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Sample records for human body fat

  1. Lower core body temperature and greater body fat are components of a human thrifty phenotype.

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    Reinhardt, M; Schlögl, M; Bonfiglio, S; Votruba, S B; Krakoff, J; Thearle, M S

    2016-05-01

    In small studies, a thrifty human phenotype, defined by a greater 24-hour energy expenditure (EE) decrease with fasting, is associated with less weight loss during caloric restriction. In rodents, models of diet-induced obesity often have a phenotype including a reduced EE and decreased core body temperature. We assessed whether a thrifty human phenotype associates with differences in core body temperature or body composition. Data for this cross-sectional analysis were obtained from 77 individuals participating in one of two normal physiology studies while housed on our clinical research unit. Twenty-four-hour EE using a whole-room indirect calorimeter and 24-h core body temperature were measured during 24 h each of fasting and 200% overfeeding with a diet consisting of 50% carbohydrates, 20% protein and 30% fat. Body composition was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. To account for the effects of body size on EE, changes in EE were expressed as a percentage change from 24-hour EE (%EE) during energy balance. A greater %EE decrease with fasting correlated with a smaller %EE increase with overfeeding (r=0.27, P=0.02). The %EE decrease with fasting was associated with both fat mass and abdominal fat mass, even after accounting for covariates (β=-0.16 (95% CI: -0.26, -0.06) %EE per kg fat mass, P=0.003; β=-0.0004 (-0.0007, -0.00004) %EE kg(-1) abdominal fat mass, P=0.03). In men, a greater %EE decrease in response to fasting was associated with a lower 24- h core body temperature, even after adjusting for covariates (β=1.43 (0.72, 2.15) %EE per 0.1 °C, P=0.0003). Thrifty individuals, as defined by a larger EE decrease with fasting, were more likely to have greater overall and abdominal adiposity as well as lower core body temperature consistent with a more efficient metabolism.

  2. Estimation of percentage body fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry: evaluation by in vivo human elemental composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zimian; Pierson, Richard N; Heymsfield, Steven B; Chen Zhao; Zhu Shankuan

    2010-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely applied for estimating body fat. The percentage of body mass as fat (%fat) is predicted from a DXA-estimated R ST value defined as the ratio of soft tissue attenuation at two photon energies (e.g., 40 keV and 70 keV). Theoretically, the R ST concept depends on the mass of each major element in the human body. The DXA R ST values, however, have never been fully evaluated by measured human elemental composition. The present investigation evaluated the DXA R ST value by the total body mass of 11 major elements and the DXA %fat by the five-component (5C) model, respectively. Six elements (i.e. C, N, Na, P, Cl and Ca) were measured by in vivo neutron activation analysis, and potassium (i.e. K) by whole-body 40 K counting in 27 healthy adults. Models were developed for predicting the total body mass of four additional elements (i.e. H, O, Mg and S). The elemental content of soft tissue, after correction for bone mineral elements, was used to predict the R ST values. The DXA R ST values were strongly associated with the R ST values predicted from elemental content (r = 0.976, P ST to systematically exceed the DXA-measured R ST (mean ± SD, 1.389 ± 0.024 versus 1.341 ± 0.024). DXA-estimated %fat was strongly associated with 5C %fat (24.4 ± 12.0% versus 24.9 ± 11.1%, r = 0.983, P ST is evaluated by in vivo elemental composition, and the present study supports the underlying physical concept and accuracy of the DXA method for estimating %fat.

  3. Estimation of percentage body fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry: evaluation by in vivo human elemental composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zimian; Pierson, Richard N [Obesity Research Center, St Luke' s-Roosevelt Hospital, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY (United States); Heymsfield, Steven B [Clinical Research, Metabolism, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ (United States); Chen Zhao [Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Zhu Shankuan, E-mail: zw28@columbia.ed [Obesity and Body Composition Research Center, Zhejiang University, School of Public Health, Hangzhou (China)

    2010-05-07

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely applied for estimating body fat. The percentage of body mass as fat (%fat) is predicted from a DXA-estimated R{sub ST} value defined as the ratio of soft tissue attenuation at two photon energies (e.g., 40 keV and 70 keV). Theoretically, the R{sub ST} concept depends on the mass of each major element in the human body. The DXA R{sub ST} values, however, have never been fully evaluated by measured human elemental composition. The present investigation evaluated the DXA R{sub ST} value by the total body mass of 11 major elements and the DXA %fat by the five-component (5C) model, respectively. Six elements (i.e. C, N, Na, P, Cl and Ca) were measured by in vivo neutron activation analysis, and potassium (i.e. K) by whole-body {sup 40}K counting in 27 healthy adults. Models were developed for predicting the total body mass of four additional elements (i.e. H, O, Mg and S). The elemental content of soft tissue, after correction for bone mineral elements, was used to predict the R{sub ST} values. The DXA R{sub ST} values were strongly associated with the R{sub ST} values predicted from elemental content (r = 0.976, P < 0.001), although there was a tendency for the elemental-predicted R{sub ST} to systematically exceed the DXA-measured R{sub ST} (mean {+-} SD, 1.389 {+-} 0.024 versus 1.341 {+-} 0.024). DXA-estimated %fat was strongly associated with 5C %fat (24.4 {+-} 12.0% versus 24.9 {+-} 11.1%, r = 0.983, P < 0.001). DXA R{sub ST} is evaluated by in vivo elemental composition, and the present study supports the underlying physical concept and accuracy of the DXA method for estimating %fat.

  4. Body Image and Anti-Fat Attitudes: An Experimental Study Using a Haptic Virtual Reality Environment to Replicate Human Touch.

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    Tremblay, Line; Roy-Vaillancourt, Mélina; Chebbi, Brahim; Bouchard, Stéphane; Daoust, Michael; Dénommée, Jessica; Thorpe, Moriah

    2016-02-01

    It is well documented that anti-fat attitudes influence the interactions individuals have with overweight people. However, testing attitudes through self-report measures is challenging. In the present study, we explore the use of a haptic virtual reality environment to physically interact with overweight virtual human (VH). We verify the hypothesis that duration and strength of virtual touch vary according to the characteristics of VH in ways similar to those encountered from interaction with real people in anti-fat attitude studies. A group of 61 participants were randomly assigned to one of the experimental conditions involving giving a virtual hug to a female or a male VH of either normal or overweight. We found significant associations between body image satisfaction and anti-fat attitudes and sex differences on these measures. We also found a significant interaction effect of the sex of the participants, sex of the VH, and the body size of the VH. Female participants hugged longer the overweight female VH than overweight male VH. Male participants hugged longer the normal-weight VH than the overweight VH. We conclude that virtual touch is a promising method of measuring attitudes, emotion and social interactions.

  5. Insulin stimulates translocation of human GLUT4 to the membrane in fat bodies of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Georgeta Crivat

    Full Text Available The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model system for studies of genes controlling development and disease. However, its applicability to physiological systems is less clear because of metabolic differences between insects and mammals. Insulin signaling has been studied in mammals because of relevance to diabetes and other diseases but there are many parallels between mammalian and insect pathways. For example, deletion of Drosophila Insulin-Like Peptides resulted in 'diabetic' flies with elevated circulating sugar levels. Whether this situation reflects failure of sugar uptake into peripheral tissues as seen in mammals is unclear and depends upon whether flies harbor the machinery to mount mammalian-like insulin-dependent sugar uptake responses. Here we asked whether Drosophila fat cells are competent to respond to insulin with mammalian-like regulated trafficking of sugar transporters. Transgenic Drosophila expressing human glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4, the sugar transporter expressed primarily in insulin-responsive tissues, were generated. After expression in fat bodies, GLUT4 intracellular trafficking and localization were monitored by confocal and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM. We found that fat body cells responded to insulin with increased GLUT4 trafficking and translocation to the plasma membrane. While the amplitude of these responses was relatively weak in animals reared on a standard diet, it was greatly enhanced in animals reared on sugar-restricted diets, suggesting that flies fed standard diets are insulin resistant. Our findings demonstrate that flies are competent to mobilize translocation of sugar transporters to the cell surface in response to insulin. They suggest that Drosophila fat cells are primed for a response to insulin and that these pathways are down-regulated when animals are exposed to constant, high levels of sugar. Finally, these studies are the first to use TIRFM to

  6. Insulin Stimulates Translocation of Human GLUT4 to the Membrane in Fat Bodies of Transgenic Drosophila melanogaster

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    Crivat, Georgeta; Lizunov, Vladimir A.; Li, Caroline R.; Stenkula, Karin G.; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Cushman, Samuel W.; Pick, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model system for studies of genes controlling development and disease. However, its applicability to physiological systems is less clear because of metabolic differences between insects and mammals. Insulin signaling has been studied in mammals because of relevance to diabetes and other diseases but there are many parallels between mammalian and insect pathways. For example, deletion of Drosophila Insulin-Like Peptides resulted in ‘diabetic’ flies with elevated circulating sugar levels. Whether this situation reflects failure of sugar uptake into peripheral tissues as seen in mammals is unclear and depends upon whether flies harbor the machinery to mount mammalian-like insulin-dependent sugar uptake responses. Here we asked whether Drosophila fat cells are competent to respond to insulin with mammalian-like regulated trafficking of sugar transporters. Transgenic Drosophila expressing human glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4), the sugar transporter expressed primarily in insulin-responsive tissues, were generated. After expression in fat bodies, GLUT4 intracellular trafficking and localization were monitored by confocal and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM). We found that fat body cells responded to insulin with increased GLUT4 trafficking and translocation to the plasma membrane. While the amplitude of these responses was relatively weak in animals reared on a standard diet, it was greatly enhanced in animals reared on sugar-restricted diets, suggesting that flies fed standard diets are insulin resistant. Our findings demonstrate that flies are competent to mobilize translocation of sugar transporters to the cell surface in response to insulin. They suggest that Drosophila fat cells are primed for a response to insulin and that these pathways are down-regulated when animals are exposed to constant, high levels of sugar. Finally, these studies are the first to use TIRFM to monitor insulin

  7. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to VO(2PEAK) in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2011-01-01

    as a percentage of body mass (BF%) and body fat distribution as AFM/TBF. VO(2PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during maximal exercise test. Results. Significant relationships existed between body fat measurements and VO(2PEAK) in both boys and girls, with Pearson correlation coefficients for absolute...

  8. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    Aim:  We analysed whether total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat and body fat distribution are associated with higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young children. Methods:  Cross-sectional study of 238 children aged 8-11 years. TBF and abdominal fat mass (AFM) wer......, separately, and used as composite risk factor score. Results:  Pearson correlations between ln BF%, ln AFM and AFM/TBF versus composite risk factor score for boys were r = 0.56, r = 0.59 and r = 0.48, all p ...

  9. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, body fat and inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anne-Sofie Quist; Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Gamborg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Based on animal studies, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been suggested to lower the risk of obesity and inflammation. We aimed to investigate if, among humans, intake of n-3 PUFAs was associated with i) total body fat, ii) body fat distribution and iii) obesity...... in relation to outcomes were performed and adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Absolute n-3 PUFA intake, but not n-3/n-6, was inversely associated with the different measures of body fat. Among n-3 PUFA derivatives, only α-linolenic acid (ALA) was inversely associated with body fat measures...

  10. Dietary fat, body weight, and cancer: contributions of studies in rodents to understanding these cancer risk factors in humans.

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    Rogers, A E; Sullivan, L M; Hafer, L J

    1999-12-01

    Understanding diet and energy balance as risk factors for breast, colon, and other cancers requires information on the contribution of each factor and of interactions among factors to cancer risk. Rodent models for breast cancer provide extensive data on effects of dietary fat and calories, energy balance, body weight gain, and physical activity on tumor development. Analyses of the combined data from many studies have shown clearly that quality and quantity of dietary fat and energy balance contribute independently to increased mammary gland tumorigenesis. These findings were seen in female rats fed diets high in fat (35-40% of calories) compared to rats fed control diets, with approximately 10% of calories as fat (Fay and Freedman, 1997, Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 46, 215-223). The methods used permit comparison of experimental and epidemiological data, and they may be useful in extrapolating between species and developing public health recommendations. In addition to the contributions of lifetime-diet composition, intake, energy balance, and physical activity to cancer risk, there are questions about the timing and duration of alterations in these factors and about the "dose-response" characteristics of cancer risk to the factors. Endocrine mechanisms may be significant in mammary gland tumor risk, but experimental and epidemiological data indicate that cancers at other sites, such as colon and liver, also are influenced by the factors listed. Other diet and lifestyle factors that influence energy, or specifically fat, metabolism may also affect risk for cancers that are promoted by increased intake of fat and calories. Studies of separate and interactive effects of dietary fat, black tea, weight gain, and mammary gland tumorigenesis (Rogers, et al, 1998, Carcinogenesis 19, 1269-1273) have been analyzed. Using adjustment of carcinogenesis endpoints for body weight, tumor burden, and latency, they were found to be related to weight gain within treatment groups in

  11. Serum Adiponectin and Leptin Concentrations in Relation to Body Fat Distribution, Hematological Indices and Lipid Profile in Humans

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    Anna Lubkowska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body composition, hematological indices and lipid profile parameters in adults. The study involved 95 volunteers (BMI from 23.3 to 53 kg/m2. Anthropometric parameters were measured: body weight and height, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat mass (BMF, subcutaneous and visceral fat mass (SFM, VFM, lean body mass (LBM, skeletal muscle mass (SMM. In serum we determined adiponectin and leptin concentrations, extracellular hemoglobin, total bilirubin, as well as lipid metabolism (TCh, HDL-Ch, LDL-Ch, TG. Mean adipokine levels were significantly higher in women (p ≤ 0.01, adiponectin significantly negatively correlated with body height and weight, systolic blood pressure and absolute LBM and SMM values. The same relation was observed for erythroid system indicators and lipid indicators. A positive correlation was exceptionally found between adiponectin and HDL-Ch. LEP negatively correlated with some percentage rates (%LBM, %SMM. Only in women, we observed a positive correlation between LEP and body weight, BMI and WHR. Studies on ADPN and the ADPN/LEP ratio as a valuable complementary diagnostic element in the prediction and prevention of cardiovascular diseases need to be continued.

  12. Factors that Alter Body Fat, Body Mass, and Fat-Free Mass in Pediatric Obesity.

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    LeMura, Linda M.; Maziekas, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of exercise programs on changes in body mass, fat-free mass, and body fat in obese children and adolescents. Research review indicated that exercise effectively helped reduce children's and adolescents' body composition variables. The most favorable body alterations occurred with low- intensity, long-duration exercise;…

  13. Galectin-3 levels relate in children to total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution, and cardiac size.

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    Dencker, Magnus; Arvidsson, Daniel; Karlsson, Magnus K; Wollmer, Per; Andersen, Lars B; Thorsson, Ola

    2018-03-01

    Galectin-3 has recently been proposed as a novel biomarker for cardiovascular disease in adults. The purpose of this investigation was to assess relationships between galectin-3 levels and total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution, aerobic fitness, blood pressure, left ventricular mass, left atrial size, and increase in body fat over a 2-year period in a population-based sample of children. Our study included 170 children aged 8-11 years. Total fat mass and abdominal fat were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Body fat distribution was expressed as abdominal fat/total fat mass. Maximal oxygen uptake was assessed by indirect calorimetry during a maximal exercise test and scaled to body mass. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse pressure were measured. Left atrial size, left ventricular mass, and relative wall thickness were measured by echocardiography. Frozen serum samples were analyzed for galectin-3 by the Proximity Extension Assay technique. A follow-up DXA scan was performed in 152 children 2 years after the baseline exam. Partial correlations, with adjustment for sex and age, between galectin-3 versus body fat measurements indicated weak to moderate relationships. Moreover, left atrial size, left ventricular mass, and relative wall thickness and pulse pressure were also correlated with galectin-3. Neither systolic blood pressure nor maximal oxygen uptake was correlated with galectin-3. There was also a correlation between galectin-3 and increase in total body fat over 2 years, while no such correlations were found for the other fat measurements. More body fat and abdominal fat, more abdominal body fat distribution, more left ventricular mass, and increased left atrial size were all associated with higher levels of galectin-3. Increase in total body fat over 2 years was also associated with higher levels of galectin-3. What is Known: • Galectin-3 has been linked to obesity and been proposed to be a novel biomarker

  14. Body Fat, Abdominal Fat, and Body Fat Distribution Is Related to Left Atrial Diameter in Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    such as lean body mass, blood pressure, gender, age, and Tanner stage revealed that TBF, AFM, and AFM/TBF were all independently related to LA diameter. Differences in the different body fat measurements explained 6-9% of the variance in LA size. These results demonstrated that both total body fat, AFM...

  15. Body fat accumulation in zebrafish is induced by a diet rich in fat and reduced by supplementation with green tea extract.

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    Shinichi Meguro

    Full Text Available Fat-rich diets not only induce obesity in humans but also make animals obese. Therefore, animals that accumulate body fat in response to a high-fat diet (especially rodents are commonly used in obesity research. The effect of dietary fat on body fat accumulation is not fully understood in zebrafish, an excellent model of vertebrate lipid metabolism. Here, we explored the effects of dietary fat and green tea extract, which has anti-obesity properties, on body fat accumulation in zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were allocated to four diet groups and over 6 weeks were fed a high-fat diet containing basal diet plus two types of fat or a low-fat diet containing basal diet plus carbohydrate or protein. Another group of adult zebrafish was fed a high-fat diet with or without 5% green tea extract supplementation. Zebrafish fed the high-fat diets had nearly twice the body fat (visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat volume and body fat volume ratio (body fat volume/body weight of those fed low-fat diets. There were no differences in body fat accumulation between the two high-fat groups, nor were there any differences between the two low-fat groups. Adding green tea extract to the high-fat diet significantly suppressed body weight, body fat volume, and body fat volume ratio compared with the same diet lacking green tea extract. 3-Hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase and citrate synthase activity in the liver and skeletal muscle were significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with green tea extract than in those fed the unsupplemented diet. Our results suggest that a diet rich in fat, instead of protein or carbohydrate, induced body fat accumulation in zebrafish with mechanisms that might be similar to those in mammals. Consequently, zebrafish might serve as a good animal model for research into obesity induced by high-fat diets.

  16. The NK1R-/- mouse phenotype suggests that small body size, with a sex- and diet-dependent excess in body mass and fat, are physical biomarkers for a human endophenotype with vulnerability to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

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    Pillidge, Katharine; Heal, David J; Stanford, S Clare

    2016-09-01

    The abnormal behaviour of NK1R-/- mice (locomotor hyperactivity, inattentiveness and impulsivity in the 5-Choice Serial Reaction-Time Test) is arguably analogous to that of patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Evidence suggests that small body size and increased body weight are risk factors for ADHD. Here, we compared the body size, body mass and body composition of male and female NK1R-/- mice and their wildtypes that had been fed either standard laboratory chow or a high-fat (45%: 'Western') diet. Male NK1R-/- mice from both cohorts were approximately 7% shorter than wildtypes. A similar trend was evident in females. Male NK1R-/- mice fed the normal diet weighed less than wildtypes but the 'body mass index' ('mBMI': weight (mg)/length (cm)(2)) of female NK1R-/- mice was higher than wildtypes. When given the high-fat diet, the mBMI of both male and female NK1R-/- mice was higher than wildtypes. There were no consistent genotype or sex differences in protein, ash or water content of mice from the two cohorts. However, the fat content of male NK1R-/- mice on the Western diet was considerably (35%) higher than wildtypes and resembled that of females from both genotypes. We conclude that a lack of functional NK1R is associated with small body size but increases vulnerability to an increase in mBMI and fat content, especially in males. This phenotype could also be evident in ADHD patients with polymorphism(s) of the TACR1 gene (the human equivalent of Nk1r). © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Seasonal change in body fat of the Hyrax Procavia capensis (Pallas, 1766 using a body fat ranking index

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    L.J. Fourie

    1985-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the body fat content of the hyrax Procavia capensis were used as an indicator of physiological condition. Body fat rankings for the different sexes showed seasonal variations related to physiologically stressful periods (rutting, gestation and lactation. The subjective body fat rankings were correlated significantly with total body fat.

  18. Neurobeachin, a Regulator of Synaptic Protein Targeting, Is Associated with Body Fat Mass and Feeding Behavior in Mice and Body-Mass Index in Humans

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    Olszewski, Pawel K.; Rozman, Jan; Jacobsson, Josefin A.; Rathkolb, Birgit; Strömberg, Siv; Hans, Wolfgang; Klockars, Anica; Alsiö, Johan; Risérus, Ulf; Becker, Lore; Hölter, Sabine M.; Elvert, Ralf; Ehrhardt, Nicole; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Fuchs, Helmut; Fredriksson, Robert; Wolf, Eckhard; Klopstock, Thomas; Wurst, Wolfgang; Levine, Allen S.; Marcus, Claude; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Klingenspor, Martin; Schiöth, Helgi B.; Kilimann, Manfred W.

    2012-01-01

    Neurobeachin (Nbea) regulates neuronal membrane protein trafficking and is required for the development and functioning of central and neuromuscular synapses. In homozygous knockout (KO) mice, Nbea deficiency causes perinatal death. Here, we report that heterozygous KO mice haploinsufficient for Nbea have higher body weight due to increased adipose tissue mass. In several feeding paradigms, heterozygous KO mice consumed more food than wild-type (WT) controls, and this consumption was primarily driven by calories rather than palatability. Expression analysis of feeding-related genes in the hypothalamus and brainstem with real-time PCR showed differential expression of a subset of neuropeptide or neuropeptide receptor mRNAs between WT and Nbea+/− mice in the sated state and in response to food deprivation, but not to feeding reward. In humans, we identified two intronic NBEA single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are significantly associated with body-mass index (BMI) in adult and juvenile cohorts. Overall, data obtained in mice and humans suggest that variation of Nbea abundance or activity critically affects body weight, presumably by influencing the activity of feeding-related neural circuits. Our study emphasizes the importance of neural mechanisms in body weight control and points out NBEA as a potential risk gene in human obesity. PMID:22438821

  19. Effect of body fat and gender on body temperature distribution.

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    Neves, Eduardo Borba; Salamunes, Ana Carla Chierighini; de Oliveira, Rafael Melo; Stadnik, Adriana Maria Wan

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that body composition can influence peripheral heat loss and skin temperature. That the distribution of body fat is affected by gender is well known; however, there is little information on how body composition and gender influences the measure of skin temperature. This study evaluated skin temperature distribution according to body fat percentage (BF%) and gender. A sample of 94 apparently healthy volunteers (47 women and 47 men) was assessed with Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) and infrared thermography (mean, maximum and minimum temperatures - T Mean , T Max and T Min ). The sample was divided into groups, according to health risk classification, based on BF%, as proposed by the American College of Sports Medicine: Average (n = 58), Elevated (n = 16) or High (n = 20). Women had lower T Mean in most regions of interest (ROI). In both genders, group High had lower temperature values than Average and Elevated in the trunk, upper and lower limbs. In men, palms and posterior hands had a tendency (p temperature along with increased BF%. T Mean , T Max and T Min of trunk, upper and lower limbs were negatively correlated with BF% and the fat percentage of each segment (upper limbs, lower limbs and trunk). The highest correlations found in women were between posterior trunk and BF% (rho = -0.564, p temperature than men, which was related with higher BF%. Facial temperature seems not to be influenced by body fat. With the future collection of data on the relationship between BF% and skin temperature while taking into account factors such as body morphology, gender, and ethnicity, we conclude that measurement of BF may be reliably estimated with the use of thermal imaging technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Common variants near MC4R in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits and energy expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia Inez Iqbal; Holst, C; Toubro, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Common variants near melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) have been related to fatness and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of rs17782313 and rs17700633 in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits, weight development and energy expenditure.......Common variants near melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) have been related to fatness and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of rs17782313 and rs17700633 in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits, weight development and energy expenditure....

  1. Regular-fat dairy and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Bradley, Beth H Rice; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In recent history, some dietary recommendations have treated dairy fat as an unnecessary source of calories and saturated fat in the human diet. These assumptions, however, have recently been brought into question by current research on regular fat dairy products and human health. In an effort to......, cheese and yogurt, can be important components of an overall healthy dietary pattern. Systematic examination of the effects of dietary patterns that include regular-fat milk, cheese and yogurt on human health is warranted....

  2. Novel nuances of human brown fat

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    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    the types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1......, there was no difference in UCP1, PGC-1α, PRDM16, suggesting both depots had equal brown fat potency. Taken together, supraclavicular brown fat derived from adult humans seems to represent a type of brown fat with distinct features from both subcutaneous white/brite and interscapular brown fat. Therefore......There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe...

  3. Measurement of body fat and hydration of the fat-free body in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streat, S.J.; Beddoe, A.H.; Hill, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    Body fat mass, fat-free body mass and body water are basic components of body composition which are used in nutritional and metabolic studies and in patient care. A method of measuring total body fat (TBF), fat-free mass (FFM) and its hydration (TBW/FFM) involving prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) and tritium dilution has been compared with the more traditional methods of densitometry and skinfold anthropometry in 36 normal volunteers, and with skinfold anthropometry in 56 patients presenting for nutritional support. While the mean values of TBF were in reasonable agreement for the three methods in normals it was founds that skinfold anthropometry underestimated TBF relative to the IVNAA/tritium method by, on average, 3.0 kg (19%) in patients. Furthermore, the ranges of values in normals of the ratio TBW/FFM for the anthropometric (0.62 to 0.80) and densitometric (0.65 to 0.80) methods were much wider than the range for the IVNAA/tritium method (0.69 to 0.76), in which TBW was measured by tritium dilution in all cases. In the patients, the ranges of this ratio were 0.52 to 0.90 for the anthropometric method and 0.67 to 0.82 for the IVNAA/tritium method; clearly anthropometry yields values of TBW/FFM which are outside accepted biological limits. On the basis of these findings, ranges of TBW/FFM are suggested for both normal adults (0.69 to 0.75) and patients requiring nutritional support (0.67 to 0.83). Finally it is concluded that the IVNAA/tritium method is a suitable method for measuring TBF and FFM and particularly so when body composition is abnormal

  4. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I I; Holst, Claus; Zimmermann, Esther

    2008-01-01

    A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already...

  5. Ribonuclease-mediated control of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habacher, Cornelia; Guo, Yanwu; Venz, Richard

    2016-01-01

    . Using exon-intron split analysis, we find that REGE-1 promotes fat by degrading the mRNA encoding ETS-4, a fat-loss-promoting transcription factor. Because ETS-4, in turn, induces rege-1 transcription, REGE-1 and ETS-4 appear to form an auto-regulatory module. We propose that this type of fat regulation...

  6. The relationship of female physical attractiveness to body fatness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanlin Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the female body may be attractive because they signal evolutionary fitness. Greater body fatness might reflect greater potential to survive famines, but individuals carrying larger fat stores may have poor health and lower fertility in non-famine conditions. A mathematical statistical model using epidemiological data linking fatness to fitness traits, predicted a peaked relationship between fatness and attractiveness (maximum at body mass index (BMI = 22.8 to 24.8 depending on ethnicity and assumptions. Participants from three Caucasian populations (Austria, Lithuania and the UK, three Asian populations (China, Iran and Mauritius and four African populations (Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria and Senegal rated attractiveness of a series of female images varying in fatness (BMI and waist to hip ratio (WHR. There was an inverse linear relationship between physical attractiveness and body fatness or BMI in all populations. Lower body fat was more attractive, down to at least BMI = 19. There was no peak in the relationship over the range we studied in any population. WHR was a significant independent but less important factor, which was more important (greater r2 in African populations. Predictions based on the fitness model were not supported. Raters appeared to use body fat percentage (BF% and BMI as markers of age. The covariance of BF% and BMI with age indicates that the role of body fatness alone, as a marker of attractiveness, has been overestimated.

  7. The relationship of female physical attractiveness to body fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanlin; Djafarian, Kurosh; Egedigwe, Chima A; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Ojiambo, Robert; Ramuth, Harris; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra Johanna; Lackner, Sonja; Diouf, Adama; Sauciuvenaite, Justina; Hambly, Catherine; Vaanholt, Lobke M; Faries, Mark D; Speakman, John R

    2015-01-01

    Aspects of the female body may be attractive because they signal evolutionary fitness. Greater body fatness might reflect greater potential to survive famines, but individuals carrying larger fat stores may have poor health and lower fertility in non-famine conditions. A mathematical statistical model using epidemiological data linking fatness to fitness traits, predicted a peaked relationship between fatness and attractiveness (maximum at body mass index (BMI) = 22.8 to 24.8 depending on ethnicity and assumptions). Participants from three Caucasian populations (Austria, Lithuania and the UK), three Asian populations (China, Iran and Mauritius) and four African populations (Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria and Senegal) rated attractiveness of a series of female images varying in fatness (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR). There was an inverse linear relationship between physical attractiveness and body fatness or BMI in all populations. Lower body fat was more attractive, down to at least BMI = 19. There was no peak in the relationship over the range we studied in any population. WHR was a significant independent but less important factor, which was more important (greater r (2)) in African populations. Predictions based on the fitness model were not supported. Raters appeared to use body fat percentage (BF%) and BMI as markers of age. The covariance of BF% and BMI with age indicates that the role of body fatness alone, as a marker of attractiveness, has been overestimated.

  8. The relationship of female physical attractiveness to body fatness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanlin; Djafarian, Kurosh; Egedigwe, Chima A.; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Ojiambo, Robert; Ramuth, Harris; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra Johanna; Lackner, Sonja; Diouf, Adama; Sauciuvenaite, Justina; Hambly, Catherine; Vaanholt, Lobke M.; Faries, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Aspects of the female body may be attractive because they signal evolutionary fitness. Greater body fatness might reflect greater potential to survive famines, but individuals carrying larger fat stores may have poor health and lower fertility in non-famine conditions. A mathematical statistical model using epidemiological data linking fatness to fitness traits, predicted a peaked relationship between fatness and attractiveness (maximum at body mass index (BMI) = 22.8 to 24.8 depending on ethnicity and assumptions). Participants from three Caucasian populations (Austria, Lithuania and the UK), three Asian populations (China, Iran and Mauritius) and four African populations (Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria and Senegal) rated attractiveness of a series of female images varying in fatness (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR). There was an inverse linear relationship between physical attractiveness and body fatness or BMI in all populations. Lower body fat was more attractive, down to at least BMI = 19. There was no peak in the relationship over the range we studied in any population. WHR was a significant independent but less important factor, which was more important (greater r2) in African populations. Predictions based on the fitness model were not supported. Raters appeared to use body fat percentage (BF%) and BMI as markers of age. The covariance of BF% and BMI with age indicates that the role of body fatness alone, as a marker of attractiveness, has been overestimated. PMID:26336638

  9. Regulation of glycogenolysis in the locust fat body during flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marrewijk, W.J.A. van; Broek, A.Th.M. van den; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.

    1980-01-01

    Glycogen reserves in the fat body of Locusta migratoria decrease dramatically during the first two hours of flight. In fat body of rested locusts only 10% of glycogen phosphorylase occurs in the active form. The enzyme is activated significantly during flight, when up to one-third of the total

  10. The relationships between percent body fat and other ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationships between percent body fat and other anthropometric nutritional predictors among male and female children in Nigeria. ... A weak significant positive correlation was observed between the percent body fat and height – armspan ratio ... There was evidence of overweight and obesity in both children. The mid ...

  11. Trans Fat Bans and Human Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has linked consumption of trans fatty acids to cardiovascular disease. To promote public health, numerous state and local governments in the United States have banned the use of artificial trans fats in restaurant foods, and additional bans may follow. Although these policies may have a positive impact on human health, they open the door to excessive government control over food, which could restrict dietary choices, interfere with cultural, ethnic, and religious traditions, and exacerbate socioeconomic inequalities. These slippery slope concerns cannot be dismissed as far-fetched, because the social and political pressures are place to induce additional food regulations. To protect human freedom and other values, policies that significantly restrict food choices, such as bans on types of food, should be adopted only when they are supported by substantial scientific evidence, and when policies that impose fewer restrictions on freedom, such as educational campaigns and product labeling, are likely to be ineffective. PMID:20229412

  12. Estimation of Total Body Fat from Potassium-40 Content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha Mohamed Taha Ahmed, T.M.T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns on estimation of total body fat from potassium 40 content using total body counting technique. The work performed using fast scan whole body counter. Calibration of that system for K-40 was carried out under assumption that uniformity distribution of radioactivity of potassium was distributed in 10 polyethylene bottles phantom. Different body sizes were represented by 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 polyethylene bottles; each bottle has a volume of 0.04 m3. The counting efficiency for each body size was determined. Lean body weight (LBW) was calculated for ten males and ten females using appropriate mathematical equation. Total Body Potassium, TBK for the same selected group was measured using whole body counter. A mathematical relationship between lean body weight and potassium content was deduced .Fat contents for some individuals were calculated and weight/height ratio was indicated for fatness.

  13. Lipolytic effect of a polyphenolic citrus dry extract of red orange, grapefruit, orange (SINETROL) in human body fat adipocytes. Mechanism of action by inhibition of cAMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, Constantin; Gerbi, Alain; Tenca, Guillaume; Juchaux, Franck; Bernard, François-Xavier

    2008-10-01

    The present study investigated the lipolytic (break of fat stored) effect of a citrus-based polyphenolic dietary supplement (SINETROL) at human adipocytes (ex vivo), body fat (clinical) and biochemical levels (inhibition of phosphodiesterase). Free fatty acids (FFA) release was used as indicator of human adipocyte lipolysis and SINETROL activity has been compared with known lipolytic products (isoproterenol, theopylline and caffeine). SINETROL stimulated significantly the lipolytic activity in a range of 6 fold greater than the control. Moreover, SINETROL has 2.1 greater activity than guarana 12% caffeine while its content in caffeine is 3 times lower. Clinically, two groups of 10 volunteers with BMI relevant of overweight were compared during 4 and 12 weeks with 1.4 g/day SINETROL and placebo supplementation. In the SINETROL Group the body fat (%) decreased with a significant difference of 5.53% and 15.6% after 4 and 12 weeks, respectively, while the body weight (kg) decreased with a significant difference of 2.2 and 5.2 kg after 4 and 12 weeks, respectively. These observed effects are linked to SINETROL polyphenolic composition and its resulting synergistic activity. SINETROL is a potent inhibitor of cAMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE) (97%) compared to other purified compounds (cyanidin-3 glycoside, narangin, caffeine). These results suggest that SINETROL has a strong lipolytic effect mediated by cAMP-PDE inhibition. SINETROL may serve to prevent obesity by decreasing BMI.

  14. Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghoch, Marwan; Calugi, Simona; Lamburghini, Silvia; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of body fat distribution before and after partial and complete weight restoration in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Literature searches, study selection, method development and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analyzed. The review had five main findings. First, during anorexia nervosa adolescent females lose more central body fat, while adult females more peripheral fat. Second, partial weight restoration leads to greater fat mass deposition in the trunk region than other body regions in adolescent females. Third, after short-term weight restoration, whether partial or complete, adults show a central adiposity phenotype with respect to healthy age-matched controls. Fourth, central fat distribution is associated with increased insulin resistance, but does not adversely affect eating disorder psychopathology or cause psychological distress in female adults. Fifth, the abnormal central fat distribution seems to normalize after long-term maintenance of complete weight restoration, indicating that preferential central distribution of body fat is a transitory phenomenon. However, a discrepancy in the findings has been noted, especially between adolescents and adults; besides age and gender, these appear to be related to differences in the methodology and time of body composition assessments. The PROSPERO Registry—Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review (CRD42014008738). PMID:25251296

  15. Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan El Ghoch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of body fat distribution before and after partial and complete weight restoration in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Literature searches, study selection, method development and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analyzed. The review had five main findings. First, during anorexia nervosa adolescent females lose more central body fat, while adult females more peripheral fat. Second, partial weight restoration leads to greater fat mass deposition in the trunk region than other body regions in adolescent females. Third, after short-term weight restoration, whether partial or complete, adults show a central adiposity phenotype with respect to healthy age-matched controls. Fourth, central fat distribution is associated with increased insulin resistance, but does not adversely affect eating disorder psychopathology or cause psychological distress in female adults. Fifth, the abnormal central fat distribution seems to normalize after long-term maintenance of complete weight restoration, indicating that preferential central distribution of body fat is a transitory phenomenon. However, a discrepancy in the findings has been noted, especially between adolescents and adults; besides age and gender, these appear to be related to differences in the methodology and time of body composition assessments. The PROSPERO Registry—Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review (CRD42014008738.

  16. Fat body, fat pad and adipose tissues in invertebrates and vertebrates: the nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The fat body in invertebrates was shown to participate in energy storage and homeostasis, apart from its other roles in immune mediation and protein synthesis to mention a few. Thus, sharing similar characteristics with the liver and adipose tissues in vertebrates. However, vertebrate adipose tissue or fat has been incriminated in the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders due to its role in production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This has not been reported in the insect fat body. The link between the fat body and adipose tissue was examined in this review with the aim of determining the principal factors responsible for resistance to inflammation in the insect fat body. This could be the missing link in the prevention of metabolic disorders in vertebrates, occasioned by obesity. PMID:24758278

  17. Connecting theory to fat talk: body dissatisfaction mediates the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance, and fat talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Analisa

    2014-06-01

    The fat talk literature is meager in terms of offering theoretical explanations for women's self-disparaging communication. The research presented here sought to establish a relationship between three prominent body image theories - self-discrepancy theory, social comparison theory, and objectification theory - and fat talk by proposing body dissatisfaction as a potential mediating mechanism. Young adult women (N=201) completed an online questionnaire. As predicted, results revealed that body dissatisfaction significantly mediated the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance and fat talk. Effect size estimates indicated that the size of each indirect effect was medium in magnitude. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Are traditional body fat equations and anthropometry valid to estimate body fat in children and adolescents living with HIV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de; Martins, Priscila Custódio; Junior, Carlos Alencar Souza Alves; Castro, João Antônio Chula de; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity of traditional anthropometric equations and to develop predictive equations of total body and trunk fat for children and adolescents living with HIV based on anthropometric measurements. Forty-eight children and adolescents of both sexes (24 boys) aged 7-17 years, living in Santa Catarina, Brazil, participated in the study. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used as the reference method to evaluate total body and trunk fat. Height, body weight, circumferences and triceps, subscapular, abdominal and calf skinfolds were measured. The traditional equations of Lohman and Slaughter were used to estimate body fat. Multiple regression models were fitted to predict total body fat (Model 1) and trunk fat (Model 2) using a backward selection procedure. Model 1 had an R 2 =0.85 and a standard error of the estimate of 1.43. Model 2 had an R 2 =0.80 and standard error of the estimate=0.49. The traditional equations of Lohman and Slaughter showed poor performance in estimating body fat in children and adolescents living with HIV. The prediction models using anthropometry provided reliable estimates and can be used by clinicians and healthcare professionals to monitor total body and trunk fat in children and adolescents living with HIV. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Does Impedance Measure a Functional State of the Body Fat?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Větrovská, R.; Vilikus, Z.; Klaschka, Jan; Stránská, Z.; Svačina, Š.; Svobodová, Š.; Matoulek, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, Suppl. 2 (2014), S309-S320 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : body composition * DEXA * fat mass * obesity * anthropometric methods * fat tissue functional properties Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  20. Visual adaptation to thin and fat bodies transfers across identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Hummel

    Full Text Available Visual perception is highly variable and can be influenced by the surrounding world. Previous research has revealed that body perception can be biased due to adaptation to thin or fat body shapes. The aim of the present study was to show that adaptation to certain body shapes and the resulting perceptual biases transfer across different identities of adaptation and test stimuli. We designed two similar adaptation experiments in which healthy female participants adapted to pictures of either thin or fat bodies and subsequently compared more or less distorted pictures of their own body to their actual body shape. In the first experiment (n = 16 the same identity was used as adaptation and test stimuli (i.e. pictures of the participant's own body while in the second experiment (n = 16 we used pictures of unfamiliar thin or fat bodies as adaptation stimuli. We found comparable adaptation effects in both experiments: After adaptation to a thin body, participants rated a thinner than actual body picture to be the most realistic and vice versa. We therefore assume that adaptation to certain body shapes transfers across different identities. These results raise the questions of whether some type of natural adaptation occurs in everyday life. Natural and predominant exposure to certain bodily features like body shape--especially the thin ideal in Western societies--could bias perception for these features. In this regard, further research might shed light on aspects of body dissatisfaction and the development of body image disturbances in terms of eating disorders.

  1. Recombinant human interleukin-6 infusion during low-intensity exercise does not enhance whole body lipolysis or fat oxidation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiscock, N; Fischer, C P; Sacchetti, M

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the role of the cytokine IL-6 in the regulation of fatty acid metabolism during exercise in humans. Six well-trained males completed three trials of 120 min of cycle ergometry at 70% peak O(2) consumption (Vo(2 peak); MOD) and 40% Vo(2 peak) with (LOW + IL-6) and withou...

  2. Total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution and surrogate markers for health related to adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (FABP4) in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dencker, Magnus; Danielson, Anton; Karlsson, Magnus K; Wollmer, Per; Andersen, Lars B; Thorsson, Ola

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess possible relationships between adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (FABP4) and total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat, body fat distribution, aerobic fitness, blood pressure, cardiac dimensions and the increase in body fat over 2 years in a community sample of children. A cross-sectional study was used in a community sample of 170 (92 boys and 78 girls) children aged 8-11 years. TBF and abdominal fat (AFM) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). TBF was also expressed as percentage of total body mass (BF%), and body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during a maximal exercise test and scaled to body mass. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and pulse pressure (PP) were measured. Echocardiography was performed. Left atrial (LA) size was measured, and left ventricular mass (LVM) was calculated. A follow-up DXA scan was available in 152 children (84 boys and 68 girls). Frozen serum samples were analyzed for FABP4. Partial correlations, with adjustment for sex, between FABP4 vs. ln TBF, ln BF%, ln AFM, AFM/TBF and VO2PEAK were (r=0.69, 0.68, 0.69, 0.49 and -0.39, pfat or change in fat distribution were not correlated.) Conclusions: Findings from this community-based cohort of young children show that increased body fat and abdominal fat, more abdominal body fat distribution, low fitness, more LVM and increased LA, increased SBP and PP were all associated with increased levels of FABP4. Increase in TBF and abdominal fat over 2 years were also associated with increased levels of FABP4.

  3. Eating Regulation Styles, Appearance Schemas, and Body Satisfaction Predict Changes in Body Fat for Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ali Zaremba; Keiley, Margaret K.; Ryan, Aubrey E.; Radomski, Juliana Groves; Gropper, Sareen S.; Connell, Lenda Jo; Simmons, Karla P.; Ulrich, Pamela V.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and high body fat percentages are a major public health issue. The percentage of obese and overweight Americans has increased over the past 30 years. On average, overweight individuals with higher percent body fat than normal weight individuals are at increased risk for numerous negative outcomes both physically and mentally. A prime time…

  4. Diet and body fat in adolescence and early adulthood: a systematic review of longitudinal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Celestino Schneider

    Full Text Available Abstract Adipose tissue is a vital component of the human body, but in excess, it represents a risk to health. According to the World Health Organization, one of the main factors determining excessive body adiposity is the dietary habit. This systematic review investigated longitudinal studies that assessed the association between diet and body fat in adolescents and young adults. Twenty-one relevant papers published between 2001 and 2015 were selected. The most used method for estimating body fat was the body mass index (15 studies. Diet was most commonly assessed by estimating the consumption of food groups (cereals, milk and dairy products and specific foods (sugar-sweetened beverages, soft drinks, fast foods, milk, etc.. Ten studies found a direct association between diet and quantity of body fat. During adolescence, adhering to a dietary pattern characterized by high consumption of energy-dense food, fast foods, sugar-sweetened beverages and soft drinks, as well as low fiber intake, appears to contribute to an increase in body fat in early adulthood. The findings of the present study suggest that the frequent consumption of unhealthy foods and food groups (higher energy density and lower nutrient content in adolescence is associated with higher quantity of body fat in early adulthood.

  5. Effect of body fat distribution on the transcription response to dietary fat interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radonjic, M.; Erk, M.J. van; Pasman, W.J.; Wortelboer, H.M.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Ommen, B. van

    2009-01-01

    Combination of decreased energy expenditure and increased food intake results in fat accumulation either in the abdominal site (upper body obesity, UBO) or on the hips (lower body obesity, LBO). In this study, we used microarray gene expression profiling of adipose tissue biopsies to investigate the

  6. Holding fat stereotypes is associated with lower body dissatisfaction in normal weight Caucasian women who engage in body surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jean; Jarry, Josée L

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of body surveillance on the relationship between fat stereotype endorsement and body dissatisfaction in normal weight women. Participants (N=225) completed online measures of fat stereotyping, body surveillance, body dissatisfaction, and internalized thin ideals. After accounting for thin ideals, body surveillance moderated the relationship between fat stereotypes and body dissatisfaction. Contrary to hypotheses, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted lower body dissatisfaction in women with higher body surveillance. Conversely, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted greater body dissatisfaction in women with lower body surveillance. Thus, endorsing fat stereotypes appears protective against body dissatisfaction in normal weight women who extensively engage in body surveillance. For women who hold fat stereotypes and report high body surveillance, we propose that downward appearance comparison may create a contrast between themselves and the people with overweight whom they denigrate, thus improving body dissatisfaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Multichannel Human Body Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przystup, Piotr; Bujnowski, Adam; Wtorek, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Human Body Communication is an attractive alternative for traditional wireless communication (Bluetooth, ZigBee) in case of Body Sensor Networks. Low power, high data rates and data security makes it ideal solution for medical applications. In this paper, signal attenuation for different frequencies, using FR4 electrodes, has been investigated. Performance of single and multichannel transmission with frequency modulation of analog signal has been tested. Experiment results show that HBC is a feasible solution for transmitting data between BSN nodes

  8. Human Body Exergy Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Mady, Carlos Eduardo Keutenedjian

    2013-01-01

    The exergy analysis of the human body is a tool that can provide indicators of health and life quality. To perform the exergy balance it is necessary to calculate the metabolism on an exergy basis, or metabolic exergy, although there is not yet consensus in its calculation procedure. Hence, the aim of this work is to provide a general method to evaluate this physical quantity for human body based on indirect calorimetry data. To calculate the metabolism on an exergy basis it is necessary to d...

  9. Neither Good nor Useful: Looking Ad Vivum in Children's Assessments of Fat and Healthy Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Fat bodies are not, fait accompli, bad. Yet in our international research, we found overwhelmingly that fat functioned as a marker to indicate health or lack of health. A body with fat was simply and conclusively unhealthy. This article reports on how this unbalanced view of fat was tied to assessments of healthy bodies that were achieved by…

  10. Body fat and fat-free mass and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigaard, Janne; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the association between BMI and all-cause mortality could be disentangled into opposite effects of body fat and fat-free mass (FFM). RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: All-cause mortality was studied in the Danish follow-up study "Diet, Cancer and Health" with 27...... fat mass divided by height squared), FFM index (FFM divided by height squared), and mortality. All analyses were adjusted for smoking habits. RESULTS: Men and women showed similar associations. J-shaped associations were found between body fat mass index and mortality adjusted for FFM and smoking....... The mortality rate ratios in the upper part of body fat mass were 1.12 per kg/m2 (95% confidence interval: 1.07, 1.18) in men and 1.06 per kg/m2 (95% confidence interval: 1.02, 1.10) in women. Reversed J-shaped associations were found between FFM index and mortality with a tendency to level off for high values...

  11. Weighing Posthumanism: Fatness and Contested Humanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Apostolidou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Our project on fatness begins by turning attention to the multiple cultural instances in which fatness has been intrinsically linked with notions such as self—neglect and poor self—management. In Foucauldian terms, we analyse the fat subject as a failed homo economicus, an individual who has failed to be an “entrepreneur of himself, being for himself his own capital, being for himself his own producer, being for himself the source of [his] earnings” (Foucault, 2008, p. 226. From this perspective, we analyse instances of collective hatred towards fat subjects as direct results of the biopolitical triplet of responsibility, rationality, and morality. Morality is our bridge into the field of posthumanism, in which, as we demonstrate, these biopolitical imperatives also apply, reinforced by the field’s fascination with prosthetics and enhancement. Where, by biopolitical standards, fat subjects have failed to manage themselves, posthuman subjects find themselves guilty of not responsibly, rationally, and morally manipulating themselves to optimal productivity. Using criticism that disability studies scholars like Sarah S. Jain and Vivian Sobchack have voiced about posthumanism, we demonstrate the ways in which, within posthumanism, all subjects can be found as lacking when compared to their potential, enhanced post­human version.

  12. Body Fat Content, Distribution and Blood Glucose Concentration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disease and 2% are due to Diabetes mellitus, 9% ... study was to examine the relationship between body fat content, ..... A meta-analysis of prospective studies. ... A.A.1., Esterhuizen, T., Gouws, E.,. Pirie, F.J., Omar, M.A. (2008). Diabetes.

  13. Age-specific association between percent body fat and pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the association between percent body fat and pulmonary function among apparently normal twenty male children tidal volume aged 4 years and twenty male children aged 10 years in Ogbomoso. The mean functional residual capacity of the lung in male children aged 10 years was significantly higher ...

  14. Body fat distribution as a risk factor for osteoporosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body fat distribution as a risk factor for osteoporosis ... pathogenesis and risk factors which predispose to the .... of subjects in both 9roups fell within the 15 - 85th percentiles. .... findings are in any way influenced by anatomical posture changes ...

  15. The Relationship between Lutein and Zeaxanthin Status and Body Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy R. Hammond

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project was to investigate the relationships between total and regional distribution of body fat and tissue lutein (L and zeaxanthin (Z status. Healthy men and women (N = 100; average age: 22.5 year, average BMI: 23.4 kg/m2 were evaluated. Total body and regional fat mass were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic Delphi A. Serum LZ was measured using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and retinal LZ (referred to as macular pigment optical density; MPOD was measured using heterochromatic flicker photometry. Body fat percentage (total and regional was inversely related to MPOD (p < 0.01 but no significant relationship was found for serum LZ. Higher body fat percentage, even within relatively healthy limits, is associated with lower tissue LZ status. The results indicate that adiposity may affect the nutritional state of the retina. Such links may be one of the reasons that obesity promotes age-related degenerative conditions of the retina.

  16. Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kevin D; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D; Miller, Bernard V; Prado, Carla M; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C; Walter, Mary; Walter, Peter J; Yannai, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5-day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and net fat oxidation measured while residing in a metabolic chamber. Whereas carbohydrate restriction led to sustained increases in fat oxidation and loss of 53 ± 6 g/day of body fat, fat oxidation was unchanged by fat restriction, leading to 89 ± 6 g/day of fat loss, and was significantly greater than carbohydrate restriction (p = 0.002). Mathematical model simulations agreed with these data, but predicted that the body acts to minimize body fat differences with prolonged isocaloric diets varying in carbohydrate and fat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The estimation of total body fat by inelastic neutron scattering - a geometrical feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizos, F.; Kotzasarlidoou, M.; Makridou, A.; Giannopoulou, K.

    2012-01-01

    A rough quantitative representation of the basic elements in a human body is shown. It deals with a hypothetical, normal adult weighting 70 kg. It is possible to measure two basic quantities, the FFM, standing for Fat Free Mass and the FM, standing for Fat Mass. The present simulation deals with the most important aspect of the estimation of storage fat in the human body and in order to accomplish such a task, it is considered a representation of the human body, containing a uniform distribution of triacylglycerols, in a shape of cylindrical phantom. The whole process is analyzed and simulated by a geometrical model and with the aid of a computer program which takes into consideration the different attenuation for neutrons and photons, the amount of gamma radiation reaching the detector is also calculated. The net result is the determination of sensitivity for a particular set-up and by relating the out coming data to the amount of carbon; the quantity of fat is estimated. In addition, the non-uniformity is calculated, from the computer programs expressing the consistency of the system. In order to determine the storage fat, a simulation model that will enable to represent the detection of the carbon atoms in triacylglycerols was built

  18. 20-hydroxyecdysone upregulates Atg genes to induce autophagy in the Bombyx fat body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ling; Ma, Li; Guo, Enen; Deng, Xiaojuan; Ma, Sanyuan; Xia, Qingyou; Cao, Yang; Li, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is finely regulated at multiple levels and plays crucial roles in development and disease. In the fat body of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, autophagy occurs and Atg gene expression peaks during the nonfeeding molting and pupation stages when the steroid hormone (20-hydroxyecdysone; 20E) is high. Injection of 20E into the feeding larvae upregulated Atg genes and reduced TORC1 activity resulting in autophagy induction in the fat body. Conversely, RNAi knockdown of the 20E receptor partner (USP) or targeted overexpression of a dominant negative mutant of the 20E receptor (EcRDN) in the larval fat body reduced autophagy and downregulated the Atg genes, confirming the importance of 20E-induction of Atg gene expression during pupation. Moreover, in vitro treatments of the larval fat body with 20E upregulated the Atg genes. Five Atg genes were potentially 20E primary-responsive, and a 20E response element was identified in the Atg1 (ortholog of human ULK1) promoter region. Furthermore, RNAi knockdown of 4 key genes (namely Br-C, E74, HR3 and βftz-F1) in the 20E-triggered transcriptional cascade reduced autophagy and downregulated Atg genes to different levels. Taken together, we conclude that in addition to blocking TORC1 activity for autophagosome initiation, 20E upregulates Atg genes to induce autophagy in the Bombyx fat body. PMID:23674061

  19. Influence of apolipoprotein-E gene on lipid profile, physical activity and body fat relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales Boaventura Rachid Nascimento

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity and body fat modify lipemia, and this effect seems to be influenced by apolipoprotein-E (APOE gene polymorphism. Thus, the purpose of this article was to review main results of studies that have analyzed the relation of APOE gene with physical activity and body fat on triglycerides, total cholesterol and low (LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL concentrations. The Scientific Electronic Library Online – SciELO, Web of Science and PubMed database were used to locate the articles. The keywords used in combination were: apoe genotype, apolipoprotein-E polymorphism, physical exercise, physical activity, aerobic exercise, body fat and obesity. Originals scientific investigations performed with humans were included, and excluded those ones which involved samples with diseases, except obesity and/or lipemic disorders. It was observed a trend, that ε2 allele carriers are the ones with the greater improvements on lipemia from physical exercise. In addition, the body fat impact on the elevation of triglycerides and LDL are stronger in carriers of the ε2 and ε4 allele, respectively. Considering the small number of originals scientific investigations and their divergent results, reliable inferences can not be made about the APOE gene polymorphism influences on physical activity and body fat effect on lipemia. Thus, further studies with others populations and more volunteers for allele, as well as others exercise modalities and intensities, are necessary.

