum neutral (0) amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 (Slc6a19). A general neutral aminoaciduria was observed similar to human Hartnup disorder which is caused by mutations in SLC6A19. Na(+)-dependent uptake of neutral amino acids into the intestine and renal brush-border membrane vesicles was abolished. No compensatory increase of peptide transport or other neutral amino acid transporters was detected. Mice lacking B(0)AT1 showed a reduced body weight. When adapted to a standard 20% protein diet, B(0)AT1-deficient mice lost body weight rapidly on diets containing 6 or 40% protein. Secretion of insulin in response to food ingestion after fasting was blunted. In the intestine, amino acid signaling to the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway was reduced, whereas the GCN2/ATF4 stress response pathway was activated, indicating amino acid deprivation in epithelial cells. The results demonstrate that epithelial amino acid uptake is essential for optimal growth and body weight regulation.

  19. Impaired Nutrient Signaling and Body Weight Control in a Na+ Neutral Amino Acid Cotransporter (Slc6a19)-deficient Mouse*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröer, Angelika; Juelich, Torsten; Vanslambrouck, Jessica M.; Tietze, Nadine; Solomon, Peter S.; Holst, Jeff; Bailey, Charles G.; Rasko, John E. J.; Bröer, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Amino acid uptake in the intestine and kidney is mediated by a variety of amino acid transporters. To understand the role of epithelial neutral amino acid uptake in whole body homeostasis, we analyzed mice lacking the apical broad-spectrum neutral (0) amino acid transporter B0AT1 (Slc6a19). A general neutral aminoaciduria was observed similar to human Hartnup disorder which is caused by mutations in SLC6A19. Na+-dependent uptake of neutral amino acids into the intestine and renal brush-border membrane vesicles was abolished. No compensatory increase of peptide transport or other neutral amino acid transporters was detected. Mice lacking B0AT1 showed a reduced body weight. When adapted to a standard 20% protein diet, B0AT1-deficient mice lost body weight rapidly on diets containing 6 or 40% protein. Secretion of insulin in response to food ingestion after fasting was blunted. In the intestine, amino acid signaling to the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway was reduced, whereas the GCN2/ATF4 stress response pathway was activated, indicating amino acid deprivation in epithelial cells. The results demonstrate that epithelial amino acid uptake is essential for optimal growth and body weight regulation. PMID:21636576

  20. Relationship between perilipin gene polymorphisms and body weight and body composition during weight loss and weight maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Mariman, Edwin C M; Vogels, Neeltje; Bouwman, Freek G; den Hoed, Marcel; Brown, Louise; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2009-03-23

    Genetic variation in the perilipin (PLIN) gene may play a role in the etiology and treatment of obesity. To examine different polymorphisms in the PLIN gene in relation to body-weight regulation. 118 subjects followed a 6 wk VLCD, followed by 1 year weight maintenance. Body-weight (BW), body composition, leptin concentration, and polymorphisms of the PLIN gene: PLIN1:rs2289487, PLIN4:rs894160, PLIN6:rs1052700, PLIN5:rs2304795 and PLIN7:rs 2304796 were determined. BW loss during VLCD was 7.0+/-3.1 kg (p0.9, r2=0.72; PLIN5 and PLIN7: D' >0.9, r2=0.85. In men, body weight, BMI, waist circumference, body fat, leptin concentrations were significantly lower for the haplotype of PLIN1 (C-alleles) and PLIN4 (A-alleles). In women weight loss and loss of fat mass were larger for the haplotype of PLIN1 (C-alleles) and PLIN4 (A-alleles). For PLIN6 genotypes body weight and body fat were lower for homozygotes of the minor allele (T/T) in the men; in the women leptin concentrations were lower. The haplotype of PLIN5 and PLIN7 consisting of A/G and G/G of PLIN5 and A/A of PLIN7 showed a reduction in FM: 5.9+/-0.6 kg vs 3.1+/-0.4 kg, % body fat: 5.5+/-0.6% vs 2.2+/-0.2%, and leptin: 20.5+/-10.8 ng/ml vs 12.9+/-6.7 ng/ml over time in the women (pinfluencer of obesity risk in humans.

  1. Orthotic Body-Weight Support Through Underactuated Potential Energy Shaping with Contact Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Ge; Gregg, Robert D

    2015-12-01

    Body-weight support is an effective clinical tool for gait rehabilitation after neurological impairment. Body-weight supported training systems have been developed to help patients regain mobility and confidence during walking, but conventional systems constrain the patient's treatment in clinical environments. We propose that this challenge could be addressed by virtually providing patients with body-weight support through the actuators of a powered orthosis (or exoskeleton) utilizing potential energy shaping control. However, the changing contact conditions and degrees of underactuation encountered during human walking present significant challenges to consistently matching a desired potential energy for the human in closed loop. We therefore introduce a generalized matching condition for shaping Lagrangian systems with holonomic contact constraints. By satisfying this matching condition for four phases of gait, we derive control laws to achieve virtual body-weight support through a powered knee-ankle orthosis. We demonstrate beneficial effects of virtual body-weight support in simulations of a human-like biped model, indicating the potential clinical value of this proposed control approach.

  2. Body weight changes in elderly psychogeriatric nursing home residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoops, K.T.B.; Slump, E.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Wouters-Wesseling, W.; Brouwer, M.L.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective. This study was undertaken to identify predictors of body weight change in nursing home patients with possible to severe dementia. Methods. For 24 weeks, 108 elderly residents of a nursing home were followed. Body weight was measured every 2 weeks. Other anthropometric characteristics, die

  3. Serum PCT and its Relation to Body Weight Gain in Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohini, K; Bhat, Surekha; Srikumar, P S; Mahesh Kumar, A

    2015-07-01

    The present study was aimed at assessing alterations in serum PCT in terms of its relation to body weight gain in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients undergoing treatment. Among patients (25-75 years) diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis, those that were new smear positive, showed sputum conversion at the end of 2 months and were declared clinically cured at the end of 6 months, were included in the study (n = 40). Serum procalcitonin was determined by BRAHMS PCT-Q kit. Patients were divided into two study groups-Group 1 (n = 21; serum PCT > 2 ng/ml at diagnosis), Group 2 (n = 19; serum PCT > 10 ng/ml at diagnosis). Body weights of all patients were obtained at three different time points, PTB-0 (at diagnosis), PTB-2 (after 2 months of intensive treatment) and PTB-6 (after 6 months of treatment). In both groups, mean body weights at PTB-2 and PTB-6 were significantly higher than those at PTB-0 and at PTB-6 were significantly higher than those at PTB-2. However, percentage body weight gain following 2 months of intensive treatment was higher in group 1 (4.05 % gain, p < 0.01) than in group 2 (2.75 % body weight gain, p < 0.05). Thus, the percentage gain in group 1 was tending more towards the desirable minimum gain of 5 % during intensive phase. Increase in serum PCT levels in pulmonary tuberculosis is inversely associated with body weight gain during treatment. Thus, PCT could play a role in regulation of body weight gain in anorectic conditions like tuberculosis.

  4. Ghrelin and its analogues, BIM-28131 and BIM-28125, improve body weight and regulate the expression of MuRF-1 and MAFbx in a rat heart failure model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Palus

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Cardiac cachexia is a serious complication of chronic heart failure with a prevalence of 10-16% and poor prognosis. There are no current therapy options for cardiac cachexia. Ghrelin is the natural ligand for the GHS-1a-receptor and a potential target for conditions associated with cachexia. Ghrelin has been shown to increase weight in several species. The GHS-1a-receptor is not only found in the brain, but also in other tissues, including the myocardium. Human clinical trials with native ghrelin in cardiac cachexia demonstrated increases in appetite, weight and cardiac output. METHODS: Human ghrelin or one of two analogues BIM-28125 and BIM-28131 (also known as RM-131 were tested at 50 nmole/kg/d and 500 nmole/kg/d versus placebo in a rat model of heart failure (myocardial infarction. Animals (SD-rats, approx. 225 g at surgery received diuretics from day 14 and compounds from day 28 for 4 weeks using osmotic pumps. Weight was monitored and body composition analysed (NMR-scanning. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography and hemodynamics. RESULTS: Animals with MI gained less weight compared to sham rats until start of the therapy (311 g vs 324 g, p = 0.0129. Animals treated with BIM-28131 at 50 nmole/kg/d or all compounds at 500 nmole/kg/d displayed stronger weight gain compared to placebo and sham (all p<0.001. Before treatment, body composition was similar in all groups (average: 36 g fat, 248 g lean. Placebo-treated rats gained no fat, but only lean mass. The active compounds induced both fat and lean mass gain, but to a different extent. The fat-to-muscle-ratio of tissue gain was 0.9±0.07 for BIM-28131 at 50 nmole/kg/d, whereas at 500 nmole/kg/d it was 0.76±0.07 for BIM-28131, 0.68±0.12 for BIM-28125, and 0.48±0.05 for ghrelin. MuRF-1 and MAFbx were differentially regulated by treatment. CONCLUSION: Ghrelin is a very promising treatment option for cardiac cachexia, with the analogue BIM-28131 (RM-131 being the

  5. Body weight and beauty: the changing face of the ideal female body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafini, B A; Pozzilli, P

    2011-01-01

    By observing the art of different eras, as well as the more recent existence of the media, it is obvious that there have been dramatic changes in what is considered a beautiful body. The ideal of female beauty has shifted from a symbol of fertility to one of mathematically calculated proportions. It has taken the form of an image responding to men's sexual desires. Nowadays there seems to be a tendency towards the destruction of the feminine, as androgynous fashion and appearance dominate our culture. The metamorphosis of the ideal woman follows the shifting role of women in society from mother and mistress to a career-orientated individual. Her depiction by artists across the centuries reveals this change in role and appearance that should be interpreted within the social and historical context of each era with its own theories of what constituted the ideal female body weight.

  6. Metabolism of polychaete Neanthes japonica Izuka: relations to temperature, salinity and body weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong; XIAN Weiwei; SUN Shichun

    2009-01-01

    Polychaete Neanthesjaponica is a species geographically specific in China and Japan with important scientific implication and commercial value. In this study, the relations of body weight, salinity and temperature to oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of N. japonica were determined. Threedifferent groups in body weight (large: 2.34±0.36 g, middle: 1.50±0.21 g and small: 0.62±0.12 g) were set for all experiments. Results show that the body weight is negatively related to the rates of oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion; and the relationship is significant. The oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion at 24℃ decreased at salinity from 5 to 30 and increased above 30, indicating that both lower and higher salinity are adverse and certain degree of salinity stress is necessary for enhancing the energy demand. At salinity 30, rising temperature from 18℃ to 30℃, the oxygen consumption increased before 27℃ and then decreased. However, the relation of ammonia excretion and temperature seems more complex. Two-way ANOVA shows that salinity, temperature and body weight all have a significant effect on the oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of the worm. Moreover, interaction between salinity/temperature and body weight is also significant. O:N (oxygen/nitrogen) ratio varies greatly in this case from 5.97 to 463.22, indicating that N. japonica can regulate the type of metabolic substrate against environment changes.

  7. Wholegrain rye, but not wholegrain wheat, lowers body weight and fat mass compared with refined wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, J; Vuholm, Stine; Iversen, K N

    2017-01-01

    compared with refined wheat (RW) affect body weight and composition and appetite sensation. DESIGN: Seventy overweight/obese adults participated in this 6-week randomized parallel study, in which they replaced their habitual cereal foods with RW, WGW or wholegrain rye (WGR). Further, a 4 h postprandial...... test meal challenge was completed with meals corresponding to diet allocation in the beginning and after the intervention. Body weight and composition, fasted blood samples, compliance and 4-day dietary intake were obtained before and after the intervention period. Appetite and breath hydrogen...... was ~200 kcal lower in the WGR group when compared with that in the RW group (Pfoods in body weight regulation, when provided ad libitum. The effect may be mediated by satiation reflected...

  8. Brain serotonin system in the coordination of food intake and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Daniel D; Garfield, Alastair S; Marston, Oliver J; Shaw, Jill; Heisler, Lora K

    2010-11-01

    An inverse relationship between brain serotonin and food intake and body weight has been known for more than 30 years. Specifically, augmentation of brain serotonin inhibits food intake, while depletion of brain serotonin promotes hyperphagia and weight gain. Through the decades, serotonin receptors have been identified and their function in the serotonergic regulation of food intake clarified. Recent refined genetic studies now indicate that a primary mechanism through which serotonin influences appetite and body weight is via serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT(2C)R) and serotonin 1B receptor (5-HT(1B)R) influencing the activity of endogenous melanocortin receptor agonists and antagonists at the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R). However, other mechanisms are also possible and the challenge of future research is to delineate them in the complete elucidation of the complex neurocircuitry underlying the serotonergic control of appetite and body weight.

  9. Partial sleep deprivation by environmental noise increases food intake and body weight in obesity resistant rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavanji, Vijayakumar; Teske, Jennifer A.; Billington, Charles J.; Kotz, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Sleep-restriction in humans increases risk for obesity, but previous rodent studies show weight loss following sleep deprivation, possibly due to stressful-methods used to prevent sleep. Obesity-resistant (OR) rats exhibit consolidated-sleep and resistance to weight-gain. We hypothesized that sleep disruption by a less-stressful method would increase body weight, and examined effect of partial sleep deprivation (PSD) on body weight in OR and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Design and Methods OR and SD rats (n=12/group) were implanted with transmitters to record sleep/wake. After baseline recording, six SD and six OR rats underwent 8 h PSD during light-phase for 9 d. Sleep was reduced using recordings of random noise. Sleep/wake states were scored as wakefulness (W), slow-wave-sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye-movement-sleep (REMS). Total number of transitions between stages, SWS-delta-power, food intake and body weight were documented. Results Exposure to noise decreased SWS and REMS time, while increasing W time. Sleep-deprivation increased number of transitions between stages and SWS-delta-power. Further, PSD during the rest phase increased recovery-sleep during active phase. The PSD SD and OR rats had greater food intake and body weight compared to controls Conclusions PSD by less-stressful means increases body weight in rats. Also, PSD during rest phase increases active period sleep. PMID:23666828

  10. Mechanisms of body weight fluctuations in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistner, Andrea; Lhommée, Eugénie; Krack, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Typical body weight changes are known to occur in Parkinson's disease (PD). Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand, an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopaminergic treatment. Comprehension of the different mechanisms contributing to body weight is a prerequisite for the management of body weight and nutritional state of an individual PD patient. This review summarizes the present knowledge and highlights the necessity of evaluation of body weight and related factors, as eating behavior, energy intake, and expenditure in PD.

  11. Mechanisms of body weight fluctuations in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eKistner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Typical body weight changes are known to occur in PD. Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopaminergic treatment. Comprehension of the different mechanisms contributing to body weight is a prerequisite for the management of body weight and nutritional state of an individual PD patient. This review summarizes the present knowledge and highlights the necessity of evaluation of body weight and related factors, as eating behavior, energy intake and expenditure in PD.

  12. Relationship Between Body Weight and Growth Traits of Crossbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    Department of Animal Nutrition and Biotechnology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology ... This study was conducted to determine the genetic relationship between body weight and growth trait of ... system (Asafa and Ayodele, 1997).

  13. Body weight reducing effect of oral boric acid intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir; Emre, Sinem Hocaoglu; Karaca, Cetin; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2011-01-01

    Boric acid is widely used in biology, but its body weight reducing effect is not researched. Twenty mice were divided into two equal groups. Control group mice drank standard tap water, but study group mice drank 0.28mg/250ml boric acid added tap water over five days. Total body weight changes, major organ histopathology, blood biochemistry, urine and feces analyses were compared. Study group mice lost body weight mean 28.1% but in control group no weight loss and also weight gained mean 0.09% (pboric acid intake cause serious body weight reduction. Blood and urine analyses support high glucose, lipid and middle protein catabolisms, but the mechanism is unclear.

  14. Assessing plasma glucose and lipid levels, body weight and acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing plasma glucose and lipid levels, body weight and acute toxicity following oral ... Diabetes was induced in male and female Wistar rats with alloxan ... had good hypoglycemic activity and good effects on cardiovascular risk factors.

  15. Effect Of Depot Medroxyprogesterone (DMPA) On Body Weight And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate body weight and serum lipid profile ... both treated and control groups studied for lipid profile using a colorometric method. ... Statistical analysis indicated that these changes were significant (p <

  16. Control of body weight by eating behavior in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modjtaba eZandian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diet, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have limited effects in counteracting the worldwide increase in pediatric body weight. Moreover, the promise that individualized drug design will work to induce weight loss appears to be exaggerated. We suggest that the reason for this limited success is that the cause of obesity has been misunderstood. Body weight is mainly under external control; our brain permits us to eat under most circumstances, and unless the financial or physical cost of food is high, eating and body weight increase by default. When energy-rich, inexpensive foods are continually available, people need external support to maintain a healthy body weight. Weight loss can thereby be achieved by continuous feedback on how much and how fast to eat on a computer screen.

  17. PET imaging predicts future body weight and cocaine preference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelides M.; Wang G.; Michaelides M.; Thanos P.K. Kim R.; Cho J.; Ananth M.; Wang G.-J.; Volkow N.D.

    2011-08-28

    Deficits in dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) binding availability using PET imaging have been reported in obese humans and rodents. Similar deficits have been reported in cocaine-addicts and cocaine-exposed primates. We found that D2R/D3R binding availability negatively correlated with measures of body weight at the time of scan (ventral striatum), at 1 (ventral striatum) and 2 months (dorsal and ventral striatum) post scan in rats. Cocaine preference was negatively correlated with D2R/D3R binding availability 2 months (ventral striatum) post scan. Our findings suggest that inherent deficits in striatal D2R/D3R signaling are related to obesity and drug addiction susceptibility and that ventral and dorsal striatum serve dissociable roles in maintaining weight gain and cocaine preference. Measuring D2R/D3R binding availability provides a way for assessing susceptibility to weight gain and cocaine abuse in rodents and given the translational nature of PET imaging, potentially primates and humans.

  18. The effect of body weight changes and endurance training on 24h substrate oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.; Saris, W.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of body weight changes and endurance training on 24h substrate oxidation. Pasman WJ, Westerterp MS, Saris WH. Maastricht University, Department of Human Biology, The Netherlands. Pasman@voeding.tno.nl OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of exercise training and dietary macronutrient comp

  19. Control of Body Weight by Eating Behavior in Children

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Diet, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have limited effects in counteracting the worldwide increase in pediatric body weight. Moreover, the promise that individualized drug design will work to induce weight loss appears to be exaggerated. We suggest that the reason for this limited success is that the cause of obesity has been misunderstood. Body weight is mainly under external control; our brain permits us to eat under most circumstances, and unless the financial or physical cost ...

  20. Religion and body weight: a review of quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeary, Karen Hye-Cheon Kim; Sobal, Jeffery; Wethington, Elaine

    2017-10-01

    Increasing interest in relationships between religion and health has encouraged research about religion and body weight, which has produced mixed findings. We systematically searched 11 bibliographic databases for quantitative studies of religion and weight, locating and coding 85 studies. We conducted a systematic review, analysing descriptive characteristics of the studies as well as relevant religion-body weight associations related to study characteristics. We summarized findings for two categories of religion variables: religious affiliation and religiosity. For religious affiliation, we found evidence for significant associations with body weight in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. In particular, Seventh-Day Adventists had lower body weight than other denominations in cross-sectional analyses. For religiosity, significant associations occurred between greater religiosity and higher body weight in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. In particular, greater religiosity was significantly associated with higher body weight in bivariate analyses but less so in multivariate analyses. A greater proportion of studies that used a representative sample, longitudinal analyses, and samples with only men reported significant associations between religiosity and weight. Evidence in seven studies suggested that health behaviours and psychosocial factors mediate religion-weight relationships. More longitudinal studies and analyses of mediators are needed to provide stronger evidence and further elucidate religion-weight relationships. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  1. What is a healthy body weight? Perspectives of overweight youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Heather M; Irwin, Jennifer D

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative assessment was completed of overweight/obese youths' perceptions of the meaning of "healthy body weight," barriers and facilitators to healthy body weight attainment, and what would effectively enhance and support their healthy body weight behaviours. This qualitative study targeted a sample of overweight and obese youth, aged 14 to 16 years. An experienced interviewer conducted 11 in-depth interviews. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Three qualitative researchers conducted independent and simultaneous inductive content analysis to facilitate confirmability. Data trustworthiness was supported via member checking, peer debriefing, and reflexive journalling. Most participants characterized healthy body weight as a combination of healthy eating and regular physical activity. Some included a psychological dimension in the definition. Perceived facilitators of a healthy body weight included family support, access to nutritious food at home, physical activity encouragement, and a physical activity environment at school. Perceived barriers included lack of family support, a poor nutrition environment, an unsupportive school environment, time, self-esteem, and bullying. Participants identified preferences for an intervention that would include opportunities for unstructured coeducational recreational activities, coeducational nutrition education sessions, and a gender-specific discussion forum. Participants provided a wealth of information to form the foundation of future youth-focused efficacious healthy body weight interventions.

  2. Monogenic human obesity syndromes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farooqi, I S; O'Rahilly, S

    2004-01-01

    .... This chapter will consider the human monogenic obesity syndromes that have been characterized to date and discuss how far such observations support the physiological role of these molecules in the regulation of human body weight and neuroendocrine function.

  3. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies) , 2014 . Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a standardised aqueo us extract from white kidney bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and reduction of body weight pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and reduction of body weight. The Panel considers that the food is sufficiently characterised. A reduction in body weight is a beneficial physiological effect...

  4. The artificial sweetener acesulfame potassium affects the gut microbiome and body weight gain in CD-1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Xiaoming; Chi, Liang; Gao, Bei; Tu, Pengcheng; Ru, Hongyu; Lu, Kun

    2017-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners have been widely used in the modern diet, and their observed effects on human health have been inconsistent, with both beneficial and adverse outcomes reported. Obesity and type 2 diabetes have dramatically increased in the U.S. and other countries over the last two decades. Numerous studies have indicated an important role of the gut microbiome in body weight control and glucose metabolism and regulation. Interestingly, the artificial sweetener saccharin could alter gut microbiota and induce glucose intolerance, raising questions about the contribution of artificial sweeteners to the global epidemic of obesity and diabetes. Acesulfame-potassium (Ace-K), a FDA-approved artificial sweetener, is commonly used, but its toxicity data reported to date are considered inadequate. In particular, the functional impact of Ace-K on the gut microbiome is largely unknown. In this study, we explored the effects of Ace-K on the gut microbiome and the changes in fecal metabolic profiles using 16S rRNA sequencing and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) metabolomics. We found that Ace-K consumption perturbed the gut microbiome of CD-1 mice after a 4-week treatment. The observed body weight gain, shifts in the gut bacterial community composition, enrichment of functional bacterial genes related to energy metabolism, and fecal metabolomic changes were highly gender-specific, with differential effects observed for males and females. In particular, ace-K increased body weight gain of male but not female mice. Collectively, our results may provide a novel understanding of the interaction between artificial sweeteners and the gut microbiome, as well as the potential role of this interaction in the development of obesity and the associated chronic inflammation.

  5. Genetic parameters of body weight and prolificacy in pigeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaumont Catherine

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic parameters of body weight at weaning and of prolificacy were estimated in three commercial lines of pigeons selected by BLUP (Best Linear Unbiased Prediction on both traits. The model of analysis took into account the direct genetic effects for both traits and the effect of parental permanent environment for body weight. Depending on the line considered, body weight varied from 556.7 g to 647.6 g and prolificacy ranged from 12.5 to 16.8 pigeons weaned per couple of parents per year. Heritability of body weight was high, varying between 0.46 and 0.60, and permanent environment was responsible for 6% to 9% of the total variability. On the contrary, prolificacy was poorly heritable (0.04 to 0.12. They were highly and negatively correlated (-0.77 to -0.82. Body weight showed significant genetic trends in lines B and C. No significant genetic difference could be observed between males and females for both traits.

  6. 瘦蛋白介导的人食欲与体重调节机制%Human Appetite and Body Weight Regulation Pathways Mediated by Leptin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张崇本

    2004-01-01

    瘦蛋白(leptin)介导了一个由5个基因的表达与调控组成的食欲调节系统,从而实现了人体重的反馈调节.深入分析人类体重调节的分子机制对于阐明肥胖发生的生理学机制,以及对于抗肥胖药物的设计和筛选具有重要意义.

  7. Excess body weight during pregnancy and offspring obesity: potential mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliy, Oleg; Piyathilake, Chandrika J; Kozyrskyj, Anita; Celep, Gulcin; Marotta, Francesco; Rastmanesh, Reza

    2014-03-01

    The rates of child and adult obesity have increased in most developed countries over the past several decades. The health consequences of obesity affect both physical and mental health, and the excess body weight can be linked to an elevated risk for developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular problems, and depression. Among the factors that can influence the development of obesity are higher infant weights and increased weight gain, which are associated with higher risk for excess body weight later in life. In turn, mother's excess body weight during and after pregnancy can be linked to the risk for offspring overweight and obesity through dietary habits, mode of delivery and feeding, breast milk composition, and through the influence on infant gut microbiota. This review considers current knowledge of these potential mechanisms that threaten to create an intergenerational cycle of obesity.

  8. Diseases and disorders associated with excess body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Excess body weight is a very serious problem, especially in North America and Europe. It has been referred to as a "pandemic" since it has progressively increased over the past several decades. Moreover, excess body weight significantly increases the risk of numerous diseases and clinical disorders, including all-cause mortality, coronary and cerebrovascular diseases, various cancers, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, liver disease and asthma, as well as psychopathology, among others. Unfortunately, overweight and obesity are now common in both young children and adolescents. Although the causes of excess body weight are multi-factorial, the most important factors are excess caloric intake coupled with limited energy expenditure. Therefore, lifestyle modification can significantly reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality and thereby increase longevity and improve the quality of life.

  9. The potential association between fruit intake and body weight--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinia, S; Hels, O; Tetens, I

    2009-11-01

    Both national and international bodies recommend an increased intake of fruits and vegetables in order to decrease the risk of overweight and obesity. However, there is a rationale to investigate the separate role of fruits. The aim of this paper was to systematically review and analyse published human intervention, prospective observational and cross-sectional studies on fruit intake and body weight in adults. We identified three intervention, eight prospective observational and five cross-sectional studies that explored this relationship. Two of the intervention studies showed that fruit intake reduced body weight, five of the prospective observational studies showed that fruit consumption reduced the risk of developing overweight and obesity, and four of the cross-sectional studies found an inverse association between fruit intake and body weight. Important methodological differences and limitations in the studies make it difficult to compare results. However, the majority of the evidence points towards a possible inverse association between fruit intake and overweight. Future intervention and prospective observational studies examining the direct and independent role of fruit in body-weight management in free-living individuals are needed. Moreover, important determinants such as energy density, energy content, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical form of fruit and preparation methods need to be included in future studies.

  10. Evaluation of Body Weight, Body Condition, and Muscle Condition in Cats with Hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M E; Castellano, C A; Rishniw, M

    2016-11-01

    The contribution of fat loss versus muscle wasting to the loss of body weight seen in hyperthyroid cats is unknown. To investigate body weight, body condition score (BCS), and muscle condition score (MCS) in hyperthyroid cats. Four hundred sixty-two cats with untreated hyperthyroidism, 117 of which were reevaluated after treatment. Prospective cross-sectional and before-after studies. Untreated hyperthyroid cats had body composition evaluated (body weight, BCS, and MCS). A subset of these cats were reevaluated 3-12 months after treatment when euthyroid. Pretreatment body weight (median, 4.36 kg; IQR, 3.5 to 5.2 kg) was lower than premorbid weight (5.45 kg; IQR, 4.6 to 6.4 kg, P weight (median, 4.1 kg to 5.0 kg), BCS (median, 3/5 to 3.5/5), and MCS (2/3 to 3/3) after treatment (P weight but maintain an ideal or overweight BCS, with only a third being underweight. As in human hyperthyroid patients, this weight loss is associated with muscle wasting, which affects >75% of hyperthyroid cats. Successful treatment leads to weight gain and increase of BCS in most cats, but almost half fail to regain normal muscle mass. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  11. Effects of chronic leptin infusion on subsequent body weight and composition in mice: Can body weight set point be reset?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravussin, Y; LeDuc, C A; Watanabe, K; Mueller, B R; Skowronski, A; Rosenbaum, M; Leibel, R L

    2014-07-01

    Circulating leptin concentrations correlate with fat mass and signal the status of somatic energy stores to the brain. Previous studies suggest that diet-induced elevations of body weight increase body weight "set-point". To assess whether chronic hyperleptinemia is responsible for this shift in defended body weight, we elevated circulating leptin concentrations in lean mice to those comparable to diet-induced obese mice for eighteen weeks. We hypothesized that following cessation of leptin infusion, a higher body weight would be defended. Compared to saline-infused controls, leptin-infused mice had elevated circulating leptin concentrations, gained less weight, yet had similar metabolic rates. Following cessation of leptin administration, leptin-infused mice gained some weight yet plateaued at 5-10% below controls. These results suggest that, unlike mice rendered hyperleptinemic by diet-induced weight gain, leptin-infused mice do not subsequently "defend" a higher body weight, suggesting that hyperleptinemia per se does not mimic the CNS consequences of chronic weight gain.

  12. Intestinal inflammation influences α-MSH reactive autoantibodies: relevance to food intake and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquerel, Quentin; Sinno, Maria Hamze; Boukhettala, Nabile; Coëffier, Moïse; Terashi, Mutsumi; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Breuillé, Denis; Déchelotte, Pierre; Fetissov, Sergueï O

    2012-01-01

    Autoantibodies reacting with alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), an anorexigenic neuropeptide, are involved in regulation of feeding. In this work we studied if intestinal inflammation (mucositis) may influence α-MSH autoantibodies production relevant to food intake and body weight. Mucositis and anorexia were produced in Sprague-Dawley rats by methotrexate (MTX, 2.5mg/kg/day, for three days, subcutaneously). Plasma levels of total IgG and of α-MSH autoantibodies were measured during and after MTX-induced mucositis and were compared with pair-fed and ad libitum-fed controls. Effects of intraperitoneal injections of rabbit anti-α-MSH IgG (3 or 10 μg/day/rat) on MTX-induced anorexia and on plasma α-MSH peptide concentration were separately studied. Here we show that in MTX rats, intestinal mucositis and anorexia were accompanied by decreased plasma levels of both total IgG and of α-MSH autoantibodies while refeeding was characterized by their elevated levels. In spite of similar food intake in MTX and pair-fed rats, recovery of body weight was delayed by at least 1 week in the MTX group. During refeeding and body weight deficit in MTX rats, α-MSH IgG autoantibody levels correlated negatively with food to water intake ratios. Injections of anti-α-MSH IgG induced a dose-dependent attenuation of food intake and body weight regain in MTX-treated rats accompanied by increased concentrations of α-MSH peptide which correlated positively with plasma levels of α-MSH autoantibodies. These data show that intestinal inflammation, independently from food restriction, affects general humoral immune response which may influence food intake and body weight control via modulation of α-MSH plasma concentration by α-MSH reactive autoantibodies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy density, energy intake regulation and body weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity is one of the major health crises of our time. The majority of adult Americans are now either overweight or obese, and recent research indicates that obesity is approaching smoking as the major cause of disability and premature death. National improvements in dietary intake, and in particu...

  14. Hormonal mechanisms in body weight regulation and terapheutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Geloneze Neto

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the mechanisms of apetite control,either central or peripheric and the main drugs that are beingdeveloped to treat obesity. Considering obesity as a neuro-chemicalrecidivant disease only treatments that are efficacious on the longterm are acceptable.

  15. Body Characteristics, Dietary Protein and Body Weight Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Zøllner; Ängquist, Lars; Stocks, Tanja;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Physiological evidence indicates that high-protein diets reduce caloric intake and increase thermogenic response, which may prevent weight gain and regain after weight loss. Clinical trials have shown such effects, whereas observational cohort studies suggest an association...... between greater protein intake and weight gain. In both types of studies the results are based on average weight changes, and show considerable diversity in both directions. This study investigates whether the discrepancy in the evidence could be due to recruitment of overweight and obese individuals......, and body characteristics. Different subsets of the DCH-participants, comparable with the trial participants, were analyzed for weight maintenance according to the randomization status (high or low protein) of the matched trial participants. RESULTS: Trial participants were generally heavier, had larger...

  16. Effects of G6pc2 deletion on body weight and cholesterol in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boortz, Kayla A; Syring, Kristen E; Pound, Lynley D; Mo, Huan; Bastarache, Lisa; Oeser, James K; McGuinness, Owen P; Denny, Joshua C; O'Brien, Richard M

    2017-04-01

    Genome-wide association study (GWAS) data have linked the G6PC2 gene to variations in fasting blood glucose (FBG). G6PC2 encodes an islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit that forms a substrate cycle with the beta cell glucose sensor glucokinase. This cycle modulates the glucose sensitivity of insulin secretion and hence FBG. GWAS data have not linked G6PC2 to variations in body weight but we previously reported that female C57BL/6J G6pc2-knockout (KO) mice were lighter than wild-type littermates on both a chow and high-fat diet. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of G6pc2 deletion on FBG and body weight in both chow-fed and high-fat-fed mice on two other genetic backgrounds. FBG was reduced in G6pc2 KO mice largely independent of gender, genetic background or diet. In contrast, the effect of G6pc2 deletion on body weight was markedly influenced by these variables. Deletion of G6pc2 conferred a marked protection against diet-induced obesity in male mixed genetic background mice, whereas in 129SvEv mice deletion of G6pc2 had no effect on body weight. G6pc2 deletion also reduced plasma cholesterol levels in a manner dependent on gender, genetic background and diet. An association between G6PC2 and plasma cholesterol was also observed in humans through electronic health record-derived phenotype analyses. These observations suggest that the action of G6PC2 on FBG is largely independent of the influences of environment, modifier genes or epigenetic events, whereas the action of G6PC2 on body weight and cholesterol are influenced by unknown variables. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  17. Pyrrolidin-2-one derivatives may reduce body weight in rats with diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Magdalena; Knutelska, Joanna; Bednarski, Marek; Nowiński, Leszek; Zygmunt, Małgorzata; Kazek, Grzegorz; Mordyl, Barbara; Głuch-Lutwin, Monika; Zaręba, Paula; Kulig, Katarzyna; Sapa, Jacek

    2016-04-05

    Obesity affects an increasing number of individuals in the human population and significant importance is attached to research leading to the discovery of drug which would effectively reduce weight. The search for new drugs with anorectic activity and acting within the adrenergic system has attracted the interest of researchers. This study concerns the experimental effects on body weight of α2-adrenoceptor antagonists from the group of pyrrolidin-2-one derivatives in rats with diet-induced obesity. The intrinsic activity of the test compounds at the α-adrenoreceptors was tested. Obesity in rats was obtained by the use of fatty diet and then the influence of the test compounds on body weight, food and water intakes, lipid and glucose profiles and glycerol and cortisol levels were determinated. The effects of the compounds on locomotor activity, body temperature, blood pressure and heart rate were tested. One of the test compounds (1-(3-(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)propyl)pyrrolidin-2-one) reduces the animal's body weight and the amount of peritoneal adipose tissue during chronic administration, at the same time it does not cause significant adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. This compound decreases temperature and elevates glycerol levels and does not change the locomotor activity and cortisol level at anti-obese dose. Some derivatives of pyrrolidin-2-one that act as antagonists of the α2-adrenoreceptor may reduce body weight. Reducing body weight for 1-(3-(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)propyl)pyrrolidin-2-one can be associated with decrease in food intake, body fat reduction, reduction of blood glucose, and increased thermogenesis and lipolysis. This effect cannot be the result of changes in spontaneous activity or stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic analysis of body weight of Takifugu rubripes at different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-11-09

    Nov 9, 2016 ... 2Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao ... weight trait was mainly controlled by dominance effects from 8 to 17 months ... Key words: Takifugu rubripes, body weight, genetic parameters, .... The quantity of fish and the environment were standardized to ..... models of evolutionary change.

  19. Religion and body weight in an underserved population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Religions prominence in some underserved groups that bear a disproportionate burden of the obesity epidemic (e.g. rural, Southern, minority) may play an important role in body weight. Data (1662 African American and Caucasian adults aged 18+) from a representative U.S. sample of a predominately rura...

  20. Physical activity, body weight and cancer. Effects and methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steins Bisschop, C.N.

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity is an important determinant of general health, but seems to provide similar benefits after a diagnosis of disease, e.g. cancer. In this thesis, we investigated relations between physical activity, body weight and disease risk in the general population (Part I), and we studied some

  1. Testicular development and relationship between body weight, testis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... These periods coincided with the phase of rapid gain in body weight in the various groups. Significant (P < 0.05) between ... in terms of loss of animals of good genetic standing may be of no practical value to the farmer.

  2. Body Weight changes and Economic Implications of Feeding Uda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body Weight changes and Economic Implications of Feeding Uda Rams with ... Tullun Gwanki Grazing Reserve was purposively selected because of the ... result in terms of cost of feed/kg live weight gain (962.83N/kg) as compared to rams on ...

  3. Does eating good-tasting food influence body weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordoff, Michael G; Pearson, Jordan A; Ellis, Hillary T; Poole, Rachel L

    2017-03-01

    Does eating good-tasting food influence body weight? To investigate, we first established some concentrations of sucralose and mineral oil in chow that mice strongly preferred. Then, in Experiment 1, we compared groups of 16 mice fed plain chow (i.e., chow with no additives) to groups fed chow with added (a) sucralose, (b) mineral oil, (c) sucralose and mineral oil, or (d) sucralose on odd days and mineral oil on even days. During a 6-week test, the body weights and body compositions of the five groups never differed. In Experiment 2, we compared groups of 18 mice fed plain chow or plain high-fat diet to groups fed these diets with added sucralose. During a 9-week test, the high-fat diet caused weight gain, but the body weights of mice fed the sucralose-sweetened diets did not differ from those fed the corresponding plain versions. Two-cup choice tests conducted at the end of each experiment showed persisting strong preferences for the diets with added sucralose and/or mineral oil. In concert with earlier work, our results challenge the hypothesis that the orosensory properties of a food influence body weight gain. A good taste can stimulate food intake acutely, and guide selection toward nutrient-dense foods that cause weight gain, but it does not determine how much is eaten chronically.

  4. Adipose tissue trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C.P.; Berentzen, T.L.; Østergaard, J.N.

    Previous studies have suggested that intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) may play a role in the development of obesity. For fatty acids not synthesized endogenously in humans, such as TFA, the proportions in adipose tissue tend to correlate well with the habitual dietary intake. Biomarkers may...... provide a more accurate measure of habitual TFA intake than dietary questionnaires. Our objective was to investigate the associations between specific TFA in adipose tissue and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference (WC)....

  5. Smoking and Body Weight: Evidence using Genetic Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Wilcox, Allen; Lie, Rolv T.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have evaluated whether the high and rising obesity rates over the past three decades may be due to the declining smoking rates. There is mixed evidence across studies – some find negative smoking effects and positive cigarette cost effects on body weight, while others find opposite effects. This study applies a unique approach to identify the smoking effects on body weight and to evaluate the heterogeneity in these effects across the body mass index (BMI) distribution by utilizing genetic instruments for smoking. Using a data sample of 1,057 mothers from Norway, the study finds heterogeneous effects of cigarette smoking on BMI – smoking increases BMI at low/moderate BMI levels and decreases BMI at high BMI levels. The study highlights the potential advantages and challenges of employing genetic instrumental variables to identify behavior effects including the importance of qualifying the instruments and the need for large samples. PMID:22024417

  6. Relationships between body weight, fasting blood glucose concentration, sex and age in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X; Chang, Q; Zhang, Y; Zou, X; Chen, L; Zhang, L; Lv, L; Liang, B

    2013-12-01

    The tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) is a squirrel-like lower primate or a close relative of primates, commonly used as an animal model in biomedical research. Despite more than three decades of usage in research, the clear relationships between body weight, fasting blood glucose concentration, sex and age among tree shrews remain unclear. Based on an investigation of 992 tree shrews (454 males and 538 females) aged between 4 months and 4 years old, we found that male tree shrews have significantly higher body weight and fasting blood glucose concentration than female tree shrews (p < 0.001). The concentration of fasting blood glucose slightly increased with body weight in males (r = 0.152, p < 0.001). Meanwhile, in females, the body weight, concentration of fasting blood glucose and waist circumference positively increased with age (p < 0.001). Additionally, 17 tree shrews with Lee index [body weight (g)*0.33*1000/body length (cm)] above 290 had significantly higher body weight, waist circumference and glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) than non-obese tree shrews with a Lee index score below 290 (p < 0.001). Interestingly, 6 of 992 tree shrews (three males and three females, 2-4 years old) displayed impaired plasma triglycerides, HbA1c, low-density lipoprotein and oral glucose tolerance test, suggestive of the early symptoms of metabolic syndrome. This study provides the first clear relationships between body weight, fasting blood glucose concentration, sex and age in tree shrews, further improving our understanding of this relationship in metabolic syndrome (MetS). Given the similarity of tree shrews to humans and non-human primates, this finding supports their potential use as an animal model in the research of MetS.

  7. Increase in body weight after pramipexole treatment in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumru, Hatice; Santamaria, Joan; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Marti, Maria J; Tolosa, Eduardo

    2006-11-01

    Body weight changes occur during the clinical course of Parkinson's disease (PD) and with surgical treatment, but the effect of dopaminergic treatment on weight is unknown. Body mass index (BMI), Hamilton depression scale score (HDS), and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale III (UPRS-III) were measured before and 3 months after starting pramipexole in 28 PD patients. Pramipexole produced a significant weight increase, as well as motor and mood improvement (P weight gain in PD.

  8. Mechanisms of body weight fluctuations in Parkinson’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea eKistner; Eugénie eLhommée; Paul eKrack

    2014-01-01

    Typical body weight changes are known to occur in PD. Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopaminergic treatment. Compr...

  9. Mechanisms of Body Weight Fluctuations in Parkinson’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kistner, Andrea; Lhommée, Eugénie; Krack, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Typical body weight changes are known to occur in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand, an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopami...

  10. Estimating liver weight of adults by body weight and gender

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    See Ching Chan; Chi Leung Liu; Chung Mau Lo; Banny K Lam; Evelyn W Lee; Yik Wong; Sheung Tat Fan

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the standard liver weight for assessing adequacies of graft size in live donor liver transplantation and remnant liver in major hepatectomy for cancer.METHODS: In this study, anthropometric data of body weight and body height were tested for a correlation with liver weight in 159 live liver donors who underwent donor right hepatectomy including the middle hepatic vein. Liver weights were calculated from the right lobe graft weight obtained at the back table, divided by the proportion of the right lobe on the computed tomography.RESULTS: The subjects, all Chinese, had a mean age of 35.8 ± 10.5 years, and a female to male ratio of 118:41. The mean volume of the right lobe was 710.14 ±131.46 mL and occupied 64.55%±4.47% of the whole liver on computed tomography. Right lobe weighed 598.90±117.39 g and the estimated liver weight was 927.54 ± 168.78 g. When body weight and body height were subjected to multiple stepwise linear regression analysis, body height was found to be insignificant. Females of the same body weight had a slightly lower liver weight. A formula based on body weight and gender was derived: Estimated standard liver weight (g) = 218 + BW (kg) x 12.3 + genderx 51 (R2 = 0.48)(female = 0, male = 1). Based on the anthropometric data of these 159 subjects, liver weights were calculated using previously published formulae derived from studies on Caucasian, Japanese, Korean, and Chinese.All formulae overestimated liver weights compared to this formula. The Japanese formula overestimated the estimated standard liver weight (ESLW) for adults less than 60 kg.CONCLUSION: A formula applicable to Chinese males and females is available. A formula for individual races appears necessary.

  11. Hedgehog signalling in myeloid cells impacts on body weight, adipose tissue inflammation and glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braune, Julia; Weyer, Ulrike; Matz-Soja, Madlen; Hobusch, Constance; Kern, Matthias; Kunath, Anne; Klöting, Nora; Kralisch, Susann; Blüher, Matthias; Gebhardt, Rolf; Zavros, Yana; Bechmann, Ingo; Gericke, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Recently, hedgehog (Hh) was identified as a crucial player in adipose tissue development and energy expenditure. Therefore, we tested whether Hh ligands are regulated in obesity. Further, we aimed at identifying potential target cells of Hh signalling and studied the functional impact of Hh signalling on adipose tissue inflammation and glucose metabolism. Hh ligands and receptors were analysed in adipose tissue or serum from lean and obese mice as well as in humans. To study the impact on adipose tissue inflammation and glucose metabolism, Hh signalling was specifically blocked in myeloid cells using a conditional knockout approach (Lys-Smo (-/-)). Desert Hh (DHH) and Indian Hh (IHH) are local Hh ligands, whereas Sonic Hh is not expressed in adipose tissue from mice or humans. In mice, obesity leads to a preferential upregulation of Hh ligands (Dhh) and signalling components (Ptch1, Smo and Gli1) in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Further, adipose tissue macrophages are Hh target cells owing to the expression of Hh receptors, such as Patched1 and 2. Conditional knockout of Smo (which encodes Smoothened, a mandatory Hh signalling component) in myeloid cells increases body weight and adipose tissue inflammation and attenuates glucose tolerance, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect of Hh signalling. In humans, adipose tissue expression of DHH and serum IHH decrease with obesity and type 2 diabetes, which might be explained by the intake of metformin. Interestingly, metformin reduced Dhh and Ihh expression in mouse adipose tissue explants. Hh signalling in myeloid cells affects adipose tissue inflammation and glucose metabolism and may be a potential target to treat type 2 diabetes.

  12. The Association of Antidepressant Medication and Body Weight Gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ranjbar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature and discover which antidepressants are responsible for weight gain and then to discuss the areas with lack of adequate knowledge. Method: An electronic search was conducted through Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane library, and ScienceDirect. Forty nine empirical researches were identified and reviewed. Results: Amitriptyline, clomipramine, and mirtazapine have been associated with more weight gain induction in clinical studies, but not in animal-based studies. All TCAs have been reported to cause weight gain except protriptyline. MAOIs have been associated with weight gain. In SSRI group, citalopram and ecitalopram induce weight, yet mixed results exist for paroxetine and fluoxetine. Researches unanimously reported weight loss effect for bupropion. Some studies suggest contributing factors in the relationship of antidepressants with body weight changes including age, gender, base-line weights and treatment duration. Various results of different treatment durations have been reported in some cases but there are not continuous time-dependent studies for the influences of antidepressants on body weight changes. Conclusion: More studies are required to discover underlying mechanisms and the time-dependent effects of antidepressants on body weight changes.

  13. A treasure trove of hypothalamic neurocircuitries governing body weight homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Claudia R; Coppari, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Changes in physical activities and feeding habits have transformed the historically rare disease of obesity into a modern metabolic pandemic. Obesity occurs when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure over time. This energy imbalance significantly increases the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus and as such represents an enormous socioeconomic burden and health threat. To combat obesity, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms and neurocircuitries underlying normal body weight homeostasis is required. In the 1940s, pioneering lesion experiments unveiled the importance of medial and lateral hypothalamic structures. In the 1980s and 1990s, several neuropeptides and peripheral hormones critical for appropriate feeding behavior, energy expenditure, and hence body weight homeostasis were identified. In the 2000s, results from metabolic analyses of genetically engineered mice bearing mutations only in selected neuronal groups greatly advanced our knowledge of the peripheral/brain feedback-loop modalities by which central neurons control energy balance. In this review, we will summarize these recent progresses with particular emphasis on the biochemical identities of hypothalamic neurons and molecular components underlying normal appetite, energy expenditure, and body weight homeostasis. We will also parse which of those neurons and molecules are critical components of homeostatic adaptive pathways against obesity induced by hypercaloric feeding.