  20. BODY COMPOSITION OF A MILITARY POPULATION FT. CARSON 1963. I. BODY DENSITY, FAT, AND POTASSIUM 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body volumes were measured on 97 soldiers between the ages of 17 - 52 years by water displacement volumetry and corrected for respiratory gas by a...Effective ranking of body fat burden of populations was demonstrated by body volumetry and age differences were noted from potassium 40 counting. A

  1. Body fat and blood pressure: comparison of blood pressure measurements in Chinese children with different body fat levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Wang, Zhiqiang; Dong, Bin; Song, Yi; Hu, Peijin; Zhang, Bing

    2012-11-14

    Children in China are experiencing a rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity, which is associated with hypertension. To compare the effect of body fat on blood pressure (BP) with that of the normal physical growth, we compared BP levels in Chinese children with different body fat levels. In the present population-based study, 13 972 children in the highest-skinfold-thickness-quartile group were individually matched to 13 972 children in the lowest-skinfold-thickness-quartile group by height and weight. Similarly, 5103 children in the highest-waist-circumference-quartile group were matched to the same number of children in the lowest-waist-circumference-quartile group. The high- and low-fat groups had similar height and weight but the high-fat group had significantly higher skinfold and waist circumference measurements. The differences in systolic BP (SBP) between the high- and low-skinfold-thickness groups were small: 0·01 (95 % CI -0·41, 0·44) mmHg in boys and 0·20 (95 % CI -0·15, 0·54) mmHg in girls. The differences in diastolic BP (DBP) were also small (0·39 and 0·38 mmHg for boys and girls, respectively) but were statistically significant. The differences in both SBP and DBP between the high- and low-waist-circumference groups were small but not statistically significant. For a given body size as measured by height and weight, relative body fat had little impact on BP levels in these children. Fat mass and lean mass may have a similar quantitative impact on BP in healthy-weight children.

  2. The relationship of body fatness and body fat distribution with microvascular recruitment : The Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnstok, N.J.; Hoekstra, T.; Eringa, E.C.; Smulders, Y.M.; Twisk, J.W.; Serne, E.H.

    INTRODUCTION: Microvascular function has been proposed to link body fatness to CVD and DM2. Current knowledge of these relationships is mainly based on studies in selected populations of extreme phenotypes. Whether these findings can be translated to the general population remains to be

  3. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletsov, Andrey; Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-10-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated.

  4. Diagnostic performance of body mass index to identify excess body fat in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Ibrahim; Schulze, Josefa; Martakis, KyriakoS; Stark, Christina; Schoenau, Eckhard

    2018-03-07

    To assess the diagnostic performance of body mass index (BMI) cut-off values according to recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Obesity Federation (WOF), and the German Society for Adiposity (DAG) to identify excess body fat in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The present study was a monocentric retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data among children and adolescents with CP participating in a rehabilitation programme. Excess body fat was defined as a body fat percentage above the 85th centile assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In total, 329 children (181 males, 148 females) with CP were eligible for analysis. The mean age was 12 years 4 months (standard deviation 2y 9mo). The BMI cut-off values for 'overweight' according to the WHO, WOF, and DAG showed the following sensitivities and specificities for the prediction of excess body fat in our population: WHO: sensitivity 0.768 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.636-0.870), specificity 0.894 (95% CI 0.851-0.928); WOF: sensitivity 0.696 (95% CI 0.559-0.812), specificity 0.934 (95% CI 0.898-0.960); DAG: sensitivity 0.411 (95% CI 0.281-0.550), specificity 0.993 (95% CI 0.974-0.999). Body mass index showed high specificity, but low sensitivity in children with CP. Thus, 'normal-weight obese' children with CP were overlooked, when assessing excess body fat only using BMI. Excess body fat in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is less common than previously reported. Body mass index (BMI) had high specificity but low sensitivity in detecting excess body fat in children with CP. BMI evaluation criteria of the German Society for Adiposity could be improved in children with CP. © 2018 Mac Keith Press.

  5. Intake at a single, palatable buffet test meal is associated with total body fat and regional fat distribution in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnbach, S Nicole; Thivel, David; Meyermann, Karol; Keller, Kathleen L

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies testing the relationship between short-term, ad libitum test-meal intake and body composition in children have shown inconsistent relationships. The objective of this study was to determine whether children's intake at a palatable, buffet meal was associated with body composition, assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A sample of 71 children (4-6 years) participated in 4 sessions where ad libitum food intake was measured. Children's intake at two of the test-meals was retained for the present analysis: a baseline meal consisting of moderately palatable foods and a highly palatable buffet including sweets, sweet-fats, and savory-fats. On the last visit, anthropometrics and DXA were assessed to determine child body composition. Children consumed significantly more calories at the palatable buffet compared to the baseline test-meal. Children's total fat-free mass was positively associated with intake at both the baseline meal and the palatable buffet meal. Total energy intake at both meals and intake of savory-fats at the palatable buffet were positively associated with children's total fat mass, total percent body fat, and percent android fat. Intake of sweet-fats was associated with child fat-free mass index. Intake of sweets was not correlated with body composition. Children's intake at a palatable test-meal, particularly of savory-fat foods, was associated with measures of total and regional body fat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Body Fat Percentage Prediction Using Intelligent Hybrid Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehjen E. Shao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess of body fat often leads to obesity. Obesity is typically associated with serious medical diseases, such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Accordingly, knowing the body fat is an extremely important issue since it affects everyone’s health. Although there are several ways to measure the body fat percentage (BFP, the accurate methods are often associated with hassle and/or high costs. Traditional single-stage approaches may use certain body measurements or explanatory variables to predict the BFP. Diverging from existing approaches, this study proposes new intelligent hybrid approaches to obtain fewer explanatory variables, and the proposed forecasting models are able to effectively predict the BFP. The proposed hybrid models consist of multiple regression (MR, artificial neural network (ANN, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS, and support vector regression (SVR techniques. The first stage of the modeling includes the use of MR and MARS to obtain fewer but more important sets of explanatory variables. In the second stage, the remaining important variables are served as inputs for the other forecasting methods. A real dataset was used to demonstrate the development of the proposed hybrid models. The prediction results revealed that the proposed hybrid schemes outperformed the typical, single-stage forecasting models.

  7. The Human Body Sword

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Borer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The human body shield problem involves an apparent dilemma for a libertarian, forcing him to choose between his own death and the death of an innocent person. This paper argues that the non-aggression principle permits a forceful response against the property of innocent individuals when a conflict is initiated with that property. In other words, a libertarian may shoot the hostage in order to save himself.

  8. Comparison of body fat in Brazilian adult females by bioelectrical impedance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altamir, Vaz; Frère, Slaets Annie France; Leonardo, López Ramírez

    2012-01-01

    Body-fat is essential for human body, provided that its amount is at healthy levels. If in-excess body-fat is deleterious, its lack is otherwise also harmful. Estimated percent body-fat performed with commercially available devices measuring bioimpedance have many advantages, such as easy measurement and low cost. However, these measurements are based on standard models and equations that are not disclosed by manufacturers, and this leads to questioning the validity of these estimates for Brazilian females. The aim of this study was to compare electrical tetrapolar and octapolar impedance results obtained with commercially available equipment: Maltron BF-906 and OMRON 510-W. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics. Devices used in this study to estimate body fat quantity have not shown any significant differences in results; this is a major issue when selecting equipment based on three factors: study focus, available financial resources, and target population. Results obtained from the two devices have not shown any significant differences, which lead to the conclusion that either device may be reliably used.

  9. Lack of association of ghrelin precursor gene variants and percentage body fat or serum lipid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Glynn R; Loredo, J C; Sun, Guang

    2008-04-01

    Ghrelin has been recognized for its involvement in food intake, control of energy homeostasis, and lipid metabolism. However, the roles of genetic variations in the ghrelin precursor gene (GHRL) on body compositions and serum lipids are not clear in humans. Our study investigated five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within GHRL to determine their relationship with body fat percentage (BF), trunk fat percentage (TF), lower body (legs) fat percentage (LF), and serum lipids in 1,464 subjects, which were recruited from the genetically homogeneous population of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), Canada. Serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides were determined. Five SNPs are rs35684 (A/G: a transition substitution in exon 1), rs4684677 (A/T: a missense mutation), rs2075356 (C/T: intron), rs26802 (G/T: intron), and rs26311 (A/G: near the 3' untranslated region) of GHRL were genotyped using TaqMan validated or functionally tested SNP genotyping assays. Our study found no significant evidence of an allele or genotype association between any of the variant sites and body compositions or serum lipids. Furthermore, haplotype frequencies were not found to be significantly different between lean and obese subjects. In summary, the results of our study do not support a significant role for genetic variations in GHRL in the differences of body fat and serum lipid profiles in the NL population.

  10. Ramadan Fasting Decreases Body Fat but Not Protein Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrial Syam, Ari; Suryani Sobur, Cecep; Abdullah, Murdani; Makmun, Dadang

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown various results regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on weight and body composition in healthy individuals. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy Indonesian medical staff. In this study, we examined the influence of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy medical staff. The longitudinal study was performed during and after Ramadan fasting in 2013 (August to October). Fourty-three medical staff members (physicians, nurses and nutritionists) at the Internal Medicine Ward of the Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital were measured to compare their calorie intake, weight, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and body composition, including body fat, protein, minerals and water, on the first and 28(th) days of Ramadan and also 4-5 weeks after Ramadan fasting. Measurements were obtained for all 43 subjects on the 28(th) day of Ramadan, but they were obtained for only 25 subjects 4 - 5 weeks after Ramadan. By the 28(th) day of Ramadan, it was found that the body weight, BMI, body fat, water and mineral measures had decreased significantly (-0.874 ± 0.859 kg, P Ramadan, body weight and composition had returned to the same levels as on the first day of Ramadan. Ramadan fasting resulted in weight loss even it was only a temporary effect, as the weight was quickly regained within one month after fasting. The catabolism catabolic state, which is related to protein loss, was not triggered during Ramadan fasting. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of weight loss during Ramadan fasting in healthy individuals.

  11. Gain in Body Fat Is Associated with Increased Striatal Response to Palatable Food Cues, whereas Body Fat Stability Is Associated with Decreased Striatal Response

    OpenAIRE

    Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional brain-imaging studies reveal that obese versus lean humans show greater responsivity of reward and attention regions to palatable food cues, but lower responsivity of reward regions to palatable food receipt. However, these individual differences in responsivity may result from a period of overeating. We conducted a repeated-measures fMRI study to test whether healthy weight adolescent humans who gained body fat over a 2 or 3 year follow-up period show an increase in responsiv...

  12. Body fat and risk of cardiovascular diseases among the Tamil school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total body fat, Body Mass Index (BMI) and abdominal fat were measured using Omron Karada Scanner, meanwhile PACER test was used to measure cardiovascular endurance. The descriptive analysis showed, 71.67% Tamil school teachers from Kuala Selangor were found to be in the category of excessive body fat ...

  13. Relationship between Psychosocial Functioning and Body Fat in Preschool Children: A Longitudinal Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klesges, Robert C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined whether 132 preschool children who varied in levels of body fat differed on psychosocial functioning. Children did not differ in self-esteem and family functioning as function of body fat. Prospectively, physical self-esteem weakly but significantly correlated with body fat at one and two years; father's perception of family functioning…

  14. Human body communication performance simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Mufti, H. (Haseeb)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Human Body Communication (HBC) is a novel communication method between devices which use human body as a transmission medium. This idea is mostly based on the concept of wireless biomedical monitoring system. The on-body sensor nodes can monitor vital signs of a human body and use the body as a transmission medium. This technology is convenient for long durations of clinical monitoring with the option of more mobil...

  15. Circulating persistent organic pollutants and body fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Geng; Grandjean, Philippe; Wu, Hongyu

    2015-01-01

    and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. Partial Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated, after adjusting for major confounders, including age, smoking status, and history of lactation and parity. Wolfe's method was used to compare correlation coefficients derived from the same participants. RESULTS......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the correlations of various circulating persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with fat mass percentages (FM%) of trunk, leg, and whole body measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. METHODS: This study included 2358 adults (≥20 years) in the National Health......: Twelve POPs showed significantly different correlations with fat depots in trunk and leg regions. β-hexachlorocyclohexane, heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-126 showed stronger positive correlations with trunk FM% than with leg FM%, whereas PCBs...

  16. The Body Fat-Cognition Relationship in Healthy Older Individuals: Does Gynoid vs Android Distribution Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, R; Pesce, C; De Vito, G; Boreham, C A G

    2017-01-01

    To examine the relationship between regional and whole body fat accumulation and core cognitive executive functions. Cross-sectional study. 78 healthy men and women aged between 65 and 75 years recruited through consumer's database. DXA measured percentage total body fat, android, gynoid distribution and android/gynoid ratio; inhibition and working memory updating through Random Number Generation test and cognitive flexibility by Trail Making test. First-order partial correlations between regional body fat and cognitive executive function were computed partialling out the effects of whole body fat. Moderation analysis was performed to verify the effect of gender on the body fat-cognition relationship. Results showed a differentiated pattern of fat-cognition relationship depending on fat localization and type of cognitive function. Statistically significant relationships were observed between working memory updating and: android fat (r = -0.232; p = 0.042), gynoid fat (r = 0.333; p = 0.003) and android/gynoid ratio (r = -0.272; p = 0.017). Separating genders, the only significant relationship was observed in females between working memory updating and gynoid fat (r = 0.280; p = 0.045). In spite of gender differences in both working memory updating and gynoid body fat levels, moderation analysis did not show an effect of gender on the relationship between gynoid fat and working memory updating. Results suggest a protective effect of gynoid body fat and a deleterious effect of android body fat. Although excessive body fat increases the risk of developing CDV, metabolic and cognitive problems, maintaining a certain proportion of gynoid fat may help prevent cognitive decline, particularly in older women. Guidelines for optimal body composition maintenance for the elderly should not target indiscriminate weight loss, but weight maintenance through body fat/lean mass control based on non-pharmacological tools such as physical exercise, known to have protective effects

  17. Evaluation of stored body fat in nuisance-killed Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Atsushi; Asano, Makoto; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Mizoguchi, Toshio; Oi, Toru; Shimozuru, Michito; Tsubota, Toshio

    2011-02-01

    We evaluated the stored body fat of Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) killed as nuisances in Gifu and Fukushima prefectures, Japan, during 2005-2007. We employed femur marrow fat (FMF), modified kidney fat index (mKFI), and abdominal subcutaneous fat (ASF) as indices for quantitative evaluation. We examined the basic characteristics of these indices, such as seasonality, age and sex dependency, and the quantitative relationship among them. mKFI and ASF increased towards the beginning of the denning period (December), while FMF was relatively stable throughout the sampling period (July-December). In cubs, all indices showed significantly lower values than in the older age classes. There seemed to be a catabolizing order between FMF and mKFI, but not between mKFI and ASF. We also evaluated the yearly change in the indices, and discussed its relevance to the incidence of bear intrusion into human residential areas. Bears nuisance-killed in summer (July-September) 2006 had a significantly larger amount of stored body fat than those killed in summer 2007, although the number of nuisance kills was larger in 2006 than in 2007. This suggests that poor nutritional condition is not a direct cause of bear intrusion.

  18. Triceps skin fold thickness as a measure of body fat in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Skin fold thickness (SFT) at selected areas offers a simple method of subcutaneous fat assessment and provides a good estimate of obesity and body fat distribution. The triceps SFT has been shown to be one of the best and most popular sites for SFT measurement in children. Objective: To assess the body fat ...

  19. The Use of Skinfold to Estimate Body Fatness on Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, T. G.

    1987-01-01

    Concern about the body fat of children and its relation to adult obesity has led to the development of standards for assessing children's optimal body fat content. The use of skinfold thickness measures to establish the degree of fatness is described. (MT)

  20. Differences in Body Fat of British Children from Various Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J.; Woodfieldand, Lorayne; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the percent body fatness of British secondary school children and examined any variation in fatness according to school year, gender and ethnicity. 782 children aged 11 to 14 participated in the study. Body fatness was assessed using skinfold measures and obesity was classified using child-specific cut-off points. Results from…

  1. Noninvasive Quantification of Pancreatic Fat in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Lingvay, Ildiko; Esser, Victoria; Legendre, Jaime L.; Price, Angela L.; Wertz, Kristen M.; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Zhang, Song; Unger, Roger H.; Szczepaniak, Lidia S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To validate magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) as a tool for non-invasive quantification of pancreatic triglyceride (TG) content and to measure the pancreatic TG content in a diverse human population with a wide range of body mass index (BMI) and glucose control.

  2. Body Fat Composition: A Predictive Factor for Sleep Related Breathing Disorder in Obese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Rajeev; Lesser, Daniel J; Oliveira, Flavia G S A; Tran, Winston H; Keens, Thomas G; Khoo, Michael C K; Davidson Ward, Sally L

    2015-09-15

    The association between body fat composition as measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanning and pediatric sleep related breathing disorder (SRBD) is not well established. We investigated the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and DEXA parameters and their association with SRBD in obese children. Overnight polysomnography was performed on obese/overweight children (10-17 years) with habitual snoring. Total body fat mass (g), trunk fat mass (g), total body % fat, and trunk % fat were determined by DEXA. Forty-one subjects were studied. Logarithm (Log) total arousal index correlated with BMI (p fat mass (p fat mass (p fat mass (p fat mass (p fat mass (p fat (p fat mass (p fat (p fat mass and trunk fat mass as well as BMI correlated with total arousal index and desaturation index. BMI correlated with DEXA parameters in 10-12 year old males but not in 13-17 year old males. The value of using DEXA scanning to study the relationship between obesity and SRBD may depend on age and pubertal stage. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  3. Association of body fat and vitamin D status and the effect of body fat on the response to vitamin D supplementation in Pakistani immigrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Ida Marie; Lundby, M.; Mølgaard, C.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency and obesity are both prevalent conditions in the northern countries, especially among immigrants. The aims were to assess the possible relationship between body fat and vitamin D status, and to investigate the effect of body fat on the response to oral vitamin D supplementation...... in Pakistani immigrants in Denmark. Data were obtained from a 1-year double-blind randomised controlled trial with oral vitamin D supplementation. A total of 122 women and men received either vitamin D3 supplementation (10 or 20 μg/day) or placebo. No association was found between body fat percentage...... and vitamin D status in a multiple linear regression model (Passociation between body fat percentage and vitamin D status, and body fat percentage had...

  4. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out.

  5. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out

  6. [Relationship between eating behavior and distribution of body fat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guagnano, M T; Blasioli, A; Del Ponte, A; Sensi, S

    1990-01-01

    In these recent few years the study of the pathogenesis of obesity include the observation of the difference in eating behaviour between obese and non obese subjects. Therefore, current therapies now take into account, among others, also a program of behavioural therapy. On the other hand, recent studies have revealed the role of different body fat distribution on the obesity prognosis, especially considering cardiovascular risk factors. To this purpose much attention has been focused on the measurement of waist and hips circumferences and their ratio (WHR) considered important predictors of risk associated with obesity. Aim of this study was the observation of some differences in eating habits and psychological status during a 24-hr period in relationship with the android or gynecoid type of obesity. 102 outpatients were divided in two groups: 1) with WHR less than 0.85; 2) with WHR greater than or equal to 0.85. All subjects were given a questionnaire in which by a scale from 0 to 3 they expressed their appetite sensation during different hours of the day. In addition, they indicated their motivation to loose body weight. Our results demonstrated that subjects with WHR greater than or equal to 0.85 showed higher appetite sensation, during the whole day, with a peak at lunch, in comparison with subjects with WHR less than 0.85. Subjects with gynecoid type of obesity seemed to pay much attention to their body image than subjects with android type of obesity and complained less physical disorders than subjects of the second group. These preliminary data seem to suggest a non-secondary role of behavioural pattern in obesity also by affecting the different regional fat distribution.

  7. Relationships between rodent white adipose fat pads and human white adipose fat depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella E. Chusyd

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to compare and contrast the physiological and metabolic profiles of rodent white adipose fat pads with white adipose fat depots in humans. Human fat distribution and its metabolic consequences have received extensive attention, but much of what has been tested in translational research has relied heavily on rodents. Unfortunately, the validity of using rodent fat pads as a model of human adiposity has received less attention. There is a surprisingly lack of studies demonstrating an analogous relationship between rodent and human adiposity on obesity-related comorbidities. Therefore, we aimed to compare known similarities and disparities in terms of white adipose tissue development and distribution, sexual dimorphism, weight loss, adipokine secretion, and aging. While the literature supports the notion that many similarities exist between rodents and humans, notable differences emerge related to fat deposition and function of white adipose tissue. Thus, further research is warranted to more carefully define the strengths and limitations of rodent white adipose tissue as a model for humans, with a particular emphasis on comparable fat depots, such as mesenteric fat.

  8. Association of fat mass and obesity-associated gene variant with lifestyle factors and body fat in Indian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya S Parthasarthy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Common intronic variants of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO gene have been associated with obesity-related traits in humans. Aims: (1 The aim of this study is to study the distribution of FTO gene variants across different body mass index (BMI categories and (2 to explore the association between FTO gene variants and lifestyle factors in obese and normal weight Indian children. Subjects and Methods: Fifty-six children (26 boys, mean age 10.3 ± 2.2 years were studied. Height, weight, and waist and hip circumference were measured. Physical activity (questionnaire and food intake (food frequency questionnaire were assessed. Body fat percentage (%BF was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. FTO allelic variants at rs9939609 site were detected by SYBR Green Amplification Refractory Mutation System real-time polymerase chain reaction using allele-specific primers. Generalized linear model was used to investigate the simultaneous influence of genetic and lifestyle factors on %BF. Results: Mean height, weight, and BMI of normal and obese children were 130.6 ± 7.1 versus 143.2 ± 15.6, 24.0 ± 5.2 versus 53.1 ± 15.8, and 13.9 ± 2.1 versus 25.3 ± 3.2, respectively. The frequency of AA allele was 57% among obese children and 35% in normal weight children. Children with the AA allele who were obese had least physical activity, whereas children with AT allele and obesity had the highest intake of calories when compared to children who had AT allele and were normal. %BF was positively associated with AA alleles and junk food intake and negatively with healthy food intake and moderate physical activity. Conclusions: Healthy lifestyle with high physical activity and diet low in calories and fat may help in modifying the risk imposed by FTO variants in children.

  9. Effects of growth hormone administration on the body composition and hormone levels of genetically fat sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, S.M.; Jopson, N.B.; Littlejohn, R.P.; Stuart, S.K.; Veenvliet, B.A.; Young, M.J.; Suttie, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Coopworth sheep selected for low (lean) or high (fat) backfat have large differences in plasma GH profiles. Fat genotype ram lambs (5 months old) were treated with growth hormone (GH) to simulate the plasma GH profiles of lean sheep and investigate whether exogenous GH could modify carcass fatness. For 77 days, bovine GH was administered at 25mug/kg live weight per day either as a single, daily subcutaneous bolus (fat bolus) or via portable pulsatile infusion pumps (fat pump) which delivered GH solution at 90-min intervals into a jugular catheter. Measurements of body composition were made by computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonic scanning during the trial, with linear carcass measurements and proximate analysis undertaken at the end of the experiment. Before treatments began, mean plasma GH levels were lower (P < 0.01) in fat control (0.34 mug/l) than in lean lambs (1.1 mug/l). Several weeks after the start of the trial, mean plasma GH had increased in both fat bolus (1.2mug/l) and fat pump (0.45mug/l) treatment lambs with major changes in the pulsatility relative to the fat control lambs. Although these changes were maintained in the fat bolus lambs, by the end of the trial there was no significant difference in mean plasma GH between fat pump and fat control sheep. Throughout the trial, plasma IGF-1 levels were higher in fat bolus, fat pump and lean lambs than in fat control lambs. Analysis of body composition data over the GH treatment period revealed that the slope of the allometric equation for total fat relative to empty body weight was lower in the fat bolus lambs (1.07) than in the lean lambs (1.50) with fat control and fat pump treatment lambs intermediate (1.30 and 1.36, respectively). Subcutaneous fat was later maturing in lean lambs than in fat control and bolus treatment lambs when regressed against total fat, with the fat pump treatment lambs being intermediate. Linear carcass measurements revealed changes due to GH administration in the

  10. Evaluation of body adiposity index (BAI) to estimate percent body fat in an indigenous population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Patricia C; Vieira Filho, João Paulo B; Franco, Luciana; Dal Fabbro, Amaury; Franco, Laercio J; Moises, Regina S

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of Body Adiposity Index (BAI) as a predictor of body fat in Xavante Indians and to investigate which anthropometric measures of adiposity best correlate with body fat in this population. We evaluated 974 individuals (476 male), aged 42.3 ± 19.5 years. Percentage of body fat (%BF) determined by bioimpedance analysis (BIA) was used as the reference measure of adiposity. Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess the agreement between the two methods: BAI and BIA. Associations between anthropometric measures of adiposity were investigated by Pearson correlation analysis. BAI overestimates %BF (mean difference: 4.10%), mainly at lower levels of adiposity. Significant correlations were found between %BF and all measurements, being the strongest correlation with BAI. However, stratified analyses according to gender showed that among men waist circumference has the strongest correlation (r = 0.73, p < 0.001) and among women BAI (r = 0.71, p < 0.001), BMI (r = 0.69, p < 0.001) and waist circumference (r = 0.70, p < 0.001) performed similarly. BAI can be a useful tool to predict %BF in Xavante Indians, although it has some limitations. However, it is not a better predictor of adiposity than waist circumference in men or BMI and waist circumference in women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of aging on basal fat oxidation in obese humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Marchetti, Christine M; Krishnan, Raj K

    2008-01-01

    )max) were measured in 10 older (age, 60 +/- 4 years; mean +/- SEM) and 10 younger (age, 35 +/- 4 years) body mass index-matched, obese, normal glucose-tolerant individuals. Fasting blood samples were also collected. Older subjects had slightly elevated fat mass (32.2 +/- 7.1 vs 36.5 +/- 6.7 kg, P......Basal fat oxidation decreases with age. In obesity, it is not known whether this age-related process occurs independently of changes in body composition and insulin sensitivity. Therefore, body composition, resting energy expenditure, basal substrate oxidation, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2...... is responsible for reduced basal fat oxidation and maximal oxidative capacity in older obese individuals, independent of changes in insulin resistance, body mass, and abdominal fat. This indicates that age, in addition to obesity, is an independent risk factor for weight gain and for the metabolic complications...

  12. Body Fat Measurements in Singaporean Adults Using Four Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyan Bi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have been conducted to measure body composition in Asian populations. In this study, we determined the percent body fat (PBF by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA, air-displacement plethysmography (ADP or BOD POD, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA and skinfold (SKF in 445 healthy Singaporean adults. We observed that the BOD POD, BIA and SKF estimates of PBF were highly correlated with that from DEXA (as a reference method among Singaporean adults. However, they all underestimated PBF (differences of 3.9% for BOD POD, 5.6% for BIA and 12.5% for SKF. Our results filled a gap in the literature by testing the relationships between DEXA and BOD POD, BIA and SKF in a large sample with a wide range of body mass index (BMI from 16.1 to 37.5 kg/m2 and age from 21 to 69.2 years. The differences of PBF measured by different methods were dependent on age, gender and ethnicity. No significant difference was observed between DEXA and BOD POD in men aged > 40 or in BMI tertile 3. However, the mean difference between DEXA and BOD POD was significant in women. Different measuring methods of estimating PBF therefore must be cautiously interpreted.

  13. Acoustic wave therapy for cellulite, body shaping and fat reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexsel, Doris; Camozzato, Fernanda Oliveira; Silva, Aline Flor; Siega, Carolina

    2017-06-01

    Cellulite is a common aesthetic condition that affects almost every woman. To evaluate the efficacy of acoustic wave therapy (AWT) for cellulite and body shaping. In this open-label, single-centre trial, 30 women presenting moderate or severe cellulite underwent 12 sessions of AWT on the gluteus and back of the thighs, over six weeks. The following assessments were performed at baseline, and up to 12 weeks after treatment: Cellulite Severity Scale (CSS), body circumference measurements, subcutaneous fat thickness by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), quality of life related by Celluqol ® and a satisfaction questionnaire. The treatment reduced cellulite severity from baseline up to 12 weeks after the last treatment session (subjects presenting severe cellulite: 60% to 38%). The mean CSS shifted from 11.1 to 9.5 (p treatment also improved quality of life. More than 90% of the subjects would undergo the treatment again and 89% were satisfied with the results. No serious adverse events were reported. AWT is a safe treatment to improve cellulite appearance and reduce body circumferences.

  14. Body Mass Index, percent body fat, and regional body fat distribution in relation to leptin concentrations in healthy, non-smoking postmenopausal women in a feeding study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell William

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between BMI and leptin has been studied extensively in the past, but previous reports in postmenopausal women have not been conducted under carefully controlled dietary conditions of weight maintenance using precise measures of body fat distribution. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between serum leptin concentration and adiposity as estimated by BMI and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA measures (percent body fat, central and peripheral fat, and lean mass in postmenopausal women. Methods This study was conducted as a cross-sectional analysis within the control segment of a randomized, crossover trial in which postmenopausal women (n = 51 consumed 0 (control, 15 (one drink, and 30 (two drinks g alcohol (ethanol/d for 8 weeks as part of a controlled diet. BMIs were determined and DEXA scans were administered to the women during the 0 g alcohol treatment, and a blood sample was collected at baseline and week 8 of each study period for leptin analysis. Results and discussion In multivariate analysis, women who were overweight (BMI > 25 to ≤ 30 kg/m2 had a 2-fold increase, and obese women (BMI > 30 kg/m2 had more than a 3-fold increase in serum leptin concentrations compared to normal weight (BMI ≤25 kg/m2 women. When the models for the different measures of adiposity were assessed by multiple R2, models which included percent body fat explained the highest proportion (approximately 80% of the serum leptin variance. Conclusion Under carefully controlled dietary conditions, we confirm that higher levels of adiposity were associated with higher concentrations of serum leptin. It appears that percent body fat in postmenopausal women may be the best adiposity-related predictor of serum leptin.

  15. Detrimental and protective fat: body fat distribution and its relation to metabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Andrea; Magnuson, Aaron; Foster, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is linked to numerous comorbidities that include, but are not limited to, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease. Current evidence suggests, however, obesity itself is not an exclusive predictor of metabolic dysregulation but rather adipose tissue distribution. Obesity-related adverse health consequences occur predominately in individuals with upper body fat accumulation, the detrimental distribution, commonly associated with visceral obesity. Increased lower body subcutaneous adipose tissue, however, is associated with a reduced risk of obesity-induced metabolic dysregulation and even enhanced insulin sensitivity, thus, storage in this region is considered protective. The proposed mechanisms that causally relate the differential outcomes of adipose tissue distribution are often attributed to location and/or adipocyte regulation. Visceral adipose tissue effluent to the portal vein drains into the liver where hepatocytes are directly exposed to its metabolites and secretory products, whereas the subcutaneous adipose tissue drains systemically. Adipose depots are also inherently different in numerous ways such as adipokine release, immunity response and regulation, lipid turnover, rate of cell growth and death, and response to stress and sex hormones. Proximal extrinsic factors also play a role in the differential drive between adipose tissue depots. This review focuses on the deleterious mechanisms postulated to drive the differential metabolic response between central and lower body adipose tissue distribution.

  16. High maysin corn silk extract reduces body weight and fat deposition in C57BL/6J mice fed high-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Young; Kim, Sun Lim; Kang, Hyeon Jung; Kim, Myung Hwan; Ha, Ae Wha; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2016-12-01

    The study was performed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of high maysin corn silk extract on body weight and fat deposition in experimental animals. A total of 30 male C57BL/6J mice, 4-weeks-old, were purchased and divided into three groups by weight using a randomized block design. The normal-fat (NF) group received 7% fat (diet weight basis), the high-fat (HF) group received 25% fat and 0.5% cholesterol, and the high-fat corn silk (HFCS) group received high-fat diet and high maysin corn silk extract at 100 mg/kg body weight through daily oral administration. Body weight and body fat were measured, and mRNA expression levels of proteins involved in adipocyte differentiation, fat accumulation, fat synthesis, lipolysis, and fat oxidation in adipose tissue and the liver were measured. After experimental diet intake for 8 weeks, body weight was significantly lower in the HFCS group compared to the HF group ( P corn silk extract inhibits expression of genes involved in adipocyte differentiation, fat accumulation, and fat synthesis as well as promotes expression of genes involved in lipolysis and fat oxidation, further inhibiting body fat accumulation and body weight elevation in experimental animals.

  17. What is a Human Body?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Ulrik Becker

    2017-01-01

    The essay offers an overview of different understandings of what a body is. As such, it can be read as an overview of what we mean, when we speak of a “human body”. However, the article also goes a step further; in the last section, a responsive understanding of the human body is outlined....... This is understood as responsiveness in three ways: viz an embodied self that responds to natural life, other human beings and, ultimately, to God....

  18. [EVALUATION OF THE BODY ADIPOSITY INDEX IN PREDICTING PERCENTAGE BODY FAT AMONG COLOMBIAN ADULTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ruíz, Katherine; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2015-07-01

    the body adiposity index (BAI) is a new simplistic method for predicting body fat percentage (BF%) via a simple equation of hip circumference to height. Up to now, few studies have evaluated the performance of BAI in determining excess fat in Colombians. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of BAI as a predictor of body fat in among Colombian adults. cross-sectional study carried out in a sample of 204 male belonging to the education sector from Bogotá, Colombia. BAI was calculated based on the equation reported in the Bergman et al. %BF determined by tetrapolar bioimpedance analysis (BIA) was used as the reference measure of adiposity. Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess the agreement between the two methods: BAI and BIA. Associations between anthropometric measures of adiposity were investigated by Pearson correlation analysis. in general pupulation, the BAI overestimates %BF (mean difference: 12.5 % [95%CI = -4.04 % to -21.02 %]), mainly at lower levels of adiposity (mean difference: 10.2 ± 3.3). Significant correlations were found between BAI and all measurements, being the strongest-moderate correlation with %BF (r = 0.777, p Colombian adults and has a tendency to provide overestimated values as BF% decreases. Therefore, this method can be a useful tool to predict %BF in Colombian adults, although it has some limitations. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Independent Aftereffects of Fat and Muscle: Implications for neural encoding, body space representation, and body image disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Daniel; Stephen, Ian D.; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J; Brooks, Kevin R.

    2017-01-01

    Although research addressing body size misperception has focused on socio-cognitive processes, such as internalization of the “ideal” images of bodies in the media, the perceptual basis of this phenomenon remains largely unknown. Further, most studies focus on body size per se even though this depends on both fat and muscle mass – variables that have very different relationships with health. We tested visual adaptation as a mechanism for inducing body fat and muscle mass misperception, and assessed whether these two dimensions of body space are processed independently. Observers manipulated the apparent fat and muscle mass of bodies to make them appear “normal” before and after inspecting images from one of four adaptation conditions (increased fat/decreased fat/increased muscle/decreased muscle). Exposure resulted in a shift in the point of subjective normality in the direction of the adapting images along the relevant (fat or muscle) axis, suggesting that the neural mechanisms involved in body fat and muscle perception are independent. This supports the viability of adaptation as a model of real-world body size misperception, and extends its applicability to clinical manifestations of body image disturbance that entail not only preoccupation with thinness (e.g., anorexia nervosa) but also with muscularity (e.g., muscle dysmorphia). PMID:28071712

  20. Physical activity prevents augmented body fat accretion in moderately iron-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, James P; Andersen, Nancy E; Tarr, Tyson N; Stahl, Chad H; Young, Andrew J

    2008-07-01

    Recent studies describe an association between poor iron status and obesity in humans, although the mechanism explaining this relationship is unclear. The present study aimed to determine the effect of moderate iron deficiency and physical activity (PA) on body composition in an animal model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats consumed iron-adequate (IA; 40 mg/kg) or moderately iron-deficient (ID; 9 mg/kg) diets ad libitum for 12 wk. Rats were assigned to 4 treatment groups (n = 10 per group): IA, sedentary (IAS); IA, PA (IAPA); ID, sedentary (IDS); or ID, PA (IDPA). Activity involved running on motorized running wheels at 4 m/min for 1 h/d for 5 d/wk. After 12 wk, ID rats were not anemic, but body iron stores were reduced as indicated by diminished (P IA rats. Treatment group did not affect body weight or feed consumption. However, fat mass was greater (P IAS (31.8 +/- 2.9%), IAPA (31.8 +/- 2.0%), and IDPA (32.8 +/- 4.5%) rats. Furthermore, lean body mass was diminished in IDS rats (58.7 +/- 6.8%) compared with IAS (65.6 +/- 3.0%), IAPA (65.6 +/- 2.1%), and IDPA (64.7 +/- 4.5%) rats. Thus, moderate iron deficiency may cause increased body fat accretion in rats and PA attenuates that effect.

  1. Physics of the Human Body

    CERN Document Server

    Herman, Irving P

    2007-01-01

    Physics of the Human Body comprehensively addresses the physical and engineering aspects of human physiology by using and building on first-year college physics and mathematics. Topics include the mechanics of the static body and the body in motion, the materials properties of the body, muscles in the body, the energetics of body metabolism, fluid flow in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, the acoustics of sound waves in speaking and hearing, vision and the optics of the eye, the electrical properties of the body, and the basic engineering principles of feedback and control in regulating all aspects of function. The goal of this text is to understand physical issues concerning the human body, in part by developing and then using simple and subsequently more refined models of the macrophysics of the human body. Many chapters include a brief review of the necessary physical principles. There are problems at the end of each chapter; solutions to selected problems are also provided. This text is geared t...

  2. [Two compartment model of body composition and abdominal fat area in postmenopausal women - pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewska, Magdalena; Mioduszewska, Milena; Pańczyk, Mariusz; Kucharska, Alicja; Sińska, Beata; Dąbrowska-Bender, Marta; Michota-Katulska, Ewa; Zegan, Magdalena; Szabla, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Both menopausal period and aging have influence on body composition, increase of total body fat and visceral fat in particular. We should be aware that changes in body composition, mainly fat translocation to abdominal region, can occur without significant changes in body weight. Therefore quantitative abdominal fat assessment should be our aim. Body composition analysis based on two compartment model and abdominal fat area assessment in cross section. Subjects in postmenopausal period (41 women) were recruited for this study and divided into 2 groups: group 1 - women aged 45-56 years and group 2 - women aged 57-79 years. Body composition analysis and abdominal fat area assessment were conducted by using bioelectrical impedance method with BioScan 920 (Maltron int.) accordingly with standardized procedure. Women in early postmenopausal stage (Group 1) had statistically significant lower total body fat percentage in comparison with women in late postmenopausal period (Group 2) (41.09 ± 7.72% vs. 50.7 ± 9.88%, p=0.0021). Also women in group 1 were characterized by significant lower visceral fat area (VAT) as well as subcutaneous fat area (SAT) in comparison with group 2 (respectively VAT 119.25 ± 30.09 cm2 vs. 199.36 ± 87.38 cm2, p=0.0011; SAT 175.19 ±57.67 cm2 vs. 223.4±74.29 cm2, p=0.0336). According to VAT criteria (>120 cm2), 44% of women in group 1 and 80% in group 2 had excess of visceral fat. Both total body fat and intra-abdominal fat increased with age, independently of weight changes.

  3. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, Hein A.M.; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2016-01-01

    Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced

  4. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Shungin (Dmitry); T.W. Winkler (Thomas W.); D.C. Croteau-Chonka (Damien); T. Ferreira (Teresa); A. Locke (Adam); R. Mägi (Reedik); R.J. Strawbridge (Rona); T.H. Pers (Tune); K. Fischer (Krista); A.E. Justice (Anne); T. Workalemahu (Tsegaselassie); J.M.W. Wu (Joseph M. W.); M.L. Buchkovich (Martin); N.L. Heard-Costa (Nancy); T.S. Roman (Tamara S.); A. Drong (Alexander); C. Song (Ci); S. Gustafsson (Stefan); F.R. Day (Felix); T. Esko (Tõnu); M. Fall (Magnus); Z. Kutalik (Zolta'n); J. Luan; J.C. Randall (Joshua); A. Scherag (Andre); S. Vedantam (Sailaja); A.R. Wood (Andrew); J. Chen (Jin); R.S.N. Fehrmann (Rudolf); J. Karjalainen (Juha); B. Kahali (Bratati); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); E.M. Schmidt (Ellen); D. Absher (Devin); N. Amin (Najaf); M. Beekman (Marian); J.L. Bragg-Gresham (Jennifer L.); S. Buyske (Steven); A. Demirkan (Ayşe); G.B. Ehret (Georg); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); A. Goel (Anuj); A.U. Jackson (Anne); T. Johnson (Toby); M.E. Kleber (Marcus); K. Kristiansson (Kati); M. Mangino (Massimo); I.M. Leach (Irene Mateo); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); C. Palmer (Cameron); D. Pasko (Dorota); S. Pechlivanis (Sonali); M.J. Peters (Marjolein); I. Prokopenko (Inga); A. Stanca'kova' (Alena); Y.J. Sung (Yun Ju); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); A. Teumer (Alexander); J.V. van Vliet-Ostaptchouk (Jana); L. Yengo (Loic); W. Zhang (Weihua); E. Albrecht (Eva); J. Ärnlöv (Johan); G.M. Arscott (Gillian M.); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); A. Barrett (Angela); C. Bellis (Claire); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); C. Berne (Christian); M. Blüher (Matthias); S. Böhringer (Stefan); F. Bonnet (Fabrice); Y. Böttcher (Yvonne); M. Bruinenberg (M.); D.B. Carba (Delia B.); I.H. Caspersen (Ida H.); R. Clarke (Robert); E.W. Daw (E. Warwick); J. Deelen (Joris); E. Deelman (Ewa); G. Delgado; A.S.F. Doney (Alex); N. Eklund (Niina); M.R. Erdos (Michael); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); E. Eury (Elodie); N. Friedrich (Nele); M. Garcia (Melissa); V. Giedraitis (Vilmantas); B. Gigante (Bruna); A. Go (Attie); A. Golay (Alain); H. Grallert (Harald); T.B. Grammer (Tanja); J. Gräsler (Jürgen); J. Grewal (Jagvir); C.J. Groves (Christopher); T. Haller (Toomas); G. Hallmans (Göran); C.A. Hartman (Catharina); M. Hassinen (Maija); C. Hayward (Caroline); K. Heikkilä (Kauko); K.H. Herzig; Q. Helmer (Quinta); H.L. Hillege (Hans); O.L. Holmen (Oddgeir); S.C. Hunt (Steven); A. Isaacs (Aaron); T. Ittermann (Till); A.L. James (Alan); I. Johansson (Inger); T. Juliusdottir (Thorhildur); I.-P. Kalafati (Ioanna-Panagiota); L. Kinnunen (Leena); W. Koenig (Wolfgang); I.K. Kooner (Ishminder K.); W. Kratzer (Wolfgang); C. Lamina (Claudia); K. Leander (Karin); N.R. Lee (Nanette R.); P. Lichtner (Peter); L. Lind (Lars); J. Lindström (Jaana); S. Lobbens (Stéphane); M. Lorentzon (Mattias); F. MacH (François); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); A. Mahajan (Anubha); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); C. Menni (Cristina); S. Merger (Sigrun); E. Mihailov (Evelin); L. Milani (Lili); R. Mills (Rebecca); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); K.L. Monda (Keri); S.P. Mooijaart (Simon); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); A. Mulas (Antonella); G. Müller (Gabriele); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); R. Nagaraja (Ramaiah); M.A. Nalls (Michael); N. Narisu (Narisu); N. Glorioso (Nicola); I.M. Nolte (Ilja M.); M. Olden (Matthias); N.W. Rayner (Nigel William); F. Renström (Frida); J.S. Ried (Janina); N.R. Robertson (Neil R.); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Sanna (Serena); H. Scharnagl (Hubert); S. Scholtens (Salome); B. Sennblad (Bengt); T. Seufferlein (Thomas); C.M. Sitlani (Colleen); G.D. Smith; K. Stirrups (Kathy); H.M. Stringham (Heather); J. Sundstrom (Johan); M. Swertz (Morris); A.J. Swift (Amy); A.C. Syvanen; B. Tayo (Bamidele); B. Thorand (Barbara); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); A. Tomaschitz (Andreas); C. Troffa (Chiara); F.V.A. van Oort (Floor); N. Verweij (Niek); J.M. Vonk (Judith); L. Waite (Lindsay); R. Wennauer (Roman); T. Wilsgaard (Tom); M.K. Wojczynski (Mary ); A. Wong (Andrew); Q. Zhang (Qunyuan); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); E.P. Brennan (Eoin P.); M. Choi (Murim); P. Eriksson (Per); L. Folkersen (Lasse); A. Franco-Cereceda (Anders); A.G. Gharavi (Ali G.); A.K. Hedman (Asa); M.-F. Hivert (Marie-France); J. Huang (Jinyan); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); F. Karpe (Fredrik); S. Keildson (Sarah); K. Kiryluk (Krzysztof); L. Liang (Liming); R.P. Lifton (Richard); B. Ma (Baoshan); A.J. McKnight (Amy J.); R. McPherson (Ruth); A. Metspalu (Andres); J.L. Min (Josine L.); M.F. Moffatt (Miriam); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); J. Murabito (Joanne); G. Nicholson (Ggeorge); A.S. Dimas (Antigone); C. Olsson (Christian); J.R.B. Perry (John); E. Reinmaa (Eva); R.M. Salem (Rany); N. Sandholm (Niina); E.E. Schadt (Eric); R.A. Scott (Robert); L. Stolk (Lisette); E.E. Vallejo (Edgar E.); H.J. Westra (Harm-Jan); K.T. Zondervan (Krina); P. Amouyel (Philippe); D. Arveiler (Dominique); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); J.P. Beilby (John); R.N. Bergman (Richard); J. Blangero (John); M.J. Brown (Morris); M. Burnier (Michel); H. Campbell (Harry); A. Chakravarti (Aravinda); P.S. Chines (Peter); S. Claudi-Boehm (Simone); F.S. Collins (Francis); D.C. Crawford (Dana); J. Danesh (John); U. de Faire (Ulf); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); M. Dörr (Marcus); R. Erbel (Raimund); K. Hagen (Knut); M. Farrall (Martin); E. Ferrannini (Ele); J. Ferrieres (Jean); N.G. Forouhi (Nita); T. Forrester (Terrence); O.H. Franco (Oscar); R.T. Gansevoort (Ron); C. Gieger (Christian); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); C.A. Haiman (Christopher); T.B. Harris (Tamara); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); M. Heliovaara (Markku); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); A. Hingorani (Aroon); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); A. Hofman (Albert); G. Homuth (Georg); S.E. Humphries (Steve); E. Hypponen (Elina); T. Illig (Thomas); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); B. Johansen (Berit); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); A. Jula (Antti); J. Kaprio (Jaakko); F. Kee (F.); S. Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi (Sirkka); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal S.); C. Kooperberg (Charles); P. Kovacs (Peter); A. Kraja (Aldi); M. Kumari (Meena); K. Kuulasmaa (Kari); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); T.A. Lakka (Timo); C. Langenberg (Claudia); L. Le Marchand (Loic); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); V. Lyssenko (Valeriya); S. Männistö (Satu); A. Marette (Andre'); T.C. Matise (Tara C.); C.A. McKenzie (Colin A.); B. McKnight (Barbara); A.W. Musk (Arthur); S. Möhlenkamp (Stefan); A.D. Morris (Andrew); M. Nelis (Mari); C. Ohlsson (Claes); A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); K.K. Ong (Ken K.); C. Palmer (Cameron); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); A. Peters (Annette); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); O. Raitakari (Olli); T. Rankinen (Tuomo); D.C. Rao (Dabeeru C.); T.K. Rice (Treva K.); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M.D. Ritchie (Marylyn D.); I. Rudan (Igor); V. Salomaa (Veikko); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); J. Saramies (Jouko); M.A. Sarzynski (Mark A.); P.E.H. Schwarz (Peter E. H.); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); J.A. Staessen (Jan); V. Steinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); R.P. Stolk (Ronald); K. Strauch (Konstantin); A. Tönjes (Anke); A. Tremblay (Angelo); E. Tremoli (Elena); M.-C. Vohl (Marie-Claude); U. Völker (Uwe); P. Vollenweider (Peter); J.F. Wilson (James F); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); L.S. Adair (Linda); M. Bochud (Murielle); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan R.); C. Bouchard (Claude); S. Cauchi (Ste'phane); M. Caulfield (Mark); J.C. Chambers (John C.); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); R.S. Cooper (Richard S.); G.V. Dedoussis (George); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); P. Froguel (Philippe); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); A. Hamsten (Anders); J. Hui (Jennie); K. Hveem (Kristian); K.-H. Jöckel (Karl-Heinz); M. Kivimaki (Mika); D. Kuh (Diana); M. Laakso (Markku); Y. Liu (YongMei); W. März (Winfried); P. Munroe (Patricia); I. Njølstad (Inger); B.A. Oostra (Ben); C.N.A. Palmer (Colin); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy L.); M. Perola (Markus); L. Perusse (Louis); U. Peters (Ulrike); C. Power (Christopher); T. Quertermous (Thomas); R. Rauramaa (Rainer); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); T. Saaristo (Timo); D. Saleheen; J. Sinisalo (Juha); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); H. Snieder (Harold); T.D. Spector (Timothy); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); M. Stumvoll (Michael); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M. Uusitupa (Matti); P. van der Harst (Pim); G. Veronesi (Giovanni); M. Walker (Mark); N.J. Wareham (Nick); H. Watkins (Hugh); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); T.L. Assimes (Themistocles); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); M. Boehnke (Michael); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); L. Franke (Lude); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); L. Groop (Leif); D. Hunter (David); R.C. Kaplan (Robert); J.R. O´Connell; L. Qi (Lu); D. Schlessinger (David); D.P. Strachan (David); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); C.J. Willer (Cristen); P.M. Visscher (Peter); J. Yang (Joanna); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel N.); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); E.K. Speliotes (Elizabeth); K.E. North (Kari); C.S. Fox (Caroline S.); I.E. Barroso (Inês); P.W. Franks (Paul); D. Anderson (Denise); E. Ingelsson (Erik); I.M. Heid (Iris); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); A.P. Morris (Andrew); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); K.L. Mohlke (Karen)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBody fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct

  5. Field method to measure changes in percent body fat of young women: The TIGER Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body mass index (BMI), waist (W) and hip (H) circumference (C) are commonly used to assess changes in body composition for field research. We developed a model to estimate changes in dual energy X-ray absorption (DXA) percent fat (% fat) from these variables with a diverse sample of young women fro...

  6. Motor competence and cardiorespiratory fitness have greater influence on body fatness than physical activity across time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, R A; Pfeiffer, K A; Bugge, A

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the longitudinal associations among physical activity (PA), motor competence (MC), cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak ), and body fatness across 7 years, and also analyzed the possible mediation effects of PA, MC, and VO2peak on the relationships with body fatness. This was a seven...

  7. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shungin, Dmitry; Winkler, Thomas W.; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Ferreira, Teresa; Locke, Adam E.; Mägi, Reedik; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Pers, Tune H.; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E.; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M. W.; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Roman, Tamara S.; Drong, Alexander W.; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R.; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian'an; Randall, Joshua C.; Scherag, André; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R.; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U.; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E.; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Mateo Leach, Irene; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D.; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J.; Prokopenko, Inga; Stančáková, Alena; Ju Sung, Yun; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J.; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B.; Caspersen, Ida H.; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E. Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex S. F.; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R.; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrich, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E.; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S.; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B.; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J.; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L.; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C.; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L.; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K.; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R.; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L.; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L.; Mooijaart, Simon P.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A.; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M.; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W.; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S.; Robertson, Neil R.; Rose, Lynda M.; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M.; Vernon Smith, Albert; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M.; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A.; Swift, Amy J.; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor V. A.; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Hua Zhao, Jing; Brennan, Eoin P.; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G.; Hedman, Åsa K.; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P.; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J.; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L.; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R.; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John R. B.; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M.; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E.; Scott, Robert A.; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T.; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N.; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J.; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chines, Peter S.; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Collins, Francis S.; Crawford, Dana C.; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Dörr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G.; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G.; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Heliövaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Humphries, Steve E.; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T.; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C.; McKenzie, Colin A.; McKnight, Barbara; Musk, Arthur W.; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Morris, Andrew D.; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ong, Ken K.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rice, Treva K.; Ridker, Paul M.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Staessen, Jan A.; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P.; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.; Adair, Linda S.; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Caulfield, Mark J.; Chambers, John C.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Cooper, Richard S.; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Froguel, Philippe; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hveem, Kristian; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; März, Winfried; Munroe, Patricia B.; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E.; Saleheen, Danish; Sinisalo, Juha; Slagboom, P. Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G.; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Veronesi, Giovanni; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M.; Groop, Leif C.; Hunter, David J.; Kaplan, Robert C.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Qi, Lu; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Willer, Cristen J.; Visscher, Peter M.; Yang, Jian; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Zillikens, M. Carola; McCarthy, Mark I.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; North, Kari E.; Fox, Caroline S.; Barroso, Inês; Franks, Paul W.; Ingelsson, Erik; Heid, Iris M.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Morris, Andrew P.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Dastani, Zari; Timpson, Nicholas; Yuan, Xin; Henneman, Peter; Kizer, Jorge R.; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Fuchsberger, Christian; Small, Kerrin; Coassin, Stefan; Lohman, Kurt; Pankow, James S.; Uh, Hae-Won; Wu, Ying; Bidulescu, Aurelian; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Greenwood, Celia M. T.; Ladouceur, Martin; Grimsby, Jonna; Manning, Alisa K.; Kooner, Jaspal; Mooser, Vincent E.; Kapur, Karen A.; Chambers, John; Frants, Rune; Willemsvan-vanDijk, Ko; Willems, Sara M.; Winkler, Thomas; Psaty, Bruce M.; Tracy, Russell P.; Brody, Jennifer; Chen, Ida; Viikari, Jorma; Kähönen, Mika; Evans, David M.; St Pourcain, Beate; Sattar, Naveed; Wood, Andy; Carlson, Olga D.; Egan, Josephine M.; van Heemst, Diana; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Loo, Britt-Marie; Harris, Tamara; Garcia, Melissa; Kanaya, Alka; Haun, Margot; Klopp, Norman; Wichmann, H. Erich; Katsareli, Efi; Couper, David J.; Duncan, Bruce B.; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Borja, Judith B.; Wilson, James G.; Musani, Solomon; Guo, Xiuqing; Semple, Robert; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Allison, Matthew A.; Redline, Susan; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Dedoussis, George V.; Hu, Frank B.; Paulweber, Bernhard; Spector, Timothy D.; Jula, Antti; Raitakari, Olli; Florez, Jose C.; Smith, George Davey; Siscovick, David S.; Kronenberg, Florian; van Duijn, Cornelia; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Meigs, James B.; Dupuis, Josee; Richards, John Brent; Willenborg, Christina; Thompson, John R.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Goldstein, Benjamin A.; König, Inke R.; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Johansson, Åsa; Hall, Alistair S.; Lee, Jong-Young; Esko, Tõnu; Grundberg, Elin; Havulinna, Aki S.; Ho, Weang K.; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Eriksson, Niclas; Lundmark, Per; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Rafelt, Suzanne; Tikkanen, Emmi; van Zuydam, Natalie; Voight, Benjamin F.; Ziegler, Andreas; Altshuler, David; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Braund, Peter S.; Burgdorf, Christof; Cox, David; Dimitriou, Maria; Do, Ron; El Mokhtari, NourEddine; Fontanillas, Pierre; Groop, Leif; Hager, Jörg; Hallmans, Göran; Han, Bok-Ghee; Hunt, Sarah E.; Kang, Hyun M.; Kessler, Thorsten; Knowles, Joshua W.; Kolovou, Genovefa; Langford, Cordelia; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Lundmark, Anders; Meisinger, Christa; Melander, Olle; Maouche, Seraya; Nikus, Kjell; Peden, John F.; Rayner, N. William; Rasheed, Asif; Rosinger, Silke; Rubin, Diana; Rumpf, Moritz P.; Schäfer, Arne; Sivananthan, Mohan; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; van der Schoot, C. Ellen; Wagner, Peter J.; Wells, George A.; Wild, Philipp S.; Yang, Tsun-Po; Basart, Hanneke; Boerwinkle, Eric; Brambilla, Paolo; Cambien, Francois; Cupples, Adrienne L.; Dehghan, Abbas; Diemert, Patrick; Epstein, Stephen E.; Evans, Alun; Ferrario, Marco M.; Gauguier, Dominique; Goodall, Alison H.; Gudnason, Villi; Hazen, Stanley L.; Holm, Hilma; Iribarren, Carlos; Jang, Yangsoo; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Laaksonen, Reijo; Lee, Ji-Young; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Parish, Sarah; Park, Jeong E.; Rader, Daniel J.; Schadt, Eric; Shah, Svati H.; Stark, Klaus; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas; Zimmermann, Martina E.; Nieminen, Markku S.; Hengstenberg, Christian; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Pastinen, Tomi; Hovingh, G. Kees; Zalloua, Pierre A.; Siegbahn, Agneta; Schreiber, Stefan; Ripatti, Samuli; Blankenberg, Stefan S.; O'Donnell, Christopher; Reilly, Muredach P.; Collins, Rory; Kathiresan, Sekar; Roberts, Robert; Schunkert, Heribert; Pattaro, Cristian; Köttgen, Anna; Garnaas, Maija; Böger, Carsten A.; Chen, Ming-Huei; Tin, Adrienne; Taliun, Daniel; Li, Man; Gao, Xiaoyi; Gorski, Mathias; Yang, Qiong; Hundertmark, Claudia; Foster, Meredith C.; O'Seaghdha, Conall M.; Glazer, Nicole; Smith, Albert V.; Struchalin, Maksim; Li, Guo; Johnson, Andrew D.; Gierman, Hinco J.; Feitosa, Mary; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Chouraki, Vincent; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Sorice, Rossella; Kutalik, Zoltan; Deshmukh, Harshal; Ulivi, Sheila; Chu, Audrey Y.; Murgia, Federico; Trompet, Stella; Imboden, Medea; Kollerits, Barbara; Pistis, Giorgio; Launer, Lenore J.; Aspelund, Thor; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Schmidt, Helena; Cavalieri, Margherita; Rao, Madhumathi; de Andrade, Mariza; Turner, Stephen T.; Ding, Jingzhong; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Freedman, Barry I.; Döring, Angela; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Kolcic, Ivana; Zemunik, Tatijana; Boban, Mladen; Minelli, Cosetta; Wheeler, Heather E.; Igl, Wilmar; Zaboli, Ghazal; Wild, Sarah H.; Wright, Alan F.; Ellinghaus, David; Nöthlings, Ute; Jacobs, Gunnar; Biffar, Reiner; Endlich, Karlhans; Ernst, Florian; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Nauck, Matthias; Stracke, Sylvia; Völzke, Henry; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Polasek, Ozren; Hastie, Nick; Vitart, Veronique; Helmer, Catherine; Wang, Jie Jin; Ruggiero, Daniela; Bergmann, Sven; Nikopensius, Tiit; Province, Michael; Ketkar, Shamika; Colhoun, Helen; Doney, Alex; Robino, Antonietta; Giulianini, Franco; Krämer, Bernhard K.; Portas, Laura; Ford, Ian; Buckley, Brendan M.; Adam, Martin; Thun, Gian-Andri; Sala, Cinzia; Metzger, Marie; Mitchell, Paul; Ciullo, Marina; Kim, Stuart K.; Palmer, Colin; Gasparini, Paolo; Pirastu, Mario; Jukema, J. Wouter; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.; Toniolo, Daniela; Coresh, Josef; Schmidt, Reinhold; Borecki, Ingrid; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Curhan, Gary C.; Gyllensten, Ulf; Franke, Andre; Rettig, Rainer; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Ridker, Paul; Parsa, Afshin; Goessling, Wolfram; Kao, W. H. Linda; de Boer, Ian H.; Glazer, Nicole L.; Peralta, Carmen A.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Akylbekova, Ermeg; Kramer, Holly; Arking, Dan E.; Franceschini, Nora; Egan, Josephine; Hernandez, Dena; Reilly, Muredach; Townsend, Raymond R.; Lumley, Thomas; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Haritunians, Talin; Waeber, Gerard; Mooser, Vincent; Waterworth, Dawn; Lu, Xiaoning; Leak, Tennille S.; Aasarød, Knut; Skorpen, Frank; Baumert, Jens; Devuyst, Olivier; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Curhan, Gary; Hallan, Stein; Navis, Gerjan; Shlipak, Michael G.; Bull, Shelley B.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Dreisbach, Albert W.; Kao, W. H. L.; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Evangelou, Evangelos; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Duncan, Emma L.; Ntzani, Evangelia E.; Oei, Ling; Albagha, Omar M. E.; Kemp, John P.; Koller, Daniel L.; Minster, Ryan L.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Willner, Dana; Xiao, Su-Mei; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Zheng, Hou-Feng; Alonso, Nerea; Eriksson, Joel; Kammerer, Candace M.; Kaptoge, Stephen K.; Leo, Paul J.; Wilson, Scott G.; Aalto, Ville; Alen, Markku; Aragaki, Aaron K.; Center, Jacqueline R.; Dailiana, Zoe; Duggan, David J.; Garcia-Giralt, Natàlia; Giroux, Sylvie; Hocking, Lynne J.; Husted, Lise Bjerre; Jameson, Karen A.; Khusainova, Rita; Kim, Ghi Su; Koromila, Theodora; Kruk, Marcin; Laaksonen, Marika; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Lee, Seung Hun; Leung, Ping C.; Lewis, Joshua R.; Masi, Laura; Mencej-Bedrac, Simona; Nguyen, Tuan V.; Nogues, Xavier; Patel, Millan S.; Prezelj, Janez; Scollen, Serena; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Svensson, Olle; Trummer, Olivia; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Woo, Jean; Zhu, Kun; Balcells, Susana; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Cheng, Sulin; Christiansen, Claus; Cooper, Cyrus; Frost, Morten; Goltzman, David; González-Macías, Jesús; Karlsson, Magnus; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Koh, Jung-Min; Kollia, Panagoula; Langdahl, Bente Lomholt; Leslie, William D.; Lips, Paul; Ljunggren, Östen; Lorenc, Roman S.; Marc, Janja; Mellström, Dan; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Olmos, José M.; Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika; Reid, David M.; Riancho, José A.; Rousseau, François; Tang, Nelson L. S.; Urreizti, Roser; van Hul, Wim; Zarrabeitia, María T.; Castano-Betancourt, Martha; Herrera, Lizbeth; Ingvarsson, Thorvaldur; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Kwan, Tony; Li, Rui; Luben, Robert; Medina-Gómez, Carolina; Palsson, Stefan Th; Reppe, Sjur; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.; Verlaan, Dominique; Williams, Frances M. K.; Zhou, Yanhua; Gautvik, Kaare M.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Cauley, Jane A.; Clark, Graeme R.; Cummings, Steven R.; Danoy, Patrick; Dennison, Elaine M.; Eastell, Richard; Eisman, John A.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Jones, Graeme; Khaw, Kay-Tee; McCloskey, Eugene; Nandakumar, Kannabiran; Nicholson, Geoffrey C.; Peacock, Munro; Pols, Huibert A. P.; Prince, Richard L.; Reid, Ian R.; Robbins, John; Sambrook, Philip N.; Sham, Pak Chung; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Wareham, Nick J.; Econs, Michael J.; Kung, Annie Wai Chee; Reeve, Jonathan; Streeten, Elizabeth A.; Karasik, David; Richards, J. Brent; Brown, Matthew A.; Ralston, Stuart H.; Ioannidis, John P. A.; Kiel, Douglas P.; McKnight, Amy Jayne; Forsblom, Carol; Isakova, Tamara; McKay, Gareth J.; Williams, Winfred W.; Sadlier, Denise M.; Mäkinen, Ville-Petteri; Swan, Elizabeth J.; Palmer, Cameron; Boright, Andrew P.; Ahlqvist, Emma; Deshmukh, Harshal A.; Keller, Benjamin J.; Huang, Huateng; Ahola, Aila; Fagerholm, Emma; Gordin, Daniel; Harjutsalo, Valma; He, Bing; Heikkilä, Outi; Hietala, Kustaa; Kytö, Janne; Lahermo, Päivi; Lehto, Markku; Österholm, Anne-May; Parkkonen, Maija; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Rosengård-Bärlund, Milla; Saraheimo, Markku; Sarti, Cinzia; Söderlund, Jenny; Soro-Paavonen, Aino; Syreeni, Anna; Thorn, Lena M.; Tikkanen, Heikki; Tolonen, Nina; Tryggvason, Karl; Wadén, Johan; Gill, Geoffrey V.; Prior, Sarah; Guiducci, Candace; Mirel, Daniel B.; Taylor, Andrew; Hosseini, Mohsen; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Rossing, Peter; Tarnow, Lise; Ladenvall, Claes; Alhenc-Gelas, François; Lefebvre, Pierre; Rigalleau, Vincent; Roussel, Ronan; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Maestroni, Anna; Maestroni, Silvia; Falhammar, Henrik; Gu, Tianwei; Möllsten, Anna; Cimponeriu, Dan; Mihai, Ioana; Mota, Maria; Mota, Eugen; Serafinceanu, Cristian; Stavarachi, Monica; Hanson, Robert L.; Nelson, Robert G.; Kretzler, Matthias; Colhoun, Helen M.; Panduru, Nicolae Mircea; Gu, Harvest F.; Brismar, Kerstin; Zerbini, Gianpaolo; Hadjadj, Samy; Marre, Michel; Lajer, Maria; Waggott, Daryl; Savage, David A.; Bain, Stephen C.; Martin, Finian; Godson, Catherine; Groop, Per-Henrik; Maxwell, Alexander P.; Sengupta, Sebanti; Peloso, Gina M.; Ganna, Andrea; Mora, Samia; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ayşe; den Hertog, Heleen M.; Donnelly, Louise A.; Fraser, Ross M.; Freitag, Daniel F.; Gurdasani, Deepti; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Li, Xiaohui; Montasser, May E.; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K.; Shah, Sonia; Sidore, Carlo; Surakka, Ida; van den Herik, Evita G.; Volcik, Kelly A.; Asiki, Gershim; Been, Latonya F.; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Burnett, Mary S.; Cesana, Giancarlo; Elliott, Paul; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Gravito, Martha L.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hung, Yi-Jen; Jones, Michelle R.; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J. P.; Kim, Eric; Komulainen, Pirjo; Lin, Shih-Yi; Müller, Gabrielle; Nieminen, Tuomo V. M.; Nsubuga, Rebecca N.; Olafsson, Isleifur; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Tiret, Laurence; van Pelt, L. Joost; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Willemsen, Gonneke; Young, Elizabeth H.; Bennett, Franklyn; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bovet, Pascal; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Feranil, Alan B.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Hingorani, Aroon; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kesäniemi, Antero; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Meneton, Pierre; Moilanen, Leena; Price, Jackie F.; Sanghera, Dharambir K.; Sheu, Wayne H.-H.; Whitfield, John B.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Ordovas, Jose M.; Rich, Stephen S.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Abecasis, Gonçalo; Caulfield, Mark; Chasman, Dan; Ehret, Georg; Johnson, Andrew; Johnson, Louise; Larson, Martin; Levy, Daniel; Munroe, Patricia; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; O'Reilly, Paul; Palmas, Walter; Psaty, Bruce; Rice, Kenneth; Smith, Albert; Snider, Harold; Tobin, Martin; Verwoert, Germaine; Rice, Kenneth M.; Tobin, Martin D.; Verwoert, Germaine C.; Pihur, Vasyl; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Launer, Lenore; Aulchenko, Yurii; Heath, Simon; Sõber, Siim; Arora, Pankaj; Zhang, Feng; Lucas, Gavin; Milaneschi, Yuri; Parker, Alex N.; Fava, Cristiano; Fox, Ervin R.; Go, Min Jin; Kao, Wen Hong Linda; Sjögren, Marketa; Vinay, D. G.; Alexander, Myriam; Tabara, Yasuharu; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Whincup, Peter H.; Shi, Gang; Tayo, Bamidele; Seielstad, Mark; Sim, Xueling; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung Hoang; Matullo, Giuseppe; Gaunt, Tom R.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Cooper, Matthew N.; Platou, Carl G. P.; Org, Elin; Hardy, Rebecca; Dahgam, Santosh; Palmen, Jutta; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Ludwig, Barbara; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Chang, Yen-Pei C.; Steinle, Nanette I.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Kardia, Sharon L.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Najjar, Samer; Hadley, David; Connell, John M.; Day, Ian N. M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Beilby, John P.; Lawrence, Robert W.; Ongen, Halit; Li, Yali; Young, J. H.; Bis, Joshua C.; Bolton, Judith A. Hoffman; Chaturvedi, Nish; Islam, Muhammad; Jafar, Tazeen H.; Kulkarni, Smita R.; Grässler, Jürgen; Howard, Philip; Guarrera, Simonetta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew; Weder, Alan B.; Sun, Yan V.; Scott, Laura J.; Peltonen, Leena; Vartiainen, Erkki; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Wang, Thomas J.; Burton, Paul R.; Artigas, Maria Soler; Dong, Yanbin; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhu, Haidong; Lohman, Kurt K.; Rudock, Megan E.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Doumatey, Ayo; Shriner, Daniel; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairajan; Tripathy, Vikal; Langefeld, Carl D.; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S.; Corsi, Anna Maria; Singleton, Andrew; Hilton, Gina; Salako, Tunde; Iwai, Naoharu; Kita, Yoshikuni; Ogihara, Toshio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Umemura, Satoshi; Eyheramendy, Susana; Meitinger, Thomas; Cho, Yoon Shin; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Scott, James; Sehmi, Joban S.; Hedblad, Bo; Nilsson, Peter; Stanèáková, Alena; Raffel, Leslie J.; Yao, Jie; O'Donnell, Chris; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Longstreth, W. T.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Seshadri, Sudha; Shrine, Nick R. G.; Wain, Louise V.; Morken, Mario A.; Laitinen, Jaana; Zitting, Paavo; Cooper, Jackie A.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Janipalli, Charles S.; Mani, K. Radha; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U. S.; Lakatta, Edward G.; Orru, Marco; Scuteri, Angelo; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kangas, Antti J.; Soininen, Pasi; Tukiainen, Taru; Würtz, Peter; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Zhai, Guangju; Meschia, James F.; Sharma, Pankaj; Terzic, Janos; Kumar, M. J. Kranthi; Denniff, Matthew; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Fowkes, F. Gerald R.; Charchar, Fadi J.; Rotimi, Charles; Bots, Michiel L.; Brand, Eva; Talmud, Philippa J.; Nyberg, Fredrik; Laan, Maris; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Casas, Juan P.; Vineis, Paolo; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Wong, Tien Y.; Tai, E. Shyong; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Morris, Richard W.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Marmot, Michael G.; Miki, Tetsuro; Chandak, Giriraj R.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Gyllensten, Ulf B.; Elosua, Roberto; Soranzo, Nicole; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Uda, Manuela; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Larson, Martin G.; Anderson, Carl A.; Gordon, Scott D.; Guo, Qun; Henders, Anjali K.; Lambert, Ann; Lee, Sang Hong; Kraft, Peter; Kennedy, Stephen H.; Macgregor, Stuart; Missmer, Stacey A.; Painter, Jodie N.; Roseman, Fenella; Treloar, Susan A.; Wallace, Leanne; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Boezen, H. Marike; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Ormel, Johan; Postma, Dirkje S.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Slaets, Joris P.; Lagou, Vasiliki; Welch, Ryan P.; Wheeler, Eleanor; Rehnberg, Emil; Lecoeur, Cecile; Johnson, Paul C. D.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Salo, Perttu; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Zhao, Wei; Horikoshi, Momoko; Navarro, Pau; Esko, Tönu; Chen, Han; Robertson, Neil; Rybin, Denis; Kang, Hyun Min; Song, Kijoung; An, Ping; Marullo, Letizia; Jansen, Hanneke; Edkins, Sarah; Varga, Tibor V.; Oksa, Heikki; Antonella, Mulas; Kong, Augustine; Herder, Christian; Antti, Jula; Miljkovic, Iva; Atalay, Mustafa; Kiess, Wieland; Smit, Johannes H.; Campbell, Susan; Fowkes, Gerard R.; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Maerz, Winfried; Province, Michael A.; Watanabe, Richard M.; Toenjes, Anke; Peyser, Patricia A.; Körner, Antje; Dupuis, Josée; Cucca, Francesco; Balkau, Beverley; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Ahmadi, Kourosh R.; Ainali, Chrysanthi; Bataille, Veronique; Bell, Jordana T.; Buil, Alfonso; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Dimas, Antigone S.; Durbin, Richard; Glass, Daniel; Hassanali, Neelam; Ingle, Catherine; Knowles, David; Krestyaninova, Maria; Lowe, Christopher E.; Meduri, Eshwar; di Meglio, Paola; Montgomery, Stephen B.; Nestle, Frank O.; Nica, Alexandra C.; Nisbet, James; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Parts, Leopold; Potter, Simon; Sekowska, Magdalena; Shin, So-Youn; Small, Kerrin S.; Surdulescu, Gabriela; Travers, Mary E.; Tsaprouni, Loukia; Tsoka, Sophia; Wilk, Alicja; Matise, Tara; Buyske, Steve; Higashio, Julia; Williams, Rasheeda; Nato, Andrew; Ambite, Jose Luis; Manolio, Teri; Hindorff, Lucia; Heiss, Gerardo; Taylor, Kira; Avery, Christy; Graff, Misa; Lin, Danyu; Quibrera, Miguel; Cochran, Barbara; Kao, Linda; Umans, Jason; Cole, Shelley; MacCluer, Jean; Person, Sharina; Pankow, James; Gross, Myron; Fornage, Myriam; Durda, Peter; Jenny, Nancy; Patsy, Bruce; Arnold, Alice; Buzkova, Petra; Crawford, Dana; Haines, Jonathan; Murdock, Deborah; Glenn, Kim; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Thornton-Wells, Tricia; Dumitrescu, Logan; Jeff, Janina; Bush, William S.; Mitchell, Sabrina L.; Goodloe, Robert; Wilson, Sarah; Boston, Jonathan; Malinowski, Jennifer; Restrepo, Nicole; Oetjens, Matthew; Fowke, Jay; Zheng, Wei; Spencer, Kylee; Ritchie, Marylyn; Pendergrass, Sarah; Le Marchand, Loïc; Wilkens, Lynne; Park, Lani; Tiirikainen, Maarit; Kolonel, Laurence; Lim, Unhee; Cheng, Iona; Wang, Hansong; Shohet, Ralph; Haiman, Christopher; Stram, Daniel; Henderson, Brian; Monroe, Kristine; Schumacher, Fredrick; Anderson, Garnet; Carlson, Chris; Prentice, Ross; LaCroix, Andrea; Wu, Chunyuan; Carty, Cara; Gong, Jian; Rosse, Stephanie; Young, Alicia; Haessler, Jeff; Kocarnik, Jonathan; Lin, Yi; Jackson, Rebecca; Duggan, David; Kuller, Lew; He, Chunyan; Sulem, Patrick; Barbalic, Maja; Broer, Linda; Byrne, Enda M.; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; McArdle, Patick F.; Porcu, Eleonora; van Wingerden, Sophie; Zhuang, Wei V.; Lauc, Lovorka Barac; Broekmans, Frank J.; Burri, Andrea; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Constance; Corre, Tanguy; Coviello, Andrea D.; D'Adamo, Pio; Davies, Gail; Deary, Ian J.; Dedoussis, George V. Z.; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Ebrahim, Shah; Fauser, Bart C. J. M.; Ferreli, Liana; Folsom, Aaron R.; Hall, Per; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hass, Merli; Heath, Andrew C.; Janssens, A. Cecile J. W.; Keyzer, Jules; Lahti, Jari; Lai, Sandra; Laisk, Triin; Laven, Joop S. E.; Liu, Jianjun; Lopez, Lorna M.; Louwers, Yvonne V.; Marongiu, Mara; Klaric, Irena Martinovic; Masciullo, Corrado; Medland, Sarah E.; Melzer, David; Newman, Anne B.; Paré, Guillaume; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Plump, Andrew S.; Pop, Victor J. M.; Räikkönen, Katri; Salumets, Andres; Smith, Jennifer A.; Stacey, Simon N.; Starr, John M.; Stathopoulou, Maria G.; Tenesa, Albert; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Tsui, Kim; van Dam, Rob M.; van Gils, Carla H.; van Nierop, Peter; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Voorhuis, Marlies; Waeber, Gérard; Wallaschofski, Henri; Widen, Elisabeth; Wijnands-van Gent, Colette J. M.; Zgaga, Lina; Zygmunt, Marek; Arnold, Alice M.; Buring, Julie E.; Crisponi, Laura; Demerath, Ellen W.; Murray, Anna; Visser, Jenny A.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Elks, Cathy E.; Cousminer, Diana L.; Feenstra, Bjarke; Lin, Peng; McArdle, Patrick F.; van Wingerden, Sophie W.; Smith, Erin N.; Ulivi, Shelia; Warrington, Nicole M.; Alavere, Helen; Barroso, Ines; Berenson, Gerald S.; Blackburn, Hannah; Busonero, Fabio; Chen, Wei; Couper, David; Easton, Douglas F.; Eriksson, Johan; Foroud, Tatiana; Geller, Frank; Hernandez, Dena G.; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Li, Shengxu; Melbye, Mads; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Murray, Sarah S.; Ness, Andrew R.; Northstone, Kate; Pennell, Craig E.; Pharoah, Paul; Rafnar, Thorunn; Rice, John P.; Ring, Susan M.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Segrè, Ayellet V.; Sovio, Ulla; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Tammesoo, Mar-Liis; Tyrer, Jonathon; van Meurs, Joyve B. J.; Weedon, Michael N.; Young, Lauren; Zhuang, Wei Vivian; Bierut, Laura J.; Boyd, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide

  8. High body fat percentage among adult women in Malaysia: the role ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body fat percentage is regarded as an important measurement for diagnosis of obesity. The aim of this study is to determine the association of high body fat percentage (BF%) and lifestyle among adult women. The study was conducted on 327 women, aged 40-59 years, recruited during a health screening program. Data on ...

  9. Validation of the Ejike-Ijeh equations for the estimation of body fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ejike-Ijeh equations for the estimation of body fat percentage makes it possible for the body fat content of individuals and populations to be determined without the use of costly equipment. However, because the equations were derived using data from a young-adult (18-29 years old) Nigerian population, it is important ...

  10. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shungin, Dmitry; Winkler, Thomas W; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.

    2015-01-01

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome...

  11. The plasma leptin concentration is closely associated with the body fat mass in nondiabetic uremic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Nielsen, P K; Olgaard, K

    1999-01-01

    filtration rate seemed to have a limited influence on the plasma leptin concentration in nondiabetic uremic subjects matched by body fat mass to controls. The plasma leptin concentration was closely associated with the body fat mass, and the leptin level might, therefore, be useful as an indicator of the fat......Plasma leptin is associated with the body mass index and, more precisely, with the body fat mass. Plasma leptin has been found to be elevated in uremic patients. This study aimed at investigating the plasma leptin concentration and associations between plasma leptin, body fat mass, and glomerular.......4 (3.1-59.5) ng/ml versus 5.4 (1.6-47.5) ng/ml (median and range in parentheses; p

  12. Body fat related to daily physical activity and insulin concentrations in non-diabetic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the associations between body fat versus daily physical activity and insulin concentrations in non-diabetic young children in a cross-sectional study of 172 children (93 boys and 79 girls) aged 8-11 years. Blood samples were analysed for serum insulin and daily physical activity......%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Body fat distribution was independently linked to both insulin concentrations and physical activity. In contrast, TBF, AFM, and BF% were linked to physical activity only and not to insulin concentrations. In conclusion in this population of non-diabetic...... was measured by accelerometers. Time spent performing vigorous activity was estimated from accelerometer data by using established cut-off points. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to quantify abdominal fat mass (AFM) and total body fat (TBF), also calculated as percentage of body weight (BF...

  13. Evaluation of a semi-automated computer algorithm for measuring total fat and visceral fat content in lambs undergoing in vivo whole body computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Alana J; Scrivani, Peter V; Boisclair, Yves R; Reeves, Anthony P; Ramos-Nieves, Jose M; Xie, Yiting; Erb, Hollis N

    2017-10-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a suitable tool for measuring body fat, since it is non-destructive and can be used to differentiate metabolically active visceral fat from total body fat. Whole body analysis of body fat is likely to be more accurate than single CT slice estimates of body fat. The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between semi-automated computer analysis of whole body volumetric CT data and conventional proximate (chemical) analysis of body fat in lambs. Data were collected prospectively from 12 lambs that underwent duplicate whole body CT, followed by slaughter and carcass analysis by dissection and chemical analysis. Agreement between methods for quantification of total and visceral fat was assessed by Bland-Altman plot analysis. The repeatability of CT was assessed for these measures using the mean difference of duplicated measures. When compared to chemical analysis, CT systematically underestimated total and visceral fat contents by more than 10% of the mean fat weight. Therefore, carcass analysis and semi-automated CT computer measurements were not interchangeable for quantifying body fat content without the use of a correction factor. CT acquisition was repeatable, with a mean difference of repeated measures being close to zero. Therefore, uncorrected whole body CT might have an application for assessment of relative changes in fat content, especially in growing lambs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of body fat in the pony: part II. Validation of the deuterium oxide dilution technique for the measurement of body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, A H A; Curtis, G C; Milne, E; Harris, P A; Argo, C Mc

    2011-09-01

    Excessive accumulations or depletions of body fat have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in horses and ponies. An objective, minimally-invasive method to accurately quantify body fat in living animals is required to aid nutritional management and define welfare/performance limits. To compare deuterium oxide (D(2) O) dilution-derived estimates of total body water (TBW) and body fat with values obtained by 'gold standard' proximate analysis and cadaver dissection. D(2) O dilution offers a valid method for the determination of TBW and body fat in equids. Seven mature (mean ± s.e. 13 ± 3 years, 212 ± 14 kg, body condition scores 1.25-7/9), healthy, Welsh Mountain pony mares, destined for euthanasia (for nonresearch purposes) were used. Blood samples were collected before and 4 h after D(2) O (0.11-0.13 g/kg bwt, 99.8 atom percent excess) administration. Plasma was analysed by gas isotope ratio mass spectrometry following filtration and zinc reduction. After euthanasia, white adipose tissue (WAT) mass was recorded before all body tissues were analysed by proximate chemical analyses. D(2) O-derived estimates of TBW and body fat were strongly associated with proximate analysis- and dissection-derived values (all r(2) >0.97, P≤0.0001). Bland-Altman analyses demonstrated good agreements between methods. D(2) O dilution slightly overestimated TBW (0.79%, limits of agreement (LoA) -3.75-2.17%) and underestimated total body lipid (1.78%, LoA -0.59-4.15%) and dissected WAT (0.72%, LoA -2.77-4.21%). This study provides the first validation of the D(2) O dilution method for the minimally-invasive, accurate, repeatable and objective measurement of body water and fat in living equids. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  15. Studies on catecholamine function in human fat cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hellström, Lena

    1996-01-01

    Catecholamine function in human fat cells Lena Hellström, Centre for Metabolism and Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Huddinge University Hospital, Karolinska Institute, S-141 86 Huddinge, Sweden Human adipose tissue is a heterogeneous organ as regards metabolism. The effects of catecholamines, the main lipolytic hormones in man vary considerably in different regions. Fat cell lipolysis also changes in a number of physiological and pathophysiological states...

  16. Physics of the human body

    CERN Document Server

    Herman, Irving P

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively addresses the physics and engineering aspects of human physiology by using and building on first-year college physics and mathematics. Topics include the mechanics of the static body and the body in motion, the mechanical properties of the body, muscles in the body, the energetics of body metabolism, fluid flow in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, the acoustics of sound waves in speaking and hearing, vision and the optics of the eye, the electrical properties of the body, and the basic engineering principles of feedback and control in regulating all aspects of function. The goal of this text is to clearly explain the physics issues concerning the human body, in part by developing and then using simple and subsequently more refined models of the macrophysics of the human body. Many chapters include a brief review of the underlying physics. There are problems at the end of each chapter; solutions to selected problems are also provided. This second edition enhances the treat...

  17. Phages in the Human Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Ferran; Muniesa, Maite

    2017-01-01

    Bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria, have re-emerged as powerful regulators of bacterial populations in natural ecosystems. Phages invade the human body, just as they do other natural environments, to such an extent that they are the most numerous group in the human virome. This was only revealed in recent metagenomic studies, despite the fact that the presence of phages in the human body was reported decades ago. The influence of the presence of phages in humans has yet to be evaluated; but as in marine environments, a clear role in the regulation of bacterial populations could be envisaged, that might have an impact on human health. Moreover, phages are excellent vehicles of genetic transfer, and they contribute to the evolution of bacterial cells in the human body by spreading and acquiring DNA horizontally. The abundance of phages in the human body does not pass unnoticed and the immune system reacts to them, although it is not clear to what extent. Finally, the presence of phages in human samples, which most of the time is not considered, can influence and bias microbiological and molecular results; and, in view of the evidences, some studies suggest that more attention needs to be paid to their interference.

  18. Growth hormone-mediated breakdown of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T.; Malmlöf, K.; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2003-01-01

    regimen. Twelve-month-old rats fed first a high-fat diet or a low-fat diet for 14 weeks were injected with saline or growth hormone (4 mg/kg/d) for four days or three weeks in different combinations with either high- or low-fat diets. In adipose tissue, growth hormone generally inhibited lipoprotein...... lipase and also attenuated the inhibiting effect of insulin on hormone-sensitive lipase activity. Growth hormone treatment combined with restricted high-fat feeding reduced the activity of both lipases in adipose tissue and stimulated hormone-sensitive lipase in muscle. Generally, plasma levels of free...... fatty acids, glycerol and cholesterol were reduced by growth hormone, and in combination with restricted high-fat feeding, triglyceride levels improved too. We conclude that growth hormone inhibits lipid storage in adipose tissue by reducing both lipoprotein lipase activity and insulin's inhibitory...

  19. Insulin resistance, body composition, and fat distribution in obese children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hye Ran; Chang, Eun Jae

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of body composition, especially distribution of body fat, and insulin resistance on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese children. One hundred obese children (66 boys, 34 girls) with (n=60) and without NAFLD (n=40) were assessed. Anthropometry, laboratory tests, abdominal ultrasonography, and dual energy x-ray absorption metry (DXA) were evaluated in all subjects. Subject age and measurements of liver enzymes, γ- glutamyl transpeptidase (γGT), uric acid, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and insulin resistance were significantly different between the non-NAFLD group and NAFLD group. Body fat and trunk fat percentage were significantly different between the two groups (pfat percentage was not (p=0.683). Insulin resistance correlated significantly with body fat and trunk fat percentages, age, liver enzymes, γGT, and uric acid in obese children. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that insulin resistance and trunk fat percentage significantly affected the development of NAFLD in obese children. Body fat, especially abdominal fat, influences the development of insulin resistance and subsequent NAFLD in obese children. Therefore, body composition measurement using DXA, in conjunction with biochemical tests, may be beneficial in evaluating obese children with NAFLD.

  20. Body fat percentage of urban South African children: implications for health and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, D T; Toriola, A L; Shaw, B S; Amusa, L O; Khoza, L B; Shaw, I

    2013-09-01

    To explore gender and racial profiling of percentage body fat of 1136 urban South African children attending public schools in Pretoria Central. This is a cross-sectional survey of 1136 randomly selected children (548 boys and 588 girls) aged 9-13 years in urban (Pretoria Central) South Africa. Body mass, stature, skinfolds (subscapular and triceps) were measured. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics (means and standard deviations). Differences in the mean body fat percentage were examined for boys and girls according to their age group/race, using independent t-test samples. Girls had a significantly (p = 0.001) higher percentage body fat (22.7 ± 5.7%, 95% CI = 22.3, 23.2) compared to boys (16.1 ± 7.7%, 95% CI = 15.5, 16.8). Percentage body fat fluctuated with age in both boys and girls. Additionally, girls had significantly (p = 0.001) higher percentage body fat measurements at all ages compared to boys. Viewed racially, black children (20.1 ± 7.5) were significantly (p = 0.010) fatter than white children (19.0 ± 7.4) with a mean difference of 4.0. Black children were fatter than white children at ages 9, 10, 12 and 13 years, with a significant difference (p = 0.009) observed at age 12 years. There was a considerably higher level of excessive percentage body fat among school children in Central Pretoria, South Africa, with girls having significantly higher percentage body fat compared to boys. Racially, black children were fatter than white children. The excessive percentage body fat observed among the children in this study has implications for their health and fitness. Therefore, an intervention programme must be instituted in schools to prevent and control possible excessive percentage body fat in this age group.

  1. Assessment of body fat in the pony: part I. Relationships between the anatomical distribution of adipose tissue, body composition and body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, A H A; Curtis, G C; Harris, P A; Argo, C Mc

    2011-09-01

    Evaluation of equine body fat content is important for nutritional and clinical purposes. However, our understanding of total body fat and its regional distribution in the body is sparse. Currently, body fat evaluation relies on the subjective assessment of body condition score (BCS), which has never been validated against 'gold standard' chemical analysis or dissection measurements in ponies. To define the relationships between subjective (BCS), objective (morphometric) indices of body fat and 'gold standard' measurements of actual body composition. BCS and morphometry offer valid, noninvasive methods for determination of body fat in equids. Seven mature (mean ± s.e. 13 ± 3 years, 212 ± 14 kg, BCS 1.25-7/9), Welsh Mountain pony mares, destined for euthanasia (for nonresearch purposes), were used. For all ponies, body mass (BM), BCS and various morphometric measurements were recorded. Following euthanasia, all ponies were systematically dissected. Discrete white adipose tissue (WAT) depots were independently described. Gross, body chemical composition was determined by proximate analyses. Total somatic soft tissues increased linearly (r(2) = 1.00), whereas body WAT content (1-26% live BM) increased exponentially (r(2) = 0.96), with BCS. WAT was equally distributed between internal and external sites in all animals irrespective of BCS. Nuchal fat was a poor predictor of total WAT (r(2) = 0.66). Periorbital WAT did not alter with BCS (r(2) = 0.01). Heart girth:withers height and ultrasonic retroperitoneal fat depth were closely associated with total, chemically-extracted lipid which comprised 1-29% live BM (r(2) = 0.91 and 0.88, respectively). The exponential relationship between BCS and total body WAT/lipid suggests that BCS is unlikely to be a sensitive index of body fat for animals in moderate-obese states. Morphometric measurements (body girths and retroperitonel fat depth) may be useful to augment subjective BCS systems. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  2. Total body fat as a possible indicator of metabolic syndrome in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Navarro Lechuga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The metabolic syndrome is a set of factors related to insulin resistance, which increases the likelihood of coronary events. It is important timely onset identifying to reduce its prevalence. Objective: To explore the percentage of total body fat as indicator of metabolic syndrome in adults from Soledad, Colombia. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study. n=99 adults (non-pregnant, nor subjects with psychomotor disturbances. Blood samples were taken: total cholesterol, HDL; triglycerides and glucose. Waist circumference, Body Mass Index and body fat by bioimpedance and skinfold thickness were measured. Diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was made according to NHLBI/AHA, ATP III and IDF criteria. Subjects with and without metabolic syndrome according to total body fat averages were compared. Results: The average percentage of body fat was higher (p0.05 in the classification according to ATP III in women, where the average fat percentage was 39.31 % in those with metabolic syndrome and 37.7% in those not suffering. Conclusions: Subjects with metabolic syndrome have higher mean total body fat, significantly, compared with those who did not, so it could be considered the values of total body fat obtained by bioimpedance as future indicators of metabolic syndrome, both as screening and control.

  3. The effect of exercise on obesity, body fat distribution and risk for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedecke, Julia H; Micklesfield, Lisa K

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), while exercise is known to reduce body fatness and attenuate the risk of T2D. The aim of this chapter is to examine the interactions between exercise, obesity and body fat distribution, and the risk for T2D. Firstly, we show that body fatness, in particular visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation, is associated with insulin resistance and incident T2D. We then show that aerobic exercise of sufficient intensity and volume results in a decrease in body fat and VAT. Conversely, sedentary behavior and physical inactivity are associated with increased body fat and VAT. Finally, the chapter examines the interaction between physical activity (PA), obesity and risk for T2D and shows that both obesity and PA are significant independent predictors of incident T2D, but the magnitude of risk imparted by high levels of body fat is much greater than that of low levels of PA. Further, we show that obese physically active individuals are at greater risk for incident T2D than normal-weight physically inactive individuals. The mechanisms underlying this complex interaction include the ability of exercise to increase free fatty acid oxidation to match high rates of lipolysis associated with obesity, as well as the effects of exercise on adipokine, cytokine and myokine secretion. Exercise, of sufficient volume and intensity, is therefore recommended to reduce obesity, centralization of body fat, and risk of T2D.

  4. Motor competence and cardiorespiratory fitness have greater influence on body fatness than physical activity across time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R A; Pfeiffer, K A; Bugge, A; Møller, N C; Andersen, L B; Stodden, D F

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the longitudinal associations among physical activity (PA), motor competence (MC), cardiorespiratory fitness (VO 2peak ), and body fatness across 7 years, and also analyzed the possible mediation effects of PA, MC, and VO 2peak on the relationships with body fatness. This was a seven-year longitudinal study with three measuring points (mean ages [in years] and respective sample size: 6.75±0.37, n=696; 9.59±1.07, n=617; 13.35±0.34, n=513). PA (moderate-to-vigorous PA-MVPA and vigorous PA-VPA) was monitored using accelerometers. MC was assessed by the "Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder-KTK" test battery. VO 2peak was evaluated using a continuous running protocol until exhaustion. Body fatness was determined by the sum of four skinfolds. Structural equation modeling was performed to evaluate the longitudinal associations among PA, MC, VO 2peak, and body fatness and the potential mediation effects of PA, MC, and VO 2peak . All coefficients presented were standardized (z-scores). MC and VO 2peak directly influenced the development of body fatness, and VO 2peak mediated the associations between MVPA, VPA, MC, and body fatness. MC also mediated the associations between MVPA, VPA, and body fatness. In addition, VO 2peak had the largest total association with body fatness (β=-0.431; Pfitness and MC through developmentally appropriate physical activities, as the synergistic interactions of all three variables impacted body fatness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Improved models for determination of body fat by in vivo neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.; Vaswani, A.; Yasumura, S.; Yuen, K.; Ellis, K.

    1984-01-01

    In the present study, two different models of body composition, based on data obtained by nuclear techniques are used. Total body nitrogen, calcium, and chlorine were obtained by total body neutron activation. Total body chlorine was used to estimate extracellular water, and total body calcium to determine bone mineral and extracellular solids. Total body potassium was measured by whole body counting to obtain the body cell mass. In addition, total body water was measured by the tritium dilution technique. It was found that either model can be used equally well to measure total body fat in normal subjects. Estimation of body fat as the difference between body weight and the sum of total body nitrogen (protein), total body water, and bone ash (model 1) appears to have an advantage over model 2, which uses body cell mass, extracellular water, and extracellular solids, particularly for patients with metabolic disorders. This advantage is partly due to the fact that the parameter protein (total body nitrogen) is less affected in metabolic disorders than the more labile total body potassium. The closely correlated results obtained with the two models based on nuclear measurements support the conclusion that these techniques provide reliable measurements of total body fat

  6. Genetic Correlation between Body Fat Percentage and Cardiorespiratory Fitness Suggests Common Genetic Etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnurr, Theresia M; Gjesing, Anette P; Sandholt, Camilla H

    2016-01-01

    of twelve independent risk variants known to associate with body fat%. We assessed CRF as maximal oxygen uptake expressed in millilitres of oxygen uptake per kg of body mass (VO2max), per kg fat-free mass (VO2maxFFM), or per kg fat mass (VO2maxFM). All analyses were adjusted for age and sex, and when...... was associated with a 0.42 mL/kg/min unit decrease in VO2max per allele (p = 0.0092, age and sex adjusted). Both associations were abolished after additional adjustment for body fat%. The fat% increasing GRS and FTO risk allele were associated with decreased VO2maxFM but not with VO2maxFFM. Conclusions: Our...

  7. [Effect of anticancer treatment on leptin level, fat body mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk-Rybak, Maryna; Muszyńska-Rosłan, Katarzyna; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Solarz, Elzbieta; Wołczynski, Sławomir; Protas, Piotr

    2004-01-01

    Leptin plays an important role in the metabolism of adipose tissue. Considering that malignancy and its treatment cans affect normal development in childhood. We analysed the correlations between serum leptin levels and body composition after anticancer treatment. We studied 33 survivors (24 boys and 9 girls) who before our study, have been treated for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) (n=23) and Hodgkin disease (n=10) after 7.15+/-3.5 years. Sixteen patients with ALL received cranial irradiation (12Gy). We measured body mass index (BM1) fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM) using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We compared these results to the results obtained from reference values (SD score). Leptin levels were measured with the RIA method. 1. Mean leptin levels were higher in girls after puberty (10.93 ng/mL+/-8.9) than in boys (3.73 ng/mL+/-3. 7). In boys no differences were found in leptin levels between T2-4 and T5 stages. In girls the leptin values increased after puberty. Leptin SD score levels were higher in boys during (1.55 +/-1.0) and after puberty (1.46+/-0.75) and in girls - after puberty (1.19 +/-1.51). We did not find any influence of cranial irradiation (12Gy) or various methotrexate doses (5 g/m(2) vs. 19/m(2)) leptin values. 2. No difference in BMI SD score was found within the whole study group. 3. FM did not change ill boys during and after puberty, although FM SD score were higher during puberty (2.98 +/-4.8). In girls FM and FM SD score were higher after puberty. In boys and girls LBM augmented with pubertal development but LBM SD score in boys were lower after puberty (-1.67 +/-1.7) in comparison to puberty (0.2 +/-1.7). No differences were found between LBM SD score in girls during and after puberty. 4. We found a correlation between leptin levels and BMI (r=0.59 p=0.001) and FM (r=0.77 p=0.0001). 5. Relation of FM to LBM in boys remained unchanged, however in girls it increased within pubertal development. l. Anticancer

  8. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    OpenAIRE

    Daanen, Hein A.M.; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000?y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations...

  9. A comparison of the effect of free access to reduced fat products or their full fat equivalents on food intake, body weight, blood lipids and fat-soluble antioxidants levels and haemostasis variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weststrate, J.A.; Hof, K.H. van het; Berg, H. van den; Velthuis-te-Wierik, E.J.M. te; Graaf, C. de; Zimmermanns, N.J.H.; Westerterp, K.R.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.; Verboeket-Venne, W.P.H.G. van de

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of free access to reduced fat products or their full fat equivalents on fat and energy intake, body weight, plasma lipids and fat-soluble antioxidants concentrations and haemostasis variables. Design: A multicentre open randomised controlled trial in which

  10. Metabolism and Whole-Body Fat Oxidation Following Post-Exercise Carbohydrate or Protein Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ulrika Andersson; Pettersson, Stefan; Edin, Fredrik

    2018-01-01

    : Protein supplementation immediately post-exercise did not affect the doubling in whole body fat oxidation seen during a subsequent exercise trial 2 hours later. Neither did it affect resting fat oxidation during the post-exercise period despite increased insulin levels and attenuated ketosis. Carbohydrate...

  11. Physical activity and dietary fiber determine population body fat levels : The Seven Countries Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.; Bloemberg, B; Seidell, J. C.; Nissinen, A.; Menotti, A.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A global epidemic of obesity is developing. Current prevalence rates are about 20-25% in American adults and 15-20% in Europeans. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between population levels of physical activity, dietary fat, dietary fiber and indicators of body fat. DESIGN:

  12. Physical activity and dietary fiber determine population body fat levels : the Seven Countries Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.; Bloemberg, B; Seidell, J C; Nissinen, A.; Menotti, A.

    BACKGROUND: A global epidemic of obesity is developing. Current prevalence rates are about 20-25% in American adults and 15-20% in Europeans. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between population levels of physical activity, dietary fat, dietary fiber and indicators of body fat. DESIGN:

  13. Associations among eating regulation and body mass index, weight, and body fat in college students: the moderating role of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, Sareen S; Arsiwalla, Dilbur D; Lord, Denali C; Huggins, Kevin W; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated associations between eating regulation behaviors and body mass index (BMI), weight, and percent body fat in male and female students over the first two years of college. Subjects included 328 college students (215 females and 113 males). Height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and eating regulation behaviors (using the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale) were conducted two to three times during both the freshman and sophomore years. Significant associations between eating regulation and BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were shown mostly in females. In females, higher BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat at the end of the second year of college were found in those with low levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and high levels of amotivation, while lower BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were associated with high levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and low levels of amotivation. The findings that specific eating behaviors in females during the first two years of college influence BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat may be useful for inclusion in university programs focused on college student health to help decrease the risk of obesity and disordered eating/eating disorders in female college students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Variability in human body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annis, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The range of variability found among homogeneous groups is described and illustrated. Those trends that show significantly marked differences between sexes and among a number of racial/ethnic groups are also presented. Causes of human-body size variability discussed include genetic endowment, aging, nutrition, protective garments, and occupation. The information is presented to aid design engineers of space flight hardware and equipment.

  15. Cocaine's appetite for fat and the consequences on body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billing, Lawrence; Ersche, Karen D

    2015-03-01

    For many individuals in treatment for cocaine dependence, weight gain is a substantial problem during recovery. This weight gain causes significant distress and seems to increase the risk of relapse. The mechanisms underlying cocaine's effects on weight remain elusive. It is widely assumed that this weight gain reflects a metabolic or behavioural compensatory response to the cessation of cocaine use. Here we challenge this assumption and outline potential mechanisms by which chronic cocaine use produces disturbances in the regulation of fat intake and storage, through its effects on the central and peripheral nervous systems, specifically the sympathetic nervous system. We hypothesize that the cocaine-induced alteration in fat regulation results in cocaine users developing a pronounced appetite for fatty food but keeps their fat mass low. This altered fat appetite subsequently leads to excessive weight gain when individuals enter treatment and stop using cocaine. Our aim is to shed light on the neurobiological mechanisms that may underlie the alterations in eating and fat regulation in cocaine-dependent individuals, to open up potential new avenues to support these individuals in recovery.

  16. A Common Allele in FGF21 Associated with Sugar Intake Is Associated with Body Shape, Lower Total Body-Fat Percentage, and Higher Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M. Frayling

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is a hormone that has insulin-sensitizing properties. Some trials of FGF21 analogs show weight loss and lipid-lowering effects. Recent studies have shown that a common allele in the FGF21 gene alters the balance of macronutrients consumed, but there was little evidence of an effect on metabolic traits. We studied a common FGF21 allele (A:rs838133 in 451,099 people from the UK Biobank study, aiming to use the human allele to inform potential adverse and beneficial effects of targeting FGF21. We replicated the association between the A allele and higher percentage carbohydrate intake. We then showed that this allele is more strongly associated with higher blood pressure and waist-hip ratio, despite an association with lower total body-fat percentage, than it is with BMI or type 2 diabetes. These human phenotypes of variation in the FGF21 gene will inform research into FGF21’s mechanisms and therapeutic potential. : Drugs targeting the hormone FGF21 may have beneficial health effects. Variations in human DNA in the FGF21 gene provide an indication of what those effects may be. Here, we show that variation in the FGF21 gene is associated with higher blood pressure and altered body shape, despite lower total body-fat percentage. Keywords: FGF21, BMI, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, body fat, allele, genetic variant, UK Biobank

  17. Relationship of fat-tail and body measurements with some economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... circumference, right, middle and left tail-length, body length, whither height, abdominal and heart girth. ... tail and other adipose depots, negatively affect the sale of sheep by sheep industries in some country like Iran. Fat-.

  18. Total body fat, proinflammatory cytokines and insulin resistance in Indian subjects. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajnik, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Urban and migrant Indians are experiencing a rapidly escalating epidemic of diabetes and CHD. This may be related to high body fat percentage in Indians and its central distribution which have been shown to be detrimental for metabolism

  19. Daily physical activity related to aerobic fitness and body fat in an urban sample of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, M; Thorsson, O; Karlsson, M K

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates associations between objectively measured daily physical activity vs aerobic fitness and body fat in children aged 8-11 years. A cross-sectional study of 225 children aged 7.9-11.1 years was performed. Abdominal fat mass (AFM) and total body fat (TBF) were quantified by dual......-energy x-ray absorptiometry. TBF was calculated as percentage of total body mass (BF%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Aerobic fitness was measured by indirect calorimetry during a maximal cycle ergometer exercise test. Daily physical activity was assessed by accelerometers for 4 days...... and daily accumulation of moderate-to-vigorous and vigorous activity was calculated. Significant relationships (Pfitness (r=0.38), whereas moderate-to-vigorous activity displayed weaker relationships...

  20. Triceps skin fold thickness as a measure of body fat in Nigerian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2012-11-26

    Nov 26, 2012 ... and body fat distribution.2,3 Skin fold thickness measure- ments are a well ... different recognized areas for the measurement of SFT, ..... 'western children.' These .... Asia Pacific J Clin ... sity in children and young people:.

  1. Body Fat Phenotypes, Sex Hormones and Breast Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal African-American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barnett, Junaidah

    2000-01-01

    ... in this country, with very little known about their sex hormone profile. Recent findings have suggested that body fat distribution may be a better marker for breast cancer risk than degree of obesity...

  2. Body Fat Phenotypes, Sex Hormones and Breast Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal African-American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barnett, Junaidah

    2002-01-01

    ... in this country, with very little known about their sex hormone profile. Recent findings have suggested that body fat distribution may be a better marker for breast cancer risk than degree of obesity...

  3. Body Fat Phenotypes, Sex Hormones and Breast Cancer Risk in Post Manopausal African-American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barnett, Junaidah

    2001-01-01

    ... in this country, with very little known about their sex hormone profile. Recent findings have suggested that body fat distribution may be a better marker for breast cancer risk than degree of obesity...