  14. Body Weight Concerns among Urban Adolescent Girls: A Microlevel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Mukhopadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing consciousness about ideal body image leads to dietary modifications and consequent eating disorders among girls in developing countries like India. The present study aims to (i assess the prevalence of body weight consciousness and related behaviours among a group of adolescent girls; (ii assess the sociodemographic correlates of weight related behaviours; and (iii compare weight related behaviours of the girls of two religious groups residing in Howrah. The study is the outcome of a cross-sectional school based survey involving 280 (159 Hindu and 121 Muslim girls from standards 8 to 11. Significant differences exist between two religious groups with respect to their family size, socioeconomic profile, and media exposures (in terms of watching television. Consciousness about body weight among girls shows significant difference with respect to religion, family size (χ2=64.77, father’s occupation (χ2=60.28, level of education of both the parents, and media exposure (P<0.05. Consciousness about body weight drives them to adopt several behavioural measures like calorie restriction, food avoidance, and dieting. Sociodemographic correlates of all these behaviours have been analyzed. The study documents that concern over body image and weight loss is quite important among these urban girls.

  15. Link between Food Energy Density and Body Weight Changes in Obese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Rodacki, Tomasz; Dobrowolska-Iwanek, Justyna; Brzozowska, Anna; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Wojtanowska-Krosniak, Agnieszka; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Bechthold, Angela; Mardas, Marcin; Boeing, Heiner

    2016-04-20

    Regulating the energy density of food could be used as a novel approach for successful body weight reduction in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a systemic review of the literature on the relationship between food energy density and body weight changes in obese adults to obtain solid evidence supporting this approach. The search process was based on the selection of publications in the English language listed in public databases. A meta-analysis was performed to combine individual study results. Thirteen experimental and observational studies were identified and included in the final analysis. The analyzed populations consist of 3628 individuals aged 18 to 66 years. The studies varied greatly in terms of study populations, study design and applied dietary approaches. The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between low energy density foods and body weight reduction, i.e., -0.53 kg when low energy density foods were eaten (95% CI: -0.88, -0.19). In conclusions, this study adds evidence which supports the energy density of food as a simple but effective measure to manage weight in the obese with the aim of weight reduction.

  16. Link between Food Energy Density and Body Weight Changes in Obese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Stelmach-Mardas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Regulating the energy density of food could be used as a novel approach for successful body weight reduction in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a systemic review of the literature on the relationship between food energy density and body weight changes in obese adults to obtain solid evidence supporting this approach. The search process was based on the selection of publications in the English language listed in public databases. A meta-analysis was performed to combine individual study results. Thirteen experimental and observational studies were identified and included in the final analysis. The analyzed populations consist of 3628 individuals aged 18 to 66 years. The studies varied greatly in terms of study populations, study design and applied dietary approaches. The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between low energy density foods and body weight reduction, i.e., −0.53 kg when low energy density foods were eaten (95% CI: −0.88, −0.19. In conclusions, this study adds evidence which supports the energy density of food as a simple but effective measure to manage weight in the obese with the aim of weight reduction.

  17. Relatively high-protein or 'low-carb' energy-restricted diets for body weight loss and body weight maintenance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Bonomi, Alberto G; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Scholte, Jolande; Thijssen, Myriam A M A; van Berkum, Frank; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2012-10-10

    'Low-carb' diets have been suggested to be effective in body weight (BW) management. However, these diets are relatively high in protein as well. To unravel whether body-weight loss and weight-maintenance depends on the high-protein or the 'low-carb' component of the diet. Body-weight (BW), fat mass (FM), blood- and urine-parameters of 132 participants (age=50 ± 12 yr; BW=107 ± 20 kg; BMI=37 ± 6 kg/m(2); FM=47.5 ± 11.9 kg) were compared after 3 and 12 months between four energy-restricted diets with 33% of energy requirement for the first 3 months, and 67% for the last 9 months: normal-protein normal-carbohydrate (NPNC), normal-protein low-carbohydrate (NPLC); high-protein normal-carbohydrate (HPNC), high-protein low-carbohydrate (HPLC); 24h N-analyses confirmed daily protein intakes for the normal-protein diets of 0.7 ± 0.1 and for the high-protein diets of 1.1 ± 0.2g/kg BW (pcarb' component of the diet, while it is unrelated to the concomitant fat-content of the diet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on body weight: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monami, Matteo; Dicembrini, Ilaria; Marchionni, Niccolò; Rotella, Carlo M; Mannucci, Edoardo

    2012-01-01

    Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs), approved as glucose-lowering drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, have also been shown to reduce body weight. An extensive Medline, Cochrane database, and Embase search for "exenatide," "liraglutide," "albiglutide," "semaglutide," and "lixisenatide" was performed, collecting all randomized clinical trials on humans up to December 15, 2011, with a duration of at least 24 weeks, comparing GLP-1 receptor agonists with either placebo or active drugs. Twenty two (7,859 patients) and 7 (2,416 patients) trials with available results on body weight at 6 and 12 months, respectively, were included. When compared with placebo, GLP-1RAs determine a reduction of BMI at 6 months of -1.0 [-1.3; -0.6] kg/m(2). Considering the average BMI at baseline (32.4 kg/m(2)) these data means a weight reduction of about 3% at 6 months. This result could seem modest from a clinical standpoint; however, it could be affected by many factors contributing to an underestimation of the effect of GLP-1RA on body weight, such as non adequate doses, inclusion criteria, efficacy of GLP-1RA on reducing glycosuria, and association to non-pharmacological interventions not specifically aimed to weight reduction.

  19. Effects of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists on Body Weight: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Monami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs, approved as glucose-lowering drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, have also been shown to reduce body weight. An extensive Medline, Cochrane database, and Embase search for “exenatide,” “liraglutide,” “albiglutide,” “semaglutide,” and “lixisenatide” was performed, collecting all randomized clinical trials on humans up to December 15, 2011, with a duration of at least 24 weeks, comparing GLP-1 receptor agonists with either placebo or active drugs. Twenty two (7,859 patients and 7 (2,416 patients trials with available results on body weight at 6 and 12 months, respectively, were included. When compared with placebo, GLP-1RAs determine a reduction of BMI at 6 months of −1.0 [−1.3; −0.6] kg/m2. Considering the average BMI at baseline (32.4 kg/m2 these data means a weight reduction of about 3% at 6 months. This result could seem modest from a clinical standpoint; however, it could be affected by many factors contributing to an underestimation of the effect of GLP-1RA on body weight, such as non adequate doses, inclusion criteria, efficacy of GLP-1RA on reducing glycosuria, and association to non-pharmacological interventions not specifically aimed to weight reduction.

  20. PGC-1α and exercise in the control of body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summermatter, S; Handschin, C

    2012-11-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity and its comorbidities represents a major threat to human health globally. Pharmacological treatments exist to achieve weight loss, but the subsequent weight maintenance is prone to fail in the long run. Accordingly, efficient new strategies to persistently control body weight need to be elaborated. Exercise and dietary interventions constitute classical approaches to reduce and maintain body weight, yet people suffering from metabolic diseases are often unwilling or unable to move adequately. The administration of drugs that partially mimic exercise adaptation might circumvent this problem by easing and supporting physical activity. The thermogenic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) largely mediates the adaptive response of skeletal muscle to endurance exercise and is a potential target for such interventions. Here, we review the role of PGC-1α in mediating exercise adaptation, coordinating metabolic circuits and enhancing thermogenic capacity in skeletal muscle. We suggest a combination of elevated muscle PGC-1α and exercise as a modified approach for the efficient long-term control of body weight and the treatment of the metabolic syndrome.

  1. Fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight in European women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Marianne U; Dethlefsen, Claus; Due, Karen M; May, Anne M; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Norat, Teresa; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Halkjær, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Teucher, Birgit; Kühn, Tilman; Bergmann, Manuela M; Boeing, Heiner; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Santucci De Magistris, Maria; Sieri, Sabina; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; van der A, Daphne L; Engeset, Dagrun; Hjartåker, Anette; Rodríguez, Laudina; Agudo, Antonio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Huerta, José M; Barricarte, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Manjer, Jonas; Wirfält, Elisabet; Hallmans, Göran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Key, Timothy J; Chajès, Veronique; Slimani, Nadia; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H M; Overvad, Kim

    2013-01-28

    Fish consumption is the major dietary source of EPA and DHA, which according to rodent experiments may reduce body fat mass and prevent obesity. Only a few human studies have investigated the association between fish consumption and body-weight gain. We investigated the association between fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight. Women and men (n 344,757) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition were followed for a median of 5.0 years. Linear and logistic regression were used to investigate the associations between fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight. Among women, the annual weight change was 5.70 (95 % CI 4.35, 7.06), 2.23 (95 % CI 0.16, 4.31) and 11.12 (95 % CI 8.17, 14.08) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty fish consumption per d, respectively. The OR of becoming overweight in 5 years among women who were normal weight at enrolment was 1.02 (95 % CI 1.01, 1.02), 1.01 (95 % CI 1.00, 1.02) and 1.02 (95 % CI 1.01, 1.04) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty consumption per d, respectively. Among men, fish consumption was not statistically significantly associated with weight change. Adjustment for potential over- or underestimation of fish consumption did not systematically change the observed associations, but the 95 % CI became wider. The results in subgroups from analyses stratified by age or BMI at enrolment were not systematically different. In conclusion, the present study suggests that fish consumption has no appreciable association with body-weight gain.

  2. Chronic intrahypothalamic rather than subcutaneous liraglutide treatment reduces body weight gain and stimulates the melanocortin receptor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaineder, K; Birngruber, T; Rauter, G

    2017-01-01

    liraglutide treatment (PP4r gene (P....01) accompanied by a significant increase in circulating thyroxine (T4) levels (P...BACKGROUND: The GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide is marketed for obesity treatment where it induces body weight reduction possibly via the hypothalamus, which regulates energy homeostasis. In animal studies, acute liraglutide treatment triggers satiety, weight loss and activates thermogenesis...

  3. A novel oral form of salmon calcitonin improves glucose homeostasis and reduces body weight in diet-induced obese rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feigh, M; Henriksen, K; Andreassen, K V

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of acute and chronic administration of a novel oral formulation of salmon calcitonin (sCT) on glycaemic control, glucose homeostasis and body weight regulation in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats-an animal model of obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes....

  4. Partial sleep deprivation by environmental noise increases food intake and body weight in obesity-resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavanji, Vijayakumar; Teske, Jennifer A; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M

    2013-07-01

    Sleep restriction in humans increases risk for obesity, but previous rodent studies show weight loss following sleep deprivation, possibly due to stressful methods used to prevent sleep. Obesity-resistant (OR) rats exhibit consolidated-sleep and resistance to weight gain. It was hypothesized that sleep disruption by a less-stressful method would increase body weight, and the effect of partial sleep deprivation (PSD) on body weight in OR and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was examined. OR and SD rats (n = 12/group) were implanted with transmitters to record sleep/wake. After baseline recording, six SD and six OR rats underwent 8 h PSD during light phase for 9 days. Sleep was reduced using recordings of random noise. Sleep/wake states were scored as wakefulness (W), slow-wave-sleep (SWS), and rapid-eye-movement-sleep (REMS). Total number of transitions between stages, SWS-delta-power, food intake, and body weight were documented. Exposure to noise decreased SWS and REMS time, while increasing W time. Sleep-deprivation increased the number of transitions between stages and SWS-delta-power. Further, PSD during the rest phase increased recovery sleep during the active phase. The PSD SD and OR rats had greater food intake and body weight compared to controls PSD by less-stressful means increases body weight in rats. Also, PSD during the rest phase increases active period sleep. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  5. Cancers attributable to excess body weight in Canada in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Zakaria

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Excess body weight (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25.00 kg/m2 is an established risk factor for diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, but its relationship to cancer is lesser-known. This study used population attributable fractions (PAFs to estimate the cancer burden attributable to excess body weight in Canadian adults (aged 25+ years in 2010. Methods: We estimated PAFs using relative risk (RR estimates from the World Cancer Research Fund International Continuous Update Project, BMI-based estimates of overweight (25.00 kg/m2–29.99 kg/m2 and obesity (30.00+ kg/m2 from the 2000–2001 Canadian Community Health Survey, and cancer case counts from the Canadian Cancer Registry. PAFs were based on BMI corrected for the bias in self-reported height and weight. Results: In Canada in 2010, an estimated 9645 cancer cases were attributable to excess body weight, representing 5.7% of all cancer cases (males 4.9%, females 6.5%. When limiting the analysis to types of cancer associated with high BMI, the PAF increased to 14.9% (males 17.5%, females 13.3%. Types of cancer with the highest PAFs were esophageal adenocarcinoma (42.2%, kidney (25.4%, gastric cardia (20.7%, liver (20.5%, colon (20.5% and gallbladder (20.2% for males, and esophageal adenocarcinoma (36.1%, uterus (35.2%, gallbladder (23.7% and kidney (23.0% for females. Types of cancer with the greatest number of attributable cases were colon (1445, kidney (780 and advanced prostate (515 for males, and uterus (1825, postmenopausal breast (1765 and colon (675 for females. Irrespective of sex or type of cancer, PAFs were highest in the Prairies (except Alberta and the Atlantic region and lowest in British Columbia and Quebec. Conclusion: The cancer burden attributable to excess body weight is substantial and will continue to rise in the near future because of the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity in Canada.

  6. Neuropeptide exocytosis involving synaptotagmin-4 and oxytocin in hypothalamic programming of body weight and energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo; Bai, Hua; Zhang, Hai; Dean, Camin; Wu, Qiang; Li, Juxue; Guariglia, Sara; Meng, Qingyuan; Cai, Dongsheng

    2011-02-10

    Hypothalamic neuropeptides play essential roles in regulating energy and body weight balance. Energy imbalance and obesity have been linked to hypothalamic signaling defects in regulating neuropeptide genes; however, it is unknown whether dysregulation of neuropeptide exocytosis could be critically involved. This study discovered that synaptotagmin-4, an atypical modulator of synaptic exocytosis, is expressed most abundantly in oxytocin neurons of the hypothalamus. Synaptotagmin-4 negatively regulates oxytocin exocytosis, and dietary obesity is associated with increased vesicle binding of synaptotagmin-4 and thus enhanced negative regulation of oxytocin release. Overexpressing synaptotagmin-4 in hypothalamic oxytocin neurons and centrally antagonizing oxytocin in mice are similarly obesogenic. Synaptotagmin-4 inhibition prevents against dietary obesity by normalizing oxytocin release and energy balance under chronic nutritional excess. In conclusion, the negative regulation of synaptotagmin-4 on oxytocin release represents a hypothalamic basis of neuropeptide exocytosis in controlling obesity and related diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mutation analysis of the MCHR1 gene in human obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wermter, Anne-Kathrin; Reichwald, Kathrin; Büch, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The importance of the melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) system for regulation of energy homeostasis and body weight has been demonstrated in rodents. We analysed the human MCH receptor 1 gene (MCHR1) with respect to human obesity....

  8. Body weight, anorexia, and undernutrition in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Chapman, Ian M

    2013-09-01

    Ideal body weight for maximum life expectancy increases with advancing age. Older people, however, tend to weigh less than younger adults, and old age is also associated with a tendency to lose weight. Weight loss in older people is associated with adverse outcomes, particularly if unintentional, and initial body weight is low. When older people lose weight, more of the tissue lost is lean tissue (mainly skeletal muscle) than in younger people. When excessive, the loss of lean muscle tissue results in sarcopenia, which is associated with poor health outcomes. Unintentional weight loss in older people may be a result of protein-energy malnutrition, cachexia, the physiological anorexia of aging, or a combination of these. The physiological anorexia of aging is a decrease in appetite and energy intake that occurs even in healthy people and is possibly caused by changes in the digestive tract, gastrointestinal hormone concentrations and activity, neurotransmitters, and cytokines. A greater understanding of this decrease in appetite and energy intake during aging, and the responsible mechanisms, may aid the search for ways to treat undernutrition and weight loss in older people.

  9. Adolescent preferences and reactions to language about body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, R M; Himmelstein, M S; Armstrong, S C; Kingsford, E

    2017-04-04

    Over 30% of youth and adolescents have overweight or obesity, and health care providers are increasingly discussing weight-based health with these patients. Stigmatizing language in provider-patient communication about obesity is well documented and could be particularly detrimental to youth and adolescents. Although some research has examined preferences for weight-based terminology among adults, no studies have addressed these issues in youth populations. This study represents a preliminary and systematic investigation of weight-based language preferences among adolescents with overweight and obesity enrolled in a summer weight loss camp. Participants (N=50) indicated preferences for weight-based language and emotional responses to words that their family members used in reference to their body weight. Weight neutral terminology ('weight', 'body mass index') were most preferred, although some differences in word preferences emerged by the participants' gender. Boys preferred having their weight described as 'overweight' and 'heavy', while girls preferred the word 'curvy'. A large proportion of participants, particularly girls, reported experiencing sadness, shame, and embarrassment if parents used certain words to describe their body weight, which highlights the importance of considering the emotional impact of weight-based terminology. Providers may consider asking youth and adolescents for their preferences when discussing weight-based health.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 4 April 2017; doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.55.

  10. Olfactory and gustatory functions and its relation to body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrandies, Wolfgang; Zschieschang, Romy

    2015-04-01

    In the present study we investigated the influence of body weight as defined by BMI on gustatory and olfactory perception. A total of 66 healthy adults (41 females; 25 males) participated in psychophysical measurements using the "Sniffin' Sticks" test and "Taste Strips" test. Odor thresholds as well as discrimination and identification performance were determined. Tests of gustatory function involved the identification and thresholds of sweet, sour, salty, or bitter taste. In this study, all subjects were healthy participants in a middle age range (between 20 and 56 years of age). Persons with an extreme BMI value were excluded. Subjects were classified according to their BMI in four groups: (1) 15-19.9 kg/m, (2) 20-24.9 kg/m, (3) 25-29.9 kg/m, and (4) >30 kg/m. We did not observe an overall effect of BMI on general sensory sensitivity. There was a significant influence of BMI on olfactory thresholds (F(3,62)=2.79; pdiscrimination and identification was not affected by BMI. Thresholds for odor and sweet or salty taste were also correlated. Our data show that body weight influences gustatory and olfactory perception in healthy adults. Increasing BMI is associated with a decrease in olfactory and taste sensitivity. These findings may have implications for the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms in patients.

  11. Increased body weight affects academic performance in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela S. Anderson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For K-12 students, obesity has been linked to student educational achievements. The study objective was to determine whether academic performance in university students is correlated with BMI. Students from two consecutive academic years (Jan–May 2013 and Jan–May 2014 were given an optional class survey in May, as extra credit. Of the 452 students that completed the survey, 204 females and 75 males (N = 279; 73% female and 27% male consented to participate in the study. The number of correct answers to problem-solving questions (PSQs and the overall final grade for the class were compared to the calculated BMI using linear regression with a Pearson's R correlation and unpaired t-tests. BMI was significantly negatively correlated with student's final grades (P = 0.001 Pearson's r = −0.190 and PSQs were positively correlated with final grades (P < 0.001; Pearson's r = 0.357. Our findings show a correlation between healthy body weight and improved academic performance. Further, the data suggest that future research in the area of body weight, diet, and exercise and any correlations of these with academic performance in college students are warranted.

  12. Sugammadex and Ideal Body Weight in Bariatric Surgery

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    Maria Sanfilippo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The obese patients have differences in body composition, drug distribution, and metabolism. Sugammadex at recovery in a dose of 2 mg kg−1 of real body weight (RBW can completely reverse the NMB block; in our study we investigated the safety and efficacy of Sugammadex dose based on their ideal body weight (IBW. Methods. 40 patients of both sexes undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery were enrolled divided into 2 groups according to the dose of Sugammadex: the first received a dose of 2 mg kg−1 of IBW and the second received a dose of 2 mg kg−1 of RBW. Both were anesthetized with doses calculated according to the IBW: fentanyl 2 μg kg−1, propofol 3 mg kg−1, rocuronium 0,6 mg kg−1, oxygen, air, and desflurane (6–8%. Maintenance doses of rocuronium were 1/4 of the intubation dose. Sugammadex was administrated at recovery. Results. The durations of intubation and maintenance doses of rocuronium were similar in both groups. In IBW group, the / value of 0.9 was reached in 151 ± 44 seconds and in 121 ± 55 seconds in RBW group (. Discussion. Recovery times to / of 0.9 are surprisingly similar in both groups without observing any postoperative residual curarization. Conclusion. Sugammadex doses calculated according to the IBW are certainly safe for a rapid recovery and absence of PORC.

  13. Association between eating out of home and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Ilana N; Curioni, Cintia; Sichieri, Rosely

    2012-02-01

    Eating outside of the home environment on a frequent basis has been associated with weight gain. Food choices when eating out are usually high in energy content, which contributes to excessive energy intake; however, the available data on out-of-home eating and obesity are far from conclusive. This systematic review assesses the association between out-of-home eating and body weight in adults over 18 years of age. The literature databases searched included Medline, Embase, Lilacs, The Cochrane Library, and the ISI Web of Knowledge. The review includes a comprehensive quality assessment of all included observational studies, 20 cross-sectional studies, and 8 prospective cohort studies. All but one of the prospective cohort studies and about half of the cross-sectional analyses found a positive association between out-of-home eating and body weight. However, many methodological differences among the studies were found, such as the definition of out-of-home eating and its assessment, which limits comparisons. The results of the present analysis suggest that in future studies fast-food restaurants and other out-of-home dining venues should be analyzed separately, assessments based on a single 24-h recall should be avoided, and controls for at-home choices (which were not included in any of the studies reviewed) are necessary to evaluate this association.

  14. Mechanisms of Body Weight Reduction by Black Tea Polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Pan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of the most common nutritional diseases worldwide. This disease causes health problems, such as dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension and inflammation. There are drugs used to inhibit obesity. However, they have serious side effects outweighing their beneficial effects. Black tea, commonly referred to as “fermented tea”, has shown a positive effect on reducing body weight in animal models. Black tea polyphenols are the major components in black tea which reduce body weight. Black tea polyphenols are more effective than green tea polyphenols. Black tea polyphenols exert a positive effect on inhibiting obesity involving in two major mechanisms: (i inhibiting lipid and saccharide digestion, absorption and intake, thus reducing calorie intake; and (ii promoting lipid metabolism by activating AMP-activated protein kinase to attenuate lipogenesis and enhance lipolysis, and decreasing lipid accumulation by inhibiting the differentiation and proliferation of preadipocytes; (iii blocking the pathological processes of obesity and comorbidities of obesity by reducing oxidative stress. Epidemiological studies of the health relevance between anti-obesity and black tea polyphenols consumption remain to be further investigated.

  15. Equilibrium energy intake estimated by dietary energy intake and body weight changes in young Japanese females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Kayoko; Nishimuta, Mamoru; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Kodama, Naoko; Yoshitake, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    To determine the energy intake (EI) required to maintain body weight (equilibrium energy intake: EEI), we investigated the relationship between calculated energy intake and body weight changes in female subjects participating in 14 human balance studies (n=149) conducted at the National Institute of Health and Nutrition (Tokyo). In four and a half studies (n=43), sweat was collected from the arm to estimate loss of minerals through sweating during exercise on a bicycle ergometer; these subjects were classified in the exercise group (Ex G). In nine and a half experiments (n=106) subjects did not exercise, and were classified in the sedentary group (Sed G). The relationship between dietary energy intake (EI) and body weight (BW) changes (ΔBW) was analyzed and divided by four variables: body weight (BW), lean body mass (LBM), standard body weight (SBW), and body surface area (BSA). Equilibrium energy intake (EEI) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for EEI in Ex G were 34.3 and 32.8-35.9 kcal/kg BW/d, 32.0 and 30.8-33.1 kcal/kg SBW/d, 46.3 and 44.2-48.5 kcal/kg LBW/d, and 1,200 and 1,170-1,240 kcal/m(2) BSA/d, respectively. EEI and 95% CI for EEI in Sed G were 34.5 and 33.9-35.1 kcal/kg BW/d, 31.4 and 30.9-32.0 kcal/kg SBW/d, 44.9 and 44.1-45.8 kcal/kg LBM/d, and 1,200 and 1,180-1,210 kcal/m2 BSA/d, respectively. EEIs obtained in this study are 3 to 5% higher than estimated energy requirement (EER) for Japanese. In five out of six analyses, EER in a population (female, 18-29 y, physical activity level: 1.50) was under 95% CI of EEI obtained in this study.

  16. Associations between dairy protein intake and body weight and risk markers of diabetes and CVD during weight maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendtsen, Line Q; Lorenzen, Janne K; Larsen, Thomas M; van Baak, Marleen; Papadaki, Angeliki; Martinez, J Alfredo; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Jebb, Susan A; Kunešová, Marie; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Saris, Wim H M; Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne

    2014-03-14

    Dairy products have previously been reported to be associated with beneficial effects on body weight and metabolic risk markers. Moreover, primary data from the Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) study indicate a weight-maintaining effect of a high-protein-low-glycaemic index diet. The objective of the present study was to examine putative associations between consumption of dairy proteins and changes in body weight and metabolic risk markers after weight loss in obese and overweight adults. Results were based on secondary analyses of data obtained from overweight and obese adults who completed the DiOGenes study. The study consisted of an 8-week weight-loss phase and a 6-month weight-maintenance (WM) phase, where the subjects were given five different diets varying in protein content and glycaemic index. In the present study, data obtained from all the subjects were pooled. Dairy protein intake was estimated from 3 d dietary records at two time points (week 4 and week 26) during the WM phase. Body weight and metabolic risk markers were determined at baseline (week -9 to -11) and before and at the end of the WM phase (week 0 and week 26). Overall, no significant associations were found between consumption of dairy proteins and changes in body weight and metabolic risk markers. However, dairy protein intake tended to be negatively associated with body weight gain (P=0·08; β=-0·17), but this was not persistent when controlled for total protein intake, which indicates that dairy protein adds no additional effect to the effect of total protein. Therefore, the present study does not report that dairy proteins are more favourable than other proteins for body weight regulation.

  17. Stage-specific inhibition of TrkB activity leads to long-lasting and sexually dimorphic effects on body weight and hypothalamic gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardi S Byerly

    Full Text Available During development, prenatal and postnatal factors program homeostatic set points to regulate food intake and body weight in the adult. Combinations of genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of neural circuitry that regulates whole-body energy homeostasis. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf and its receptor, Tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB, are strong candidates for mediating the reshaping of hypothalamic neural circuitry, given their well-characterized role in the central regulation of feeding and body weight. Here, we employ a chemical-genetic approach using the TrkB(F616A/F616A knock-in mouse model to define the critical developmental period in which TrkB inhibition contributes to increased adult fat mass. Surprisingly, transient TrkB inhibition in embryos, preweaning pups, and adults all resulted in long-lasting increases in body weight and fat content. Moreover, sex-specific differences in the effects of TrkB inhibition on both body weight and hypothalamic gene expression were observed at multiple developmental stages. Our results highlight both the importance of the Bdnf/TrkB pathway in maintaining normal body weight throughout life and the role of sex-specific differences in the organization of hypothalamic neural circuitry that regulates body weight.

  18. Effects of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists on Body Weight: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Matteo Monami; Ilaria Dicembrini; Niccolò Marchionni; Rotella, Carlo M.; Edoardo Mannucci

    2012-01-01

    Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs), approved as glucose-lowering drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, have also been shown to reduce body weight. An extensive Medline, Cochrane database, and Embase search for “exenatide,” “liraglutide,” “albiglutide,” “semaglutide,” and “lixisenatide” was performed, collecting all randomized clinical trials on humans up to December 15, 2011, with a duration of at least 24 weeks, comparing GLP-1 receptor agonists with either placebo or...

  19. Sugar intake and body weight in Cambodian and Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikanai, Saiko; Koung Ry, Ly; Takeichi, Hitomi; Emiko, Suzuki; San, Pann; Sarukura, Nobuko; Kamoshita, Sumiko; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Because of the tastiness of sugars, it is easy to consume more than an adequate amount. There are many research reports that excess sugar intake contributes to dental decay, obesity, diabetes etc. Continuing economic development in Cambodia has made it easier than before for people to consume sugars in their daily life. Currently, isomerized sugar (a mixture of glucose and fructose) made from starches is commonly used in commercial beverages because of its low price. However, in Cambodia and Japan, sugar composition tables that include not only sucrose but also glucose, fructose, lactose and maltose have not been available. Prior to the present nutrition surveys, we made sugar composition tables for both countries. In this study we tried to estimate the intakes of various sugars by children in Cambodia and Japan and to determine the relationship between intake and body weight. Nutrition surveys of children aged 7, 10 and 13 years old were conducted for 3 nonconsecutive days by the 24 h recall method in 89 Cambodian children living in the capital city of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, and 151 Japanese children living in 3 prefectures from north to south. Height and weight of children in Cambodia and Japan were similar until 10 years old but at 13 years old, the Cambodians were shorter and lighter than the Japanese. We could not observe any differences in BMI in either country. The sugar intakes from beverages and snacks were not different among the different gender and age. Thus we combined the mean total sugar intake for Cambodian and Japanese, 28.42 ± 25.28 g and 25.69 ± 16.16 g respectively. These were within the range of WHO recommendations (less than 10% of energy intakes). Cambodian children consumed about 46% of sugars from commercial beverages and snacks and Japanese children 26%. This means that for Cambodians half of the sugars came from isomerized sugar made from starches. Relationships between sugar intake and body weight were not observed in both countries. In

  20. Variance components for body weight in Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RO Resende

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the variance components for body weight in Japanese quails by Bayesian procedures. The body weight at hatch (BWH and at 7 (BW07, 14 (BW14, 21 (BW21 and 28 days of age (BW28 of 3,520 quails was recorded from August 2001 to June 2002. A multiple-trait animal model with additive genetic, maternal environment and residual effects was implemented by Gibbs sampling methodology. A single Gibbs sampling with 80,000 rounds was generated by the program MTGSAM (Multiple Trait Gibbs Sampling in Animal Model. Normal and inverted Wishart distributions were used as prior distributions for the random effects and the variance components, respectively. Variance components were estimated based on the 500 samples that were left after elimination of 30,000 rounds in the burn-in period and 100 rounds of each thinning interval. The posterior means of additive genetic variance components were 0.15; 4.18; 14.62; 27.18 and 32.68; the posterior means of maternal environment variance components were 0.23; 1.29; 2.76; 4.12 and 5.16; and the posterior means of residual variance components were 0.084; 6.43; 22.66; 31.21 and 30.85, at hatch, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days old, respectively. The posterior means of heritability were 0.33; 0.35; 0.36; 0.43 and 0.47 at hatch, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days old, respectively. These results indicate that heritability increased with age. On the other hand, after hatch there was a marked reduction in the maternal environment variance proportion of the phenotypic variance, whose estimates were 0.50; 0.11; 0.07; 0.07 and 0.08 for BWH, BW07, BW14, BW21 and BW28, respectively. The genetic correlation between weights at different ages was high, except for those estimates between BWH and weight at other ages. Changes in body weight of quails can be efficiently achieved by selection.

  1. Body weight growth Model of Datong Yak in Qinghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.Minqiang; Zh.Huiling; L.Pingli; T.Yongqiang; L.Jiye; L.Zonglin

    2005-01-01

    Summary:This study was conducted to develop a suitable model for describing the growth pattern of the yak. The data used consisted of body weight records of 76 growing yak aged between 5 to 37 months. Three mathematical models were applied to describe the growth curves during this development period:①Y1=20.105 + 11. 250x-0. 526x2 ;used for describing the growth curve of yak aged 5 to 13 months;②Y2 = -359.687 + 49. 977x - 1. 249x2 ;used for animals aged 13 to 25 months;and ③Y3 = -833. 339 + 63. 772x - 1. 019x2 ;used for animals aged 25 to 37 months.

  2. Body Weight Can Change How Your Emotions Are Perceived

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Accurately interpreting other’s emotions through facial expressions has important adaptive values for social interactions. However, due to the stereotypical social perception of overweight individuals as carefree, humorous, and light-hearted, the body weight of those with whom we interact may have a systematic influence on our emotion judgment even though it has no relevance to the expressed emotion itself. In this experimental study, we examined the role of body weight in faces on the affective perception of facial expressions. We hypothesized that the weight perceived in a face would bias the assessment of an emotional expression, with overweight faces generally more likely to be perceived as having more positive and less negative expressions than healthy weight faces. Using two-alternative forced-choice perceptual decision tasks, participants were asked to sort the emotional expressions of overweight and healthy weight facial stimuli that had been gradually morphed across six emotional intensity levels into one of two categories—“neutral vs. happy” (Experiment 1) and “neutral vs. sad” (Experiment 2). As predicted, our results demonstrated that overweight faces were more likely to be categorized as happy (i.e., lower happy decision threshold) and less likely to be categorized as sad (i.e., higher sad decision threshold) compared to healthy weight faces that had the same levels of emotional intensity. The neutral-sad decision threshold shift was negatively correlated with participant’s own fear of becoming fat, that is, those without a fear of becoming fat more strongly perceived overweight faces as sad relative to those with a higher fear. These findings demonstrate that the weight of the face systematically influences how its emotional expression is interpreted, suggesting that being overweight may make emotional expressions appear more happy and less sad than they really are. PMID:27870892

  3. Body weight perception among adolescents in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, A O; bin Zaal, A A; D'Souza, R

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the body image perceptions among adolescents in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE). A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 661 adolescents (324 males; 337 females) aged 12-17 years selected from government schools using a multistage stratified random sampling technique. A pretested validated questionnaire was employed to determine the perception of adolescents toward their weight status. A nine figure silhouette illustration was used to measure perceptions of their ideal body image and how it compares with their current body weight. The results revealed that overweight (18.5%) and obesity (27.2%) were higher among males than in females (13.1% and 20.5% respectively). A high proportion of overweight males and females considered themselves as average (45.0% and 52.3%, respectively). Similarly, 56.9% of obese male and 46.4% of females considered themselves as average weight. Of non-overweight/obese males and females, 27.6% and 39.3% respectively, were pressured by parents to gain weight (p > 0.000). In general overweight and obese adolescents were more likely to face pressure from their parents and teased by friends than non-overweight/obese adolescents. Compared to their current body image, overweight and obese adolescents chose a significantly lighter figure as their ideal (p < 0.000). It is suggested that the current health education curriculum should include information related to healthy body weight and appropriate diet and lifestyle so as to minimize risk of developing distorted body image concerns in adolescence and beyond.

  4. A self-determination theory approach to adults' healthy body weight motivation: A longitudinal study focussing on food choices and recreational physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Christina; Dohle, Simone; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on body weight motivation based on self-determination theory. The impact of body weight motivation on longitudinal changes in food choices, recreational physical activity and body mass index was explored. A sample of adults (N = 2917, 47% men), randomly selected from the telephone book, completed a questionnaire in two consecutive years (2012, 2013), self-reporting food choices, recreational physical activity and body weight motivation. Types of body weight motivation at T1 (autonomous regulation, introjected regulation, and external regulation) were tested with regard to their predictive potential for changes in food choices, recreational physical activity and body mass index (BMI). Autonomous motivation predicted improvements in food choices and long-term adherence to vigorous recreational physical activity in both genders. Introjected motivation predicted long-term adherence to vigorous recreational physical activity only in women. External motivation predicted negative changes in food choices; however, the type of body weight motivation had no impact on BMI in overweight adults in the long term. Autonomous goal-setting regarding body weight seems to be substantial for healthy food choices and adherence to recreational physical activity.

  5. Implicit theories of body weight: entity beliefs can weigh you down.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnette, Jeni L

    2010-03-01

    The current research extended the implicit theory approach to a weight management context and merged it with value expectancy theory. Three studies investigated the hypothesis that individuals are especially unlikely to self-regulate effectively after dieting setbacks when they believe body weight to be fixed (entity theory) rather than malleable (incremental theory). Study 1 examined avoidant coping after a hypothetical dieting setback. Study 2 examined the implicit theory-avoidant coping relation after naturally occurring challenges to participants' weight-loss goals. Across both studies, entity theorists, relative to incremental theorists, reported more avoidant coping after setbacks. In Study 2, avoidant coping, in turn, predicted difficulty achieving weight-loss success. Study 3 manipulated implicit theories of weight to test the causal effects of implicit theories on effortful regulation. Entity theorists, relative to incremental theorists, reported less persistence following setbacks. Across the three studies, expectations about the potential for future dieting success mediated the link between implicit theory and self-regulation.

  6. [Body composition at menarche. Estimation of total body weight, total body water, lean and fat body weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurlo de Mirotti, S M; Lesa, A M; Barrón de Carbonetti, M; Roitter, H; Villagra de Lacuara, S

    1995-01-01

    Our aim was to confirm in our environment what has been observed and described by other writers about the importance of achieving a "critical body weight'' and an adequate "fat percentage'' -on the basis of the calculation of total body water- for the initiation and development of pubertal events. This study included 92 girls, healthy, well nourished, belonging to upper middle class from a high school of The National University of Cordoba. The longitudinal method of control was used every 6 months and at the precise moment of menarche. Out of 20 antropometrical variables observed height, weight and height, TBW as percentage of body weight, lean body and fat weight, fat percentage and skin folds ppercentiles for each girl at menarche. A regression between fat percentage and skin folds was done. Percentiles 5 to 95 of fat percentage in relation to body water percentage were estimated. At menarche the average for the different variables are: Heigth 155.6 cm +/- 0.469; Weight 45.8 Kg +/- 0,5; TBW 25.216 lit. +/- 0.318; lean body weigth 35.02 Kg (S.D.2.98); fat weigth 10.86 Kg (S. D. 3.17). The addition of skin folds was correlated fat percentage, thus, an equation was obtained for the average calculation of such percentage %F= 12.16 + (0.313 x fold addition). The minium percentage for the onset of menstrual cycles is 17.3% and corresponds to percentile 10. However, there is a 5% of girls who start to menstruate with a 15.5% of fat and none of them is below that value. The reasons mentioned above suggest that is necessary to obtain a "critical body weigth'' as well as a "fat percentage'' minimum for the onset and maintenance of menstrual cycles, among our girls, similar o what has been obtained by doctor Frisch.

  7. Liraglutide, a human glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue, plays a role in reducing body weight in the patients with type 2 diabetes%人胰升糖素样肽1类似物利拉鲁肽减轻2型糖尿病患者体重的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹大进

    2011-01-01

    肥胖与多种代谢异常相关,包括胰岛素抵抗和2型糖尿病.减轻体重能有效改善胰岛素敏感性,并由此降低肥胖相关的2型糖尿病和心血管疾病风险.研究证实,人胰升糖素样肽1(GLP-1)类似物利拉鲁肽不论单用还是与其他降糖药物联用,都可更好地控制血糖,保护胰岛β细胞功能,并通过抑制摄食和延缓胃肠蠕动减轻体重,这为2型糖尿病患者的治疗提供了新的选择.%Obesity is associated with numerous metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Losing weight is an effective way of improving insulin sensitivity, thus decreasing the risk of obesityassociated diabetes and chronic cardiovascular disease. There is evidence that Liraglutide, as a human glucagon-like peptide-1 ( GLP-1 ) analogue, either using alone or combining with other glucose-lowering drugs, has effect on improving glycemic control, protecting β-cell function, and reducing body weight via inhibiting feeding behavior and delaying gastrointestinal motility. Therefore, liraglutide is a new option for treating type 2 diabetes patients.

  8. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in IGFBP-2 Gene and Their Associations with Body Weight Traits on Jinghai Yellow Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XH Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2 regulates a broad spectrum of biological activities involved in growth, development, and differentiation. This study aimed at comparing polymorphisms in intron2 of the IGFBP-2 gene among four chicken breeds and at analyzing the associations between its genotypes and body weight in Jinghai Yellow chicken by using PCR-SSCP technique. For primer P2, three genotypes (AA, AB and BB were observed in the four chicken breeds. Gene sequencing revealed one insertion/deletion (the inserted/deleted TC after position 552bp in the intron 2 of IGFBP-2 gene. For primer P5, three genotypes were identified in Jinghai Yellow chickens, and named CC, CD and DD. Gene sequencing revealed two SNPs (C1107G, C1130T and one inserted/deleted GCCAGGT after 1115bp in the intron 2 of IGFBP-2 gene. The results of the linear model analysis showed that Jinghai Yellow chickens with AA genotype had significantly heavier body weight, at hatch and 12 weeks of age, than those of the AB genotype (p<0.05. The A allele had a positive effect on body weight. We speculate that mutations in intron 2 could be used as genetic markers for body weight in Jinghai Yellow chicken. This study provides valuable information for the protection of genetic resources and for breeding of Jinghai Yellow chicken.

  9. Capric Acid Reduces Body Weight in C57BL/6J Mice Fed a High Fat Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-hua LIU; Yong ZHANG; Qing XU; Xin-sheng ZHANG; Jin WANG; Xiao-ming YU; Xue-yan YANG; Chang-yong XUE

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the body weight reducing effect of two medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA), capric acid and caprylic acid, and the potential underlying mechanisms in C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat diet.Methods Obese C57BL/6J mice were developed on a high-fat diet containing 2% caprylic acid (C8:0), 2% capric acid (C10:0), or 2% oleic acid (C18:1). Body weight and diet intake were monitored twice a week. After 8 weeks of feeding, body fat composition and the protein or mRNA expression of lipolysis-related genes in the white adipose tissue (WAT) were analyzed.Results In the capric acid group, significant reductions were observed in body weight gain, Lee's index, BMI, and epididymal adipose tissue weight, while increased levels of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and beta 3 adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) were found in the adipose tissue, compared to the oleic acid group. No significant differences in these parameters were found between caprylic acid and oleic acid groups.Conclusion Capric acid, but not caprylic acid, is effective in reducing body weight in obese C57BL/6J mice,possibly due to up-regulation of β3-AR, ATGL, and HSL in WAT.

  10. Effect of milnacipran on body weight in patients with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold LM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lesley M Arnold,1 Robert H Palmer,2 Michael R Hufford,3 Wei Chen21Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, 2Medical Affairs, Forest Research Institute Inc, Jersey City, NJ, 3Clinical Development, Cypress Bioscience Inc, San Diego, CA, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of milnacipran on body weight in patients with fibromyalgia.Methods: Analyses were conducted in the following groups: patients from three double-blind, placebo-controlled milnacipran trials (3 months, n = 2096; 6 months, n = 1008; 354 patients receiving milnacipran in placebo-controlled trials and double-blind extension studies (total ≥ 12 months of treatment; and 1227 patients in a long-term (up to 3.25 years open-label milnacipran study.Results: In placebo-controlled trials, 77% of patients were overweight or obese at baseline (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2. Mean weight loss was found with milnacipran at 3 months (100 mg/day, —1.14 kg; 200 mg/day, —0.97 kg; placebo, —0.06 kg; P > 0.001 and 6 months (100 mg/day, -1.01 kg; 200 mg/day, -0.71 kg; placebo, —0.04 kg; P > 0.05. Approximately twice as many milnacipran-treated patients had ≥5% weight loss from baseline compared with placebo (3 and 6 months, P > 0.01. In extension studies, mean weight loss in patients receiving ≥12 months of milnacipran was —1.06 kg. In patients receiving ≥3 years of treatment in the open-label study, mean changes at 12, 24, 30, and 36–38 months were —1.16, —0.76, —0.19, and +0.11 kg, respectively. Among milnacipran-treated patients, rates of nausea (the most common adverse event were lower among patients who lost weight than among those who did not (3 months, P = 0.02.Conclusion: The majority of patients with fibromyalgia in the milnacipran studies were overweight or obese. Milnacipran was associated with mean weight loss at 3 and 6 months (P < 0.05 versus placebo and at

  11. A disputed evidence on obesity: comparison of the effects of Rcan2 −/− and Rps6kb1 −/− mutations on growth and body weight in C57BL/6J mice* #

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Li, Shi-wei; Gong, Qian-qian; Ding, Ling-cui; Jin, Ye-cheng; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Jian-gang; Sun, Xiao-yang

    2016-01-01

    It is widely accepted that body weight and adipose mass are tightly regulated by homeostatic mechanisms, in which leptin plays a critical role through hypothalamic pathways, and obesity is a result of homeostatic disorder. However, in C57BL/6J mice, we found that Rcan2 increases food intake and plays an important role in the development of age-and diet-induced obesity through a leptin-independent mechanism. RCAN2 was initially identified as a thyroid hormone (T3)-responsive gene in human fibroblasts. Expression of RCAN2 is regulated by T3 through the PI3K-Akt/PKB-mTOR-Rps6kb1 signaling pathway. Intriguingly, both Rcan2 −/− and Rps6kb1 −/− mutations were reported to result in lean phenotypes in mice. In this study we compared the effects of these two mutations on growth and body weight in C57BL/6J mice. We observed reduced body weight and lower fat mass in both Rcan2 −/− and Rps6kb1 −/− mice compared to the wild-type mice, and we reported other differences unique to either the Rcan2 −/− or Rps6kb1 −/− mice. Firstly, loss of Rcan2 does not directly alter body length; however, Rcan2 −/− mice exhibit reduced food intake. In contrast, Rps6kb1 −/− mice exhibit abnormal embryonic development, which leads to smaller body size and reduced food intake in adulthood. Secondly, when fed a normal chow diet, Rcan2 −/− mice weigh significantly more than Rps6kb1 −/− mice, but both Rcan2 −/− and Rps6kb1−/− mice develop similar amounts of epididymal fat. On a high-fat diet, Rcan2 −/− mice gain body weight and fat mass at slower rates than Rps6kb1 −/− mice. Finally, using the double-knockout mice (Rcan2 −/− Rps6kb1 −/−), we demonstrate that concurrent loss of Rcan2 and Rps6kb1 has an additive effect on body weight reduction in C57BL/6J mice. Our data suggest that Rcan2 and Rps6kb1 mutations both affect growth and body weight of mice, though likely through different mechanisms. PMID:27604858

  12. Body weight status, eating behavior, sensitivity to reward/punishment, and gender: relationships and interdependencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eDietrich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral and personality characteristics are factors that may jointly regulate body weight. This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI and self-reported behavioral and personality measures. These measures included eating behavior (based on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire- TFEQ (Stunkard and Messick, 1985, sensitivity to reward and punishment (based on the BIS/BAS Scales (Carver and White, 1994 and self-reported impulsivity (based on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (Patton et al., 1995. We found an inverted U-shaped relationship between restrained eating and BMI. This relationship was moderated by the level of disinhibited eating. Independent of eating behavior, BIS and BAS responsiveness were associated with BMI in a gender-specific manner with negative relationships for men and positive relationships for women. Together, eating behavior and BIS/BAS responsiveness accounted for a substantial proportion of BMI variance (men: ~25%, women: ~32%. A direct relationship between self-reported impulsivity and BMI was not observed. In summary, our results demonstrate a system of linear and non-linear relationships between the investigated factors and BMI. Moreover, body weight status was not only associated with eating behavior (cognitive restraint and disinhibition, but also with personality factors not inherently related to an eating context (BIS/BAS. Importantly, these relationships differ between men and women.

  13. Body weight status, eating behavior, sensitivity to reward/punishment, and gender: relationships and interdependencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Anja; Federbusch, Martin; Grellmann, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Horstmann, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and personality characteristics are factors that may jointly regulate body weight. This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and self-reported behavioral and personality measures. These measures included eating behavior (based on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire; Stunkard and Messick, 1985), sensitivity to reward and punishment (based on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales) (Carver and White, 1994) and self-reported impulsivity (based on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11; Patton et al., 1995). We found an inverted U-shaped relationship between restrained eating and BMI. This relationship was moderated by the level of disinhibited eating. Independent of eating behavior, BIS and BAS responsiveness were associated with BMI in a gender-specific manner with negative relationships for men and positive relationships for women. Together, eating behavior and BIS/BAS responsiveness accounted for a substantial proportion of BMI variance (men: ∼25%, women: ∼32%). A direct relationship between self-reported impulsivity and BMI was not observed. In summary, our results demonstrate a system of linear and non-linear relationships between the investigated factors and BMI. Moreover, body weight status was not only associated with eating behavior (cognitive restraint and disinhibition), but also with personality factors not inherently related to an eating context (BIS/BAS). Importantly, these relationships differ between men and women.