  4. Transgenic mice with astrocyte-targeted production of interleukin-6 are resistant to high-fat diet-induced increases in body weight and body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hidalgo, Juan; Florit, Sergi; Giralt, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a major cytokine involved in both normal physiological brain functions and underlying significant neuropathology. IL-6 has been suggested to play a role in the control of body weight but the results are somewhat controversial. In this study we have challenged transgenic mice...... with astrocyte-targeted IL-6 expression (GFAP-IL6 mice) with a high-fat diet (55% kcal from fat) versus a control diet (10%). The results demonstrate that the GFAP-IL6 mice are resistant to high-fat diet-induced increases in body weight and body fat, apparently without altering food intake and with no evidences...... of increased sympathetic tone. The high-fat diet-induced impaired responses to an insulin tolerance test (ITT), and to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in both genotypes. The GFAP-IL6 mice did not differ from littermate wild-type (WT) mice in ITT, but they were more glucose intolerant following the high...

  5. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons affects total body weight, body fat and lean body mass: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaver, M; Dekker, M J H J; de Mutsert, R; Twisk, J W R; den Heijer, M

    2017-06-01

    Weight gain and body fat increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons leads to changes in body weight and body composition, but it is unclear to what extent. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the changes in body weight, body fat and lean body mass during cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons. We searched the PubMed database for eligible studies until November 2015. Ten studies reporting changes in body weight, body fat or lean mass in hormone naive transgender persons were included, examining 171 male-to-female and 354 female-to-male transgender people. Pooled effect estimates in the male-to-female group were +1.8 kg (95% CI: 0.2;3.4) for body weight, +3.0 kg (2.0;3.9) for body fat and -2.4 kg (-2.8; -2.1) for lean body mass. In the female-to-male group, body weight changed with +1.7 kg (0.7;2.7), body fat with -2.6 kg (-3.9; -1.4) and lean body mass with +3.9 kg (3.2;4.5). Cross-sex hormone therapy increases body weight in both sexes. In the male-to-female group, a gain in body fat and a decline in lean body mass are observed, while the opposite effects are seen in the female-to-male group. Possibly, these changes increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease in the male-to-female group. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Body fat assessed from body density and estimated from skinfold thickness in normal children and children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J L; Leong, M S; Checkland, E G; Zuberbuhler, P C; Conger, P R; Quinney, H A

    1988-12-01

    Body density and skinfold thickness at four sites were measured in 140 normal boys, 168 normal girls, and 6 boys and 7 girls with cystic fibrosis, all aged 8-14 y. Prediction equations for the normal boys and girls for the estimation of body-fat content from skinfold measurements were derived from linear regression of body density vs the log of the sum of the skinfold thickness. The relationship between body density and the log of the sum of the skinfold measurements differed from normal for the boys and girls with cystic fibrosis because of their high body density even though their large residual volume was corrected for. However the sum of skinfold measurements in the children with cystic fibrosis did not differ from normal. Thus body fat percent of these children with cystic fibrosis was underestimated when calculated from body density and invalid when calculated from skinfold thickness.

  7. Estimation of body fat from anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance in Native American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, T G; Caballero, B; Himes, J H; Davis, C E; Stewart, D; Houtkooper, L; Going, S B; Hunsberger, S; Weber, J L; Reid, R; Stephenson, L

    2000-08-01

    Obesity, as measured by body mass index, is highly prevalent in Native American children, yet there are no valid equations to estimate total body fatness for this population. This study was designed to develop equations to estimate percentage body fat from anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance as a critical part of Pathways, a multi-site study of primary prevention of obesity in Native American children. Percentage fat was estimated from deuterium oxide dilution in 98 Native American children (Pima/Maricopa, Tohono O'odham and White Mountain Apache tribes) between 8 and 11 y of age. The mean fat content (38.4%+/-8. 1%) was calculated assuming the water content of the fat-free body was 76%. Initial independent variables were height, weight, waist circumference, six skinfolds and whole-body resistance and reactance from bioelectrical impedance (BIA). Using all-possible-subsets regressions with the Mallows C (p) criterion, and with age and sex included in each regression model, waist circumference, calf and biceps skinfolds contributed least to the multiple regression analysis. The combination of weight, two skinfolds (any two out of the four best: triceps, suprailiac, subscapular and abdomen) and bioelectrical impedance variables provided excellent predictability. Equations without BIA variables yielded r2 almost as high as those with BIA variables. The recommended equation predicts percentage fat with a root mean square error=3.2% fat and an adjusted r2=0.840. The combination of anthropometry and BIA variables can be used to estimate total body fat in field studies of Native American children. The derived equation yields considerably higher percentage fat values than other skinfold equations in children.

  8. Asians are different from Caucasians and from each other in their body mass index/body fat per cent relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, P.; Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Guricci, S.

    2002-01-01

    The objective was to study the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and body fat per cent (BF%) in different population groups of Asians. The study design was a literature overview with special attention to recent Asian data. Specific information is provided on Indonesians (Malays and Chinese

  9. The paradox of low body mass index and high body fat percentage among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Schmidt, G.; Staveren, van W.A.; Deurenberg, P.

    2000-01-01

    To study the relationship between body fat percentage and body mass index (BMI) in three different ethnic groups in Singapore (Chinese, Malays and Indians) in order to evaluate the validity of the BMI cut-off points for obesity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: Two-hundred and ninety-one

  10. Insights into the Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) fat body transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Cristina Soares; Serrão, José Eduardo; Bonetti, Ana Maria; Amaral, Isabel Marques Rodrigues; Kerr, Warwick Estevam; Maranhão, Andréa Queiroz; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos

    2013-07-01

    The insect fat body is a multifunctional organ analogous to the vertebrate liver. The fat body is involved in the metabolism of juvenile hormone, regulation of environmental stress, production of immunity regulator-like proteins in cells and protein storage. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in fat body physiology in stingless bees. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptome of the fat body from the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. In silico analysis of a set of cDNA library sequences yielded 1728 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and 997 high-quality sequences that were assembled into 29 contigs and 117 singlets. The BLAST X tool showed that 86% of the ESTs shared similarity with Apis mellifera (honeybee) genes. The M. scutellaris fat body ESTs encoded proteins with roles in numerous physiological processes, including anti-oxidation, phosphorylation, metabolism, detoxification, transmembrane transport, intracellular transport, cell proliferation, protein hydrolysis and protein synthesis. This is the first report to describe a transcriptomic analysis of specific organs of M. scutellaris. Our findings provide new insights into the physiological role of the fat body in stingless bees.

  11. Relationship between alcohol intake, body fat, and physical activity – a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Crabb, David W.; Qi, Rong

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Aside from fat, ethanol is the macronutrient with the highest energy density. Whether the energy derived from ethanol affects the body composition and fat mass is debatable. We investigated the relationship between alcohol intake, body composition, and physical activity in the US population using the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Methods Ten thousand five hundred and fifty subjects met eligible criteria and constituted our study cohort. Estimated percent body fat and resting metabolic rate were calculated based on the sum of the skinfolds. Multivariate regression analyses were performed accounting for the study sampling weight. Results In both genders, moderate and hazardous alcohol drinkers were younger (pphysical activity compared to those with no alcohol use and moderate drinkers in both genders. Female had significantly higher percent body fat than males. In the multivariate linear regression analyses, the levels of alcohol consumption were found to be an independent predictor associated with lower percent body fat only in male subjects. Conclusions Our results showed that alcoholics are habitually less active and that alcohol drinking is an independent predictor of lower percent body fat especially in male alcoholics. PMID:20696406

  12. Nutritional status and body fat distribution in children and adolescentes with Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Célia Regina Moutinho de Miranda; Cunha, Ana Lúcia Pereira da; Costa, Ana Carolina da; Costa, Roseli de Souza Santos da; Lacerda, Speranza Vieira

    2015-11-01

    assessing the nutritional status and body fat distribution in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis. Fifty-six (56) 8-18 year old patients were assessed for fat distribution by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, for nutritional status by height/age, and for body mass index to age and dietary intake by 24-hour dietary recall. Approximately 50% of the sample showed adequate nutritional status. Most of it showed inadequate caloric and lipid intake. BMI/age was the nutritional indicator that best showed the increased percentage of trunk fat, android/gynecoidratio and trunk fat/total fat ratio. Patients with Pancreatic Insufficiency and eutrophic individuals showed higher median android/gynecoidratio. Increased abdominal adiposity was evidenced by DXA. The BMI did not identify decreased lean body mass. However, when body mass was high, it was significant for abdominal adiposity. The anthropometric assessment of patients with cystic fibrosis should be associated with body composition and body fat distribution to obtain an earlier malnutrition and cardiometabolic risk factor diagnosis.

  13. Human body may produce bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerian, Alen J

    2017-06-01

    "Human body may produce bacteria" proposes that human body may produce bacteria and represent an independent source of infections contrary to the current paradigm of infectious disorders proposed by Louis Pasteur in 1880. The following observations are consistent with this hypothesis: A. Bidirectional transformations of both living and nonliving things have been commonly observed in nature. B. Complex multicellular organisms harbor the necessary properties to produce bacteria (water, nitrogen and oxygen). C. Physical laws suggest any previously observed phenomenon or action will occur again (life began on earth; a non living thing). D. Animal muscle cells may generate energy (fermentation). E. Sterilized food products (i.e. boiled eggs), may produce bacteria and fungus under special conditions and without any exposure to foreign living cells. "Human body may produce bacteria" may challenge the current medical paradigm that views human infectious disorders as the exclusive causative byproducts of invading foreign cells. It may also introduce new avenues to treat infectious disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. DISSECTED SAMPLE JOINTS AS INDICATORS OF BODY FAT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pigs fed diets I and 3 in the study by Rossouw. (1982) were used as experimental animals in this experi- ment. In addition to the analitical procedures described by Rossouw (1982) the stroulder, midback, loin and ham joints were each physically disected into subcutaneous fat plus rind, muscle and bone components.

  15. Physical Activity And Dietary Fat As Determinants Of Body Mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overweight/obesity and related disease conditions will constitute a major threat to the economically productive adults and subsequently, will present a huge health-care burden on developing countries in the near future. Suspected determinants include physical activity and dietary fat. The main indicator of ...

  16. Revisions of rump fat and body scoring indices for deer, elk, and moose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Rachel C.; Cook, John G.; Stephenson, Thomas R.; Myers, Woodrow L.; Mccorquodale, Scott M.; Vales, David J.; Irwin, Larry L.; Hall, P. Briggs; Spencer, Rocky D.; Murphie, Shannon L.; Schoenecker, Kathryn A.; Miller, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Because they do not require sacrificing animals, body condition scores (BCS), thickness of rump fat (MAXFAT), and other similar predictors of body fat have advanced estimating nutritional condition of ungulates and their use has proliferated in North America in the last decade. However, initial testing of these predictors was too limited to assess their reliability among diverse habitats, ecotypes, subspecies, and populations across the continent. With data collected from mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), elk (Cervus elaphus), and moose (Alces alces) during initial model development and data collected subsequently from free-ranging mule deer and elk herds across much of the western United States, we evaluated reliability across a broader range of conditions than were initially available. First, to more rigorously test reliability of the MAXFAT index, we evaluated its robustness across the 3 species, using an allometric scaling function to adjust for differences in animal size. We then evaluated MAXFAT, rump body condition score (rBCS), rLIVINDEX (an arithmetic combination of MAXFAT and rBCS), and our new allometrically scaled rump-fat thickness index using data from 815 free-ranging female Roosevelt and Rocky Mountain elk (C. e. roosevelti and C. e. nelsoni) from 19 populations encompassing 4 geographic regions and 250 free-ranging female mule deer from 7 populations and 2 regions. We tested for effects of subspecies, geographic region, and captive versus free-ranging existence. Rump-fat thickness, when scaled allometrically with body mass, was related to ingesta-free body fat over a 38–522-kg range of body mass (r2 = 0.87; P 12% body fat. This bias translated into a difference between subspecies, because Rocky Mountain elk tended to be fatter than Roosevelt elk in our sample. Effects of observer error with the rBCS also existed for mule deer with moderate to high levels of body fat, and deer body size significantly affected accuracy of the MAXFAT predictor

  17. Comparison of methods to assess body fat in non-obese six to seven-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L'Abee, Carianne; Visser, G. Henk; Liem, Eryn T.; Kok, Dieuwertje E. G.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Stolk, Ronald P.

    Background & aim: Different non-invasive methods exist to evaluate total body fat in children. Most methods have shown to be able to confirm a high fat percentage in children with overweight and obesity. No data are available on the estimation of total body fat in non-obese children. The aim of this

  18. Comparison of methods to assess body fat in non-obese six to seven-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abée, l' C.; Visser, G.H.; Liem, E.T.; Kok, D.E.G.; Sauer, P.J.; Stolk, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    Background & aim Different non-invasive methods exist to evaluate total body fat in children. Most methods have shown to be able to confirm a high fat percentage in children with overweight and obesity. No data are available on the estimation of total body fat in non-obese children. The aim of

  19. The Role of Body Adiposity Index in Determining Body Fat Percentage in Colombian Adults with Overweight or Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez; Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista; Katherine González-Ruíz; Alejandra Tordecilla-Sanders; Antonio García-Hermoso; Jacqueline Schmidt-RioValle; Emilio González-Jiménez

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the accuracy of body adiposity index (BAI) as a convenient tool for assessing body fat percentage (BF%) in a sample of adults with overweight/obesity using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The study population was composed of 96 volunteers (60% female, mean age 40.6 ?? 7.5 years old). Anthropometric characteristics (body mass index, height, waist-to-height ratio, hip and waist circumference), socioeconomic status, and diet were assessed, and BF% ...

  20. Body fat of stock-type horses predicted by rump fat thickness and deuterium oxide dilution and validated by near-infrared spectroscopy of dissected tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferjak, E N; Cavinder, C A; Burnett, D D; Argo, C Mc; Dinh, T T N

    2017-10-01

    Body condition score and percent body fat (BF; %) of horses are positively correlated with reproductive efficiency and are indicative of metabolic issues. However, BF in horses may be poorly predicted because current procedures are either subjective or dependent on one anatomical location. Therefore, the objectives of the current study were to compare 2 methods of predicting BF using rump fat thickness (RFT) and deuterium oxide (DO) dilution with actual tissue fat analysis by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in stock-type horses and to identify the relationship between BF and BCS. Twenty-four stock-type horses were selected to be humanely euthanized based on 3 primary criteria: geriatric, crippled, and/or unsafe. Approximately 20 h before slaughter, horses were weighed and BCS assessed to be 1 ( = 1; 433 kg), 2 ( = 1; 415 kg), 3 ( = 1; 376 kg), 4 ( = 7; 468 ± 13 kg), 5 ( = 10; 455 ± 11 kg), and 6 ( = 4; 493 ± 12 kg) and RFT was measured using ultrasonography. Blood samples were collected immediately before and 4 h after DO infusion (0.12 g/kg BW). Deuterium oxide concentration of plasma was determined by gas isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Horses were housed in a dry lot overnight before being individually sedated (1.1 mg xylazine/kg BW) and anesthetized using a jugular venipuncture (2.2 mg ketamine/kg BW), and potassium chloride (KCl) solution was administered to cease cardiac function before exsanguination. After euthanasia, horse carcasses were processed and dissected and tissues were collected for NIRS analysis. Body fat predicted by DO dilution was correlated with BF measured by NIRS analysis on various weight bases ( = 0.76 to 0.81, horses.

  1. What kind of Relationship is Between Body Mass Index and Body Fat Percentage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupusinac, Aleksandar; Stokić, Edita; Sukić, Enes; Rankov, Olivera; Katić, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Although body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (B F %) are well known as indicators of nutritional status, there are insuficient data whether the relationship between them is linear or not. There are appropriate linear and quadratic formulas that are available to predict B F % from age, gender and BMI. On the other hand, our previous research has shown that artificial neural network (ANN) is a more accurate method for that. The aim of this study is to analyze relationship between BMI and B F % by using ANN and big dataset (3058 persons). Our results show that this relationship is rather quadratic than linear for both gender and all age groups. Comparing genders, quadratic relathionship is more pronounced in women, while linear relationship is more pronounced in men. Additionaly, our results show that quadratic relationship is more pronounced in old than in young and middle-age men and it is slightly more pronounced in young and middle-age than in old women.

  2. Percent body fat is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Qiang; Dong, Sheng-Yong; Sun, Xiao-Nan; Xie, Jing; Cui, Yi [International Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2012-04-20

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the predictive values of percent body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) for cardiovascular risk factors, especially when PBF and BMI are conflicting. BMI was calculated by the standard formula and PBF was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. A total of 3859 ambulatory adult Han Chinese subjects (2173 males and 1686 females, age range: 18-85 years) without a history of cardiovascular diseases were recruited from February to September 2009. Based on BMI and PBF, they were classified into group 1 (normal BMI and PBF, N = 1961), group 2 (normal BMI, but abnormal PBF, N = 381), group 3 (abnormal BMI, but normal PBF, N = 681), and group 4 (abnormal BMI and PBF, N = 836). When age, gender, lifestyle, and family history of obesity were adjusted, PBF, but not BMI, was correlated with blood glucose and lipid levels. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for cardiovascular risk factors in groups 2 and 4 were 1.88 (1.45-2.45) and 2.06 (1.26-3.35) times those in group 1, respectively, but remained unchanged in group 3 (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 0.92-1.89). Logistic regression models also demonstrated that PBF, rather than BMI, was independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, PBF, and not BMI, is independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors, indicating that PBF is a better predictor.

  3. Percent body fat is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Qiang; Dong, Sheng-Yong; Sun, Xiao-Nan; Xie, Jing; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the predictive values of percent body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) for cardiovascular risk factors, especially when PBF and BMI are conflicting. BMI was calculated by the standard formula and PBF was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. A total of 3859 ambulatory adult Han Chinese subjects (2173 males and 1686 females, age range: 18-85 years) without a history of cardiovascular diseases were recruited from February to September 2009. Based on BMI and PBF, they were classified into group 1 (normal BMI and PBF, N = 1961), group 2 (normal BMI, but abnormal PBF, N = 381), group 3 (abnormal BMI, but normal PBF, N = 681), and group 4 (abnormal BMI and PBF, N = 836). When age, gender, lifestyle, and family history of obesity were adjusted, PBF, but not BMI, was correlated with blood glucose and lipid levels. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for cardiovascular risk factors in groups 2 and 4 were 1.88 (1.45-2.45) and 2.06 (1.26-3.35) times those in group 1, respectively, but remained unchanged in group 3 (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 0.92-1.89). Logistic regression models also demonstrated that PBF, rather than BMI, was independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, PBF, and not BMI, is independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors, indicating that PBF is a better predictor

  4. Negotiating and Navigating my Fat body - feminist autoethnographic encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Smailes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two years I have been consciously critically engaging with autoethnography as a way of gaining insight into the cultural phenomenon of being a fat woman. Autoethnography is an in-depth and engaged approach which opens up spaces of particular ways of being which have often been colonised by particular discourse in formed by invested situational knowledge. This process has involved me drawing on past journals, memories and re-memory work and present interwoven layers of process and reflection (Ronai 1995. It has been and is challenging, Chatham-Carpenter (2010 writes about the difficulties of being with and exposing vulnerable 'selves' - a self which is still very much part of the present, rather than a neatly contained and managed 'identity'. So part of what I will do in this article is consider the critical process of my feminist autoethnography, interweaving and responding to the literature' in feminist research, feminisms, autoethnography, critical fat studies, and intersectionality.  A key to this exploration is the experience of researching the experiences of being a fat woman, from within a feminist commitment - at some level I want to consider whether and how the experience reflects Averett, Soper's (2011, 371-372 suggestion that "Feminist autoethnography is intended to resist the social and institutional norms that often dictate research. It promotes women's voices and unique experiences".

  5. A novel body circumferences-based estimation of percentage body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Yair; Epstein, Yoram; Kedem, Ron; Schermann, Haggai

    2018-03-01

    Anthropometric measures of body composition are often used for rapid and cost-effective estimation of percentage body fat (%BF) in field research, serial measurements and screening. Our aim was to develop a validated estimate of %BF for the general population, based on simple body circumferences measures. The study cohort consisted of two consecutive samples of health club members, designated as 'development' (n 476, 61 % men, 39 % women) and 'validation' (n 224, 50 % men, 50 % women) groups. All subjects underwent anthropometric measurements as part of their registration to a health club. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan was used as the 'gold standard' estimate of %BF. Linear regressions where used to construct the predictive equation (%BFcal). Bland-Altman statistics, Lin concordance coefficients and percentage of subjects falling within 5 % of %BF estimate by DEXA were used to evaluate accuracy and precision of the equation. The variance inflation factor was used to check multicollinearity. Two distinct equations were developed for men and women: %BFcal (men)=10·1-0·239H+0·8A-0·5N; %BFcal (women)=19·2-0·239H+0·8A-0·5N (H, height; A, abdomen; N, neck, all in cm). Bland-Altman differences were randomly distributed and showed no fixed bias. Lin concordance coefficients of %BFcal were 0·89 in men and 0·86 in women. About 79·5 % of %BF predictions in both sexes were within ±5 % of the DEXA value. The Durnin-Womersley skinfolds equation was less accurate in our study group for prediction of %BF than %BFcal. We conclude that %BFcal offers the advantage of obtaining a reliable estimate of %BF from simple measurements that require no sophisticated tools and only a minimal prior training and experience.

  6. A study of percentage body fat in children via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Shoji; Yagi, Shinichi; Fujino, Mitsuyoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morita, Tetsuro; Fukunaga, Masao

    1994-01-01

    Percentage body fat was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and skin fold calipers on 26 children (nine in obesity group, 12 in healthy group and 5 in steroid treated group). Mean percent body fat did not differ significantly between methods in the whole subjects as well as the healthy group and the steroid treated group. However, the mean percent body fat using skin fold caliper was higher for the obesity group than the other two. The measurements of all cases in the obesity group by DEXA were higher than those of BIA. There were high correlations among the percent body fat obtained by each technique. According to the analysis of mean regional percent fat, the percent fat of legs was the highest in the healthy and steroid treated group, while there was no regional difference in the obesity group. It should be possible to classify each case in the obesity group into upper segment and lower segment obesity by DEXA. (author)

  7. Body Fat and Breast Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal Women: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Rohan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Associations between anthropometric indices of obesity and breast cancer risk may fail to capture the true relationship between excess body fat and risk. We used dual-energy-X-ray-absorptiometry- (DXA- derived measures of body fat obtained in the Women’s Health Initiative to examine the association between body fat and breast cancer risk; we compared these risk estimates with those for conventional anthropometric measurements. The study included 10,960 postmenopausal women aged 50–79 years at recruitment, with baseline DXA measurements and no history of breast cancer. During followup (median: 12.9 years, 503 incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. All baseline DXA-derived body fat measures showed strong positive associations with breast cancer risk. The multivariable-adjusted HR for the uppermost quintile level (versus lowest ranged from 1.53 (95% CI 1.14–2.07 for fat mass of the right leg to 2.05 (1.50–2.79 for fat mass of the trunk. Anthropometric indices (categorized by quintiles of obesity (BMI (1.97, 1.45–2.68, waist circumference (1.97, 1.46–2.65, and waist : hip ratio (1.91, 1.41–2.58 were all strongly, positively associated with risk and did not differ from DXA-derived measures in prediction of risk.

  8. Body Fat and Breast Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal Women: A Longitudinal Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohan, T. E.; Heo, M.; Kamensky, V.; Kabat, G. C.

    2013-01-01

    Associations between anthropometric indices of obesity and breast cancer risk may fail to capture the true relationship between excess body fat and risk. We used dual-energy-X-ray-absorptiometry- (DXA-) derived measures of body fat obtained in the Women’s Health Initiative to examine the association between body fat and breast cancer risk; we compared these risk estimates with those for conventional anthropometric measurements. The study included 10,960 postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years at recruitment, with baseline DXA measurements and no history of breast cancer. During followup (median: 12.9 years), 503 incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. All baseline DXA-derived body fat measures showed strong positive associations with breast cancer risk. The multivariable-adjusted HR for the uppermost quintile level (versus lowest) ranged from 1.53 (95% CI 1.14-2.07) for fat mass of the right leg to 2.05 (1.50-2.79) for fat mass of the trunk. Anthropometric indices (categorized by quintiles) of obesity (BMI (1.97, 1.45-2.68), waist circumference (1.97, 1.46-2.65), and waist-: hip ratio (1.91, 1.41-2.58)) were all strongly, positively associated with risk and did not differ from DXA-derived measures in prediction of risk.

  9. Impact of Genetic Variants on the Individual Potential for Body Fat Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyeon Cha

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has witnessed the discovery of obesity-related genetic variants and their functions through genome-wide association studies. Combinations of risk alleles can influence obesity phenotypes with different degrees of effectiveness across various individuals by interacting with environmental factors. We examined the interaction between genetic variation and changes in dietary habits or exercise that influences body fat loss from a large Korean cohort (n = 8840. Out of 673 obesity-related SNPs, a total of 100 SNPs (37 for carbohydrate intake; 19 for fat intake; 44 for total calories intake; 25 for exercise onset identified to have gene-environment interaction effect in generalized linear model were used to calculate genetic risk scores (GRS. Based on the GRS distribution, we divided the population into four levels, namely, “very insensitive”, “insensitive”, “sensitive”, and “very sensitive” for each of the four categories, “carbohydrate intake”, “fat intake”, “total calories intake”, and “exercise”. Overall, the mean body fat loss became larger when the sensitivity level was increased. In conclusion, genetic variants influence the effectiveness of dietary regimes for body fat loss. Based on our findings, we suggest a platform for personalized body fat management by providing the most suitable and effective nutrition or activity plan specific to an individual.

  10. Oil Bodies Extracted from High-Fat and Low-Fat Soybeans: Stability and Composition During Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiu Ling; Li Cui, Chun; Jiang, Lian Zhou; Liu, Yue; Liang, Xin Ting; Hou, Jun Cai

    2017-06-01

    Soybeans contain oil bodies (OBs) that encapsulate triacylglycerols (TAGs) with a phospholipid monolayer carrying scattered proteins. In nature, soybean OBs can form natural emulsions in aqueous media and may serve as natural, minimally processed, stable, and pre-emulsified oil for addition into appropriate food systems. In this study, OBs were obtained by aqueous extraction from the mature seeds of 2 soybean crop cultivars, high-fat soybean and low-fat soybeans. The compositions of the extracted OBs were analyzed during storage at room temperature up to 14 d (pH = 7). The oxidative stability of these OBs, stored at 60 °C, was evaluated by measuring the presence of primary (lipid hydroperoxides) and secondary lipid oxidation products (malondialdehyde) by determining the standard peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value. During storage, the contents of unsaturated fatty acids, phospholipids, and tocopherols declined in both OBs, while their mean particle diameters (d 32 ) and ζ-potentials increased. The changes in PV and TBARS values exhibited a similar trend for both OBs, but the OBs from low-fat soybeans had significantly lower PV and higher TBARS values than the OBs from high-fat soybean cultivars (P soybean cultivars had good stability during storage. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Personality characteristics in adolescence predict long-term changes in body fatness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, L.L.J.; de Boer, M.R.; Samoocha, D.; Kreuk, I.M.; Pouwer, F.; Twisk, J.W.R.; van Mechelen, W.

    2008-01-01

    Five personality characteristics were assessed in 312 adolescent boys and girls, and investigated in relation to the change in body fat percentage over 22 years of follow up. Boys with low levels of Social Inadequacy and girls with high levels of Recalcitrance showed relatively large gains in body

  12. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daanen, Hein A M; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2016-01-01

    Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold.

  13. Fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Katrine Kleberg

    In 1727, the English physician Thomas Short wrote: “I believe no Age did ever afford more instances of Corpulency than our own.” Even in the 18th century, fatness was addressed as an issue of special contemporary concern. This thesis probes concepts and perceptions of fatness in Western European...... Medicine c. 1700–1900. It has been written with particular attention to whether and how fatness has been regarded as a disease during that period in history. One purpose of the thesis is to investigate the immediate period before fatness allegedly became problematized. Another purpose has been to grasp...

  14. Central and peripheral fat body mass have a protective effect on osteopenia or osteoporosis in adults and elderly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, P M S S; Garcia Rosa, M L; Gomes, A M; Wahrlich, V; Di Luca, D G; da Cruz Filho, R A; da Silva Correia, D M; Faria, C A; Yokoo, E M

    2016-04-01

    This cross-sectional study involves randomly selected men aged 50 to 99 years and postmenopausal women. Either central fat mass or peripheral fat mass were associated to osteoporosis or osteopenia independently from fat-free body mass and other confounding factors. Obesity and osteoporosis are public health problems that probably share common pathophysiological mechanisms. The question if body fat mass, central or peripheral, is protective or harmful for osteoporosis or osteopenia is not completely resolved. This study aims to investigate the association between osteoporosis or osteopenia, and fat body mass (central and peripheral) independently from fat-free body mass, in men aged 50 to 99 years old and postmenopausal women randomly selected in the community. This is a cross-sectional investigation with a random sample of registered population in Niterói Family Doctor Program (FDP), State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Bone mineral density (BMD) and fat-free mass were assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). There was statistically significant bivariate association between bone loss with gender, age, skin color, alcohol consumption at risk dose, use of thiazide, fat-free body mass, and fat body mass (central and peripheral). In the multiple analysis of fat-free body mass, central and peripheral fat body mass showed an independent and protective effect on the presence of osteoporosis or osteopenia (p value obesity and osteoporosis are public health problems worldwide, strategies aimed at preventing both conditions should be encouraged during aging.

  15. Milk fat globule membrane coating of large lipid droplets in the diet of young mice prevents body fat accumulation in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Annemarie; Oosting, Annemarie; Engels, Eefje; Kegler, Diane; Kodde, Andrea; Schipper, Lidewij; Verkade, Henkjan J; van der Beek, Eline M

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated protective effects of breast-feeding on childhood obesity. Differences between human milk and infant milk formula (IMF) in dietary lipid structure may contribute to this effect. In our mouse model, feeding a diet containing large lipid droplets coated with phospholipids (PL) (Nuturis®; PL of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) fraction origin) in early life protected against excessive body fat accumulation following a diet challenge in adult life. We now set out to determine the relevance of increased droplet size and/or MFGM lipid droplet coating to the observed anti-obesogenic effects in adult life. From day 16 to 42, male mouse pups were exposed to diets with small (S) or large (L) lipid droplets (0·3 v. 2·9 µm average mode diameter, respectively), either without MFGM or with MFGM coating around the lipid droplet, resulting in four groups: S (control diet), L, Scoating and Lcoating (Nuturis® IMF diet). Mice were subsequently challenged with a Western-style diet until dissection at postnatal day 98. A non-challenged group served as reference (REF). We repeatedly determined body composition between postnatal day 42 and 98. At day 98 plasma and gene expression measurements were performed. Only the Nuturis® IMF diet (Lcoating) in early life containing MFGM-coated large lipid droplets reduced body fat mass to a level comparable with the REF group. These data support the notion that the structural aspects of lipids in human milk, for example, both lipid droplet size as well as the MFGM coating, may contribute to its reported protective effect against obesity in later life.

  16. Sex and genetic effects on upper and lower body fat and associations with diabetes in multigenerational families of African heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljkovic-Gacic, Iva; Wang, Xiaojing; Kammerer, Candace M; Bunker, Clareann H; Patrick, Alan L; Wheeler, Victor W; Kuller, Lewis H; Evans, Rhobert W; Zmuda, Joseph M

    2008-06-01

    Very few studies have comprehensively defined the genetic and environmental influences on body fat storage in the arms and legs and their association with diabetes, especially in families of African heritage. We analyzed body fat distribution by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (percentage total fat, percentage trunk fat, percentage arm fat, and percentage leg fat) and fasting serum glucose in 471 individuals (mean age, 43 years) from 8 multigenerational Afro-Caribbean families (mean family size = 51; 3535 relative pairs). Diabetes was inversely associated with percentage leg fat (P = .009) and, to some extent, positively associated with percentage arm fat independent of age, sex, and body size (P = .08), but not with anthropometric or dual-energy x-ray absorptiometric measures of total and central adiposity. Furthermore, percentage leg fat was inversely, whereas percentage arm fat was positively, associated with body mass index, waist circumference, and serum glucose (P Genetic correlation (rho(G)) between arm and leg fat was -0.61 (P genetic influences. This study provides new evidence for a strong genetic and sex contribution to upper and lower body fat, with relatively little covariation between these traits due to shared genes. Our findings also suggest that, in this population, leg fat is associated with diabetes independent of overall adiposity.

  17. A Prospective Investigation of Body Size, Body Fat Composition and Colorectal Cancer Risk in the UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Luisa Saldana; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Cross, Amanda J; Morris, Jessica S; Gunter, Marc J; Murphy, Neil

    2017-12-19

    Obesity has been consistently associated with a greater colorectal cancer risk, but this relationship is weaker among women. In the UK Biobank, we investigated the associations between body size (body mass index [BMI], height, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio) and body fat composition (total body fat percentage and trunk fat percentage) measurements with colorectal cancer risk among 472,526 men and women followed for 5.6 years on average. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for developing colorectal cancer (2,636 incident cases) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Among men, when the highest and lowest fifths were compared, BMI (HR = 1.35, 95%CI: 1.13-1.61; P trend  body fat percentage (HR = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.06-1.53; P trend  = 0.002), and trunk fat percentage (HR = 1.31, 95%CI: 1.09-1.58; P trend  = 0.002) were associated with greater colorectal cancer risk. For women, only waist-to-hip ratio (HR for highest versus lowest fifth = 1.33, 95%CI: 1.08-1.65; P trend  = 0.005) was positively associated with colorectal cancer risk. Greater body size (overall and abdominal adiposity) was positively associated with colorectal cancer development in men. For women, abdominal adiposity, rather than overall body size, was associated with a greater colorectal cancer risk.

  18. Topographical body fat distribution links to amino acid and lipid metabolism in healthy obese women [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois-Pierre J Martin

    Full Text Available Visceral adiposity is increasingly recognized as a key condition for the development of obesity related disorders, with the ratio between visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT reported as the best correlate of cardiometabolic risk. In this study, using a cohort of 40 obese females (age: 25-45 y, BMI: 28-40 kg/m(2 under healthy clinical conditions and monitored over a 2 weeks period we examined the relationships between different body composition parameters, estimates of visceral adiposity and blood/urine metabolic profiles. Metabonomics and lipidomics analysis of blood plasma and urine were employed in combination with in vivo quantitation of body composition and abdominal fat distribution using iDXA and computerized tomography. Of the various visceral fat estimates, VAT/SAT and VAT/total abdominal fat ratios exhibited significant associations with regio-specific body lean and fat composition. The integration of these visceral fat estimates with metabolic profiles of blood and urine described a distinct amino acid, diacyl and ether phospholipid phenotype in women with higher visceral fat. Metabolites important in predicting visceral fat adiposity as assessed by Random forest analysis highlighted 7 most robust markers, including tyrosine, glutamine, PC-O 44∶6, PC-O 44∶4, PC-O 42∶4, PC-O 40∶4, and PC-O 40∶3 lipid species. Unexpectedly, the visceral fat associated inflammatory profiles were shown to be highly influenced by inter-days and between-subject variations. Nevertheless, the visceral fat associated amino acid and lipid signature is proposed to be further validated for future patient stratification and cardiometabolic health diagnostics.

  19. Metabolic Post-feeding Changes in Fat Body and Hemolymph of Dipetalogaster maximus (Hemiptera:Reduviidae

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    Lilián E Canavoso

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipids and glycogen in fat body as well as the modifications in the wet weight of this organ were evaluated in an unfed insect, Dipetalogaster maximus, on day 5 after adult ecdysis (time 0 and during a 30-day period after ingestion of blood meal. Total lipids, high density lipophorin (HDLp, carbohydrates, total proteins and uric acid were determined in the hemolymph during the same period. Fat body wet weight was maximum on day 10 post-feeding and represented on day 30 only 42% of the maximum weight. Lipids stored in the fat body increased up to day 15 reaching 24% of the total weight of tissue. Glycogen was maximum on day 20, representing approximately 3% of the fat body weight. HDLp represented at all times between 17-24% of the total proteins, whose levels ranged between 35 and 47 mg/ml. Uric acid showed at 20, 25 and 30 days similar levels and significantly higher than the ones shown at days 10 and 15. Hemolymphatic lipids fluctuated during starvation between 3-4.4 mg/ml and carbohydrates showed a maximum on day 15 after a blood meal, decreasing up to 0.26 mg/ml on day 25. The above results suggest that during physiological events such as starvation, the availability of nutrients is affected, involving principally the fat body reserves

  20. A role for the adult fat body in Drosophila male courtship behavior.

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    Anna A Lazareva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mating behavior in Drosophila depends critically on the sexual identity of specific regions in the brain, but several studies have identified courtship genes that express products only outside the nervous system. Although these genes are each active in a variety of non-neuronal cell types, they are all prominently expressed in the adult fat body, suggesting an important role for this tissue in behavior. To test its role in male courtship, fat body was feminized using the highly specific Larval serum protein promoter. We report here that the specific feminization of this tissue strongly reduces the competence of males to perform courtship. This effect is limited to the fat body of sexually mature adults as the feminization of larval fat body that normally persists in young adults does not affect mating. We propose that feminization of fat body affects the synthesis of male-specific secreted circulating proteins that influence the central nervous system. In support of this idea, we demonstrate that Takeout, a protein known to influence mating, is present in the hemolymph of adult males but not females and acts as a secreted protein.

  1. Fat body glycogen serves as a metabolic safeguard for the maintenance of sugar levels in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takayuki; Habara, Okiko; Kubo, Hitomi; Nishimura, Takashi

    2018-03-14

    Adapting to changes in food availability is a central challenge for survival. Glucose is an important resource for energy production, and therefore many organisms synthesize and retain sugar storage molecules. In insects, glucose is stored in two different forms: the disaccharide trehalose and the branched polymer glycogen. Glycogen is synthesized and stored in several tissues, including in muscle and the fat body. Despite the major role of the fat body as a center for energy metabolism, the importance of its glycogen content remains unclear. Here, we show that glycogen metabolism is regulated in a tissue-specific manner under starvation conditions in the fruit fly Drosophila The mobilization of fat body glycogen in larvae is independent of Adipokinetic hormone (Akh, the glucagon homolog) but is regulated by sugar availability in a tissue-autonomous manner. Fat body glycogen plays a crucial role in the maintenance of circulating sugars, including trehalose, under fasting conditions. These results demonstrate the importance of fat body glycogen as a metabolic safeguard in Drosophila . © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Waist circumference adjusted for body mass index and intra-abdominal fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Ängquist, Lars; Kotronen, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality is particularly strong and direct when adjusted for body mass index (BMI). One conceivable explanation for this association is that WC adjusted for BMI is a better predictor of the presumably most harmful intra-abdominal fat mass (IAFM......) than WC alone. We studied the prediction of abdominal subcutaneous fat mass (ASFM) and IAFM by WC alone and by addition of BMI as an explanatory factor....

  3. Relationship between body fat mass and free fatty acid kinetics in men and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorfer, Bettina; Magkos, Faidon; Fabbrini, Elisa; Mohammed, B. Selma; Klein, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    An increased release of free fatty acids (FFA) into plasma likely contributes to the metabolic complications associated with obesity. However, the relationship between body fat and FFA metabolism is unclear because of conflicting results from different studies. The goal of our study was to determine the interrelationships between body fat, sex and plasma FFA kinetics. We determined FFA rate of appearance (Ra) in plasma, by using stable isotopically labeled tracer techniques, during basal conditions in 106 lean, overweight, and obese, non-diabetic subjects (43 men and 63 women who had 7.0–56.0 % body fat). Correlation analyses demonstrated: 1) no differences between men and women in the relationship between fat mass and total FFA Ra (µmol·min−1); 2) total FFA Ra increased linearly with increasing FM (r=0.652, Pfashion with increasing FM (r=−0.806; P<0.001); 4) FFA Ra in relationship to fat-free mass was greater in obese than lean subjects and greater in women than in men; 5) abdominal fat itself was not an important determinant of total FFA Ra. We conclude that total body fat, not regional fat distribution or sex, is an important modulator of the rate of FFA release into plasma. Although increased adiposity is associated with a decrease in fatty acid release in relationship to FM, this downregulation is unable to completely compensate for the increase in FM, so total FFA Ra and FFA Ra with respect to FFM are greater in women than in men and in obese than in lean subjects. PMID:19629053

  4. Body Fat Distribution Ratios and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity in Youth With Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicksman, Amy; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Barrowman, Nicholas; Walker, Scott; Hoey, Lynda; Katz, Sherri Lynne

    2017-04-15

    Obesity and regional fat distribution, measured by neck fat mass percentage using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), correlate with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity in adults. In obese children, neck-to-waist-circumference ratio predicts OSA. This study examined associations between body fat percentage and distribution and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) severity in obese youth, measured with DXA. Cross-sectional retrospective study conducted at a tertiary children's hospital. Participants were aged 6 to 18 years with obesity (body mass index [BMI] > 99th percentile [BMI z-score 2.35] or > 95th percentile with comorbidity). They underwent polysomnography and DXA to quantify body fat percentage and distribution ratios (neck-to-abdominal fat percentage [NAF % ratio]). SDB was defined as apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 5 and OSA as obstructive AHI (OAHI) > 1 event/h. Relationships of BMI z-score and NAF % ratio to log AHI and log OAHI were evaluated. Thirty individuals participated; 18 male; median age 14.1 years. Twenty-four individuals had BMI z-scores > 2.35. Ten had AHI > 5 events/h. NAF % ratio was significantly associated with log AHI in males and with log OAHI in all, whereas total fat mass percent was not. The association between log OAHI and NAF % ratio was significant in males, but not females. NAF % ratio was significantly associated with log OAHI in those with BMI z-score above 2.35. NAF % ratio was associated with OSA severity in males and youth with BMI > 99th percentile; however, total fat mass percentage was not, suggesting that body fat distribution is associated with OSA risk in youth. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  5. Urinary catecholamines, plasma insulin and environmental factors in relation to body fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonetti, D L; Bergstrom, R W; Shuman, W P; Wahl, P W; Jenner, D A; Harrison, G A; Fujimoto, W Y

    1991-05-01

    The relationship of body fat distribution to insulin and the catecholamines, hormones that affect lipolysis differentially by fat site, was examined within an environmental context, including factors of medication use, physical activity, dietary intake, educational attainment, and age. Four cross-sectional body fat areas (cm2) were determined by three computed tomography (CT) scans (subcutaneous chest fat at the level of the nipples, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat at the level of the umbilicus, and subcutaneous left mid-thigh fat) in 191 second-generation Japanese-American men aged 45-74 years. The site-specific fat measurements were first examined in relation to use of beta-adrenergic antagonists, then to fasting plasma insulin and C-peptide levels and to urinary epinephrine and norepinephrine levels from a 24-h urine collection made during usual daily activities. Greater fat stores in the intra-abdominal area, even after adjustment for body mass index (BMI, weight/height2) and presence of coronary heart disease, were found to be related to use of beta-adrenergic antagonists. In men taking no adrenergic antagonists (n = 157), after adjustment for BMI, truncal fat measurements of the chest (partial r = -0.16, P less than 0.05) and intra-abdominal area (partial r = -0.21, P less than 0.05) were found to be inversely related to epinephrine, and intra-abdominal fat (partial r = 0.25, P less than 0.01) alone was directly related to fasting plasma insulin. With respect to other environmental variables, the significant inverse relationship of intra-abdominal fat (adjusted for BMI) with physical activity (partial r = -0.17, P less than 0.05) and the significant difference in intra-abdominal fat by educational attainment (college 102.3 +/- 5.7 vs no college 115.7 +/- 6.1 cm2, P = 0.03) became non-significant with adjustment, using multiple regression analysis, for insulin in the case of physical activity and epinephrine in the case of educational attainment. Thus

  6. A new method for body fat evaluation, body adiposity index, is useful in women with familial partial lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy-Matos, Amélio F; Moreira, Rodrigo O; Valerio, Cynthia M; Mory, Patricia B; Moises, Regina S

    2012-02-01

    BMI is a widely used method to evaluate adiposity. However, it has several limitations, particularly an inability to differentiate lean from fat mass. A new method, body adiposity index (BAI), has been recently proposed as a new measurement capable to determine fat excess better than BMI. The aim of this study was to investigate BAI as a mean to evaluate adiposity in a group of women with familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD) and compare it with BMI. Thirteen women with FLPD Dunnigan type (FPLD2) and 13 healthy volunteers matched by age and BMI were studied. Body fat content and distribution were analyzed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Plasma leptin was also measured. BAI was significantly lower in FPLD2 in comparison to control group (24.6 ± 1.5 vs. 30.4 ± 4.3; P < 0.001) and presented a more significant correlation with total fat (%) (r = 0.71; P < 0.001) and fat Mass (g) (r = 0.80; P < 0.001) than BMI (r = 0.27; P = 0.17 for total fat and r = 0.52; P = 0.006 for fat mass). There was a correlation between leptin and BAI (r = 0.57; P = 0.01), [corrected] but not between leptin and BMI. In conclusion, BAI was able to catch differences in adiposity in a sample of FPLD2 patients. It also correlated better with leptin levels than BMI. Therefore, we provide further evidence that BAI may become a more reliable indicator of fat mass content than the currently available measurements.

  7. Development and Cross-Validation of Equation for Estimating Percent Body Fat of Korean Adults According to Body Mass Index

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    Hoyong Sung

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : Using BMI as an independent variable is the easiest way to estimate percent body fat. Thus far, few studies have investigated the development and cross-validation of an equation for estimating the percent body fat of Korean adults according to the BMI. The goals of this study were the development and cross-validation of an equation for estimating the percent fat of representative Korean adults using the BMI. Methods : Samples were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2008 and 2011. The samples from 2008-2009 and 2010-2011 were labeled as the validation group (n=10,624 and the cross-validation group (n=8,291, respectively. The percent fat was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the body mass index, gender, and age were included as independent variables to estimate the measured percent fat. The coefficient of determination (R², standard error of estimation (SEE, and total error (TE were calculated to examine the accuracy of the developed equation. Results : The cross-validated R² was 0.731 for Model 1 and 0.735 for Model 2. The SEE was 3.978 for Model 1 and 3.951 for Model 2. The equations developed in this study are more accurate for estimating percent fat of the cross-validation group than those previously published by other researchers. Conclusion : The newly developed equations are comparatively accurate for the estimation of the percent fat of Korean adults.

  8. How dieting makes some fatter: from a perspective of human body composition autoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulloo, Abdul G; Jacquet, Jean; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2012-08-01

    Dieting makes you fat - the title of a book published in 1983 - embodies the notion that dieting to control body weight predisposes the individual to acquire even more body fat. While this notion is controversial, its debate underscores the large gap that exists in our understanding of basic physiological laws that govern the regulation of human body composition. A striking example is the key role attributed to adipokines as feedback signals between adipose tissue depletion and compensatory increases in food intake. Yet, the relative importance of fat depletion per se as a determinant of post-dieting hyperphagia is unknown. On the other hand, the question of whether the depletion of lean tissues can provide feedback signals on the hunger-appetite drive is rarely invoked, despite evidence that food intake during growth is dominated by the impetus for lean tissue deposition, amidst proposals for the existence of protein-static mechanisms for the regulation of growth and maintenance of lean body mass. In fact, a feedback loop between fat depletion and food intake cannot explain why human subjects recovering from starvation continue to overeat well after body fat has been restored to pre-starvation values, thereby contributing to 'fat overshooting'. In addressing the plausibility and mechanistic basis by which dieting may predispose to increased fatness, this paper integrates the results derived from re-analysis of classic longitudinal studies of human starvation and refeeding. These suggest that feedback signals from both fat and lean tissues contribute to recovering body weight through effects on energy intake and thermogenesis, and that a faster rate of fat recovery relative to lean tissue recovery is a central outcome of body composition autoregulation that drives fat overshooting. A main implication of these findings is that the risk of becoming fatter in response to dieting is greater in lean than in obese individuals.

  9. Genetic association study of common mitochondrial variants on body fat mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tie-Lin Yang

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a central role in ATP production and energy metabolism. Previous studies suggest that common variants in mtDNA are associated with several common complex diseases, including obesity. To test the hypothesis that common mtDNA variants influence obesity-related phenotypes, including BMI and body fat mass, we genotyped a total of 445 mtSNPs across the whole mitochondrial genome in a large sample of 2,286 unrelated Caucasian subjects. 72 of these 445 mtSNPs passed quality control criteria, and were used for subsequent analyses. We also classified all subjects into nine common European haplogroups. Association analyses were conducted for both BMI and body fat mass with single mtSNPs and mtDNA haplogroups. Two mtSNPs, mt4823 and mt8873 were detected to be significantly associated with body fat mass, with adjusted P values of 4.94 × 10⁻³ and 4.58 × 10⁻², respectively. The minor alleles mt4823 C and mt8873 A were associated with reduced fat mass values and the effect size (β was estimated to be 3.52 and 3.18, respectively. These two mtSNPs also achieved nominally significant levels for association with BMI. For haplogroup analyses, we found that haplogroup X was strongly associated with both BMI (adjusted P = 8.31 × 10⁻³ and body fat mass (adjusted P = 5.67×10⁻⁴ Subjects classified as haplogroup X had lower BMI and fat mass values, with the β estimated to be 2.86 and 6.03, respectively. Our findings suggest that common variants in mitochondria might play a role in variations of body fat mass. Further molecular and functional studies will be needed to clarify the potential mechanism.

  10. Hyperthyroidism increases brown fat metabolism in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahesmaa, Minna; Orava, Janne; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; Soinio, Minna; Hannukainen, Jarna C; Noponen, Tommi; Kirjavainen, Anna; Iida, Hidehiro; Kudomi, Nobuyuki; Enerbäck, Sven; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are important regulators of brown adipose tissue (BAT) development and function. In rodents, BAT metabolism is up-regulated by thyroid hormones. The purpose of this article was to investigate the impact of hyperthyroidism on BAT metabolism in humans. This was a follow-up study using positron emission tomography imaging. Glucose uptake (GU) and perfusion of BAT, white adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and thyroid gland were measured using [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose and [15O]H2O and positron emission tomography in 10 patients with overt hyperthyroidism and in 8 healthy participants. Five of the hyperthyroid patients were restudied after restoration of euthyroidism. Supraclavicular BAT was quantified with magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography and energy expenditure (EE) with indirect calorimetry. Compared with healthy participants, hyperthyroid participants had 3-fold higher BAT GU (2.7±2.3 vs 0.9±0.1 μmol/100 g/min, P=.0013), 90% higher skeletal muscle GU (Phyperthyroidism, serum free T4 and free T3 were strongly associated with EE and lipid oxidation rates (Pmetabolism (PHyperthyroidism had no effect on BAT perfusion, whereas it stimulated skeletal muscle perfusion (P=.04). Thyroid gland GU did not differ between hyperthyroid and euthyroid study subjects. Hyperthyroidism increases GU in BAT independently of BAT perfusion. Hyperthyroid patients are characterized by increased skeletal muscle metabolism and lipid oxidation rates.

  11. Canine body composition quantification using 3 tesla fat-water MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Aliya; Kullberg, Joel; Berglund, Johan; Malmberg, Filip; Coate, Katie C; Williams, Phillip E; Cherrington, Alan D; Avison, Malcolm J; Welch, E Brian

    2014-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that a whole-body fat-water MRI (FWMRI) protocol acquired at 3 Tesla combined with semi-automated image analysis techniques enables precise volume and mass quantification of adipose, lean, and bone tissue depots that agree with static scale mass and scale mass changes in the context of a longitudinal study of large-breed dogs placed on an obesogenic high-fat, high-fructose diet. Six healthy adult male dogs were scanned twice, at weeks 0 (baseline) and 4, of the dietary regiment. FWMRI-derived volumes of adipose tissue (total, visceral, and subcutaneous), lean tissue, and cortical bone were quantified using a semi-automated approach. Volumes were converted to masses using published tissue densities. FWMRI-derived total mass corresponds with scale mass with a concordance correlation coefficient of 0.931 (95% confidence interval = [0.813, 0.975]), and slope and intercept values of 1.12 and -2.23 kg, respectively. Visceral, subcutaneous and total adipose tissue masses increased significantly from weeks 0 to 4, while neither cortical bone nor lean tissue masses changed significantly. This is evidenced by a mean percent change of 70.2% for visceral, 67.0% for subcutaneous, and 67.1% for total adipose tissue. FWMRI can precisely quantify and map body composition with respect to adipose, lean, and bone tissue depots. The described approach provides a valuable tool to examine the role of distinct tissue depots in an established animal model of human metabolic disease. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Randomized comparison of reduced fat and reduced carbohydrate hypocaloric diets on intrahepatic fat in overweight and obese human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufe, Sven; Engeli, Stefan; Kast, Petra; Böhnke, Jana; Utz, Wolfgang; Haas, Verena; Hermsdorf, Mario; Mähler, Anja; Wiesner, Susanne; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Sell, Henrike; Otto, Christoph; Mehling, Heidrun; Luft, Friedrich C; Eckel, Juergen; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Boschmann, Michael; Jordan, Jens

    2011-05-01

    Obesity-related hepatic steatosis is a major risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Fat reduced hypocaloric diets are able to relieve the liver from ectopically stored lipids. We hypothesized that the widely used low carbohydrate hypocaloric diets are similarly effective in this regard. A total of 170 overweight and obese, otherwise healthy subjects were randomized to either reduced carbohydrate (n = 84) or reduced fat (n = 86), total energy restricted diet (-30% of energy intake before diet) for 6 months. Body composition was estimated by bioimpedance analyses and abdominal fat distribution by magnetic resonance tomography. Subjects were also submitted to fat spectroscopy of liver and oral glucose tolerance testing. In all, 102 subjects completed the diet intervention with measurements of intrahepatic lipid content. Both hypocaloric diets decreased body weight, total body fat, visceral fat, and intrahepatic lipid content. Subjects with high baseline intrahepatic lipids (>5.56%) lost ≈7-fold more intrahepatic lipids compared with those with low baseline values (diet composition. In contrast, changes in visceral fat mass and insulin sensitivity were similar between subgroups, with low and high baseline intrahepatic lipids. A prolonged hypocaloric diet low in carbohydrates and high in fat has the same beneficial effects on intrahepatic lipid accumulation as the traditional low-fat hypocaloric diet. The decrease in intrahepatic lipids appears to be independent of visceral fat loss and is not tightly coupled with changes in whole body insulin sensitivity during 6 months of an energy restricted diet. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  13. Skinfold thickness, body fat percentage and body mass index in obese and non-obese Indian boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Satipati; Chatterjee, Pratima; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2006-01-01

    Childhood obesity is presently increasing worldwide and has created enormous concern for researchers working in the field of obesity related diseases with special interest in child health and development. Selected anthropometric measurements including stature, body mass, and skinfolds are globally accepted sensitive indicators of growth patterns and health status of a child. The present study was therefore aimed not only at evaluating the body mass index (BMI), skinfolds, body fat percentage (%fat) in obese school going boys of West Bengal, India, but also aimed to compare these data with their non-obese counterparts. Ten to sixteen year old obese boys (N = 158) were separated from their non-obese counterparts using the age-wise international cut-off points of BMI. Skinfolds were measured using skinfold calipers, BMI and %fat were calculated from standard equations. Body mass, BMI, skinfolds and %fat were significantly (Pimportance in order to identify or categorize obese boys, and to take preventative steps to minimise serious health problems that appear during the later part of life.

  14. Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in Danish children in relation to body fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B. M.; Bjørnsbo, K. B.; Tetens, Inge

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) values in the diets of Danish children, and to examine the associations between dietary GI, GL and body fatness. Data were collected during 1997-8 as part of the European Youth Heart Study. The study...... population comprised 485 children aged 10 years and 364 children aged 16 years from Odense County, Denmark. Dietary GI and GL were estimated using international food tables, and the associations between energy-adjusted dietary GI, GL and body fatness were analysed by multiple linear regression. The mean...... associations were observed between dietary GI and Sigma SF (beta=0 center dot 60, SE=0 center dot 21, P=0 center dot 006), and between dietary GL and Sigma SF (beta=0 center dot 15, SE=0.06, P=0 center dot 009). In conclusion, dietary GI and GL were positively associated with body fatness among Danish boys...

  15. COMPARISSON OF DIFFERENT IN VIVO ESTIMATORS OF BODY FAT AND MUSCLE CONTENT IN ADULT CREOLE GOATS

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    Hania Vilar-Martinez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of ultrasound measurements (ULT, body condition score (BCS and body mass index (BMI to predict body fat and muscle in goats. Twenty-four adult, ovariectomized, creole goats were fed individually to achieve dissimilar stable body weights (26 to 66 kg. After a six-week period of stabilization BCS was evaluated (average of 4 separate evaluations and BMI calculated (BW/(length x heightx10; average of 2 independent length and height measurements. Fat and muscle coverage over the dorsal (12-13th, lumbar (1st and coxal (1st vertebrae were measured by ultrasound imaging. Animals were slaughtered and visceral fat dissected and weighed. Left half carcass weights were obtained and muscle and fat were dissected and weighed. Left half carcass data were adjusted to whole carcass data. Simple  regression analyses were performed with ULT, BCS and BMI as predictors and visceral (VF, carcass (CF and total fat (TF, and muscle (MU as response variables. Coefficients of variation (CV were calculated for BCS and BMI estimations. ULT measurement of total tissue (fat + muscle coverage over dorsal vertebrae presented the highest predictive value for ULT measurements; thus this measurement is the only reported. Coefficients of determination (R2 for VF, CF and TF were .55, .76 and .68; .78, .82 and .87; .81, .81 and .88 for ULT, BCS and BMI as predictors. R2 for MU were .67, .84 and .76 using ULT, BCS and BMI as predictors. R2 for proportions of VF/BW, CF/BW and TF/BW were .47, .73 and .65; .75, .78 and .88; .74, .71 and .85; when ULT, BCS and BMI were used as predictors. R2 for MS/BW were ≤ .10 using ULT, BCS and BMI as predictors. CV was greater in BCS estimation as compared to BMI estimation (9.7 vs. 3.1 %. BCS and BMI were more accurate in vivo predictors than ULT for body fat content, fat as proportion of BW and body muscle content. ULT, BCS and BMI were completely worthless for predicting

  16. Potentiation of aminoglycoside antibiotic activity using the body fat from the snake Boa constrictor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe S. Ferreira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Boa constrictor is widely used in traditional communities in many different folk remedies and products derived from it are sold in public markets throughout northeastern Brazil and as its body fat has many different therapeutic indications as a folk remedy. The present work evaluates the antibacterial activity of the body fat from the snake Boa constrictor when employed either alone or in combination with antibiotics and discusses the ecological implications of the use of this traditional remedy. Oil (OBC was extracted from body fat located in the ventral region of B. constrictor using hexane as a solvent. The antibacterial activity of OBC was tested against standard as well as multi-resistant lines, either alone and in combination with antibiotics. OBC did not demonstrate any relevant antibacterial activity against standard or multidrug-resistant bacterial strains. OBC showed synergistic activity when combined with the aminoglycoside antibiotics. Our results indicate that the body fat of Boa constrictor does not possess bactericidal activity, from the clinical point of view, but when combined with an antibiotic, the fat demonstrated a significant synergistic activity.

  17. Potentiation of aminoglycoside antibiotic activity using the body fat from the snake Boa constrictor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe S. Ferreira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Boa constrictor is widely used in traditional communities in many different folk remedies and products derived from it are sold in public markets throughout northeastern Brazil and as its body fat has many different therapeutic indications as a folk remedy. The present work evaluates the antibacterial activity of the body fat from the snake Boa constrictor when employed either alone or in combination with antibiotics and discusses the ecological implications of the use of this traditional remedy. Oil (OBC was extracted from body fat located in the ventral region of B. constrictor using hexane as a solvent. The antibacterial activity of OBC was tested against standard as well as multi-resistant lines, either alone and in combination with antibiotics. OBC did not demonstrate any relevant antibacterial activity against standard or multidrug-resistant bacterial strains. OBC showed synergistic activity when combined with the aminoglycoside antibiotics. Our results indicate that the body fat of Boa constrictor does not possess bactericidal activity, from the clinical point of view, but when combined with an antibiotic, the fat demonstrated a significant synergistic activity.

  18. Changes in weight and body fat after use of tetracycline and Lactobacillus gasseri in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge José Marciano

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Recent studies have shown a role of intestinal microbiota in obesity. The consumption of antibiotics in the last 70 years has led to changes in intestinal microbiota, which has led to weight gain and body fat accumulation. To evaluate the possibility of weight gain induced by antibiotics and the possible protective effect of probiotics, we divided 45 animals (Rattus norvegicus into groups and administered the following treatments over two weeks: tetracycline, tetracycline + Lactobacillus gasseri, and NaCl. The animals were weighed over the course of 8 weeks, and at the end of the treatment period, they were measured and subjected to bioelectrical impedance analysis. The results show that the group receiving tetracycline alone had a higher body mass index (p=0.030, a greater Lee index (p=0.008, and a lower body water percentage than the control group, indicating a greater accumulation of body fat. The group receiving the probiotics with tetracycline presented similar results to the control group, indicating a possible protective effect of body fat accumulation in the group receiving tetracycline alone. The results show that tetracycline increased the concentration of body fat, and the use of probiotics was associated with an ability to protect the animals from the pro-obesity effect.

  19. Percentage of Body Fat and Fat Mass Index as a Screening Tool for Metabolic Syndrome Prediction in Colombian University Students

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    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High body fat is related to metabolic syndrome (MetS in all ethnic groups. Based on the International Diabetes Federation (IDF definition of MetS, the aim of this study was to explore thresholds of body fat percentage (BF% and fat mass index (FMI for the prediction of MetS among Colombian University students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1687 volunteers (63.4% women, mean age = 20.6 years. Weight, waist circumference, serum lipids indices, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose were measured. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA and FMI was calculated. MetS was defined as including more than or equal to three of the metabolic abnormalities according to the IDF definition. Receiver operating curve (ROC analysis was used to determine optimal cut-off points for BF% and FMI in relation to the area under the curve (AUC, sensitivity, and specificity in both sexes. The overall prevalence of MetS was found to be 7.7%, higher in men than women (11.1% vs. 5.3%; p < 0.001. BF% and FMI were positively correlated to MetS components (p < 0.05. ROC analysis indicated that BF% and FMI can be used with moderate accuracy to identify MetS in university-aged students. BF% and FMI thresholds of 25.55% and 6.97 kg/m2 in men, and 38.95% and 11.86 kg/m2 in women, were found to be indicative of high MetS risk. Based on the IDF criteria, both indexes’ thresholds seem to be good tools to identify university students with unfavorable metabolic profiles.

  20. Body measures and milk production, milk fat globules granulometry and milk fatty acid content in Cabannina cattle breed

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    Ricardo Communod

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to achieve scientific information about body measures and milk production of Cabannina cattle, a local breed reared in northern Italy. Fourteen body measures and five morphologic indexes were recorded from 86 heads enrolled in the herd book. Low differences between males and females of the same age-class were shown. Body measures were generally greater than those reported in previous studies, probably due to recent crosses. With reference to milk production, 991 test-day records from 128 lactations of 59 cows were analysed. Average milk daily production was 8 kg/d in 1st lactation to 10.61 in 3rd (P<0.05; the parameters of the Wood equation draw atypical curves with the exception of curves from spring calving cows. Only 74.5% of lactations with an adjusted R2 >0.75 showed a standard curve, with low persistence (7.7%, high value of d at peak (103 d and peak production of 20.18 kg of milk. Moreover, 100 milk samples (40 to 220 d of lactation were submitted to a granulometric survey by laser scatter technique in order to evaluate the dimensions of fat globules; then milk fat was analyzed by gas chromatography, and desaturase indexes were determined. Cabannina cows showed small fat globules with high specific surface. Furthermore mean diameter of milk fat globules decreased during lactation then rose. Milk fat contained high levels of cis-MUFA, and high desaturase indexes. In conclusion, the low size of Cabannina cattle orients for a limited meat production. Instead milk production has a higher economic potential, aimed at cheese production and human nutrition.

  1. [Relationship between hypertension and percentage of body fat, in children of Anhui province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, R W; Wan, Y H; Zhang, H; Wang, Y F; Wang, B; Xu, L; Zuo, A Z; Tong, S L; Tao, F B

    2016-02-01

    To study the situation of hypertension among children in Anhui province and to analyze its association with the percentage of body fat. A total of 8 890 aged 7-17 years old children, were tested for blood pressure and thickness of skin fold in Anhui province. Hypertension in children was diagnosed referring to the 2010 Chinese guidelines for the management of hypertension (revised in 2010). The percentage of body fat was calculated according to the thickness of skin fold and specific formulas. METHODS used for statistics analysis would include t test, χ(2) test while logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between percentage of body fat in children and adolescents. In total, 8 890 subjects aged 7-17 years were recruited, in Anhui province. The prevalence of hypertension in Children aged 7-17 was 13.6%, with the total number of hypertension as 1 210, in Anhui province. There were significant differences in the prevalence of hypertension among urban and rural children. Both prevalence of hypertension among boys and girls in urban area appeared higher than those in the rural area. In the urban areas, the prevalence rates of hypertension in both boys and girls were higher than the ones in rural area (χ(2) values were 36.36, 7.79, 42.10 and 13.77, respectively, and Pfat between boys and girls from the rural or urban areas were both significant.OR values of the boys and girls of group P(40)- and P(60)-were 1.65 and 1.75, respectively. Risks of hypertension in boys and girls showed significantly increase by P(40) and P(60), respectively. The prevalence of hypertension in both boys and girls increased along with the increase of the percentage on body fat. Since higher percentage of body fat could increase the risk of hypertension, reduction of body fat content would be beneficial to the success of prevention and control of hypertension in children.

  2. Abdominal Obesity and their association with Total Body: Fat Distribution and Composition. Case of Algerian Teenager Male high school students

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    Mohammed Zerf

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Our aim attempted to esteem the impact of abdominal fat on body fat distribution or composition related to total body fat as recommended weight loss among High School Students. Material: For the proposed, 100 male students from the Algerian high school Education Sector's mandate Sidi Bel Abbes, participate in the present study. Their average age 16±1.52 years, distributed into homogeneous groups, according to their body fat percent categories. Examined by saving tests (Body Fat Percentage (BFP - Abdominal circumference (WC - Body mass index (BMI. Results: Based on the test data and the analysis statistics applied, we confirm: a Abdominal obesity is excess body gain correlate with total fat BMI. It highly affected body composition reported as additional fat for overweight in compare with acceptable according to Ideal BFP categories. b Abdominal obesity is an amount deep fat correlates to total BFP. It higher influenced the distribution of total body fat reported as additional excess fat among overweight category compared to the acceptable group. c Waist circumference (WC is the leading marker of abdominal fat deposits located in the central region of the body. While the combination of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, reflects the combined effects of body build (fat or fatness in individuals at higher risk of excessive body fat. Conclusions: founded on the differences acquired by the research team. We highlight that abdominal obesity is strongly connected to larger WC relate to total body gain located as excess inordinate fatness BMI or fat distribution BFP among our overall sample. Evidence, which guides us to recommend our adolescent students to intensification their hours of sports practice, in order to avoid the consequences of abdominal obesity gain. Announced in the present study as excess abdominal adiposity more metabolically active. Requiring the control of body weight loss (BFP or BMI strongly correlates to

  3. IL-6 selectively stimulates fat metabolism in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Mygind, Helene; Grøndahl, Thomas S

    2010-01-01

    and glucose metabolism and signaling of both adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Eight healthy postabsorptive males were infused with either rhIL-6 or saline for 4 h, eliciting IL-6 levels of ~40 and ~1 pg/ml, respectively. Systemic, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue fat and glucose metabolism was assessed......Interleukin (IL)-6 is chronically elevated in type 2 diabetes but also during exercise. However, the exact metabolic role, and hence the physiological significance, has not been elucidated. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vivo effect of recombinant human (rh) IL-6 on human fat...... before, during, and 2 h after cessation of the infusion. Glucose metabolism was unaffected by rhIL-6. In contrast, rhIL-6 increased systemic fatty acid oxidation approximately twofold after 60 min, and it remained elevated even 2 h after the infusion. The increase in oxidation was followed by an increase...

  4. IL-6 selectively stimulates fat metabolism in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Mygind, Helene; Grøndahl, Thomas S

    2010-01-01

    and glucose metabolism and signaling of both adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Eight healthy postabsorptive males were infused with either rhIL-6 or saline for 4 h, eliciting IL-6 levels of ∼40 and ∼1 pg/ml, respectively. Systemic, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue fat and glucose metabolism was assessed......Interleukin (IL)-6 is chronically elevated in type 2 diabetes but also during exercise. However, the exact metabolic role, and hence the physiological significance, has not been elucidated. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vivo effect of recombinant human (rh) IL-6 on human fat...... before, during, and 2 h after cessation of the infusion. Glucose metabolism was unaffected by rhIL-6. In contrast, rhIL-6 increased systemic fatty acid oxidation approximately twofold after 60 min, and it remained elevated even 2 h after the infusion. The increase in oxidation was followed by an increase...

  5. Comparison of variations between percentage of body fat, body mass index and daily physical activity among young Japanese and Thai female students

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    Morinaka Tomoko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In our series of investigations concerning the causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students, we could not find any contribution of seasonal variation in the ratio of carbohydrate and fat metabolism to that of body fat percentage in Japanese and Thai participants. After our previous study, we examined the effect of daily physical activity on body fat percentage to look for the major causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students. Findings In this study, we measured participants’ (young Japanese and Thai university students daily physical activity by a uniaxial accelerometer in addition to the measurements of body fat percentage and body mass index by a bioelectrical impedance meter. We found that there was significant and moderate negative correlation between body fat percentage and daily step counts among Japanese but not Thai participants. We observed significant, moderate and positive correlations between the percentage of body fat and body mass index among Japanese and Thai participants. Conclusions Daily physical activity plays an important role in the seasonal variation of body fat percentage of Japanese female students. Our present study also confirmed the importance of daily physical activity for controlling body mass index and for the prevention of obesity.

  6. Double standards in body evaluation? The influence of identification with body stimuli on ratings of attractiveness, body fat, and muscle mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voges, Mona M; Giabbiconi, Claire-Marie; Schöne, Benjamin; Waldorf, Manuel; Hartmann, Andrea S; Vocks, Silja

    2017-10-20

    Although it is well documented that women evaluate their own body differently from other bodies, it remains unclear whether this discrepancy is based on double standards because of identity or on objective differences between these bodies. The aim of this study was therefore to test whether women apply double standards depending on a body's identity when evaluating the same bodies presented with different faces. Average-weight women (N = 104) rated body attractiveness, body fat, and muscle mass of thin, average-weight, overweight, athletic, and hypermuscular bodies with either another female's face or their own face. With their own face, subjects rated overweight bodies as more unattractive, higher in body fat and lower in muscle mass than with another female's face. However, for non-overweight bodies, body ratings did not differ depending on body identity. Based on the self-deprecating double standards for overweight bodies, a body-related identity bias might be considered in theoretical models of body image. Level of evidence Level V, descriptive study.

  7. Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera: Apidae) fat body persists through metamorphosis with a few apoptotic cells and an increased autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Douglas Elias; Azevedo, Dihego Oliveira; Campos, Lúcio Antônio Oliveira; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2015-03-01

    Fat body, typically comprising trophocytes, provides energy during metamorphosis. The fat body can be renewed once the larval phase is complete or recycled and relocated to form the fat body of the adult insect. This study aims to identify the class of programmed cell death that occurs within the fat body cells during the metamorphosis of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata. Using immunodetection techniques, the fat body of the post-defecating larvae and the white-, pink-, brown-, and black-eyed pupae were tested for cleaved caspase-3 and DNA integrity, followed by ultrastructural analysis and identification of autophagy using RT-PCR for the Atg1 gene. The fat body of M. quadrifasciata showed some apoptotic cells positive for cleaved caspase-3, although without DNA fragmentation. During development, the fat body cells revealed an increased number of mitochondria and free ribosomes, in addition to higher amounts of autophagy Atg1 mRNA, than that of the pupae. The fat body of M. quadrifasciata showed few cells which underwent apoptosis, but there was evidence of increased autophagy at the completion of the larval stage. All together, these data show that some fat body cells persist during metamorphosis in the stingless bee M. quadrifasciata.

  8. Low salt and low calorie diet does not reduce more body fat than same calorie diet: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hye Jin; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Seung Min; Jang, Eun Chul; Cho, Yong Kyun

    2018-02-02

    Recent several observational studies have reported that high salt intake is associated with obesity. But it is unclear whether salt intake itself induce obesity or low salt diet can reduce body fat mass. We investigated whether a low salt diet can reduce body weight and fat amount. The randomized, open-label pilot trial was conducted at a single institution. A total of 85 obese people were enrolled. All participants were served meals three times a day, and provided either a low salt diet or control diet with same calorie. Visceral fat was measured with abdominal computer tomography, while body fat mass and total body water was measured with bio-impedance. Reductions in body weight (-6.3% vs. -5.0%, p = 0.05) and BMI (-6.6% vs. -5.1%, p = 0.03) were greater in the low salt group than in the control group. Extracellular water and total body water were significantly reduced in the low salt group compared to the control group. However, changes in body fat mass, visceral fat area, and skeletal muscle mass did not differ between the two groups. Changes in lipid profile, fasting glucose, and HOMA-IR did not differ between the two groups. A two-month low salt diet was accompanied by reduction of body mass index. However, the observed decrease of body weight was caused by reduction of total body water, not by reduction of body fat mass or visceral fat mass.

  9. Treating the binge or the (fat) body? Representations of fatness in a gold standard psychological treatment manual for binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Bowers, Amy; Ward, Ashley; Cormier, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    This article reports the results of a Foucauldian-informed discourse analysis exploring representations of fatness embedded within an empirically based psychological treatment manual for binge eating disorder, a condition characterized by overvaluation of weight and shape. Analyses indicate that the manual prioritizes weight loss with relatively less emphasis placed on treating the diagnostic symptoms and underlying mechanisms of binge eating disorder. We raise critical concerns about these observations and link our findings to mainstream psychology's adoption of the medical framing of fatness as obesity within the "gold standard" approach to intervention. We recommend that psychology as a discipline abandons the weight loss imperative associated with binge eating disorder and fat bodies. We recommend that practitioners locate the problem of fat shame in society as opposed to the individual person's body and provide individuals with tools to identify and resist fat stigma and oppression, rather than provide them with tools to reshape their bodies.

  10. Impact of fat mass distribution body shapes on muscles strength and the joints pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerf Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study focuses on fat mass distribution body shapes type as measured to determine their effect on skeletal muscle strengthening lumbar extensors (upper and lower limbs where our background confirms that every girl has a natural body type of rectangle, apple, pear, or hourglass. It is good for her to know which type of body shape she is, so she can learn what exercises to do, whereas similar studies suggest that it is much better to challenge weight problems with exercise and dietary measures before resorting to figure shaping. For this purpose, our study was carried out with a total of thirty students, females listed in the Institute of Physical Education and Sport, University of Mostaganem, aged between 20 and 23 years; their homogeneity was based on age, sex, and academic specialty, classified based on the body mass index (BMI into two groups (normal and overweight and based on their body shape′s type into three groups (9 pear shape, 10 rectangle shape, and 11 hourglass shape as a protocol experimental to examine the impact of fat mass distribution body shapes type on lumbar extensor strength. Based on our data analysis, we confirm that the pear and the rectangle shape affect the strength lumbar extensors due to body weight distribution which increases the risks relating to the skeletal muscles. Weight gain is a factor contributing to the weakness of skeletal muscles. However, the body shape explains the anomalies of the distribution of fat mass and BMI risk observed in our sample in the lower and upper part of the body recorded by the values of Killy test and endurance of trunk, the case of the pear and the rectangle shape back pain, which are consisting in excess of the body fat distributed in comparison with less percentage of muscle mass. Whereas this difference can affect the pelvic position.

  11. Practical human abdominal fat imaging utilizing electrical impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, T; Maki, K; Katashima, M

    2010-07-01

    The fundamental cause of metabolic syndrome is thought to be abdominal obesity. Accurate diagnosis of abdominal obesity can be done by an x-ray computed tomography (CT) scan. But CT is expensive, bulky and entails the risks involved with radiation. To overcome such disadvantages, we attempted to develop a measuring device that could apply electrical impedance tomography to abdominal fat imaging. The device has 32 electrodes that can be attached to a subject's abdomen by a pneumatic mechanism. That way, electrode position data can be acquired simultaneously. An applied alternating current of 1.0 mArms was used at a frequency of 500 kHz. Sensed voltage data were carefully filtered to remove noise and processed to satisfy the reciprocal theorem. The image reconstruction software was developed concurrently, applying standard finite element methods and the Marquardt method to solve the mathematical inverse problem. The results of preliminary experiments showed that abdominal subcutaneous fat and the muscle surrounding the viscera could be imaged in humans. While our imaging of visceral fat was not of sufficient quality, it was suggested that we will be able to develop a safe and practical abdominal fat scanner through future improvements.

  12. Practical human abdominal fat imaging utilizing electrical impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, T; Katashima, M; Maki, K

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental cause of metabolic syndrome is thought to be abdominal obesity. Accurate diagnosis of abdominal obesity can be done by an x-ray computed tomography (CT) scan. But CT is expensive, bulky and entails the risks involved with radiation. To overcome such disadvantages, we attempted to develop a measuring device that could apply electrical impedance tomography to abdominal fat imaging. The device has 32 electrodes that can be attached to a subject's abdomen by a pneumatic mechanism. That way, electrode position data can be acquired simultaneously. An applied alternating current of 1.0 mArms was used at a frequency of 500 kHz. Sensed voltage data were carefully filtered to remove noise and processed to satisfy the reciprocal theorem. The image reconstruction software was developed concurrently, applying standard finite element methods and the Marquardt method to solve the mathematical inverse problem. The results of preliminary experiments showed that abdominal subcutaneous fat and the muscle surrounding the viscera could be imaged in humans. While our imaging of visceral fat was not of sufficient quality, it was suggested that we will be able to develop a safe and practical abdominal fat scanner through future improvements

  13. Adipokines, cytokines and body fat stores in hepatitis C virus liver steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Reimers, Emilio; López-Prieto, Javier; Quintero-Platt, Geraldine; Pelazas-González, Ricardo; Alemán-Valls, M Remedios; Pérez-Hernández, Onán; de-la-Vega-Prieto, M José; Gómez-Rodríguez, M Angeles; Martín-González, Candelaria; Santolaria-Fernández, Francisco

    2016-01-08

    To identify patients with or without liver steatosis and its severity in treatment-naïve patients affected by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We included 56 HCV infected patients, and assessed the amount of liver fat by histomorphometry, and its relationships with fat and lean mass at different parts of the body (by densitometry), hormones [insulin, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)], adipokines (resistin, adiponectin, leptin), and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6). Although the intensity of liver steatosis is related to trunk fat mass and HOMA, 33% of patients showed no liver steatosis, and this finding was not related to body mass index or genotype. Besides trunk fat mass, no other factor was related to the presence or not of liver steatosis, or to the intensity of it, by multivariate analysis. Lean mass was not related to liver steatosis. Adiponectin levels were lower among patients. No differences were observed in leptin and resistin. Steatosis in HCV infection is common (67.2%), and closely related to trunk fat, and insulin resistance, but not with leg fat mass or adipokines.

  14. Consumption of ultra-processed foods and body fat during childhood and adolescence: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Caroline Santos; Del-Ponte, Bianca; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso; Santos, Iná Silva

    2018-01-01

    To review the available literature on the association between consumption of ultra-processed foods and body fat during childhood and adolescence. A systematic review was conducted in the PubMed, Web of Science and LILACS databases. Studies that evaluated the association between consumption of ultra-processed food (exposure) and body fat (outcome) during childhood and adolescence were eligible. Healthy children and adolescents. Twenty-six studies that evaluated groups of ultra-processed foods (such as snacks, fast foods, junk foods and convenience foods) or specific ultra-processed foods (soft drinks/sweetened beverages, sweets, chocolate and ready-to-eat cereals) were selected. Most of the studies (n 15) had a cohort design. Consumption was generally evaluated by means of FFQ or food records; and body composition, by means of double indirect methods (bioelectrical impedance analysis and skinfolds). Most of the studies that evaluated consumption of groups of ultra-processed foods and soft drinks/sweetened beverages found positive associations with body fat. Our review showed that most studies have found positive associations between consumption of ultra-processed food and body fat during childhood and adolescence. There is a need to use a standardized classification that considers the level of food processing to promote comparability between studies.

  15. Excessive body fat linked to blunted somatosensory cortex response to general reward in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, J F; Barrós-Loscertales, A; Costumero-Ramos, V; Verdejo-Román, J; Vilar-López, R; Verdejo-García, A

    2018-01-01

    The brain reward system is key to understanding adolescent obesity in the current obesogenic environment, rich in highly appetising stimuli, to which adolescents are particularly sensitive. We aimed to examine the association between body fat levels and brain reward system responsivity to general (monetary) rewards in male and female adolescents. Sixty-eight adolescents (34 females; mean age (s.d.)= 16.56 (1.35)) were measured for body fat levels with bioelectric impedance, and underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan during the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task. The MID task reliably elicits brain activations associated with two fundamental aspects of reward processing: anticipation and feedback. We conducted regression analyses to examine the association between body fat and brain reward system responsivity during reward anticipation and feedback, while controlling for sex, age and socioeconomic status. We also analysed the moderating impact of sex on the relationship between fat levels and brain responsivity measures. Brain imaging analyses were corrected for multiple comparisons, with a cluster-defining threshold of Preward feedback after controlling for key sociodemographic variables. Although we did not find significant associations between body fat and brain activations during reward anticipation, S1/supramarginal gyrus activation during feedback was linked to increased negative prediction error, that is, less reward than expected, in illustrative post hoc analyses. Sex did not significantly moderate the association between body fat and brain activation in the MID task. In adolescents, higher adiposity is linked to hypo-responsivity of somatosensory regions during general (monetary) reward feedback. Findings suggest that adolescents with excess weight have blunted activation in somatosensory regions involved in reward feedback learning.

  16. Residual volume on land and when immersed in water: effect on percent body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demura, Shinichi; Yamaji, Shunsuke; Kitabayashi, Tamotsu

    2006-08-01

    There is a large residual volume (RV) error when assessing percent body fat by means of hydrostatic weighing. It has generally been measured before hydrostatic weighing. However, an individual's maximal exhalations on land and in the water may not be identical. The aims of this study were to compare residual volumes and vital capacities on land and when immersed to the neck in water, and to examine the influence of the measurement error on percent body fat. The participants were 20 healthy Japanese males and 20 healthy Japanese females. To assess the influence of the RV error on percent body fat in both conditions and to evaluate the cross-validity of the prediction equation, another 20 males and 20 females were measured using hydrostatic weighing. Residual volume was measured on land and in the water using a nitrogen wash-out technique based on an open-circuit approach. In water, residual volume was measured with the participant sitting on a chair while the whole body, except the head, was submerged . The trial-to-trial reliabilities of residual volume in both conditions were very good (intraclass correlation coefficient > 0.98). Although residual volume measured under the two conditions did not agree completely, they showed a high correlation (males: 0.880; females: 0.853; P body fat computed using residual volume measured in both conditions was very good for both sexes (males: r = 0.902; females: r = 0.869, P body fat: -3.4 to 2.2% for males; -6.3 to 4.4% for females). We conclude that if these errors are of no importance, residual volume measured on land can be used when assessing body composition.

  17. Low physical activity accentuates the effect of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism on body fat accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Camilla H; Stender-Petersen, Kirstine L; Mogensen, Mette S

    2008-01-01

    (-16)). Furthermore, obesity-related quantitative traits such as body weight, waist circumference, fat mass, and fasting serum leptin levels were significantly elevated in A-allele carriers. An interaction between the FTO rs9939609 genotype and physical activity (P = 0.007) was found, where physically inactive...... homozygous risk A-allele carriers had a 1.95 +/- 0.3 kg/m(2) increase in BMI compared with homozygous T-allele carriers. CONCLUSIONS: We validate that variation in FTO is associated with type 2 diabetes when not adjusted for BMI and with an overall increase in body fat mass. Furthermore, low physical......OBJECTIVE: Three independent studies have shown that variation in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene associates with BMI and obesity. In the present study, the effect of FTO variation on metabolic traits including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and related quantitative phenotypes...

  18. The role of total body fat mass and trunk fat mass, combined with other endocrine factors, in menstrual recovery and psychopathology of adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karountzos, Vasileios; Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Tsitsika, Artemis; Deligeoroglou, Efthimios

    2017-10-01

    To determine the threshold of total body and trunk fat mass required for menstrual recovery and to assess the impact of body composition in psychopathology of adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Prospective study of 60 adolescents presented with secondary amenorrhea and diagnosed with AN. Anthropometrics, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, hormonal studies and responses to mental health screens (EAT-26), were obtained at the beginning and at complete weight restoration, in all adolescents, independently of menstrual recovery (Group A) or not (Group B). At weight restoration, Group A total body fat mass, trunk fat mass, and trunk/extremities fat ratio were significantly higher (p psychopathology of adolescents with AN.

  19. Treatment of obesity in children: Parent's perceived emotional barriers as predictor of change in body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinsbekk, Silje; Odegård, Rønnaug; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Research supports the use of family-based interventions in the treatment of obesity in children, but there is a lack of knowledge about what factors affect parents' ability to carry out the lifestyle changes necessary to reduce their child's obesity. The aim of the present study was to examine whether parents' self-efficacy, perceived emotional barriers, subjective norms, and attitudes could predict change in their children's body fat at 6 month and 2 year follow-ups after a family-based treatment of obesity. Body Mass Index Standard Deviation Scores (BMI SDS) were calculated and body fat (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were measured in 99 treatment-seeking children with obesity (ages 7-12; 48 girls, 51 boys; mean BMI SDS = 2.99) at baseline, after 6 month and after 2 year follow-up. Parental cognitions regarding diet and physical activity were examined by parent-completed questionnaires. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test whether the selected health cognitions could predict treatment outcome. Parental perceived emotional barriers was a significant predictor of change in body fat at 6 month (β = -.32, p = .001) and 2 year (β = -.38, p = .002) follow-up when the initial body fat values were controlled. Self-efficacy, subjective norms and attitudes did not improve the amount of variance explained. Parents' perceived emotional barriers significantly predict change in total body fat in children treated for obesity. In order to increase treatment-efficacy, perceived emotional barriers should be addressed. © 2011 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Restless legs syndrome in adolescents: relationship with sleep quality, cardiorespiratory fitness and body fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoforos D. Giannaki

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between restless legs syndrome (RLS and cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition and sleep quality in a sample of adolescents. Methods: One hundred fifty seven volunteer adolescents (16.6 ± 0.7 yrs participated in the study. Sleep quality was assessed by the Pittsburg sleep quality index. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by the 20 m shuttle run test and body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Results: The prevalence of RLS was 5.1%. The adolescents with RLS were found to exhibit significantly higher body fat levels (p=0.019 and poorer sleep quality score (p=0.000 compared with their free-RLS counterparts. Conclusions: Adolescents with RLS are subjects of higher body fat and impaired sleep quality compared with adolescents without RLS. Early diagnosis and appropriate management of RLS is essential in the adolescents.

  1. Newborn body fat: associations with maternal metabolic state and placental size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla M Friis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neonatal body composition has implications for the health of the newborn both in short and long term perspective. The objective of the current study was first to explore the association between maternal BMI and metabolic parameters associated with BMI and neonatal percentage body fat and to determine to which extent any associations were modified if adjusting for placental weight. Secondly, we examined the relations between maternal metabolic parameters associated with BMI and placental weight. METHODS: The present work was performed in a subcohort (n = 207 of the STORK study, an observational, prospective study on the determinants of fetal growth and birthweight in healthy pregnancies at Oslo University Hospital, Norway. Fasting glucose, insulin, triglycerides, free fatty acids, HDL- and total cholesterol were measured at week 30-32. Newborn body composition was determined by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA. Placenta was weighed at birth. Linear regression models were used with newborn fat percentage and placental weight as main outcomes. RESULTS: Maternal BMI, fasting glucose and gestational age were independently associated with neonatal fat percentage. However, if placental weight was introduced as a covariate, only placental weight and gestational age remained significant. In the univariate model, the determinants of placenta weight included BMI, insulin, triglycerides, total- and HDL-cholesterol (negatively, gestational weight gain and parity. In the multivariable model, BMI, total cholesterol HDL-cholesterol, gestational weight gain and parity remained independent covariates. CONCLUSION: Maternal BMI and fasting glucose were independently associated with newborn percentage fat. This effect disappeared by introducing placental weight as a covariate. Several metabolic factors associated with maternal BMI were associated with placental weight, but not with neonatal body fat. Our findings are consistent with a concept

  2. Assessment of body fat composition in crossbred Angus × Nellore using biometric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, M A; Tedeschi, L O; Filho, S C Valadares; De Paula, N F; Villadiego, F A C; Junior, J M Silva; Abreu, D C; Chizzotti, M L

    2017-12-01

    This study was conducted to assess the body and empty body fat physical and chemical composition through biometric measurements (BM) as well as postmortem measurements taken in 40 F Angus × Nellore bulls and steers. The animals used were 12.5 ± 0.51 mo of age, with an average shrunk BW of 233 ± 23.5 and 238 ± 24.6 kg for bulls and steers, respectively. Animals were fed 60:40 ratio of corn silage to concentrate diets. Eight animals (4 bulls and 4 steers) were slaughtered at the beginning of the trial, and the remaining animals were randomly assigned to a 1 + 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (1 reference group, 2 sexes, and 3 slaughter weights). The remaining animals were slaughtered when the average BW of the group reached 380 ± 19.5 (6 bulls and 5 steers), 440 ± 19.2 (6 bulls and 5 steers), and 500 ± 19.5 kg (5 bulls and 5 steers). Before the slaughter, the animals were led through a squeeze chute in which BM were taken, including hook bone width (HBW), pin bone width, abdomen width (AW), body length (BL), rump height, height at the withers, pelvic girdle length (PGL), rib depth (RD), girth circumference (GC), rump depth, body diagonal length (BDL), and thorax width. Additionally, the following postmortem measurements were obtained: total body surface (TBS), body volume (BV), subcutaneous fat (SF), internal physical fat (InF), intermuscular fat, carcass physical fat (CF), empty body physically separable fat (EBF), carcass chemical fat (CFch), empty body chemical fat (EBFch), fat thickness in the 12th rib, and 9th to 11th rib section fat. The equations were developed using a stepwise procedure to select the variables that should enter into the model. The and root mean square error (RMSE) were used to account for precision and accuracy. The ranges for and RMSE were 0.852 to 0.946 and 0.0625 to 0.103 m, respectively for TBS; 0.942 to 0.998 and 0.004 to 0.022 m, respectively, for BV; 0.767 to 0.967 and 2.70 to 3.24 kg, respectively, for SF; 0.816 to 0.900 and 3

  3. Changes in body composition and fat distribution in response to weight loss and weight regain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooy, van der K.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of weight loss and subsequent weight regain on body composition, fat distribution and resting energy expenditure in moderately obese men and moderately obese premenopausal women. Participants were subjected to a controlled 4.2 MJ/day energy deficit diet for

  4. BMI and Body Fat Mass Is Inversely Associated with Vitamin D Levels in Older Individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliai Araghi, S.; van Dijk, S. C.; Ham, A. C.; Brouwer-Brolsma, E. M.; Enneman, A. W.; Sohl, E.; Swart, K. M. A.; van der Zwaluw, N. L.; van Wijngaarden, J. P.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R. A. M.; van Schoor, N. M.; Zillikens, M. C.; Lips, P.; de Groot, L.; Uitterlinden, A. G.; van der Velde, N.

    2015-01-01

    To assess the association between obesity (measured by Body Mass Index (BMI) and fat percentage) and serum 25(OH)D levels in older persons. Cross-sectional analysis of data from 'the B-PROOF study' (B-vitamins for the Prevention Of Osteoporotic Fractures). 2842 participants aged 65 years and older.

  5. BMI and body fat mass is inversely associated with vitamin D levels in older individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araghi, S.O.; Dijk, van S.C.; Ham, A.C.; Brouwer, E.M.; Enneman, A.W.; Sohl, E.; Swart, K.M.A.; Zwaluw, van der N.L.; Wijngaarden, van J.P.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the association between obesity (measured by Body Mass Index (BMI) and fat percentage) and serum 25(OH)D levels in older persons. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of data from ‘the B-PROOF study’ (B-vitamins for the Prevention Of Osteoporotic Fractures). Participants: 2842

  6. Cuticle deposition in imaginal disks: effects of juvenile hormone and fat body in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlander, H; Tomblin, C

    1972-08-04

    Wing disks from the last larval instar of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), were successfully cultured in modified Grace's medium. 20-Hydroxyecdysone induced cuticle deposition in these disks in vitro. This response was enhanced by treating the medium with larval fat body and was inhibited by application of juvenile hormone.

  7. Marathon performance in relation to body fat percentage and training indices in recreational male runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanda G

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni Tanda,1 Beat Knechtle2,31DIME, Università degli Studi di Genova, Genova, Italy; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, SwitzerlandBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of anthropometric characteristics and training indices on marathon race times in recreational male marathoners.Methods: Training and anthropometric characteristics were collected for a large cohort of recreational male runners (n = 126 participating in the Basel marathon in Switzerland between 2010 and 2011.Results: Among the parameters investigated, marathon performance time was found to be affected by mean running speed and the mean weekly distance run during the training period prior to the race and by body fat percentage. The effect of body fat percentage became significant as it exceeded a certain limiting value; for a relatively low body fat percentage, marathon performance time correlated only with training indices.Conclusion: Marathon race time may be predicted (r = 0.81 for recreational male runners by the following equation: marathon race time (minutes = 11.03 + 98.46 exp(−0.0053 mean weekly training distance [km/week] + 0.387 mean training pace (sec/km + 0.1 exp(0.23 body fat percentage [%]. The marathon race time results were valid over a range of 165–266 minutes.Keywords: endurance, exercise, anthropometry

  8. Marathon performance in relation to body fat percentage and training indices in recreational male runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanda, Giovanni; Knechtle, Beat

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of anthropometric characteristics and training indices on marathon race times in recreational male marathoners. Training and anthropometric characteristics were collected for a large cohort of recreational male runners (n = 126) participating in the Basel marathon in Switzerland between 2010 and 2011. Among the parameters investigated, marathon performance time was found to be affected by mean running speed and the mean weekly distance run during the training period prior to the race and by body fat percentage. The effect of body fat percentage became significant as it exceeded a certain limiting value; for a relatively low body fat percentage, marathon performance time correlated only with training indices. Marathon race time may be predicted (r = 0.81) for recreational male runners by the following equation: marathon race time (minutes) = 11.03 + 98.46 exp(-0.0053 mean weekly training distance [km/week]) + 0.387 mean training pace (sec/km) + 0.1 exp(0.23 body fat percentage [%]). The marathon race time results were valid over a range of 165-266 minutes.

  9. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R; Gustafsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), of which eigh...

  10. Role of adult fat body and milk gland in larval nourishment of Glossina morsitans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langley, P.A.; Bursell, E.

    1980-01-01

    The Glossina larva is nourished entirely in utero by 'milk' composed of equal parts lipid and protein or protein-derivatives, produced by the adult female accessory gland or milk gland. A series of experiments in which activities of the female fat body and milk gland were studied separately, showed that during early pregnancy fat body synthesized and stored triglyceride and, to a lesser extent, protein, utilizing either 14 C leucine or 14 C palmitate in the process. Late in the pregnancy cycle, synthetic activity of the fat body was reduced whereas that of the milk gland increased, both lipid and protein synthesis being conspicuous at this time. There was apparently a switch in mid-pregnancy at which time the milk gland became the dominant organ for synthesis of nutrient substances. Results support the hypothesis that the adult fat body provides the major store, derived from blood meals ingested during early pregnancy, from which the milk gland obtains the lipid component of the milk. The gland itself synthesizes the bulk of the protein components from digested blood meals ingested during the latter half of pregnancy. Control of the processes identified, and their cyclical nature, suggests a neuroendocrine involvement. Identification of this involvement, and the underlying control mechanisms for hormone synthesis and degradation, may well lead to more specific methods of vector control acting through disruption of larval nutrition. (author)

  11. Changes in composition of triacylglycerols in the fat body of bumblebee males during their lifetime

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiroš, Pavel; Cvačka, Josef; Hanus, Robert; Kindl, Jiří; Kofroňová, Edita; Valterová, Irena

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 9 (2011), s. 863-871 ISSN 0024-4201 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/10/1734 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : bombus terrestris * bombus lucorum * fat body * lipids * LC/APCI-MS Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.129, year: 2011

  12. Validation of Field Methods to Assess Body Fat Percentage in Elite Youth Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguia-Izquierdo, Diego; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Di Salvo, Valter; Paredes-Hernandez, Victor; Alcazar, Julian; Ara, Ignacio; Kreider, Richard; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2018-05-01

    This study determined the most effective field method for quantifying body fat percentage in male elite youth soccer players and developed prediction equations based on anthropometric variables. Forty-four male elite-standard youth soccer players aged 16.3-18.0 years underwent body fat percentage assessments, including bioelectrical impedance analysis and the calculation of various skinfold-based prediction equations. Dual X-ray absorptiometry provided a criterion measure of body fat percentage. Correlation coefficients, bias, limits of agreement, and differences were used as validity measures, and regression analyses were used to develop soccer-specific prediction equations. The equations from Sarria et al. (1998) and Durnin & Rahaman (1967) reached very large correlations and the lowest biases, and they reached neither the practically worthwhile difference nor the substantial difference between methods. The new youth soccer-specific skinfold equation included a combination of triceps and supraspinale skinfolds. None of the practical methods compared in this study are adequate for estimating body fat percentage in male elite youth soccer players, except for the equations from Sarria et al. (1998) and Durnin & Rahaman (1967). The new youth soccer-specific equation calculated in this investigation is the only field method specifically developed and validated in elite male players, and it shows potentially good predictive power. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Body fat distribution as a risk factor for osteoporosis | Blaauw | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the body fat distribution of patients with osteoporosis (GP) with that of an appropriately matched non-GP control group. Design: Case control study. Setting: Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Tygerberg Hospital. Participants: A total of 56 patients with histologicatly ...

  14. Perceived parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Jeong; McIntosh, William A; Anding, Jenna; Kubena, Karen S; Reed, Debra B; Moon, Gap-Soon

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated whether perceptions of parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness. The randomly selected study sample consisted of 106 13-15 years olds from Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area. Parenting style variables were created by cluster analysis and factor analysis. A two-cluster solution for both maternal and paternal parenting style represented authoritative vs. non-authoritative parenting. Two parenting dimension factors derived were maternal/paternal nurturing and control. For adolescents' energy and nutrient intake, greater maternal nurturing appeared to be most beneficial given its association with lower consumption of total kilocalorie and lower saturated fat intake. Paternal nurturing was associated with lower sodium intake, whereas paternal control predicted lower percentage of kilocalories from carbohydrate and percentage Dietary Reference Intake for dietary fibre, and greater percentage of kilocalories from total fat. Maternal authoritative parenting and lower maternal control over their adolescents may have protective effects against having heavier and fatter adolescents given their associations with adolescents' body weight, sub-scapular skinfold, waist circumference, body mass index, and the tendencies of being at risk of overweight and being overweight. None of paternal parenting styles or dimensions appeared to be significantly related to adolescents' body fatness.

  15. Personality characteristics in adolescence predict long-term changes in body fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppes, Lando L J; de Boer, Michiel R; Samoocha, David

    2008-01-01

    Five personality characteristics were assessed in 312 adolescent boys and girls, and investigated in relation to the change in body fat percentage over 22 years of follow up. Boys with low levels of Social Inadequacy and girls with high levels of Recalcitrance showed relatively large gains in bod...

  16. Methods of Assessing Body Fatness among Children: Implications for the National Child Measurement Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Sharon; Twist, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is increasingly recognized as an inadequate measure for determining obesity in children. Therefore, the aim within this study was to investigate other indirect methods of body fat assessment that could potentially be used in place of BMI. Twenty-four children (boys: 13.8 [plus or minus] 0.8 yr; girls: 13.3 [plus or minus] 0.5…

  17. Ethnic differences in the relationship between body mass index and percentage body fat among Asian children from different backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ailing; Byrne, Nuala M; Kagawa, Masaharu; Ma, Guansheng; Poh, Bee Koon; Ismail, Mohammad Noor; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Nasreddine, Lara; Trinidad, Trinidad Palad; Hills, Andrew P

    2011-11-01

    Overweight and obesity in Asian children are increasing at an alarming rate; therefore a better understanding of the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) in this population is important. A total of 1039 children aged 8-10 years, encompassing a wide BMI range, were recruited from China, Lebanon, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. Body composition was determined using the 2H dilution technique to quantify total body water and subsequently fat mass, fat-free mass and %BF. Ethnic differences in the BMI-%BF relationship were found; for example, %BF in Filipino boys was approximately 2 % lower than in their Thai and Malay counterparts. In contrast, Thai girls had approximately 2.0 % higher %BF values than in their Chinese, Lebanese, Filipino and Malay counterparts at a given BMI. However, the ethnic difference in the BMI-%BF relationship varied by BMI. Compared with Caucasian children of the same age, Asian children had 3-6 units lower BMI at a given %BF. Approximately one-third of the obese Asian children (%BF above 25 % for boys and above 30 % for girls) in the study were not identified using the WHO classification and more than half using the International Obesity Task Force classification. Use of the Chinese classification increased the sensitivity. Results confirmed the necessity to consider ethnic differences in body composition when developing BMI cut-points and other obesity criteria in Asian children.

  18. Body Mass Index Is Associated with Increased Creatinine Clearance by a Mechanism Independent of Body Fat Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerchman, Fernando; Tong, Jenny; Utzschneider, Kristina M.; Zraika, Sakeneh; Udayasankar, Jayalakshmi; McNeely, Marguerite J.; Carr, Darcy B.; Leonetti, Donna L.; Young, Bessie A.; de Boer, Ian H.; Boyko, Edward J.; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y.; Kahn, Steven E.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Although obesity has been, in general, associated with glomerular hyperfiltration, visceral adiposity has been suggested to be associated with reduced glomerular filtration. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the differential effects of obesity and body fat distribution on glomerular filtration. Design and Setting: We conducted a cross-sectional study of the Japanese-American community in Seattle, Washington. Participants: We studied a representative sample of second-generation Japanese-American men and women with normal glucose tolerance (n = 124) and impaired glucose metabolism (impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) (n = 144) residing in King County, Washington. Main Outcome Measures: Glomerular filtration rate was estimated by 24-h urinary creatinine clearance, body size by body mass index (BMI), and intra-abdominal fat (IAF), sc fat (SCF), and lean thigh areas by CT scan. Results: Creatinine clearance was positively correlated with BMI (r = 0.429; P creatinine clearance and BMI remained significant after adjustments for IAF, SCF areas, and fasting insulin levels (r = 0.337; P creatinine clearance after adjusting for BMI. Creatinine clearance increased with increasing BMI after adjusting for fasting insulin, fasting glucose, IAF and SCF areas in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (r = 0.432; P metabolism (r = 0.471; P creatinine clearance in nondiabetic subjects. Lean body mass, rather than adiposity, may explain this association. PMID:19584179

  19. Validity of anthropometric procedures to estimate body density and body fat percent in military men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Romélio Rodriguez-Añez

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the validity of the Katch e McArdle’s equation (1973,which uses the circumferences of the arm, forearm and abdominal to estimate the body density and the procedure of Cohen (1986 which uses the circumferences of the neck and abdominal to estimate the body fat percent (%F in military men. Therefore data from 50 military men, with mean age of 20.26 ± 2.04 years serving in Santa Maria, RS, was collected. The circumferences were measured according with Katch e McArdle (1973 and Cohen (1986 procedures. The body density measured (Dm obtained under water weighting was used as criteria and its mean value was 1.0706 ± 0.0100 g/ml. The residual lung volume was estimated using the Goldman’s e Becklake’s equation (1959. The %F was obtained with the Siri’s equation (1961 and its mean value was 12.70 ± 4.71%. The validation criterion suggested by Lohman (1992 was followed. The analysis of the results indicated that the procedure developed by Cohen (1986 has concurrent validity to estimate %F in military men or in other samples with similar characteristics with standard error of estimate of 3.45%. . RESUMO Através deste estudo objetivou-se verificar a validade: da equação de Katch e McArdle (1973 que envolve os perímetros do braço, antebraço e abdômen, para estimar a densidade corporal; e, o procedimento de Cohen (1986 que envolve os perímetros do pescoço e abdômen, para estimar o % de gordura (%G; para militares. Para tanto, coletou-se os dados de 50 militares masculinos, com idade média de 20,26 ± 2,04 anos, lotados na cidade de Santa Maria, RS. Mensurou-se os perímetros conforme procedimentos de Katch e McArdle (1973 e Cohen (1986. Utilizou-se a densidade corporal mensurada (Dm através da pesagem hidrostática como critério de validação, cujo valor médio foi de 1,0706 ± 0,0100 g/ml. Estimou-se o volume residual pela equação de Goldman e Becklake (1959. O %G derivado da Dm estimou

  20. The association of self-perception of body fat changes and quality of life in the Women's Interagency HIV Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plankey, Michael; Bacchetti, Peter; Jin, Chengshi; Dass-Brailsford, Priscilla; Gustafson, Deb; Cohen, Mardge H; Karim, Roksana; Yin, Michael; Tien, Phyllis C

    2013-01-01

    Body fat changes are of concern to HIV-seropositive adults on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Studies examining the association of body fat changes and quality of life (QOL) in the setting of HIV infection have been conducted predominately in men. We examined the relationship of self-perceived body fat change with QOL among 1671 HAART-using HIV-seropositive women (mean age 40±8 years; 54% African-American, 24% reporting perception of any fat loss was associated with lower overall QOL. Report of any peripheral fat loss was strongly associated with nearly all QOL domains (i.e., physical functioning, role functioning, energy/fatigue, social functioning, pain, emotional well-being, health perception, and perceived health index) except cognitive functioning, whereas report of any central fat loss was significantly associated with lower social and cognitive functioning. Report of any central fat gain was associated with lower overall QOL, but only physical functioning, energy/fatigue, and cognitive functioning were significantly affected. A significant association of report of any peripheral fat gain with overall QOL was not observed, however, peripheral fat gain was significantly associated with lower physical functioning and pain. We found that any report of fat loss, especially in peripheral body sites was associated with lower QOL, as was any report of central fat gain. Ultimately health providers and patients need to be informed of these associations so as to better support HIV-seropositive women who live with these effects.

  1. Classification of Obesity Varies between Body Mass Index and Direct Measures of Body Fat in Boys and Girls of Asian and European Ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell-Nzunga, J.; Naylor, P. J.; Macdonald, H.; Rhodes, R. E.; Hofer, S. M.; McKay, H.