  14. Correlation of disease severity with body weight and high fat diet in the FATZO/Pco mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droz, Brian A; Sneed, Bria L; Jackson, Charles V; Zimmerman, Karen M; Michael, M Dodson; Emmerson, Paul J; Coskun, Tamer; Peterson, Richard G

    2017-01-01

    Obesity in many current pre-clinical animal models of obesity and diabetes is mediated by monogenic mutations; these are rarely associated with the development of human obesity. A new mouse model, the FATZO mouse, has been developed to provide polygenic obesity and a metabolic pattern of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, that support the presence of insulin resistance similar to metabolic disease in patients with insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes. The FATZO mouse resulted from a cross of C57BL/6J and AKR/J mice followed by selective inbreeding for obesity, increased insulin and hyperglycemia. Since many clinical studies have established a close link between higher body weight and the development of type 2 diabetes, we investigated whether time to progression to type 2 diabetes or disease severity in FATZO mice was dependent on weight gain in young animals. Our results indicate that lighter animals developed metabolic disturbances much slower and to a lesser magnitude than their heavier counterparts. Consumption of a diet containing high fat, accelerated weight gain in parallel with disease progression. A naturally occurring and significant variation in the body weight of FATZO offspring enables these mice to be identified as low, mid and high body weight groups at a young age. These weight groups remain into adulthood and correspond to slow, medium and accelerated development of type 2 diabetes. Thus, body weight inclusion criteria can optimize the FATZO model for studies of prevention, stabilization or treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  15. TWEAK Negatively Regulates Human Dicer

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The ribonuclease Dicer plays a central role in the microRNA pathway by processing microRNA precursors (pre-microRNAs) into microRNAs, a class of 19- to 24-nucleotide non-coding RNAs that regulate expression of ≈60% of the genes in humans. To gain further insights into the function and regulation of Dicer in human cells, we performed a yeast two-hybrid (Y2HB) screen using human Dicer double-stranded RNA-binding domain (dsRBD) as bait. This approach identified tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like w...

  16. Social stress at work and change in women's body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottwitz, Maria U; Grebner, Simone; Semmer, Norbert K; Tschan, Franziska; Elfering, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Social stressors at work (such as conflict or animosities) imply disrespect or a lack of appreciation and thus a threat to self. Stress induced by this offence to self might result, over time, in a change in body weight. The current study investigated the impact of changing working conditions--specifically social stressors, demands, and control at work--on women's change in weighted Body-Mass-Index over the course of a year. Fifty-seven women in their first year of occupational life participated at baseline and thirty-eight at follow-up. Working conditions were assessed by self-reports and observer-ratings. Body-Mass-Index at baseline and change in Body-Mass-Index one year later were regressed on self-reported social stressors as well as observed work stressors, observed job control, and their interaction. Seen individually, social stressors at work predicted Body-Mass-Index. Moreover, increase in social stressors and decrease of job control during the first year of occupational life predicted increase in Body-Mass-Index. Work redesign that reduces social stressors at work and increases job control could help to prevent obesity epidemic.

  17. Parental motivation to change body weight in young overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachael W; Williams, Sheila M; Dawson, Anna M; Haszard, Jillian J; Brown, Deirdre A

    2015-07-01

    To determine what factors are associated with parental motivation to change body weight in overweight children. Cross-sectional study. Dunedin, New Zealand. Two hundred and seventy-one children aged 4-8 years, recruited in primary and secondary care, were identified as overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) after screening. Parents completed questionnaires on demographics; motivation to improve diet, physical activity and weight; perception and concern about weight; parenting; and social desirability, prior to being informed that their child was overweight. Additional measures of physical activity (accelerometry), dietary intake and child behaviour (questionnaire) were obtained after feedback. Although all children were overweight, only 42% of parents perceived their child to be so, with 36% indicating any concern. Very few parents (n 25, 8%) were actively trying to change the child's weight. Greater motivation to change weight was observed for girls compared with boys (P = 0.001), despite no sex difference in BMI Z-score (P = 0.374). Motivation was not associated with most demographic variables, social desirability, dietary intake, parenting or child behaviour. Increased motivation to change the child's weight was observed for heavier children (P motivation to change overweight in young children highlight the urgent need to determine how best to improve motivation to initiate change.

  18. Influence of psychotropic drugs prescription on body weight increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca E. Martínez de Morentin-Aldabe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has become a major public health burden, not only by the rising prevalence but also because of the associated complications. Furthermore there is a number of diseases whose risk and onset is increased in subjects with overweight such as type 2 diabetes, dislipemias, tumors (endometrial, colon, breast, cancer, etc, skeletal disorders, digestive disturbances, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, psychological problems, obstetric and gynecological disorders.The prescription of psychotropic drugs is important and, in most countries, consumption has been increased in recent years. Indeed, several drugs used in the treatment of anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia or epilepsy, can increase body weight and fat deposition or eventually decrease it. These side effects could make a previous situation of obesity to worsen, and it can even cause excessive weight gain in patients with a normal weight at the beginning of the treatment. This increase in adiposity may also contribute to the lack of adherence to the medication and thus a possible relapse of the patients.In this review we report the links between psychotropic drugs administration and weight gain as well as the potential mechanisms that are involved.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14306/renhyd.17.1.4

  19. Lower-limb amputation and body weight changes in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson J. Littman, PhD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the relationship between lower-limb amputation (LLA and subsequent changes in body weight. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using clinical and administrative databases to identify and follow weight changes in 759 males with amputation (partial foot amputation [PFA], n = 396; transtibial amputation [TTA], n = 267; and transfemoral amputation [TFA], n = 96 and 3,790 men without amputation frequency-matched (5:1 on age, body mass index, diabetes, and calendar year from eight Department of Veterans Affairs medical care facilities in the Pacific Northwest. We estimated and compared longitudinal percent weight change from baseline up to 39 mo of follow-up in men with and without amputation. Weight gain in the 2 yr after amputation was significantly more in men with an amputation than without, and in men with a TTA or TFA (8%–9% increase than in men with a PFA (3%–6% increase. Generally, percent weight gain peaked at 2 yr and was followed by some weight loss in the third year. These findings indicate that LLA is often followed by clinically important weight gain. Future studies are needed to better understand the reasons for weight gain and to identify intervention strategies to prevent excess weight gain and the deleterious consequences that may ensue.

  20. Enoxaparin dosing in the elderly using adjusted body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leri, Frederick; Voyce, Stephen J; Scialla, Salvatore; Glavich, William; Dzielak, Edward; Smego, Raymond A; Guzek, John

    2009-10-01

    We prospectively compared anti-Xa activity in 61 elderly (>65 years) subjects receiving enoxaparin according to standard or adjusted body weight (ABW) dosing. In the ABW dosing group, mean patient age was 76 years, mean weight 80 kg, mean serum creatinine 1.0 mg/dl, and mean CrCl 48 ml/min. ABW dosing resulted in 57% of elderly study subjects achieving anti-Xa activity of 0.5-1.0 IU/ml, and 80% achieving anti-Xa activity of 0.5-1.2 IU/ml. Compared to standard dosing, for all subjects ABW dosing of enoxaparin was associated with a more favorable mean anti-Xa activity (0.98 IU/ml vs. 1.28 IU/ml, P = 0.001), fewer highest-risk (>1.5 IU/ml) supratherapeutic anti-Xa levels (0% vs. 28%, P = 0.001), and more frequent therapeutic levels among women (64% vs. 25%, P = 0.001). ABW dosing of enoxaparin may be beneficial in elderly patients aged 65 and older, and its benefit appears to be more pronounced in female patients.

  1. Lower-limb amputation and body weight changes in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Alyson J; Thompson, Mary Lou; Arterburn, David E; Bouldin, Erin; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Sangeorzan, Bruce J; Boyko, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between lower-limb amputation (LLA) and subsequent changes in body weight. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using clinical and administrative databases to identify and follow weight changes in 759 males with amputation (partial foot amputation [PFA], n = 396; transtibial amputation [TTA], n = 267; and transfemoral amputation [TFA], n = 96) and 3,790 nondisabled persons frequency-matched (5:1) on age, body mass index, diabetes, and calendar year from eight Department of Veterans Affairs medical care facilities in the Pacific Northwest. We estimated and compared longitudinal percent weight change from baseline during up to 39 mo of follow-up in participants with and without amputation. Weight gain in the 2 yr after amputation was significantly more in men with an amputation than without, and in men with a TTA or TFA (8%-9% increase) than in men with a PFA (3%-6% increase). Generally, percent weight gain peaked at 2 yr and was followed by some weight loss in the third year. These findings indicate that LLA is often followed by clinically important weight gain. Future studies are needed to better understand the reasons for weight gain and to identify intervention strategies to prevent excess weight gain and the deleterious consequences that may ensue.

  2. Body weight concerns and antifat attitude in iranian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saideh Garousi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is increasing evidence that children are showing body image issues in recent years. Body image disturbances in childhood must be taken seriously. The thin ideal is becoming more prominent in Asian countries; however, there is little research examining how this issue affects Iranian children. This study explores body weight concerns and associated factors among children in Iranian elementary schools. Methods: This study was conducted in 500 elementary schools. An assessment of body image and antifat attitudes was undertaken using the figure rating scale. In addition, body mass index (BMI and demographic variables were assessed. Results: Nearly, 27.4% of children were underweight, and 13.3% were obese. There was a significant difference between the mean score of body dissatisfaction (BD between boys and girls (P < 0.05. There were no differences between BD and education of parents, age, and academic grades. In girls, antifat attitudes were significantly related to BMI. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate the paramount importance of undertaking further research in order to identify the predictive factors of body concerns and its consequences among Iranian children. In addition, researchers must plan prevention and educational program for these children.

  3. Thyroid hormones and changes in body weight and metabolic parameters in response to weight loss diets: the POUNDS LOST trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G; Liang, L; Bray, G A; Qi, L; Hu, F B; Rood, J; Sacks, F M; Sun, Q

    2017-06-01

    predicted more weight loss, but not weight regain among overweight and obese adults with normal thyroid function. These findings reveal a novel role of thyroid hormones in body weight regulation and may help identify individuals more responsive to weight loss diets.

  4. The effects of prospective mate quality on investments in healthy body weight among single women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Matthew C; Cronin, Christopher J

    2017-02-01

    This paper examines how a single female's investment in healthy body weight is affected by the quality of single males in her marriage market. A principle concern in estimation is the presence of market-level unobserved heterogeneity that may be correlated with changes in single male quality, measured as earning potential. To address this concern, we employ a differencing strategy that normalizes the exercise behaviors of single women to those of their married counterparts. Our main results suggest that when potential mate quality in a marriage market decreases, single black women invest less in healthy body weight. For example, we find that a 10 percentage point increase in the proportion of low quality single black males leads to a 5-10% decrease in vigorous exercise taken by single black females. Results for single white women are qualitatively similar, but not consistent across specifications. These results highlight the relationship between male and female human capital acquisition that is driven by participation in the marriage market. Our results suggest that programs designed to improve the economic prospects of single males may yield positive externalities in the form of improved health behaviors, such as more exercise, particularly for single black females. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of ghrelin in energy balance and body weight homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalache, Laura; Gherasim, Andreea; Niță, Otilia; Ungureanu, Maria Christina; Pădureanu, Sergiu Serghei; Gavril, Radu Sebastian; Arhire, Lidia Iuliana

    2016-02-01

    Ghrelin is a gut peptide composed of 28 amino acids mostly secreted in the gastric fundus mucosa. It was isolated and described in 1999 by Kojima et al. and only three years later its specific receptor, GHSR1a, was also identified. Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand for the GH secretagogue receptor, is the only peripheral orexigenic hormone that activates the receptors to be found especially in the appetite center (hypothalamus and pituitary gland). Ghrelin is present in human plasma in two forms: an inactive form known as deacylated ghrelin, and an active form called acylated ghrelin synthesized under the action of ghrelin O-acyltransferase enzyme (GOAT). The literature even mentions an extremely complex ghrelin/GOAT/GHSR system involved in the regulation of human energy, metabolism and adaptation of energy homeostasis to environmental changes. In humans, there is a preprandial rise and a postprandial fall in plasma ghrelin levels, which strongly suggest that the peptide plays a physiological role in meal initiation and may be employed in determining the amount and quality of ingested food. Besides the stimulation of food intake, ghrelin determines a decrease in energy expenditure and promotes the storage of fatty acids in adipocytes. Thus, in the human body ghrelin induces a positive energy balance, an increased adiposity gain, as well as an increase in caloric storage, seen as an adaptive mechanism to caloric restriction conditions. In the current world context, when we are witnessing an increasing availability of food and a reduction of energy expenditure to a minimum level, these mechanisms have become pathogenic. As a consequence, the hypothesis that ghrelin is involved in the current obesity epidemic has been embraced by many scholars and researchers.

  6. The suppressor of cytokine signalling 3, SOCS3, may be one critical modulator of seasonal body weight changes in the Siberian hamster, Phodopus sungorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tups, A; Barrett, P; Ross, A W; Morgan, P J; Klingenspor, M; Mercer, J G

    2006-02-01

    The Siberian hamster, Phodopus sungorus, exhibits a remarkable cycle of body weight, reproduction and leptin sensitivity in response to a seasonal change in photoperiod. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that the suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3) plays a critical role in the regulation of the seasonal body weight cycle. We analysed arcuate nucleus SOCS3 gene expression in short day length (SD; 8 : 16 h light/dark) acclimated Siberian hamsters that were transferred back to long day length (LD; 16 : 8 h light/dark) and in hamsters that spontaneously became photorefractory to SD induced by prolonged exposure. SD acclimated hamsters that were transferred back to LD for 1, 2, 3, 4 or 6 weeks, increased arcuate nucleus SOCS3 gene expression to the LD level within 2 weeks, and maintained this higher level thereafter. The early increase of SOCS3 gene expression preceded the LD-induced rise in body weight by approximately 3 weeks. Hamsters kept in SD for an extended period (25 weeks), began to become refractory to SD and to increase body weight. By this time, there was no difference in level of SOCS3 gene expression between LD and SD photoperiods, although body weight was still suppressed in SD hamsters. Finally, we addressed whether SOCS3 gene expression is related to SD-induced gonadal regression or to body weight decrease by comparing Siberian hamsters with Syrian hamsters. The latter exhibited substantial SD-induced gonadal regression but only limited seasonal changes in body weight. Acclimation to either LD or SD for 14 weeks had no effect on SOCS3 gene expression. This implies that arcuate nucleus SOCS3 gene expression is unlikely to be related to seasonal cycles in reproductive activity. Taken together, the findings further strengthen our hypothesis that SOCS3 may be one molecular trigger of seasonal cycles in body weight.

  7. Methods for determining healthy body weight in end stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Kathy Schiro

    2006-07-01

    Several formulas for calculating desirable body weight are used in chronic kidney failure patients. Ideal body weight (IBW) derived from Metropolitan Life Insurance tables has been available since the 1950s. The Hamwi formula was proposed in the 1960s as a simple tool for quickly estimating desirable body weight, especially in people with diabetes. Since the 1970s, National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Surveys I, II, and III have provided an in-depth evaluation of the average body weights of Americans. These standard body weights (SBW) are often interpreted to be normal and healthy weight goals. Body mass index (BMI) has also been studied for decades and is used internationally as the standard for determining healthy weight, especially in relationship to obesity. These 4 methods are discussed and compared along with a brief review of the history of using the adjusted body weight (ABW) formulas, followed by recommendations for clinical practice.

  8. Green Tea Polyphenols Reduce Body Weight in Rats by Modulating Obesity-Related Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chuanwen; Zhu, Wenbin; Shen, Chwan-Li; Gao, Weimin

    2012-01-01

    Beneficial effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) against obesity have been reported, however, the mechanism of this protection is not clear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify GTP-targeted genes in obesity using the high-fat-diet-induced obese rat model. A total of three groups (n = 12/group) of Sprague Dawley (SD) female rats were tested, including the control group (rats fed with low-fat diet), the HF group (rats fed with high-fat diet), and the HF+GTP group (rats fed with high-fat diet and GTP in drinking water). The HF group increased body weight as compared to the control group. Supplementation of GTP in the drinking water in the HF+GTP group reduced body weight as compared to the HF group. RNA from liver samples was extracted for gene expression analysis. A total of eighty-four genes related to obesity were analyzed using PCR array. Compared to the rats in the control group, the rats in the HF group had the expression levels of 12 genes with significant changes, including 3 orexigenic genes (Agrp, Ghrl, and Nr3c1); 7 anorectic genes (Apoa4, Cntf, Ghr, IL-1β, Ins1, Lepr, and Sort); and 2 genes that relate to energy expenditure (Adcyap1r1 and Adrb1). Intriguingly, the HF+GTP group restored the expression levels of these genes in the high-fat-induced obese rats. The protein expression levels of IL-1β and IL-6 in the serum samples from the control, HF, and HF+GTP groups confirmed the results of gene expression. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) also showed GTP-regulated protective changes in this obese rat model. Collectively, this study revealed the beneficial effects of GTP on body weight via regulating obesity-related genes, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant capacity, and estrogen-related actions in high-fat-induced obese rats. PMID:22715380

  9. Green tea polyphenols reduce body weight in rats by modulating obesity-related genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanwen Lu

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP against obesity have been reported, however, the mechanism of this protection is not clear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify GTP-targeted genes in obesity using the high-fat-diet-induced obese rat model. A total of three groups (n = 12/group of Sprague Dawley (SD female rats were tested, including the control group (rats fed with low-fat diet, the HF group (rats fed with high-fat diet, and the HF+GTP group (rats fed with high-fat diet and GTP in drinking water. The HF group increased body weight as compared to the control group. Supplementation of GTP in the drinking water in the HF+GTP group reduced body weight as compared to the HF group. RNA from liver samples was extracted for gene expression analysis. A total of eighty-four genes related to obesity were analyzed using PCR array. Compared to the rats in the control group, the rats in the HF group had the expression levels of 12 genes with significant changes, including 3 orexigenic genes (Agrp, Ghrl, and Nr3c1; 7 anorectic genes (Apoa4, Cntf, Ghr, IL-1β, Ins1, Lepr, and Sort; and 2 genes that relate to energy expenditure (Adcyap1r1 and Adrb1. Intriguingly, the HF+GTP group restored the expression levels of these genes in the high-fat-induced obese rats. The protein expression levels of IL-1β and IL-6 in the serum samples from the control, HF, and HF+GTP groups confirmed the results of gene expression. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1 and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT also showed GTP-regulated protective changes in this obese rat model. Collectively, this study revealed the beneficial effects of GTP on body weight via regulating obesity-related genes, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant capacity, and estrogen-related actions in high-fat-induced obese rats.

  10. Central nervous system regulation of eating: Insights from human brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Olivia M; Li, Chiang-Shan R; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2016-05-01

    Appetite and body weight regulation are controlled by the central nervous system (CNS) in a rather complicated manner. The human brain plays a central role in integrating internal and external inputs to modulate energy homeostasis. Although homeostatic control by the hypothalamus is currently considered to be primarily responsible for controlling appetite, most of the available evidence derives from experiments in rodents, and the role of this system in regulating appetite in states of hunger/starvation and in the pathogenesis of overeating/obesity remains to be fully elucidated in humans. Further, cognitive and affective processes have been implicated in the dysregulation of eating behavior in humans, but their exact relative contributions as well as the respective underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We briefly review each of these systems here and present the current state of research in an attempt to update clinicians and clinical researchers alike on the status and future directions of obesity research.

  11. Assessment of residual body weight gain and residual intake and body weight gain as feed efficiency traits in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo)

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, Owen W; Miller, Stephen P.; Wood, Benjamin J

    2013-01-01

    Background Since feed represents 70% of the total cost in poultry production systems, an animal’s ability to convert feed is an important trait. In this study, residual feed intake (RFI) and residual body weight gain (RG), and their linear combination into residual feed intake and body weight gain (RIG) were studied to estimate their genetic parameters and analyze the potential differences in feed intake between the top ranked birds based on the criteria for each trait. Methods Phenotypic and...

  12. Assessment of residual body weight gain and residual intake and body weight gain as feed efficiency traits in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo)

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, Owen W; Miller, Stephen P.; Wood, Benjamin J

    2013-01-01

    Background Since feed represents 70% of the total cost in poultry production systems, an animal’s ability to convert feed is an important trait. In this study, residual feed intake (RFI) and residual body weight gain (RG), and their linear combination into residual feed intake and body weight gain (RIG) were studied to estimate their genetic parameters and analyze the potential differences in feed intake between the top ranked birds based on the criteria for each trait. Methods Phenotypic and...

  13. 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in adipose tissue and prospective changes in body weight and insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koska, Juraj; de Courten, Barbora; Wake, Deborah J

    2006-01-01

    Increased mRNA and activity levels of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1) in human adipose tissue (AT) are associated with obesity and insulin resistance. The aim of our study was to investigate whether 11betaHSD1 expression or activity in abdominal subcutaneous AT of non......-diabetic subjects are associated with subsequent changes in body weight and insulin resistance [homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)]....

  14. Identification, expression and variation of the GNPDA2 gene, and its association with body weight and fatness traits in chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjia Ouyang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The GNPDA2 (glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase 2 gene is a member of Glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P deaminase subfamily, which encoded an allosteric enzyme of GlcN6P. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have shown that variations of human GNPDA2 are associated with body mass index and obesity risk, but its function and metabolic implications remain to be elucidated.The object of this study was to characterize the gene structure, expression, and biological functions of GNPDA2 in chickens. Methods. Variant transcripts of chicken GNPDA2 and their expression were investigated using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE system and real-time quantitative PCR technology. We detected the GNPDA2 expression in hypothalamic, adipose, and liver tissue of Xinghua chickens with fasting and high-glucose-fat diet treatments, and performed association analysis of variations of GNPDA2 with productive traits in chicken. The function of GNPDA2 was further studied by overexpression and small interfering RNA (siRNA methods in chicken preadipocytes. Results.Four chicken GNPDA2 transcripts (cGNPDA2-a∼cGNPDA2-d were identified in this study. The complete transcript GNPDA2-a was predominantly expressed in adipose tissue (subcutaneous fat and abdominal fat, hypothalamus, and duodenum. In fasting chickens, the mRNA level of GNPDA2 was decreased by 58.8% (P < 0.05 in hypothalamus, and returned to normal level after refeeding. Chicken fed a high-glucose-fat diet increased GNPDA2 gene expression about 2-fold higher in adipose tissue (P < 0.05 than that in the control (fed a basal diet, but decreased its expression in hypothalamus. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the GNPDA2 gene were significantly associated with body weight and a number of fatness traits in chicken (P < 0.05. Conclusion. Our findings indicated that the GNPDA2 gene has a potential role in the regulation of body weight, fat and energy metabolism in chickens.

  15. Animal models of sugar and fat bingeing: relationship to food addiction and increased body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avena, Nicole M; Bocarsly, Miriam E; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2012-01-01

    Binge eating is a behavior that occurs in some eating disorders, as well as in obesity and in nonclinical populations. Both sugars and fats are readily consumed by human beings and are common components of binges. This chapter describes animal models of sugar and fat bingeing, which allow for a detailed analysis of these behaviors and their concomitant physiological effects. The model of sugar bingeing has been used successfully to elicit behavioral and neurochemical signs of dependence in rats; e.g., indices of opiate-like withdrawal, increased intake after abstinence, cross-sensitization with drugs of abuse, and the repeated release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens following repeated bingeing. Studies using the model of fat bingeing suggest that it can produce some, but not all, of the signs of dependence that are seen with sugar binge eating, as well as increase body weight, potentially leading to obesity.

  16. The relationship between body weight and inflammation: Lesson from anti-TNF-α antibody therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Ilaria; Palmery, Maura

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with many pathological conditions. Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) is one of the key mediators of inflammation involved in the obesity-related insulin resistance development. We aim to review the human evidence useful to clarify the relationship between inflammation and body weight, with particular reference to TNF-α. Genetic polymorphisms and epigenetic factors, such as diet, could affect TNF-α activity. TNF-α is associated with obesity, but also with anorexia and cachexia. Despite the role of TNF-α in obesity-related diseases, anti-TNF-α antibody therapy is associated with an increase in adiposity. In conclusion the reviewed results suggest that inflammation is more likely a consequence rather than a cause of obesity.

  17. Coordinated control strategy for robotic-assisted gait training with partial body weight support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦涛; 张立勋

    2015-01-01

    Walking is the most basic and essential part of the activities of daily living. To enable the elderly and non-ambulatory gait-impaired patients, the repetitive practice of this task, a novel gait training robot (GTR) was designed followed the end-effector principle, and an active partial body weight support (PBWS) system was introduced to facilitate successful gait training. For successful establishment of a walking gait on the GTR with PBWS, the motion laws of the GTR were planned to enable the phase distribution relationships of the cycle step, and the center of gravity (COG) trajectory of the human body during gait training on the GTR was measured. A coordinated control strategy was proposed based on the impedance control principle. A robotic prototype was developed as a platform for evaluating the design concepts and control strategies. Preliminary gait training with a healthy subject was implemented by the robotic-assisted gait training system and the experimental results are encouraging.

  18. Stimulation of body weight increase and epiphyseal cartilage growth by insulin like growth factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, S.

    1981-01-01

    The ability of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) to induce growth in hypophysectomized immature rats was tested by continuous infusion of the partially purified factor at daily doses of 6, 21, and 46 mU for an 8-day period. A dose-dependent growth of the proximal epiphyseal cartilage of the tibia and an associated stimulation of the primary spongiosa were produced by these amounts of IGF. The two highest doses of IGF also resulted in dose-dependent increases of body weight. Gel permeation of the sera at neutrality showed that the large-molecular-weight IGF binding protein was not induced by the infusion of IGF, whereas it ws generated in the sera of hypophysectomized rats that were infused with daily doses of 86 mU of human growth hormone.

  19. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to medium-chain triglycerides and reduction in body weight (ID 643, 677, 1614) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to medium-chain triglycerides and reduction in body weight. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from...... stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claims is medium-chain triglycerides. In the context of the references provided, the Panel assumes that the food constituent which is the subject of the health claims is medium-chain fatty acids, which should replace long-chain fatty acids...... in triglycerides in order to obtain the claimed effect. The Panel considers that the food constituent, medium-chain fatty acids, which is the subject of the health claims, is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The claimed effect is “weight management”. The target population is assumed...

  20. Body weight decreases induced by estradiol in female rhesus monkeys are dependent upon social status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Wilson, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Gonadal steroids regulate appetite and thus body weight. In addition, continuous exposure to stressors negatively influences appetite through circuits likely distinct from those of gonadal steroids. The occurrence of adverse metabolic consequences due to chronic exposure to psychosocial stressors is twice as frequent in women as men, implicating a role for ovarian hormones, estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), in modulating stress-induced changes in appetite. Using social subordination in female macaques as a model of social stress, the current study tested the hypothesis that subordinate females would lose more weight during E2 treatment and gain less weight during P4 administration than dominant females. Because polymorphisms in the gene encoding the serotonin transporter (5HTT; SCL6A4) are known to alter responsivity to stress, we hypothesized that weight loss during E2 administration would be greatest in females with the short variant (s-variant) allele of 5HTT. Dominant females were significantly heavier than subordinate animals throughout the study, a result consistent with previous accounts of food intake when animals are fed a low-fat, high-fiber diet. Females with the s-variant 5HTT genotype weighed significantly less than l/l animals. Dominant animals lost significantly more weight than subordinate animals during E2 treatment. Administration of P4 blocked the weight-reducing effects of E2 in all females, regardless of social status. These data provide evidence that social subordination modulates the influence of ovarian steroid hormones on body weight in female rhesus monkeys independent of 5HTT genotype. Given the prosocial effects of these steroids, future studies are necessary to determine whether status differences in E2-induced weight loss are due to diminished food intake and or increases in energy expenditure and how the change in energy availability during E2 treatments relates to a female’s motivation to interact with conspecifics. PMID

  1. Hormones and diet, but not body weight, control hypothalamic microglial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuanqing; Ottaway, Nickki; Schriever, Sonja C; Legutko, Beata; García-Cáceres, Cristina; de la Fuente, Esther; Mergen, Clarita; Bour, Susanne; Thaler, Joshua P; Seeley, Randy J; Filosa, Jessica; Stern, Javier E; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Schwartz, Michael W; Tschöp, Matthias H; Yi, Chun-Xia

    2014-01-01

    The arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus plays a key role in sensing metabolic feedback and regulating energy homeostasis. Recent studies revealed activation of microglia in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity (DIO), suggesting a potential pathophysiological role for inflammatory processes within the hypothalamus. To further investigate the metabolic causes and molecular underpinnings of such glial activation, we analyzed the microglial activity in wild-type (WT), monogenic obese ob/ob (leptin deficient), db/db (leptin-receptor mutation), and Type-4 melanocortin receptor knockout (MC4R KO) mice on either a HFD or on standardized chow (SC) diet. Following HFD exposure, we observed a significant increase in the total number of ARC microglia, immunoreactivity of ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (iba1-ir), cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68-ir), and ramification of microglial processes. The ob/ob mice had significantly less iba1-ir and ramifications. Leptin replacement rescued these phenomena. The db/db mice had similar iba1-ir comparable with WT mice but had significantly lower CD68-ir and more ramifications than WT mice. After 2 weeks of HFD, ob/ob mice showed an increase of iba1-ir, and db/db mice showed increase of CD68-ir. Obese MC4R KO mice fed a SC diet had comparable iba1-ir and CD68-ir with WT mice but had significantly more ramifications than WT mice. Intriguingly, treatment of DIO mice with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists reduced microglial activation independent of body weight. Our results show that diet type, adipokines, and gut signals, but not body weight, affect the presence and activity levels of hypothalamic microglia in obesity. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Analyses of body weight patterns in growing pigs: a new view on body weight in pigs for frequent monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stygar, A H; Dolecheck, K A; Kristensen, A R

    2017-07-24

    Frequent BW monitoring of growing pigs can be useful for identifying production (e.g. feeding), health and welfare problems. However, in order to construct a tool which will properly recognize abnormalities in pigs' growth a precise description of the growth process should be used. In this study we proposed a new model of pig growth accounting for daily fluctuations in BW. Body weight measurements of 1710 pigs (865 gilts and 843 barrows) originating from five consecutive batches from a Danish commercial farm were collected. Pigs were inserted into a large pen (maximum capacity=400) between November 2014 and September 2015. On average, each pig was observed for 42 days and weighed 3.6 times a day when passing from the resting to feeding area. Altogether, 243,160 BW measurements were recorded. A multilevel model of pig growth was constructed and fitted to available data. The BW of pigs was modeled as a quadratic function of time. A diurnal pattern was incorporated into the model by a cosine wave with known length (24 h). The model included pig effect which was defined as a random autoregressive process with exponential correlation. Variance of within-pigs error was assumed to increase with time. Because only five batches were observed, it was not possible to obtain the random effect for batch. However, in order to account for the batch effect the model included interactions between batch and fixed parameters: intercept, time, square value of time and cosine wave. The gender effect was not significant and was removed from the final model. For all batches, morning and afternoon peaks in the frequency of visits to the feeding area could be distinguished. According to results, pigs were lighter in the morning and heavier in the evening (minimum BW was reached around 1000 h and maximum around 2200 h). However, the exact time of obtaining maximum and minimum BW during the day differed between batches. Pigs had access to natural light and, therefore, existing differences

  3. Excessive body weight is associated with additional loss of quality of life in children with asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gent, R.; van der Ent, C.K.; Rovers, M.M.; Kimpen, J.L.L.; Essen-Zandvliet, L.E.M.; de Meer, G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Asthma and excessive body weight frequently coexist, whereas the exact relationship between the 2 diseases is unknown. Objective: To study whether asthma combined with excessive body weight has a greater effect on quality of life in children than the separate effects of asthma or excessi

  4. Weight Loss Practices and Body Weight Perceptions among US College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Christopher M.; Adams, Troy; Hampl, Jeffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed associations between body weight perception and weight loss strategies. Participants: They randomly selected male and female college students (N = 38,204). Methods: The authors conducted a secondary data analysis of the rates of weight loss strategies and body weight perception among students who completed the…

  5. Excessive body weight is associated with additional loss of quality of life in children with asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gent, R.; van der Ent, C.K.; Rovers, M.M.; Kimpen, J.L.L.; Essen-Zandvliet, L.E.M.; de Meer, G.

    Background: Asthma and excessive body weight frequently coexist, whereas the exact relationship between the 2 diseases is unknown. Objective: To study whether asthma combined with excessive body weight has a greater effect on quality of life in children than the separate effects of asthma or

  6. Effect of Herbal Immunodulator on Body weight gain in immunosuppressed broiler birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Mode

    Full Text Available The herbal immunomodulator was evaluated in immunosupressed broiler birds in terms of body weight gain. The treatment with Ocimum sanctum and Emblica officinalis @ 3 gm /kg feed for 2 weeks were found to be effective immunomodulator in increasing body weight gain in broiler birds. [Vet World 2009; 2(7.000: 269-270

  7. Weight Loss Practices and Body Weight Perceptions among US College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Christopher M.; Adams, Troy; Hampl, Jeffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed associations between body weight perception and weight loss strategies. Participants: They randomly selected male and female college students (N = 38,204). Methods: The authors conducted a secondary data analysis of the rates of weight loss strategies and body weight perception among students who completed the…

  8. Perceptions of Body Weight, Weight Management Strategies, and Depressive Symptoms among US College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harring, Holly Anne; Montgomery, Kara; Hardin, James

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine if inaccurate body weight perception predicts unhealthy weight management strategies and to determine the extent to which inaccurate body weight perception is associated with depressive symptoms among US college students. Participants: Randomly selected male and female college students in the United States (N = 97,357).…

  9. Relationship of the reported intakes of fat and fatty acids to body weight in US adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary fat composition may modulate energy expenditure and body weight. Little is known about the relationship between fatty acid intake and body weight at a population level. The purposes of this study were to compare intakes of energy, macronutrients, and individual fatty acids across BMI categor...

  10. The potential association between fruit intake and body weight - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alinia, Sevil; Tetens, Inge; Hels, Ole

    2009-01-01

    intake reduced body weight, five of the prospective observational studies showed that fruit consumption reduced the risk of developing overweight and obesity, and four of the cross-sectional studies found an inverse association between fruit intake and body weight. Important methodological differences...

  11. Body weight in relation to variation in body size of Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarts, L; Hulscher, JB; Koopman, K; Zegers, PM

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationships between body weight in the Oystercatcher and two measures of its body size, bill length and wing length. The weight variation between individuals due to differences in body size is nearly as large as the seasonal variation in body weight within individuals. Wing

  12. Change in Diet, Physical Activity, and Body Weight in Female College Freshman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Scott M.; Black, David R.; Blue, Carolyn L.; Gretebeck, Randall J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine diet, physical activity, and body-weight changes associated with relocation from home to university. Methods: Diet, fitness/physical activity, body-weight parameters and self-efficacy were assessed among 54 freshman women upon college entry and 5 months later. Results: Although caloric intake significantly decreased, a…

  13. Association of Smoking with Body Weight in US High School Students, 1999-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Jiang, Nan; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the association of current smoking with body mass index (BMI) and perceived body weight among high school students in the United States. Methods: We analyzed data from the 1999-2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results: Perceived body weight and BMI were associated with adolescents' current smoking. Adjusted odds ratios…

  14. Self-perception of body weight status and weight control practices among adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali; Manickam, Mala A; Baharudin, Azli; Omar, Azahadi; Cheong, Siew Man; Ambak, Rashidah; Ahmad, Mohamad Hasnan; Ghaffar, Suhaila Abdul

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents is rising rapidly in many countries, including Malaysia. This article aims to present the associations between body mass index-based body weight status, body weight perception, and weight control practices among adolescents in Malaysia. The Malaysia School Based Nutrition Survey 2012, which included a body weight perception questionnaire and anthropometric measurements, was conducted on a representative sample of 40 011 students from Standard 4 until Form 5, with a 90.5% response rate. Comparing actual and perceived body weight status, the findings show that 13.8% of adolescents underestimated their weight, 35.0% overestimated, and 51.2% correctly judged their own weight. Significantly more normal weight girls felt they were overweight, whereas significantly more overweight boys perceived themselves as underweight. The overall appropriateness of weight control practices to body weight was 72.6%. Adolescents attempting to lose or gain weight need to have better understanding toward desirable behavioral changes.

  15. Ethanolic extract of Taheebo attenuates increase in body weight and fatty liver in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won Hee; Um, Min Young; Ahn, Jiyun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Park, Myung Kyu; Ha, Tae Youl

    2014-10-08

    We evaluated whether intake of an ethanolic extract of Taheebo (TBE) from Tabebuia avellanedae protects against body weight increase and fat accumulation in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Four-week old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a HFD (25% fat, w/w) for 11 weeks. The diet of control (HFD) mice was supplemented with vehicle (0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by gavage); the diet of experimental (TBE) mice was supplemented with TBE (150 mg/kg body weight/day by gavage). Mice administered TBE had significantly reduced body weight gain, fat accumulation in the liver, and fat pad weight, compared to HFD mice. Reduced hypertrophy of fat cells was also observed in TBE mice. Mice administered TBE also showed significantly lower serum levels of triglycerides, insulin, and leptin. Lipid profiles and levels of mRNAs and proteins related to lipid metabolism were determined in liver and white adipose tissue of the mice. Expression of mRNA and proteins related to lipogenesis were decreased in TBE-administered mice compared to mice fed HFD alone. These results suggest that TBE inhibits obesity and fat accumulation by regulation of gene expression related to lipid metabolism in HFD-induced obesity in mice.

  16. Quercetin decreases high-fat diet induced body weight gain and accumulation of hepatic and circulating lipids in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek-van den Hil, E F; van Schothorst, E M; van der Stelt, I; Swarts, H J M; Venema, D; Sailer, M; Vervoort, J J M; Hollman, P C H; Rietjens, I M C M; Keijer, J

    2014-09-01

    Dietary flavonoids may protect against cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Increased circulating lipid levels and hepatic lipid accumulation are known risk factors for CVD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of the flavonoid quercetin on hepatic lipid metabolism in mice with high-fat diet induced body weight gain and hepatic lipid accumulation. Adult male mice received a 40 energy% high-fat diet without or with supplementation of 0.33 % (w/w) quercetin for 12 weeks. Body weight gain was 29 % lower in quercetin fed mice (p lipid accumulation to 29 % of the amount present in the control mice (p lipid profiling revealed that the supplementation significantly lowered serum lipid levels. Global gene expression profiling of liver showed that cytochrome P450 2b (Cyp2b) genes, key target genes of the transcription factor constitutive androstane receptor (Car; official symbol Nr1i3), were downregulated. Quercetin decreased high-fat diet induced body weight gain, hepatic lipid accumulation and serum lipid levels. This was accompanied by regulation of cytochrome P450 2b genes in liver, which are possibly under transcriptional control of CAR. The quercetin effects are likely dependent on the fat content of the diet.

  17. Relationship of serum somatomedin-like activity and fibroblast proliferative activity with age and body weight gain in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, R F; Wangsness, P J; Patton, W H; Martin, R J

    1981-01-01

    The relationship between serum growth factors and body weight gain was examined in five Dorset lambs. The lambs were weighed and bled by jugular puncture at 2-week intervals between 2 and 18 weeks of age. Somatomedin-like activity (Sm) declined from initially high concentrations at 2 weeks to fairly constant concentrations between 6 and 18 weeks. Relative weight gain--i.e., gain expressed as a percentage of body weight--declined in a manner similar to that of Sm. Mean relative weight gain and mean Sm for the eight 2-week intervals were significantly related (r = .84). Absolute body weight gain--i.e., gain expressed in kilograms--remained fairly constant throughout the study and was not significantly correlated to Sm (r = .15). Serum fibroblast proliferative activity (FPA) was measured as a possible indicator of collective activities of serum growth factors. FPA initially followed a pattern similar to that of Sm, decreasing between 2 and 6 weeks and plateauing until 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, FPA increased to concentrations similar to those observed at 2 weeks. The increase in FPA after 12 weeks was apparently due to an increase in a non-Sm growth factor and had no obvious relationship to body weight changes. Results of the in vitro cell assay system might have been more meaningful if cell type(s) other than WI-38 fibroblasts (e.g., myogenic cells) had been used for estimating collective activities of serum mitogenic factors. The data suggest that serum Sm-like activity may be important in the regulation of growth in sheep.

  18. High fat diet and body weight have different effects on cannabinoid CB(1) receptor expression in rat nodose ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluny, N L; Baraboi, E D; Mackie, K; Burdyga, G; Richard, D; Dockray, G J; Sharkey, K A

    2013-12-01

    Energy balance is regulated, in part, by the orexigenic signaling pathways of the vagus nerve. Fasting-induced modifications in the expression of orexigenic signaling systems have been observed in vagal afferents of lean animals. Altered basal cannabinoid (CB1) receptor expression in the nodose ganglia in obesity has been reported. Whether altered body weight or a high fat diet modifies independent or additive changes in CB1 expression is unknown. We investigated the expression of CB1 and orexin 1 receptor (OX-1R) in the nodose ganglia of rats fed ad libitum or food deprived (24h), maintained on low or high fat diets (HFD), with differing body weights. Male Wistar rats were fed chow or HFD (diet-induced obese: DIO or diet-resistant: DR) or were body weight matched to the DR group but fed chow (wmDR). CB1 and OX-1R immunoreactivity were investigated and CB1 mRNA density was determined using in situ hybridization. CB1 immunoreactivity was measured in fasted rats after sulfated cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK8s) administration. In chow rats, fasting did not modify the level of CB1 mRNA. More CB1 immunoreactive cells were measured in fed DIO, DR and wmDR rats than chow rats; levels increased after fasting in chow and wmDR rats but not in DIO or DR rats. In HFD fasted rats CCK8s did not reduce CB1 immunoreactivity. OX-1R immunoreactivity was modified by fasting only in DR rats. These data suggest that body weight contributes to the proportion of neurons expressing CB1 immunoreactivity in the nodose ganglion, while HFD blunts fasting-induced increases, and CCK-induced suppression of, CB1-immunoreactivity. © 2013.

  19. Monogenic human obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, I Sadaf

    2008-01-01

    We and others have identified several single gene defects that disrupt the molecules in the leptinmelanocortin pathway causing severe obesity in humans. In this review, we consider these human monogenic obesity syndromes and discuss how far the characterisation of these patients has informed our understanding of the physiological role of leptin and the melanocortins in the regulation of human body weight and neuroendocrine function.

  20. Fine-mapping alleles for body weight in LG/J × SM/J F₂ and F(34) advanced intercross lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Clarissa C; Cheng, Riyan; Sokoloff, Greta; Lim, Jackie E; Skol, Andrew D; Abney, Mark; Palmer, Abraham A

    2011-10-01

    The present study measured variation in body weight using a combined analysis in an F(2) intercross and an F(34) advanced intercross line (AIL). Both crosses were derived from inbred LG/J and SM/J mice, which were selected for large and small body size prior to inbreeding. Body weight was measured at 62 (± 5) days of age. Using an integrated GWAS and forward model selection approach, we identified 11 significant QTLs that affected body weight on ten different chromosomes. With these results we developed a full model that explained over 18% of the phenotypic variance. The median 1.5-LOD support interval was 5.55 Mb, which is a significant improvement over most prior body weight QTLs. We identified nonsynonymous coding SNPs between LG/J and SM/J mice in order to further narrow the list of candidate genes. Three of the genes with nonsynonymous coding SNPs (Rad23b, Stk33, and Anks1b) have been associated with adiposity, waist circumference, and body mass index in human GWAS, thus providing evidence that these genes may underlie our QTLs. Our results demonstrate that a relatively small number of loci contribute significantly to the phenotypic variance in body weight, which is in marked contrast to the situation in humans. This difference is likely to be the result of strong selective pressure and the simplified genetic architecture, both of which are important advantages of our system.

  1. Body weight set-points: determination and adjustment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keesey, R E; Hirvonen, M D

    1997-01-01

    .... Experimental studies of genetically transmitted and diet-induced forms of obesity in animals similarly suggest a view of obesity as a condition of body energy regulation at an elevated set-point...

  2. Resveratrol Co-Treatment Attenuates the Effects of HIV Protease Inhibitors on Rat Body Weight and Enhances Cardiac Mitochondrial Respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symington, Burger; Mapanga, Rudo F.; Norton, Gavin R.

    2017-01-01

    Since the early 1990s human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) emerged as a global health pandemic, with sub-Saharan Africa the hardest hit. While the successful roll-out of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy provided significant relief to HIV-positive individuals, such treatment can also elicit damaging side-effects. Here especially HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) are implicated in the onset of cardio-metabolic complications such as type-2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. As there is a paucity of data regarding suitable co-treatments within this context, this preclinical study investigated whether resveratrol (RSV), aspirin (ASP) or vitamin C (VitC) co-treatment is able to blunt side-effects in a rat model of chronic PI exposure (Lopinavir/Ritonavir treatment for 4 months). Body weights and weight gain, blood metabolite levels (total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides), echocardiography and cardiac mitochondrial respiration were assessed in PI-treated rats ± various co-treatments. Our data reveal that PI treatment significantly lowered body weight and cardiac respiratory function while no significant changes were found for heart function and blood metabolite levels. Moreover, all co-treatments ameliorated the PI-induced decrease in body weight after 4 months of PI treatment, while RSV co-treatment enhanced cardiac mitochondrial respiratory capacity in PI-treated rats. This pilot study therefore provides novel hypotheses regarding RSV co-treatment that should be further assessed in greater detail. PMID:28107484

  3. Assessment of residual body weight gain and residual intake and body weight gain as feed efficiency traits in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Owen W; Miller, Stephen P; Wood, Benjamin J

    2013-07-16

    Since feed represents 70% of the total cost in poultry production systems, an animal's ability to convert feed is an important trait. In this study, residual feed intake (RFI) and residual body weight gain (RG), and their linear combination into residual feed intake and body weight gain (RIG) were studied to estimate their genetic parameters and analyze the potential differences in feed intake between the top ranked birds based on the criteria for each trait. Phenotypic and genetic analyses were completed on 8340 growing tom turkeys that were measured for feed intake and body weight gain over a four-week period from 16 to 20 weeks of age. The heritabilities of RG and RIG were 0.19 ± 0.03 and 0.23 ± 0.03, respectively. Residual body weight gain had moderate genetic correlations with feed intake (-0.41) and body weight gain (0.43). All three linear combinations to form the RIG traits had genetic correlations ranging from -0.62 to -0.52 with feed intake, and slightly weaker, 0.22 to 0.34, with body weight gain. Sorted into three equal groups (low, medium, high) based on RG, the most efficient group (high) gained 0.62 and 1.70 kg more (P feed intake for the high group was less (P feed intake (18.86 vs. 19.57 and 20.41 kg) and the highest (P feed intake between the top ranked birds based on different residual feed efficiency traits may be small when looking at the average individual, however, when extrapolated to the production level, the lower feed intake values could lead to significant savings in feed costs over time.

  4. FTO Genotype Interacts with Improvement in Aerobic Fitness on Body Weight Loss During Lifestyle Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Sailer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Not every participant responds with a comparable body weight loss to lifestyle intervention, despite the same compliance. Genetic factors may explain parts of this difference. Variation in fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO is the strongest common genetic determinant of body weight. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of FTO genotype differences in the link between improvement of fitness and reduction of body weight during a lifestyle intervention. Methods: We genotyped 292 healthy subjects for FTO rs8050136. Participants underwent a 9-month lifestyle intervention. Before and after intervention, aerobic fitness was tested by bicycle (VO2max and treadmill spiroergometry (individual anaerobic threshold (IAT, subgroup of N = 192. Results: Participants lost body weight (p FTO genotype (p = 0.5. There was a significant correlation between improvement in VO2max and decrease in body weight (p FTO genotype interacted with this relationship (p = 0.0042 for VO2max, p = 0.0049 for IAT. When stratifying the cohort according to their improvement in VO2max, FTO obesity-risk A-allele carriers in the higher quartiles of improvement in fitness lost significantly less body weight. Conclusions: Our data reveal that genetic variation in FTO impacts on body weight reduction during lifestyle intervention only in subjects with marked improvement in aerobic fitness.

  5. Human morphology and temperature regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G. S.

    For nearly a century individuals have believed that there is a link between human morphology and one's thermoregulatory response in adverse environments. Most early research was focussed on the rate of core cooling in a male adult population and the role of subcutaneous adipose tissue, surface area and the surface-area-to-mass ratio in one's ability to withstand varying degrees of cold stress. More recently research has addressed heat tolerance in various populations, exploring the role of subcutaneous adipose tissue, surface area and the surface-area-to-mass ratio in one's ability to maintain thermal equilibrium in warm and hot, dry and humid environments. Since the late 1970s an emphasis has been placed on the role of muscle and muscle perfusion in total-body thermal insulation. Yet, despite the history of research pertaining to human morphology and temperature regulation there is little consensus as to the impact of variations in human morphology on thermoregulatory responses. Individuals differing in body size, shape and composition appear to respond quantitatively differently to variations in both ambient and core temperatures but the interrelations between morphological components and temperature regulation are complex. It is the purpose of this paper to examine the literature pertaining to the impact of variations in muscularity, adipose tissue thickness and patterning, surface area and the surface-area-to-mass ratio on thermoregulation and thermal stability in response to both heat and cold stress.

  6. Regulation of the clock gene expression in human adipose tissue by weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovarova, O; Gögebakan, Ö; Sucher, S; Groth, J; Murahovschi, V; Kessler, K; Osterhoff, M; Rudovich, N; Kramer, A; Pfeiffer, A F H

    2016-06-01

    The circadian clock coordinates numerous metabolic processes to adapt physiological responses to light-dark and feeding regimens and is itself regulated by metabolic cues. The implication of the circadian clock in the regulation of energy balance and body weight is widely studied in rodents but not in humans. Here we investigated (1) whether the expression of clock genes in human adipose tissue is changed by weight loss and (2) whether these alterations are associated with metabolic parameters. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) samples were collected before and after 8 weeks of weight loss on an 800 kcal per day hypocaloric diet (plus 200 g per day vegetables) at the same time of the day. Fifty overweight subjects who lost at least 8% weight after 8 weeks were selected for the study. The expression of 10 clock genes and key metabolic and inflammatory genes in adipose tissue was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. The expression of core clock genes PER2 and NR1D1 was increased after the weight loss. Correlations of PERIOD expression with body mass index (BMI) and serum total, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and of NR1D1 expression with total and LDL cholesterol were found that became non-significant after correction for multiple testing. Clock gene expression levels and their weight loss-induced changes tightly correlated with each other and with genes involved in fat metabolism (FASN, CPT1A, LPL, PPARG, PGC1A, ADIPOQ), energy metabolism (SIRT1), autophagy (LC3A, LC3B) and inflammatory response (NFKB1, NFKBIA, NLRP3, EMR1). Clock gene expression in human SAT is regulated by body weight changes and associated with BMI, serum cholesterol levels and the expression of metabolic and inflammatory genes. Our data confirm the tight crosstalk between molecular clock and metabolic and inflammatory pathways involved in adapting adipose tissue metabolism to changes of the energy intake in humans.

  7. Glucosamine enhances body weight gain and reduces insulin response in mice fed chow diet but mitigates obesity, insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance in mice high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ji-Sun; Park, Ji-Won; Nam, Moon-Suk; Cho, Hyeongjin; Han, Inn-Oc

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the potential of glucosamine (GlcN) to affect body weight gain and insulin sensitivity in mice normal and at risk for developing diabetes. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either chow diet (CD) or a high fat diet (HFD) and the half of mice from CD and HFD provided with a solution of 10% (w/v) GlcN. Total cholesterol and nonesterified free fatty acid levels were determined. Glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test were performed. HepG2 human hepatoma cells or differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were stimulated with insulin under normal (5 mM) or high glucose (25 mM) conditions. Effect of GlcN on 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake was determined. JNK and Akt phosphorylation and nucleocytoplasmic protein O-GlcNAcylation were assayed by Western blotting. GlcN administration stimulated body weight gain (6.58±0.82 g vs. 11.1±0.42 g), increased white adipose tissue fat mass (percentage of bodyweight, 3.7±0.32 g vs. 5.61±0.34 g), and impaired the insulin response in livers of mice fed CD. However, GlcN treatment in mice fed HFD led to reduction of body weight gain (18.02±0.66 g vs. 16.22±0.96 g) and liver weight (2.27±0.1 vs. 1.85±0.12 g). Furthermore, obesity-induced insulin resistance and impaired Akt insulin signaling in the liver were alleviated by GlcN administration. GlcN inhibited the insulin response under low (5 mM) glucose conditions, whereas it restored the insulin response for Akt phosphorylation under high (25 mM) glucose conditions in HepG2 and 3T3-L1 cells. Uptake of 2-DG increased upon GlcN treatment under 5 mM glucose compared to control, whereas insulin-stimulated 2-DG uptake decreased under 5 mM and increased under 25 mM glucose in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Our results show that GlcN increased body weight gain and reduced the insulin response for glucose maintenance when fed to normal CD mice, whereas it alleviated body weight gain and insulin resistance in HFD mice. Therefore, the current data support the integrative

  8. Common endocrine control of body weight, reproduction, and bone mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shu; Elefteriou, Florent; Karsenty, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    Bone mass is maintained constant between puberty and menopause by the balance between osteoblast and osteoclast activity. The existence of a hormonal control of osteoblast activity has been speculated for years by analogy to osteoclast biology. Through the search for such humoral signal(s) regulating bone formation, leptin has been identified as a strong inhibitor of bone formation. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular infusion of leptin has shown that the effect of this adipocyte-derived hormone on bone is mediated via a brain relay. Subsequent studies have led to the identification of hypothalamic groups of neurons involved in leptin's antiosteogenic function. In addition, those neurons or neuronal pathways are distinct from neurons responsible for the regulation of energy metabolism. Finally, the peripheral mediator of leptin's antiosteogenic function has been identified as the sympathetic nervous system. Sympathomimetics administered to mice decreased bone formation and bone mass. Conversely, beta-blockers increased bone formation and bone mass and blunted the bone loss induced by ovariectomy.

  9. Cocaine's appetite for fat and the consequences on body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billing, Lawrence; Ersche, Karen D

    2015-03-01

    For many individuals in treatment for cocaine dependence, weight gain is a substantial problem during recovery. This weight gain causes significant distress and seems to increase the risk of relapse. The mechanisms underlying cocaine's effects on weight remain elusive. It is widely assumed that this weight gain reflects a metabolic or behavioural compensatory response to the cessation of cocaine use. Here we challenge this assumption and outline potential mechanisms by which chronic cocaine use produces disturbances in the regulation of fat intake and storage, through its effects on the central and peripheral nervous systems, specifically the sympathetic nervous system. We hypothesize that the cocaine-induced alteration in fat regulation results in cocaine users developing a pronounced appetite for fatty food but keeps their fat mass low. This altered fat appetite subsequently leads to excessive weight gain when individuals enter treatment and stop using cocaine. Our aim is to shed light on the neurobiological mechanisms that may underlie the alterations in eating and fat regulation in cocaine-dependent individuals, to open up potential new avenues to support these individuals in recovery.

  10. The body weight of the dairy cow. 1. Introductory study into the body weight changes in dairy cows as a management aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltz, E.; Devir, S.; Metz, J.H.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    1997-01-01

    The possibilities to use the dairy cows' body weight (BW) and its changes for diagnostic and management purposes were studied. BW data of dairy cows were obtained during the day from visiting computer-controlled feeding stations. These data were analyzed on a daily and weekly basis in relation to ot

  11. Psychosocial and Biological Factors Contributing to Body Weight Gain in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shae-Leigh C. Vella

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity are frequently reported to be a significant issue in schizophrenia resulting in the inherent complications of these disorders. Body weight gain also commonly results from treatment with the most tolerable and efficacious pharmacological treatments, second-generation antipsychotics. However there are numerous other factors that contribute to increased body mass in individuals with schizophrenia prior to the initiation of treatment. With prior research indicating that individuals with schizophrenia have higher rates of overweight and obesity before treatment. Therefore this article provides a review of pertinent issues associated with body weight gain in schizophrenia in an attempt to delineate the impact of both the disease and treatment upon body weight gain. The results of the review indicate that body weight gain in schizophrenia occurs from both psychosocial and biological factors that are further compounded by antipsychotic treatment. The article concludes with recommendations for future research.

  12. Body weight - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us Open...d License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Body weight - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive ...

  13. Dietary intake of fruit in relation to body weight management among adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alinia, Sevil

    pattern that promote body weight maintenance and prevent overweight and obesity is unclear, as inference making on a causal relationship is precluded, among other things due to the observational nature of the underlying studies. The cross-sectional study in paper II further supports the indication......The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults worldwide is high with an increasing trend. Therefore, effective strategies in relation to body weight management, targeting to maintain normal body weight and prevent excessive weight gain, are warranted. Reducing the energy density of the diet...... to investigate the effectiveness of available and accessible fruit on body weight, fruit intake and certain other dietary intake among free-living individuals. These objectives were attempted achieved by conducting four studies (paper I-IV) upon which the present thesis is based. The state of the art on the role...

  14. 76 FR 10591 - Notice of Availability; Recommended Use of Body Weight3∕4 as the Default Method in Derivation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... AGENCY Notice of Availability; Recommended Use of Body Weight as the Default Method in Derivation of the... Method in Derivation of the Oral Reference Dose'' (referred to hereafter as BW 3/4 ). This document was... derivation of the human equivalent dose is recommended as the default approach for RfDs for remote, as...

  15. Regulation of lipid deposition in farm animals: Parallels between agriculture and human physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Werner G; Brandebourg, Terry D

    2016-06-01

    For many years, clinically oriented scientists and animal scientists have focused on lipid metabolism and fat deposition in various fat depots. While dealing with a common biology across species, the goals of biomedical and food animals lipid metabolism research differ in emphasis. In humans, mechanisms and regulation of fat synthesis, accumulation of fat in regional fat depots, lipid metabolism and dysmetabolism in adipose, liver and cardiac tissues have been investigated. Further, energy balance and weight control have also been extensively explored in humans. Finally, obesity and associated maladies including high cholesterol and atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and health outcomes have been widely studied. In food animals, the emphasis has been on regulation of fatty acid synthesis and lipid deposition in fat depots and deposition of intramuscular fat. For humans, understanding the regulation of energy balance and body weight and of prevention or treatment of obesity and associated maladies have been important clinical outcomes. In production of food animals lowering fat content in muscle foods while enhancing intramuscular fat (marbling) have been major targets. In this review, we summarize how our laboratories have addressed the goal of providing lean but yet tasty and juicy muscle food products to consumers. In addition, we here describe efforts in the development of a new porcine model to study regulation of fat metabolism and obesity. Commonalities and differences in regulation of lipid metabolism between humans, rodents and food animals are emphasized throughout this review.

  16. Weight Care Project: Health professionals' attitudes and ability to assess body weight status - Study protocol

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moorhead, Anne

    2011-03-31

    Abstract Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups\\' ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a) community related public health nurses; (b) school public health nurses; (c) GPs and practice nurses (primary care); and (d) occupational health nurses (workplace) from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods\\/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based) - to determine the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals\\' ability to identify the body weight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on body weight status, and their ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may

  17. Lifestyle Interventions Targeting Body Weight Changes during the Menopause Transition: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Janet Jull; Dawn Stacey; Sarah Beach; Alex Dumas; Irene Strychar; Lee-Anne Ufholz; Stephanie Prince; Joseph Abdulnour; Denis Prud’homme

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effectiveness of exercise and/or nutrition interventions and to address body weight changes during the menopause transition. Methods. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using electronic databases, grey literature, and hand searching. Two independent researchers screened for studies using experimental designs to evaluate the impact of exercise and/or nutrition interventions on body weight and/or central weight gain performed during the menopausa...

  18. Weight Care Project: Health professionals' attitudes and ability to assess body weight status - Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Kathy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups' ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a community related public health nurses; (b school public health nurses; (c GPs and practice nurses (primary care; and (d occupational health nurses (workplace from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based - to determine the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals' ability to identify the body weight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on body weight status, and their ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may

  19. Changes in body weight and food security of adult North Korean refugees living in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, HaYoung; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Sin-Gon

    2017-08-01

    Relocation to new environments can have a negative impact on health by altering body weight and dietary patterns. This study attempted to elucidate changes in body weight, food security, and their current food and nutrient consumption in adult North Korean refugees (NKR) living in South Korea (SK). This study analyzed data on 149 adult NKR from a North Korean refugee health in SK cohort at four time points (leaving North Korea, entering SK, first examination, and second examination). Body weight was self-reported at the two earlier time points and directly measured at the two later time points. Food security, diet-related behaviors (dietary habits and food consumption), and sociodemographic information were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. Nutrient intake information was obtained by one-day 24-hour recall. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS ver 23.0. Body weight increased during relocation by an average of 4 kg, although diversified patterns were observed during the settlement period in SK. Approximately 39.6% of subjects maintained their body weight between the first and second examinations, whereas 38.6% gained and 22.1% lost at least 3% of their body weight at the first examination by the second examination. Food security status improved from 12.1% food secure proportion to 61.7%. NKR showed generally good food and nutrient consumption (index of nutrient quality: 0.77-1.93). The body weight loss group showed the most irregular meal consumption pattern (P food groups did not differ by group, except in the fish group (P = 0.036). This study observed considerable body weight adjustment during the settlement period in SK after initial weight gain, whereas food security consistently improved. More detailed understanding of this process is needed to assist healthy settlement for NKR in SK.

  20. Development and Validation of the Body Size Scale for Assessing Body Weight Perception in African Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Emmanuel; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Ponty, Amandine; Ndao, Amadou; Amougou, Norbert; Saïd-Mohamed, Rihlat; Pasquet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background The social valorisation of overweight in African populations could promote high-risk eating behaviours and therefore become a risk factor of obesity. However, existing scales to assess body image are usually not accurate enough to allow comparative studies of body weight perception in different African populations. This study aimed to develop and validate the Body Size Scale (BSS) to estimate African body weight perception. Methods Anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 ...

  1. The DPP-IV inhibitor linagliptin and GLP-1 induce synergistic effects on body weight loss and appetite suppression in the diet-induced obese rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Henrik H; Hansen, Gitte; Paulsen, Sarah; Vrang, Niels; Mark, Michael; Jelsing, Jacob; Klein, Thomas

    2014-10-15

    Linagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-IV inhibitor approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. DPP-IV inhibitors are considered weight neutral, suggesting that elevation of endogenous incretin levels is not sufficient to promote weight loss per se. Here we evaluated the effect of linagliptin in combination with subcutaneous treatment of GLP-1(7-36) on body weight regulation in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Linagliptin administered perorally (1.5mg/kg, b.i.d.), but not subcutaneously (0.5mg/kg, b.i.d.), evoked a very modest body weight loss (2.2%) after 28 days of treatment. GLP-1 (0.5mg/kg, s.c.) treatment alone induced a body weight loss of 4.1%. In contrast, combined linagliptin (1.5mg/kg, p.o., or 0.5mg/kg, s.c.) and GLP-1 (0.5mg/kg) treatment evoked a marked anorectic response with both routes of linagliptin administration being equally effective on final body weight loss (7.5-8.0%). In comparison, liraglutide monotherapy (0.2mg/kg, s.c., b.i.d.) reduced body weight by 10.1%. Interestingly, the weight lowering effect of combined linagliptin and GLP-1 treatment was associated with a marked increase in chow preference, being more pronounced as compared to liraglutide treatment. In addition, linagliptin and GLP-1 co-treatment, but not liraglutide, specifically increased prepro-dynorphin mRNA levels in the caudate-putamen, an effect not obtained with administration of the compounds individually. In conclusion, co-treatment with linagliptin and GLP-1 synergistically reduces body weight in obese rats. The anti-obesity effect was caused by appetite suppression with a concomitant change in diet preference, which may potentially be associated with increased dynorphin activity in forebrain regions involved in reward anticipation and habit learning.

  2. Estrogen response element-independent signaling partially restores post-ovariectomy body weight gain but is not sufficient for 17β-estradiol's control of energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamounis, Kyle J; Yang, Jennifer A; Yasrebi, Ali; Roepke, Troy A

    2014-03-01

    The steroid 17β-estradiol (E2) modulates energy homeostasis by reducing feeding behavior and increasing energy expenditure primarily through estrogen receptor α (ERα)-mediated mechanisms. Intact ERαKO female mice develop obesity as adults exhibiting decreased energy expenditure and increased fat deposition. However, intact transgenic female mice expressing a DNA-binding-deficient ERα (KIKO) are not obese and have similar energy expenditure, activity and fat deposition as to wild type (WT) females, suggesting that non-estrogen response element (ERE)-mediated signaling is important in E2 regulation of energy homeostasis. Initial reports did not examine the effects of ovariectomy on energy homeostasis or E2's attenuation of post-ovariectomy body weight gain. Therefore, we sought to determine if low physiological doses of E2 (250 ng QOD) known to suppress post-ovariectomy body weight gain in WT females would suppress body weight gain in ovariectomized KIKO females. We observed that the post-ovariectomy increase in body weight was significantly greater in WT females than in KIKO females. Furthermore, E2 did not significantly attenuate the body weight gain in KIKO females as it did in WT females. E2 replacement suppressed food intake and fat accumulation while increasing nighttime oxygen consumption and activity only in WT females. E2 replacement also increased arcuate POMC gene expression in WT females only. These data suggest that in the intact female, ERE-independent mechanisms are sufficient to maintain normal energy homeostasis and to partially restore the normal response to ovariectomy. However, they are not sufficient for E2's suppression of post-ovariectomy body weight gain and its effects on metabolism and activity.

  3. Estrogen response element-independent signaling partially restores post-ovariectomy body weight gain but is not sufficient for 17β-estradiol’s control of energy homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamounis, Kyle J.; Yang, Jennifer A.; Yasrebi, Ali; Roepke, Troy A.

    2013-01-01

    The steroid 17β-estradiol (E2) modulates energy homeostasis by reducing feeding behavior and increasing energy expenditure primarily through estrogen receptor α (ERα)-mediated mechanisms. Intact ERαKO female mice develop obesity as adults exhibiting decreased energy expenditure and increased fat deposition. However, intact transgenic female mice expressing a DNA-binding-deficient ERα (KIKO) are not obese and have similar energy expenditure, activity and fat deposition to wild type (WT) females, suggesting that non-Estrogen Response Element (ERE)-mediated signaling is important in E2 regulation of energy homeostasis. However, initial reports did not examine the effects of ovariectomy on energy homeostasis or E2’s attenuation of post-ovariectomy body weight gain. Therefore, we sought to determine if low physiological doses of E2 (250 ng QOD) known to suppress post-ovariectomy body weight gain in WT females, would suppress body weight gain in ovariectomized KIKO females. We observed that the post-ovariectomy increase in body weight was significantly greater in WT females than in KIKO females. Furthermore, E2 did not significantly attenuate the body weight gain in KIKO females as it did in WT females. E2 replacement suppressed food intake and fat accumulation while increasing nighttime oxygen consumption and activity only in WT females. E2 replacement also increased arcuate POMC gene expression in WT females only. These data suggest that in the intact female, ERE-independent mechanisms are sufficient to maintain normal energy homeostasis and to partially restore the normal response to ovariectomy. However, they are not sufficient for E2’s suppression of post-ovariectomy body weight gain and attenuation of decreases in metabolism and activity. PMID:24252383

  4. Measurements and profiles of body weight misperceptions among Taiwanese teenagers: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ya-Wen; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Liou, Yiing Mei; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Chien, Li-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Children and adolescents tend to lose weight, which may be associated with misperceptions of weight. Previous studies have emphasized establishing correlations between eating disorders and an overestimated perception of body weight, but few studies have focused on an underestimated perception of body weight. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between misperceptions of body weight and weight-related risk factors, such as eating disorders, inactivity, and unhealthy behaviors, among overweight children who underestimated their body weight. We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive study between December 1, 2006 and February 15, 2007. A total of 29,313 children and adolescents studying in grades 4-12 were enrolled in this nationwide, cross-sectional survey, and they were asked to complete questionnaires. A multivariate logistic regression using maximum likelihood estimates was used. The prevalence of body weight misperception was 43.2% (26.4% overestimation and 16.8% underestimation). Factors associated with the underestimated perception of weight among overweight children were parental obesity, dietary control for weight loss, breakfast consumption, self-induced vomiting as a weight control strategy, fried food consumption, engaging in vigorous physical activities, and sleeping for >8 hours per day (odds ratios=0.86, 0.42, 0.88, 1.37, 1.13, 1.11, and 1.17, respectively). In conclusion, the early establishment of an accurate perception of body weight may mitigate unhealthy behaviors.

  5. FTO Genotype Interacts with Improvement in Aerobic Fitness on Body Weight Loss During Lifestyle Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailer, Corinna; Schmid, Vera; Fritsche, Louise; Gerter, Tsvetelina; Machicao, Fausto; Niess, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Stefan, Norbert; Fritsche, Andreas; Heni, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Not every participant responds with a comparable body weight loss to lifestyle intervention, despite the same compliance. Genetic factors may explain parts of this difference. Variation in fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) is the strongest common genetic determinant of body weight. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of FTO genotype differences in the link between improvement of fitness and reduction of body weight during a lifestyle intervention. We genotyped 292 healthy subjects for FTO rs8050136. Participants underwent a 9-month lifestyle intervention. Before and after intervention, aerobic fitness was tested by bicycle (VO2max) and treadmill spiroergometry (individual anaerobic threshold (IAT), subgroup of N = 192). Participants lost body weight (p fitness lost significantly less body weight. Our data reveal that genetic variation in FTO impacts on body weight reduction during lifestyle intervention only in subjects with marked improvement in aerobic fitness. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  6. Body-weight distribution on forelimbs in rat tail-suspension model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lian-Wen; Wang, Chao; Xie, Tian; Pu, Fang; Sun, Yao; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2010-01-01

    To understand the tail-suspension model to simulate weightlessness better, this study was to investigate the relationship of the amount of body weight supported by forelimbs between the tilt angles of rat in the model. Normal rat had at least two basic postures. One was standing or walking, in which the forelimbs bear 44.6% of the body weight; the other one was resting, in which 23.9% of body weight was placed on the forelimbs. As for tail-suspended rat, body-weight distribution on forelimbs was linearly related to tilt angle. The linear relationship was y = -0.7423x + 70.849, R2 = 0.9269. The tilt angle should be approximately 35 degrees if normal standing load of 44.6% body weight was placed on the forelimbs. On the other hand, it should be approximately 63 degrees if normal resting load of 23.9% of body weight was placed on forelimbs. Furthermore, the body load on forelimbs in tail-suspension model became much larger if the period of different postures was considered. Therefore, it should be careful if forelimbs are used to be as convenient internal control in tail-suspended rats.

  7. Increases in body weight and nutritional status of transplanted Alaskan caribou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Valkenburg

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Body weight and natality rate in ungulates can be useful indices to nutririon, bur they may also be influenced by genetic and climatic factors. Because caribou {Rangifer tarandus granti are distributed as discrete populations of metapopulations (i.e., herds that are usually reproductively isolated from each other for unknown periods, it is difficult to separate the influence of genetics and nutrition on body weight, especially where historical data are lacking. To help elucidate the influence of nutrition on potential variation in body weight and natality of caribou in Alaska, we reviewed data for body weight and natality in 5 populations which resulted from Transplants to previously ungrazed ranges, or to areas where reindeer and caribou had been absent for many decades. In 2 of 5 populations body weight increased significantly, and likely increased in the other 3 populations, but data were insufficient. Natality rate increased in all 5 populations, proportion of fecund yearlings was high and 3 of the 5 newly established herds increased at about the maximum biological potential for the species (lambda=1.35. In the Adak transplant, a lactating yearling was documented. These 5 transplanted populations provide additional evidence that body weight and natality rate in Alaskan caribou are sensitive to changes in population density and relatively short-term (i.e., 10 years increases in grazing pressure independenr of climate and genetics.

  8. Resting state cortical electroencephalographic rhythms in subjects with normal and abnormal body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiloni, Claudio; Marzano, Nicola; Lizio, Roberta; Valenzano, Anna; Triggiani, Antonio Ivano; Petito, Annamaria; Bellomo, Antonello; Lecce, Brunello; Mundi, Ciro; Soricelli, Andrea; Limatola, Cristina; Cibelli, Giuseppe; Del Percio, Claudio

    2011-09-15

    It is well known that resting state regional cerebral blood flow is abnormal in obese when compared to normal-weight subjects but the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms are poorly known. To address this issue, we tested the hypothesis that amplitude of resting state cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms differ among underweight, normal-weight, and overweight/obese subjects as a reflection of the relationship between cortical neural synchronization and regulation of body weight. Eyes-closed resting state EEG data were recorded in 16 underweight subjects, 25 normal-weight subjects, and 18 overweight/obese subjects. All subjects were psychophysically healthy (no eating disorders or major psychopathologies). EEG rhythms of interest were delta (2-4Hz), theta (4-8Hz), alpha 1 (8-10.5Hz), alpha 2 (10.5-13Hz), beta 1 (13-20Hz), beta 2 (20-30Hz), and gamma (30-40Hz). EEG cortical sources were estimated by low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Statistical results showed that parietal and temporal alpha 1 sources fitted the pattern underweight>normal-weight>overweight/obese (punderweight>overweight/obese (prhythms and fluctuation of global brain arousal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Macronutrients, food intake and body weight; the role of fat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá-Bejarano Carrillo, Jesús; Yago Torregrosa, Maria Dolores; Mañas Almendros, Mariano; López Millán, María Belén; Martínez Burgos, María Alba; Martínez de Victoria Muñoz, Emilio

    2014-11-27

    "Globesity" is the term that the World Health Organization (WHO) employs to define the growth of obesity in the world from the last 40 years which started in the developed countries and has been inevitably propagated to the developing ones. Governments and international organizations are aware of the problem and they are trying to implement measures to fight it. To analyze the current evidence in terms of studies about the relationship between macronutrients (especially fat and lipid release systems) and the secretion of gastrointestinal peptides that are involved with satiety and satiation. The search was conducted in Medline (via Pubmed) using different combinations of MeSH terms and in the database LILACs using "DeCS". A selection of another articles relevant to the review topic was also examined. At present, there are several laboratories and industries developing novel bioactive ingredients aimed at the regulation of food intake, with emphasis on those related with fat intake and the different ways in which fat can be technologically processed in order to create structures able to enhance satiety and/ or diminish hunger. These ingredients will be the future of functional foods focused on the prevention of weight gain and the support of other strategies against obesity (dietary, behavioral, etc…). Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. Chili pepper as a body weight-loss food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Sharon; Kubatka, Peter; Rodrigo, Luis; Gazdikova, Katarina; Caprnda, Martin; Fedotova, Julia; Zulli, Anthony; Kruzliak, Peter; Büsselberg, Dietrich

    2017-06-01

    Chili has culinary as well as medical importance. Studies in humans, using a wide range of doses of chili intake (varying from a single meal to a continuous uptake for up to 12 weeks), concluded that it facilitates weight loss. In regard to this, the main targets of chili are fat metabolism, energy expenditure, and thermogenesis. To induce weight loss, the active substance of chili, capsaicin, activates Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel sub-family V member 1 (TRPV1) channels) receptors causing an increase in intracellular calcium levels and triggering the sympathetic nervous system. Apart from TRPV1, chili directly reduces energy expenditure by activating Brown Adipose Tissue. Weight loss by chili is also the result of an improved control of insulin, which supports weight management and has positive effects for treatment for diseases like obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. This review summarizes the major pathways by which chili contributes to ameliorating parameters that help weight management and how the consumption of chili can help in accelerating weight loss through dietary modifications.

  11. Tail nerve electrical stimulation induces body weight-supported stepping in rats with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Xin; Huang, Fengfa; Gates, Mary; White, Jason; Holmberg, Eric G

    2010-03-30

    Walking or stepping has been considered the result from the activation of the central pattern generator (CPG). In most patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) the CPG is undamaged. To date, there are no noninvasive approaches for activating the CPG. Recently we developed a noninvasive technique, tail nerve electrical stimulation (TANES), which can induce positive hind limb movement of SCI rats. The purpose of this study is to introduce the novel technique and examine the effect of TANES on CPG activation. A 25 mm contusion injury was produced at spinal cord T10 of female, adult Long-Evans rats by using the NYU impactor device. Rats received TANES ( approximately 40 mA at 4 kHz) 7 weeks after injury. During TANES all injured rats demonstrated active body weight-supported stepping of hind limbs with left-right alternation and occasional front-hind coordination, resulting in significant, temporary increase in BBB scores (pelectrical stimulation. Therefore the TANES may have considerable potential for achieving improvement of functional recovery in animal models and a similar method may be suggested for human study. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hypothalamic thyroid hormone catabolism acts as a gatekeeper for the seasonal control of body weight and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Perry; Ebling, Francis J P; Schuhler, Sandrine; Wilson, Dana; Ross, Alexander W; Warner, Amy; Jethwa, Preeti; Boelen, Anita; Visser, Theo J; Ozanne, Daniel M; Archer, Zoe A; Mercer, Julian G; Morgan, Peter J

    2007-08-01

    Seasonal adaptations in physiology exhibited by many animals involve an interface between biological timing and specific neuroendocrine systems, but the molecular basis of this interface is unknown. In this study of Siberian hamsters, we show that the availability of thyroid hormone within the hypothalamus is a key determinant of seasonal transitions. The expression of the gene encoding type III deiodinase (Dio3) and Dio3 activity in vivo (catabolism of T(4) and T(3)) is dynamically and temporally regulated by photoperiod, consistent with the loss of hypothalamic T(3) concentrations under short photoperiods. Chronic replacement of T(3) in the hypothalamus of male hamsters exposed to short photoperiods, thus bypassing synthetic or catabolic deiodinase enzymes located in cells of the ependyma of the third ventricle, prevented the onset of short-day physiology: hamsters maintained a long-day body weight phenotype and failed to undergo testicular and epididymal regression. However, pelage moult to a winter coat was not affected. Type II deiodinase gene expression was not regulated by photoperiod in these hamsters. Collectively, these data point to a pivotal role for hypothalamic DIO3 and T(3) catabolism in seasonal cycles of body weight and reproduction in mammals.

  13. Two novel polymorphisms of bovine SIRT2 gene are associated with higher body weight in Nanyang cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaomei; Li, Mingxun; Hao, Dan; Hua, Liushuai; Lan, Xianyong; Lei, Chuzhao; Hu, Shenrong; Qi, Xinglei; Chen, Hong

    2015-03-01

    Identification of polymorphisms associated with economic traits is important for successful marker-assisted selection in cattle breeding. The family of mammalian sirtuin regulates many biological functions, such as life span extension and energy metabolism. SIRT2, a most abundant sirtuin in adipocytes, acts as a crucial regulator of adipogenic differentiation and plays a key role in controlling adipose tissue function and mass. Here we investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of bovine SIRT2 in 1226 cattle from five breeds and further evaluated the effects of identified SNPs on economically important traits of Nanyang cattle. Our results revealed four novel SNPs in bovine SIRT2, one was located in intronic region and the other three were synonymous mutations. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype analyses based on the identified SNPs showed obvious difference between crossbred breed and the other four beef breeds. Association analyses demonstrated that SNPs g.17333C > T and g.17578A > G have a significantly effect on 18-months-old body weight of Nanyang population. Animals with combined genotype TTGG at the above two loci exhibited especially higher body weight. Our data for the first time demonstrated that polymorphisms in bovine SIRT2 are associated with economic traits of Nanyang cattle, which will be helpful for future cattle selection practices.

  14. Body weight/image perceptions and prevalence of obesity among adolescents-Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity can be seen as the first wave of a defined cluster of non communicable diseases called "New World Syndrome" creating an enormous socioeconomic and public health burden in poorer countries. The rising prevalence of childhood/adolescent obesity cannot be addressed by a single etiology. Multiple factors plays role and among them perception on body weight and image plays vital role in adolescents. So the objective of this study was to know the perceptions of adolescents on their body weight and body image. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among students of high schools of Thiruvananthapuram city corporation, Kerala, India. The sample size of this study was 1718 and the technique adopted is multistage and stratified random sampling. Data was collected using pre designed and pretested semi-structured questionnaire which is self-administered. Body mass index was calculated based on physical measurements such as height and weight using standard methods. Results: This study revealed that 67.3% of study subjects underestimated their body weight and 15.5% over estimated their body weight. The prevalence of overweight/obesity is high among those who underestimated their body weight (18.7% compared to subjects who overestimated (6.7% but the prevalence of underweight is high among the subjects who overestimated their body weight (60.8% compared to subjects who underestimated (22%. Conclusion: Schools are probably the ideal medium of intervention as they are central to children′s lives and information can be relatively quickly dissipated through this channel and Helping adolescents to attain a realistic, positive perception of their body weight and image through health education.

  15. Neurobeachin, a Regulator of Synaptic Protein Targeting, Is Associated with Body Fat Mass and Feeding Behavior in Mice and Body-Mass Index in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Pawel K.; Rozman, Jan; Jacobsson, Josefin A.; Rathkolb, Birgit; Strömberg, Siv; Hans, Wolfgang; Klockars, Anica; Alsiö, Johan; Risérus, Ulf; Becker, Lore; Hölter, Sabine M.; Elvert, Ralf; Ehrhardt, Nicole; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Fuchs, Helmut; Fredriksson, Robert; Wolf, Eckhard; Klopstock, Thomas; Wurst, Wolfgang; Levine, Allen S.; Marcus, Claude; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Klingenspor, Martin; Schiöth, Helgi B.; Kilimann, Manfred W.

    2012-01-01

    Neurobeachin (Nbea) regulates neuronal membrane protein trafficking and is required for the development and functioning of central and neuromuscular synapses. In homozygous knockout (KO) mice, Nbea deficiency causes perinatal death. Here, we report that heterozygous KO mice haploinsufficient for Nbea have higher body weight due to increased adipose tissue mass. In several feeding paradigms, heterozygous KO mice consumed more food than wild-type (WT) controls, and this consumption was primarily driven by calories rather than palatability. Expression analysis of feeding-related genes in the hypothalamus and brainstem with real-time PCR showed differential expression of a subset of neuropeptide or neuropeptide receptor mRNAs between WT and Nbea+/− mice in the sated state and in response to food deprivation, but not to feeding reward. In humans, we identified two intronic NBEA single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are significantly associated with body-mass index (BMI) in adult and juvenile cohorts. Overall, data obtained in mice and humans suggest that variation of Nbea abundance or activity critically affects body weight, presumably by influencing the activity of feeding-related neural circuits. Our study emphasizes the importance of neural mechanisms in body weight control and points out NBEA as a potential risk gene in human obesity. PMID:22438821

  16. Influence of body weight and gender on the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and antihypertensive efficacy of aliskiren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarugula, Venkateswar; Yeh, Ching-Ming; Howard, Dan; Bush, Christopher; Keefe, Deborah L; Dole, William P

    2010-12-01

    Gender and body weight influence the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of many drugs. This pooled analysis of 17 clinical studies evaluated the effect of gender, body mass index (BMI), body weight, and lean body weight (LBW) on the pharmacokinetics of the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren in healthy volunteers (n = 392). A separate pooled analysis of 5 clinical studies in patients with hypertension (n = 2327) assessed the influence of gender and BMI on the effects of aliskiren on plasma renin activity and blood pressure. Area under the aliskiren plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(τ)) was 22% lower and the peak aliskiren plasma concentration (C(max)) was 24% lower in men than women (P weight (r = -0.235; P weight or LBW abolished gender differences. Based on r(2) values, LBW variation accounted for 8.9% of aliskiren AUC(τ) variation. In patients with hypertension, gender and BMI did not significantly influence the effects of aliskiren on plasma renin activity or blood pressure. It was concluded that lower systemic exposure to aliskiren in men versus women relates to differences in body weight; neither gender nor body weight has clinically relevant effects on the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of aliskiren.

  17. Relationship of mouse body weight and food consumption/wastage to cage shelf level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, D L; Bryant, P; Kodell, R L; Sheldon, W

    1983-12-01

    The relationships between the shelf level at which mice were housed and body weight and food consumption/wastage were examined by analyzing data obtained from the first 9 months of a carcinogenic dose-response study carried out in 24,192 female BALB/c mice using 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) as the carcinogen. Each cage, containing four mice, was maintained on a rack at a given shelf level throughout the course of the experiment to allow analysis of data by shelf level. The amount of food removed from each feeder and the body weight of each mouse was measured weekly. Average body weight gain during the first 12 weeks was lowest on the top shelf, highest on the next two shelves, and progressively lower as the shelf approached the lowest level on the rack. Body weights attained by week 36 of the experiment generally reflected this same pattern. Weekly food consumption/wastage, as measured by disappearance of food from the feeder, generally showed the converse shelf-level pattern as that shown by body weight gain. Removal of food from feeders was greatest on the top shelf, lowest on the next shelf, and progressively increased with each succeedingly lower shelf. Although it is not clear whether the food removal pattern was related more to food consumption or food wastage, the observation was reproducible.

  18. Body weight changes during the menstrual cycle among university students in Ahvaz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighizadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Karandish, Majid; Ghoreishi, Mahdiye; Soroor, Farshad; Shirani, Fatemeh

    2014-07-01

    Weight changes during menstrual cycle may be a cause of concern about body weight among most women. Limited data are available linking menstrual cycle and body weight changes. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between menstrual cycles and body weight changes among university students in Ahvaz, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 Iranian female students aged 18-24 years. Anthropometric indices were measured according to standard protocols. During a complete menstrual cycle, weights of participants were measured each morning. Seventy eight percent of participants had normal weight (Body Mass Index: 18.5-24.9 kg m(-2)). Body weight increased only slightly during the three days before beginning of the menstruation. By using repeated-measures ANOVA, no statistically significant differences were found in weigh during menstrual cycle (p-value = 0.301). No statistically significant changes were found in body weight during women's menstrual cycle in a group of healthy non-obese Iranian young women. Further studies on overweight and obese women are suggested.

  19. [Cyanidin-3-glucoside attenuates body weight gain, serum lipid concentrations and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-induced obese rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ren-Qiang; Wu, Xiao-You; Zhou, Xiang; Zhu, Jing; Ma, Lu-Yi

    2014-05-01

    Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) is the main active ingredient of anthocyanidin. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of C3G on body weight gain, visceral adiposity, lipid profiles and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group (n=8) and a high fat diet group (n=22), and were fed with standard diet or high fat diet. Five weeks later, 17 high-fat diet-induced obese rats were randomly given C3G [100 mg/(kg·d)] or normal saline via intragastric administration for 5 weeks. Five weeks later, body weight, visceral adiposity and food intake were measured. Blood samples were collected for detecting fasting glucose, serum insulin, lipid profiles and adiponectin. Insulin resistance index, atherosclerosis index and average feed efficiency ratio were calculated. C3G supplementation markedly decreased body weight, visceral adiposity, average feed efficiency ratio, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance index and atherosclerosis index in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. C3G supplementation normalized serum adiponectin and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Cyanidin-3-glucoside can reduce body weight gain, and attenuate obesity-associated dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed rats via up-regulating serum adiponectin level.

  20. Effects of prepubertal-onset exercise on body weight changes up to middle age in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, Daisuke; Matsuura, Tomokazu; Suzuki, Masato

    2014-03-15

    The present study was conducted to examine whether prepubertal-onset exercise might help adults maintain long-term body weight (BW) reduction and increased energy metabolism after the cessation of exercise. Furthermore, the effects of the exercise regimen were compared with those of food restriction. Twenty-three male obese-diabetic [Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF)] rats were randomly assigned to prepubertal-onset exercise (Childhood-Ex), food restriction (Childhood-Diet), and sedentary control (OLETF-Sed) groups. Childhood-Ex rats exercised voluntarily every day using a rotating wheel, while the food volume of the Childhood-Diet group was restricted to achieve a BW similar to that recorded in the Childhood-Ex group. Both treatments were conducted at 5-19 wk of age; after this period, the rats were kept sedentary and allowed ad libitum food intake until 45 wk of age. BW was significantly lower, and percent lean body mass was significantly higher, in the Childhood-Ex group compared with those in the Childhood-Diet and OLETF-Sed groups throughout maturation and middle age after cessation of the interventions. The Childhood-Ex group also demonstrated higher citrate synthase, succinate dehydrogenase, and phosphofructokinase activity levels, as well as uncoupling protein-3 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. This study revealed that inhibited BW gain in an animal model of human obese diabetes by prepubertal-onset exercise lasted for a long period after the completion of the exercise intervention. This effect may be facilitated by increased energy metabolism. However, these benefits were not found by prepubertal food restriction treatment. Importantly, to allow translation of our work, these novel insights need to be assessed in obese human individuals.

  1. Low body weight in male children and adolescents with schizoid personality disorder or Asperger's disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebebrand, J; Henninghausen, K; Nau, S; Himmelmann, G W; Schulz, E; Schäfer, H; Remschmidt, H

    1997-07-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that body weight is reduced in male children and adolescents with schizoid personality disorder or Asperger's disorder. The body weights of 33 consecutively admitted male subjects with one of these disorders were retrospectively assessed with percentiles for the body mass index (BMI). The mean percentile (+/- SD) for the BMI was 31.6 +/- 27.6 and differed significantly from the expected value of 50 (Pschizoid personality disorder and Asperger's disorder and (b) reduced to a greater extent in patients with abnormal eating behaviour. During childhood and adolescence both diagnoses are associated with an increased risk of being underweight. Population-based BMI percentiles are useful for detecting associations between specific psychopathological syndromes and body weight.

  2. EFFECTS OF FEEDING AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS ON BODY WEIGHT AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF BALOCHI EWES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MUNIR, A. W. JASRA1 AND M. A. MIRZA

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the performance of Balochi ewes under three management systems i.e. T1-Extensive (grazing only, T2-Semi-extensive (grazing plus daily feed supplementation for nine months @ 0.625 kg/ewe/day and T3-Intensive (experimental ration only @ 1.5625 kg/ewe/day. Animals under T1 lost as high as 7.9 kg body weight during winter. T2 flock maintained their body weights and T3 achieved significantly higher body weight (i.e. 15.1 kg. Highest conception and lambing percentages (93.8% were attained under T3 group, followed by T2 (87.5% and T1 (75%. These results strongly recommend appropriate feed supplementation to small ruminants on Balochistan ranges for sustainable pastoral livelihood.

  3. Effects of Body Weight and Water Temperature on Maximum Food Consumption of Juvenile Sebastodes fuscescens (Houttuyn)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢松光; 杨红生; 周毅; 张福绥

    2004-01-01

    Maximum rate of food consumption (Cmax) was determined for juvenile Sebastodes fuscescens (Houttuyn) at water temperature of 10, 15, 20 and 25℃. The relationships of Cmax to the body weight (W) at each temperature were described by a power equation: lnCmax = a + b lnW. Covariance analysis revealed significant interaction of the temperature and body weight. The relationship of adjusted Cmax to water temperature (T) was described by a quadratic equation: Cmax =-0.369 + 0.456T - 0.0117T2. The optimal feeding temperature calculated from this equation was 19.5℃. The coefficients of the multiple regression estimation relating Cmax to body weight (W) and water temperature (T) were given in the Table 2.

  4. Effects of artificial sweeteners on body weight, food and drink intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyák, Eva; Gombos, K; Hajnal, B; Bonyár-Müller, K; Szabó, Sz; Gubicskó-Kisbenedek, A; Marton, K; Ember, I

    2010-12-01

    Artificial sweeteners are widely used all over the world. They may assist in weight management, prevention of dental caries, control of blood glucose of diabetics, and also can be used to replace sugar in foods. In the animal experimentation mice were given oral doses of water solutions of table top artificial sweeteners (saccharin, cyclamate based, acesulfame-K based, and aspartame) the amount of maximum Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) ad libitum. The controls received only tap water with the same drinking conditions as the treated groups. The mice were fed chow ad libitum.We measured food intake and body weight once a week, water and solutions of artificial sweeteners intake twice a week. The data were analysed by statistical methods (T-probe, regression analysis).Consumption of sweeteners resulted in significantly increased body weight; however, the food intake did not change.These results question the effect of non-caloric artificial sweeteners on weight-maintenance or body weight decrease.

  5. Parental Misperception of Their Child's Body Weight Status Impedes the Assessment of the Child's Lifestyle Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Eve Mathieu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To examine if distinct characteristics are associated with parental misclassification of underweight (UW, normal weight (NW, and overweight or obese (OWOB children and the implications of misclassification on the parental evaluation of the child's lifestyle habits. Methods. Cross-sectional analysis (2004 sample of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (1998–2010 (n=1,125. Results. 16%, 55%, and 77% of NW, UW and OWOB children were perceived inaccurately, respectively. Misperception was significantly higher in nonimmigrant parents of UW children, in highly educated parents of NW children and in NW and OWOB children with lower BMI percentiles. Erroneous body weight status identification impedes the evaluation of eating habits of all children as well as physical activity and fitness levels of UW and OWOB children. Conclusion. Parental misclassification of the child's body weight status and lifestyle habits constitutes an unfavorable context for healthy body weight management.

  6. The Use of Green Leaf Membranes to Promote Appetite Control, Suppress Hedonic Hunger and Loose Body Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte; Albertsson, Per-Åke

    2015-09-01

    On-going research aims at answering the question, which satiety signal is the most potent or which combination of satiety signals is the most potent to stop eating. There is also an aim at finding certain food items or food additives that could be used to specifically reduce food intake therapeutically. Therapeutic attempts to normalize body weight and glycaemia with single agents alone have generally been disappointing. The success of bariatric surgery illustrates the rationale of using several hormones to treat obesity and type-2-diabetes. We have found that certain components from green leaves, the thylakoids, when given orally have a similar rationale in inducing the release of several gut hormones at the same time. In this way satiety is promoted and hunger suppressed, leading to loss of body weight and body fat. The mechanism is a reduced rate of intestinal lipid hydrolysis, allowing the lipolytic products to reach the distal intestine and release satiety hormones. The thylakoids also regulate glucose uptake in the intestine and influences microbiota composition in the intestine in a prebiotic direction. Using thylakoids is a novel strategy for treatment and prevention of obesity.

  7. Effects of long-term ingestion of aspartame on hypothalamic neuropeptide Y, plasma leptin and body weight gain and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bernard; Burlet, Arlette; Max, Jean Pierre; Stricker-Krongrad, Alain

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the chronic ingestion of aspartame (ASP) on brain neuropeptide Y (NPY) concentrations, plasma hormones, food intake and body fat. Two groups of male Long-Evans rats, fed on a control (C) well-balanced diet, had to drink either a 0.1% ASP solution or water for a period of 14 weeks starting at weaning. Food intake and body weight were weekly recorded. At the end of the experiment, fat pads were sampled, leptin and insulin were measured in the plasma and NPY in several microdissected brain areas. Substituting ASP for water led to lower body weight (-8%; Pplasma insulin concentrations. Plasma leptin was significantly reduced by 34% (Pcomposition could be related to the decreased effects of NPY on lipid and energy metabolism, independently of insulin. The reasons for the NPY decrease (regulatory or toxicological) are not obvious. The constitutive amino acids of the ASP molecule might participate in the NPY regulation.