    2018-01-01

    Body mass index is a common proxy for proportion of body fat. However, body mass index may not classify youth similarly across ages and ethnicities. We used sex- and ethnic-specific receiver operating characteristic curves to determine how obesity classifications compared between body mass index and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry-based body fat…

  2. Conjugated Linoleic Acids Reduce Body Fat in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, M.; Tholstrup, T.; Toubro, S.

    2009-01-01

    -ray absorptiometry, changes in serum insulin and glucose concentrations, and adipose tissue (AT) gene expression in humans. In a double-blind, parallel, 16-wk intervention, we randomized 81 healthy postmenopausal women to 1) 5.5 g/d of 40/40% of cis9, trans11-CLA (c9, t11-CLA) and trans10, cis12-CLA (t10, c12-CLA...... in the control group (P women and greater serum insulin concentrations in the highest waist circumference tertile. Future research is needed to confirm the insulin desensitizing...

  3. School-based study found that physical activity and aerobic fitness predicted increases in total body fat and abdominal fat at a mean age of 9.8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Anton; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K; Wollmer, Per; Andersen, Lars B; Dencker, Magnus

    2018-02-22

    We assessed whether baseline measurements of physical activity, aerobic fitness, body fat and abdominal fat were predictors of changes in body fat measurements over a two-year period. The study comprised of 204 children aged 9.8 ± 0.6 years with a normal body mass distribution, who recruited from four schools in middle-class areas of Malmö, Sweden, from 2001 to 2004. Peak oxygen uptake and physical activity were measured at baseline. Body fat was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and two years later. Physical activity, aerobic fitness and total body fat or abdominal fat were predictors of change in total body fat or abdominal fat over a period of two years. Changes in the percentage of body fat were not related to any of the baseline measurements. Our two-year follow-up of children with a mean age of 9.8 years at baseline showed that physical activity, aerobic fitness and body fat or abdominal fat predicted changes in total body fat or abdominal fat, but not the percentage of body fat. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Seasonal Dynamics in the Chemistry and Structure of the Fat Bodies of Bumblebee Queens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Votavová

    Full Text Available Insects' fat bodies are responsible for nutrient storage and for a significant part of intermediary metabolism. Thus, it can be expected that the structure and content of the fat body will adaptively change, if an insect is going through different life stages. Bumblebee queens belong to such insects as they dramatically change their physiology several times over their lives in relation to their solitary overwintering, independent colony foundation stage, and during the colony life-cycle ending in the senescent stage. Here, we report on changes in the ultrastructure and lipid composition of the peripheral fat body of Bombus terrestris queens in relation to seasonal changes in the queens' activity. Six life stages are defined and evaluated in particular: pharate, callow, before and after hibernation, egg-laying, and senescence. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the fat body contained two main cell types-adipocytes and oenocytes. Only adipocytes reveal important changes related to the life phase, and mostly the ration between inclusion and cytoplasm volume varies among particular stages. Both electron microscopy and chemical analyses of lipids highlighted seasonal variability in the quantity of the stored lipids, which peaked prior to hibernation. Triacylglycerols appeared to be the main energy source during hibernation, while the amount of glycogen before and after hibernation remained unchanged. In addition, we observed that the representation of some fatty acids within the triacylglycerols change during the queen's life. Last but not least, we show that fat body cell membranes do not undergo substantial changes concerning phospholipid composition in relation to overwintering. This finding supports the hypothesis that the cold-adaptation strategy of bumblebee queens is more likely to be based on polyol accumulation than on the restructuring of lipid membranes.

  5. Body shape indices are predictors for estimating fat-free mass in male athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Toru; Komori, Daisuke; Oyamada, Kazuyuki; Murata, Kensuke; Fujita, Eiji; Akamine, Takuya; Urita, Yoshihisa; Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    2018-01-01

    It is unknown whether body size and body shape parameters can be predictors for estimating whole body fat-free mass (FFM) in male athletes. This study aimed to investigate whether body size and shape variables can be predictors for FFM in male athletes. Using a whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanner, whole body fat mass (FM) and FFM were determined in 132 male athletes and 14 sedentary males. The sample was divided into two groups: validation (N = 98) and cross-validation (N = 48) groups. Body height (BH), body mass (BM), and waist circumference at immediately above the iliac crest (W) were measured. BM-to-W and W-to-BH ratios were calculated as indices of body shapes. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that BM/W and W/BH were selected as explainable variables for predicting FFM. The equation developed in the validation group was FFM (kg) = 0.883 × BM/W (kg/m) + 43.674 × W/BH (cm/cm)– 41.480 [R2 = 0.900, SEE (%SEE) = 2.3 kg (3.8%)], which was validated in the cross-validation group. Thus, the current results demonstrate that an equation using BM/W and W/BH as independent variables is applicable for predicting FFM in male athletes. PMID:29346452

  6. Sex effect on productive parameters, carcass and body fat composition of two commercial broilers lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rondelli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate sex effect on behavior of two commercial broilers lines. Productive parameters, carcass composition and yield, amount and quality of fat deposited in the meat and skin and total body fat were studied. A completely randomized design with four treatments (MR-Male Ross, HR-Female Ross, MAF-Male Avian Farm and HAF-Female Avian Farm and eight repetitions of 40 chickens was used. Animals received water and food ad libitum. After 50 days, two birds (a male and a female per repetition were chosen at random and slaughtered for carcass evaluation. Samples of breast, leg, skin and abdominal fats were analyzed to determine the percentage of intramuscular fat, total cholesterol and fatty acid composition. The Ross line showed higher final weight and weight gain, better intake and feed conversion rate. Also, it was observed that females of both lines had similar results in relation to these parameters. Better yield of breast with bone was found in Ross males and females. In relation to legs and thigh, Ross males showed better results and no differences were observed among females of both lines. Males deposited less fat than females. Finally, differences in percentage of intramuscular fat, content of cholesterol in breast with skin, leg with skin and skin, percentage of saturated, mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids were observed between sex and lines.

  7. Cut-off value of body fat in association with metabolic syndrome in Thai peri- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintvihok, W; Chaikittisilpa, S; Panyakamlerd, K; Jaisamrarn, U; Taechakraichana, N

    2013-06-01

    Pathophysiologic changes during the menopause transition may contribute to the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Body fat composition, particularly visceral fat, is highly associated with increased insulin resistance, abnormal carbohydrate metabolism and high blood pressure. We purposefully wished to determine the optimal cut-off values of body fat composition, including visceral fat, in order to predict MetS and to assess the prevalence of MetS in peri- and postmenopausal women. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a population-based, prospective cohort at the Menopause and Gynecology clinics, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Body fat percentage and visceral fat rating were measured by a bioelectrical impedance analyzer (Tanita SC 330). MetS was diagnosed using the Harmonizing criteria of A Joint Interim Statement of IDF/NHLBI/AHA/WHF/IAS/IASO 2009. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed to determine the optimal cut-off values of body fat, visceral fat, waist circumference and body mass index to identify peri- and postmenopausal women at risk of MetS. Ninety-two perimenopausal and 446 postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years were recruited for the analyses. The optimal cut-off values for body fat percentage, visceral fat rating, waist circumference and body mass index for identifying women at risk of MetS were 34%, 7, 88 cm and 24 kg/m(2), respectively. The prevalence of MetS in this study was 27.9%. The optimal cut-off values to predict MetS of body fat percentage, visceral fat and waist circumference were established. Using the Harmonizing 2009 criteria, we found that approximately one out of four peri- and postmenopausal women in this study had MetS.

  8. Human milk fat substitute from butterfat: production by enzymatic interesterification and evaluation of oxidative stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Xu, Xuebing; Zhang, Long

    2010-01-01

    Recent data have suggested that the fatty acid composition and molecular structure of fats in infant formulas should be as similar to human milk fat as possible to obtain optimal fat and calcium absorption from the infant formula. This work investigated the possibilities of using enzyme technology...... and butterfat as a material to produce a fat similar to human milk fat with respect to the above parameters. Moreover, the oxidative stability of the enzyme modified human milk fat substitute (HMFS) was compared to the fat blend used for the production of HMFS. Using a combination of enzyme technology......, fractionation and batch deodorization and with butterfat in combination with soybean oil and rapeseed oil as raw materials it was possible to produce HMFS with a molecular structure and fatty acid composition that was very similar to that of human milk fat. The oxidative stability of the HMFS oil was lower than...

  9. Influence of apolipoprotein-E gene on lipid profile, physical activity and body fat relationship. DOI:10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n2p221

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales Boaventura Rachid Nascimento

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity and body fat modify lipemia, and this effect seems to be influenced by apolipoprotein-E (APOE gene polymorphism. Thus, the purpose of this article was to review main results of studies that have analyzed the relation of APOE gene with physical activity and body fat on triglycerides, total cholesterol and low (LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL concentrations. The Scientific Electronic Library Online – SciELO, Web of Science and PubMed database were used to locate the articles. The keywords used in combination were: apoe genotype, apolipoprotein-E polymorphism, physical exercise, physical activity, aerobic exercise, body fat and obesity. Originals scientific investigations performed with humans were included, and excluded those ones which involved samples with diseases, except obesity and/or lipemic disorders. It was observed a trend, that ε2 allele carriers are the ones with the greater improvements on lipemia from physical exercise. In addition, the body fat impact on the elevation of triglycerides and LDL are stronger in carriers of the ε2 and ε4 allele, respectively. Considering the small number of originals scientific investigations and their divergent results, reliable inferences can not be made about the APOE gene polymorphism influences on physical activity and body fat effect on lipemia. Thus, further studies with others populations and more volunteers for allele, as well as others exercise modalities and intensities, are necessary.

  10. A Human Body Analysis System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girondel Vincent

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a system for human body analysis (segmentation, tracking, face/hands localisation, posture recognition from a single view that is fast and completely automatic. The system first extracts low-level data and uses part of the data for high-level interpretation. It can detect and track several persons even if they merge or are completely occluded by another person from the camera's point of view. For the high-level interpretation step, static posture recognition is performed using a belief theory-based classifier. The belief theory is considered here as a new approach for performing posture recognition and classification using imprecise and/or conflicting data. Four different static postures are considered: standing, sitting, squatting, and lying. The aim of this paper is to give a global view and an evaluation of the performances of the entire system and to describe in detail each of its processing steps, whereas our previous publications focused on a single part of the system. The efficiency and the limits of the system have been highlighted on a database of more than fifty video sequences where a dozen different individuals appear. This system allows real-time processing and aims at monitoring elderly people in video surveillance applications or at the mixing of real and virtual worlds in ambient intelligence systems.

  11. A Circuit Model of Real Time Human Body Hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asogwa, Clement Ogugua; Teshome, Assefa K; Collins, Stephen F; Lai, Daniel T H

    2016-06-01

    Changes in human body hydration leading to excess fluid losses or overload affects the body fluid's ability to provide the necessary support for healthy living. We propose a time-dependent circuit model of real-time human body hydration, which models the human body tissue as a signal transmission medium. The circuit model predicts the attenuation of a propagating electrical signal. Hydration rates are modeled by a time constant τ, which characterizes the individual specific metabolic function of the body part measured. We define a surrogate human body anthropometric parameter θ by the muscle-fat ratio and comparing it with the body mass index (BMI), we find theoretically, the rate of hydration varying from 1.73 dB/min, for high θ and low τ to 0.05 dB/min for low θ and high τ. We compare these theoretical values with empirical measurements and show that real-time changes in human body hydration can be observed by measuring signal attenuation. We took empirical measurements using a vector network analyzer and obtained different hydration rates for various BMI, ranging from 0.6 dB/min for 22.7 [Formula: see text] down to 0.04 dB/min for 41.2 [Formula: see text]. We conclude that the galvanic coupling circuit model can predict changes in the volume of the body fluid, which are essential in diagnosing and monitoring treatment of body fluid disorder. Individuals with high BMI would have higher time-dependent biological characteristic, lower metabolic rate, and lower rate of hydration.

  12. The Correlation of Sonographic Finding of Fatty Liver with Hematologic Examination and Body Fat Percentage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, Hae Kyung; Lee, Tae Yong; Kim, Young Ran

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasonography has been used as a basic examination of a medical check up for prevention and diagnostics of diseases. Even the person who has no particular subjective symptoms can have a variety of diseases. Especially fatty liver is found in many cases. In this study, we tested 3582 persons who are in between the ages of 15 to 81 and observed that 1390 persons had fatty liver while 2192 persons are normal. We classified the grade of fatty liver and compared their life styles with the results of liver function test and BMI. The results are as follows. Ratio of the subjects who had a fatty liver is 38.8%. Male and female ratio was 46.2% and 24.2%. On the correlation among the fatty liver, the body mass index and the body fat, the average value of body mass index and body fat were significantly higher in the group of the fatty liver than in those of the normal liver. The influence of the related factor and the correlation on the fatty liver was shown that it was more related with the order of age, body mass index, triglyceride, ALT, body fat, sex, HDL-Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, and GGT. The result of the ultrasonography carried out for the purpose of regular health check up indicates that even the 38.8% of those who was diagnosed as normal condition could have the fatty liver and have possibility of other diseases. Therefore, if there are any troubles related to liver function and lipid through hematologic examination or when practicing follow-up study with ultrasonography concerning the correlation relation between the body fat and dietary preference, alcohol consumption and exercise, the ultrasonography is definitely useful for prevention and treatment of diseases.

  13. Validating Body Fat Assessment by Bioelectric Impedance Spectroscopy in Taiwanese Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Paik Seong; Chen, Chang Hsu; Zhu, Fansan; Kotanko, Peter; Jeng, Yachung; Hu, Chun Yu; Chiu, Li Shu; Chang, Hui-Chen

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is becoming increasingly common in hemodialysis (HD) patients and is associated with inflammation and increased mortality. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy and variability of the bioimpedance device in measuring body fat in Taiwanese dialysis patients. Cross-sectional study. One hundred twenty-two adult patients receiving HD in a single hospital in Taiwan. We compared the results of fat mass (FM) measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy device (Body composition monitor, BCM). FM measured by BCM was calculated by subtracting fat-free mass (FFM) from body mass assuming fractional hydration of FFM of 0.73 or the proprietary prediction equations from the BCM model. Assessment of whole-body composition showed that percentage FM measured using the 2 techniques was highly correlated when using the BCM model or estimating from total body water using constant (0.73) hydration (r = 0.87, P < .001). There was no evident difference in measurement between patients gender. The Bland-Altman plot also showed good agreement of percentage of FM (t = 3.82; P < .001). In female patients, it was found that BCM significantly underestimated mean FM as compared to DEXA. However, the mean differences of the estimates between the methods were small (0.35 ± 3.00 kg) and with Bland-Altman plot the limits of agreements were -5.5 to 6.2 kg (P = .40) for FM in female patients. Using DEXA as the reference test, BCM is a valid tool for the assessment of total body fat in HD patients. Hence, it may provide a more accessible tool for early detection of changes in body composition in these high-risk patients. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Correlation of Sonographic Finding of Fatty Liver with Hematologic Examination and Body Fat Percentage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, Hae Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Sun General Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae Yong; Kim, Young Ran [Dept. of Preventive Medicine and Public Health College of Midicin, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Ultrasonography has been used as a basic examination of a medical check up for prevention and diagnostics of diseases. Even the person who has no particular subjective symptoms can have a variety of diseases. Especially fatty liver is found in many cases. In this study, we tested 3582 persons who are in between the ages of 15 to 81 and observed that 1390 persons had fatty liver while 2192 persons are normal. We classified the grade of fatty liver and compared their life styles with the results of liver function test and BMI. The results are as follows. Ratio of the subjects who had a fatty liver is 38.8%. Male and female ratio was 46.2% and 24.2%. On the correlation among the fatty liver, the body mass index and the body fat, the average value of body mass index and body fat were significantly higher in the group of the fatty liver than in those of the normal liver. The influence of the related factor and the correlation on the fatty liver was shown that it was more related with the order of age, body mass index, triglyceride, ALT, body fat, sex, HDL-Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, and GGT. The result of the ultrasonography carried out for the purpose of regular health check up indicates that even the 38.8% of those who was diagnosed as normal condition could have the fatty liver and have possibility of other diseases. Therefore, if there are any troubles related to liver function and lipid through hematologic examination or when practicing follow-up study with ultrasonography concerning the correlation relation between the body fat and dietary preference, alcohol consumption and exercise, the ultrasonography is definitely useful for prevention and treatment of diseases.

  15. Personal Best Time, Percent Body Fat, and Training Are Differently Associated with Race Time for Male and Female Ironman Triathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Baumann, Barbara; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We studied male and female nonprofessional Ironman triathletes to determine whether percent body fat, training, and/or previous race experience were associated with race performance. We used simple linear regression analysis, with total race time as the dependent variable, to investigate the relationship among athletes' percent body fat, average…

  16. Body electrical loss analysis (BELA in the assessment of visceral fat: a demonstration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blomqvist Kim H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body electrical loss analysis (BELA is a new non-invasive way to assess visceral fat depot size through the use of electromagnetism. BELA has worked well in phantom measurements, but the technology is not yet fully validated. Methods Ten volunteers (5 men and 5 women, age: 22-60 y, BMI: 21-30 kg/m2, waist circumference: 73-108 cm were measured with the BELA instrument and with cross-sectional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI at the navel level, navel +5 cm and navel -5 cm. The BELA signal was compared with visceral and subcutaneous fat areas calculated from the MR images. Results The BELA signal did not correlate with subcutaneous fat area at any level, but correlated significantly with visceral fat area at the navel level and navel +5 cm. The correlation was best at level of navel +5 cm (R2 = 0.74, P 2, LOOCV = 40.1 cm2, where SEE is the standard error of the estimate and LOOCV is the root mean squared error of leave-one-out style cross-validation. The average estimate of repeatability of the BELA signal observed through the study was ±9.6 %. One of the volunteers had an exceptionally large amount of visceral fat, which was underestimated by BELA. Conclusions The correlation of the BELA signal with the visceral but not with the subcutaneous fat area as measured by MRI is promising. The lack of correlation with the subcutaneous fat suggests that subcutaneous fat has a minor influence to the BELA signal. Further research will show if it is possible to develop a reliable low-cost method for the assessment of visceral fat either using BELA only or combining it, for example, with bioelectrical impedance measurement. The combination of these measurements may help assessing visceral fat in a large scale of body composition. Before large-scale clinical testing and ROC analysis, the initial BELA instrumentation requires improvements. The accuracy of the present equipment is not sufficient for such new technology.

  17. Does relative body fat influence the Movement ABC-2 assessment in children with and without developmental coordination disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Brent E; Demetriades, Stephen; Hay, John; Cairney, John

    2013-12-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a condition that results in an impairment of gross and/or fine motor coordination. Compromised motor coordination contributes to lower levels of physical activity, which is associated with elevated body fat. The impact of elevated body fat on motor coordination diagnostic assessments in children with DCD has not been established. The purpose of this study was to determine if relative body fat influences performance on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd Edition (MABC-2) test items in children with and without DCD. A nested case-control, design was conducted within the Physical Health Activity Study Team longitudinal cohort study. The MABC-2 was used to assess motor coordination to categorize cases and matched controls. Relative body fat was assessed using whole body air displacement plethysmography. Relative body fat was negatively associated with the MABC-2 "balance" subcategory after adjusting for physical activity and DCD status. Relative body fat did not influence the subcategories of "manual dexterity" or "aiming and catching". Item analysis of the three balance tasks indicated that relative body fat significantly influences both "2-board balance" and "zig-zag hopping", but not "walking heel-toe backwards". Children with higher levels of relative body fat do not perform as well on the MABC-2, regardless of whether the have DCD or not. Dynamic balance test items are most negatively influenced by body fat. Health practitioners and researchers should be aware that body fat can influence results when interpreting MABC-2 test scores. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A DXA Whole Body Composition Cross-Calibration Experience: Evaluation With Humans, Spine, and Whole Body Phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Diane; Libber, Jessie; Sanfilippo, Jennifer; Yu, Hui Jing; Horvath, Blaine; Miller, Colin G; Binkley, Neil

    2016-01-01

    New densitometer installation requires cross-calibration for accurate longitudinal assessment. When replacing a unit with the same model, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry recommends cross-calibrating by scanning phantoms 10 times on each instrument and states that spine bone mineral density (BMD) should be within 1%, whereas total body lean, fat, and %fat mass should be within 2% of the prior instrument. However, there is limited validation that these recommendations provide adequate total body cross-calibration. Here, we report a total body cross-calibration experience with phantoms and humans. Cross-calibration between an existing and new Lunar iDXA was performed using 3 encapsulated spine phantoms (GE [GE Lunar, Madison, WI], BioClinica [BioClinica Inc, Princeton, NJ], and Hologic [Hologic Inc, Bedford, MA]), 1 total body composition phantom (BioClinica), and 30 human volunteers. Thirty scans of each phantom and a total body scan of human volunteers were obtained on each instrument. All spine phantom BMD means were similar (within 1%; g/cm2 bias) between the existing and new dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry unit. The BioClinica body composition phantom (BBCP) BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) values were within 2% with biases of 0.005 g/cm2 and -3.4 g. However, lean and fat mass and %fat differed by 4.6%-7.7% with biases of +463 g, -496 g, and -2.8%, respectively. In vivo comparison supported BBCP data; BMD and BMC were within ∼2%, but lean and fat mass and %fat differed from 1.6% to 4.9% with biases of +833 g, -860 g, and -1.1%. As all body composition comparisons exceeded the recommended 2%, the new densitometer was recalibrated. After recalibration, in vivo bias was lower (g, respectively. Similarly, BBCP lean and fat agreement improved. In conclusion, the BBCP behaves similarly, but not identical, to human in vivo measurements for densitometer cross-calibration. Spine phantoms, despite good BMD and BMC agreement, did not detect

  19. Body fat and dairy product intake in lactase persistent and non-persistent children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almon, Ricardo; Patterson, Emma; Nilsson, Torbjörn K; Engfeldt, Peter; Sjöström, Michael

    2010-06-16

    Lactase non-persistent (LNP) individuals may be lactose intolerant and therefore on a more restricted diet concerning milk and milk products compared to lactase persistent (LP) individuals. This may have an impact on body fat mass. This study examines if LP and LNP children and adolescents, defined by genotyping for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism, differ from each other with regard to milk and milk product intake, and measures of body fat mass. Children (n=298, mean age 9.6 years) and adolescents (n=386, mean age 15.6 years), belonging to the Swedish part of the European Youth Heart Study, were genotyped for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism. Dietary intakes of reduced and full-fat dairy varieties were determined. LNP (CC genotype) subjects consumed less milk, soured milk and yoghurt compared to LP (CT/TT genotype) subjects (pproducts than LP children and adolescents (p=0.009 for children and p=0.001 for adolescents). We conclude that LP is linked to an overall higher milk and dairy intake, but is not linked to higher body fat mass in children and adolescents.

  20. Bioelectrical impedance analysis to define an excess of body fat: evaluation in patients with psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzo, M; Talamonti, M; Perino, F; Servoli, S; Giordano, D; Chimenti, S; De Simone, C; Peris, K

    2017-06-01

    There is strong evidence that obesity is closely associated with psoriasis. However, data on body composition are lacking in psoriasis. The purpose of this study were to investigate the body composition in psoriasis patients using bioelectrical impedance analysis and to correlate the bioelectrical impedance data with disease severity and laboratory parameters. Anthropometric measurements and bioelectrical impedance analyses were performed on patients with psoriasis, naïve to any systemic treatment, who attended the outpatient clinics of two University centers. Data of 164 adult patients were analyzed. Compared to men, women had several significantly higher bioelectrical impedance parameters including reactance, fat mass% and adipose tissue%. The values of adipose tissue were positively correlated only with patients age (p = .021) and age at disease onset (p = .0006), but not with disease severity. In addition, we observed that the use of BMI cutoffs allowed to categorize 36.7% of women and 19.2% of men as obese, while fat mass% showed that 53.3% of women and 48.1% of men were obese. In our study, psoriasis is been associated with a high fat mass%. We suggest that screening for body fat distribution in psoriatic patients might be useful to identify early obesity-related disease.

  1. Review of the Mechanisms and Effects of Noninvasive Body Contouring Devices on Cellulite and Subcutaneous Fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Zahra; Halabchi, Farzin; Mazaheri, Reza; Abolhasani, Maryam; Tabesh, Mastaneh

    2016-01-01

    Context Today, different kinds of non-invasive body contouring modalities, including cryolipolysis, radiofrequency (RF), low-level laser therapy (LLLT), and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) are available for reducing the volume of subcutaneous adipose tissue or cellulite. Each procedure has distinct mechanisms for stimulating apoptosis or necrosis adipose tissue. In addition to the mentioned techniques, some investigations are underway for analyzing the efficacy of other techniques such as whole body vibration (WBV) and extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT). In the present review the mechanisms, effects and side effects of the mentioned methods have been discussed. The effect of these devices on cellulite or subcutaneous fat reduction has been assessed. Evidence Acquisition We searched pubmed, google scholar and the cochrane databases for systemic reviews, review articles, meta-analysis and randomized clinical trials up to February 2015. The keywords were subcutaneous fat, cellulite, obesity, noninvasive body contouring, cryolipolysis, RF, LLLT, HIFU, ESWT and WBV with full names and abbreviations. Results We included seven reviews and 66 original articles in the present narrative review. Most of them were applied on normal weight or overweight participants (body mass index cellulite in some body areas. However, the clinical effects are mild to moderate, for example 2 - 4 cm circumference reduction as a sign of subcutaneous fat reduction during total treatment sessions. Overall, there is no definitive noninvasive treatment method for cellulite. Additionally, due to the methodological differences in the existing evidence, comparing the techniques is difficult. PMID:28123436

  2. Television watching, videogames, and excess of body fat in Spanish adolescents: the AVENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Rey-López, J Pablo; Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Moreno, Luis A; Wärnberg, Julia; Redondo, Carlos; Tercedor, Pablo; Delgado, Manuel; Marcos, Ascensión; Castillo, Manuel; Bueno, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the individual association of sedentary behaviors with the risk of overweight and excess body fat (overfat) in adolescents. A representative sample (1960 subjects, 1012 males, age 13-18.5 y) of Spanish adolescents was studied within the framework of the Alimentación y Valoración del Estado Nutricional de los Adolescentes (AVENA) study. Television (TV) watching, videogame and computer usage, doing homework, and the way students got to school, physical activity, and socioeconomic status were analyzed. Anthropometrics were measured to describe overweight (International Obesity Task Force cutoffs for body mass index) and overfat (body fat percentage >85th percentile). When all subjects were considered as an entire group, the overweight risk increased by 15.8% (P videogame usage, respectively (both Ps videogame usage (P videogames during the weekend.

  3. Temporal divergence of percent body fat and body mass index in pre-teenage children: the LOOK longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, R D; Cunningham, R B; Abhayaratna, W P

    2014-12-01

    The index of body mass related to stature, (body mass index, BMI, kgm(-2) ), is widely used as a proxy for percent body fat (%BF) in cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations. BMI does not distinguish between lean and fat mass and in children, the cross-sectional relationship between %BF and BMI changes with age and sex. While BMI increases linearly with age from age 8 to 12 years in both boys and girls, %BF plateaus off between 10 and 12 years. Repeated measures in children show a systematic decrease in %BF for any given BMI from age 8 to 10 to 12 years. Because changes in BMI misrepresent changes in %BF, its use as a proxy of %BF should be avoided in longitudinal studies in this age group. Body mass index (BMI, kgm(-2) ) is commonly used as an indicator of pediatric adiposity, but with its inability to distinguish changes in lean and fat mass, its use in longitudinal studies of children requires careful consideration. To investigate the suitability of BMI as a surrogate of percent body fat (%BF) in pediatric longitudinal investigations. In this longitudinal study, healthy Australian children (256 girls and 278 boys) were measured at ages 8.0 (standard deviation 0.3), 10.0 and 12.0 years for height, weight and percent body fat (%BF) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The patterns of change in the means of %BF and BMI were different (P < 0.001). While mean BMI increased linearly from 8 to 12 years of age, %BF did not change between 10 and 12 years. Relationships between %BF and BMI in boys and girls were curvilinear and varied with age (P < 0.001) and gender (P < 0.001); any given BMI corresponding with a lower %BF as a child became older. Considering the divergence of temporal patterns of %BF and BMI between 10 and 12 years of age, employment of BMI as a proxy for %BF in absolute or age and sex standardized forms in pediatric longitudinal investigations is problematical. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association

  4. Impact of body fat distribution on neoadjuvant chemotherapy outcomes in advanced breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwase, Toshiaki; Sangai, Takafumi; Nagashima, Takeshi; Sakakibara, Masahiro; Sakakibara, Junta; Hayama, Shouko; Ishigami, Emi; Masuda, Takahito; Miyazaki, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is known to decrease the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) against breast cancer; however, the relationship between actual body composition and NAC outcomes remains unknown. Therefore, we determined the effect of body composition on NAC outcomes. A total of 172 advanced breast cancer patients who underwent surgery after NAC were retrospectively analyzed. Body composition parameters including abdominal circumference (AC), subcutaneous fat area (SFA), visceral fat area (VFA), and skeletal muscle area (SMA) were calculated using computed tomography volume-analyzing software. VFA/SFA ratio was used to evaluate visceral obesity. The associations of body composition parameters with pathological complete remission (pCR) and survival were analyzed. AC, SFA, and VFA were significantly correlated with body mass index (BMI) (all P < 0.05; r = 0.82, r = 0.71, and r = 0.78, respectively). AC, SFA, and VFA increased significantly and SMA decreased significantly after menopause (all P < 0.05). VFA/SFA ratio increased significantly after menopause, even though BMI remained unchanged. Body composition parameters were not associated with pCR. Distant disease-free survival (DDFS) was significantly worse in the high VFA group than in the low VFA group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, in the high VFA group, postmenopausal patients had significantly shorter DDFS than premenopausal patients (P < 0.05). VFA was independently associated with DDFS in the multivariate analysis (P < 0.05). High visceral fat is associated with worse NAC outcomes in breast cancer patients, especially postmenopausal patients. Interventions targeting visceral fat accumulation will likely improve NAC outcomes

  5. Shivering heat production and body fat protect the core from cooling during body immersion, but not during head submersion: a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Thea; Lix, Lisa; Giesbrecht, Gordon

    2011-03-01

    Previous studies showed that core cooling rates are similar when only the head or only the body is cooled. Structural equation modeling was used on data from two cold water studies involving body-only, or whole body (including head) cooling. Exposure of both the body and head increased core cooling, while only body cooling elicited shivering. Body fat attenuates shivering and core cooling. It is postulated that this protection occurs mainly during body cooling where fat acts as insulation against cold. This explains why head cooling increases surface heat loss with only 11% while increasing core cooling by 39%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Association of Serum Total Peptide YY (PYY) with Obesity and Body Fat Measures in the CODING Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Farrell; Ji, Yunqi; Wadden, Danny; Amini, Peyvand; Randell, Edward; Vasdev, Sudesh; Gulliver, Wayne; Sun, Guang

    2014-01-01

    PYY is an appetite suppressing hormone. Low circulating PYY has been linked to greater BMI. However data is controversial and this association has not been verified in large human populations. The purpose of this study was to investigate if fasting serum total PYY is associated with obesity status and/or adiposity at the population level. A total of 2094 subjects (Male-523, Female-1571) participated in this investigation. Total PYY was measured in fasting serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Obesity status (NW-normal-weight, OW-overweight and OB-obese) was determined by the Bray Criteria according to body fat percentage measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and the WHO criteria according to BMI. One-way ANOVA and multiple regression was used to assess the adiposity-specific association between PYY and the following; weight, BMI, waist-circumference, hip-circumference, waist-hip ratio, percent body fat (%BF), trunk fat (%TF), android fat (%AF) and gynoid fat (%GF). PYY was not significantly different among NW, OW and OB groups defined by neither %BF nor BMI for both men and women. However among women, fasting PYY was positively associated with adiposity measures. Women with the highest (Top 33%) waist-circumference, %BF and %TF had significantly higher PYY (10.5%, 8.3% and 9.2% respectively) than women with the lowest (Bottom 33%). Age, smoking, medication use and menopause were all positively associated with PYY levels in women but not in men. To our knowledge this is the largest population based study, with the most comprehensive analysis and measures of confounding factors, to explore the relationship of circulating PYY with obesity. Contrary to initial findings in the literature we discovered that PYY was positively associated with body fat measures (waist-circumference, %BF and %TF) in women. Although the effect size of the positive association of PYY with obesity in women is small, and potentially negligible, it may in fact represent a protective

  7. Relationship between Regional Body Fat Distribution and Diabetes Mellitus: 2008 to 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo In Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe aim of this study was to investigate the association between regional body fat distribution, especially leg fat mass, and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM in adult populations.MethodsA total of 3,181 men and 3,827 postmenopausal women aged 50 years or older were analyzed based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008 to 2010. Body compositions including muscle mass and regional fat mass were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.ResultsThe odds ratios (ORs for DM was higher with increasing truncal fat mass and arm fat mass, while it was lower with increasing leg fat mass. In a partial correlation analysis adjusted for age, leg fat mass was negatively associated with glycosylated hemoglobin in both sexes and fasting glucose in women. Leg fat mass was positively correlated with appendicular skeletal muscle mass and homeostasis model assessment of β cell. In addition, after adjusting for confounding factors, the OR for DM decreased gradually with increasing leg fat mass quartiles in both genders. When we subdivided the participants into four groups based on the median values of leg fat mass and leg muscle mass, higher leg fat mass significantly lowered the risk of DM even though they have smaller leg muscle mass in both genders (P<0.001.ConclusionThe relationship between fat mass and the prevalence of DM is different according to regional body fat distribution. Higher leg fat mass was associated with a lower risk of DM in Korean populations. Maintaining leg fat mass may be important in preventing impaired glucose tolerance.

  8. Body Fat Percentages by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry Corresponding to Body Mass Index Cutoffs for Overweight and Obesity in Indian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Pandit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Indians are suspected to have higher body fat percent at a given body mass index (BMI than their western counterparts. Objective To estimate percent body fat in apparently healthy Indian children and adolescents by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and explore linkages of BMI with body fat percent for better health risk assessment. Methods Age, weight, height of 316 boys and 250 girls (6–17 years were recorded. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. High adiposity was defined as body fat percent (BF% > McCarthy's 85th percentile of body fat reference data. Receiver operating characteristic analysis (ROC was carried out for CDC BMI Z score for it's ability to judge excess fatness. Results High BF% was seen in 38.5% boys and 54.0% girls (p < 0.05. Percentage of obese children as defined by the BMI cutoffs of International Obesity Task Force (IOTF (2.1% for boys and 6.9% for girls was lower than that using Indian (13.7% for boys and 20.9% for girls and CDC (14.1% for boys and 20.9% for girls cutoffs. The point closest to one on the ROC curves of CDC BMI Z-scores indicated high adiposity at BMI cutoff of 22 at the age of 17 yr in both the genders. Conclusions Higher body fat percentage is associated with lower BMI values in Indian children.

  9. Effect of HIV infection on body composition and fat distribution in Rwandan women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutimura, Eugene; Anastos, Kathryn; Zheng Lin; Cohen, Mardge; Binagwaho, Agnes; Kotler, Donald P

    2010-01-01

    To assess the association of HIV infection with body weight and composition in Rwandan women. Body weight and composition, the latter determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and by anthropometry, were compared in 620 HIV-positive and 211 HIV-negative participants. Associations of HIV with body composition were assessed, and t tests compared the groups. HIV-positive women were younger (-7.0 years, P < .001) and shorter (-2.1 cm, P < .001). Mean body weight, body mass index (BMI), total body fat, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were similar. Mean fat-free mass was 2.5% greater in HIV-negative participants, and 19% of HIV-positive group had BMI <18.5 kg/m(2) versus 26% of the HIV-negative group (P < .05). CD4 counts and body composition were not associated. Malnutrition was common in this cohort of Rwandan women. However, HIV infection was not associated with nutritional status. Factors other than malnutrition may influence quality-of-life outcomes in HIV-infected Rwandan women. Initiatives to improve nutritional status should be population-wide and not restricted to the HIV-infected population.

  10. Gender Difference in Body Fat for Healthy Chinese Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Wu, Qiulian; Gong, Jian; Xiao, Zeyu; Tang, Yongjin; Shang, Jingjie; Cheng, Yong; Xu, Hao

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to establish gender-related differences and the percentile curves for total body fat mass percentage (Total FM%), trunk/appendicular fat mass ratio (TrAppFMR), and fat mass ratio as % fat trunk/% fat lower limb (TrLLFMR) in Chinese children and adolescents using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Children (n = 1541; 764 girls) and adolescents aged 5 to 19 years were recruited from southern China. Total FM% and regional FM were measured by DXA. TrAppFMR values were calculated as trunk FM divided by appendicular FM, and TrLLFMR values were calculated as the ratio between the percentage of trunk FM and the percentage of lower limb FM. Total FM% peaks for boys were at approximately age 11 years and continued to increase for girls throughout adolescence. Median Total FM% at the age of 19 years was 15.53% and 28.06% for boys and girls, respectively. Median TrAppFMR and TrLLFMR increases were 61% and 81% from 5 to 19 years of age in boys compared with those in girls, 31% and 54%. The curves for median TrAppFMR and TrLLFMR in girls were relatively flat, with TrAppFMR and TrLLFMR remaining near 1.0 after 16 years of age, whereas in boys, median TrAppFMR and TrLLFMR increased with age until approximately 19 years. Gender differences in the patterns of proportion and distribution of body fat were found. We present sex-specific percentile curves for Total FM%-age, TrAppFMR-age, and TrLLFMR-age relationships in this population.

  11. Gender- and Gestational Age-Specific Body Fat Percentage at Birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin P

    2011-08-08

    Background: There is increasing evidence that in utero growth has both immediate and far-reaching influence on health. Birth weight and length are used as surrogate measures of in utero growth. However, these measures poorly reflect neonatal adiposity. Air-displacement plethysmography has been validated for the measurement of body fat in the neonatal population. Objective: The goal of this study was to show the normal reference values of percentage body fat (%BF) in infants during the first 4 days of life. Methods: As part of a large population-based birth cohort study, fat mass, fat-free mass, and %BF were measured within the first 4 days of life using air-displacement plethsymography. Infants were grouped into gestational age and gender categories. Results: Of the 786 enrolled infants, fat mass, fat-free mass, and %BF were measured in 743 (94.5%) infants within the first 4 days of life. %BF increased significantly with gestational age. Mean (SD) %BF at 36 to 37 weeks\\' gestation was 8.9% (3.5%); at 38 to 39 weeks\\' gestation, 10.3% (4%); and at 40 to 41 weeks\\' gestation, 11.2% (4.3%) (P < .001). Female infants had significantly increased mean (SD) %BF at 38 to 39(11.1% [3.9%] vs 9.8% [3.9%]; P = .012) and at 40 to 41 (12.5% [4.4%] vs 10% [3.9%]; P < .001) weeks\\' gestation compared with male infants. Gender- and gestational age-specific centiles were calculated, and a normative table was generated for reference. Conclusion: %BF at birth is influenced by gestational age and gender. We generated accurate %BF centiles from a large population-based cohort.

  12. Mathematical model for body fat percentage of children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Borba Neves

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The aim of this study was to develop a specific mathematical model to estimate the body fat percentage (BF% of children with cerebral palsy, based on a Brazilian population of patients with this condition. Method This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. The study included 63 Caucasian children with cerebral palsy, both males and females, aged between three and ten-years-old. Participants were assessed for functional motor impairment using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA and skinfold thickness. Total body mass (TBM and skinfolds thickness from: triceps (Tr, biceps (Bi, Suprailiac (Si, medium thigh (Th, abdominal (Ab, medial calf (Ca and subscapular (Se were collected. Fat mass (FM was estimated by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (gold standard. Results The model was built from multivariate linear regression; FM was set as a dependent variable and other anthropometric variables, age and sex, were set as independent variables. The final model was established as F%=((0.433xTBM + 0.063xTh + 0.167xSi - 6.768 ÷ TBM × 100, the R2 value was 0.950, R2adjusted=0.948 and the standard error of estimate was 1.039 kg. Conclusion This method was shown to be valid to estimate body fat percentage of children with cerebral palsy. Also, the measurement of skinfolds on both sides of the body showed good results in this modelling.

  13. Relation Between Percent Body Fat and Fundamental Motor Skills in Pre-School Children age 3-6 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Musalek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is quite well known that excessive body fat in children is interpreted as a marker of inhibited physical activity and motor performance. This study aimed to establish whether severe impairment of fundamental motor skills (defined as performance under 5th centile of norms will be significantly more frequently identified in pre-schoolers age 3-6 years with amount of body fat higher than 85th centile of norms. Research sample consisted of 496 (females=241, males=255 pre-schoolers selected from specific district of Prague, Czech Republic. The MABC-2 was used for the assesment fundamental motor skills. Equations for body fat estimation in children identified 35.8% children with body fat˃85th centile of norms, 61.7% within 15th–85th centile, and 2.5% of children˂15th centile of norms. Results revealed that children whose body fat was higher than 85th centile of norms or lower than 15th centile had double the frequency of severe motor problems. Interestingely on the other hand we found no signficant differences in the frequency of high above average performances˃90th centile in MABC-2 between fat 8.4% and non fat children 10.7%. We suggest that amount of body fat is not a clear predictor for the degree of fundamental motor skills.

  14. Body fat and dairy product intake in lactase persistent and non-persistent children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Almon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : Lactase non-persistent (LNP individuals may be lactose intolerant and therefore on a more restricted diet concerning milk and milk products compared to lactase persistent (LP individuals. This may have an impact on body fat mass. Objective : This study examines if LP and LNP children and adolescents, defined by genotyping for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism, differ from each other with regard to milk and milk product intake, and measures of body fat mass. Design : Children (n=298, mean age 9.6 years and adolescents (n=386, mean age 15.6 years, belonging to the Swedish part of the European Youth Heart Study, were genotyped for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism. Dietary intakes of reduced and full-fat dairy varieties were determined. Results : LNP (CC genotype subjects consumed less milk, soured milk and yoghurt compared to LP (CT/TT genotype subjects (p<0.001. Subsequent partitioning for age group attenuated this observation (p=0.002 for children and p=0.023 in adolescents. Six subjects were reported by parents to be ‘lactose intolerant’, none of whom were LNP. LNP children and adolescents consumed significantly less reduced fat milk and milk products than LP children and adolescents (p=0.009 for children and p = 0.001 for adolescents. Conclusions : We conclude that LP is linked to an overall higher milk and dairy intake, but is not linked to higher body fat mass in children and adolescents.

  15. Insulin-like peptide genes in honey bee fat body respond differently to manipulation of social behavioral physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Kari-Anne; Ihle, Kate E; Frederick, Katy; Fondrk, M Kim; Smedal, Bente; Hartfelder, Klaus; Amdam, Gro V

    2011-05-01

    Nutrient sensitive insulin-like peptides (ILPs) have profound effects on invertebrate metabolism, nutrient storage, fertility and aging. Many insects transcribe ILPs in specialized neurosecretory cells at changing levels correlated with life history. However, the major site of insect metabolism and nutrient storage is not the brain, but rather the fat body, where functions of ILP expression are rarely studied and poorly understood. Fat body is analogous to mammalian liver and adipose tissue, with nutrient stores that often correlate with behavior. We used the honey bee (Apis mellifera), an insect with complex behavior, to test whether ILP genes in fat body respond to experimentally induced changes of behavioral physiology. Honey bee fat body influences endocrine state and behavior by secreting the yolk protein precursor vitellogenin (Vg), which suppresses lipophilic juvenile hormone and social foraging behavior. In a two-factorial experiment, we used RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated vg gene knockdown and amino acid nutrient enrichment of hemolymph (blood) to perturb this regulatory module. We document factor-specific changes in fat body ilp1 and ilp2 mRNA, the bee's ILP-encoding genes, and confirm that our protocol affects social behavior. We show that ilp1 and ilp2 are regulated independently and differently and diverge in their specific expression-localization between fat body oenocyte and trophocyte cells. Insect ilp functions may be better understood by broadening research to account for expression in fat body and not only brain.

  16. Equations based on anthropometry to predict body fat measured by absorptiometry in schoolchildren and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Vega López, A Valeria; Ramos-Ibáñez, Norma; Cázares Lara, L Joana; Medina Gómez, R Joab; Pérez-Salgado, Diana

    To develop and validate equations to estimate the percentage of body fat of children and adolescents from Mexico using anthropometric measurements. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 601 children and adolescents from Mexico aged 5-19 years. The participants were randomly divided into the following two groups: the development sample (n=398) and the validation sample (n=203). The validity of previously published equations (e.g., Slaughter) was also assessed. The percentage of body fat was estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The anthropometric measurements included height, sitting height, weight, waist and arm circumferences, skinfolds (triceps, biceps, subscapular, supra-iliac, and calf), and elbow and bitrochanteric breadth. Linear regression models were estimated with the percentage of body fat as the dependent variable and the anthropometric measurements as the independent variables. Equations were created based on combinations of six to nine anthropometric variables and had coefficients of determination (r 2 ) equal to or higher than 92.4% for boys and 85.8% for girls. In the validation sample, the developed equations had high r 2 values (≥85.6% in boys and ≥78.1% in girls) in all age groups, low standard errors (SE≤3.05% in boys and ≤3.52% in girls), and the intercepts were not different from the origin (p>0.050). Using the previously published equations, the coefficients of determination were lower, and/or the intercepts were different from the origin. The equations developed in this study can be used to assess the percentage of body fat of Mexican schoolchildren and adolescents, as they demonstrate greater validity and lower error compared with previously published equations. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in weight and body fat after use of tetracycline and Lactobacillus gasseri in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge José Marciano; Fernando de Sá Del Fiol; Alessandra Cristina Marciano Tardelli Ferreira; Maria Cláudia Marques; Luciane Lopes Santana

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent studies have shown a role of intestinal microbiota in obesity. The consumption of antibiotics in the last 70 years has led to changes in intestinal microbiota, which has led to weight gain and body fat accumulation. To evaluate the possibility of weight gain induced by antibiotics and the possible protective effect of probiotics, we divided 45 animals (Rattus norvegicus) into groups and administered the following treatments over two weeks: tetracycline, tetracycline + Lactobac...

  18. Body Estimation and Physical Performance: Estimation of Lifting and Carrying from Fat-Free Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-30

    demanding Navy jobs is associat- ed with greater rates of low back injuries (Vickers, Hervig and White, 1997). Vickers (personal commu- nication) unpublished...adequate strength to reduce the risk of injury on the job to levels of less demanding jobs. The rate of injury on the job might be reduced if strength...of fatness. Individuals for whom body weight is elevated due to the presence of a large muscle mass (e.g. weightlifters ), do not have the same health

  19. Sustained, Low?Intensity Exercise Achieved by a Dynamic Feeding System Decreases Body Fat in Ponies

    OpenAIRE

    de Laat, M.A.; Hampson, B.A.; Sillence, M.N.; Pollitt, C.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity in horses is increasing in prevalence and can be associated with insulin insensitivity and laminitis. Current treatment strategies for obesity include dietary restriction and exercise. However, whether exercise alone is effective for decreasing body fat is uncertain. Hypothesis Our hypothesis was that twice daily use of a dynamic feeding system for 3 months would induce sustained, low?intensity exercise thereby decreasing adiposity and improving insulin sensitivity (SI). An...

  20. Biodynamics of deformable human body motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, A. M.; Huston, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The objective is to construct a framework wherein the various models of human biomaterials fit in order to describe the biodynamic response of the human body. The behavior of the human body in various situations, from low frequency, low amplitude vibrations to impact loadings in automobile and aircraft crashes, is very complicated with respect to all aspects of the problem: materials, geometry and dynamics. The materials problem is the primary concern, but the materials problem is intimately connected with geometry and dynamics.

  1. Abdominal fat analyzed by DEXA scan reflects visceral body fat and improves the phenotype description and the assessment of metabolic risk in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiyi; Wilson, Jenny L.; Khaksari, Mohammad; Cowley, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical studies have demonstrated a strong relationship between visceral fat content and metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and liver steatosis. Obese mouse models are an excellent tool to study metabolic diseases; however, there are limited methods for the noninvasive measurement of fat distribution in mice. Although micromagnetic resonance imaging and microcomputed tomography are the “gold standards” in the measurement of fat distribution, more economical and accessible methods are required. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is an effective method in characterizing fat content; however, it cannot discriminate between visceral and subcutaneous fat depots. We demonstrate that an evaluation of abdominal fat content measured by DEXA through the selection of one localized abdominal area strongly correlates with visceral fat content in C57BL/6J mice. We found that DEXA is able to measure fat pad volume ex vivo with high accuracy; however, the measurement of visceral fat in vivo shows an overestimation caused by subcutaneous tissue interference. The overestimation is almost constant for a wide range of values, and thus it is possible to correct the data for a more accurate estimation of visceral fat content. We demonstrate the utility of this technique in characterizing phenotypes of several obese mouse models (ob/ob, db/db, MC4R-KO, and DIO) and evaluating the effect of treatments on visceral fat content in longitudinal studies. Additionally, we also establish abdominal obesity as a potential biomarker for metabolic abnormalities (liver fat accumulation, insulin resistance/diabetes) in mice, similar to that described in humans. PMID:22761161

  2. Ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian pre-pubertal children: A cross-sectional multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koon Poh Bee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnic differences in body fat distribution contribute to ethnic differences in cardiovascular morbidities and diabetes. However few data are available on differences in fat distribution in Asian children from various backgrounds. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian children from four countries. Methods A total of 758 children aged 8-10 y from China, Lebanon, Malaysia and Thailand were recruited using a non-random purposive sampling approach to enrol children encompassing a wide BMI range. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC, fat mass (FM, derived from total body water [TBW] estimation using the deuterium dilution technique and skinfold thickness (SFT at biceps, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale and medial calf were collected. Results After controlling for height and weight, Chinese and Thai children had a significantly higher WC than their Lebanese and Malay counterparts. Chinese and Thais tended to have higher trunk fat deposits than Lebanese and Malays reflected in trunk SFT, trunk/upper extremity ratio or supraspinale/upper extremity ratio after adjustment for age and total body fat. The subscapular/supraspinale skinfold ratio was lower in Chinese and Thais compared with Lebanese and Malays after correcting for trunk SFT. Conclusions Asian pre-pubertal children from different origins vary in body fat distribution. These results indicate the importance of population-specific WC cut-off points or other fat distribution indices to identify the population at risk of obesity-related health problems.

  3. Dynamic representations of human body movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtzi, Z; Shiffrar, M

    1999-01-01

    Psychophysical and neurophysiological studies suggest that human body motions can be readily recognized. Human bodies are highly articulated and can move in a nonrigid manner. As a result, we perceive highly dissimilar views of the human form in motion. How does the visual system integrate multiple views of a human body in motion so that we can perceive human movement as a continuous event? The results of a set of priming experiments suggest that motion can readily facilitate the linkage of different views of a moving human. Positive priming was found for novel views of a human body that fell within the path of human movement. However, no priming was observed for novel views outside the path of motion. Furthermore, priming was restricted to those views that satisfied the biomechanical constraints of human movement. These results suggest that visual representation of human movement may be based upon the movement limitations of the human body and may reflect a dynamic interaction of motion and object-recognition processes.

  4. Relationship of the Reported Intakes of Fat and Fatty Acids to Body Weight in US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Conrad, Zach; Johnson, LuAnn K; Picklo, Matthew J; Jahns, Lisa

    2017-04-28

    Dietary fat composition may modulate energy expenditure and body weight. Little is known about the relationship between fatty acid intake and body weight at a population level. The purposes of this study were to compare intakes of energy, macronutrients, and individual fatty acids across BMI categories (1) for the US adult population and, (2) by sociodemographic groups. Reported dietary intake data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and What We Eat in America (WWEIA) surveys in the years 2005-2012 were analyzed. Overall, we found that the reported intake of carbohydrate, protein, total fat, total saturated fat (as well as long-chain saturated fatty acids 14:0-18:0), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were positively associated with BMI; while lauric acid (a medium-chain saturated fatty acid, 12:0) and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (as well as all individual PUFAs) were not associated with BMI. Non-Hispanic black individuals demonstrated a negative association between BMI and energy intake and a positive association between total PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA), α-linolenic acid (ALA) and BMI. Individuals with less than a high school education showed a negative association between BMI and DHA. Mexican-Americans reported intakes with no association between BMI and energy, any macronutrient, or individual fatty acids. These findings support those of experimental studies demonstrating fatty acid-dependent associations between dietary fatty acid composition and body weight. Notably, we observed divergent results for some sociodemographic groups which warrant further investigation.

  5. Running speed during training and percent body fat predict race time in recreational male marathoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barandun, Ursula; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Klipstein, Andreas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that personal best marathon time is a strong predictor of race time in male ultramarathoners. We aimed to determine variables predictive of marathon race time in recreational male marathoners by using the same characteristics of anthropometry and training as used for ultramarathoners. Anthropometric and training characteristics of 126 recreational male marathoners were bivariately and multivariately related to marathon race times. After multivariate regression, running speed of the training units (β = -0.52, P marathon race times. Marathon race time for recreational male runners may be estimated to some extent by using the following equation (r (2) = 0.44): race time ( minutes) = 326.3 + 2.394 × (percent body fat, %) - 12.06 × (speed in training, km/hours). Running speed during training sessions correlated with prerace percent body fat (r = 0.33, P = 0.0002). The model including anthropometric and training variables explained 44% of the variance of marathon race times, whereas running speed during training sessions alone explained 40%. Thus, training speed was more predictive of marathon performance times than anthropometric characteristics. The present results suggest that low body fat and running speed during training close to race pace (about 11 km/hour) are two key factors for a fast marathon race time in recreational male marathoner runners.