  8. Targeted deletion of one or two copies of the G protein β subunit Gβ5 gene has distinct effects on body weight and behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Levay, Konstantin; Chanturiya, Tatyana; Dvoriantchikova, Galina; Anderson, Karen L; Bianco, Suzy D C; Ueta, Cintia B; Molano, R Damaris; Pileggi, Antonello; Gurevich, Eugenia V; Gavrilova, Oksana; Slepak, Vladlen Z

    2011-11-01

    We investigated the physiological role of Gβ5, a unique G protein β subunit that dimerizes with regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins of the R7 family instead of Gγ. Gβ5 is essential for stability of these complexes, so that its knockout (KO)causes degradation of the entire Gβ5-R7 family. We report that the Gβ5-KO mice remain leaner than the wild type (WT) throughout their lifetime and are resistant to a high-fat diet. They have a 5-fold increase in locomotor activity, increased thermogenesis, and lower serum insulin, all of which correlate with a higher level of secreted epinephrine. Heterozygous (HET) mice are 2-fold more active than WT mice. Surprisingly, with respect to body weight, the HET mice display a phenotype opposite to that of the KO mice: by the age of 6 mo, they are ≥ 15% heavier than the WT and have increased adiposity, insulin resistance, and liver steatosis. These changes occur in HET mice fed a normal diet and without apparent hyperphagia, mimicking basic characteristics of human metabolic syndrome. We conclude that even a partial reduction in Gβ5-R7 level can perturb normal animal metabolism and behavior. Our data on Gβ5 haploinsufficient mice may explain earlier observations of genetic linkage between R7 family mutations and obesity in humans.

  9. [Effects of different feeding patterns on body weight of perinatal women in rural area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Zhou, Ling-zhi; Dai, Li-na; Tian, Zhen; Lai, Jian-qiang; Zhao, Xian-feng; Yin, Shi-an

    2009-02-01

    To study the relations between different feeding patterns and the body weight retention of the perinatal women living in rural areas of China. A cluster sampling method was used to investigate 409 women, who are currently living in rural areas of Tianjin, at pregnant and perinatal status. While, their body weights and heights before pregnancy, antepartum and postpartum were measured, respectively. Body weight retention was the difference of the measured data after postpartum minus pre-pregnant weight. Variance analysis was used for statistic comparison. The rate of exclusive breastfeeding was 70.9% (290/409) within four months. The net body weight retention of women (5.8 kg) using the exclusive breastfeeding was lower than that of the women (7.0 kg) using artificial feeding within 4 - 6 months, but there was no significantly statistic difference (F = 1.45, P = 0.236). However, there was the opposite result within 7 - 9 months, the data showed that the body weight retention in the women using the exclusive breastfeeding was 4.9 kg, which was significantly higher than that the women (2.9 kg) with artificial feeding (F = 3.17, P = 0.043). The food consumption of the women (901 g) using exclusive breastfeeding was the highest, followed by those (877 g) using mixed feeding and the women (750 g) using artificial feeding. The body weight retention after postpartum should be related to infant feeding patterns. After postpartum, the weight loss of women using the exclusive breastfeeding is relatively low. While, for the women using the exclusive breastfeeding, the net weight retention during pregnancy and after postpartum were lower than those with artificial feeding. Therefore, it is necessary to enhance health education and guidance on promoting exclusive breast-feeding as well as increasing awareness on pre-pregnant health.

  10. Effects of age on recovery of body weight following REM sleep deprivation of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koban, Michael; Stewart, Craig V

    2006-01-30

    Chronically enforced rapid eye (paradoxical) movement sleep deprivation (REM-SD) of rats leads to a host of pathologies, of which hyperphagia and loss of body weight are among the most readily observed. In recent years, the etiology of many REM-SD-associated pathologies have been elucidated, but one unexplored area is whether age affects outcomes. In this study, male Sprague-Dawley rats at 2, 6, and 12 months of age were REM sleep-deprived with the platform (flowerpot) method for 10-12 days. Two-month-old rats resided on 7-cm platforms, while 10-cm platforms were used for 6- and 12-month-old rats; rats on 15-cm platforms served as tank controls (TCs). Daily changes in food consumption (g/kg(0.67)) and body weight (g) during baseline, REM-SD or TCs, and post-experiment recovery in home cages were determined. Compared to TCs, REM-SD resulted in higher food intake and decreases in body weight. When returned to home cages, food intake rapidly declined to baseline levels. Of primary interest was that rates of body weight gain during recovery differed between the age groups. Two-month-old rats rapidly restored body weight to pre-REM-SD mass within 5 days; 6-month-old rats were extrapolated by linear regression to have taken about 10 days, and for 12-month-old rats, the estimate was about 35 days. The observation that restoration of body weight following its loss during REM-SD may be age-dependent is in general agreement with the literature on aging effects on how mammals respond to stress.

  11. [Natural evolution of excess body weight (overweight and obesity) in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durá Travé, T; Gallinas Victoriano, F

    2013-11-01

    To analyze the chronological evolution of excess body weight (overweight and obesity) in order to raise public awareness within the different areas of intervention (family, school, business environment, health services) and to take effective actions. Weight, height and body mass index (BMI) of 604 healthy subjects (307 males and 297 females) have been recorded at birth and at the age of 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 years. The excess body weight has been calculated according to national references from Ferrández et al. Prevalence of excess body weight at age 14 years was significantly higher (P<.05) in males (29%) than in females (12.8%). BMI (kg/m2) was significantly higher (P<.05) for both sexes in every age period, except for birth and age 1 year, in those patients with excess body weight at age 14, with respect to patients with normal nutritional status of the same age. Those groups with excess body weight at age 14 showed a BMI (Z-score) reaching overweight or obesity levels at age 4, and progressively increasing. Excess body weight probably starts at early stages in life, when dietary habits of the child depends almost exclusively on family habits, and may be aggravated during school attendance. Finally, a disproportionate weight increase occurs in adolescence that is probably related to unhealthy dietary habits and way of life. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Liver volume in thalassaemia major: relationship with body weight, serum ferritin, and liver function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan Yuleung; Law Manyee; Howard, Robert [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong (China); Li Chikong; Chik Kiwai [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Paediatrics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-02-01

    It is not known whether body weight alone can adjust for the volume of liver in the calculation of the chelating dose in {beta}-thalassaemia major patients, who frequently have iron overload and hepatitis. The hypothesis is that liver volume in children and adolescents suffering from {beta}-thalassaemia major is affected by ferritin level and liver function. Thirty-five {beta}-thalassaemia major patients aged 7-18 years and 35 age- and sex-matched controls had liver volume measured by MRI. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and ferritin levels were obtained in the thalassaemia major patients. Body weight explained 65 and 86% of the change in liver volume in {beta}-thalassaemia major patients and age-matched control subjects, respectively. Liver volume/kilogram body weight was significantly higher (P<0.001) in thalassaemia major patients than in control subjects. There was a significant correlation between ALT level and liver volume/kilogram body weight (r=0.55, P=0.001). Patients with elevated ALT had significantly higher liver volume/kilogram body weight (mean 42.9{+-}12 cm{sup 3}/kg) than control subjects (mean 23.4{+-}3.6 cm{sup 3}/kg) and patients with normal ALT levels (mean 27.4{+-}3.6 cm{sup 3}/kg). Body weight is the most important single factor for liver-volume changes in thalassaemia major patients, but elevated ALT also has a significant role. Direct liver volume measurement for chelation dose adjustment may be advantageous in patients with elevated ALT. (orig.)

  13. RYGB Produces more Sustained Body Weight Loss and Improvement of Glycemic Control Compared with VSG in the Diet-Induced Obese Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zheng; Townsend, R Leigh; Mumphrey, Michael B; Morrison, Christopher D; Münzberg, Heike; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2017-04-06

    Weight regain and type-2 diabetes relapse has been reported in a significant proportion of vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) patients in some studies, but definitive conclusions regarding the long-term comparative effectiveness of VSG and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery are lacking both in humans and rodent models. This study's objective was to compare the effects of murine models of VSG and RYGB surgery on body weight, body composition, food intake, energy expenditure, and glycemic control. VSG, RYGB, and sham surgery was performed in high-fat diet-induced obese mice, and the effects on body weight and glycemic control were observed for a period of 12 weeks. After the initial weight loss, VSG mice regained significant amounts of body weight and fat mass that were only marginally lower than in sham-operated mice. In contrast, RYGB produced sustained loss of body weight and fat mass up to 12 weeks and drastically improved fasting insulin and HOMA-IR compared with sham-operated mice. Using weight-matched control groups, we also found that the adaptive hypometabolic response to weight loss was blunted by both VSG and RYGB, and that despite large weight/fat regain, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were markedly improved, but not reversed, in VSG mice. VSG is less effective to lastingly suppress body weight and improve glycemic control compared with RYGB in mice. Given similar observations in many human studies, the run towards replacing RYGB with VSG is premature and should await carefully controlled randomized long-term trials with VSG and RYGB.

  14. Intake of ruminant trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C P; Berentzen, T L; Halkjær, Jytte

    2012-01-01

    Follow-up studies have suggested that total intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) is a risk factor for gain in body weight and waist circumference (WC). However, in a cross-sectional study individual TFA isomers in adipose tissue had divergent associations with anthropometry. Our objective was to inv......Follow-up studies have suggested that total intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) is a risk factor for gain in body weight and waist circumference (WC). However, in a cross-sectional study individual TFA isomers in adipose tissue had divergent associations with anthropometry. Our objective...

  15. Impact of Orexin-A Treatment on Food Intake, Energy Metabolism and Body Weight in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Anne; Drouin, Gaëtan; Chaumontet, Catherine; Voisin, Thierry; Couvelard, Anne; Even, Patrick Christian; Couvineau, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Orexin-A and -B are hypothalamic neuropeptides of 33 and 28-amino acids, which regulate many homeostatic systems including sleep/wakefulness states, energy balance, energy homeostasis, reward seeking and drug addiction. Orexin-A treatment was also shown to reduce tumor development in xenografted nude mice and is thus a potential treatment for carcinogenesis. The aim of this work was to explore in healthy mice the consequences on energy expenditure components of an orexin-A treatment at a dose previously shown to be efficient to reduce tumor development. Physiological approaches were used to evaluate the effect of orexin-A on food intake pattern, energy metabolism body weight and body adiposity. Modulation of the expression of brain neuropeptides and receptors including NPY, POMC, AgRP, cocaine- and amphetamine related transcript (CART), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and prepro-orexin (HCRT), and Y2 and Y5 neuropeptide Y, MC4 (melanocortin), OX1 and OX2 orexin receptors (Y2R, Y5R, MC4R, OX1R and OX2R, respectively) was also explored. Our results show that orexin-A treatment does not significantly affect the components of energy expenditure, and glucose metabolism but reduces intraperitoneal fat deposit, adiposity and the expression of several brain neuropeptide receptors suggesting that peripheral orexin-A was able to reach the central nervous system. These findings establish that orexin-A treatment which is known for its activity as an inducer of tumor cell death, do have minor parallel consequence on energy homeostasis control. PMID:28085909

  16. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Slendesta® Potato Extract and reduction of body weight pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 19 24/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Kemin Foods LC, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scient...

  17. Osteocalcin carboxylation is not associated with body weight or percent fat changes during weight loss in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centi, Amanda J; Booth, Sarah L; Gundberg, Caren M; Saltzman, Edward; Nicklas, Barbara; Shea, M Kyla

    2015-12-01

    Osteocalcin (OC) is a vitamin K-dependent bone protein used as a marker of bone formation. Mouse models have demonstrated a role for the uncarboxylated form of OC (ucOC) in energy metabolism, including energy expenditure and adiposity, but human data are equivocal. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between changes in measures of OC and changes in body weight and percent body fat in obese, but otherwise healthy post-menopausal women undergoing a 20-week weight loss program. All participants received supplemental vitamins K and D and calcium. Body weight and body fat percentage (%BF) were assessed before and after the intervention. Serum OC [(total (tOC), ucOC, percent uncarboxylated (%ucOC)], and procollagen type 1N-terminal propeptide (P1NP; a measure of bone formation) were measured. Women lost an average of 10.9 ± 3.9 kg and 4 %BF. Serum concentrations of tOC, ucOC, %ucOC, and P1NP did not significantly change over the twenty-week intervention, nor were these measures associated with changes in weight (all p > 0.27) or %BF (all p > 0.54). Our data do not support an association between any serum measure of OC and weight or %BF loss in post-menopausal women supplemented with nutrients implicated in bone health.

  18. Effect of dietary supplementation of different lutein sources on the productive performance of commercial layers categorized in three body weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Sajjad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lutein enrichment can be used for reducing chances of age related macular degeneration (AMD in human being. The present study was conducted to evaluate the production performance of commercial layers categorized in three body weight categories supplemented with different lutein sources. For this purpose a total number of four thirty two 31 week old Hy-line (W-36 commercial layers were categorized in three body sizes (Heavy >1400g, Medium 1300-1399 g, Light <1300 and supplemented with different sources of Lutein (Control, Free, Esterified and Free + Esterified replicated 6 times containing 6 birds each. The data were collected for production performance (egg production %, egg weight, egg mass, FCR per dozen, FCR per kg egg mass. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA technique through Completely Randomized Design (CRD. Results of the present study showed non-significant (P>0.05 differences for production performance among different lutein sources and body weight categories except egg weight which was found to be highest in heavy birds. Thus Lutein can be supplemented in layer diet without any harm to its production performance.

  19. Reduced sympathetic nervous activity. A potential mechanism predisposing to body weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spraul, M; Ravussin, E; Fontvieille, A M; Rising, R; Larson, D E; Anderson, E A

    1993-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system is recognized to play a role in the etiology of animal and possibly human obesity through its impact on energy expenditure and/or food intake. We, therefore, measured fasting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in the peroneal nerve and its relationship with energy expenditure and body composition in 25 relatively lean Pima Indian males (means +/- SD; 26 +/- 6 yr, 82 +/- 19 kg, 28 +/- 10% body fat) and 19 Caucasian males (29 +/- 5 yr, 81 +/- 13 kg, 24 +/- 9% body fat). 24-h energy expenditure, sleeping metabolic rate, and resting metabolic rate were measured in a respiratory chamber, whereas body composition was estimated by hydrodensitometry. Pima Indians had lower MSNA than Caucasians (23 +/- 6 vs 33 +/- 10 bursts/min, P = 0.0007). MSNA was significantly related to percent body fat in Caucasians (r = 0.55, P = 0.01) but not in Pimas. MSNA also correlated with energy expenditure adjusted for fat-free mass, fat mass, and age in Caucasians (r = 0.51, P = 0.03; r = 0.54, P = 0.02; and r = 0.53, P = 0.02 for adjusted 24-h energy expenditure, sleeping metabolic rate, and resting metabolic rate, respectively) but not in Pima Indians. In conclusion, the activity of the sympathetic nervous system is a determinant of energy expenditure in Caucasians. Individuals with low resting MSNA may be at risk for body weight gain resulting from a lower metabolic rate. A low resting MSNA and the lack of impact of MSNA on metabolic rate might play a role in the etiology of obesity in Pima Indians. PMID:8408625

  20. Sleep, brain energy levels, and food intake: Relationship between hypothalamic ATP concentrations, food intake, and body weight during sleep-wake and sleep deprivation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworak, M; Kim, T; McCarley, R W; Basheer, R

    2011-06-01

    The feeling of hunger and feeding, a wake-state-dependent behavior, is regulated by specific centers within the hypothalamus. While paraventricular nucleus (PVN), arcuate nucleus (ARC), and dorso- and ventromedial hypothalamus (DMH/VMH) regulate feeding, the lateral hypothalamus (LH) is associated both with feeding and wake/REM sleep regulation. In order to examine the effects of sleep and wakefulness on food intake and body weight, we also measured hypothalamic ATP concentrations, which are known to be involved in feeding behavior and sleep-wake regulation. In rats, food intake and body weight was measured during a 24-h light-dark cycle and during 6 h of sleep deprivation (SD) performed by gentle handling. Tissue samples from the PVN, ARC/DMH/VMH, and LH were collected after 6 h of SD and from time-matched diurnal controls. ATP was measured by luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay. Across the 24-h light-dark period, rats consumed approximately 28.13±4.48 g of food and gained 5.22±1.65 g with a positive correlation between food intake and body weight. During SD, while food intake increased significantly +147.31±6.13%, they lost weight significantly (-93.29±13.64%) when compared to undisturbed controls. SD resulted in a significant decrease in ATP levels only in LH (-44.60±21.13%) with no change in PVN, ARC/DMH/VMH region when compared with undisturbed controls. The results indicate a strong overall correlation between ATP concentrations in the LH and individual food intake and suggest a sleep-wake dependent neuronal control of food intake and body weight.

  1. Effects of exendin-4 alone and with peptide YY(3-36) on food intake and body weight in diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidelberger, Roger D; Haver, Alvin C; Apenteng, Bettye A; Anders, Krista L; Steenson, Sharalyn M

    2011-01-01

    Significant weight loss following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) in obese humans correlates with enhanced secretion of anorexigenic gut hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY(3-36) (PYY(3-36)). Our aim here was to identify a dosing strategy for intraperitoneal (IP) infusion of GLP-1 homologue exendin-4 alone and with PYY(3-36) that produces a sustained reduction in daily food intake and body weight in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. We tested 12 exendin-4 strategies over 10 weeks. Exendin-4 infused during the first and last 3 h of the dark period at 15-20 pmol/h (0.15 nmol/kg/day) produced a sustained 24 ± 1% reduction in daily food intake for 17 days, and decreased body weight by 7%. In a separate group of DIO rats, none of seven dosing strategies combining exendin-4 and PYY(3-36) produced a similar reduction in daily food intake for >10 days. The subsequent decline in efficacies of exendin-4 alone and with PYY(3-36) on food intake and body weight in each experiment suggested possible receptor downregulation and tolerance to treatments. However, when treatments were discontinued for 1 day following losses in efficacies, daily food intake significantly increased. Together, these results demonstrate that (i) intermittent IP infusion of a low dose of exendin-4 can produce a relatively prolonged reduction in daily food intake and body weight in DIO rats, (ii) co-infusion of exendin-4 and PYY(3-36) does not further prolong this response, and (iii) activation of an orexigenic mechanism gradually occurs to counteract the inhibitory effects of exendin-4 alone and with PYY(3-36) on food intake and body weight.

  2. Effects of inbreeding on survival, body weight and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fessehaye, Y.; Komen, J.; Rezk, M.A.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of different levels of inbreeding on survival, growth, body weight and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in O. niloticus. We mated 20 sires and 35 dams in a full-sib/half-sib mating design to produce 35 full-sib families with expected level of inbreeding (F%.) of

  3. Body weights in grey and red squirrels: do seasonal weight increases occur in conifer woodland?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lurz, P.W.W.; Lloyd, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Seasonal body weight changes were investigated in red and grey squirrels in spruce-dominated conifer plantations in the north of England. Annual seed food availability, particularly in the spruce plantations, varies markedly and is characterized by years with large cone crops (‘mast crops’) followed

  4. Plasma Phospholipid Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Body Weight Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne U; Dethlefsen, Claus; Due, Karen M

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the association between the proportion of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in plasma phospholipids from blood samples drawn at enrollment and subsequent change in body weight. Sex, age, and BMI were considered as potential effect modifiers....

  5. Telomere Shortening Unrelated to Smoking, Body Weight, Physical Activity, and Alcohol Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischer, Maren; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    -year inter-observational tobacco consumption, body weight, physical activity, or alcohol intake. Prospectively during a further 10 years follow-up after the second examination, quartiles of telomere length change did not associate with risk of all-cause mortality, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary...

  6. Genetic parameters for cold tolerance and body weight of Chinese fleshy prawn,Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wenjia; LUAN Sheng; LUO Kun; SUI Juan; LU Xia; WANG Qingyin; KONG Jie

    2016-01-01

    The inability ofFenneropenaeus chinensis to tolerate low temperatures is of major economic concern in temperate climates, as it reduces their growing season and leads to over-winter mortality. In this study, the heritability of body weight under low grow-out temperature and cold tolerance inF. chinensis were first investigated and estimated using 88 ful-sib families, which might provide crucial information in Chinese fleshy prawn breeding programs. The heritability for body weight under suitable and low temperature ofF. chinensis were both moderate (0.158 0±0.307 5 and 0.132 0±0.026 9 respectively); the large coefficient of variation (approximately 21%) and moderate estimate of heritability for body weight indicated substantial potential for selective breeding. The heritability estimate for cold tolerance was low (0.019 2±0.023 5), and showed no significant differences from zero (P>0.05). A weak genetic correlation between cold tolerance and body weight was also estimated in the present study, also showing no significant differences from zero (P>0.05). Thus, more research needs to be conducted on the more accurate heritability estimate of cold tolerance and genetic correlations between traits inF. chinensis to further improve the achievement of breeding goals.

  7. Associations between body weight and depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jia-In; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the associations between body weight and mental health indicators including depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents in Grades 7-12. The body mass index (BMI) of 5254 adolescents was calculated based on self-reported weight and height measurements. Body weight status was determined by the age- and gender-specific International Obesity Task Force reference tables. By using participants of average weight as the reference group, the association between body weight status (underweight, overweight, and obesity) and mental health indicators (depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem) were examined by using multiple regression analysis. The possible moderating effects of sociodemographic characteristics on the association were also examined. After controlling for the effects of sociodemographic characteristics, both overweight (p adolescents (p self-esteem than did those of average weight; however, no significant differences in depression, social phobia, or insomnia were found between those who were overweight/obese and those of average weight. No significant differences in the four mental health indicators were found between those who were underweight and those of average weight. Sociodemographic characteristics had no moderating effect on the association between body weight and mental health indicators. In conclusion, mental health and school professionals must take the association between overweight/obesity and self-esteem into consideration when approaching the issue of mental health among adolescents.

  8. Is higher dairy consumption associated with lower body weight and fewer metabolic disturbances? The Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, M.B.; Heijden, van der A.A.; Dam, van R.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Hiddink, G.J.; Nijpels, Giel; Heine, R.J.; Bouter, L.M.; Dekker, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of dairy consumption with body weight and other components of the metabolic syndrome. Design:We used cross-sectional data for 2064 men and women aged 50¿75 y who participated in the Hoorn Study. The metabolic syndrome was defined accor

  9. Dietary energy density and body weight in adults and children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Obbagy, Julie E; Altman, Jean M; Essery, Eve V; McGrane, Mary M; Wong, Yat Ping; Spahn, Joanne M; Williams, Christine L

    2012-05-01

    Energy density is a relatively new concept that has been identified as an important factor in body weight control in adults and in children and adolescents. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 encourages consumption of an eating pattern low in energy density to manage body weight. This article describes the systematic evidence-based review conducted by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC), with support from the US Department of Agriculture's Nutrition Evidence Library, which resulted in this recommendation. An update to the committee's review was prepared for this article. PubMed was searched for English-language publications from January 1980 to May 2011. The literature review included 17 studies (seven randomized controlled trials, one nonrandomized controlled trial, and nine cohort studies) in adults and six cohort studies in children and adolescents. Based on this evidence, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee concluded that strong and consistent evidence in adults indicates that dietary patterns relatively low in energy density improve weight loss and weight maintenance. In addition, the committee concluded that there was moderately strong evidence from methodologically rigorous longitudinal cohort studies in children and adolescents to suggest that there is a positive association between dietary energy density and increased adiposity. This review supports a relationship between energy density and body weight in adults and in children and adolescents such that consuming diets lower in energy density may be an effective strategy for managing body weight.

  10. Effect of Body Weight on Temperature Control and Energy Expenditure in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Hui Lei

    2010-06-01

    Conclusion: REE increased significantly in infants during weaning from an incubator. The increase in REE increment was similar in smaller (1800–2000 g and larger (2000–2200 g babies in this study. Weaning of preterm babies from an incubator may be safely started when their body weight reaches 1800 g.

  11. Developmental Coordination Disorder, Gender, and Body Weight: Examining the Impact of Participation in Active Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, John; Kwan, Matthew Y. W.; Hay, John A.; Faught, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To examine whether differences in participation in active play (PAP) can account for gender differences in the relationship between Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and body weight/fat (BMI and percentage fat) in youth. Methods: A cross-sectional investigation of students in grades four through eight (n = 590). Height, weight…

  12. High Blood Pressure in Adults with Disabilities: Influence of Gender, Body Weight and Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Chien-Ting; Liou, Shih-Wen; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the mean and distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and to examine the influence of gender, body weight and health behaviors on hypertension in adults with disabilities. We analyzed the 2010 annual community health examination chart of adults with disabilities in east Taiwan. The study samples…

  13. Changes in behaviour and body weight following a single or double social defeat in rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, P.; Overkamp, G.J.F.; Daan, S.; Hoofdakker, R.H. van den; Koolhaas, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    In a series of experiments, the consequences of a single and double social conflict on various behaviours and body weight in rats were studied. Animals were subjected to social defeat by placing them into the territory of an aggressive male conspecific for one hour, either once, or twice at the same

  14. GLUTAMIC ACID IMPROVES BODY WEIGHT GAIN AND INTESTINAL MORPHOLOGY OF BROILER CHICKENS SUBMITTED TO HEAT STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML Porto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 1% dietary glutamic acid on the body weight, intestinal morphometry, and anti-Newcastle antibody titers of broiler chickens submitted to heat stress. One-d-old male broiler chicks (n=120 were distributed according to a 2 x 2 factorial design with two environmental temperatures (thermoneutral or heat stress and two diets (with 0 or 1% glutamic acid. Heat stress temperature was constantly maintained (24h/day 5 ºC higher than the thermoneutral temperature. Diets supplied the nutritional requirements of broilers in the pre-starter (1 to 7d and starter (8 to 21d phases. Birds were vaccinated against Newcastle disease on d 7 via eye drop. On days 5, 10, 15, and 20, individual body weight was determined, serum samples were collected from five birds, and duodenum samples were collected from four birds per treatment. Serum anti-Newcastle antibody titers were determined by enzyme immunoassay and transformed into log10. Villus height, crypt depth, and villus: crypt ratio were measured in the duodenum. Data were analyzed by ANOVA. Chronic heat stress negatively affected body weight and intestinal morphometry during the pre-starter and starter phases, but had no effect on antibody titers. Dietary glutamic acid supplementation (1% improved body weight and intestinal integrity of birds submitted to heat stress when compared with non-supplemented and heat-stressed birds.

  15. Mechanism of Body Weight Reducing Effect of Oral Boric Acid Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Aysan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The effect of oral boric acid intake on reducing body weight has been previously demonstrated although the mechanism has been unclear. This research study reveals the mechanism. Subjects. Twelve mice were used, in groups of six each in the control and study groups. For five days, control group mice drank standard tap water while during the same time period the study group mice drank tap water which contains 0.28 mg/250 mL boric acid. After a 5-day period, gene expression levels for uncoupling proteins (UCPs in the white adipose tissue (WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT, and skeletal muscle tissue (SMT and total body weight changes were analyzed. Results. Real time PCR analysis revealed no significant change in UCP3 expressions, but UCP2 in WAT (: 0.0317, BAT (: 0.014, and SMT (: 0.0159 and UCP1 in BAT (: 0.026 were overexpressed in the boric acid group. In addition, mice in the boric acid group lost body weight (mean 28.1% while mice in the control group experienced no weight loss but a slight weight gain (mean 0.09%, . Conclusion. Oral boric acid intake causes overexpression of thermogenic proteins in the adipose and skeletal muscle tissues. Increasing thermogenesis through UCP protein pathway results in the accelerated lipolysis and body weight loss.

  16. Effects of Persea americana leaf extracts on body weight and liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-04-16

    Apr 16, 2007 ... “western diets” high in saturated fat and sugar and low in ... Table 1. Mean weekly body weights of rats fed with extracts of P. americana. Week. A. B. C. D ... (1957). Liver total cholesterol (T-CHOL), high-density lipoproteins .... Alteration in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism induced by a diet rich in coconut ...

  17. Body weight loss reverts obesity-associated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Giovanni; Rastrelli, Giulia; Monami, Matteo; Saad, Farid; Luconi, Michaela; Lucchese, Marcello; Facchiano, Enrico; Sforza, Alessandra; Forti, Gianni; Mannucci, Edoardo; Maggi, Mario

    2013-06-01

    Few randomized clinical studies have evaluated the impact of diet and physical activity on testosterone levels in obese men with conflicting results. Conversely, studies on bariatric surgery in men generally have shown an increase in testosterone levels. The aim of this study is to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of available trials on the effect of body weight loss on sex hormones levels. Meta-analysis. An extensive Medline search was performed including the following words: 'testosterone', 'diet', 'weight loss', 'bariatric surgery', and 'males'. The search was restricted to data from January 1, 1969 up to August 31, 2012. Out of 266 retrieved articles, 24 were included in the study. Of the latter, 22 evaluated the effect of diet or bariatric surgery, whereas two compared diet and bariatric surgery. Overall, both a low-calorie diet and bariatric surgery are associated with a significant (Pweight as well as in younger, non-diabetic subjects with a greater degree of obesity. Body weight loss is also associated with a decrease in estradiol and an increase in gonadotropins levels. Multiple regression analysis shows that the degree of body weight loss is the best determinant of TT rise (B=2.50±0.98, P=0.029). These data show that weight loss is associated with an increase in both bound and unbound testosterone levels. The normalization of sex hormones induced by body weight loss is a possible mechanism contributing to the beneficial effects of surgery in morbid obesity.

  18. Marital status and body weight, weight perception, and weight management among U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Married individuals often have higher body weights than unmarried individuals, but it is unclear how marital roles affect body weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. This study analyzed cross-sectional data for 4,089 adult men and 3,989 adult women using multinomial logistic regression to examine associations between marital status, perceived body weight, desired body weight, and weight management approach. Controlling for demographics and current weight, married or cohabiting women and divorced or separated women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired to weigh less than women who had never married. Marital status was unrelated to men's weight perception and desired weight change. Marital status was also generally unrelated to weight management approach, except that divorced or separated women were more likely to have intentionally lost weight within the past year compared to never married women. Additionally, never married men were more likely to be attempting to prevent weight gain than married or cohabiting men and widowed men. Overall, married and formerly married women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired a lower weight. Men's marital status was generally unassociated with weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. Women's but not men's marital roles appear to influence their perceived and desired weight, suggesting that weight management interventions should be sensitive to both marital status and gender differences. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. MIT-Skywalker: considerations on the Design of a Body Weight Support System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Rogério Sales; Krebs, Hermano Igo

    2017-09-06

    To provide body weight support during walking and balance training, one can employ two distinct embodiments: support through a harness hanging from an overhead system or support through a saddle/seat type. This paper presents a comparison of these two approaches. Ultimately, this comparison determined our selection of the body weight support system employed in the MIT-Skywalker, a robotic device developed for the rehabilitation/habilitation of gait and balance after a neurological injury. Here we will summarize our results with eight healthy subjects walking on the treadmill without any support, with 30% unloading supported by a harness hanging from an overhead system, and with a saddle/seat-like support system. We compared the center of mass as well as vertical and mediolateral trunk displacements across different walking speeds and support. The bicycle/saddle system had the highest values for the mediolateral inclination, while the overhead harness body weight support showed the lowest values at all speeds. The differences were statistically significant. We selected the bicycle/saddle system for the MIT-Skywalker. It allows faster don-and-doff, better centers the patient to the split treadmill, and allows all forms of training. The overhead harness body weight support might be adequate for rhythmic walking training but limits any potential for balance training.

  20. Healthy food consumption in young women : The influence of others' eating behavior and body weight appearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, M.; van Koningsbruggen, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    People's eating behaviors tend to be influenced by the behaviors of others. In the present studies, we investigated the effect of another person's eating behavior and body weight appearance on healthy food consumption of young women. In Study 1, participants watched a short film fragment together

  1. Body Weight Perception, Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors, and Suicidal Ideation among Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examined the mediating function of body weight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal…

  2. Effects of vagus nerve preservation and vagotomy on peptide YY and body weight after subtotal gastrectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyung Hun Kim; Moo In Park; Sang Ho Lee; Hyun Yong Hwang; Sung Eun Kim; Seun Ja Park; Won Moon

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the relationship between the function of vagus nerve and peptide YY3-36 and ghrelin levels after subtotal gastrectomy,METHODS:We enrolled a total of 16 patients who underwent subtotal gastrectomy due to gastric cancer.All surgeries were performed by a single skilled surgeon.We measured peptide YY3-36,ghrelin,leptin,insulin,growth hormone levels,and body weight immediately before and one month after surgery.RESULTS:Vagus nerve preservation group showed less body weight loss and less increase of peptide YY3-36 compared with vagotomy group (-5.56 ± 2.24 kg vs -7.85 ± 1.57 kg,P =0.037 and 0.06 ± 0.08 ng/mL vs 0.19±0.12 ng/mL,P =0.021,respectively).Moreover,patients with body weight loss of less than 10% exhibited reduced elevation of peptide YY3-36 level,typically less than 20% [6 (66.7%) vs 0 (0.0%),P =0.011,odd ratio =3.333,95% confidence interval (1.293,8.591)].CONCLUSION:Vagus nerve preservation contributes to the maintenance of body weight after gastrectomy,and this phenomenon may be related to the suppressed activity of peptide YY3-36.

  3. Developmental quantitative genetic analysis of body weights and morphological traits in the turbot, Scophthalmusmaximus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xinan; MA Aijun; MA Deyou

    2015-01-01

    In order to elucidate the genetic mechanism of growth traits in turbot during ontogeny, developmental genetic analysis of the body weights, total lengths, standard lengths and body heights of turbots was conducted by mixed genetic models with additive-dominance effects, based on complete diallel crosses with four different strains of Scophthalmus maximus from Denmark, Norway, Britain, and France. Unconditional genetic analysis revealed that the unconditional additive effects for the four traits were more significant than unconditional dominance effects, meanwhile, the alternative expressions were also observed between the additive and dominant effects for body weights, total lengths and standard lengths. Conditional analysis showed that the developmental periods with active gene expression for body weights, total lengths, standard lengths and body heights were 15–18, 15 and 21–24, 15 and 24, and 21 and 27 months of age, respectively. The proportions of unconditional/conditional variances indicated that the narrow-sense heritabilities of body weights, total lengths and standard lengths were all increased systematically. The accumulative effects of genes controlling the four quantitative traits were mainly additive effects, suggesting that the selection is more efficient for the genetic improvement of turbots. The conditional genetic procedure is a useful tool to understand the expression of genes controlling developmental quantitative traits at a specific developmental period (t-1→t) during ontogeny. It is also important to determine the appropriate developmental period (t-1→t) for trait measurement in developmental quantitative genetic analysis in fish.

  4. Body Weight, Body Image, and Perception of Fad Diets in Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storz, Nancy S.; Greene, Walter H.

    1983-01-01

    Examined relationships among adolescent girls' (N=203) satisfaction with body weight, body image, and perception/use of fad diets. Subjects wanting to lose weight were placed into two groups based on amount of weight-loss desired and compared in terms of body image scores, ratings of fad diets, and frequency of using the diets. (JN)

  5. Use of large bulls to improve the body weight of local small sized buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Van Sanh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Eight Swamp buffalo bulls (4 large and 4 local small sized and 240 buffalo cows (120 selected and 120 non-selected were used to evaluate the effects of bull size and selected cows on body weight of calves. Experimental animals were allocated into 4 groups: T1- large sized bulls x selected cows (BSB+SC; T2 - large sized bulls x non-selected cows (BSB+NSC; T3 – local small sized bulls x selected cows (SSB+SC and CT – local small sized bulls x non-selected cows (SSB+NSC as a control group. Each bull was mated with 15 selected cows and 15 non-selected cows. Body weight of calves at birth, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months of ages was highest in calves of T1, then T2 and then T3 while the lowest weight was found in the CT group. Calf weight in the large sized bulls and selected cows group was higher by 10-15% than that of calves in the local small bulls and non-selected cows group at all ages. It is concluded that the use of large sized bulls for breeding increased body weight of calves. Using large bulls and selected buffalo cows was the best solution for improving the body weight of the local buffalo.

  6. Treadmill Training with Partial Body-Weight Support in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Akmer; Krosschell, Kristin; Spira, Deborah Gaebler

    2009-01-01

    OKAim: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the literature on the effects of partial body-weight support treadmill training (PBWSTT) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) on functional outcomes and attainment of ambulation. Method: We searched the relevant literature from 1950 to July 2007. We found eight studies on the use of PWSBTT on…

  7. Prenatal Centrifugation: A Mode1 for Fetal Programming of Body Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Lisa A.; Rushing, Linda; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.

    2005-01-01

    'Fetal programming' is a newly emerging field that is revealing astounding insights into the prenatal origins of adult disease, including metabolic, endocrine, and cardiovascular pathophysiology. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that rat pups conceived, gestated and born at 2-g have significantly reduced birth weights and increased adult body weights as compared to 1-g controls. Offspring were produced by mating young adult male and female rats that were adapted to 2-g centrifugation. Female rats underwent conception, pregnancy and birth at 2-g. Newborn pups in the 2-g condition were removed from the centrifuge and fostered to non-manipulated, newly parturient dams maintained at 1 -g. Comparisons were made with 1-g stationary controls, also crossfostered at birth. As compared to 1-g controls, birth weights of pups gestated and born at 2-g were significantly reduced. Pup body weights were significantly reduced until Postnatal day (P) 12. Beginning on P63, body weights of 2-g-gestated offspring exceeded those of 1-g controls by 7-10%. Thus, prenatal rearing at 2-g restricts neonatal growth and increases adult body weight. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that 2-g centrifugation alters the intrauterine milieu, thereby inducing persistent changes in adult phenotype.

  8. Productivity of japanese quails in relation to body weight at the end of the rearing phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javer Alves Vieira Filho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted at different times with the objective of investigating how the body weight of Japanese quails at the end of the rearing period may alter the performance during the laying phase. In both experiments, the birds were distributed in five treatments according to their body weights, which were obtained at 42 and 35 days of age for the first and second experiments respectively, and the following categories were considered for said experiments: very light, light, average, heavy and very heavy. For both experiments, the treatments were distributed in a randomized block design, at eight repetitions per treatment for the first one and six for the second one, both at 18 birds per repetition. During the first experiment, sexual maturity, laying percentage, marketable egg percentage, average egg weight and egg mass, in second experiment, feed consumption, final body weight, eggs per bird present, laying percentage, average egg weight, egg mass and alimentary conversion were evaluated. The results obtained show that Japanese quails whose body weight is lower than 140 grams at 42 days of age, or lower than 120 grams at 35 days of age show significantly worse productive results during the laying phase.

  9. Recovery of Normal Body Weight in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa: The Nurses’ Perspective on Effective Interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annemarie van Elburg; René Bakker; Laura Beukers; Esther Meerwijk; Joyce van Ommen; prof Berno van Meijel

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about effective nursing interventions for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. The purpose of this study was to discover which aspects of nursing care are most effective, according to nurses, in recovery of normal body weight in adolescents with anorexia nervosa. METHODS: A qualitative

  10. Seasonal and annual variation in body weight, nutrient stores and mortality of Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarts, L.; Hulscher, J.B.; Koopman, K.; Piersma, T.; Zegers, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    The average body weight of Oystercatchers captured in the Dutch Wadden Sea and ajoining breeding areas varies between 520 g in mid summer and 620 g in mid winter, but the individual differences remain large: between 450 and 650 g in summer and 500 and 725 g in winter. A part of this variation can be

  11. Is higher dairy consumption associated with lower body weight and fewer metabolic disturbances? The Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, M.B.; Heijden, van der A.A.; Dam, van R.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Hiddink, G.J.; Nijpels, Giel; Heine, R.J.; Bouter, L.M.; Dekker, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of dairy consumption with body weight and other components of the metabolic syndrome. Design:We used cross-sectional data for 2064 men and women aged 50¿75 y who participated in the Hoorn Study. The metabolic syndrome was defined accor

  12. Heritabilities and genetic correlations of body weights and feather length in growing Muscovy selected in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y H; Poivey, J P; Rouvier, R; Wang, C T; Tai, C

    1999-12-01

    1. Heritabilities and genetic correlations in the base population of a closed strain of Muscovy duck, moderately selected for body weight at 10 weeks of age, have been estimated from the data of 9 successive generations for the following traits: male and female body weight at 10 and 18 weeks of age (BW10m, BW18m, BW10f, BW18f) and length of the 8th primary feather at 10 weeks of age (F110m, F110f). 2. Multivariate REML with an animal model was used, pooling data from the 9 generations (3283 and 3289 male and female offspring respectively). The same trait expressed in male and female was considered as 2 different traits. 3. The 8th primary feather was longer in females than in males by 6% to 22% at 10 weeks of age. Body weight was heavier in males than in females by 42% to 58% at 10 weeks of age and by 57% to 75% at 18 weeks of age. 3. The heritability estimates for body weight traits showed moderate values, being a little higher for females than for males at the same age, increasing with age from h2=0.24 at BW10m to h2=0.43 at BW18f. 4. The heritability estimates for feather length showed that a greater response would be obtained in selection for male feather length (h2=0.37) than for female length (h2=0.14). Both have high genetic correlations with body weight so they could be indirectly improved. 5. Heritabilities of the difference in body weights between males and females at 10 weeks (h2=0.07) and 18 weeks of age (h2=0.10) were small, as well as for feather length (h2=0.10). It would probably be difficult to modify sexual dimorphism in body weight through selection. 6. Genetic correlations between BW10m, BW18m and BW10f, BW18f were respectively r(g)=0.77 and r(g)=0.80. They were larger for body weight at the same ages between males and females, r(g)=0.90 (r(g)=0.88 between F110m and F110f). Body weight in males and females at the same age should be better considered as 2 different traits in a selection programme. 7. The cumulated predicted genetic gains

  13. EFSA Panel on Di etetic Products, Nutrition and Allergie s (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim relate d to OXY 280 and reduction of body weight pur suant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Actina, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related...... relative to the placebo, and that no conclusions can be drawn from this study for the scientific substantiation of the claim. The Panel notes that no studies from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim were provided by the applicant. The Panel concludes that a cause...

  14. Cues of High and Low Body Weight Negatively Influence Adults' Perceptions and Ratings in the Hypothetical Adoption Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony A. Volk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Infant and child facial cues influence perceptions and ratings in the Hypothetical Adoption Paradigm as well as actual parental care. A previous study demonstrated that infant and child facial cues of low body weight negatively influenced adults' ratings. The current study sought to replicate and expand on those results by presenting adults with normal faces as well as faces that were digitally altered to display high or low body weight. Cues of abnormal body weight significantly, and negatively, influenced adults’ ratings of adoption preference, health, and cuteness. Effect sizes were larger for cues of high body weight. Thus, infant and child facial cues of abnormal body weight may represent a relative risk factor to the quality of adult care obtained by children with abnormal body weight.

  15. The influence of selenium and deiodinases blockers on juvenile rats body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work there was investigated the influence of selenium and deodinases blockers on juvenile rats body weight during three months. The experiment was carried out on 64 rats divided into eight groups with eight individual animals per group. Following groups were formed: 1. Se+PTU-IA- (control group, 2. Se+PTU+IA+, 3. Se+PTU+IA-, 4. Se+PTU- IA+, 5. Se-PTU-IA-, 6. Se-PTU+IA+, 7. Se-PTU+IA- and 8. Se-PTU-IA+. The groups labeled (Se+ were selenium adequate and they were fed with food that contained 0.334 mg Se/kg. The groups labeled (Se- were selenium deficient and obtained food with 0.031 mg Se/kg. As deiodinases blockers there were used propylthiouracil (PTU+ in a dose of 150 mg/L of drinking water and iopanoic acid (IA+ in a dose of 6 mg/100 g TM intraperitoneally. Body weight of experimental rats was measured every seven days. After three weeks of treatment there were taken blood samples of animals from all experimental groups and following parameters were determined: selenium concentration in blood, thyroxine (T4, triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroidstimulating hormone (TSH in blood plasma. Analysis of the samples showed that the animals from the groups treated with PTU had lower body weight in regard to the control group, as well as lower concentration of T3 and T4 in plasma. Selenium deficient rats had lower average body weight compared to the selenium adequate ones after three weeks, but there were no differences in thyroid hormones concentration. The lowest average body weight was noticed in selenium deficient rats groups treated with PTU. [Projekat Ministartsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31050 i br. TR31003

  16. Associations between body weight and personality disorders in a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Amber A; Cox, Brian J; Enns, Murray W; Sareen, Jitender

    2008-11-01

    To determine whether, in the general population, individuals in numerous abnormal body weight categories had higher odds of having personality disorders (PDs) than normal-weight individuals. Although personality functioning is hypothesized to be associated with body weight, there is a dearth of empirical evaluation of this topic. The association of body weight (five categories: underweight [body mass index [BMI] or=40]) with personality disorders was investigated using data from the nationally representative National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) (n = 43,093). Lifetime paranoid, schizoid, antisocial, histrionic, avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive PDs were examined, as assessed by the Alcohol Use Disorders and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV version (AUDADIS-IV). After adjusting for sociodemographics, Axis I disorders, schizophrenia, physical health conditions, and comorbid PDs, extreme obesity was associated with antisocial or avoidant PDs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) range = 1.66-1.73), whereas underweight was associated with increased odds of schizoid PD (AOR = 1.89). The pattern of associations differed when stratified by gender. Overweight men had lower odds of paranoid PD (AOR = 0.73). Women with higher-than-normal body weights had higher odds of paranoid, antisocial, and avoidant PDs (AOR range = 1.33-2.50), whereas underweight women more often met the criteria for schizoid PD (AOR = 1.95). Higher-than-normal body weight is associated with paranoid, antisocial, and avoidant PDs for women, whereas overweight men have lower rates of paranoid PD and underweight women have higher odds of schizoid PD. Possible clinical implications of this research are discussed.

  17. Relationships between fetal body weight of Wistar rats at term and the extent of skeletal ossification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Chahoud

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between fetal body weight at term (pregnancy day 21 and the extent of ossification of sternum, metacarpus, metatarsus, phalanges (proximal, medial and distal of fore- and hindlimbs and cervical and coccygeal vertebrae in Wistar rats. The relationships between fetal body weight and sex, intrauterine position, uterine horn, horn size, and litter size were determined using historical control data (7594 fetuses; 769 litters of untreated rats. Relationships between body weight and degree of ossification were examined in a subset of 1484 historical control fetuses (154 litters which were subsequently cleared and stained with alizarin red S. Fetal weight was independent of horn size, uterine horn side (left or right or intrauterine position. Males were heavier than females and fetal weight decreased with increasing litter size. Evaluation of the skeleton showed that ossification of sternum, metacarpus and metatarsus was extensively complete and independent of fetal weight on pregnancy day 21. In contrast, the extent of ossification of fore- and hindlimb phalanges and of cervical and sacrococcygeal vertebrae was dependent on fetal body weight. The strongest correlation between body weight and degree of ossification was found for hindlimb, medial and proximal phalanges. Our data therefore suggest that, in full-term rat fetuses (day 21, reduced ossification of sternum, metacarpus and metatarsus results from a localized impairment of bone calcification (i.e., a malformation or variation rather than from general growth retardation and that ossification of hindlimb (medial and proximal phalanges is a good indicator of treatment-induced fetal growth retardation.

  18. FTO Obesity Risk Variants Are Linked to Adipocyte IRX3 Expression and BMI of Children - Relevance of FTO Variants to Defend Body Weight in Lean Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, Kathrin; Scholz, Markus; Kovacs, Peter; Kiess, Wieland; Körner, Antje

    2016-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies have identified variants within the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) locus as the strongest predictors of obesity amongst all obesity-associated gene loci. Recent evidence suggests that variants in FTO directly affect human adipocyte function through targeting IRX3 and IRX5 and thermogenesis regulation. Aim We addressed the relevance of this proposed FTO-IRX pathway in adipose tissue (AT) of children. Results Expression of IRX3 was higher in adipocytes compared to SVF. We found increased adipocyte-specific expression of IRX3 and IRX5 with the presence of the FTO risk haplotype in lean children, whereas it was unaffected by risk variants in obese peers. We further show that IRX3 expression was elevated in isolated adipocytes and AT of lean compared to obese children, particularly in UCP1-negative adipocytes, and inversely correlated with BMI SDS. Independent of BMI, IRX3 expression in adipocytes was significantly related to adipocyte hypertrophy, and subsequent associations with AT inflammation and HOMA-IR in the children. Conclusion One interpretation of our observation of FTO risk variants linked to IRX3 expression and adipocyte size restricted to lean children, along with the decreased IRX3 expression in obese compared to lean peers, may reflect a defense mechanism for protecting body-weight, which is pertinent for lean children. PMID:27560134

  19. Can the controversial relationship between dietary calcium and body weight be mechanistically explained by alterations in appetite and food intake?

    OpenAIRE

    Teegarden, Dorothy; Gunther, Carolyn W

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide and the incidence of overweight and obesity continues to rise. Diet plays a significant role in the modulation of body weight and there is some evidence to suggest that calcium or dairy intake may modulate body weight and body fat mass. Several mechanisms through which calcium or dairy products may affect body weight or fat have been suggested, including a possible effect on appetite and food intake. A recent study investiga...

  20. Association of body weight concern with media exposure: A study on young girls of Howrah District, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mallick

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess the association between body weight concern and their frequency of exposure to the media among a group of young girls. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted of 110 girls aged 14-21 years, residing in the district of Howrah, West Bengal. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, weight related concern and media exposures were collected using pretested questionnaires. Weight related concerns included body weight dissatisfaction and perceived body weight. Media exposures included frequency of watching television programs, reading newspaper and magazine articles and browsing internet on topics related to body weight concern. Results: Although the frequency of watching television programs was high among the study participants yet it was not significantly associated with their body weight. Ch-square test showed that there was an association between the frequency of exposure to magazine articles related to body weight concern and initiation of exercise to reduce body weight. Reading of newspaper articles related to body weight by the participants was significantly associated with those who perceive themselves as fat. Multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that the perception of being overweight was found to be four times more among the girls below 17 years compared to those who are older. Conclusions: Print media (both news paper and magazine did play a significant role in developing concerns over body weight among this group of young girls.

  1. Use of factor scores for predicting body weight from linear body measurements in three South African indigenous chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malomane, Dorcus Kholofelo; Norris, David; Banga, Cuthbert B; Ngambi, Jones W

    2014-02-01

    Body weight and weight of body parts are of economic importance. It is difficult to directly predict body weight from highly correlated morphological traits through multiple regression. Factor analysis was carried out to examine the relationship between body weight and five linear body measurements (body length, body girth, wing length, shank thickness, and shank length) in South African Venda (VN), Naked neck (NN), and Potchefstroom koekoek (PK) indigenous chicken breeds, with a view to identify those factors that define body conformation. Multiple regression was subsequently performed to predict body weight, using orthogonal traits derived from the factor analysis. Measurements were obtained from 210 chickens, 22 weeks of age, 70 chickens per breed. High correlations were obtained between body weight and all body measurements except for wing length in PK. Two factors extracted after varimax rotation explained 91, 95, and 83% of total variation in VN, NN, and PK, respectively. Factor 1 explained 73, 90, and 64% in VN, NN, and PK, respectively, and was loaded on all body measurements except for wing length in VN and PK. In a multiple regression, these two factors accounted for 72% variation in body weight in VN, while only factor 1 accounted for 83 and 74% variation in body weight in NN and PK, respectively. The two factors could be used to define body size and conformation of these breeds. Factor 1 could predict body weight in all three breeds. Body measurements can be better selected jointly to improve body weight in these breeds.

  2. Neuropeptide Y knockout mice reveal a central role of NPY in the coordination of bone mass to body weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Baldock

    Full Text Available Changes in whole body energy levels are closely linked to alterations in body weight and bone mass. Here, we show that hypothalamic signals contribute to the regulation of bone mass in a manner consistent with the central perception of energy status. Mice lacking neuropeptide Y (NPY, a well-known orexigenic factor whose hypothalamic expression is increased in fasting, have significantly increased bone mass in association with enhanced osteoblast activity and elevated expression of bone osteogenic transcription factors, Runx2 and Osterix. In contrast, wild type and NPY knockout (NPY (-/- mice in which NPY is specifically over expressed in the hypothalamus (AAV-NPY+ show a significant reduction in bone mass despite developing an obese phenotype. The AAV-NPY+ induced loss of bone mass is consistent with models known to mimic the central effects of fasting, which also show increased hypothalamic NPY levels. Thus these data indicate that, in addition to well characterized responses to body mass, skeletal tissue also responds to the perception of nutritional status by the hypothalamus independently of body weight. In addition, the reduction in bone mass by AAV NPY+ administration does not completely correct the high bone mass phenotype of NPY (-/- mice, indicating the possibility that peripheral NPY may also be an important regulator of bone mass. Indeed, we demonstrate the expression of NPY specifically in osteoblasts. In conclusion, these data identifies NPY as a critical integrator of bone homeostatic signals; increasing bone mass during times of obesity when hypothalamic NPY expression levels are low and reducing bone formation to conserve energy under 'starving' conditions, when hypothalamic NPY expression levels are high.

  3. Sepsis-induced morbidity in mice: effects on body temperature, body weight, cage activity, social behavior and cytokines in brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Jill I; Ratti, Pietro-Luca; Datta, Subhash C; Raymond, Richard M; Opp, Mark R

    2013-07-01

    Infection negatively impacts mental health, as evidenced by the lethargy, malaise, and cognitive deficits experienced during illness. These changes in central nervous system processes, collectively termed sickness behavior, have been shown in animal models to be mediated primarily by the actions of cytokines in brain. Most studies of sickness behavior to date have used bolus injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or selective administration of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or IL-6 as the immune challenge. Such models, although useful for determining mechanisms responsible for acute changes in physiology and behavior, do not adequately represent the more complex effects on central nervous system (CNS) processes of a true infection with replicating pathogens. In the present study, we used the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model to quantify sepsis-induced alterations in several facets of physiology and behavior of mice. We determined the impact of sepsis on cage activity, body temperature, food and water consumption and body weights of mice. Because cytokines are critical mediators of changes in behavior and temperature regulation during immune challenge, we also quantified sepsis-induced alterations in cytokine mRNA and protein in brain during the acute period of sepsis onset. We now report that cage activity and temperature regulation in mice that survive are altered for up to 23 days after sepsis induction. Food and water consumption are transiently reduced, and body weight is lost during sepsis. Furthermore, sepsis decreases social interactions for 24-48 h. Finally, mRNA and protein for IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) are upregulated in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and brain stem during sepsis onset, from 6h to 72 h post sepsis induction. Collectively, these data indicate that sepsis not only acutely alters physiology, behavior and cytokine profiles in brain, but that some brain functions are impaired for

  4. Temperature: Human Regulating, Ants Conforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clopton, Joe R.

    2007-01-01

    Biological processes speed up as temperature rises. Procedures for demonstrating this with ants traveling on trails, and data gathered by students on the Argentine ant ("Linepithema humile") are presented. The concepts of temperature regulation and conformity are detailed with a focus on the processes rather than on terms that label the organisms.

  5. Temperature: Human Regulating, Ants Conforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clopton, Joe R.

    2007-01-01

    Biological processes speed up as temperature rises. Procedures for demonstrating this with ants traveling on trails, and data gathered by students on the Argentine ant ("Linepithema humile") are presented. The concepts of temperature regulation and conformity are detailed with a focus on the processes rather than on terms that label the organisms.

  6. Neuromedin U receptor 2 knockdown in the paraventricular nucleus modifies behavioral responses to obesogenic high-fat food and leads to increased body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzon, C R; Johnson, S B; McCue, D L; Li, D; Green, T A; Hommel, J D

    2014-01-31

    Neuromedin U (NMU) is a highly conserved neuropeptide which regulates food intake and body weight. Transgenic mice lacking NMU are hyperphagic and obese, making NMU a novel target for understanding and treating obesity. Neuromedin U receptor 2 (NMUR2) is a high-affinity receptor for NMU found in discrete regions of the central nervous system, in particular the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), where it may be responsible for mediating the anorectic effects of NMU. We hypothesized that selective knock down of NMUR2 in the PVN of rats would increase their sensitivity to the reinforcing properties of food resulting in increased intake and preference for high-fat obesogenic food. To this end, we used viral-mediated RNAi to selectively knock down NMUR2 gene expression in the PVN. In rats fed a standard chow, NMUR2 knockdown produced no significant effect on food intake or body weight. However, when the same rats were fed a high-fat diet (45% fat), they consumed significantly more food, gained more body weight, and had increased feed efficiency relative to controls. Furthermore, NMUR2 knockdown rats demonstrated significantly greater binge-type food consumption of the high-fat diet and showed a greater preference for higher-fat food. These results demonstrate that NMUR2 signaling in the PVN regulates consumption and preference for high-fat foods without disrupting feeding behavior associated with non-obesogenic standard chow.

  7. Effect of Canagliflozin on Renal Threshold for Glucose, Glycemia, and Body Weight in Normal and Diabetic Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yin; Arakawa, Kenji; Ueta, Kiichiro; Matsushita, Yasuaki; Kuriyama, Chiaki; Martin, Tonya; Du, Fuyong; Liu, Yi; Xu, June; Conway, Bruce; Conway, Jamie; Polidori, David; Ways, Kirk; Demarest, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Background Canagliflozin is a sodium glucose co-transporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitor in clinical development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods 14C-alpha-methylglucoside uptake in Chinese hamster ovary-K cells expressing human, rat, or mouse SGLT2 or SGLT1; 3H-2-deoxy-d-glucose uptake in L6 myoblasts; and 2-electrode voltage clamp recording of oocytes expressing human SGLT3 were analyzed. Graded glucose infusions were performed to determine rate of urinary glucose excretion (UGE) at different blood glucose (BG) concentrations and the renal threshold for glucose excretion (RTG) in vehicle or canagliflozin-treated Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. This study aimed to characterize the pharmacodynamic effects of canagliflozin in vitro and in preclinical models of T2DM and obesity. Results Treatment with canagliflozin 1 mg/kg lowered RTG from 415±12 mg/dl to 94±10 mg/dl in ZDF rats while maintaining a threshold relationship between BG and UGE with virtually no UGE observed when BG was below RTG. Canagliflozin dose-dependently decreased BG concentrations in db/db mice treated acutely. In ZDF rats treated for 4 weeks, canagliflozin decreased glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and improved measures of insulin secretion. In obese animal models, canagliflozin increased UGE and decreased BG, body weight gain, epididymal fat, liver weight, and the respiratory exchange ratio. Conclusions Canagliflozin lowered RTG and increased UGE, improved glycemic control and beta-cell function in rodent models of T2DM, and reduced body weight gain in rodent models of obesity. PMID:22355316

  8. Effect of canagliflozin on renal threshold for glucose, glycemia, and body weight in normal and diabetic animal models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Liang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Canagliflozin is a sodium glucose co-transporter (SGLT 2 inhibitor in clinical development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. METHODS: (14C-alpha-methylglucoside uptake in Chinese hamster ovary-K cells expressing human, rat, or mouse SGLT2 or SGLT1; (3H-2-deoxy-d-glucose uptake in L6 myoblasts; and 2-electrode voltage clamp recording of oocytes expressing human SGLT3 were analyzed. Graded glucose infusions were performed to determine rate of urinary glucose excretion (UGE at different blood glucose (BG concentrations and the renal threshold for glucose excretion (RT(G in vehicle or canagliflozin-treated Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats. This study aimed to characterize the pharmacodynamic effects of canagliflozin in vitro and in preclinical models of T2DM and obesity. RESULTS: Treatment with canagliflozin 1 mg/kg lowered RT(G from 415±12 mg/dl to 94±10 mg/dl in ZDF rats while maintaining a threshold relationship between BG and UGE with virtually no UGE observed when BG was below RT(G. Canagliflozin dose-dependently decreased BG concentrations in db/db mice treated acutely. In ZDF rats treated for 4 weeks, canagliflozin decreased glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c and improved measures of insulin secretion. In obese animal models, canagliflozin increased UGE and decreased BG, body weight gain, epididymal fat, liver weight, and the respiratory exchange ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Canagliflozin lowered RT(G and increased UGE, improved glycemic control and beta-cell function in rodent models of T2DM, and reduced body weight gain in rodent models of obesity.

  9. Effect of canagliflozin on renal threshold for glucose, glycemia, and body weight in normal and diabetic animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yin; Arakawa, Kenji; Ueta, Kiichiro; Matsushita, Yasuaki; Kuriyama, Chiaki; Martin, Tonya; Du, Fuyong; Liu, Yi; Xu, June; Conway, Bruce; Conway, Jamie; Polidori, David; Ways, Kirk; Demarest, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Canagliflozin is a sodium glucose co-transporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitor in clinical development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). (14)C-alpha-methylglucoside uptake in Chinese hamster ovary-K cells expressing human, rat, or mouse SGLT2 or SGLT1; (3)H-2-deoxy-d-glucose uptake in L6 myoblasts; and 2-electrode voltage clamp recording of oocytes expressing human SGLT3 were analyzed. Graded glucose infusions were performed to determine rate of urinary glucose excretion (UGE) at different blood glucose (BG) concentrations and the renal threshold for glucose excretion (RT(G)) in vehicle or canagliflozin-treated Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. This study aimed to characterize the pharmacodynamic effects of canagliflozin in vitro and in preclinical models of T2DM and obesity. Treatment with canagliflozin 1 mg/kg lowered RT(G) from 415±12 mg/dl to 94±10 mg/dl in ZDF rats while maintaining a threshold relationship between BG and UGE with virtually no UGE observed when BG was below RT(G). Canagliflozin dose-dependently decreased BG concentrations in db/db mice treated acutely. In ZDF rats treated for 4 weeks, canagliflozin decreased glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and improved measures of insulin secretion. In obese animal models, canagliflozin increased UGE and decreased BG, body weight gain, epididymal fat, liver weight, and the respiratory exchange ratio. Canagliflozin lowered RT(G) and increased UGE, improved glycemic control and beta-cell function in rodent models of T2DM, and reduced body weight gain in rodent models of obesity.

  10. Nuts Improve Diet Quality Compared to Other Energy-Dense Snacks While Maintaining Body Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Ling Tey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that regular nut consumption reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD risk and does not promote weight gain despite the fact that nuts are energy-dense. However, no studies have investigated the body composition of those regularly consuming nuts compared to similar intakes of other snacks of equal energy density. This parallel study (n = 118 examined the effects of providing daily portions (~1100 kJ/d of hazelnuts, chocolate, or potato crisps compared to a control group receiving no snacks for twelve weeks. Effects on body weight and composition, blood lipids and lipoproteins, resting metabolic rate (RMR, appetite indices, and dietary quality were compared. At week 12, there was no significant difference in any of the outcome measurements between the groups except for dietary quality, which improved significantly in the nut group. Nuts can be incorporated into the diet without adversely affecting body weight and can improve diet quality.

  11. Different response of body weight change according to ketonuria after fasting in the healthy obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Joo, Nam-Seok; Kim, Kwang-Min; Lee, Duck-Joo; Kim, Sang-Man

    2012-03-01

    The relationship between obesity and ketonuria is not well-established. We conducted a retrospective observational study to evaluate whether their body weight reduction response differed by the presence of ketonuria after fasting in the healthy obese. We used the data of 42 subjects, who had medical records of initial urinalysis at routine health check-up and follow-up urinalysis in the out-patient clinic, one week later. All subjects in the initial urinalysis showed no ketonuria. However, according to the follow-up urinalysis after three subsequent meals fasts, the patients were divided into a non-ketonuria group and ketonuria group. We compared the data of conventional low-calorie diet programs for 3 months for both groups. Significantly greater reduction of body weight (-8.6 ± 3.6 kg vs -1.1 ± 2.2 kg, P weight reduction.

  12. Reconceptualizing the Association between Food Insufficiency and Body Weight: Distinguishing Hunger from Economic Hardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Catherine E; Hill, Terrence D

    2013-01-01

    What is the association between food insufficiency and body weight? Although common sense would suggest a negative association, research often finds the opposite. We contrast commodity theories of material privation with stress theories, proposing that the seemingly counterintuitive association results from the confounding influence of economic hardship. Because it is a chronic stressor, economic hardship may contribute to overweight. Data from the WCF project of 2,402 disadvantaged women in Chicago, Boston, and San Antonio show that people who experience economic hardship weigh more; and that the true negative association between body weight and food insufficiency-especially going hungry because one cannot afford food-is revealed only after adjustment for economic hardship.

  13. Data on body weight and liver functionality in aged rats fed an enriched strawberry diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Giampieri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present new original data on the effects of strawberry consumption on body weight and liver status of aged rats. Wistar rats aged 19–21 months were fed a strawberry enriched diet prepared by substituting 15% of the total calories with freeze-dried strawberry powder for two months. Body weight, plasma biomarkers of liver injury (alanine transferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase and liver histological analysis were assessed. These data indicate that strawberry supplementation did not interfere with normal animal maintenance and with liver structure and functionality. For further details and experimental findings please refer to the article “Strawberry consumption improves aging-associated impairments, mitochondrial biogenesis and functionality through the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase signaling cascade” in FOOD CHEMISTRY (Giampieri et al., 2017 [1].

  14. The effect of smoking habit changes on body weight: Evidence from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, Luca; Salmasi, Luca

    2016-03-01

    This paper evaluates the causal relationship between smoking and body weight through two waves (2004-2006) of the British Household Panel Survey. We model the effect of changes in smoking habits, such as quitting or reducing, and account for the heterogeneous responses of individuals located at different points of the body mass distribution by quantile regression. We test our results by means of a large set of control groups and investigate their robustness by using the changes-in-changes estimator and accounting for different thresholds to define smoking reductions. Our results reveal the positive effect of quitting smoking on weight changes, which is also found to increase in the highest quantiles, whereas the decision to reduce smoking does not affect body weight.

  15. Toward a quantitative theory of food consumption choices and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttet, Sebastien; Dolar, Veronika

    2015-04-01

    We propose a calibrated dynamic model of food consumption choices and body weight to study changes in daily caloric intake, weight, and the away-from-home share of calories consumed by adult men and women in the U.S. during the period between 1971 and 2006. Calibration reveals substantial preference heterogeneity between men and women. For example, utility losses stemming from weight gains are ten times greater for women compared to men. Counterfactual experiments show that changes in food prices and household income account for half of the increase in weight of adult men, but only a small fraction of women's weight. We argue that quantitative models of food consumption choices and body weight have a unique role to play in future research in the economics of obesity.

  16. Should dosing of rocuronium in obese patients be based on ideal or corrected body weight?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyhoff, Christian S; Lund, Jørgen; Jenstrup, Morten T;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pharmacokinetic studies in obese patients suggest that dosing of rocuronium should be based on ideal body weight (IBW). This may, however, result in a prolonged onset time or compromised conditions for tracheal intubation. In this study, we compared onset time, conditions for tracheal...... intubation, and duration of action in obese patients when the intubation dose of rocuronium was based on three different weight corrections. METHODS: Fifty-one obese patients, with a median (range) body mass index of 44 (34-72) kg/m2, scheduled for laparoscopic gastric banding or gastric bypass under...... propofol-remifentanil anesthesia were randomized into three groups. The patients received rocuronium (0.6 mg/kg) based on IBW (IBW group, n = 17), IBW plus 20% of excess weight (corrected body weight [CBW]20% group, n = 17), or IBW plus 40% of excess weight (CBW40% group, n = 17). Propofol was administered...

  17. The social patterning of relative body weight and obesity in Denmark and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarlio-Lähteenkorva, Sirpa; Lissau, Inge; Lahelma, Eero

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Relative body weight is typically inversely associated with social status in affluent societies but studies comparing the social patterning of relative body weight and obesity in different countries have only seldom been conducted. The aim of this study was to analyse and compare...... the social patterning of relative weight and obesity by occupational status, educational attainment and marital status between Danish and Finnish women and men. METHODS: Data from the Finnish Survey on Living Conditions and the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey, both collected in 1994, were compared....... Relative weight was studied by using body mass index (BMI), and those with BMI > or =30 kg/m(2) were regarded as obese. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the social patterning of obesity in the pooled dataset. Two-variable interaction effects were tested separately. RESULTS: Compared...

  18. The Influence of Couples’ Living Arrangements on Smoking Habits and Body Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Klein

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the influence of intimate relationships on smoking habits and body weight. We differentiated between couples living apart together, cohabitating couples and married couples. The data basis is the Partnermarktsurvey, a German representative telephone survey of 2,002 people aged between 16 and 55 years. The results show that living in a relationship promotes smoking cessation, however only when the partners live together. This indicates that the positive protection effect of relationships on smoking habits is based on the mechanism of social control and social support, which is linked to the context of a shared household. In addition, we observed the homogamy in smoking habits of partners that arises as early as mate selection and is intensified through assimilation processes during the relationship. With regard to body weight, the study shows a weight gain over the course of a relationship which is, however, not greater among married and cohabitating couples than among couples living apart together.

  19. Microsatellite DNA polymorphisms and the relation with body weight in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiuli; SHAN Xue; QIU Xuemei; MENG Xiangying; CHANG Yaqing

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between microsatellite polymorphism and body weight of captive bred Chinese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was investigated in two local populations in Dalian.Among ten loci discovered, nine show changes except for A J07 loci. Seven loci were found highly polymorphic in both populations. For each locus in two populations, the average number of alleles is 6.428 6 and 6.285 7, the average observed heterozygosity at 0.225 7 and 0.245 9, the expected heterozygosity at 0.776 8 and 0.748 8, the polymorphism information content (PIC) at 0.709 2 and 0.674 6, respectively. Further analysis show significant correlation between A. japonicus body weight and occurrence markers AJ02 and AJ04. The findings of the relation may be helpful for molecular breeding,as well as the marker-assisted selection of sea cucumbers.

  20. Feedback models allowing estimation of thresholds for self-promoting body weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Edmund; Swann, Andrew; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.

    2008-01-01

    . The difference between the two situations is typically an energy imbalance of about 1% over a long period of time. THEORY: Weight gain increases basal metabolic rate. Weight gain is often associated with a decrease in physical activity, although not to such an extent that it prevents an increase in total energy...... expenditure and energy intake. Dependent on the precise balance between these effects of weight gain, they may make the body weight unstable and tend to further promote weight gain. With the aim of identifying the thresholds beyond which such self-promoting weight gain may take place, we develop a simple...... cases do they take values that make weight gain self-promoting. RESULTS: We determine the quantitative conditions under which body weight gain becomes self-promoting. We find that these conditions can easily be met, and that they are so small that they are not observable with currently available...

  1. Influence of intestinal microbiota on body weight gain: a narrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinelli, Camila S; Sala, Priscila C; Alves, Claudia C; Torrinhas, Raquel S; Waitzberg, Dan L

    2015-02-01

    In recent decades, experimental and clinical studies have associated the development of obesity with the composition of the gut microbiota. Mechanisms potentially involved in the contribution of gut microbiota to body weight gain include changes in energy extraction from the diet and the modulation of lipid metabolism, endocrine functions, and the immune system. The host's specific genetic heritage, the type and amount of food intake, chronic inflammation, reduced body energy expenditure, and exposure to obesogenic pollutants are also potential contributing factors. The pathophysiological processes involved in the relationship between gut microbiota and obesity are not fully understood, and further studies are needed to establish whether differences in gut bacterial diversity between obese and normal body weight individuals are the cause or a consequence of obesity.

  2. [The variance of melphalan doses related to kilogram of body weight and the consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vokurka, S

    2010-01-01

    Melphalan is an important cytotoxic drug. The empirical practice of body surface area-based (BSA) dosing (mg/m2) of melphalan has been critically analyzed in several observations. BSA-based dosing leads to significant variability in doses administered per kilogram of body weight (mg/kg), contributes to increased oral toxicity and probably does not have any significant effect on treatment results within equally BSA (mg/m2) dosed melphalan regimens.

  3. Use of social networking sites and perception and intentions regarding body weight among adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa‐Kanyinga, H.; Hamilton, H. A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective Social networking sites (SNSs) not only offer users an opportunity to link with others but also allow individuals to compare themselves with other users. However, the link between the use of SNSs and the dissatisfaction with body weight is largely unknown. We investigated the associations between the use of SNSs and the perception of body weight and related behaviours among adolescent men and women. Methods The study sample consisted of 4,468 (48.5% women) 11–19‐year‐old Canadian students in grades 7 to 12 who participated in the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey. Results Overall, 54.6% of students reported using SNSs for 2 h or less per day, 28.0% reported using them for more than 2 h d−1 and 17.4% reported infrequent or no use of SNSs (reference category). After adjustment for covariates, results showed that adolescent women who use SNSs for more than 2 h d−1 had greater odds of dissatisfaction with body weight (odds ratio = 2.02; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30–3.16). More specifically, they were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 2.20; 95% CI: 1.34−3.60) compared with those who reported infrequent or no use of SNSs. Conversely, men who use SNSs for 2 h or less per day presented a lower risk for perceiving themselves as overweight (RRR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.47−0.98) but not those who use SNSs for more than 2 h d−1. Women who use SNSs for more than 2 h d−1 reported a greater likelihood of trying to lose weight (RRR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.62−3.90). Conclusions Our results showed that heavy use of SNSs is associated with dissatisfaction with body weight in adolescent women.

  4. Diet/Energy Balance Affect Sleep and Wakefulness Independent of Body Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Isaac J; Pack, Allan I; Veasey, Sigrid

    2015-12-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness commonly affects obese people, even in those without sleep apnea, yet its causes remain uncertain. We sought to determine whether acute dietary changes could induce or rescue wake impairments independent of body weight. We implemented a novel feeding paradigm that generates two groups of mice with equal body weight but opposing energetic balance. Two subsets of mice consuming either regular chow (RC) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 w were switched to the opposite diet for 1 w. Sleep recordings were conducted at Week 0 (baseline), Week 8 (pre-diet switch), and Week 9 (post-diet switch) for all groups. Sleep homeostasis was measured at Week 8 and Week 9. Young adult, male C57BL/6J mice. Differences in total wake, nonrapid eye movement (NREM), and rapid eye movement (REM) time were quantified, in addition to changes in bout fragmentation/consolidation. At Week 9, the two diet switch groups had similar body weight. However, animals switched to HFD (and thus gaining weight) had decreased wake time, increased NREM sleep time, and worsened sleep/wake fragmentation compared to mice switched to RC (which were in weight loss). These effects were driven by significant sleep/wake changes induced by acute dietary manipulations (Week 8 → Week 9). Sleep homeostasis, as measured by delta power increase following sleep deprivation, was unaffected by our feeding paradigm. Acute dietary manipulations are sufficient to alter sleep and wakefulness independent of body weight and without effects on sleep homeostasis. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  5. Predictive factors for body weight loss and its impact on quality of life following gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Masazumi; Urushihara, Takashi; Nakamura, Yoichi; Yamada, Makoto; Lee, Sang-Woong; Tanaka, Shinnosuke; Miki, Akira; Ikeda, Masami; Nakada, Koji

    2017-07-14

    To determine the predictive factors and impact of body weight loss on postgastrectomy quality of life (QOL). We applied the newly developed integrated questionnaire postgastrectomy syndrome assessment scale-45, which consists of 45 items including those from the Short Form-8 and Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale instruments, in addition to 22 newly selected items. Between July 2009 and December 2010, completed questionnaires were received from 2520 patients with curative resection at 1 year or more after having undergone one of six types of gastrectomy for Stage I gastric cancer at one of 52 participating institutions. Of those, we analyzed 1777 eligible questionnaires from patients who underwent total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y procedure (TGRY) or distal gastrectomy with Billroth-I (DGBI) or Roux-en-Y (DGRY) procedures. A total of 393, 475 and 909 patients underwent TGRY, DGRY, and DGBI, respectively. The mean age of patients was 62.1 ± 9.2 years. The mean time interval between surgery and retrieval of the questionnaires was 37.0 ± 26.8 mo. On multiple regression analysis, higher preoperative body mass index, total gastrectomy, and female sex, in that order, were independent predictors of greater body weight loss after gastrectomy. There was a significant difference in the degree of weight loss (P 25 kg/m(2)). Multiple linear regression analysis identified lower postoperative body mass index, rather than greater body weight loss postoperatively, as a certain factor for worse QOL (P weight after gastrectomy, the impact of body weight loss on QOL is unexpectedly small.

  6. Body weight perception and weight loss practices among Sri Lankan adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardena, Ranil; Byrne, Nuala M; Soares, Mario J; Katulanda, Prasad; Hills, Andrew P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the association between self-perception of body weight, weight loss approaches and measured body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) among Sri Lankan adults. A nationally representative sample of 600 adults aged ≥18 years was selected using a multi-stage random cluster sampling technique. An interviewer-administrated questionnaire was used to assess demographic characteristics, body weight perception, abdominal obesity perception and details of weight losing practices. Weight, height and waist circumference (WC) were measured and Asian anthropometric cut-offs for BMI and WC were applied. Body weight mis-perception was common among Sri Lankan adults. Two-thirds of overweight males and 44.7% females considered themselves as ‘about right weight’, moreover, 4.1% and 7.6% overweight men and women reported themselves as being ‘underweight’. Over one third of both male and female obese subjects perceived themselves as ‘about right weight’ or ‘underweight’. Nearly 32% of centrally obese men and women perceived that their WC is about right. People who perceived themselves as overweight or very overweight (n = 154) only 63.6% tried to lose weight (n = 98), and one quarter of adults sought advice from professionals (n = 39). Body weight misperception was common among underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and obese adults in Sri Lanka. Over 2/3 of overweight and 1/3 of obese Sri Lankan adults believe they are in right weight category or are under weight. © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . All rights reserved.

  7. Enhanced amylin-mediated body weight loss in estradiol-deficient diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevaskis, James L; Turek, Victoria F; Wittmer, Carrie; Griffin, Peter S; Wilson, Julie K; Reynolds, James M; Zhao, Yu; Mack, Christine M; Parkes, David G; Roth, Jonathan D

    2010-12-01

    In rodents, ovariectomy (OVX) elicits weight gain and diminished responsiveness to homeostatic signals. Here we characterized the response of obese OVX rats to peripheral amylin. Rats received sham surgery (SHAM), OVX, or OVX with hormonal replacement (17β-estradiol, 2 μg per 4 d; OVX+E) and were infused with vehicle or amylin (50 μg/kg · d) for 28 d. Amylin reduced body weight (5.1 ± 1.1%) and food intake (10.9 ± 3.4%) in SHAM rats but was twice as efficacious in OVX rats in reducing weight (11.2 ± 1.9%) and food intake (23.0 ± 2.0%). There were no differences between amylin-treated SHAM and OVX+E rats. OVX decreased metabolic rate (∼24%) and increased respiratory exchange ratio relative to SHAM. Amylin partially normalized metabolic rate (13% increase) in OVX rats and decreased respiratory exchange ratio in OVX and SHAM rats. Regarding central mechanisms, amylin infusion corrected the OVX-induced decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis and increased immobility in the forced swim test. Additionally, amylin increased neurogenesis (∼2-fold) within the area postrema of OVX rats. To assess the contribution of endogenous leptin to amylin-mediated weight loss in OVX rats, amylin was administered to SHAM or OVX Zucker diabetic fatty rats. In SHAM rats, amylin infusion reduced food intake but not body weight, whereas in OVX Zucker diabetic fatty rats, food intake, body weight, and insulin were reduced. Overall, amylin induced greater body weight loss in the absence of estradiol via central and peripheral actions that did not require leptin. These findings support the clinical investigation of amylin in low estradiol (e.g. postmenopausal) states.

  8. The impact of different algorithms for ideal body weight on screening for hydroxychloroquine retinopathy in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Browning DJ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available David J Browning, Chong Lee, David Rotberg Charlotte Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Associates, Charlotte, North Carolina, NC, USA Purpose: To determine how algorithms for ideal body weight (IBW affect hydroxychloroquine dosing in women.Methods: This was a retrospective study of 520 patients screened for hydroxychloroquine retinopathy. Charts were reviewed for sex, height, weight, and daily dose. The outcome measures were ranges of IBW across algorithms; rates of potentially toxic dosing; height thresholds below which 400 mg/d dosing is potentially toxic; and rates for which actual body weight (ABW was less than IBW.Results: Women made up 474 (91% of the patients. The IBWs for a height varied from 30–34 pounds (13.6–15.5 kg across algorithms. The threshold heights below which toxic dosing occurred varied from 62–70 inches (157.5–177.8 cm. Different algorithms placed 16%–98% of women in the toxic dosing range. The proportion for whom dosing should have been based on ABW rather than IBW ranged from 5%–31% across algorithms. Conclusion: Although hydroxychloroquine dosing should be based on the lesser of ABW and IBW, there is no consensus about the definition of IBW. The Michaelides algorithm is associated with the most frequent need to adjust dosing; the Metropolitan Life Insurance, large frame, mean value table with the least frequent need. No evidence indicates that one algorithm is superior to others. Keywords: hydroxychloroquine, ideal body weight, actual body weight, toxicity, retinopathy, algorithms

  9. Relationships among Body Weight, Body Measurements and Estimated Feed Efficiency Characteristics in Holstein Friesian Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bayram

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Data concerning body measurements, milk yield and body weights data were analysed on 101 of Holstein Friesian cows. Phenotypic correlations indicated positive significant relations between estimated feed efficiency (EFE and milk yield as well as 4 % fat corrected milk yield, and between body measurements and milk yield. However, negative correlations were found between the EFE and body measurements indicating that the taller, longer, deeper and especially heavier cows were not to be efficient as smaller cows

  10. Body weight/image perceptions and prevalence of obesity among adolescents-Kerala, India

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, K.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity can be seen as the first wave of a defined cluster of non communicable diseases called "New World Syndrome" creating an enormous socioeconomic and public health burden in poorer countries. The rising prevalence of childhood/adolescent obesity cannot be addressed by a single etiology. Multiple factors plays role and among them perception on body weight and image plays vital role in adolescents. So the objective of this study was to know the perceptions of adolescents on t...

  11. [Ideal body weight of a young woman--sociocultural and health aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärkkäinen, Ulla; Dadi, Yasmina; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna

    2015-01-01

    A common question made by a young person attending a practice concerns her/his ideal body weight. Culture and health may result in a conflicting definition of good weight. Discontent with one's own body can motivate for successful weight control, but may also lead to unnecessary dieting or disturbed eating. Too strict dieting and accentuating of weight control increase the risk of eating disorders, but on the other hand, adolescent overweight is a risk factor of obesity in adulthood as well.

  12. Impact of smoking and excess body weight on overall and site-specific cancer mortality risk

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Julia; Rohrmann, Sabine; Bopp, Matthias; Faeh, David

    2015-01-01

    Background: Smoking and excess body weight are major preventable risk factors for premature death. This study aimed at analyzing their single and combined association with site-specific cancer mortality. Methods: Our study population comprised 35,784 men and women of ages 14 to 99 years, who participated in population-based health surveys conducted 1977–1993 in Switzerland and were followed up for mortality until 2008. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were calculated for diffe...

  13. Body weight, concentration of plasma leptin and serum testosterone of ratsin response to feeding of chitosan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Hao Sun; Zhi Fang Liu; Shu Ran Wang; Chao Xu Wang; Kun Wu

    2000-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effect of chitosan on rat body weight, concetration of plasma leptin and serumtestosterone.METHODS Five groups of rats were respectively given access to basic diet, high fat diet and high fat dietwith different doses of chitosan (1.5%,3.0% and 6.0% of chitosan in high fat diet respectively) for 7 wk.All rats were weighed once a week. By the end of wk 7, the animals were sacrificed and their blood sampleswere taken, the concentration of plasma leptin and serum testosterone were determined by RIA Kit method.RESULTS At the end of wk7, the average body weight of rats treated with high-fat diet was 67.3 gheavier than that with the basic diet, however, the average body weight of rats treated with high doses of chitosan in high-fat diet was 56.3 g lighter than that with high-fat diet (P < 0.01). In addition, plasma leptinconcentration in rats treated with high fat diet was significantly different from those with basic diet(P<0.01); plasma leptin concentration in rats treated with high dose of chitosan in high-fat diet wassignificantly lower than those with high-fat diet (P<0.01), but was significantly higher than those withbasic diet (P<0.05). Serum testosterone level in rats treated with high-fat diet was significantly lower thanthose with basic diet (P<0.01). Serum testosterone levels in rats administrated high dose of chitosan inhigh-fat diet were sighificantly lower than those with high-fat diet (P<0.01).CONCLUSION Chitosan prevents the increase of rat body weight induced by high-fat diet, and lowersplasma leptin and serum testosterone in rats.

  14. Serum estradiol concentration required to maintain body weight, attractivity, proceptivity, and receptivity in the ovariectomized female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Gorzalka, B B; Newlove, T; Webb, B; Walsh, M L

    1991-02-01

    Female hooded rats (230 to 260 g) were ovariectomized and given a subcutaneous implant of an estradiol-filled Silastic tube. The length of the tube was varied in order to produce a variety of serum estradiol levels. In the first experiment, animals were weighed over a 6-week period following surgery and then tested for sexual responsiveness to a male. The results demonstrated that ovariectomized females with an implant maintaining a serum estradiol concentration at about 15 pg/ml maintained body weight at the same level as that of intact females. A smaller implant gave rise to a higher weight gain and a larger implant to a lower weight gain. All implants resulted in a continuous state of receptivity. In a second experiment, ovariectomized females were implanted with smaller estradiol-filled implants in order to determine the threshold for maintaining proceptivity and receptivity. The results indicated that with a serum estradiol concentration below 15 pg/ml, the frequency of lordosis and of ear wiggling and darting decreased. Progesterone injections facilitated both proceptive and receptive behavior. In addition, following progesterone injections, the time required for a male to mount a female 10 times was decreased in females with low or no estradiol replacement. These results indicate that a constant concentration of estradiol at about the mean level present throughout the estrous cycle will result in normal body weight regulation and will maintain sexual behaviors that normally occur only during estrus. These results emphasize that Silastic implants of estradiol do not mimic normal endocrine function since, even at low levels, estradiol implants produce continuous receptivity.

  15. A beta cell ATGL-lipolysis/adipose tissue axis controls energy homeostasis and body weight via insulin secretion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attané, Camille; Peyot, Marie-Line; Lussier, Roxane; Poursharifi, Pegah; Zhao, Shangang; Zhang, Dongwei; Morin, Johane; Pineda, Marco; Wang, Shupei; Dumortier, Olivier; Ruderman, Neil B; Mitchell, Grant A; Simons, Brigitte; Madiraju, S R Murthy; Joly, Erik; Prentki, Marc

    2016-12-01

    To directly assess the role of beta cell lipolysis in insulin secretion and whole-body energy homeostasis, inducible beta cell-specific adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL)-deficient (B-Atgl-KO) mice were studied under normal diet (ND) and high-fat diet (HFD) conditions. Atgl (flox/flox) mice were cross-bred with Mip-Cre-ERT mice to generate Mip-Cre-ERT(/+);Atgl (flox/flox) mice. At 8 weeks of age, these mice were injected with tamoxifen to induce deletion of beta cell-specific Atgl (also known as Pnpla2), and the mice were fed an ND or HFD. ND-fed male B-Atgl-KO mice showed decreased insulinaemia and glucose-induced insulin secretion (GSIS) in vivo. Changes in GSIS correlated with the islet content of long-chain saturated monoacylglycerol (MAG) species that have been proposed to be metabolic coupling factors for insulin secretion. Exogenous MAGs restored GSIS in B-Atgl-KO islets. B-Atgl-KO male mice fed an HFD showed reduced insulinaemia, glycaemia in the fasted and fed states and after glucose challenge, as well as enhanced insulin sensitivity. Moreover, decreased insulinaemia in B-Atgl-KO mice was associated with increased energy expenditure, and lipid metabolism in brown (BAT) and white (WAT) adipose tissues, leading to reduced fat mass and body weight. ATGL in beta cells regulates insulin secretion via the production of signalling MAGs. Decreased insulinaemia due to lowered GSIS protects B-Atgl-KO mice from diet-induced obesity, improves insulin sensitivity, increases lipid mobilisation from WAT and causes BAT activation. The results support the concept that fuel excess can drive obesity and diabetes via hyperinsulinaemia, and that an islet beta cell ATGL-lipolysis/adipose tissue axis controls energy homeostasis and body weight via insulin secretion.

  16. Hypothalamic over-expression of VGF in the Siberian hamster increases energy expenditure and reduces body weight gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brameld, John M.; Hill, Phil; Cocco, Cristina; Noli, Barbara; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Barrett, Perry; Ebling, Francis J. P.; Jethwa, Preeti H.

    2017-01-01

    VGF (non-acronymic) was first highlighted to have a role in energy homeostasis through experiments involving dietary manipulation in mice. Fasting increased VGF mRNA in the Arc and levels were subsequently reduced upon refeeding. This anabolic role for VGF was supported by observations in a VGF null (VGF-/-) mouse and in the diet-induced and gold-thioglucose obese mice. However, this anabolic role for VGF has not been supported by a number of subsequent studies investigating the physiological effects of VGF-derived peptides. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of TLQP-21 increased resting energy expenditure and rectal temperature in mice and protected against diet-induced obesity. Similarly, ICV infusion of TLQP-21 into Siberian hamsters significantly reduced body weight, but this was due to a decrease in food intake, with no effect on energy expenditure. Subsequently NERP-2 was shown to increase food intake in rats via the orexin system, suggesting opposing roles for these VGF-derived peptides. Thus to further elucidate the role of hypothalamic VGF in the regulation of energy homeostasis we utilised a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector to over-express VGF in adult male Siberian hamsters, thus avoiding any developmental effects or associated functional compensation. Initially, hypothalamic over-expression of VGF in adult Siberian hamsters produced no effect on metabolic parameters, but by 12 weeks post-infusion hamsters had increased oxygen consumption and a tendency to increased carbon dioxide production; this attenuated body weight gain, reduced interscapular white adipose tissue and resulted in a compensatory increase in food intake. These observed changes in energy expenditure and food intake were associated with an increase in the hypothalamic contents of the VGF-derived peptides AQEE, TLQP and NERP-2. The complex phenotype of the VGF-/- mice is a likely consequence of global ablation of the gene and its derived peptides during development, as well

  17. Parental Characteristics Have a Larger Effect on Children's Health Behaviour than Their Body Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Drenowatz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Parents take an important role in a child's development, but there is currently limited information on parental correlates with children's health behaviour. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to examine whether parental characteristics, such as body weight, TV consumption and sport participation, affect children's body weight and health behaviour. Methods: To examine the effects of parental characteristics on children's body weight and health behaviour, baseline data of 1,118 elementary school children (7.6 ± 0.4 years participating in a school-based intervention in southwest Germany was used. Children's height and weight were measured and parent as well as child behaviour was assessed via questionnaire. Results: BMI percentiles of children were positively associated with parental BMI (r = 0.2, p mother = 2.2, ORfather = 2.3 and parental club sport participation increased the odds for club sport participation in children (ORmother = 1.9, ORfather = 1.7. The relationship between parental and child behaviour was stronger than the relationship between parental BMI and BMI percentiles of the child. Conclusion: These results suggest that parental behaviour and role modelling provide an important contribution to childrens' health behaviour, especially at younger ages.

  18. Food Deprivation, Body Weight Loss and Anxiety-Related Behavior in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Dietze

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In behavioral studies, food deprivation protocols are routinely used to initiate or maintain motivational states that are required in a particular test situation. However, there is limited evidence as to when food deprivation compromises animal welfare. This study investigated the effects of different lengths of food deprivation periods and restricted (fixed-time feeding on body weight loss as well as anxiety-related and motivated behavior in 5–6 month old male and female Wistar rats. The observed body weight loss was not influenced by sex and ranged between 4% (16 h deprivation to approximately 9% (fixed-time feeding. Despite significant body weight loss in all groups, the motivation to eat under the aversive test conditions of the modified open field test increased only after 48 h of food deprivation. Long-lasting effects on anxiety as measured in the elevated plus maze test 24 h after refeeding have not been observed, although fixed-time feeding could possibly lead to a lasting anxiogenic effect in female rats. Overall, female rats showed a more anxiolytic profile in both tests when compared to male rats. Despite these sex differences, results suggest that food deprivation is not always paralleled by an increased motivation to feed in a conflict situation. This is an important finding as it highlights the need for tailored pilot experiments to evaluate the impact of food deprivation protocols on animals in regard to the principles of the 3Rs introduced by Russell and Burch.

  19. Body weight gain rate in patients with Parkinson's disease and deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barichella, Michela; Marczewska, Agnieszka M; Mariani, Claudio; Landi, Andrea; Vairo, Antonella; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2003-11-01

    We evaluated body weight changes in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) after electrode implantation for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in relation to clinical improvement. Thirty PD patients who received STN DBS were included (22 men, 8 women; mean age, 60.0 +/- 7.1 years; mean PD duration, 13.5 +/- 3.7 years; mean body mass index [BMI], 21.6 +/- 3.0 kg/m2). Body weight, physical activity, and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores were noted before and 3 and 12 months after the procedure. Significant weight gain occurred in 29 patients; the mean increase was 14.8 +/- 9.8% of initial body weight in 1 year. Of the patients, 46.5% reported weight gain in the first 3 months, 21.4% gradual weight gain in the first 6 months, and 32.1% a slow increase for 1 year. Mean BMI increased up to 24.7 +/- 3.7 kg/m2. After 1 year, mean UPDRS motor score improved significantly in off and in on; and therapy complications improved by 91.0 +/- 17.0%. BMI changes at 3 and 12 months were significantly correlated to dyskinesia score changes, and levodopa dosage was not. In PD, STN DBS produces not only symptom control, but also weight gain. DBS candidates should be given nutritional counseling before the intervention to prevent rapid and/or excessive weight gain.

  20. Evaluation of body weight, insulin resistance, leptin and adiponectin levels in premenopausal women with hyperprolactinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Aysegul; Bilgici, Birsen; Ecemis, Gulcin Cengiz; Tuncel, Ozgur Korhan

    2013-12-01

    The effects of hyperprolactinemia on metabolic parameters are not clear and a few data evaluating adiponectin levels in prolactinoma and idiopathic hyperprolactinemia exist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hyperprolactinemia on body weight, insulin resistance, beta cell function, and leptin and adiponectin levels in premenopausal women with hyperprolactinemia. Forty premenopausal women with prolactinoma or idiopathic hyperprolactinemia were compared to 41 age-matched healthy premenopausal women with regard to body weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, waist to hip ratio, fasting plasma glucose, insulin levels, insulin resistance measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-insulin resistance index, beta cell function measured by HOMA-β index, leptin and adiponectin levels. Plasma insulin levels and HOMA indexes (both insulin resistance and beta indexes) were significantly higher in hyperprolactinemic women. The other parameters were similar between both groups. There was a positive correlation between prolactin levels and fasting plasma glucose in hyperprolactinemic women. The results of this study showed that high prolactin levels may be associated with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in premenopausal women. This effect seems to be independent of body weight, leptin and adiponectin levels. High prolactin levels may directly stimulate insulin secretion from pancreas and directly cause hepatic and whole-body insulin resistance.