  6. Indices of body fat distribution for assessment of lipodysthrophy in people living with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segatto Aline Francielle

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic and morphological changes associated with excessive abdominal fat, after the introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in people living with HIV/AIDS(PLWHA. Accurate methods for body composition analysis are expensive and the use of anthropometric indices is an alternative. However the investigations about this subject in PLWHA are rare, making this research very important for clinical purpose and to advance scientific knowledge. The aim of this study is to correlate results of anthropometric indices of evaluation of body fat distribution with the results obtained by Dual-energy X-Ray Absorptiometry(DEXA, in people living with HIV/AIDS. Methods The sample was of 67 PLWHA(39 male and 28 female, aged 43.6+7.9 years. Body mass index, conicity index, waist/hip ratio, waist/height ratio and waist/thigh were calculated. Separated by sex, each index/ratio was plotted in a scatter chart with linear regression fit and their respective Pearson correlation coefficients. Analyses were performed using Prism statistical program and significance was set at 5%. Results The waist/height ratio presented the highest correlation coefficient, for both male (r=0.80, p Conclusion Anthropometric indices, especially waist/height ratio may be a good alternative way to be used for evaluating the distribution of fat in the abdominal region of adults living with HIV/ADIS.

  7. Metabolic syndrome: Differences for Asian Americans is in their percentage of body fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Alpert

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Asian Americans are not frequently thought of as being obese or overweight yet some of the Asian American subgroups have a disproportionate risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although the standardized body mass index (BMI assessment is an adequate tool for reporting secular prevalence trends for overweight/obesity across populations, it falls short in accuracy when assessing Asian Americans. In recent years more has been written about the re-evaluation of BMI cut points for normal weight, overweight, or obese Asian Americans. Additionally, the waist circumference norm was modified to indicate a smaller waist size is a risk for metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the research literature on BMI and percentage of body fat as it relates to health risk for metabolic syndrome for Asian American subgroups. Three databases were used to identify articles for this review: Google Scholar, CINHAL, and PubMed. Seven hundred twenty-six articles were initially identified as meeting the criteria; 690 articles were eliminated after a review of the article titles revealed the content did not meet the focus of this review. Of the remaining articles, 19 were eliminated after a review of the abstracts indicated they were meta-analyses, review articles, or case studies. The remaining 18 articles were included in this review. Three common themes emerged. (1 The differences in BMI and body fat percentage are evident between Asian Americans and other ethnic groups. (2 Differences in the percentage of body fat exist between Asian American subgroups, and between Asian Americans and Asian immigrants. (3 There are differences in disease development end points when comparing Asian American subgroups and Asian immigrant subgroups. There are differences in body fat distribution and body fat percentages as well as BMI compared to other ethnic groups for metabolic syndrome. There are also differences between Asian

  8. Insulin detemir attenuates food intake, body weight gain and fat mass gain in diet-induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, J M; Printz, R L; Niswender, K D

    2011-07-04

    Initiation and intensification of insulin therapy commonly causes weight gain, a barrier to therapy. A contrasting body of evidence indicates that insulin functions as an adiposity negative feedback signal and reduces food intake, weight gain and adiposity via action in the central nervous system. Basal insulin analogs, detemir (Det) and glargine (Glar), have been associated with less hypoglycemia compared with neutral protamine hagedorn insulin, and Det with less weight gain, especially in patients with higher body mass index (BMI). We sought to determine whether insulin therapy per se causes body weight and fat mass gain when delivered via a clinically relevant subcutaneous (SC) route in the absence of hypoglycemia and glycosuria in non-diabetic lean and diet-induced obese rats. Rats were exposed to either a low-fat diet (LFD; 13.5% fat) or high-fat diet (HFD; 60% fat), and received Det (0.5 U kg(-1)), Glar (0.2 U kg(-1)) or vehicle (Veh) SC once daily for 4 weeks. These dosages of insulin were equipotent in rats with respect to blood-glucose concentration and did not induce hypoglycemia. As predicted by current models of energy homeostasis, neither insulin Det nor Glar therapy affected food intake and weight gain in LFD rats. Det treatment significantly attenuated food intake, body weight gain and fat mass gain relative to the Glar and Veh in high-fat fed animals, mirroring observations in humans. That neither insulin group gained excess weight, suggests weight gain with SC basal insulin therapy may not be inevitable. Our data further suggest that Det possesses a unique property to attenuate the development of obesity associated with a HFD.

  9. Sustained, Low-Intensity Exercise Achieved by a Dynamic Feeding System Decreases Body Fat in Ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, M A; Hampson, B A; Sillence, M N; Pollitt, C C

    2016-09-01

    Obesity in horses is increasing in prevalence and can be associated with insulin insensitivity and laminitis. Current treatment strategies for obesity include dietary restriction and exercise. However, whether exercise alone is effective for decreasing body fat is uncertain. Our hypothesis was that twice daily use of a dynamic feeding system for 3 months would induce sustained, low-intensity exercise thereby decreasing adiposity and improving insulin sensitivity (SI). Eight, university-owned, mixed-breed, adult ponies with body condition scores (BCS) ≥5/9 were used. Two treatments ("feeder on" or "feeder off") were administered for a 3-month period by a randomized, crossover design (n = 4/treatment). An interim equilibration period of 6 weeks at pasture separated the 2 study phases. Measurements of body mass (body weight, BCS, cresty neck score [CrNS], and morphometry), body fat (determined before and after the "feeder on" treatment only), triglycerides, and insulin sensitivity (SI; combined glucose-insulin test) were undertaken before and after treatments. The dynamic feeding system induced a 3.7-fold increase in the daily distance travelled (n = 6), compared to with a stationary feeder, which significantly decreased mean BCS (6.53 ± 0.94 to 5.38 ± 1.71), CrNS (2.56 ± 1.12 to 1.63 ± 1.06) and body fat (by 4.95%). An improvement in SI did not occur in all ponies. A dynamic feeding system can be used to induce sustained (daily), low-intensity exercise that promotes weight loss in ponies. However, this exercise may not be sufficient to substantially improve SI. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  10. Whole-body fat oxidation determined by graded exercise and indirect calorimetry: a role for muscle oxidative capacity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, P; Saltin, B; Helge, J W

    2006-01-01

    During whole-body exercise, peak fat oxidation occurs at a moderate intensity. This study investigated whole-body peak fat oxidation in untrained and trained subjects, and the presence of a relation between skeletal muscle oxidative enzyme activity and whole-body peak fat oxidation. Healthy male...... subjects were recruited and categorized into an untrained (N=8, VO(2max) 3.5+/-0.1 L/min) and a trained (N=8, VO(2max) 4.6+/-0.2 L/min) group. Subjects performed a graded exercise test commencing at 60 W for 8 min followed by 35 W increments every 3 min. On a separate day, muscle biopsies were obtained...... oxidation was determined. The body composition was determined by DEXA. Whole-body peak fat oxidation (250+/-25 and 462+/-33 mg/min) was higher (Ptrained compared with untrained subjects, respectively. Muscle...

  11. Protein content and electrophoretic profile of fat body and ovary extracts from workers of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera, Meliponini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner T. Paes de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Workers of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Lepeletier, 1836 develop their ovaries and lay eggs, therefore the production of vitellogenin is expected. In electrophoretic profiles only fat body extracts from nurse workers and ovary extracts from newly-emerged workers show protein with molecular mass similar to vitellogenin. However, an increase in the protein content was detected in forager fat body. This increase was attributed to storage of vitellogenin or other proteins in the previous phase and not discharged into the hemolymph or to an effect of the increased titre of juvenile hormone in this phase of worker life over the fat body functioning.

  12. Reference curves of the body fat index in adolescents and their association with anthropometric variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rago Frignani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To develop reference curves for the body fat index (BFI in the pediatric population, in adolescents from the city of São Paulo, Brazil, and verify their association with body mass index and body fat percentage. Methods: The study is part of the research project “Nutritional Profile of Adolescents from Public and Private Schools of São Paulo” that was performed in 2004-2005. A total of 4,686 adolescents (2,130 boys and 2,556 girls aged 10-15 years were divided into two groups: 10-12 and 13-15 years of age. Body mass, height, body mass index, hip circumference, body fat percentage, body fat index, and sexual maturation performed by the self-assessment method (prepubertal, pubertal, and postpubertal were analyzed. ANOVA was performed, as well as percentile distribution, Pearson's correlation, and Bland-Altman plot. Results: In boys, there was an increase in body mass, height, body mass index, and hip circumference with advancing age and Tanner stage. In girls, there was an increase in body fat index and body fat percentage with advancing age and stage of sexual maturation. An association was found between body fat index and body mass index (r = 0.67 in boys and 0.80 in girls, p < 0.001 and body fat percentage (r = 0.71 in boys and 0.68 in girls, p < 0.001. Conclusion: The body fat index seems to reflect well the phenomena of sexual dimorphism in adolescence, is easy to perform, and represents a method that should be used in population samples. Resumo: Objetivos: Desenvolver curvas de referência do índice de adiposidade corporal para população pediátrica, em adolescentes da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil, e verificar a sua relação com o índice de massa corporal e percentual de gordura corporal. Métodos: O estudo faz parte do projeto de pesquisa “Perfil Nutricional de Adolescentes de escolas Públicas e Privadas de São Paulo” realizado em 2004/2005. 4.686 adolescentes (2.130 meninos e 2.556 meninas de 10-15 anos

  13. Parametric recursive system identification and self-adaptive modeling of the human energy metabolism for adaptive control of fat weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Őri, Zsolt P

    2017-05-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to facilitate indirect measurements of difficult to measure variables of the human energy metabolism on a daily basis. The model performs recursive system identification of the parameters of the metabolic model of the human energy metabolism using the law of conservation of energy and principle of indirect calorimetry. Self-adaptive models of the utilized energy intake prediction, macronutrient oxidation rates, and daily body composition changes were created utilizing Kalman filter and the nominal trajectory methods. The accuracy of the models was tested in a simulation study utilizing data from the Minnesota starvation and overfeeding study. With biweekly macronutrient intake measurements, the average prediction error of the utilized carbohydrate intake was -23.2 ± 53.8 kcal/day, fat intake was 11.0 ± 72.3 kcal/day, and protein was 3.7 ± 16.3 kcal/day. The fat and fat-free mass changes were estimated with an error of 0.44 ± 1.16 g/day for fat and -2.6 ± 64.98 g/day for fat-free mass. The daily metabolized macronutrient energy intake and/or daily macronutrient oxidation rate and the daily body composition change from directly measured serial data are optimally predicted with a self-adaptive model with Kalman filter that uses recursive system identification.

  14. Prenatal androgen excess negatively impacts body fat distribution in a nonhuman primate model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, C M; Baum, S T; Colman, R J; Dumesic, D A; Eisner, J R; Jensen, M D; Whigham, L D; Abbott, D H

    2007-10-01

    Prenatally androgenized (PA) female rhesus monkeys share metabolic abnormalities in common with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women. Early gestation exposure (E) results in insulin resistance, impaired pancreatic beta-cell function and type 2 diabetes, while late gestation exposure (L) results in supranormal insulin sensitivity that declines with increasing body mass index (BMI). To determine whether PA females have altered body fat distribution. Five early-treated PA (EPA), five late-treated PA (LPA) and five control adult female monkeys underwent somatometrics, dual-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and abdominal computed tomography (CT). Five control and five EPA females underwent an intravenous glucose tolerance test to assess the relationship between body composition and glucoregulation. There were no differences in age, weight, BMI or somatometrics. LPA females had approximately 20% greater DXA-determined total fat and percent body fat, as well as total and percent abdominal fat than EPA or control females (Pandrogenization in female rhesus monkeys induces adiposity-dependent visceral fat accumulation, and late gestation androgenization causes increased total body and non-visceral fat mass. Early gestation androgenization induces visceral fat-dependent hyperinsulinemia. The relationship between the timing of prenatal androgen exposure and body composition phenotypes in this nonhuman primate model for PCOS may provide insight into the heterogeneity of metabolic defects found in PCOS women.

  15. Total body fat, proinflammatory cytokines and insulin resistance in Indian subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajnik, C.S.; Lubree, H.G.; Rege, S.S.; Bhat, D.S.; Raut, K.N.; Panchanadikar, A.S.; Joglekar, C.B.; Naik, S.S.; Shetty, P.; Yudkin, J.; Kurpad, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    We studied cardiovascular risk factors in 30 to 50 year old Indian men in three geographical locations (rural, urban slums and urban middle class) in relation to their body fat. A total of 1,222 subjects, selected by stratified random sampling were screened: 39 reported diabetic or hypertensive. Of the remaining subjects 600 were randomly selected for further testing. This is a report 441 men studied (149 rural, 142 slums, 150 urban middle class). The mean age of these men was 38 y rural, 38 y urban slums, 41 y urban middle class, mean BMI 21.0 kg/m 2 , 22.3 kg/m 2 and 24.3 kg/m 2 respectively, mean body fat percent by bio-impedance 20.4%, 22.5% and 30.4% and by Deuterated water was 19.9%, 21.6% and 27.2% respectively. A 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (WHO 1985) showed no diabetes in rural subjects, while 4% urban slum dwellers and 10 in urban middle class were diabetic; 9% rural men had IGT, compared to 12% in urban slums and 20% in urban middle class. Hypertension (blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mm Bg) was present in 2% rural men, 4% in urban slums and in 10% men in urban middle class. Mean plasma cholesterol concentration was 148 mg% in rural, 53 mg% in urban slums and 64 mg% in urban middle class, mean plasma triglyceride concentrations were 82 mg%, 95 mg% and 108 mg% respectively. All cardiovascular risk factors were strongly related to measures of obesity (body fat % and waist hip ratio). On multivariate analysis 2h plasma glucose (OGTT) concentration and blood pressure were additionally related to geographical location (urban middle class>slums>rural). Our results suggest that urbanisation increases the risk of glucose intolerance and hypertension independent of the body fat percent or its central distribution. This suggests there may he additional environmental factors in the urban environment increasing the risk of diabetes over and above the effect of body fat. (author)

  16. Total body fat, proinflammatory cytokines and insulin resistance in Indian subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yajnik, C S; Lubree, H G; Rege, S S; Bhat, D S; Raut, K N; Panchanadikar, A S; Joglekar, C B; Naik, S S [Diabetest Unit, KEM Hospital Resarch Centre, Pune (India); Shetty, P [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Yudkin, J [International Health and Medical Education Centre, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Kurpad, A V [St. John' s Medical College, Bangalore (India)

    2002-07-01

    We studied cardiovascular risk factors in 30 to 50 year old Indian men in three geographical locations (rural, urban slums and urban middle class) in relation to their body fat. A total of 1,222 subjects, selected by stratified random sampling were screened: 39 reported diabetic or hypertensive. Of the remaining subjects 600 were randomly selected for further testing. This is a report 441 men studied (149 rural, 142 slums, 150 urban middle class). The mean age of these men was 38 y rural, 38 y urban slums, 41 y urban middle class, mean BMI 21.0 kg/m{sup 2}, 22.3 kg/m{sup 2} and 24.3 kg/m{sup 2} respectively, mean body fat percent by bio-impedance 20.4%, 22.5% and 30.4% and by Deuterated water was 19.9%, 21.6% and 27.2% respectively. A 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (WHO 1985) showed no diabetes in rural subjects, while 4% urban slum dwellers and 10 in urban middle class were diabetic; 9% rural men had IGT, compared to 12% in urban slums and 20% in urban middle class. Hypertension (blood pressure {>=} 140/90 mm Bg) was present in 2% rural men, 4% in urban slums and in 10% men in urban middle class. Mean plasma cholesterol concentration was 148 mg% in rural, 53 mg% in urban slums and 64 mg% in urban middle class, mean plasma triglyceride concentrations were 82 mg%, 95 mg% and 108 mg% respectively. All cardiovascular risk factors were strongly related to measures of obesity (body fat % and waist hip ratio). On multivariate analysis 2h plasma glucose (OGTT) concentration and blood pressure were additionally related to geographical location (urban middle class>slums>rural). Our results suggest that urbanisation increases the risk of glucose intolerance and hypertension independent of the body fat percent or its central distribution. This suggests there may he additional environmental factors in the urban environment increasing the risk of diabetes over and above the effect of body fat. (author)

  17. Evaluation of fat-free mass by whole-body counter in Japanese healthy young adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, N.; Takamura, N.; Murakami, T.; Jo, O.; Aoyagi, K.; Yamashita, S.; Okumura, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Whole-body counters (WBCs) are special instruments for measuring internal irradiation doses and are usually housed within or around nuclear facilities in the event of unexpected radiation emergencies. As a substantial proportion of total body potassium (TBK) is found in fat-free mass (FFM), FFM volume can be predicted from WBC-measured 40 K. We screened TBK in Japanese healthy young adults using a WBC and found strong linear correlations between TBK and lean body mass (LBM) and body mass index (r = 0.97, P<0.01 and r = 0.47, P<0.01, respectively). Multiple linear regression analysis, following adjustments for sex, indicates that only LBM has a significant correlation with TBK (P<0.01). These results strongly support the feasibility of using WBCs for estimating FFM. (authors)

  18. Body mass, fat-free body mass, and prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from a random population sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Prescott, Eva; Almdal, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population, the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat-free mass/weight(2))....

  19. Effect of Raised Body Fat on Vitamin D, Leptin and Bone Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, S. S.; Alam, F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate leptin, vitamin D and bone mineral density levels in individuals with high fat mass, and to assess any correlation. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Basic Medical Sciences Institute, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre, Karachi, and Aga Khan University, Karachi, from August 2012 to July 2014, and comprised healthy male volunteers between the ages of 18-60 years. Body fat percentage was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis and the participants were classified as: Group A (15-21.9); Group B (22-27.9); and Group C (>28). Bone mineral density was calculated by ultrasound bone densitometer (T-score between +1 and -1 considered normal). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits were used to determine the levels of vitamin D and leptin. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 132 male subjects participated in this study, with each of the 3 groups having 44(33.3 percent). Despite all groups having low Vitamin D, a marked decrease was observed in group C compared to groups A and B (p <0.018). Bone mineral density T-score was <-1; total calcium was within normal range in all three groups. Serum leptin was raised in Group C compared to group A and B (p=0.03). Body fat percentage was negatively associated with vitamin D (p=0.004; r = -0.351), while it was positively correlated with leptin (p =0.038; r = 0.256). Conclusion: Excess of body fat percentage led to decreased vitamin D and raised leptin. However, bone mineral density and calcium levels were within normal range, suggesting that other factors might have played a role in maintaining bone mass in obese individuals, such as leptin. (author)

  20. Comparison of seasonal variation in the fasting respiratory quotient of young Japanese, Polish and Thai women in relation to seasonal change in their percent body fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morinaka Tomoko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From the viewpoint of human physiological adaptability, we previously investigated seasonal variation in the amount of unabsorbed dietary carbohydrates from the intestine after breakfast in Japanese, Polish and Thai participants. In this investigation we found that there were significant seasonal variations in the amount of unabsorbed dietary carbohydrates in Japanese and Polish participants, while we could not find significant seasonal variation in Thai participants. These facts prompted us to examine seasonal variations in the respiratory quotient after an overnight fast (an indicator of the ratio of carbohydrate and fat oxidized after the last meal with female university students living in Osaka (Japan, Poznan (Poland and Chiang Mai (Thailand. Methods We enrolled 30, 33 and 32 paid participants in Japan, Poland and Thailand, respectively, and measurements were taken over the course of one full year. Fasting respiratory quotient was measured with the participants in their postabsorptive state (after 12 hours or more fasting before respiratory quotient measurement. Respiratory quotient measurements were carried out by means of indirect calorimetry using the mixing chamber method. The percent body fat was measured using an electric bioelectrical impedance analysis scale. Food intake of the participants in Osaka and Poznan were carried out by the Food Frequency Questionnaire method. Results There were different seasonal variations in the fasting respiratory quotient values in the three different populations; with a significant seasonal variation in the fasting respiratory quotient values in Japanese participants, while those in Polish and Thai participants were non-significant. We found that there were significant seasonal changes in the percent body fat in the three populations but we could not find any significant correlation between the fasting respiratory quotient values and the percent body fat. Conclusions There were

  1. Associations between initial change in physical activity level and subsequent change in regional body fat distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekwe, Kelechi A; Adegboye, Amanda R A; Gamborg, Michael; Heitmann, Berit L

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined which lifestyle factors relate to the development of fat distribution. Therefore, the identification of the determinants of changes in fat deposition is highly relevant. The association between the change in physical activity (PA) and the subsequent changes in regional body fat distributions was examined. In total, 1,236 men and 1,201 women were included at baseline and participated in the Danish MONICA (MONItoring Trends and Determinants in CArdiovascular Disease) study. A questionnaire was used to assess PA at 5 and 11 years after baseline examination, while waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) were measured at both follow-ups. Among men, WC increased in the constant active group to a lesser extent than in the non-constant active group (3.4 vs. 4.1 cm; p = 0.03) concerning leisure time physical activities (LTPA). A similar pattern was observed for both WC and HC in relation to occupational physical activities (OPA) (p = 0.02). Among women, the results went in the same direction for LTPA, whereas the associations with OPA were in the opposite direction (p = 0.001). LTPA and OPA were associated with reduced subsequent 6-year changes in regional fat distribution for men. For women, no associations were observed in relation to WC; however, OPA seemed to increase HC among women. © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  2. Role of Receptor-Interacting Protein 140 in human fat cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenson Britta M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mice lacking Receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140 have reduced body fat which at least partly is mediated through increased lipid and glucose metabolism in adipose tissue. In humans, RIP140 is lower expressed in visceral white adipose tissue (WAT of obese versus lean subjects. We investigated the role of RIP140 in human subcutaneous WAT, which is the major fat depot of the body. Methods Messenger RNA levels of RIP140 were measured in samples of subcutaneous WAT from women with a wide variation in BMI and in different human WAT preparations. RIP140 mRNA was knocked down with siRNA in in vitro differentiated adipocytes and the impact on glucose transport and mRNA levels of target genes determined. Results RIP140 mRNA levels in subcutaneous WAT were decreased among obese compared to lean women and increased by weight-loss, but did not associate with mitochondrial DNA copy number. RIP140 expression increased during adipocyte differentiation in vitro and was higher in isolated adipocytes compared to corresponding pieces of WAT. Knock down of RIP140 increased basal glucose transport and mRNA levels of glucose transporter 4 and uncoupling protein-1. Conclusions Human RIP140 inhibits glucose uptake and the expression of genes promoting energy expenditure in the same fashion as the murine orthologue. Increased levels of human RIP140 in subcutaneous WAT of lean subjects may contribute to economize on energy stores. By contrast, the function and expression pattern does not support that RIP140 regulate human obesity.

  3. Light bodies in human pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R

    1987-01-01

    Light bodies are large cytoplasmic granules originally described in the gonadotrophic cells of the rat pituitary gland. In order to determine whether similar bodies occur in the human anterior pituitary gland, 89 pituitary adenomas and periadenomatous tissue from 20 cases were examined...... cells in periadenomatous tissue from 20 cases. These results show that some human pituitary adenomas may contain light bodies identical to those seen in gonadotrophs of rat pituitary....... by transmission electron microscopy. Double membrane bound bodies with filamentous internal structure identical to rodent light bodies were identified in 10 hormone-producing adenomas: 5 PRL, 1 PRL-GH, 2 GH, and 2 ACTH-producing tumours. No light bodies were found in the remaining 79 tumours nor in the pituitary...

  4. The Effects of Usual Intervention Versus Usual Intervention Plus Knowledge of Measured Resting Energy Expenditure on Body Weight and Body Fat in Active Duty Air Force Personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, Heather

    2004-01-01

    ...: 25.2-36.2, enrolled in a Weight and Body Fat Management program Statistical Analysis: Descriptives, 2-sample t-tests, multiple linear regression, and ANOVA for mean differences between groups and time...

  5. Overfat Adults and Children in Developed Countries: The Public Health Importance of Identifying Excess Body Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip B. Maffetone

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The global overfat pandemic is a serious public health crisis that places a substantial burden on economic resources in developed countries. The term overfat refers to the presence of excess body fat that can impair health, even for normal weight non-obese individuals. Excess body fat is associated with cardiometabolic dysfunction, a clinical situation that can progressively worsen, potentially leading to various common disease risk factors, chronic diseases, increased morbidity and mortality, and reduced quality of life. The prevalence of overfat populations in 30 of the world’s most developed countries is substantially higher than recent global estimations, with the largest growth due to a relatively recent increased number of people with excess abdominal fat. Abdominal overfat is the most unhealthful form of this condition, so it is concerning that average waist circumference measures, generally indicative of abdominal overfat, have increased. Despite a leveling off appearance of being overweight and/or obese in some developed countries, the overfat pandemic continues to grow.

  6. Administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder reduced body fat mass in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Eriko; Tanaka, Miyuki; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Nomaguchi, Kouji; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Aloe vera gel administration in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). SD rats at 7 wk of age were fed either a standard diet (10 kcal% fat) (StdD) or high-fat (60 kcal% fat) diet (HFD) during the experimental period. Four weeks after of HFD-feeding, DIO rats (11 wk of age) were orally administered with two doses of Aloe vera gel powder (20 and 200 mg/kg/d) for 90 d. Body weights (g) and body fat (%) of HFD fed rats were significantly higher than those of StdD-fed rats. Although a modest decrease of body weight (g) was observed with the administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder, both subcutaneous and visceral fat weight (g) and body fat (%) were reduced significantly in Aloe vera gel-treated rats. Serum lipid parameters elevated by HFD were also improved by the Aloe vera gel treatment. The oxygen consumption (VO(2)), an index of energy expenditure, was decreased in HFD-fed rats compared with that in StdD-fed rats. Administration of Aloe vera gel reversed the change in VO(2) in the HFD-fed rats. These results suggest that intake of Aloe vera gel reduced body fat accumulation, in part, by stimulation of energy expenditure. Aloe vera gel might be beneficial for the prevention and improvement of diet-induced obesity.

  7. Low birth weight may increase body fat mass in adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Minooee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women engaged with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS, as the commonest endocrine disorder, are known to have a specific type of adiposity. Birth weight is among different contributors reported to be responsible for this diversity. Objective: We aimed to compare the relation between birth weight and body fat mass (BFM/ body lean mass (BLM in PCOS and their age and body mass index (BMI matched normal controls. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a total number of 70 reproductive aged women, diagnosed with PCOS and 70 age- BMI matched healthy women without hirsutism and/or ovulatory dysfunction were recruited., control group had no polycystic ovaries in ultrasonographic scans. A detailed history of birth weight was taken and was divided into the following categories: <2,500 (low birth weight, LBW and 2,500-4,000 (normal birth weight; NBW. Results: Results showed that LBW prevalence was higher in women with PCOS than in controls (19.3% (27 vs. 15.7% (22. Also body fat and lean mass (BFM, BLM have increased in adult women with PCOS who were born underweight compared to their normal (19.8±9.05 vs. 12.9±4.5, p=0.001 and 48.9±6.9 vs. 43.2±5.8, p=0.004 respectively. Conclusion: Fetal birth weight influences on the adulthood obesity, BFM and BLM. This impact is different among women with and without PCOS

  8. Microencapsulated conjugated linoleic acid associated with hypocaloric diet reduces body fat in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho RF

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Roberta F Carvalho,1 Sofia K Uehara,2 Glorimar Rosa1,21Medicine Department, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Nutrition and Dietetic Department, Josué de Castro Institute of Nutrition, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, BrazilBackground: Animal studies have suggested beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in reducing body fat mass and improvement in the serum lipid profile and glycemia. However, these effects are controversial in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of microencapsulated CLA supplementation on body composition, body mass index, waist circumference, and blood pressure in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome.Methods: This study was a placebo-controlled and randomized clinical trial. Fourteen women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome received light strawberry jam enriched or not with microencapsulated CLA (3 g/day as a mixture of 38.57% cis-9, trans-11, and 39.76% trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers associated with a hypocaloric diet for 90 days. The subjects were monitored to assess variables associated with the metabolic syndrome, in addition to assessing adherence with the intervention.Results: There were no significant effects of microencapsulated CLA on the lipid profile or blood pressure. Mean plasma insulin concentrations were significantly lower in women supplemented with microencapsulated CLA (Δ T90 – T0 = −12.87 ± 4.26 µU/mL, P = 0.02. Microencapsulated CLA supplementation did not alter the waist circumference, but there was a reduction in body fat mass detected after 30 days (Δ = −2.68% ± 0.82%, P = 0.02, which was maintained until the 90-day intervention period (Δ = −3.32% ± 1.41%, P = 0.02 in the microencapsulated CLA group. The placebo group showed this effect only after 90 days (Δ = −1.97% ± 0.60%, P = 0.02, but had a reduced waist circumference (Δ T90 – T0 = −4.25 ± 1.31 cm, P = 0.03.Conclusion: Supplementation with mixed

  9. Prebiotics Reduce Body Fat and Alter Intestinal Microbiota in Children Who Are Overweight or With Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolucci, Alissa C; Hume, Megan P; Martínez, Inés; Mayengbam, Shyamchand; Walter, Jens; Reimer, Raylene A

    2017-09-01

    It might be possible to manipulate the intestinal microbiota with prebiotics or other agents to prevent or treat obesity. However, little is known about the ability of prebiotics to specifically modify gut microbiota in children with overweight/obesity or reduce body weight. We performed a randomized controlled trial to study the effects of prebiotics on body composition, markers of inflammation, bile acids in fecal samples, and composition of the intestinal microbiota in children with overweight or obesity. We performed a single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 2 separate cohorts (March 2014 and August 2014) at the University of Calgary in Canada. Participants included children, 7-12 years old, with overweight or obesity (>85th percentile of body mass index) but otherwise healthy. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given either oligofructose-enriched inulin (OI; 8 g/day; n=22) or maltodextrin placebo (isocaloric dose, controls; n=20) once daily for 16 weeks. Fat mass and lean mass were measured using dual-energy-x-ray absorptiometry. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured at baseline and every 4 weeks thereafter. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 16 weeks, and analyzed for lipids, cytokines, lipopolysaccharide, and insulin. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and 16 weeks; bile acids were profiled using high-performance liquid chromatography and the composition of the microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The primary outcome was change in percent body fat from baseline to 16 weeks. After 16 weeks, children who consumed OI had significant decreases in body weight z-score (decrease of 3.1%), percent body fat (decrease of 2.4%), and percent trunk fat (decrease of 3.8%) compared with children given placebo (increase of 0.5%, increase of 0.05%, and decrease of 0.3%, respectively). Children who consumed OI also had a significant reduction in level of

  10. Injury to the human body, part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Injuries by exposure to the atomic bomb at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and its effects were studied as follows: 1) Injury to the human body following exposure to the atomic bomb; 2) Body injury in the initial stage-acute stage of atomic bomb injury; 3) Aftereffects and genetic effects. (J.P.N.)

  11. New Window into the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Michael Vannier, MD, a former NASA engineer, recognized the similarity between NASA's computerized image processing technology and nuclear magnetic resonance. With technical assistance from Kennedy Space Center, he developed a computer program for Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology enabling Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to scan body tissue for earlier diagnoses. Dr. Vannier feels that "satellite imaging" has opened a new window into the human body.

  12. A bacteriophages journey through the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Jeremy J

    2017-09-01

    The human body is colonized by a diverse collective of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses. The smallest entity of this microbial conglomerate are the bacterial viruses. Bacteriophages, or phages for short, exert significant selective pressure on their bacterial hosts, undoubtedly influencing the human microbiome and its impact on our health and well-being. Phages colonize all niches of the body, including the skin, oral cavity, lungs, gut, and urinary tract. As such our bodies are frequently and continuously exposed to diverse collections of phages. Despite the prevalence of phages throughout our bodies, the extent of their interactions with human cells, organs, and immune system is still largely unknown. Phages physically interact with our mucosal surfaces, are capable of bypassing epithelial cell layers, disseminate throughout the body and may manipulate our immune system. Here, I establish the novel concept of an "intra-body phageome," which encompasses the collection of phages residing within the classically "sterile" regions of the body. This review will take a phage-centric view of the microbiota, human body, and immune system with the ultimate goal of inspiring a greater appreciation for both the indirect and direct interactions between bacteriophages and their mammalian hosts. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Functional Neuronal Processing of Human Body Odors

    OpenAIRE

    Lundström, Johan N.; Olsson, Mats J.

    2010-01-01

    Body odors carry informational cues of great importance for individuals across a wide range of species, and signals hidden within the body odor cocktail are known to regulate several key behaviors in animals. For a long time, the notion that humans may be among these species has been dismissed. We now know, however, that each human has a unique odor signature that carries information related to his or her genetic makeup, as well as information about personal environmental variables, such as d...

  14. Comparison of body fat using various bioelectrical impedance analyzers in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kutáč

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: At present, the portfolio of devices using the bioelectrical impedance (BIA method is continuously expanding as a result of the wide use of this method in the field as measurements by this method are fast and staff training is simple and reasonably priced. Nonetheless, the problem is that despite using the same method, bioimpedance analyzers can differ in many parameters. They use different electric current frequencies, a different number of electrodes and the electric current may be conducted through different parts of the body.Objective: The main objective of the study is to compare and evaluate the differences of values of the analysis of the body fat of university students measured by BIA analyzers that differ in the applied electric current frequency, number of electrodes and flow of the electric current through the individual body parts.Methods: The research included 125 participants (70 male and 55 female. The measurements were taken by the following analyzers: Tanita 418 MA, InBody 720, InBody R20 and Omron BF 300.Results: The differences in the mean values of the body fat representation between the used analyzers in men ranged from 0.1 to 3.4% and from 0.0 to 2.4 kg, in women from 0.5 to 6.5% and from 0.4 to 3.8 kg in relation to the used analyzer.Conclusions: In men with regular physical activity, the values measured by InBody R20 were statistically and practically different. The analyzer measured higher values that other analyzers. In women, there were statistically and practically significant differences in the values measured by Omron BF 300. This analyzer measured lower values than other analyzers.

  15. Modeling the exergy behavior of human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keutenedjian Mady, Carlos Eduardo; Silva Ferreira, Maurício; Itizo Yanagihara, Jurandir; Hilário Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo; Oliveira Junior, Silvio de

    2012-01-01

    Exergy analysis is applied to assess the energy conversion processes that take place in the human body, aiming at developing indicators of health and performance based on the concepts of exergy destroyed rate and exergy efficiency. The thermal behavior of the human body is simulated by a model composed of 15 cylinders with elliptical cross section representing: head, neck, trunk, arms, forearms, hands, thighs, legs, and feet. For each, a combination of tissues is considered. The energy equation is solved for each cylinder, being possible to obtain transitory response from the body due to a variation in environmental conditions. With this model, it is possible to obtain heat and mass flow rates to the environment due to radiation, convection, evaporation and respiration. The exergy balances provide the exergy variation due to heat and mass exchange over the body, and the exergy variation over time for each compartments tissue and blood, the sum of which leads to the total variation of the body. Results indicate that exergy destroyed and exergy efficiency decrease over lifespan and the human body is more efficient and destroys less exergy in lower relative humidities and higher temperatures. -- Highlights: ► In this article it is indicated an overview of the human thermal model. ► It is performed the energy and exergy analysis of the human body. ► Exergy destruction and exergy efficiency decreases with lifespan. ► Exergy destruction and exergy efficiency are a function of environmental conditions.

  16. Effect of short-term carbohydrate overfeeding and long-term weight loss on liver fat in overweight humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevastianova, Ksenia; Santos, Alexandre; Kotronen, Anna; Hakkarainen, Antti; Makkonen, Janne; Silander, Kaisa; Peltonen, Markku; Romeo, Stefano; Lundbom, Jesper; Lundbom, Nina; Olkkonen, Vesa M; Gylling, Helena; Fielding, Barbara A; Rissanen, Aila; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele

    2012-10-01

    Cross-sectional studies have identified a high intake of simple sugars as an important dietary factor predicting nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We examined whether overfeeding overweight subjects with simple sugars increases liver fat and de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and whether this is reversible by weight loss. Sixteen subjects [BMI (kg/m²): 30.6 ± 1.2] were placed on a hypercaloric diet (>1000 kcal simple carbohydrates/d) for 3 wk and, thereafter, on a hypocaloric diet for 6 mo. The subjects were genotyped for rs739409 in the PNPLA3 gene. Before and after overfeeding and after hypocaloric diet, metabolic variables and liver fat (measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy) were measured. The ratio of palmitate (16:0) to linoleate (18:2n-6) in serum and VLDL triglycerides was used as an index of DNL. Carbohydrate overfeeding increased weight (±SEM) by 2% (1.8 ± 0.3 kg; P fat by 27% from 9.2 ± 1.9% to 11.7 ± 1.9% (P = 0.005). DNL increased in proportion to the increase in liver fat and serum triglycerides in subjects with PNPLA3-148IIbut not PNPLA3-148MM. During the hypocaloric diet, the subjects lost 4% of their weight (3.2 ± 0.6 kg; P fat content (from 11.7 ± 1.9% to 8.8 ± 1.8%; P Carbohydrate overfeeding for 3 wk induced a >10-fold greater relative change in liver fat (27%) than in body weight (2%). The increase in liver fat was proportional to that in DNL. Weight loss restores liver fat to normal. These data indicate that the human fatty liver avidly accumulates fat during carbohydrate overfeeding and support a role for DNL in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. This trial was registered at www.hus.fi as 235780.

  17. Percentile curves for body fatness and cut-offs to define malnutrition in Russians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Starunova, O. A.; Eryukova, T. A.; Kolesnikov, V. A.; Ponomareva, E. G.; Soboleva, N. P.; Sterlikov, S. A.

    2013-04-01

    Here, we report first results of the large-scale ongoing bioelectrical impedance body composition study in Russians. By the end of 2012, 216 out of 800 Russian Health Centres submitted raw bioimpedance data on 844,221 adults and children aged 5-80 years, representing nearly 0.6% of the Russian population, who were accessed cross-sectionally using the same type of bioimpedance meter, ABC-01 Medas. Estimates of overweight, obesity, and normal weight obesity prevalence in the general population, as well as characteristics of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the conventional WHO BMI-based criteria of obesity depending on age are obtained. The smoothed reference centile curves for percentage fat mass are constructed, and localized cut-offs for fatness and thinness are provided that can be used both at the individual and epidemiological levels.

  18. Aerobic fitness in prepubertal children according to level of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Bugge, Anna; Hermansen, Bianca

    2010-01-01

    ) by allometric scaling (mL/min/kg(0.71) ), whereas no relationships were detected for VO(2PEAK) scaled to fat-free mass (FFM) (mL/min/FFM). Person correlation coefficients for boys were 0.26, -0.38, -0.19 and -0.01 NS and for girls 0.33, -0.42, -0.21 and -0.03 NS, respectively. Significant differences in VO(2......PEAK) existed between different quartiles of BF%, with the exception when VO(2PEAK) was scaled to FFM. CONCLUSION: Our findings document the coexistence of two known risk factors for disease at a young age on a population-base and confirms that VO(2PEAK) was scaled to FFM represents a body fat...

  19. Percentile curves for body fatness and cut-offs to define malnutrition in Russians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, D V; Eryukova, T A; Kolesnikov, V A; Rudnev, S G; Starunova, O A; Ponomareva, E G; Soboleva, N P; Sterlikov, S A

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report first results of the large-scale ongoing bioelectrical impedance body composition study in Russians. By the end of 2012, 216 out of 800 Russian Health Centres submitted raw bioimpedance data on 844,221 adults and children aged 5–80 years, representing nearly 0.6% of the Russian population, who were accessed cross-sectionally using the same type of bioimpedance meter, ABC-01 Medas. Estimates of overweight, obesity, and normal weight obesity prevalence in the general population, as well as characteristics of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the conventional WHO BMI-based criteria of obesity depending on age are obtained. The smoothed reference centile curves for percentage fat mass are constructed, and localized cut-offs for fatness and thinness are provided that can be used both at the individual and epidemiological levels.

  20. Body mass index adjustments to increase the validity of body fatness assessment in UK Black African and South Asian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudda, M T; Nightingale, C M; Donin, A S; Fewtrell, M S; Haroun, D; Lum, S; Williams, J E; Owen, C G; Rudnicka, A R; Wells, J C K; Cook, D G; Whincup, P H

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Body mass index (BMI) (weight per height2) is the most widely used marker of childhood obesity and total body fatness (BF). However, its validity is limited, especially in children of South Asian and Black African origins. We aimed to quantify BMI adjustments needed for UK children of Black African and South Asian origins so that adjusted BMI related to BF in the same way as for White European children. Methods: We used data from four recent UK studies that made deuterium dilution BF measurements in UK children of White European, South Asian and Black African origins. A height-standardized fat mass index (FMI) was derived to represent BF. Linear regression models were then fitted, separately for boys and girls, to quantify ethnic differences in BMI–FMI relationships and to provide ethnic-specific BMI adjustments. Results: We restricted analyses to 4–12 year olds, to whom a single consistent FMI (fat mass per height5) could be applied. BMI consistently underestimated BF in South Asians, requiring positive BMI adjustments of +1.12 kg m−2 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.83, 1.41 kg m−2; Pchildren. However, these were complex because there were statistically significant interactions between Black African ethnicity and FMI (P=0.004 boys; P=0.003 girls) and also between FMI and age group (Pchildren with higher unadjusted BMI and the smallest in older children with lower unadjusted BMI. Conclusions: BMI underestimated BF in South Asians and overestimated BF in Black Africans. Ethnic-specific adjustments, increasing BMI in South Asians and reducing BMI in Black Africans, can improve the accuracy of BF assessment in these children. PMID:28325931

  1. Combine body mass index and body fat percentage measures to improve the accuracy of obesity screening in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Shang-Ping; Chen, Ching-Yu; Guo, Fei-Ran; Chang, Ching-I; Jan, Chyi-Feng

    Obesity screening among young adult groups is meaningful. Body mass index (BMI) is limited to discriminate between fat and lean mass. Asian young adult group tends to have lower BMI and higher body fat percentage (BFP) than other ethnic groups. Accuracy of obesity screening by commonly used BMI criteria is unclear in young Taiwanese population. A total of 894 young adults (447 males and 447 females) aged 20-26 were recruited. BMI, regional fat percentage and BFP determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) were measured. BMI cutoff points were based on the criteria adopted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Taiwan. Cutoff points of low or high BFP were defined as 24% in men and 31.4% in women. Prevalence of BFP defining obesity was 14.8% in young men and 27.3% in young women. 23.2% of young men and only 8.3% of young women were classified to overweight or obesity categories according to the BMI criteria. Disagreement was noticed mainly among overweight males and normal weight females. 68.7% of BMI defining overweight young men had low BFP; however, 29.7% of young women of BMI defining normal group had high BFP. Up to 69.7% of young women with high BFP would be missed by BMI category only. Disagreement between BMI and BFP was significant among young adults, especially young women. We suggest combining BMI and BIA for obesity and overweight screening in Asian young adults. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Body mass index adjustments to increase the validity of body fatness assessment in UK Black African and South Asian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudda, M T; Nightingale, C M; Donin, A S; Fewtrell, M S; Haroun, D; Lum, S; Williams, J E; Owen, C G; Rudnicka, A R; Wells, J C K; Cook, D G; Whincup, P H

    2017-07-01

    Body mass index (BMI) (weight per height 2 ) is the most widely used marker of childhood obesity and total body fatness (BF). However, its validity is limited, especially in children of South Asian and Black African origins. We aimed to quantify BMI adjustments needed for UK children of Black African and South Asian origins so that adjusted BMI related to BF in the same way as for White European children. We used data from four recent UK studies that made deuterium dilution BF measurements in UK children of White European, South Asian and Black African origins. A height-standardized fat mass index (FMI) was derived to represent BF. Linear regression models were then fitted, separately for boys and girls, to quantify ethnic differences in BMI-FMI relationships and to provide ethnic-specific BMI adjustments. We restricted analyses to 4-12 year olds, to whom a single consistent FMI (fat mass per height 5 ) could be applied. BMI consistently underestimated BF in South Asians, requiring positive BMI adjustments of +1.12 kg m - 2 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.83, 1.41 kg m - 2 ; PAfricans, requiring negative BMI adjustments for Black African children. However, these were complex because there were statistically significant interactions between Black African ethnicity and FMI (P=0.004 boys; P=0.003 girls) and also between FMI and age group (PAfricans. Ethnic-specific adjustments, increasing BMI in South Asians and reducing BMI in Black Africans, can improve the accuracy of BF assessment in these children.

  3. Reference Centile Curves for Body Fat Percentage, Fat-free Mass, Muscle Mass and Bone Mass Measured by Bioelectrical Impedance in Asian Indian Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiplonkar, Shashi; Kajale, Neha; Ekbote, Veena; Mandlik, Rubina; Parthasarathy, Lavanya; Borade, Ashwin; Patel, Pinal; Patel, Prerna; Khadilkar, Vaman; Khadilkar, Anuradha

    2017-12-15

    To create gender-specific percentile curves for percent body fat (%BF) by Bio electrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) for screening adiposity and risk of hypertension in Indian children and generate reference curves for percent fat-free mass (%FFM), muscle mass (%LM) and bone mineral content (BMC) by using bioelectrical impedance. Secondary analysis of data from previous multicenter cross-sectional studies. Private schools from five regions of India. A random sample of 3850 healthy school children (2067 boys) (5-17 yr) from private schools in five major Indian cities. Anthropometry, blood pressure (BP) and body composition were measured by bioelectrical impedance. Reference curves were generated by the LMS method. %BF, %FFM, %LM, BMC and BP. Median %BF increased by 6% from 5 to 13 years of age and declined (around 2%) up to 17 years in boys. In girls, %BF increased by 8% from 5 to 14 years and thereafter declined by 3%. Based upon the risk of hypertension, the new cut-offs of 75th and 85th percentile of %BF were proposed for detecting over fatness and excess fatness in children. Median %FFM was 90% at 5 yrs and decreased till 12 years, and then showed a slight increase to 84% at 17 yrs in boys. In girls, it was 86% at 5 yrs and decreased till 15 yrs, and plateaued at 71.8% at 17 yrs. Reference curves for percent body fat for Indian children would be useful to screen children for health risk in clinical set up.

  4. Transcriptome analysis of fat bodies from two brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens populations with different virulence levels in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixin Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål, one of the most serious rice insect pests in Asia, can quickly overcome rice resistance by evolving new virulent populations. The insect fat body plays essential roles in the life cycles of insects and in plant-insect interactions. However, whether differences in fat body transcriptomes exist between insect populations with different virulence levels and whether the transcriptomic differences are related to insect virulence remain largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we performed transcriptome-wide analyses on the fat bodies of two BPH populations with different virulence levels in rice. The populations were derived from rice variety TN1 (TN1 population and Mudgo (M population. In total, 33,776 and 32,332 unigenes from the fat bodies of TN1 and M populations, respectively, were generated using Illumina technology. Gene ontology annotations and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG orthology classifications indicated that genes related to metabolism and immunity were significantly active in the fat bodies. In addition, a total of 339 unigenes showed homology to genes of yeast-like symbionts (YLSs from 12 genera and endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia. A comparative analysis of the two transcriptomes generated 7,860 differentially expressed genes. GO annotations and enrichment analysis of KEGG pathways indicated these differentially expressed transcripts might be involved in metabolism and immunity. Finally, 105 differentially expressed genes from YLSs and Wolbachia were identified, genes which might be associated with the formation of different virulent populations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study was the first to compare the fat-body transcriptomes of two BPH populations having different virulence traits and to find genes that may be related to this difference. Our findings provide a molecular resource for future investigations of fat bodies

  5. Transcriptome Analysis of Fat Bodies from Two Brown Planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) Populations with Different Virulence Levels in Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongdan; Lai, Wenxiang; Fu, Qiang; Lou, Yonggen

    2014-01-01

    Background The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), one of the most serious rice insect pests in Asia, can quickly overcome rice resistance by evolving new virulent populations. The insect fat body plays essential roles in the life cycles of insects and in plant-insect interactions. However, whether differences in fat body transcriptomes exist between insect populations with different virulence levels and whether the transcriptomic differences are related to insect virulence remain largely unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we performed transcriptome-wide analyses on the fat bodies of two BPH populations with different virulence levels in rice. The populations were derived from rice variety TN1 (TN1 population) and Mudgo (M population). In total, 33,776 and 32,332 unigenes from the fat bodies of TN1 and M populations, respectively, were generated using Illumina technology. Gene ontology annotations and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthology classifications indicated that genes related to metabolism and immunity were significantly active in the fat bodies. In addition, a total of 339 unigenes showed homology to genes of yeast-like symbionts (YLSs) from 12 genera and endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia. A comparative analysis of the two transcriptomes generated 7,860 differentially expressed genes. GO annotations and enrichment analysis of KEGG pathways indicated these differentially expressed transcripts might be involved in metabolism and immunity. Finally, 105 differentially expressed genes from YLSs and Wolbachia were identified, genes which might be associated with the formation of different virulent populations. Conclusions/Significance This study was the first to compare the fat-body transcriptomes of two BPH populations having different virulence traits and to find genes that may be related to this difference. Our findings provide a molecular resource for future investigations of fat bodies and will be useful

  6. Transcriptome analysis of fat bodies from two brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) populations with different virulence levels in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haixin; Ji, Rui; Ye, Wenfeng; Chen, Hongdan; Lai, Wenxiang; Fu, Qiang; Lou, Yonggen

    2014-01-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), one of the most serious rice insect pests in Asia, can quickly overcome rice resistance by evolving new virulent populations. The insect fat body plays essential roles in the life cycles of insects and in plant-insect interactions. However, whether differences in fat body transcriptomes exist between insect populations with different virulence levels and whether the transcriptomic differences are related to insect virulence remain largely unknown. In this study, we performed transcriptome-wide analyses on the fat bodies of two BPH populations with different virulence levels in rice. The populations were derived from rice variety TN1 (TN1 population) and Mudgo (M population). In total, 33,776 and 32,332 unigenes from the fat bodies of TN1 and M populations, respectively, were generated using Illumina technology. Gene ontology annotations and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthology classifications indicated that genes related to metabolism and immunity were significantly active in the fat bodies. In addition, a total of 339 unigenes showed homology to genes of yeast-like symbionts (YLSs) from 12 genera and endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia. A comparative analysis of the two transcriptomes generated 7,860 differentially expressed genes. GO annotations and enrichment analysis of KEGG pathways indicated these differentially expressed transcripts might be involved in metabolism and immunity. Finally, 105 differentially expressed genes from YLSs and Wolbachia were identified, genes which might be associated with the formation of different virulent populations. This study was the first to compare the fat-body transcriptomes of two BPH populations having different virulence traits and to find genes that may be related to this difference. Our findings provide a molecular resource for future investigations of fat bodies and will be useful in examining the interactions between the fat body and virulence

  7. Body fat percentage is better than indicators of weight status to identify children and adolescents with unfavorable lipid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliosa, Polyana Romano; Zaniqueli, Divanei; Alvim, Rafael de Oliveira; Barbosa, Miriam Carmo Rodrigues; Mill, José Geraldo

    2018-01-05

    To assess whether the indicators of weight status body mass index and waist-to-height ratio are similar to body fat percentage to identify obese children and adolescents with unfavorable lipid profile. This was a cross-sectional study involving 840 children and adolescents (6-18 years). The same individuals were classified as non-obese (

    body fat percentage and indicators of weight status, body mass index, and waist-to-height ratio. Body fat percentage was obtained by multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance. Linear association between obesity and increased lipid fractions was tested by ANCOVA. Normal distribution curves of non-HDL cholesterol were designed for obese and non-obese. To provide the proportion of obese individuals with elevated non-HDL-c across all indicators, Z-score was calculated. Obese boys presented higher non-HDL cholesterol when compared with those non-obese, classified by body mass index (107±28 vs. 94±25mg/dL, p=0.001), waist-to-height ratio (115±29 vs. 94±25mg/dL, p<0.001) and body fat percentage (119±33 vs. 94±24mg/dL, p<0.001). Differently, obese girls presented with higher non-HDL cholesterol when compared with those non-obese only according to the body fat percentage classification (118±24 vs. 96±26mg/dL, p=0.001). A large shift to the right in the distribution curve of non-HDL cholesterol among obese girls compared with non-obese was observed only when body fat percentage was used to discriminate between obese and non-obese. Body fat percentage was better than the indicators of weight status to identify children and adolescents with unfavorable lipid profile, mainly among girls. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  8. On scaling of human body models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hynčík L.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Human body is not an unique being, everyone is another from the point of view of anthropometry and mechanical characteristics which means that division of the human body population to categories like 5%-tile, 50%-tile and 95%-tile from the application point of view is not enough. On the other hand, the development of a particular human body model for all of us is not possible. That is why scaling and morphing algorithms has started to be developed. The current work describes the development of a tool for scaling of the human models. The idea is to have one (or couple of standard model(s as a base and to create other models based on these basic models. One has to choose adequate anthropometrical and biomechanical parameters that describe given group of humans to be scaled and morphed among.