  1. Prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide results in increases in blood pressure and body weight in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-ling WEI; Xiao-hui LI; Jian-zhi ZHOU

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to lipopolysacchadde (LPS) on blood pressure and body weight of offspring in rats. Methods: Sixteen healthy,pregnant rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. The rats in the LPS group were injected intraperitoneally with LPS (0.79 mg/kg) on the d 8, d 10, and d 12 of gestation. Those in the control group were only treated with normal saline. After delivery, all offspring were weighed and blood pressure was measured by the tail-cuff method once every 2 weeks from the 6th to the 24th week. In the 15th week,their food intake was weighed every day. At the end of the 24th week, the rats were killed by decapitation. Abdominal adipose tissues were weighed, and the serum level of leptin was detected by radioimmunoassay. Results: The offspring with prenatal LPS exposure showed increased systemic arterial pressure, heavier body weight, elevated food intake, increased adipose tissue weight, and increased circulating leptin compared with the controls. Conclusion: Prenatal exposure to LPS leads to increases in blood pressure and body weight in rats.

  2. Maternal endotoxemia results in increases in blood pressure and body weight in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Yan-ling; LI Xiao-hui

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on blood pressure and body weight of offspring in rats. Methods Sixteen healthy pregnant rats were randomly divided into two groups. The rats in LPS group were injected intraperitoneally with LPS (0.79 mg·kg-1) at the 8th, 10th, 12th day of gestation. Those in the control group were only treated with NS. After delivery, all offspring were weighed and blood pressure was measured by tail-cuff method once every two weeks from the 6th to 24th week. In the 15th week, their food intakes were weighed every day. At the end of the 24th week, the rats were put to death by decapitation. Abdominal adipose tissues were taken to weigh, and serum level of leptin was detected by RIA. Results The offspring with prenatal LPS exposure showed increased systemic arterial pressure, heavier body weight, elevated food intake, increased adipose tissue weight and increased circulating leptin compared with controls. Conclusions Prenatal exposure to LPS leads to increases in blood pressure and body weight in rats.

  3. Effect of Evacuation on Body Weight After the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Tetsuya; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yasumura, Seiji; Satoh, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Sakai, Akira; Ohtsuru, Akira; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Takahashi, Atsushi; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kobashi, Gen; Kamiya, Kenji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Abe, Masafumi

    2016-05-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011, with a nuclear accident subsequently occurring at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The government ordered a mandatory evacuation from the high radioactive concentration area in Fukushima, which might have forced many evacuees to change particular aspects of their lifestyles. This study assessed the hypothesis that mean body weight and the proportion of overweight/obese individuals would increase among evacuees after versus before the disaster. A longitudinal study examined data collected from 41,633 Japanese participants (mean age, 67 years) sourced from general health checkups conducted in 13 communities between 2008 and 2010. Follow-up examinations were conducted from June 2011 through March 2013. A total of 27,486 participants (12,432 men and 15,054 women; follow-up proportion, 66%) received follow-up examinations after the disaster, with an average follow-up of 1.6 years. Mean body weight significantly increased in both evacuees (n=9,671) and non-evacuees (n=17,815) after the disaster, with greater changes in body weight among evacuees than non-evacuees (+1.2 kg vs +0.3 kg, pJapan Earthquake. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ultrasonographic evaluation of adrenal gland size compared to body weight in normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulsby, Stacy N; Holland, Merrilee; Hudson, Judith A; Behrend, Ellen N

    2015-01-01

    The accepted cut-off value for adrenal gland maximum diameter of 0.74 cm to distinguish adrenal gland enlargement in dogs regardless of body weight may not be appropriate for small to medium breed dogs. The purpose of the current retrospective study was to examine adrenal gland dimensions as a function of body weight in healthy dogs in three weight categories ( 30 kg) representing small, medium, and large breeds, respectively, to establish greater confidence in determining if adrenal gland size is abnormal. The measurements of length (sagittal plane), cranial and caudal pole thickness (sagittal and transverse planes), and caudal pole width (transverse plane) of both adrenal glands were obtained ultrasonographically in clinically healthy dogs (n = 45) with 15 dogs in each weight group. Findings support our hypothesis that adrenal gland size correlates with body weight in normal dogs, and more precise reference intervals should be created for adrenal gland size by categorizing dogs as small, medium, or large breed. The caudal pole thickness of either adrenal gland in a sagittal plane was the best dimension for evaluating adrenal gland size based on low variability, ease, and reliability in measurement.

  5. Is there evidence that friends influence body weight? A systematic review of empirical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Solveig A; Vaquera, Elizabeth; Maturo, Claire C; Narayan, K M Venkat

    2012-10-01

    Researchers and policymakers from diverse fields are engaged in efforts to understand the biological and social causes of obesity in order to develop policies, interventions, and recommendations to stop or reverse increases in obesity. One potentially promising approach is to harness influence from social contacts. An important foundation for this approach involves critically analyzing available data regarding whether and how body weight can be affected by close social contacts, especially friends. This systematic review examines evidence from published studies addressing the influences of friends on body weight. The majority of the sixteen studies conclude that there is evidence of influence: six reported that friends influence body weight and ten reported evidence of influence in some circumstances or specifications. However, this literature sheds little light on mechanisms of influence. There is limited evidence that friends' communication about weight is associated with weight status and no compelling evidence that friends' behaviors affect one's weight. Many of the studies best designed to examine influence were the ones that did not explore mechanisms of influence. A priority for future research is to understand how, when, and how much friends affect the risk of obesity.

  6. Food Deprivation, Body Weight Loss and Anxiety-Related Behavior in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Silke; Lees, Katarina R; Fink, Heidrun; Brosda, Jan; Voigt, Jörg-Peter

    2016-01-07

    In behavioral studies, food deprivation protocols are routinely used to initiate or maintain motivational states that are required in a particular test situation. However, there is limited evidence as to when food deprivation compromises animal welfare. This study investigated the effects of different lengths of food deprivation periods and restricted (fixed-time) feeding on body weight loss as well as anxiety-related and motivated behavior in 5-6 month old male and female Wistar rats. The observed body weight loss was not influenced by sex and ranged between 4% (16 h deprivation) to approximately 9% (fixed-time feeding). Despite significant body weight loss in all groups, the motivation to eat under the aversive test conditions of the modified open field test increased only after 48 h of food deprivation. Long-lasting effects on anxiety as measured in the elevated plus maze test 24 h after refeeding have not been observed, although fixed-time feeding could possibly lead to a lasting anxiogenic effect in female rats. Overall, female rats showed a more anxiolytic profile in both tests when compared to male rats. Despite these sex differences, results suggest that food deprivation is not always paralleled by an increased motivation to feed in a conflict situation. This is an important finding as it highlights the need for tailored pilot experiments to evaluate the impact of food deprivation protocols on animals in regard to the principles of the 3Rs introduced by Russell and Burch.

  7. Autonomic Nervous System in the Control of Energy Balance and Body Weight: Personal Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Messina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity is increasing in the industrialized world, so that the World Health Organization considers obesity as a “pandemia” in rich populations. The autonomic nervous system plays a crucial role in the control of energy balance and body weight. This review summarizes our own data and perspectives, emphasizing the influence exerted by autonomic nervous system on energy expenditure and food intake, which are able to determine the body weight. Activation of the sympathetic discharge causes an increase in energy expenditure and a decrease in food intake, while reduction of food intake and body weight loss determines a reduction of the sympathetic activity. On the other hand, pathophysiological mechanisms of the obesity involve alterations of the sympathetic nervous system in accordance with the “Mona Lisa Hypothesis,” an acronym for “most obesities known are low in sympathetic activity.” Furthermore, the parasympathetic influences on the energy expenditure are analyzed in this review, showing that an increase in parasympathetic activity can induce a paradoxical enhancement of energy consumption.

  8. Autonomic nervous system in the control of energy balance and body weight: personal contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, G; De Luca, V; Viggiano, An; Ascione, A; Iannaccone, T; Chieffi, S; Monda, M

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing in the industrialized world, so that the World Health Organization considers obesity as a "pandemia" in rich populations. The autonomic nervous system plays a crucial role in the control of energy balance and body weight. This review summarizes our own data and perspectives, emphasizing the influence exerted by autonomic nervous system on energy expenditure and food intake, which are able to determine the body weight. Activation of the sympathetic discharge causes an increase in energy expenditure and a decrease in food intake, while reduction of food intake and body weight loss determines a reduction of the sympathetic activity. On the other hand, pathophysiological mechanisms of the obesity involve alterations of the sympathetic nervous system in accordance with the "Mona Lisa Hypothesis," an acronym for "most obesities known are low in sympathetic activity." Furthermore, the parasympathetic influences on the energy expenditure are analyzed in this review, showing that an increase in parasympathetic activity can induce a paradoxical enhancement of energy consumption.

  9. Lifestyle Interventions Targeting Body Weight Changes during the Menopause Transition: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Jull

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the effectiveness of exercise and/or nutrition interventions and to address body weight changes during the menopause transition. Methods. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using electronic databases, grey literature, and hand searching. Two independent researchers screened for studies using experimental designs to evaluate the impact of exercise and/or nutrition interventions on body weight and/or central weight gain performed during the menopausal transition. Studies were quality appraised using Cochrane risk of bias. Included studies were analyzed descriptively. Results. Of 3,564 unique citations screened, 3 studies were eligible (2 randomized controlled trials, and 1 pre/post study. Study quality ranged from low to high risk of bias. One randomized controlled trial with lower risk of bias concluded that participation in an exercise program combined with dietary interventions might mitigate body adiposity increases, which is normally observed during the menopause transition. The other two studies with higher risk of bias suggested that exercise might attenuate weight loss or weight gain and change abdominal adiposity patterns. Conclusions. High quality studies evaluating the effectiveness of interventions targeting body weight changes in women during their menopause transition are needed. Evidence from one higher quality study indicates an effective multifaceted intervention for women to minimize changes in body adiposity.

  10. The effect of fast created inbreeding on litter size and body weights in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meuwissen Theo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed to reveal any differences in effects of fast created versus total inbreeding on reproduction and body weights in mice. A line selected for large litter size for 124 generations (H and a control line (K maintained without selection for the same number of generations were crossed (HK and used as a basis for the experiment. Within the HK cross, full sib, cousin or random mating were practised for two generations in order to create new inbreeding (IBF at a fast rate. In the first generation of systematic mating, old inbreeding was regenerated in addition to creation of new inbreeding from the mating design giving total inbreeding (IBT. The number of pups born alive (NBA and body weights of the animals were then analysed by a model including both IBT and IBF. The IBT of the dam was in the present study found to reduce the mean NBA with -0.48 (± 0.22 (p F was -0.42 (± 0.27. For the trait NBA per female mated, the effect of IBT was estimated to be -0.45 (± 0.29 per 10% increase in the inbreeding coefficient and the effect of IBF was -0.90 (± 0.37 (p F of the dam could be found on sex-ratio and body weights at three and six weeks of age in a population already adjusted for IBT.

  11. Modulation of Gut Microbiota of Overweight Mice by Agavins and Their Association with Body Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huazano-García, Alicia; Shin, Hakdong; López, Mercedes G

    2017-08-23

    Agavins consumption has led to accelerated body weight loss in mice. We investigated the changes on cecal microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) associated with body weight loss in overweight mice. Firstly, mice were fed with standard (ST5) or high-fat (HF5) diet for five weeks. Secondly, overweight mice were shifted to standard diet alone (HF-ST10) or supplemented with agavins (HF-ST + A10) or oligofructose (HF-ST + O10), for five more weeks. Cecal contents were collected before and after supplementation to determine microbiota and SCFA concentrations. At the end of first phase, HF5 mice showed a significant increase of body weight, which was associated with reduction of cecal microbiota diversity (PD whole tree; non-parametric t test, p 3.0); this enrichment has not been reported previously under a prebiotic treatment. In conclusion, agavins or oligofructose modulated cecal microbiota composition, reduced the extent of diversity, and increased SCFA. Furthermore, identification of bacteria enriched by agavins opens opportunities to explore new probiotics.

  12. Does body weight impact the efficacy of vasopressin therapy in the management of septic shock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James T; Welage, Lynda S; Kraft, Michael D; Alaniz, Cesar

    2012-06-01

    Vasopressors used for the management of septic shock are often dosed according to body weight. Use of vasopressin for physiologic replacement in patients with septic shock is usually administered as a standard non-weight-based dose. We hypothesized that the efficacy of vasopressin may be influenced by body weight. The primary objective was to determine if the effects of vasopressin on other vasopressor dosing requirements is related to body weight. Secondary objectives included evaluation of blood pressure and heart rate after the start of vasopressin infusion. A retrospective, cohort study in a large academic health center was conducted. Sixty-four adult inpatients with septic shock (26 medical intensive care unit and 38 surgical intensive care unit) who required vasopressor administration including vasopressin therapy were included. Dosing requirements of vasopressors were captured 1 hour before and during the hour of vasopressin initiation and 2 and 4 hours later. Other information collected during the study period included blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate. Most of the patients (n = 61) received vasopressin at a dose of 0.04 U/min. Changes in vasopressor dosing were significantly correlated with weight-adjusted vasopressin at 2 hours (correlation coefficient = -0.36, P = .03) and 4 hours (correlation coefficient = -0.46, P weight. Prospective studies are needed to examine weight-based dosing of vasopressin in this setting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Heritability of body weight and resistance to ammonia in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjia; Lu, Xia; Luan, Sheng; Luo, Kun; Sui, Juan; Kong, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Ammonia, toxic to aquaculture organisms, represents a potential problem in aquaculture systems, and the situation is exacerbated in closed and intensive shrimp farming operations, expecially for Litopenaeus vannamei. Assessing the potential for the genetic improvement of resistance to ammonia in L. vannamei requires knowledge of the genetic parameters of this trait. The heritability of resistance to ammonia was estimated using two descriptors in the present study: the survival time (ST) and the survival status at half lethal time (SS50) for each individual under high ammonia challenge. The heritability of ST and SS50 were low (0.154 4±0.044 6 and 0.147 5±0.040 0, respectively), but they were both significantly different from zero ( P0.05), suggesting that ST and SS50 could be used as suitable indicators for resistance to ammonia. There were also positive phenotypic and genetic correlation between resistance to ammonia and body weight, which means that resistance to ammonia can be enhanced by the improvement of husbandry practices that increase the body weight. The results from the present study suggest that the selection for higher body weight does not have any negative consequences for resistance to ammonia. In addition to quantitative genetics, tools from molecular genetics can be applied to selective breeding programs to improve the efficiency of selection for traits with low heritability.

  14. Associations between inhibitory control and body weight in German primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirt, Tamara; Hundsdörfer, Verena; Schreiber, Anja; Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jürgen M

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in inhibitory control are supposed to be a risk factor for overweight but literature concerning childhood and beyond the clinical setting is scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of inhibitory control in regards to body weight in a large non-clinical sample of primary school children. Baseline data of 498 children (1st and 2nd grade; 7.0 ± 0.6 years; 49.8% boys) participating in a school-based intervention study in Germany were used. Children performed a Go-Nogo-task to assess inhibitory control. Height and weight were collected and converted to BMI percentiles based on national standards. Relevant influencing factors (sociodemographic data, health characteristics of parents, children's health behaviour) were assessed via parental questionnaire. Inhibitory control was significantly associated with body weight and contributed to the statistical prediction of body weight above and beyond parent education, migration background, parent weight, TV consumption and breakfast habits. Moreover, obese children displayed significantly lower inhibitory control compared to non-overweight and overweight children. The findings suggest that deficits in inhibitory control constitute a risk factor for paediatric obesity. © 2013.

  15. Satiety and body weight control. Promise and compromise. Comment on 'Satiety. No way to slim'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, France; Tremblay, Angelo

    2011-12-01

    Satiety is a complex psycho-physiological mechanism that allows the adjustment of energy intake to expenditures. As such, it plays an important role among the numerous interacting mechanisms contributing to body weight control. Booth and Nouwen rightfully stress that satiety claims can be misleading and even dangerous when they are misrepresented or misinterpreted as slimming claims. Indeed, a substance that might enhance satiety, especially by affecting sensations on the short term, will not necessarily help to decrease energy intake on the longer term or facilitate weight loss. While denouncing abusive claims, the article by Booth and Nouwen also refers to numerous contributions of satiety mechanisms that could potentially affect intake and weight control over the long term. We propose that multi-step proofs of concepts could be useful in this field. Satiety effects are one early step in a complex demonstration of how a substance could affect short-term intake, hormonal mechanisms, and medium or long term changes in body weight. An example of such a step-wise process is described (beneficial effects of calcium and dairy products on appetite and weight change). Booth and Nouwen insist that satiety effects should be evaluated in the context of the local socio-cultural meal pattern and lifestyle. This wise advice supports the use of multi-step proofs of concept, perhaps including the use of biomarkers as well as behavioural measures, before any satiety enhancement claim can be considered to have any actual impact on body weight control.

  16. Effect of Excess Dietary Methionine on the Performance of Laying Hens of Various Live Body Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şahin Çadırcı

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with laying hens to determine the effects of feeding excesses of methionine in a practical layer diet. One hundred and thirty two laying hens at 61 weeks of age were used for the experiment. Two body weight groups (light and heavy and three levels of mehionine were assigned to six groups of laying hen in a 2x3 factorial design. The diets were a 16.5% crude protein corn and soybean meal positive control diet (0.33% methionine, and this diet fortified with 1.00% additional DL-Methionine or 1.50% additional DL-Methionine. The diets were fed ad libitum to the hens for 10 consecutive weeks of production. For the total production period, body weight gain, hen-day egg production, egg weight, egg mass, daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio were not significantly different among any of the treatments in the two body weight groups (P>0.05. The study indicated that considerable tolerance exists in laying hens for individual excesses of the DL-Methionine commonly used as supplement in poultry diets.

  17. Oral conditions and body weight in children from a public school in Manaus, AM, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara Pinho ASSI

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Some studies have pointed to links between the prevalence of caries and periodontal disease, and the occurrence of overweight or obesity; but, few studies have been conducted in children. Objective To assess the relationship between periodontal disease, tooth decay and body weight in children from a public school in Manaus, AM, Brazil. Material and method The study included one hundred and sixty-nine children. Records were obtained of decayed, missing and filled (DMFT permanent teeth, and of decayed, extracted, or filled (DEF deciduous teeth, as well as the record of the community periodontal index (CPI. The classification of body weight category was obtained in percentile using the z-Score table. Result Higher averages of weight and body mass index (BMI were seen in the overweight and obesity groups (p0.05. All groups showed higher averages of CPI 0 in comparison with other CPI codes from 1 to 4 (p<0.05, and most of the children showed sites with probing depth <3.5 mm and without bleeding on probing. Conclusion There was no relationship between body weight and the occurrence of dental caries and periodontal disease in the studied population. Obesity and overweight showed no negative influence on the increase in the prevalence of these diseases.

  18. Reported versus measured body weight and height of 4-year-old children and the prevalence of overweight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Scholtens (Salome); B. Brunekreef (Bert); T.L.S. Visscher (Tommy); H.A. Smit (Henriëtte); M. Kerkhof (Marjan); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); J. Gerritsen (Jorrit); A.H. Wijga (Alet)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In adults, body weight tends to be underestimated when based on self-reported data. Whether this discrepancy between measured and reported data exists in healthy young children is unclear. We studied whether parental reported body weight and height of 4-year-old children corr

  19. Reported versus measured body weight and height of 4-year-old children and the prevalence of overweight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Salome; Brunekreef, Bert; Visscher, Tommy L. S.; Smit, Henriette A.; Kerkhof, Marjan; de Jongste, Johan C.; Gerritsen, Jorrit; Wijga, Alet H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: In adults, body weight tends to be underestimated when based on self-reported data. Whether this discrepancy between measured and reported data exists in healthy young children is unclear. We studied whether parental reported body weight and height of 4-year-old children corresponded wit

  20. Reported versus measured body weight and height of 4-year-old children and the prevalence of overweight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Salome; Brunekreef, Bert; Visscher, Tommy L. S.; Smit, Henriette A.; Kerkhof, Marjan; de Jongste, Johan C.; Gerritsen, Jorrit; Wijga, Alet H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: In adults, body weight tends to be underestimated when based on self-reported data. Whether this discrepancy between measured and reported data exists in healthy young children is unclear. We studied whether parental reported body weight and height of 4-year-old children corresponded wit

  1. Seasonal variations in the volume of the haemolymph and body weight of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus gigas (Muller)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Rathod, V.; Parulekar, A.H.

    whereas, minimum (30 ml) in higher salinities during summer and post flood periods. The body weight of the crab was found to be affectEd. by the fluctuations in salinity. During flood period (October-November) average body weight of the crab increas...

  2. Treatment with the human once-weekly glucagon-like peptide-1 analog taspoglutide in combination with metformin improves glycemic control and lowers body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin alone: a double-blind placebo-controlled study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nauck, Michael A; Ratner, Robert E; Kapitza, Christoph; Berria, Rachele; Boldrin, Mark; Balena, Raffaella

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of taspoglutide (R1583/BIM51077), a human once-weekly glucagon-like peptide-1 analog, in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin. Type 2 diabetic (n = 306...

  3. Analysis of meiosis regulators in human gonads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Nielsen, John E; Jensen, Martin Blomberg

    2012-01-01

    The mitosis-meiosis switch is a key event in the differentiation of germ cells. In humans, meiosis is initiated in fetal ovaries, whereas in testes meiotic entry is inhibited until puberty. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression pattern of meiosis regulators in human gonads...... with their role in initiation and progression of meiosis. The putative meiosis inhibitors, CYP26B1 and NANOS2, were primarily expressed in Leydig cells and spermatocytes, respectively. In conclusion, the expression pattern of the investigated meiotic regulators is largely conserved in the human gonads compared...... with rodents, but with some minor differences, such as a stable expression of CYP26B1 in human fetal ovaries. The sexually dimorphic expression pattern of DMRT1 indicates a similar role in the mitosis-meiosis switch in human gonads as previously demonstrated in mice. The biological importance of the changes...

  4. Blood lead level association with lower body weight in NHANES 1999–2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scinicariello, Franco, E-mail: fes6@cdc.gov [Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Buser, Melanie C. [Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Mevissen, Meike [Division of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Portier, Christopher J. [National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH)/ATSDR, CDC, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Background: Lead exposure is associated with low birth-weight. The objective of this study is to determine whether lead exposure is associated with lower body weight in children, adolescents and adults. Methods: We analyzed data from NHANES 1999–2006 for participants aged ≥ 3 using multiple logistic and multivariate linear regression. Using age- and sex-standardized BMI Z-scores, overweight and obese children (ages 3–19) were classified by BMI ≥ 85th and ≥ 95th percentiles, respectively. The adult population (age ≥ 20) was classified as overweight and obese with BMI measures of 25–29.9 and ≥ 30, respectively. Blood lead level (BLL) was categorized by weighted quartiles. Results: Multivariate linear regressions revealed a lower BMI Z-score in children and adolescents when the highest lead quartile was compared to the lowest lead quartile (β (SE) = − 0.33 (0.07), p < 0.001), and a decreased BMI in adults (β (SE) = − 2.58 (0.25), p < 0.001). Multiple logistic analyses in children and adolescents found a negative association between BLL and the percentage of obese and overweight with BLL in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartile (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.30–0.59; and OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.88, respectively). Adults in the highest lead quartile were less likely to be obese (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.35–0.50) compared to those in the lowest lead quartile. Further analyses with blood lead as restricted cubic splines, confirmed the dose-relationship between blood lead and body weight outcomes. Conclusions: BLLs are associated with lower body mass index and obesity in children, adolescents and adults. - Highlights: • NHANES analysis of BLL and body weight outcomes • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in children and adolescent • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in adults.

  5. The body weight loss during acute exposure to high-altitude hypoxia in sea level residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ri-Li; Wood, Helen; Yang, Hui-Huang; Liu, Yi-Ning; Wang, Xiu-Juan; Babb, Tony

    2010-12-25

    Weight loss is frequently observed after acute exposure to high altitude. However, the magnitude and rate of weight loss during acute exposure to high altitude has not been clarified in a controlled prospective study. The present study was performed to evaluate weight loss at high altitude. A group of 120 male subjects [aged (32±6) years] who worked on the construction of the Golmud-Lhasa Railway at Kunlun Mountain (altitude of 4 678 m) served as volunteer subjects for this study. Eighty-five workers normally resided at sea level (sea level group) and 35 normally resided at an altitude of 2 200 m (moderate altitude group). Body weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference were measured in all subjects after a 7-day stay at Golmud (altitude of 2 800 m, baseline measurements). Measurements were repeated after 33-day working on Kunlun Mountain. In order to examine the daily rate of weight loss at high altitude, body weight was measured in 20 subjects from the sea level group (sea level subset group) each morning before breakfast for 33 d at Kunlun Mountain. According to guidelines established by the Lake Louise acute mountain sickness (AMS) consensus report, each subject completed an AMS self-report questionnaire two days after arriving at Kunlun Mountain. After 33-day stay at an altitude of 4 678 m, the average weight loss for the sea level group was 10.4% (range 6.5% to 29%), while the average for the moderate altitude group was 2.2% (-2% to 9.1%). The degree of weight loss (Δ weight loss) after a 33-day stay at an altitude of 4 678 m was significantly correlated with baseline body weight in the sea level group (r=0.677, P0.05). In the sea level subset group, a significant weight loss was observed within 20 d, but the weight remained stable thereafter. AMS-score at high altitude was significantly higher in the sea level group (4.69±2.48) than that in the moderate altitude group (2.97±1.38), and was significantly correlated with baseline body weight

  6. yellow~0,a marker for low body weight in Drosophila melanogaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Marker-assisted selection(MAS) is an important modern breeding technique,but it has been found that the effect of the markers for quantitative trait loci(QTL) is inconsistent,leading in some cases to MAS failure and raising doubts about its effectiveness.Here the model organism Drosophila melanogaster was employed to study whether an effective marker could be found and applied to MAS.We crossed the stock carrying the y0 marker(a recessive mutation allele of the yellow gene on the X chromosome) with three other stocks carrying corresponding wild-type markers in an F2 design,and found that the y0 marker was in significant association with low body weight(P<0.001).This association was consistent across different backgrounds and the marker effects in female and male were approximately 0.95 σP(phenotypic standard deviation) and 0.68 σP,respectively.We next introgressed a fragment via the y0 marker into a wild stock background over 20 generations of marker-assisted introgression(MAI),and constructed the introgression stock y0(OR)20 in which body weight decreased by 13% and 7%,in female and male,respectively,compared to the wild stock(P<0.0001).This indicated that there must be a single QTL for low body weight that is tightly linked to the y0 marker.We then shortened the introgressed fragment to less than 1.5 cM by a deeper MAI using the y0 marker and the white marker.This narrower fragment also resulted in a similar decrease in body weight to that induced by y0(OR)20,indicating that the QTL for low body weight is located within this less-than-1.5 cM interval.Molecular characteristics of the y0 marker by PCR amplification and Southern blotting revealed that yellow gene was deficient in the y0 stock,leading to disappearance of melanin from the cuticle and probably influencing the developmental process.The above results confirmed the existence of effective QTL markers applicable to MAS breeding schemes,and their potential application in breeding new stocks.

  7. yellow0, a marker for low body weight in Drosophila melanogaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li XinHai; Deng XueMei

    2009-01-01

    Marker-asaisted selection (MAS) is an important modern breeding technique, but it has been found that the effect of the markers for quantitative trait loci (QTL) is inconsistent, leading in some cases to MAS failure and raising doubts about its effectiveness. Here the model organism Drosophila melanogaster was employed to study whether an effective marker could be found and applied to MAS. We crossed the stock carrying the y0 marker (a recessive mutation allele of the yellow gene on the X chromosome)with three other stocks carrying corresponding wild-type markers in an F2 design, and found that the y0 marker was in significant association with low body weight (P<0.001). This association was consistent across different backgrounds and the marker effects in female and male were approximately 0.95 σrp(phenotypic standard deviation) and 0.68 σp, respectively. We next introgressed a fragment via the y0marker into a wild stock background over 20 generations of marker-assisted introgression (MAI), and constructed the introgression stock y0(OR)20 in which body weight decreased by 13% and 7%, in female and male, respectively, compared to the wild stock (P<0.0001). This indicated that there must be a single QTL for low body weight that is tightly linked to the y0 marker. We then shortened the introgressed fragment to less than 1.5 cM by a deeper MAI using the y0 marker and the white marker. This narrower fragment also resulted in a similar decrease in body weight to that induced by y0(OR)20, indicating that the QTL for low body weight is located within this less-than-1.5 cM interval. Molecular characteristics of the y0 marker by PCR amplification and Southern blotting revealed that yellow gene was deficient in the y0 stock, leading to disappearance of melanin from the cuticle and probably influencing the developmental process. The above results confirmed the existence of effective QTL markers applicable to MAS breeding schemes, and their potential application in breeding

  8. Establishing energy requirements for body weight maintenance: validation of an intake-balance method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Hirezi, Michael; Zhang, Bo; Smith, Steven; Bray, George; Redman, Leanne

    2017-06-26

    Experimentally establishing a group's body weight maintenance energy requirement is an important component of metabolism research. At present, the reference approach for measuring the metabolizable energy intake (MEI) from foods required for body weight maintenance in non-confined subjects is the doubly-labeled water (DLW)-total energy expenditure (TEE) method. In the current study, we evaluated an energy-intake weight balance method as an alternative to DLW that is more flexible and practical to apply in some settings. The hypothesis was tested that MEI from foods observed in a group of subjects maintaining a constant energy intake while keeping their weight within ±1 kg over 10 days is non-significantly different from DLW-measured TEE (TEEDLW). Six non-obese subjects evaluated as part of an earlier study completed the inpatient protocol that included a 3-day initial adjustment period. The group body weight coefficient of variation (X ± SD) during the 10-day balance period was 0.38 ± 0.10% and the slope of the regression line for body weight versus protocol day was non-significant at 1.8 g/day (R(2), 0.002, p = 0.98). MEI from foods observed during the 10-day balance period (2390 ± 543 kcal/day) was non-significantly different (p = 0.96) from TEE measured by DLW (2373 ± 713 kcal/day); the MEI/TEEDLW ratio was 1.03 ± 0.15 (range 0.87-1.27) and the correlation between MEI from foods and TEEDLW was highly significant (R(2), 0.88, p = 0.005). A carefully managed 10-day protocol that includes a constant MEI level from foods with weight stability (±1 kg) will provide a group's body weight maintenance energy requirement similar to that obtained with DLW. This approach opens the possibility of conducting affordable weight balance studies, shorter in duration than those previously reported, that are needed to answer a wide range of questions in clinical nutrition. Trial registration The study is registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT

  9. Supplementation with a fish protein hydrolysate (Micromesistius poutassou: effects on body weight, body composition, and CCK/GLP-1 secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Nobile

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fish protein hydrolysates (FPHs have been reported as a suitable source of proteins for human nutrition because of their balanced amino acid composition and positive effect on gastrointestinal absorption. Objective: Here, we investigated the effect of a FPH, Slimpro®, obtained from blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou muscle by enzymatic hydrolysis, on body composition and on stimulating cholecystokinin (CCK and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 secretion. Design: A randomized clinical study was carried out on 120, slightly overweight (25 kg/m2 ≤ BMI<30 kg/m2, male (25% and female (75% subjects. FPH was tested in a food supplement at two doses (1.4 and 2.8 g to establish if a dose–effect relationship exists. Product use was associated with a mild hypocaloric diet (−300 kcal/day. Body composition (body weight; fat mass; extracellular water; and circumference of waist, thighs, and hips and CCK/GLP-1 blood levels were measured at the beginning of the study and after 45 and 90 days of product use. CCK/GLP-1 levels were measured since they are involved in controlling food intake. Results: Treated subjects reported an improvement of body weight composition and an increased blood concentration of both CCK and GLP-1. No differences were found between the 1.4 and 2.8 g FPH doses, indicating a plateau effect starting from 1.4 g FPH. Conclusions: Both 1.4 and 2.8 g of FPH were effective in improving body composition and in increasing CCK and GLP-1 blood levels.

  10. Subchronic and mild social defeat stress accelerates food intake and body weight gain with polydipsia-like features in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tatsuhiko; Kubota, Yoshifumi; Tanaka, Yuki; Iio, Wataru; Moriya, Naoko; Toyoda, Atsushi

    2014-08-15

    Development and characterization of animal models of depression are essential for fully understanding the pathogenesis of depression in humans. We made and analyzed a mouse model exhibiting social deficit and hyperphagia-like behavior using a subchronic and mild social defeat stress (sCSDS) paradigm. The body weight, food and water intake of mice were monitored during a test period, and their behaviors and serum components were analyzed at two stages: immediately after the sCSDS period and 1 month after the sCSDS. The body weight and food intake of defeated mice were significantly higher than control mice at the sCSDS period, and these differences were sustained until 1 month after the sCSDS, whereas the water intake of defeated mice was significantly higher than control mice for the period of sCSDS only. Behavioral analyses revealed that the defeated mice exhibit significant social aversion to unfamiliar mice in a social interaction test and a trend of anxiety-like behavior in an elevated-plus maze test. Possibly due to polydipsia-like symptoms, defeated mice had significantly lower levels of albumin and blood urea nitrogen than control mice immediately after the sCSDS period but not at 1 month after sCSDS. The present study revealed that our sCSDS mice keep much more water in their body than control mice. This study reports the first step toward an understanding of the mechanisms of stress-induced overhydration, over-eating and resultant weight gain.

  11. Association of ADIPOQ gene variants with body weight, type 2 diabetes and serum adiponectin concentrations: the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venojärvi Mika

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin, secreted mainly by mature adipocytes, is a protein with insulin-sensitising and anti-atherogenic effects. Human adiponectin is encoded by the ADIPOQ gene on the chromosomal locus 3q27. Variations in ADIPOQ are associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2DM and related phenotypes in several populations. Our aim was to study the association of the ADIPOQ variations with body weight, serum adiponectin concentrations and conversion to T2DM in overweight subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Moreover, we investigated whether ADIPOQ gene variants modify the effect of lifestyle changes on these traits. Methods Participants in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study were randomly assigned to a lifestyle intervention group or a control group. Those whose DNA was available (n = 507 were genotyped for ten ADIPOQ single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Associations between SNPs and baseline body weight and serum adiponectin concentrations were analysed using the univariate analysis of variance. The 4-year longitudinal weight data were analysed using linear mixed models analysis and the change in serum adiponectin from baseline to year four was analysed using Kruskal-Wallis test. In addition, the association of SNPs with the risk of developing T2DM during the follow-up of 0-11 (mean 6.34 years was analysed by Cox regression analysis. Results rs266729, rs16861205, rs1501299, rs3821799 and rs6773957 associated significantly (p Conclusions These results from the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study support the concept that genetic variation in ADIPOQ locus contributes to variation in body size and serum adiponectin concentrations and may also modify the risk of developing T2DM. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00518167

  12. Proviral integrations and expression of endogenous Avian leucosis virus during long term selection for high and low body weight in two chicken lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bornold Lina

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term selection (> 45 generations for low or high juvenile body weight from a common founder population of White Plymouth Rock chickens has generated two extremely divergent lines, the LWS and HWS lines. In addition to a > 9-fold difference between lines for the selected trait, large behavioural and metabolic differences between the two lines evolved during the course of the selection. We recently compared gene expression in brain tissue from birds representing these lines using a global cDNA array analysis and the results showed multiple but small expression differences in protein coding genes. The main differentially expressed transcripts were endogenous retroviral sequences identified as avian leucosis virus subgroup-E (ALVE. Results In this work we confirm the differential ALVE expression and analysed expression and number of proviral integrations in the two parental lines as well as in F9 individuals from an advanced intercross of the lines. Correlation analysis between expression, proviral integrations and body weight showed that high ALVE levels in the LWS line were inherited and that more ALVE integrations were detected in LWS than HWS birds. Conclusion We conclude that only a few of the integrations contribute to the high expression levels seen in the LWS line and that high ALVE expression was significantly correlated with lower body weights for the females but not males. The conserved correlation between high expression and low body weight in females after 9 generations of intercrosses, indicated that ALVE loci conferring high expression directly affects growth or are very closely linked to loci regulating growth.

  13. Web-enabled feedback control over energy balance promotes an increase in physical activity and a reduction of body weight and disease risk in overweight sedentary adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraushaar, Lutz Erwin; Krämer, Alexander

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to investigate whether a Web-based tool will facilitate the adoption of feedback control over calorie balance in overweight individuals, thereby promoting an increase of physical activity and a reduction of body weight and cardiovascular risk factors. This is a prospective exercise intervention study, commencing with a minimum weekly 3 × 20-min requirement of high-intensity interval training and requirement for Web-based self-monitoring and self-reporting of exercise and body weight. Subjects of this study include 83 overweight, sedentary, otherwise healthy adults aged 26-68 years. Anthropometric parameters, body fat, peak oxygen consumption, self-reported physical activity, frequency of use of the Web-based tool are among the characters measured in this study. This 24-week intervention substantially increased time spent for exercise (mean and median of 135 and 170 min/week, respectively) among the 72 % of participants who had adopted cognitive feedback control vs. no increase in the remaining participants of nonadopters. Adopters witnessed significantly improved peak oxygen consumption of >1 metabolic equivalent vs. no improvement among nonadopters. Adopters also reduced body mass index, body weight, and body fat by 1.6 kg/m(2), 4.8 kg, and 3.6 kg, respectively vs. 0.4 kg/m(2), 1.4 kg, and 1.1 kg in the control group. The increase in physical activity came at virtually no intervention effort of the investigators. This study demonstrates for the first time that adoption of cognitive feedback control over energy balance is possible with the help of a simple Web-based tool and that overweight adopters self-regulate exercise volume to significantly reduce body weight and improve biomarkers of fitness and cardiovascular risk.

  14. Body Characteristics, Dietary Protein and Body Weight Regulation. Reconciling Conflicting Results from Intervention and Observational Studies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Angquist, Lars; Stocks, Tanja;

    2014-01-01

    between greater protein intake and weight gain. In both types of studies the results are based on average weight changes, and show considerable diversity in both directions. This study investigates whether the discrepancy in the evidence could be due to recruitment of overweight and obese individuals......: This modified observational study, minimized the differences between the RCT and observational data with regard to dietary intake, participant characteristics and statistical analysis. Compared with low protein diet the high protein diet was associated with better weight maintenance when individuals...

  15. Understanding the Regulation of Body Weight: A Focus on Eating Patterns, Energy Intake, and Metabolic Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    weight status and eating behaviors (such as Diabetes and pregnancy ). During the phone screen and on the Medical Information Form the volunteers were...typical exercise routines (including aerobic dance , karate, and yoga; HealtheTech, Golden, CO, 2001). The ExerLog program (HealtheTech, Golden, CO, 2001...dress, estimate this point. If you draw an imaginary line from the midway point between your belly button and hipbone to the middle of the top of your

  16. Body Characteristics, Dietary Protein and Body Weight Regulation. Reconciling Conflicting Results from Intervention and Observational Studies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Angquist, Lars; Stocks, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    , and body characteristics. Different subsets of the DCH-participants, comparable with the trial participants, were analyzed for weight maintenance according to the randomization status (high or low protein) of the matched trial participants. RESULTS: Trial participants were generally heavier, had larger...... waist circumference and larger fat mass than the participants in the entire DCH cohort. A better weight maintenance in the high-protein group compared to the low protein group was observed in the subgroups of the DCH cohort matching body characteristics of the trial participants. CONCLUSION......: This modified observational study, minimized the differences between the RCT and observational data with regard to dietary intake, participant characteristics and statistical analysis. Compared with low protein diet the high protein diet was associated with better weight maintenance when individuals...

  17. Metabolic consequences of chronic sleep restriction in rats : Changes in body weight regulation and energy expenditure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barf, R. P.; Van Dijk, G.; Scheurink, A. J. W.; Hoffmann, K.; Novati, A.; Hulshof, H. J.; Fuchs, E.; Meerlo, P.; Desprez, Tifany

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between short or disrupted sleep and an increased risk to develop obesity. In animal studies, however, sleep restriction leads to an attenuation of weight gain that cannot be explained by changes in energy intake. In the present study, we assessed

  18. Central regulation of food intake, body weight, energy expenditure, and glucose homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this issue, we have assembled multidisciplinary specialists to provide up-to-date reviews on the recent advances and achievements in the field as well as primary research articles contributing to a greater understanding of obesity and diabetes. ...

  19. Counterregulation of insulin by leptin as key component of autonomic regulation of body weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katarina; T; Borer

    2014-01-01

    A re-examination of the mechanism controlling eating, locomotion, and metabolism prompts formulation of a new explanatory model containing five features: a coordinating joint role of the(1) autonomic nervous system(ANS);(2) the suprachiasmatic(SCN) master clock in counterbalancing parasympathetic digestive and absorptive functions and feeding with sympathetic locomotor and thermogenic energy expenditure within a circadian framework;(3) interaction of the ANS/SCN command with brain substrates of reward encompassing dopaminergic projections to ventral striatum and limbic and cortical forebrain. These drive the nonhomeostatic feeding and locomotor motivated behaviors in interaction with circulating ghrelin and lateral hypothalamic neurons signaling through melanin concentrating hormone and orexin-hypocretin peptides;(4) counterregulation of insulin by leptin of both gastric and adipose tissue origin through: potentiation by leptin of cholecystokinin-mediated satiation, inhibition of insulin secretion, suppression of insulin lipogenesis by leptin lipolysis, and modulation of peripheral tissue and brain sensitivity to insulin action. Thus weight-loss induced hypoleptimia raises insulin sensitivity and promotes its parasympathetic anabolic actions while obesity-induced hyperleptinemia supresses insulin lipogenic action; and(5) inhibition by leptin of bone mineral accrual suggesting that leptin may contribute to the maintenance of stability of skeletal, lean-body, as well as adipose tissue masses.

  20. Ohgata, the Single Drosophila Ortholog of Human Cereblon, Regulates Insulin Signaling-dependent Organismic Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Satoru; Sawamura, Naoya; Voelzmann, André; Broemer, Meike; Asahi, Toru; Hoch, Michael

    2016-11-25

    Cereblon (CRBN) is a substrate receptor of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that is highly conserved in animals and plants. CRBN proteins have been implicated in various biological processes such as development, metabolism, learning, and memory formation, and their impairment has been linked to autosomal recessive non-syndromic intellectual disability and cancer. Furthermore, human CRBN was identified as the primary target of thalidomide teratogenicity. Data on functional analysis of CRBN family members in vivo, however, are still scarce. Here we identify Ohgata (OHGT), the Drosophila ortholog of CRBN, as a regulator of insulin signaling-mediated growth. Using ohgt mutants that we generated by targeted mutagenesis, we show that its loss results in increased body weight and organ size without changes of the body proportions. We demonstrate that ohgt knockdown in the fat body, an organ analogous to mammalian liver and adipose tissue, phenocopies the growth phenotypes. We further show that overgrowth is due to an elevation of insulin signaling in ohgt mutants and to the down-regulation of inhibitory cofactors of circulating Drosophila insulin-like peptides (DILPs), named acid-labile subunit and imaginal morphogenesis protein-late 2. The two inhibitory proteins were previously shown to be components of a heterotrimeric complex with growth-promoting DILP2 and DILP5. Our study reveals OHGT as a novel regulator of insulin-dependent organismic growth in Drosophila.

  1. Association of vitamin K status with adiponectin and body composition in healthy subjects: uncarboxylated osteocalcin is not associated with fat mass and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Marjo H J; Schurgers, Leon J; Shearer, Martin J; Newman, Paul; Theuwissen, Elke; Vermeer, Cees

    2012-09-28

    Osteocalcin (OC) is a vitamin K-dependent protein found in bone and in circulation. High serum γ-carboxylated OC reflects a high, and high uncarboxylated OC (ucOC) reflects a low vitamin K status. A revolutionary hypothesis is that ucOC acts as a hormone improving glucose handling and reducing fat mass. The objective was to test the logical extrapolation of the ucOC hormone hypothesis to humans that elevated ucOC is associated with higher body weight, BMI and fat mass. In a cross-sectional analysis, the associations of vitamin K status with circulating adiponectin and body composition were investigated in 244 postmenopausal women (study I). The effects of vitamin K treatment on adiponectin, body weight and BMI were investigated in archived samples from forty-two young men and women who received varying doses of menaquinone-7 during 12 weeks (study II) and from a cohort of 164 postmenopausal women who participated in a 3-year placebo-controlled trial on 45 mg menaquinone-4 (MK-4) (study III). No association was found between vitamin K status and circulating adiponectin before or after vitamin K supplementation. A higher carboxylation of OC was significantly correlated with lower body weight, BMI and fat mass of the trunk. Women taking MK-4 maintained their baseline body weight and BMI, whereas women taking placebo showed significant increases in both indices. These findings demonstrate that a high vitamin K status of bone has no effect on circulating adiponectin in healthy people and long-term vitamin K supplementation does not increase weight in healthy postmenopausal women.

  2. Herpes Virus Entry Mediator Signaling in the Brain Is Imperative in Acute Inflammation-Induced Anorexia and Body Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Kon Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundReduced appetite and body weight loss are typical symptoms of inflammatory diseases. A number of inflammatory stimuli are responsible for the imbalance in energy homeostasis, leading to metabolic disorders. The herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM protein plays an important role in the development of various inflammatory diseases, such as intestinal inflammation and diet-induced obesity. However, the role of HVEM in the brain is largely unknown. This study aims to investigate whether HVEM signaling in the brain is involved in inflammation-induced anorexia and body weight loss.MethodsFood intake and body weight were measured at 24 hours after intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS or intracerebroventricular injection of recombinant mouse LIGHT (also called tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily 14, TNFSF14, an HVEM ligand, into 8- to 10-week-old male C57BL/6 mice and mice lacking HVEM expression (HVEM-/-. We also assessed LPS-induced change in hypothalamic expression of HVEM using immunohistochemistry.ResultsAdministration of LPS significantly reduced food intake and body weight, and moreover, increased expression of HVEM in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. However, LPS induced only minor decreases in food intake and body weight in HVEM-/- mice. Administration of LIGHT into the brain was very effective at decreasing food intake and body weight in wild-type mice, but was less effective in HVEM-/- mice.ConclusionActivation of brain HVEM signaling is responsible for inflammation-induced anorexia and body weight loss.

  3. The role of GluN2A and GluN2B NMDA receptor subunits in AgRP and POMC neurons on body weight and glucose homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykut Üner

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in AgRP neurons play a critical role in central control of body weight homeostasis and blood glucose balance via mechanisms that likely involve regulation of AgRP neuronal survival and structure, and modulation of hypothalamic leptin action.

  4. A reexamination of age-related variation in body weight and morphometry of Maryland nutria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfy, M.H.; Mollett, T.A.; McGowan, K.R.; Daugherty, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    Age-related variation in morphometry has been documented for many species. Knowledge of growth patterns can be useful for modeling energetics, detecting physiological influences on populations, and predicting age. These benefits have shown value in understanding population dynamics of invasive species, particularly in developing efficient control and eradication programs. However, development and evaluation of descriptive and predictive models is a critical initial step in this process. Accordingly, we used data from necropsies of 1,544 nutria (Myocastor coypus) collected in Maryland, USA, to evaluate the accuracy of previously published models for prediction of nutria age from body weight. Published models underestimated body weights of our animals, especially for ages nutria growth patterns and for predicting nutria age. We derived models from a randomly selected model-building data set (n = 192-193 M, 217-222 F) and evaluated them with the remaining animals (n = 487-488 M, 642-647 F). We used nonlinear regression to develop Gompertz growth-curve models relating morphometric variables to age. Predicted values of morphometric variables fell within the 95% confidence limits of their true values for most age classes. We also developed predictive models for estimating nutria age from morphometry, using linear regression of log-transformed age on morphometric variables. The evaluation data set corresponded with 95% prediction intervals from the new models. Predictive models for body weight and length provided greater accuracy and less bias than models for foot length and axillary girth. Our growth models accurately described age-related variation in nutria morphometry, and our predictive models provided accurate estimates of ages from morphometry that will be useful for live-captured individuals. Our models offer better accuracy and precision than previously published models, providing a capacity for modeling energetics and growth patterns of Maryland nutria as well

  5. Mechanisms of body weight gain in patients with Parkinson's disease after subthalamic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaurier, C; Morio, B; Bannier, S; Derost, P; Arnaud, P; Brandolini-Bunlon, M; Giraudet, C; Boirie, Y; Durif, F

    2007-07-01

    Chronic bilateral subthalamic stimulation leads to a spectacular clinical improvement in patients with motor complications. However, the post-operative body weight gain involved may limit the benefits of surgery and induce critical metabolic disorders. Twenty-four Parkinsonians (61.1 +/- 1.4 years) were examined 1 month before (M - 1) and 3 months after (M + 3) surgery. Body composition and energy expenditure (EE) were measured (1) over 36 h in calorimetric chambers (CC) with rigorous control of food intakes and activities [sleep metabolic rate, resting activities, meals, 3 or 4 sessions of 20 min on a training bicycle at 13 km/h and daily EE] and (2) in resting conditions (basal metabolic rate) during an acute L-dopa challenge (M - 1) or according to acute 'off' and 'on' stimulation (M + 3). Before surgery, EE was compared between the Parkinsonian patients and healthy subjects matched for height and body composition (metabolic rate during sleep, daily EE) or matched to predicted values (basal metabolic rate). Before surgery, in Parkinsonian men but not women, (1) daily EE was higher while sleep metabolic rate was lower compared to healthy matched men (+9.2 +/- 3.9 and -8.2 +/- 2.3%, respectively, P weight gain. Parkinson's disease is associated with profound alterations in the central control of energy metabolism. Normalization of energy metabolism after DBS-STN implantation may favour body weight gain, of which quality was gender specific. As men gained primarily fat-free mass, a reasonable weight gain may be tolerated, in contrast with women who gained only fat. Other factors such as changes in free-living physical activity may help to limit body weight gain in some patients.

  6. Development and Validation of the Body Size Scale for Assessing Body Weight Perception in African Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Emmanuel; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Ponty, Amandine; Ndao, Amadou; Amougou, Norbert; Saïd-Mohamed, Rihlat; Pasquet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background The social valorisation of overweight in African populations could promote high-risk eating behaviours and therefore become a risk factor of obesity. However, existing scales to assess body image are usually not accurate enough to allow comparative studies of body weight perception in different African populations. This study aimed to develop and validate the Body Size Scale (BSS) to estimate African body weight perception. Methods Anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 Senegalese were used to evaluate three criteria of adiposity: body mass index (BMI), overall percentage of fat, and endomorphy (fat component of the somatotype). To develop the BSS, the participants were photographed in full face and profile positions. Models were selected for their representativeness of the wide variability in adiposity with a progressive increase along the scale. Then, for the validation protocol, participants self-administered the BSS to assess self-perceived current body size (CBS), desired body size (DBS) and provide a “body self-satisfaction index.” This protocol included construct validity, test-retest reliability and convergent validity and was carried out with three independent samples of respectively 201, 103 and 1115 Cameroonians. Results The BSS comprises two sex-specific scales of photos of 9 models each, and ordered by increasing adiposity. Most participants were able to correctly order the BSS by increasing adiposity, using three different words to define body size. Test-retest reliability was consistent in estimating CBS, DBS and the “body self-satisfaction index.” The CBS was highly correlated to the objective BMI, and two different indexes assessed with the BSS were consistent with declarations obtained in interviews. Conclusion The BSS is the first scale with photos of real African models taken in both full face and profile and representing a wide and representative variability in adiposity. The validation protocol proved its

  7. Greater than predicted decrease in energy expenditure during exercise after body weight loss in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Eric; Imbeault, Pascal; St-Pierre, Sylvie; Alméras, Natalie; Mauriège, Pascale; Després, Jean-Pierre; Bouchard, Claude; Tremblay, Angelo

    2003-07-01

    This study was performed retrospectively to investigate whether exercise energy expenditure (EE) measured during a standardized treadmill protocol (4.5 km/h at 0% grade) falls below predicted values after body weight loss in obese men. A reference equation was established to predict net exercise EE in a control sample of 83 obese individuals (27 kg/m(2)hydrodensitometry. Net exercise EE, insulin, leptin, 3,3',5-tri-iodothyronine and free thyroxine were measured after an overnight fast at baseline and 2-4 weeks after the end of the programme, when subjects were weight stable. Body weight was significantly reduced (-11%; P <0.01) at the end of the weight loss programme. At baseline, measured net exercise EE was similar to that predicted from the regression equation [19.6 and 19.8 kJ/min (4.69 and 4.74 kcal/min) respectively; not significant]. However, after the end of the intervention, measured net exercise EE was significantly below the predicted value [15.5 and 17.3 kJ/min (3.71 and 4.14 kcal/min) respectively; P <0.01]. The difference between the predicted and the measured fall in net exercise EE was significantly associated with changes in leptin concentration ( r =0.79, P <0.01), even after correction for changes in fat mass and insulin. These observations suggest that net exercise EE falls below predicted values after body weight loss. In addition, this greater than predicted decrease in net exercise EE was associated with changes in leptin.

  8. Genetic, phenotypic and environmental relationships between sow body weight and sow productivity traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, P W; Harvey, W R; Irvin, K M

    1985-02-01

    Yorkshire and Duroc litter records were used to estimate genetic, phenotypic and environmental relationships between sow body weight and sow productivity traits. Two data sets with two subsets each were used to complete this study; 663 and 460 records included litter traits only, while 522 and 359 records also contained sow body weight for Yorkshires and Durocs, respectively. Heritability estimates for number born (NB), number born alive (NBA), total birth weight of live pigs (BWLIT), litter weight at 3 wk (WT3WK), sow weight at parturition (WTDAMPAR) and sow weight at weaning (WTDAMWN) were .24 +/- .14, .21 +/- .14, .42 +/- .16, .19 +/- .14, .72 +/- .21 and .42 +/- .18, respectively, for Yorkshires and .05 +/- .10, .04 +/- .10, .21 +/- .14, .25 +/- .15, .85 +/- .25 and .87 +/- .26, respectively, for the Durocs. Repeatability estimates for NB, NBA, BWLIT, WT3WK, WTDAMPAR and WTDAMWN were .13 +/- .06, .17 +/- .06, .27 +/- .06, .13 +/- .06, .64 +/- .05 and .54 +/- .05, respectively, for Yorkshires and .17 +/- .06, .21 +/- .06, .14 +/- .06, .17 +/- .06, .28 +/- .07 and .39 +/- .07, respectively, for Durocs. Genetic correlations among litter traits were high and positive in the Yorkshire data. Genetic correlations between NBA and WTDAMPAR, NBA and WTDAMWN, WT3WK and WTDAMPAR, and WT3WK and WTDAMWN were .37 +/- .25, .18 +/- .34, .60 +/- .29 and .29 +/- .45, respectively, in the Yorkshire data. Genetic correlations among litter traits in the Duroc analysis had large standard errors but were generally similar to the estimates obtained from the Yorkshire data. The genetic correlation between WTDAMPAR and WTDAMWN was .93 +/- .09 for Yorkshire sows. The primary conclusion from this study is that as selection increases sow productivity traits, there will be a positive correlated response in sow body weight.

  9. Captopril intake decreases body weight gain via angiotensin-(1-7).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Young-Bin; Kim, Jong Hun; Park, Byung Mun; Park, Byung Hyun; Kim, Suhn Hee

    2012-09-01

    Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] plays a beneficial role in cardiovascular physiology by providing a counterbalance to the function of angiotensin II (Ang II). Although Ang II has been shown to be an adipokine secreted by adipocyte and affect lipid metabolism, the role of Ang-(1-7) in adipose tissue remains to be clarified. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Ang-(1-7) affects lipid metabolism in adipose tissue. Ang-(1-7) increased glycerol release from primary adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. A lipolytic effect of Ang-(1-7) was attenuated by pretreatment with A-779, a Mas receptor blocker and with an inhibitor of phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), or eNOS. However, losartan and PD123319 did not cause any change in Ang-(1-7)-induced lipolysis. Ang-(1-7)-induced lipolysis had an addictive effect with isoproterenol. In normal rats, chronic intake of captopril for 4 wks decreased body weight gain and the amount of adipose tissue and increased plasma Ang-(1-7) level. These effects were attenuated by administration of A-779. The levels of Mas receptor and phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (p-HSL) were significantly increased by treatment with captopril and these captopril-mediated effects were attenuated by the administration of A-779. There was no difference in diameter of adipocytes among sham, captopril- and captopril+A-779-treated groups. The similar effects of captopril on body weight, expression of Mas receptor, and p-HSL were observed in Ang-(1-7)-treated rats. These results suggest that captopril intake decreased body weight gain partly through Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor/PI3K pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors associated with body weight status of Iranian postgraduate students in university of putra malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Maryam; Mohd Taib, Mohd Nasir; Zarei, Fatemeh; Abu Saad, Hazizi

    2013-12-01

    Good nutrition, a balanced diet and regular physical activity are foundations of good health. Research has found that dietary patterns change dramatically following the arrival of students in a foreign country. However, nutritional status of Iranian students studying oversea has never been investigated. The objective of this study was to determine factors associated with body weight status of Iranian postgraduate students in Universiti of Putra Malaysia (UPM). A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the body weight status of 210 Iranian postgraduate students aged between 22 and 55 years in University of Putra Malaysia. The associations between body weight status and socio demographics factors and also lifestyle factors (smoking and physical activity) were assessed. Anthropometric factors (height, weight, BMI and waist and hip circumferences) were measured. Chi-square, Spearman Rho and Pearson tests were used for data analysis. From a total of 210 postgraduate students 110 were females, and 100 males. No significant correlation was observed between smoking and BMI (P = 0.4). However, statistically significant correlations were observed between gender (P = 0.007), physical activity (P = 0.02), using protein (P = 0.005), carbohydrate (P = 0.002), fat (P = 0.001), fiber (P = 0.003), vitamin C (P = 0.04), calcium (P = 0.005), waist circumference (P = 0.02), hip circumference (P = 0.001), Waist to Hip Ratio (P = 0.002), and BMI. The nutritional behavior of university students was poor. Therefore, it is essential to encourage young people, including university students to enrich their diets with milk, beans, fruit, and vegetables to decrease the risks of nutrition related disorders.

  11. Development and Validation of the Body Size Scale for Assessing Body Weight Perception in African Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Cohen

    Full Text Available The social valorisation of overweight in African populations could promote high-risk eating behaviours and therefore become a risk factor of obesity. However, existing scales to assess body image are usually not accurate enough to allow comparative studies of body weight perception in different African populations. This study aimed to develop and validate the Body Size Scale (BSS to estimate African body weight perception.Anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 Senegalese were used to evaluate three criteria of adiposity: body mass index (BMI, overall percentage of fat, and endomorphy (fat component of the somatotype. To develop the BSS, the participants were photographed in full face and profile positions. Models were selected for their representativeness of the wide variability in adiposity with a progressive increase along the scale. Then, for the validation protocol, participants self-administered the BSS to assess self-perceived current body size (CBS, desired body size (DBS and provide a "body self-satisfaction index." This protocol included construct validity, test-retest reliability and convergent validity and was carried out with three independent samples of respectively 201, 103 and 1115 Cameroonians.The BSS comprises two sex-specific scales of photos of 9 models each, and ordered by increasing adiposity. Most participants were able to correctly order the BSS by increasing adiposity, using three different words to define body size. Test-retest reliability was consistent in estimating CBS, DBS and the "body self-satisfaction index." The CBS was highly correlated to the objective BMI, and two different indexes assessed with the BSS were consistent with declarations obtained in interviews.The BSS is the first scale with photos of real African models taken in both full face and profile and representing a wide and representative variability in adiposity. The validation protocol proved its reliability for estimating body weight

  12. Modulation of Gut Microbiota of Overweight Mice by Agavins and Their Association with Body Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Huazano-García

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Agavins consumption has led to accelerated body weight loss in mice. We investigated the changes on cecal microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA associated with body weight loss in overweight mice. Firstly, mice were fed with standard (ST5 or high-fat (HF5 diet for five weeks. Secondly, overweight mice were shifted to standard diet alone (HF-ST10 or supplemented with agavins (HF-ST + A10 or oligofructose (HF-ST + O10, for five more weeks. Cecal contents were collected before and after supplementation to determine microbiota and SCFA concentrations. At the end of first phase, HF5 mice showed a significant increase of body weight, which was associated with reduction of cecal microbiota diversity (PD whole tree; non-parametric t test, p < 0.05, increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and reduced SCFA concentrations (t test, p < 0.05. After diet shifting, HF-ST10 normalized its microbiota, increased its diversity, and SCFA levels, whereas agavins (HF-ST + A10 or oligofructose (HF-ST + O10 led to partial microbiota restoration, with normalization of the Firmicutes/Bacteroides ratio, as well as higher SCFA levels (p < 0.1. Moreover, agavins noticeably enriched Klebsiella and Citrobacter (LDA > 3.0; this enrichment has not been reported previously under a prebiotic treatment. In conclusion, agavins or oligofructose modulated cecal microbiota composition, reduced the extent of diversity, and increased SCFA. Furthermore, identification of bacteria enriched by agavins opens opportunities to explore new probiotics.

  13. Increasing metabolic rate despite declining body weight in an adult parasitoid wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Jérôme; Body, Mélanie; Gutzwiller, Florence; Giron, David; Lazzari, Claudio R; Pincebourde, Sylvain; Richard, Romain; Llandres, Ana L

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic rate is a positive function of body weight, a rule valid for most organisms and the basis of several theories of metabolic ecology. For adult insects, however, the diversity of relationships between body mass and respiration remains unexplained. The aim of this study is to relate the respiratory metabolism of a parasitoid with body weight and foraging activity. We compared the metabolic rate of groups of starving and host-fed females of the parasitoid Eupelmus vuilleti recorded with respirometry for 7days, corresponding to the mean lifetime of starving females and over half of the lifetime of foraging females. The dynamics of carbohydrate, lipid and protein in the body of foraging females were quantified with biochemical techniques. Body mass and all body nutrients declined sharply from the first day onwards. By contrast, the CO2 produced and the O2 consumed increased steadily. Starving females showed the opposite trend, identifying foraging as the reason for the respiration increase of feeding females. Two complementary physiological processes explain the unexpected relationship between increasing metabolic rate and declining body weight. First, host hemolymph is a highly unbalanced food, and the excess nutrients (protein and carbohydrate) need to be voided, partially through excretion and partially through respiration. Second, a foraging young female produces eggs at an increasing rate during the first half of its lifetime, a process that also increases respiration. We posit that the time-varying metabolic rate contributions of the feeding and reproductive processes supplements the contribution of the structural mass and lead to the observed trend. We extend our explanations to other insect groups and discuss the potential for unification using Dynamic Energy Budget theory.

  14. Muscle hypertrophy in quadriplegics with combined electrical stimulation and body weight support training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho de Abreu, Daniela Cristina; Júnior, Alberto Cliquet; Rondina, Jane Maryan; Cendes, Fernando

    2008-06-01

    We describe the analysis of muscle hypertrophy in complete quadriplegics after 6 months of treadmill gait training with neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). We aim to evaluate the effect of treadmill gait training using NMES, with 30-50% body weight relief, on muscle mass. Fifteen quadriplegics were divided into gait (n=8) and control (n=7) groups. The gait group (GG) performed training, associated to partial body weight support, for 6 months, twice a week, for 20 min. Control group (CG) individuals performed only conventional physiotherapy, but did not perform gait training using NMES. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed over quadriceps, at the beginning and after 6 months. The MRI was done to determine the average of cross-sectional area of the quadriceps. Moreover, a gray scale was used to separate the muscle from the conjunctive tissue (when the value is closer to 225, there is a higher amount of muscle tissue). After 6 months there was an increase of cross-sectional area in the gait group (from 49.81+/-9.36 to 57.33+/-10.32 cm2; P=0.01), but not in the control group (from 43.60+/-7.56 to 41.65 +/- 9.44 cm2; P=0.17). The gray scale did not show significant differences after 6 months; however, the mean value of the gray scale inside the quadriceps in the gait group increased by 7.7% and in the control group decreased by 11.4%. Treadmill gait associated with NMES was efficient to promove quadriceps muscle hypertrophy in quadriplegics with chronic lesions even when a partial body weight support was provided.

  15. Habitual Chocolate Consumption May Increase Body Weight in a Dose-Response Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, James A.; Buijsse, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objective Habitual chocolate intake was recently found to be associated with lower body weight in three cross-sectional epidemiological studies. Our objective was to assess whether these cross-sectional results hold up in a more rigorous prospective analysis. Methods We used data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort. Usual dietary intake was assessed by questionnaire at baseline (1987–98), and after six years. Participants reported usual chocolate intake as the frequency of eating a 1-oz (∼28 g) serving. Body weight and height were measured at the two visits. Missing data were replaced by multiple imputation. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate cross-sectional and prospective associations between chocolate intake and adiposity. Results Data were from 15,732 and 12,830 participants at the first and second visit, respectively. More frequent chocolate consumption was associated with a significantly greater prospective weight gain over time, in a dose-response manner. For instance, compared to participants who ate a chocolate serving less often than monthly, those who ate it 1–4 times a month and at least weekly experienced an increase in Body Mass Index (kg/m2) of 0.26 (95% CI 0.08, 0.44) and 0.39 (0.23, 0.55), respectively, during the six-year study period. In cross-sectional analyses the frequency of chocolate consumption was inversely associated with body weight. This inverse association was attenuated after excluding participants with preexisting obesity-related illness. Compared to participants without such illness, those with it had higher BMI and reported less frequent chocolate intake, lower caloric intake, and diets richer in fruits and vegetables. They tended to make these dietary changes after becoming ill. Conclusions Our prospective analysis found that a chocolate habit was associated with long-term weight gain, in a dose-response manner. Our cross-sectional finding that chocolate intake was associated with lower body

  16. Relationship between chewing behavior and body weight status in fully dentate healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2015-03-01

    Recent research indicates that chewing behavior may influence energy intake and energy expenditure. However, little is known about the relationship between chewing behavior and body weight status. In the present study, 64 fully dentate normal-weight or overweight/obese adults were asked to consume five portions of a test food and the number of chewing cycles, chewing duration before swallowing and chewing rate were measured. Adjusting for age and gender, normal-weight participants used a higher number of chewing cycles (p = 0.003) and a longer chewing duration (p weight status in fully dentate healthy adults.

  17. Body weight gain during adulthood and uterine myomas: Pró-Saúde Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine de Lima Sírio Boclin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to investigate whether body weight gain during adulthood is associated with uterine myomas. 1,560 subjects were evaluated in a Pró-Saúde Study. Weight gain was evaluated in a continuous fashion and also in quintiles. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated through logistic regression models that were adjusted for education levels, color/race, body mass indices at age 20, age of menarche, parity, use of oral contraceptive methods, smoking, health insurance, and the Papanicolaou tests. No relevant differences were observed regarding the presence of uterine myomas among weight gain quintiles in that studied population.

  18. Estimation of Body Weight from Body Size Measurements and Body Condition Scores in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Kristensen, T.

    1997-01-01

    regimen. Results from this study indicate that a reliable model for estimating BW of very different dairy cows maintained in a wide range of environments can be developed using body condition score, demographic information, and measurements of hip height and hip width. However, for management purposes......The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of hip height and width, body condition score, and relevant demographic information to predict body weight (BW) of dairy cows. Seven regression models were developed from data from 972 observations of 554 cows. Parity, hip height, hip width......, substantial improvements can be obtained by developing models that are specific to a given site....

  19. ESTIMATION OF LIVE BODY WEIGHT FROM LINEAR BODY MEASUREMENTS FOR FARTA SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENGISTIE TAYE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study, to develop regression models for prediction of body weight from other linear body measurements, was conducted in Esite, Farta and Lai-Gaint districts of South Gondar, Amhara region. Records on body weight (BW and other linear body measurements (Body Length (BL, Wither Height (WH, Chest Girth (CH, Pelvic Width (PW and Ear Length (EL were taken from 941 sheep. Non-linear, simple linear and multiple linear regression models were developed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 12.0. For the multiple linear regressions, step-wise regression procedures were used. Predicting models were developed for different age, sex and for the pool. Positive and significant (P<0.01 correlations were observed between body weight and linear body measurements for all sex and age groups. Among the four linear body measurements, heart girth had the highest correlation coefficient (except ear length in all age and sex groups which is followed by body length, height at wither and pelvic width. Heart girth was the first variable to explain more variation than other variables in both sex and age groups. The models developed had a coefficient of determination of 0.26 to 0.89; the highest coefficient of determination was depicted for male while the lowest was for dentition groups having two permanent incisors. Regression models in general were poor in explaining weight for the dentition groups above one pair of permanent incisors. Heart girth alone was able to estimate weight with a coefficient of determination of 0.77, for both sexes and the pool. The coefficient of determination of the fitted equations (in general decreased as the age of sheep advances indicating that the fitted equations can predict weight for younger sheep with better accuracy than for older ones. In general, much of the variation in weight was explained when many traits were included in the model. However, for ease of use and to avoid complexity at field condition, it is

  20. Relationships between body dimensions, body weight, age, gender, breed and echocardiographic dimensions in young endurance horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trachsel, D S; Giraudet, A; Maso, D

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The heart's physiological adaptation to aerobic training leads to an increase in heart chamber size, and is referred to as the Athlete's heart. However, heart dimensions are also related to body weight (BWT), body size, growth and (in some species) breed. There are few published data...... functional indices did not. Although there was no gender difference for LV dimensions, females had larger LA dimensions. In terms of breed, Anglo-Arabians had the largest LV dimensions. Regression models indicated that the included explanatory factors had a weak influence on heart dimensions. Age, body...... may therefore reflect early adaptations linked to the initiation of endurance training....

  1. Problem eating behaviors related to social factors and body weight in preschool children: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Kelly

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity and its association to eating patterns in adolescents and adults, little is known about the relationship between problematic eating behaviours and body weight in the preschool years within the context of various social factors. This research aims to analyze the relationship between social factors, mothers' perceptions of their child's eating behaviour (picky eating and overeating, and body weight in preschool years, in a population-based cohort of preschoolers from Québec (Canada. Methods Analyses were performed on 1498 children from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec, a representative sample of children born in 1998 in the Canadian province of Québec. Eating behaviours (picky eating and overeating were derived from questionnaires at 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 years of age. BMI was calculated from children's measured height and weight at 4.5 years. Children's sex and birth weight, mothers' age, immigrant status, smoking status during pregnancy, and education level, family type, annual household income and income sufficiency, the number of overweight/obese parents, children's day-care attendance, and food insufficiency were part of the analysis. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine odds ratios for different body weight profiles (underweight, normal weight, at risk of overweight, overweight, and one-way analysis-of-variances (ANOVA allowed for group comparisons of means. Results The proportion of children reported for each eating behaviour category remained quite stable across the years studied. Picky eating and overeating related to body weight among 4.5-year-old children, even when social and parental factors were accounted for in multivariate analysis. Picky eaters were twice as likely to be underweight at 4.5 years as children who were never picky eaters. Adjusted odds ratios revealed overeaters were 6 times more likely to be overweight

  2. Regional cerebral blood flow imaging assessment of brain function reconstruction in elderly hemiplegia patients by body weight support treadmill training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenqing Wang; Yongping Liu; Diqing Wang; Yanshuang Li; Jinglai Hao; Hongwei Zhang; Sheng Bi; Changshui Weng

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism underlying body weight support treadmill training in elderly hemiplegic stroke patients is largely unknown. This study aimed to elucidate the changes of cortical blood flow in seven elderly patients with post-stroke hemiplegia before and after body weight support treadmill training by semi-quantitative analysis of regional cerebral blood flow assessed by single photon emission computed tomography. Body weight support treadmill training for 6 months was effective in improving cerebral blood flow and promoting the walking speed and balance recovery in elderly patients with post-stroke hemiplegia.

  3. Effects of NUTRIOSE® dietary fiber supplementation on body weight, body composition, energy intake, and hunger in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Li, Shuguang; Pochat, Marine; Wils, Daniel; Mubasher, Mohamed; Reifer, Cheryl; Miller, Larry E

    2011-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of a soluble dietary fiber, NUTRIOSE(®), on body weight, body composition, energy intake and hunger in overweight Chinese men. The volunteers were randomized in double-blind fashion to 250 ml fruit juice supplemented with NUTRIOSE(®) (Test, n = 60) or a maltodextrin (Control, n = 60) at a dosage of 17 g twice daily for 12 weeks. Body weight, body composition were performed at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks while daily energy intake and hunger were assessed every 3 days. Test subjects had reductions in body weight (1.5 kg, P men.

  4. Identification of quantitative trait loci associated with bone traits and body weight in an F2 resource population of chickens*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiweis Melissa A

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bone fractures at the end of lay are a significant problem in egg-laying strains of hens. The objective of the current study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL associated with bone mineralization and strength in a chicken resource population. Layer (White Leghorn hens and broiler (Cobb-Cobb roosters lines were crossed to generate an F2 population of 508 hens over seven hatches, and 26 traits related to bone integrity, including bone mineral density (BMD and content (BMC, were measured. Genotypes of 120 microsatellite markers on 28 autosomal groups were determined, and interval mapping was conducted to identify QTL regions. Twenty-three tests representing three chromosomal regions (chromosomes 4, 10 and 27 contained significant QTL that surpassed the 5% genome-wise threshold, and 47 tests representing 15 chromosomes identified suggestive QTL that surpassed the 5% chromosome-wise threshold. Although no significant QTL influencing BMD and BMC were detected after adjusting for variation in body weight and egg production, multiple suggestive QTL were found. These results support previous experiments demonstrating an important genetic regulation of bone strength in chickens, but suggest the regulation may be due to the effects of multiple genes that each account for relatively small amounts of variation in bone strength.

  5. Myostatin mRNA expression and its association with body weight and carcass traits in Yunnan Wuding chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L X; Dou, T F; Li, Q H; Rong, H; Tong, H Q; Xu, Z Q; Huang, Y; Gu, D H; Chen, X B; Ge, C R; Jia, J J

    2016-12-02

    Myostatin (MSTN) is expressed in the myotome and developing skeletal muscles, and acts to regulate the number of muscle fibers. Wuding chicken large body, developed muscle, high disease resistance, and tender, delicious meat, and are not selected for fast growth. Broiler chickens (Avian broiler) are selected for fast growth and have a large body size and high muscle mass. Here, 240 one-day-old chickens (120 Wuding chickens and 120 broilers) were examined. Twenty chickens from each breed were sacrificed at days 1, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150. Breast and leg muscle samples were collected within 20 min of sacrifice to investigate the effects of MSTN gene expression on growth performance and carcass traits. Body weight, carcass traits, and skeletal muscle mass in Wuding chickens were significantly (P chickens at all time points. Breast muscle MSTN mRNA was lower in Wuding chickens than in broilers before day 30 (P chicken than in broilers (P chicken than in broilers at all ages except for day 60 (P chickens than in the fast growing broilers. In contract, leg muscle MSTN mRNA level has a greater effect in broilers than in Wuding chickens. MSTN regulates growth performance and carcass traits in chickens.

  6. Pleiotropic effects of a disrupted K+ channel gene: Reduced body weight, impaired motor skill and muscle contraction, but no seizures

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Chi Shun; Grange, Robert W.; Joho, Rolf H.

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the roles of K+ channels in the regulation and fine-tuning of cellular excitability, we generated a mutant mouse carrying a disrupted gene for the fast activating, voltage-gated K+ channel Kv3.1. Kv3.1−/− mice are viable and fertile but have significantly reduced body weights compared with their Kv3.1+/− littermates. Wild-type, heterozygous, and homozygous Kv3.1 channel-deficient mice exhibit similar spontaneous locomotor and exploratory activity. In a test for coordinated moto...

  7. Body weight, dieting, and eating disorder symptoms among college students, 1982 to 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatherton, T F; Nichols, P; Mahamedi, F; Keel, P

    1995-11-01

    The authors sought to examine changes in prevalence of dieting behavior and eating disorder symptoms from 1982 to 1992. In 1982, 625 women and 276 men participated in a study examining body weight, eating habits, dieting tendencies, and eating disorder symptoms. Ten years later 564 women and 235 men at the same college completed a nearly identical survey. Similar random sampling methods were used for both studies. All respondents were classified into one of five groups (nondieter, dieter, problem dieter, subclinical eating disorder, or eating disorder according to DSM-III-R criteria). On almost all measures there were significant reductions of problematic eating behaviors and disordered attitudes about body, weight, and shape from 1982 to 1992. The estimated prevalence of bulimia nervosa dropped from 7.2% to 5.1% for women and from 1.1% to 0.4% for men. Binge eating, vomiting, diuretic use, and diet pill use also declined for women during this period. Significantly fewer women and men reported chronic dieting in 1992 than in 1982, and there was evidence of improved body image for both sexes. Subjects in 1992 also reported healthier eating habits in terms of dietary intake and meal regularity. Finally, women in 1992 were more likely to be overweight and were, on average, five pounds heavier than their 1982 counterparts. The prevalence of problematic eating behaviors and eating disorder symptoms appears to be abating. However, they remain a significant problem that affects a substantial segment of this population.

  8. Interlimb coordination in body-weight supported locomotion: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiterle, Stefan; Susko, Tyler; Artemiadis, Panagiotis K; Riener, Robert; Igo Krebs, Hermano

    2015-08-20

    Locomotion involves complex neural networks responsible for automatic and volitional actions. During locomotion, motor strategies can rapidly compensate for any obstruction or perturbation that could interfere with forward progression. In this pilot study, we examined the contribution of interlimb pathways for evoking muscle activation patterns in the contralateral limb when a unilateral perturbation was applied and in the case where body weight was externally supported. In particular, the latency of neuromuscular responses was measured, while the stimulus to afferent feedback was limited. The pilot experiment was conducted with six healthy young subjects. It employed the MIT-Skywalker (beta-prototype), a novel device intended for gait therapy. Subjects were asked to walk on the split-belt treadmill, while a fast unilateral perturbation was applied mid-stance by unexpectedly lowering one side of the split-treadmill walking surfaces. Subject's weight was externally supported via the body-weight support system consisting of an underneath bicycle seat and the torso was stabilized via a loosely fitted chest harness. Both the weight support and the chest harness limited the afferent feedback. The unilateral perturbations evoked changes in the electromyographic activity of the non-perturbed contralateral leg. The latency of all muscle responses exceeded 100ms, which precludes the conjecture that spinal cord alone is responsible for the perturbation response. It suggests the role of supraspinal or midbrain level pathways at the inter-leg coordination during gait.

  9. Body weight changes in female patients with prolactinoma treated with bromocriptin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Velija-Ašimi;

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the body weight changes in female patients with bromocriptin treated prolactinoma. Seventeen hyperprolactinemic pre-menopausal female with prolactinoma, aged 18-45 years, with body mass index (BMI 30+/-2,1kg/m2 were included. Basal insulin level was measured in all patients as well as concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, estrogens, testosterone, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH and prolactin (PRL. All patients were treated with bromocriptine. PRL levels significantly decreased after six months of the treatment (3543+/-1211 vs.1130+/-588 μIU/ml, p<0.05. After a year of the treatment PRL level was normalized (560+/-297 μIU/ml. Mean body weight did not significantly change during the first 6 months but after a two-year period it significantly decreased (27.6+/-1,4kg/m2. Waist/hip ratio did not significantly change. Normalization of menstrual cycle and libido was obtained in all patients. The results of this study suggest that hyperprolactinemia may be regarded as a reversible cause of obesity in female patients with prolactinoma, and bromocriptin has an important role in the weight loss and insulin decreasing and normalization of gonadotropin secretion as well.

  10. UV radiation impacts body weight, oxygen consumption, and shelter selection in the intertidal vertebrate Girella laevifrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulgar, José; Waldisperg, Melany; Galbán-Malagón, Cristóbal; Maturana, Diego; Pulgar, Victor M; Aldana, Marcela

    2017-02-01

    The amount of ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the earth's surface has increased due to ozone layer depletion, and this fact represents an opportunity to evaluate the physiological and behavioral responses of animals to this global-scale stressor. The transitory fish Girella laevifrons inhabits pools in the upper intertidal zone, which is characterized by exposure to a wide range of stressors, including UV radiation. We documented the field magnitude and the impact of UV radiation on oxygen consumption, body mass variations, and shelter (rocky and algae) selection by G. laevifrons. UV-exposed animals showed increased oxygen consumption, slower body weight increase, and active rocky shelter selection. Control fish showed increased body weight and no evident shelter selection. The results indicated that UV exposure affects fish energetic balance and habitat selection to favor greater protection against radiation. Increased UV exposure in transitory intertidal animals at levels observed in upper intertidal pools may alter the residency time of fish before leaving for the subtidal zone. Therefore, UV-induced energetic changes may determine animal performance and ontogenetic physiological itineraries, whereas shelter quality might determine habitat use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittler, M H; Schmidt, K; Ernst, E

    2005-05-01

    Herbal weight-loss supplements are marketed with claims of effectiveness. Our earlier systematic review identified data from double-blind, randomized controlled trials for a number of herbal supplements. The aim of this systematic review was to assess all clinical evidence of adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction for which effectiveness data from rigorous clinical trials exist. We assessed Ephedra sinica, Garcinia cambogia, Paullinia cupana, guar gum, Plantago psyllium, Ilex paraguariensis and Pausinystalia yohimbe. Literature searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, Amed and The Cochrane Library. Data were also requested from the spontaneous reporting scheme of the World Health Organization. We hand-searched relevant medical journals and our own files. There were no restrictions regarding the language of publication. The results show that adverse events including hepatic injury and death have been reported with the use of some herbal food supplements. For herbal ephedra and ephedrine-containing food supplements an increased risk of psychiatric, autonomic or gastrointestinal adverse events and heart palpitations has been reported. In conclusion, adverse events are reported for a number of herbal food supplements, which are used for reducing body weight. Although the quality of the data does not justify definitive attribution of causality in most cases, the reported risks are sufficient to shift the risk-benefit balance against the use of most of the reviewed herbal weight-loss supplements. Exceptions are Garcinia cambogia and yerba mate, which merit further investigation.

  12. IMPACT OF BODY WEIGHT SUPPORTED BACKWARD TREADMILL TRAINING ON WALKING SPEED IN CHILDREN WITH SPASTIC DIPLEGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamada El Sayed Abd Allah Ayoub

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: A lot of the ambulating children with spastic diplegia were able to walk with flexed hips, knees and ankles this gait pattern is known as crouch gait. The most needed functional achievement of diplegic children habilitation is to be able to walk appropriately. The development of an independent and efficient walking is one of the main objectives for children with cerebral palsy especially those with spastic diplegia. Method: Twenty children with spastic diplegia enrolled in this study, they were classified into two groups of equal number, eligibility to our study were ages ranged from seven to ten years, were able to ambulate, They had gait problems and abnormal gait kinematics. The control group (A received selected physical therapy program based on neurodevelopmental approach for such cases, while the study group (B received partial body weight supported backward treadmill training in addition to regular exercise program. Gait pattern was assessed using the Biodex Gait Trainer II for each group pre and post three months of the treatment program. Results: There was statistically significant improvement in walking speed in the study group (P<0.05 with significant difference when comparing post treatment results between groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: These findings suggested that partial body weight supported backward treadmill training can be included as a supplementary therapeutic modality to improve walking speed and functional abilities of children with diplegic cerebral palsy.

  13. Associations of body weight perception and weight control behaviors with problematic internet use among Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun

    2017-02-08

    We examined the association of body mass index (BMI), body weight perception, and weight control behaviors with problematic Internet use in a nationwide sample of Korean adolescents. Cross-sectional data from the 2010 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey collected from 37,041 boys and 33,655 girls in middle- and high- schools (grades 7-12) were analyzed. Participants were classified into groups based on BMI (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese), body weight perception (underweight, normal weight, and overweight), and weight control behavior (no weight control behavior, appropriate weight control behavior, inappropriate weight control behavior). The risk of problematic Internet use was assessed with the Korean Internet Addiction Proneness Scale for Youth-Short Form. Both boys and girls with inappropriate weight control behavior were more likely to have problematic Internet use. Underweight, overweight, and obese boys and girls were more likely to have problematic Internet use. For both boys and girls, subjective perception of underweight and overweight were positively associated with problematic Internet use. Given the negative effect of inappropriate weight control behavior, special attention needs to be given to adolescents' inappropriate weight control behavior, and an educational intervention for adolescents to control their weight in healthy ways is needed.

  14. Nutraceuticals for body-weight management: The role of green tea catechins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Pilou L H R; Hursel, Rick; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2016-08-01

    Green tea catechins mixed with caffeine have been proposed as adjuvants for maintaining or enhancing energy expenditure and for increasing fat oxidation, in the context of prevention and treatment of obesity. These catechins-caffeine mixtures seem to counteract the decrease in metabolic rate that occurs during weight loss. Their effects are of particular importance during weight maintenance after weight loss. Other metabolic targets may be fat absorption and the gut microbiota composition, but these effects still need further investigation in combination with weight loss. Limitations for the effects of green tea catechins are moderating factors such as genetic predisposition related to COMT-activity, habitual caffeine intake, and ingestion combined with dietary protein. In conclusion, a mixture of green tea catechins and caffeine has a beneficial effect on body-weight management, especially by sustained energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and preservation of fat free body-mass, after energy restriction induced body-weight loss, when taking the limitations into account. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The impact of body weight management in chronic kidney disease patients with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ling; Shu, Kuo-Hsiung; Yang, Mei-Fang; Yang, Wen-Ching; Wu, Ming-Ju; Lin, Tzu-Mei; Chen, Cheng-Hsu

    2013-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and obesity are important public health concerns. Because obesity may initiate and/or accelerate kidney damage, weight control may benefit CKD patients. We examined the influence of dietary management and physical exercise in 38 obese CKD patients with or without target reduction of body weight 3% or more from baseline. After a 2-month lifestyle intervention program, those with target body weight control had significant improvement of blood pressure control, as well as reduced lipid profiles, serum creatinine level (1.1 ± 0.3 vs. 0.8 ± 0.3; P management and exercise were associated with improvements in health-related physical fitness, cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure and lipid control), and renal profiles in obese CKD patients. Supportive individualized programs for lifestyle change could exert beneficial effects, but long-term research with a larger patient population is needed to elucidate the optimal effective combination of dietary management and exercise. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Gene knockout of Acc2 has little effect on body weight, fat mass, or food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, David P; Pulinilkunnil, Thomas; Cline, Gary W; Shulman, Gerald I; Lowell, Bradford B

    2010-04-20

    Deletion of acetyl CoA carboxylase-2 (Acc2) reportedly causes leanness in the setting of hyperphagia. To determine the cellular basis for these effects, we generated a mouse model in which Acc2 can be selectively deleted by the action of Cre recombinase. Deletion of Acc2 from skeletal muscle, the predominant site of Acc2 expression, had no effect on body weight, food intake, or body composition. When Acc2 was inactivated in the germline, Acc2 knockout (Acc2KO) mice displayed no differences in body weight, food intake, body composition, or glucose homeostasis as compared to controls on chow or high fat diet. Total malonyl CoA content and fatty acid oxidation rates in skeletal muscle of Acc2KO mice were unchanged, suggesting metabolic compensation in response to the loss of Acc2. The limited impact of Acc2 deletion on energy balance raises the possibility that selective pharmacological inhibition of Acc2 for the treatment of obesity may be ineffective.

  17. The impact of different algorithms for ideal body weight on screening for hydroxychloroquine retinopathy in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, David J; Lee, Chong; Rotberg, David

    2014-01-01

    To determine how algorithms for ideal body weight (IBW) affect hydroxychloroquine dosing in women. This was a retrospective study of 520 patients screened for hydroxychloroquine retinopathy. Charts were reviewed for sex, height, weight, and daily dose. The outcome measures were ranges of IBW across algorithms; rates of potentially toxic dosing; height thresholds below which 400 mg/d dosing is potentially toxic; and rates for which actual body weight (ABW) was less than IBW. Women made up 474 (91%) of the patients. The IBWs for a height varied from 30-34 pounds (13.6-15.5 kg) across algorithms. The threshold heights below which toxic dosing occurred varied from 62-70 inches (157.5-177.8 cm). Different algorithms placed 16%-98% of women in the toxic dosing range. The proportion for whom dosing should have been based on ABW rather than IBW ranged from 5%-31% across algorithms. Although hydroxychloroquine dosing should be based on the lesser of ABW and IBW, there is no consensus about the definition of IBW. The Michaelides algorithm is associated with the most frequent need to adjust dosing; the Metropolitan Life Insurance, large frame, mean value table with the least frequent need. No evidence indicates that one algorithm is superior to others.

  18. EFFECT OF REGULAR GARLIC INGESTION ON BODY WEIGHT AND BLOOD GLUCOSE: A CASE STUDY IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.T. Djankpa, A. Osonuga*, J. Ekpale, C.E. Quaye, P. Otoo, O.A. Osonuga and S.K. Amoah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Garlic a perennial erect plant is known to have sulphur-containing compounds that act on the hypothalamus increasing the sensitivity of the hypothalamus to leptin which alters the set point at which satiety is reached causing an organism to eat less. Nine mice (six of which were obese were used in this study and grouped into three. Groups A and B were made of 3 obese mice each whereas group C consisted of 3 non-obese mice. For group A and group C mice, 20 ml aqueous garlic extract was added to their feed daily whereas no garlic was added to the feed of group B mice. The study was carried out over a period of 44 days. The weight and blood glucose was measured weekly and the average for each group was computed. Results indicated that Group A mice recorded a reduction in mean body weight by 46.5% (p<0.05. Group B mice had significant increase in mean body weight by 46.2% (p<0.05. The blood glucose level dropped significantly by 18.5% (p<0.05 in group A mice. Garlic had weight loss and hypoglycemic effect in obese mice. These effects were absent in non-obese mice.

  19. Study of relationship between volume of distribution and body weight application to amikacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rughoo, L; Bourguignon, L; Maire, P; Ducher, M

    2014-06-01

    Amikacin use is difficult because of its narrow therapeutic and its pharmacokinetic variability. This variability of amikacin is not well known. To adapt amikacin the physician assumes that there is a linear and continuous relation between the volume of distribution and the body weight. The objective of our study was to evaluate the relationship between the volume of distribution (Vd) and the body weight (BW) using a non parametric statistical analysis of dependence so called Z method. Retrospective pharmacokinetic population study and statistic analysis. 872 patients receiving intravenous amikacin. The volume of distribution was modelled using the Non Parametric Adaptive Grid algorithm (NPAG) for a two-compartment model with intravenous infusion. Z coefficient was performed to evaluate the relationships between Vd and BW. For the 872 patients (mean age of 73 ± 17 years) dispatched as follow 53 % female and 47 % male, the analysis of the statistical relationships by the non parametric Z analysis showed a scattered linkage between Vd and BW. For the whole population, the relationship between Vd and BW was not linear (regression analysis). Z analysis demonstrated that only for 80 % of patients there is a relationship between Vd and BW. For these patients, regression analysis give a significant adjustment of a linear model (r = 0.47, p < 0.001). In the whole studied population there is not a continuous and linear relationship between Vd estimated by NPAG and the BW. These results underline the difficulties to adapt doses of amikacin with only BW information.

  20. Physical activity, body weight, and resumption of menses in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghoch, Marwan; Calugi, Simona; Pellegrini, Massimo; Chignola, Elisa; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2016-12-30

    Few data are available on long-term outcomes and increased physical activity at the end of inpatient treatment in patients with anorexia nervosa. Hence we assessed the association between physical activity, measured objectively by Sense Wear Armband (SWA), and body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) and menses resumption at one-year follow-up in 32 females with anorexia nervosa who had restored normal body weight by the end of a specialist inpatient treatment. Combined logistic regression models used to evaluate the relationship between variables at discharge, BMI and resumption of menses at one-year follow-up revealed no significant association between BMI at one-year follow-up and physical activity patterns at inpatient discharge. However, total daily steps at inpatient discharge were significantly lower in patients who had resumed menstruation, as confirmed by logistic regression analysis. A small reduction in daily steps at inpatient discharge (~1000 steps) was found to increase the probability of menses resumption at one-year follow-up by ~3%. These data provide preliminary indications as to the potential usefulness of assessing daily steps to predict the resumption of menses at one-year follow-up in patients with anorexia nervosa who restore body weight by the end of inpatient treatment, although confirmation on larger samples is urgently required.

  1. Effects of body weight and season on serum lipid concentrations in sloth bears (Melursus ursinus ursinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Arun Attur; Kumar, Jadav Kajal; Selvaraj, Illayaraja; Selvaraj, Vimal

    2011-09-01

    Serum lipid levels were measured in 66 healthy sloth bears (Melursus ursinus ursinus) living under semicaptive conditions with access to natural food resources in the Bannerghatta Biological Park (Karnataka, India), a portion of their native habitat range in the Indian peninsula. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were analyzed. The effects of age, body weight, and season on these lipid parameters were statistically evaluated. There were no correlations between age and any of the serum lipid parameters analyzed. Positive correlations of body weight to both triglyceride and HDL cholesterol levels in these bears were identified. In addition, seasonal trends in physiological serum lipid values, potentially due to variations in the sloth bear diet, were identified. Serum triglyceride levels were higher during postmonsoon season and cholesterol levels were higher during winter compared to other seasons. Serum lipid values obtained from sloth bears in this study were also compared to previously published data on other members of the family Ursidae. This is the first report of serum lipid values as a reference for sloth bears. These values can be used as sensitive predictors of overall health and nutritional status to aid in the captive management and feeding of these bears.

  2. Body weight satisfaction and disordered eating among youth who are active in sport in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Chia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The research examined the relationship between body weight satisfaction and disordered eating among youth who are active in sport in Singapore. Method : 137 youths (82 boys and 55 girls; age 12-13 enrolled in school sport completed two self-report questionnaires- SCOFF for disordered eating and body weight satisfaction- on two separate occasions that were six months apart (T1 vs. T2. Results : Body mass index for age classifications revealed that 5.1% were severely underweight; 1.5% underweight; 88.3% acceptable weight; 4.4% overweight and 0.7% were severely overweight. Conclusions : (i the prevalence of disordered eating was 46% at baseline measurement and this remained stable at 45.3% six months later; (ii there was no sex difference for disordered eating on the two measurement occasions (T1 vs. T2, p>0.05; (iii the prevalence of youths unsure of their bodyweight satisfaction was 26.6-21.2% which compared to 88.3% adjudged to be of healthy weight; across T1 and T2, more male subjects wanted to gain bodyweight while more female subjects wanted to lose bodyweight; and (iv subjects who were dissatisfied with their bodyweight had significantly greater odds of being at risk for developing DE. Holistic education programmes based upon body image and nutrition, are recommended.

  3. Perception of physical fitness is associated with perception of body weight: sociodemographic analysis in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mª Tejero-González

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics, body weight perception and physical fitness perception. Methods: Survey by means of personal interview. The sample consisted of 8,594 participants living in Spain between 15 and 97 years of age. Sampling error was ±1.07%. Results: Of the people who reported h