  9. Adipose tissue (P)RR regulates insulin sensitivity, fat mass and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamansurova, Zulaykho; Tan, Paul; Ahmed, Basma; Pepin, Emilie; Seda, Ondrej; Lavoie, Julie L

    2016-10-01

    We previously demonstrated that the handle-region peptide, a prorenin/renin receptor [(P)RR] blocker, reduces body weight and fat mass and may improve insulin sensitivity in high-fat fed mice. We hypothesized that knocking out the adipose tissue (P)RR gene would prevent weight gain and insulin resistance. An adipose tissue-specific (P)RR knockout (KO) mouse was created by Cre-loxP technology using AP2-Cre recombinase mice. Because the (P)RR gene is located on the X chromosome, hemizygous males were complete KO and had a more pronounced phenotype on a normal diet (ND) diet compared to heterozygous KO females. Therefore, we challenged the female mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) to uncover certain phenotypes. Mice were maintained on either diet for 9 weeks. KO mice had lower body weights compared to wild-types (WT). Only hemizygous male KO mice presented with lower total fat mass, higher total lean mass as well as smaller adipocytes compared to WT mice. Although food intake was similar between genotypes, locomotor activity during the active period was increased in both male and female KO mice. Interestingly, only male KO mice had increased O2 consumption and CO2 production during the entire 24-hour period, suggesting an increased basal metabolic rate. Although glycemia during a glucose tolerance test was similar, KO males as well as HFD-fed females had lower plasma insulin and C-peptide levels compared to WT mice, suggesting improved insulin sensitivity. Remarkably, all KO animals exhibited higher circulating adiponectin levels, suggesting that this phenotype can occur even in the absence of a significant reduction in adipose tissue weight, as observed in females and, thus, may be a specific effect related to the (P)RR. (P)RR may be an important therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity and its associated complications such as type 2 diabetes.

  10. Body Fat Percentile Curves for Korean Children and Adolescents: A Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kirang; Yun, Sung Ha; Jang, Myoung Jin; Oh, Kyung Won

    2013-01-01

    A valid assessment of obesity in children and adolescents is important due to significant change in body composition during growth. This study aimed to develop percentile curves of body fat and fat free mass using the Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method, and to examine the relationship among body mass index (BMI), fat mass and fat free mass in Korean children and adolescents, using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2009-2010. The study subjects were 834 for boys an...

  11. [Migration from a rural zone to an urban one is associated with android distribution of body fat in obese women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Barranco, J; López-Alvarenga, J C; Roiz-Simancas, M; Bravo-García, A L; Fanghänel-Salmón, G; Laviada Arrigunaga, E; Castaño, L R; García Tapia, M P

    2001-01-01

    Studies about migration to industrialized countries have shown an increased prevalence of diabetes, obesity and dyslipidaemias, all of them related to android body fat distribution. Migration status might be influence body fat distribution but it has not been sufficiently investigated. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between body fat distribution and migration from rural to urban areas in Mexico. This sequential sample of 433 women were seen in the outpatient obesity clinic of four federal states: Tabasco (n = 81), Mexico City (n = 166), Coahuila (n = 80), and Yucatan (n = 106). Migration history from rural to urban area, familial history of diabetes, ages of onset of obesity, height and weight circumferences were obtained. A regression logistic model was used and maintained as dependent variable body fat distribution. Age and federal state were considered as confounders and they adjusted the model. Migrating women from rural to urban area were 121 (27.9%). The waist circumference was higher in Tabasco (102.2 +/- 12 cm), and lesser in Yucatan (93.6 +/- 15 cm, p < 0.001); no differences were found for hip circumference. The logistic regression model showed that body fat distribution is associated to migration from rural to urban area, and also to diabetes of mother and age of onset of obesity. Migrating from rural to urban area is a risk factor for android body fat distribution and this risk increases with age, history of diabetes in mother and adulthood onset o obesity.

  12. Body composition in Pan paniscus compared with Homo sapiens has implications for changes during human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihlman, Adrienne L; Bolter, Debra R

    2015-06-16

    The human body has been shaped by natural selection during the past 4-5 million years. Fossils preserve bones and teeth but lack muscle, skin, fat, and organs. To understand the evolution of the human form, information about both soft and hard tissues of our ancestors is needed. Our closest living relatives of the genus Pan provide the best comparative model to those ancestors. Here, we present data on the body composition of 13 bonobos (Pan paniscus) measured during anatomical dissections and compare the data with Homo sapiens. These comparative data suggest that both females and males (i) increased body fat, (ii) decreased relative muscle mass, (iii) redistributed muscle mass to lower limbs, and (iv) decreased relative mass of skin during human evolution. Comparison of soft tissues between Pan and Homo provides new insights into the function and evolution of body composition.

  13. Eating Disorder Risk and Body Dissatisfaction Based on Muscularity and Body Fat in Male University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Carrie; George, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between risk of eating disorders, body dissatisfaction, and perceptual attractiveness in male university students. Participants: Research was conducted January-April 2012 and involved 339 male and 441 female students. Methods: Eating disorder risk was assessed with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and body…

  14. Association of ADIPOQ +45T>G polymorphism with body fat mass and blood levels of soluble adiponectin and inflammation markers in a Mexican-Mestizo population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzman-Ornelas MO

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Milton-Omar Guzman-Ornelas,1 Efrain Chavarria-Avila,1 Jose-Francisco Munoz-Valle,1,2 Laura-Elizabeth Armas-Ramos,3 Jorge Castro-Albarran,3,4 Maria Elena Aguilar Aldrete,1,5 Edith Oregon-Romero,2 Monica Vazquez-Del Mercado,2 Rosa-Elena Navarro-Hernandez1–31Biomedical Sciences Doctorate Program, 2Department of Molecular Biology and Genomics, 3Master of Human Nutrition Program, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México; 4HMIELM, Secretaria de Salud Jalisco, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico; 5Department of Public Health, University of Guadalajara, Jalisco, MéxicoPurpose: Obesity is a disease with genetic susceptibility characterized by an increase in storage and irregular distribution of body fat. In obese patients, the decrease in the Adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ expression has been associated with a systemic low-grade inflammatory state. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between ADIPOQ +45T>G gene simple nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs2241766 with serum adiponectin (sAdiponectin, distribution of body fat storage, and inflammation markers.Subjects and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 242 individuals from Western Mexico characterized as Mexican-Mestizo and classified by body mass index (BMI, were included. Anthropometrics, body composition, body fat distribution, and inflammation markers were measured by routine methods. Genotypes were characterized using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP technique and sAdiponectin by the ELISA method. A P-value <0.05 was considered the statistically significant threshold.Results: sAdiponectin is associated with BMI (P < 0.001 and the genotypes (P < 0.001 to 0.0046 GG (8169 ± 1162 ng/mL, TG (5189 ± 501 ng/mL, and TT (3741 ± 323 ng/mL, but the SNP ADIPOQ +45T.G is not associated with BMI. However, the detailed analysis showed association of this SNP with a pattern of fat distribution and correlations (P < 0.05 with inflammation markers and

  15. The Percentage of Body Fat in Children and the Level of their Motor Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prskalo, Ivan; Badrić, Marko; Kunješić, Mateja

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary education pupils and to identify differences in motor skills between normal weight, excessive and obese pupils. Partial aim was to determine differences in motor status of girls and boys and their anthropometric characteristics (Body Mass Index, body fat percentage). The study was conducted in two primary schools in Zagreb, Ivan Goran Kovačić and Davorin Trstenjak. Total of 333 pupils, aged 7-11, were measured (178 boys and 155 girls). Four anthropometric and seven motor variables were used to analyze differences in motor abilities of children. Children were divided into three groups within gender based on their body fat measures. We established a statistically significant difference in motor abilities between groups of subjects in three subsamples (1st-2nd class girls and 3rd-4th boys and girls). Children with normal weight have better results in explosive strength, coordination, static strength of arm and shoulder than children who are overweight and obese. The differences are not observed in motor variables where body weight is not a requisite for efficient execution of movement. Differences in motor skills by gender showed that boys are better in coordination, speed of the simple movements, explosive and repetitive strength, and girls are better in flexibility. The conclusion of this study confirmed the existence of differences in the development of motor skills in children with normal body weight compared to children who are overweight or obese. These facts prove that excessive body weight has negative repercussions on motor performance.

  16. Use of three joints as predictors of carcass and body fat depots in Blanca Celtibérica goats

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, A.; Delfa, R.; González, C.; Gosalvez, L.F.; Tor, M.

    1995-01-01

    Nineteen adult goats of the Blanca Celtibérica breed - in non productive stage - from the experimental flock of Servicio de Investigación Agraria (Diputación General de Aragón) were scored using the lumbar, breast and tail palpation. Sternal triangle joint, lumbar square jointt a ailn tdha t were handled to assess body condition scores were dissected into muscle, bone subcutaneous fat and intermuscular fat. Regression analyses were developed for predicting carcass and body fat dep...

  17. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to changes in body weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Flint, Anne; Heitmann, Berit L

    2006-01-01

    born in 1922, 1932, 1942, or 1952. A baseline health examination and a dietary history interview were carried out in 1987 and 1988; a follow-up health examination was performed in 1993 and 1994. RESULTS: Positive associations between GI and changes in body weight (DeltaBW), percentage body fat (Delta......%BF), and waist circumference (DeltaWC) were observed in women after adjustment for covariates. Significant GI x sex x physical activity interactions for DeltaBW, Delta%BF, and DeltaWC were observed, and the associations in the sedentary women were particularly positive. No significant associations with GI were...

  18. Microencapsulated conjugated linoleic acid associated with hypocaloric diet reduces body fat in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Roberta F; Uehara, Sofia K; Rosa, Glorimar

    2012-01-01

    Animal studies have suggested beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in reducing body fat mass and improvement in the serum lipid profile and glycemia. However, these effects are controversial in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of microencapsulated CLA supplementation on body composition, body mass index, waist circumference, and blood pressure in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome. This study was a placebo-controlled and randomized clinical trial. Fourteen women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome received light strawberry jam enriched or not with microencapsulated CLA (3 g/day) as a mixture of 38.57% cis-9, trans-11, and 39.76% trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers associated with a hypocaloric diet for 90 days. The subjects were monitored to assess variables associated with the metabolic syndrome, in addition to assessing adherence with the intervention. There were no significant effects of microencapsulated CLA on the lipid profile or blood pressure. Mean plasma insulin concentrations were significantly lower in women supplemented with microencapsulated CLA (Δ T₉₀ - T₀ = -12.87 ± 4.26 μU/mL, P = 0.02). Microencapsulated CLA supplementation did not alter the waist circumference, but there was a reduction in body fat mass detected after 30 days (Δ = -2.68% ± 0.82%, P = 0.02), which was maintained until the 90-day intervention period (Δ = -3.32% ± 1.41%, P = 0.02) in the microencapsulated CLA group. The placebo group showed this effect only after 90 days (Δ = -1.97% ± 0.60%, P = 0.02), but had a reduced waist circumference (Δ T₉₀ - T₀ = -4.25 ± 1.31 cm, P = 0.03). Supplementation with mixed-isomer microencapsulated CLA may have a favorable effect on glycemic control and body fat mass loss at an earlier time in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome, although there were no effects on lipid profile and blood pressure.

  19. Microencapsulated conjugated linoleic acid associated with hypocaloric diet reduces body fat in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Roberta F; Uehara, Sofia K; Rosa, Glorimar

    2012-01-01

    Background Animal studies have suggested beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in reducing body fat mass and improvement in the serum lipid profile and glycemia. However, these effects are controversial in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of microencapsulated CLA supplementation on body composition, body mass index, waist circumference, and blood pressure in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome. Methods This study was a placebo-controlled and randomized clinical trial. Fourteen women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome received light strawberry jam enriched or not with microencapsulated CLA (3 g/day) as a mixture of 38.57% cis-9, trans-11, and 39.76% trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers associated with a hypocaloric diet for 90 days. The subjects were monitored to assess variables associated with the metabolic syndrome, in addition to assessing adherence with the intervention. Results There were no significant effects of microencapsulated CLA on the lipid profile or blood pressure. Mean plasma insulin concentrations were significantly lower in women supplemented with microencapsulated CLA (Δ T90 – T0 = −12.87 ± 4.26 μU/mL, P = 0.02). Microencapsulated CLA supplementation did not alter the waist circumference, but there was a reduction in body fat mass detected after 30 days (Δ = −2.68% ± 0.82%, P = 0.02), which was maintained until the 90-day intervention period (Δ = −3.32% ± 1.41%, P = 0.02) in the microencapsulated CLA group. The placebo group showed this effect only after 90 days (Δ = −1.97% ± 0.60%, P = 0.02), but had a reduced waist circumference (Δ T90 – T0 = −4.25 ± 1.31 cm, P = 0.03). Conclusion Supplementation with mixed-isomer microencapsulated CLA may have a favorable effect on glycemic control and body fat mass loss at an earlier time in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome, although there were no effects on lipid profile and blood pressure. PMID:23271912

  20. Genotype x diet interactions in mice predisposed to mammary cancer. I. Body weight and fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Ryan R; Hunter, Kent W; Sørensen, Peter

    2008-01-01

    a very-high-fat or a matched-control-fat diet and measured growth, body composition, age at mammary tumor onset, tumor number and severity, and formation of pulmonary metastases. SNP genotyping across the genome facilitated analyses of QTL and QTL x diet interaction effects. Here we describe development...... of the F(2) population (n = 615) which resulted from a cross between the polygenic obesity model M16i and FVB/NJ-TgN (MMTV-PyMT)(634Mul), effects of diet on growth and body composition, and QTL and QTL x diet and/or gender interaction effects for growth and obesity-related phenotypes. We identified 38 QTL...... for body composition traits that were significant at the genome-wide 0.05 level, likely representing nine distinct loci after accounting for pleiotropic effects. QTL x diet and/or gender interactions were present at 15 of these QTL, indicating that such interactions play a significant role in defining...

  1. Effects of Ag Nanoparticles on Growth and Fat Body Proteins in Silkworms (Bombyx mori).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xu; Abdlli, Nouara; Wang, Niannian; Lü, Peng; Nie, Zhichao; Dong, Xin; Lu, Shuang; Chen, Keping

    2017-12-01

    Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs), a widely used non-antibiotic, antibacterial material, have shown toxic and other potentially harmful effects in mammals. However, the deleterious effects of AgNPs on insects are still unknown. Here, we studied the effects of AgNPs on the model invertebrate organism Bombyx mori. After feeding silkworm larvae different concentrations of AgNPs, we evaluated the changes of B. mori body weights, survival rates, and proteomic differences. The results showed that low concentrations (mori. Although high concentrations (≥800 mg/L) of AgNPs also improved B. mori growth, they resulted in silkworm death. An analysis of fat body proteomic differences revealed 13 significant differences in fat body protein spots, nine of which exhibited significantly downregulated expression, while four showed significantly upregulated expression. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction results showed that at an AgNP concentration of 1600 mg/L, the expression levels of seven proteins were similar to the transcription levels of their corresponding genes. Our results suggest that AgNPs lowered the resistance to oxidative stress, affected cell apoptosis, and induced cell necrosis by regulating related protein metabolism and metabolic pathways in B. mori.

  2. Wholegrain rye, but not wholegrain wheat, lowers body weight and fat mass compared with refined wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, J; Vuholm, Stine; Iversen, K N

    2017-01-01

    with the RW group (+0.15±1.28 and -0.04±0.82 kg, respectively; Pmass in the WGR group tended to exceed that in the WGW group (P=0.07). Overall, no effect of diet on appetite sensation was observed; however, energy intake from study products...... excretion was assessed during the postprandial test meal challenge. RESULTS: Diet allocation affected body weight significantly (P=0.013) and tended also to affect fat mass (P=0.065). Both body weight and fat mass decreased more in the WGR group (-1.06±1.60 and -0.75±1.29 kg, respectively) compared...... was ~200 kcal lower in the WGR group when compared with that in the RW group (Penergy intake did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support a role for WGR foods in body weight regulation, when provided ad libitum. The effect may be mediated by satiation reflected...

  3. Is dietary intake able to explain differences in body fatness in children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Gerardo; Moreno, Luis A

    2006-05-01

    Obesity is the result of an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Controversial information exists about what are the strongest energy balance aspects influencing body fatness. This article is focused on food consumption facts that could be related to the risk of being obese in children and adolescents. It reviews whether energy intake, macronutrient composition of diet, eating patterns or other dietary intake factors are able to explain differences in body composition when obesity has been already developed or even in subjects at risk to become obese. There is not enough evidence to clarify the importance of diet on overweight children and adolescents, and conclusions derived are somewhat controversial. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies do not show clear relationships between energy intake or food composition and body fatness. To find relations between dietary factors and childhood obesity perhaps eating patterns or different types of foods must be considered: meal patterns and meal frequency, snacking and beverage consumption, fast food intake, portion sizes, etc. There is no clear association between different aspects of dietary intake and the development of obesity in children and adolescents. Longitudinal and experimental studies are needed in the future.

  4. Cytoplasmic lipid bodies of human neutrophilic leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, P.F.; Ackerman, S.J.; Nicholson-Weller, A.; Dvorak, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    The morphology and function of cytoplasmic lipid bodies in human neutrophils were evaluated. By transmission electron microscopy, neutrophil lipid bodies were cytoplasmic inclusions, usually several microns in diameter, that occasionally coalesced to attain a diameter up to 7 microM. Neutrophil lipid bodies were not enveloped by membrane but were often surrounded by a more electron-dense shell at their periphery. Normal peripheral blood neutrophils contained an average of approximately one lipid body per cell. Lipid bodies appeared in greater numbers in neutrophils from inflammatory lesions. Perturbation of neutrophils during conventional methods of cell isolation and purification modestly increased lipid body numbers in neutrophils, whereas incubation of neutrophils with 1 microM oleic acid rapidly induced lipid body formation over 30 to 60 minutes. After granulocytes were incubated for 2 hours with 3H-fatty acids, including arachidonic, oleic, and palmitic acids, electron microscopic autoradiography demonstrated that lipid bodies represented the predominant intracellular sites of localization of each of the three 3H-fatty acids. There was lesser labeling noted in the perinuclear cisterna, but not in cell membranes. Virtually all of each of the three 3H-fatty acids incorporated by the neutrophils were esterified into chromatographically resolved classes of neutral lipids or phospholipids. These findings indicate that cytoplasmic lipid bodies are more prominent in neutrophils in vivo engaged in inflammatory responses and that these organelles in human neutrophils function as sites of deposition of esterified, incorporated fatty acids

  5. Thermogenic Blend Alone or in Combination with Whey Protein Supplement Stimulates Fat Metabolism and Improves Body Composition in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Brock, Paula de Lima; Vaughan, Brent M.; Vollmer, David L.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Certain food ingredients promote thermogenesis and fat loss. Similarly, whey protein improves body composition. Due to this potential synergistic effect, a blend of thermogenic food ingredients containing African mango, citrus fruit extract, Coleus forskohlii, dihydrocapsiate, and red pepper was tested alone and in combination with a whey protein supplement for its effects on body composition in sedentary mice during high-fat diet. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction of thermogenic foods on improving body composition during consumption of an unhealthy diet. Materials and Methods: C57BL/6J young adult male mice (n = 12) were placed on a 60% high-fat diet for 4 weeks and subsequently randomly assigned to receive daily dosing by oral gavage of vehicle, the novel blend alone or with whey protein supplement for another 4 weeks. Body composition, thermal imaging of brown adipose tissue (BAT), mitochondrial BAT uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), and plasma levels of leptin were assessed. Results: Novel blend alone and in combination with protein supplement attenuated body weight gain, fat, and increased surface BAT temperature in comparison to vehicle control and to baseline (P blend and whey protein supplement also significantly increased UCP1 protein expression in BAT mitochondria in comparison to vehicle control and novel blend alone (P blend stimulates thermogenesis and attenuates the gain in body weight and fat in response to high-fat diet in mice and these effects were improved when administered in combination with whey protein supplement. SUMMARY 30 days oral administration to mice of a novel blend containing African mango seed extract, citrus fruits extract, Coleus forskohlii root extract, dihydrocapsiate and red pepper fruit extract reduced body weight and fat gain in response to high-fat diet without impairing muscle mass.The novel blend stimulated thermogenesis as shown by the increased thermal imaging and UCP1 protein

  6. Fat body morphology of Eriopis connexa (coleoptera, coccinelidae in function of two alimentary sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato de Almeida Sarmento

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the influence of two alimentary sources: aphids and mites, in the morphology of the fat body of E. connexa. Results showed that fat body cells of individuals fed with aphids presented areas more than three folds higher (511 ± 98,7µm² than those of beetles fed with mites (162 ± 34,9µm². Histochemical tests showed that nutrient amount stored in fat body was higher in lady-beetles fed on aphids.Joaninhas são eficazes predadores de artrópodes atuando diretamente sobre certas pragas e alimentando-se de parte ou de todo o corpo da presa. Dentre os coccinelídeos, Eriopis connexa possui uma posição de destaque no controle de pulgões. Os coccinelídeos por serem predadores generalistas, apresentam uma variabilidade na escolha de presas, alimentando-se também de ácaros. No Brasil, trabalhos realizados com E. connexa, apenas relatam a sua ocorrência, sendo assim este trabalho objetivou investigar a influência de duas fontes alimentares: pulgões e ácaros, na morfologia do corpo gorduroso de E. connexa. Os resultados mostraram que as células do corpo gorduroso dos indivíduos alimentados com pulgões apresentaram áreas mais de três vezes superiores (511 ± 98,7µm² que as das células do corpo gorduroso de indivíduos alimentados com ácaros (162 ± 34,9µm². Além disso, testes histoquímicos demonstraram que a quantidade de nutrientes estocados no corpo gorduroso também foi superior em indivíduos alimentados com pulgões.

  7. [Relation between leptin serun with weight and body fat distribution in postmenopausal women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios Ospino, Yubire; Díaz, N; Meertens, L; Naddaf, G; Solano, L; Fernández, M; Flores, A; González, M

    2010-01-01

    Leptin is a peptidic hormone secreted by the fat tissue and plays an important role in body weight regulation. After menopause, weight gain increases as well as android-like obesity. Previous studies suggest a relationship between leptin level, body mass index (BMI) and fat distribution. To establish the relationships between serum leptin, BMI, waist circumference (WC), and waist/hip ratio (WHR). 48 women under the age of 60 years and with amenorrhea for longer than one year were assessed. Leptin and estradiol (ELISA) levels were determined; normal values: 3.63-11.09 ng/mL and 0-65 pg/Ml. BMI (WHO), WC > 88 cm, and WHR > 0.80 were considered as indicators of cardiometabolic risk. Mean age for the group was 54 +/- 3.9 years; leptin: 8.4 +/- 3.7 ng/mL, and estradiol: 17.6 +/- 10.0 pg/mL; BMI: 27.0 +/- 4.9 kg/m(2); WC: 86.2 +/- 8.6 cm; and WHR: 0.84 +/- 0.06. Twenty percent of the women had hyperleptinemia, 58.4% malnourishment due to excessive intake, 35% presented WC cardiovascular risk. The highest leptin value was found in obese women. There was no association between serum leptin levels and anthropometrical variables. There was a significantly positive correlation between weight, height, BMI, WC, hip circumference, and estradiol. Postmenopausal women presented a high prevalence of overweight/obesity, android-like body fat distribution and normal serum leptin levels. The group assessed is considered to be at risk for cardiometabolic diseases according to anthropometrical indicators.

  8. Dietary protein content affects evolution for body size, body fat and viability in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten N; Overgaard, Johannes; Loeschcke, Volker

    2011-01-01

    The ability to use different food sources is likely to be under strong selection if organisms are faced with natural variation in macro-nutrient (protein, carbohydrate and lipid) availabilities. Here, we use experimental evolution to study how variable dietary protein content affects adult body...... composition and developmental success in Drosophila melanogaster. We reared flies on either a standard diet or a protein-enriched diet for 17 generations before testing them on both diet types. Flies from lines selected on protein-rich diet produced phenotypes with higher total body mass and relative lipid...... content when compared with those selected on a standard diet, irrespective of which of the two diets they were tested on. However, selection on protein-rich diet incurred a cost as flies reared on this diet had markedly lower developmental success in terms of egg-to-adult viability on both medium types...

  9. Whole-Body Vibration Training Improves Heart Rate Variability and Body Fat Percentage in Obese Hispanic Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severino, Gregory; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos; Walters-Edwards, Michelle; Nordvall, Michael; Chernykh, Oksana; Adames, Jason; Wong, Alexei

    2017-07-01

    The present study examined the effects of a 6-week whole-body vibration training (WBVT) regimen on heart rate variability (HRV) and body composition in obese Hispanic postmenopausal women. Participants were randomly assigned to either WBVT (n = 13) or a nonexercising control group (n = 14). HRV and body composition were measured before and after 6 weeks. There was a significant group by time interaction (P < .05) for heart rate, sympathovagal balance, and body fat percentage (BF%) such that all significantly decreased (P < .05); and R-R intervals significantly increased (P < .05) following WBVT compared to no changes after control. The changes in sympathovagal balance were correlated with changes in BF% (r = .63, P < .05). Our findings indicate that WBVT improves HRV and BF% in obese Hispanic postmenopausal women. The improvement in BF% partially explained the decrease in sympathovagal balance. Since obese and older individuals are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, they could potentially benefit from WBVT.

  10. Menopause is associated with decreased whole body fat oxidation during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, J; Pedersen, A T; Green, C J

    2013-01-01

    ), and postmenopausal (n = 14)]. Estimated insulin sensitivity was obtained from an oral glucose tolerance test. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging. Fat oxidation and energy expenditure were measured during an acute exercise bout of 45 min of ergometer......-activated protein kinase (AMPK), vascular endothelial growth factor, pyruvate dehydrogenase-1Eα, cytochrome oxidase I], or enzyme activities (β-HAD, CS) in resting skeletal muscle, except for an increased protein level of cytochrome c in the post- and perimenopausal women relative to premenopausal women...

  11. Body Fat Distribution, Serum Leptin, And Insulin Resistance In Obese Subjects With Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan ZA*,Attia MF**, Ahmed AH**;Hassan HA***,

    2006-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OS A) is strongly associated with obesity and is characterized by endocrine and metabolic changes. The aim of the present study is to clarify whether there is interrelationship between body fat, serum leptin, glucose-insulin metabolism and OSA. Subjects and measurements: we studied 23 obese subjects with OSA (13 males,& 10 females; age mean 36 ± 4.4 years; BMI: 31.7 ± 3.6 kg/m2; WHR: 1.2 ± .25 in males and 0.81+.5 in females ;Apnoea Index "AI"( 9.2 ±6.1) event/hour o...

  12. Total body fat, pro-inflammatory cytokines and insulin resistance in Indian subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yajnik, C S [Diabetes Unit, KEM Hospital Research Centre, Pune (India); Yudkin, J S [Whittington Hospital, University College of London, London (United Kingdom); Shetty, P S [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Kurpad, A [St. John' s Medical College, Bangalore (India)

    1999-07-01

    There is a growing epidemic of insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) in Indians. We postulate that increased susceptibility of the urban Indians to insulin resistance is a result of a tendency to increased fat deposition from the time of intrauterine life (thrifty phenotype), exaggerated in the urban environment by a positive energy balance. The pro-inflammatory cytokines secreted by the inflammatory cells as well by the adipose tissue could aggravate insulin resistance and endothelial damage and therefore, increase the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD) independent of the previously proposed glucose fatty acid cycle mechanism. In a preliminary study, we propose to make detailed measurements of the proposed mechanisms in a selected population from 3 geographical locations in and near the city of Pune, India and also validate simple 'epidemiologic' measurements of body composition with 'reference' measurements. One hundred men (30 to 50y) each from the three geographical locations (rural, urban slum-dwellers and urban middle class in Pune) will be studied for: (i) Body composition: Anthropometric and bioimpedance measurement of total body fat (to be calibrated against deuterated water in 30 subjects from each location), and muscle mass by anthropometry and urinary creatinine excretion; (ii) Body fat distribution by subscapular- triceps ratio, waist-hip ratio; (iii) Metabolic: Glucose tolerance and insulin resistance variables (insulin, lipids, NEFA) and leptin; (iv) Endothelial markers: e-Selectin and von Willebrand Factor (vWF); (v) Inflammatory markers and pro-inflammatory cytokines: C-reactive protein (CRP), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF- {alpha}); (vi) Energy Balance: Assessment of nutritional intake (calories, carbohydrates, proteins and fats, n3 and n6 fatty acids) and physical activity by a questionnaire. Insulin resistance variables, endothelial markers, cytokines and obesity parameters will be compared in

  13. Total body fat, pro-inflammatory cytokines and insulin resistance in Indian subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajnik, C.S.; Yudkin, J.S.; Shetty, P.S.; Kurpad, A.

    1999-01-01

    There is a growing epidemic of insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) in Indians. We postulate that increased susceptibility of the urban Indians to insulin resistance is a result of a tendency to increased fat deposition from the time of intrauterine life (thrifty phenotype), exaggerated in the urban environment by a positive energy balance. The pro-inflammatory cytokines secreted by the inflammatory cells as well by the adipose tissue could aggravate insulin resistance and endothelial damage and therefore, increase the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD) independent of the previously proposed glucose fatty acid cycle mechanism. In a preliminary study, we propose to make detailed measurements of the proposed mechanisms in a selected population from 3 geographical locations in and near the city of Pune, India and also validate simple 'epidemiologic' measurements of body composition with 'reference' measurements. One hundred men (30 to 50y) each from the three geographical locations (rural, urban slum-dwellers and urban middle class in Pune) will be studied for: (i) Body composition: Anthropometric and bioimpedance measurement of total body fat (to be calibrated against deuterated water in 30 subjects from each location), and muscle mass by anthropometry and urinary creatinine excretion; (ii) Body fat distribution by subscapular- triceps ratio, waist-hip ratio; (iii) Metabolic: Glucose tolerance and insulin resistance variables (insulin, lipids, NEFA) and leptin; (iv) Endothelial markers: e-Selectin and von Willebrand Factor (vWF); (v) Inflammatory markers and pro-inflammatory cytokines: C-reactive protein (CRP), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF- α); (vi) Energy Balance: Assessment of nutritional intake (calories, carbohydrates, proteins and fats, n3 and n6 fatty acids) and physical activity by a questionnaire. Insulin resistance variables, endothelial markers, cytokines and obesity parameters will be compared in the 3

  14. Objectively-determined intensity- and domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behavior in relation to percent body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheers, Tineke; Philippaerts, Renaat; Lefevre, Johan

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the independent and joint associations of overall, intensity-specific and domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behavior with bioelectrical impedance-determined percent body fat. Physical activity was measured in 442 Flemish adults (41.4 ± 9.8 years) using the SenseWear Armband and an electronic diary. Two-way analyses of covariance investigated the interaction of physical activity and sedentary behavior with percent body fat. Multiple linear regression analyses, adjusted for potential confounders, examined the associations of intensity-specific and domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behavior with percent body fat. Results showed a significant main effect for physical activity in both genders and for sedentary behavior in women, but no interaction effects. Light activity was positively (β = 0.41 for men and 0.43 for women) and moderate (β = -0.64 and -0.41), vigorous (β = -0.21 and -0.24) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) inversely associated with percent body fat, independent of sedentary time. Regarding domain-specific physical activity, significant associations were present for occupation, leisure time and household chores, irrespective of sedentary time. The positive associations between body fat and total and domain-specific sedentary behavior diminished after MVPA was controlled for. MVPA during leisure time, occupation and household chores may be essential to prevent fat gain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  15. Reducing body fat with altitude hypoxia training in swimmers: role of blood perfusion to skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Michael; Liao, Chin-An; Huang, Chih-Yang; Lee, Wen-Chih; Hou, Chien-Wen; Yu, Szu-Hsien; Harris, M Brennan; Hsu, Tung-Shiung; Lee, Shin-Da; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2013-02-28

    Swimmers tend to have greater body fat than athletes from other sports. The purpose of the study was to examine changes in body composition after altitude hypoxia exposure and the role of blood distribution to the skeletal muscle in swimmers. With a constant training volume of 12.3 km/day, young male swimmers (N = 10, 14.8 ± 0.5 years) moved from sea-level to a higher altitude of 2,300 meters. Body composition was measured before and after translocation to altitude using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) along with 8 control male subjects who resided at sea level for the same period of time. To determine the effects of hypoxia on muscle blood perfusion, total hemoglobin concentration (THC) was traced by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in the triceps and quadriceps muscles under glucose-ingested and insulin-secreted conditions during hypoxia exposure (16% O2) after training. While no change in body composition was found in the control group, subjects who trained at altitude had unequivocally decreased fat mass (-1.7 ± 0.3 kg, -11.4%) with increased lean mass (+0.8 ± 0.2 kg, +1.5%). Arterial oxygen saturation significantly decreased with increased plasma lactate during hypoxia recovery mimicking 2,300 meters at altitude (~93% versus ~97%). Intriguingly, hypoxia resulted in elevated muscle THC, and sympathetic nervous activities occurred in parallel with greater-percent oxygen saturation in both muscle groups. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that increased blood distribution to the skeletal muscle under postprandial condition may contribute to the reciprocally increased muscle mass and decreased body mass after a 3-week altitude exposure in swimmers.

  16. Pancreatic Fat Is Associated With Metabolic Syndrome and Visceral Fat but Not Beta-Cell Function or Body Mass Index in Pediatric Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staaf, Johan; Labmayr, Viktor; Paulmichl, Katharina; Manell, Hannes; Cen, Jing; Ciba, Iris; Dahlbom, Marie; Roomp, Kirsten; Anderwald, Christian-Heinz; Meissnitzer, Matthias; Schneider, Reinhard; Forslund, Anders; Widhalm, Kurt; Bergquist, Jonas; Ahlström, Håkan; Bergsten, Peter; Weghuber, Daniel; Kullberg, Joel

    2017-03-01

    Adolescents with obesity have increased risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Pancreatic fat has been related to these conditions; however, little is known about associations in pediatric obesity. The present study was designed to explore these associations further. We examined 116 subjects, 90 with obesity. Anthropometry, MetS, blood samples, and oral glucose tolerance tests were assessed using standard techniques. Pancreatic fat fraction (PFF) and other fat depots were quantified using magnetic resonance imaging. The PFF was elevated in subjects with obesity. No association between PFF and body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) was found in the obesity subcohort. Pancreatic fat fraction correlated to Insulin Secretion Sensitivity Index-2 and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance in simple regression; however, when using adjusted regression and correcting for BMI-SDS and other fat compartments, PFF correlated only to visceral adipose tissue and fasting glucose. Highest levels of PFF were found in subjects with obesity and MetS. In adolescents with obesity, PFF is elevated and associated to MetS, fasting glucose, and visceral adipose tissue but not to beta-cell function, glucose tolerance, or BMI-SDS. This study demonstrates that conclusions regarding PFF and its associations depend on the body mass features of the cohort.

  17. Functional neuronal processing of human body odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Johan N; Olsson, Mats J

    2010-01-01

    Body odors carry informational cues of great importance for individuals across a wide range of species, and signals hidden within the body odor cocktail are known to regulate several key behaviors in animals. For a long time, the notion that humans may be among these species has been dismissed. We now know, however, that each human has a unique odor signature that carries information related to his or her genetic makeup, as well as information about personal environmental variables, such as diet and hygiene. Although a substantial number of studies have investigated the behavioral effects of body odors, only a handful have studied central processing. Recent studies have, however, demonstrated that the human brain responds to fear signals hidden within the body odor cocktail, is able to extract kin specific signals, and processes body odors differently than other perceptually similar odors. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the current knowledge of how the human brain processes body odors and the potential importance these signals have for us in everyday life. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of an automated 3D segmentation program for volume quantification of body fat distribution using CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshima, Shunsuke; Yamamoto, Shuji; Yamaji, Taiki

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a computing tool for full-automatic segmentation of body fat distributions on volumetric CT images. We developed an algorithm to automatically identify the body perimeter and the inner contour that separates visceral fat from subcutaneous fat. Diaphragmatic surfaces can be extracted by model-based segmentation to match the bottom surface of the lung in CT images for determination of the upper limitation of the abdomen. The functions for quantitative evaluation of abdominal obesity or obesity-related metabolic syndrome were implemented with a prototype three-dimensional (3D) image processing workstation. The volumetric ratios of visceral fat to total fat and visceral fat to subcutaneous fat for each subject can be calculated. Additionally, color intensity mapping of subcutaneous areas and the visceral fat layer is quite obvious in understanding the risk of abdominal obesity with the 3D surface display. Preliminary results obtained have been useful in medical checkups and have contributed to improved efficiency in checking obesity throughout the whole range of the abdomen with 3D visualization and analysis. (author)

  19. Thin and fat cows, and the nonlinear genetic relationship between body condition score and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiezzi, F; Maltecca, C; Cecchinato, A; Penasa, M; Bittante, G

    2013-10-01

    Thin and fat cows are often credited for low fertility, but body condition score (BCS) has been traditionally treated as a linear trait when genetic correlations with reproductive performance have been estimated. The aims of this study were to assess genetic parameters for fertility, production, and body condition traits in the Brown Swiss population reared in the Alps (Bolzano-Bozen Province, Italy), and to investigate the possible nonlinearity among BCS and other traits by analyzing fat and thin cows. Records of BCS measured on a 5-point scale were preadjusted for year-season and days in milk at scoring, and were considered positive (1) for fat cows if they exceeded the value of 1 residual standard deviation or null (0) otherwise, whereas positive values for thin cows were imputed to records below -1 residual standard deviation. Fertility indicators measured on first- and second-parity cows were interval from parturition to first service, interval from first service to conception, interval from parturition to conception, number of inseminations to conception, conception at first service, and nonreturn rate at 56 d after first service. Production traits were peak milk yield, lactation milk yield, and lactation length. Data were from 1,413 herds and included 16,324 records of BCS, fertility, and production for first-parity, and 10,086 fertility records for second-parity cows. Animals calved from 2002 to 2007 and were progeny of 420 artificial insemination bulls. Genetic parameters for the aforementioned traits were obtained under univariate and bivariate threshold and censored linear sire models implemented in a Bayesian framework. Posterior means of heritabilities for BCS, fat cows, and thin cows were 0.141, 0.122, and 0.115, respectively. Genetic correlations of body condition traits with contemporary production were moderate to high and were between -0.556 and 0.623. Body condition score was moderately related to fertility in first (-0.280 to 0.497) and second

  20. Saturated Fat Is More Metabolically Harmful for the Human Liver Than Unsaturated Fat or Simple Sugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luukkonen, Panu K; Sädevirta, Sanja; Zhou, You

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (i.e., increased intrahepatic triglyceride [IHTG] content), predisposes to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Adipose tissue lipolysis and hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) are the main pathways contributing to IHTG. We hypothesized that dietary...... macronutrient composition influences the pathways, mediators, and magnitude of weight gain-induced changes in IHTG. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We overfed 38 overweight subjects (age 48 ± 2, BMI 31 ± 1 kg/m2, liver fat 4.7 ± 0.9%) 1,000 extra kcal/day of saturated (SAT) or unsaturated (UNSAT) fat or simple...

  1. Swimming exercise increases serum irisin level and reduces body fat mass in high-fat-diet fed Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun; Li, Hongwei; Shen, Shi-Wei; Shen, Zhen-Hai; Xu, Ming; Yang, Cheng-Jian; Li, Feng; Feng, Yin-Bo; Yun, Jing-Ting; Wang, Ling; Qi, Hua-Jin

    2016-05-13

    It has been shown that irisin levels are reduced in skeletal muscle and plasma of obese rats; however, the effect of exercise training on irisin level remains controversial. We aim to evaluate the association of swimming exercise with serum irisin level and other obesity-associated parameters. Forty healthy male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: a normal diet and sedentary group (ND group), normal diet and exercise group (NDE group), high-fat diet and sedentary group (HFD group), and high-fat diet and exercise group (HFDE group. After 8 consecutive weeks of swimming exercise, fat mass and serum irisin level was determined. Higher serum irisin levels were detected in the HFDE group (1.15 ± 0.28 μg/L) and NDE group (1.76 ± 0.17 μg/L) than in the HFD group (0.84 ± 0.23 μg/L) or the ND group (1.24 ± 0.29 μg/L), respectively (HFDE group vs. HFD group, P mass (r = -0.68, P mass (r = -0.576, P mass (r = -0.439, P mass, visceral fat mass and percentage fat mass were lower in the HFDE group than the HFD group (all P values mass in high-fat-fed Wistar rats, which may be attributable to elevated irisin levels induced by swimming exercise.

  2. Capsaicin-sensitive intestinal mucosal afferent mechanism and body fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Felix W

    2008-07-04

    This report summarizes clinical and experimental data in support of the hypothesis that capsaicin-sensitive intestinal mucosal afferent mechanism plays a role in regulating body fat distribution. Epidemiological data have revealed that the consumption of foods containing capsaicin is associated with a lower prevalence of obesity. Rural Thai people consume diets containing 0.014% capsaicin. Rodents fed a diet containing 0.014% capsaicin showed no change in caloric intake but a significant 24% and 29% reduction in the visceral (peri-renal) fat weight. Increase in intestinal blood flow facilitates nutrient energy absorption and decrease in adipose tissue blood flow facilitates storage of nutrient energy in adipose tissue. Stimulation of intestinal mucosal afferent nerves increases intestinal blood flow, but decreases visceral (mesenteric) adipost tissue blood flow. In in vitro cell studies capsaicin has a direct effect on adipocytes. Intravenous capsaicin produces measurable plasma level and subcutaneous capsaicin retards accumulation of adipose tissue. The data on a direct effect of oral capsaicin on adipose tissue at remote sites, however, are conflicting. Capsaicin absorbed from the gut lumen is almost completely metabolized before reaching the general circulation. Oral capsaicin significantly increases transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channel expression as well as TRPV1 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in visceral adipose tissue. In TRPV1 knockout mice on a high fat diet the body weight was not significantly different in the absence or presence of oral capsaicin. In rodent experiments, daily intragastric administration of capsaicin for two weeks led to defunctionalization of intestinal mucosal afferent nerves, manifested by loss of acute mucosal capsaicin-induced effects; but not the corneal afferent nerves, with preservation of the paw wiping reflex of the eye exposed briefly to dilute capsaicin. The latter indicated the absence of an oral

  3. Body fatness and breast cancer risk in women of African ancestry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandera, Elisa V; Chandran, Urmila; Zirpoli, Gary; Gong, Zhihong; McCann, Susan E; Hong, Chi-Chen; Ciupak, Gregory; Pawlish, Karen; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has been shown to be inversely associated with breast cancer risk in premenopausal women, while increasing risk in postmenopausal women. However, the current evidence is largely based on studies in Caucasian populations. Associations in women of African ancestry (AA), who have a higher prevalence of obesity, have been evaluated in few studies and results suggest different effects. We evaluated the impact of body size, body fat distribution, and body composition on breast cancer risk among AA women (978 cases and 958 controls) participating in the Women’s Circle of Health Study, a multi-site case–control study in New York City (NYC) and New Jersey (NJ). Cases were newly diagnosed with histologically confirmed ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive breast cancer, age 20–75 yrs. In NYC, cases were recruited through hospitals with the largest referral patterns for AA women and controls through random digit dialing (RDD). In NJ, cases were identified in seven counties in NJ thorough the NJ State Cancer Registry, and controls through RDD and community-based recruitment. During in-person interviews, questionnaires were administered and detailed anthropometric measurements were obtained. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. BMI did not have a major impact on pre- or post-menopausal breast cancer, but was significantly associated with reduced risk of ER-/PR- tumors among postmenopausal women (OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.15-0.96 for BMI > 30 vs. BMI < 25). Furthermore, increased premenopausal breast cancer risk was found for higher waist and hip circumferences after adjusting for BMI, with ORs of 2.25 (95% CI: 1.07-4.74) and 2.91 (95% CI: 1.39-6.10), respectively, comparing the highest vs. lowest quartile. While ORs for higher fat mass and percent body fat among postmenopausal women were above one, confidence intervals included the null value. Our study suggests that in AA women BMI is generally unrelated to breast cancer. However, higher

  4. Near infrared reactance for the estimation of body fatness in regularly exercising individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J; Lambert, M I; Micklesfield, L K; Goedecke, J H; Jennings, C L; Savides, L; Claassen, A; Lambert, E V

    2013-07-01

    Near infrared reactance (NIR) is used to measure body fat percentage (BF%), but there is little data on its use in non-obese, regularly exercising individuals. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the limits of agreement between NIR compared to dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for the measurement of BF% in 2 cohorts of regularly exercising individuals. BF% was measured using DXA and NIR in a regular exercising (≥3 sessions/week), healthy active cohort (HA; n=57), and in a regularly exercising and resistance trained (≥2 sessions/week) cohort (RT; n=59). The RT cohort had lower BF% than the HA cohort (15.3±5.5% and 25.8±7.1%, Pexercising individuals. However, the rather broad LOA of NIR need to be considered when using NIR to screen for overweight and obesity, or measure and track changes in body composition. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Relationship between percentage of body fat and anthropometric indicators in individuals attending a gym

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Grossl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between percentage of body fat (% BF and anthropometric indicators in individuals attending a gym. Four hundred and thirty eight individuals, 195 men and 243 women, from 18 to 50 years of age took part in this study. The % BF was estimated by the skinfold method. The following anthropometric indicators were assessed: waist circumference, abdomen circumference (AC, waist-to-hip ratio, body mass index (BMI and waist-height ratio. Linear Pearson correlation and simple linear regression analysis were used to investigate the relationship between variables. For women, BMI strongly correlated with % BF (r = .73, whereas for males, AC showed high correlation with % BF (r = .73. With varying degrees of magnitude, there were significant correlations between all of the anthropometric indicators analyzed and % BF.

  6. Physical activity and calorie intake mediate the relationship from depression to body fat mass among female Mexican health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada, Amado D; Macías-Waldman, Nayeli; Salmerón, Jorge; Swigart, Tessa; Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia

    2017-11-17

    Depression is a foremost cause of morbidity throughout the world and the prevalence of depression in women is about twice as high as men. Additionally, overweight and obesity are major global health concerns. We explored the relationship between depression and body fat, and the role of physical activity and diet as mediators of this relationship in a sample of 456 adult female Mexican health workers. Longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses using data from adult women of the Health Workers Cohort Study (HWCS) Measures of body fat mass (kg from DEXA), dietary intake (kcal from FFQ), leisure time activity (METs/wk) and depression (CES-D) were determined in two waves (2004-2006 and 2010-2011). We explored the interrelation between body fat, diet, leisure time, physical activity, and depression using a cross-lagged effects model fitted to longitudinal data. We also fitted a structural equations model to cross-sectional data with body fat as the main outcome, and dietary intake and physical activity from leisure time as mediators between depression and body fat. Baseline depression was significantly related to higher depression, higher calorie intake, and lower leisure time physical activity at follow-up. From our cross-sectional model, each standard deviation increase in the depression score was associated with an average increase of 751 ± 259 g (± standard error) in body fat through the mediating effects of calorie intake and physical activity. The results of this study show how depression may influence energy imbalance between calories consumed and calories expended, resulting in higher body fat among those with a greater depression score. Evaluating the role of mental conditions like depression in dietary and physical activity behaviors should be positioned as a key research goal for better designed and targeted public health interventions. The HealthWorkers Cohort Study (HWCS) has been approved by the Institutional IRB. Number: 2005-785-012.

  7. Interaction between an ADCY3 Genetic Variant and Two Weight-Lowering Diets Affecting Body Fatness and Body Composition Outcomes Depending on Macronutrient Distribution: A Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Goni

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The adenylate cyclase 3 (ADCY3 gene is involved in the regulation of several metabolic processes including the development and function of adipose tissue. The effects of the ADCY3 rs10182181 genetic variant on changes in body composition depending on the macronutrient distribution intake after 16 weeks of the dietary intervention were tested. The ADCY3 genetic variant was genotyped in 147 overweight or obese subjects, who were randomly assigned to one of the two diets varying in macronutrient content: a moderately-high-protein diet and a low-fat diet. Anthropometric and body composition measurements (DEXA scan were recorded. Significant interactions between the ADCY3 genotype and dietary intervention on changes in weight, waist circumference, and body composition were found after adjustment for covariates. Thus, in the moderately-high-protein diet group, the G allele was associated with a lower decrease of fat mass, trunk and android fat, and a greater decrease in lean mass. Conversely, in the low-fat diet group carrying the G allele was associated with a greater decrease in trunk, android, gynoid, and visceral fat. Subjects carrying the G allele of the rs10182181 polymorphism may benefit more in terms of weight loss and improvement of body composition measurements when undertaking a hypocaloric low-fat diet as compared to a moderately-high-protein diet.

  8. Effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on nutrition metabolism in silkworm fat body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Tian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Silkworm (Bombyx mori is an important economic insect with a fat body that plays a crucial role in the storage and transfer of nutrients. It is also known that TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs can improve feed efficiency and promote silk protein synthesis in the silkworm. In this study, we profiled gene expression in the silkworm fat body after TiO2 NP treatment, validated the major RNA-seq findings, and determined the contents of trehalose and triglyceride, the activity of lipase, and the amount of total proteins. RNA-seq analysis revealed that TiO2 NP treatment caused significant expression changes in 341 genes (P≤0.01, 138 of which were upregulated while the other 203 were downregulated. The expression levels of two target genes in the insulin signaling pathway and two protein metabolism-related target genes, three lipid metabolism-associated target genes, two carbohydrate metabolism related target genes and expression levels of seven heat shock protein genes were increased, and that of threonine dehydratase gene and fatty acid transport protein gene were decreased. The RNA-seq results of 16 genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. The lipase activity, content of trehalose, and amount of total proteins were elevated by 3.86-fold, 1.34-fold, and 1.21-fold, respectively, and the content of triglyceride was decreased by 0.94-fold after TiO2 NP treatment. These results indicated that TiO2 NPs activated the insulin signaling pathway, promoted the metabolism of protein, fat, and carbohydrate, and improved nutrition metabolism. Our study provides new support for the understanding of the beneficial effect of TiO2 NPs on silkworm nutrient metabolism.

  9. Anthropometric Indicators as Body Fat Discriminators in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves Junior, Carlos As; Mocellin, Michel C; Gonçalves, Eliane C Andrade; Silva, Diego As; Trindade, Erasmo Bsm

    2017-09-01

    We analyzed the discriminatory capacity of anthropometric indicators for body fat in children and adolescents. This systematic review and meta-analysis included cross-sectional and clinical studies comprising children and adolescents aged 2-19 y that tested the discriminatory value for body fat measured by anthropometric methods or indexes generated by anthropometric variables compared with precision methods in the diagnosis of body fat [dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), computed tomography, air displacement plethysmography (ADP), or MRI]. Five studies met the eligibility criteria and presented high methodologic quality. The anthropometric indicators that had high discriminatory power to identify high body fat were body mass index (BMI) in males [area under the curve (AUC): 0.975] and females (AUC: 0.947), waist circumference (WC) in males (AUC: 0.975) and females (AUC: 0.959), and the waist-to-height ratio (WTHR) in males (AUC: 0.897) and females (AUC: 0.914). BMI, WC, and WTHR can be used by health professionals to assess body fat in children and adolescents. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. DEXA measures of body fat percentage and acute phase proteins among breast cancer survivors: a Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dee Anne

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background C-reactive protein (CRP and Serum amyloid A protein (SAA increases with systemic inflammation and are related to worse survival for breast cancer survivors. This study examines the association between percent body fat and SAA and CRP and the potential interaction with NSAID use and weight change. Methods Participants included 134 non-Hispanic white and Hispanic breast cancer survivors from the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle Study. Body fat percentage, measured with Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometer (DEXA, and circulating levels of CRP and SAA were obtained 30 months after breast cancer diagnosis. Results Circulating concentrations of CRP and SAA were associated with increased adiposity as measured by DEXA after adjustment for age at 24-months, race/ethnicity, dietary energy intake, weight change, and NSAID use. Survivors with higher body fat ≥35% had significantly higher concentrations of CRP (2.01 mg/l vs. 0.85 mg/l and SAA (6.21 mg/l vs. 4.21 mg/l compared to non-obese (body fat  Conclusions Breast cancer survivors with higher body fat had higher mean concentrations of CRP and SAA than women with lower body fat. Further assessment of NSAID use and weight control in reducing circulating inflammatory markers among survivors may be worthwhile to investigate in randomized intervention trials as higher inflammatory markers are associated with worse survival.

  11. Altering the sex determination pathway in Drosophila fat body modifies sex-specific stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argue, Kathryn J; Neckameyer, Wendi S

    2014-07-01

    The stress response in Drosophila melanogaster reveals sex differences in behavior, similar to what has been observed in mammals. However, unlike mammals, the sex determination pathway in Drosophila is well established, making this an ideal system to identify factors involved in the modulation of sex-specific responses to stress. In this study, we show that the Drosophila fat body, which has been shown to be important for energy homeostasis and sex determination, is a dynamic tissue that is altered in response to stress in a sex and time-dependent manner. We manipulated the sex determination pathway in the fat body via targeted expression of transformer and transformer-2 and analyzed these animals for changes in their response to stress. In the majority of cases, manipulation of transformer or transformer-2 was able to change the physiological output in response to starvation and oxidative stress to that of the opposite sex. Our data also uncover the possibility of additional downstream targets for transformer and transformer-2 that are separate from the sex determination pathway and can influence behavioral and physiological responses. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  12. A dual function for Deep orange in programmed autophagy in the Drosophila melanogaster fat body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindmo, Karine; Simonsen, Anne; Brech, Andreas; Finley, Kim; Rusten, Tor Erik; Stenmark, Harald

    2006-01-01

    Lysosomal degradation of cytoplasm by way of autophagy is essential for cellular amino acid homeostasis and for tissue remodeling. In insects such as Drosophila, autophagy is developmentally upregulated in the larval fat body prior to metamorphosis. Here, autophagy is induced by the hormone ecdysone through down-regulation of the autophagy-suppressive phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway. In yeast, Vps18 and other members of the HOPS complex have been found essential for autophagic degradation. In Drosophila, the Vps18 homologue Deep orange (Dor) has previously been shown to mediate fusion of multivesicular endosomes with lysosomes. A requirement of Dor for ecdysone-mediated chromosome puffing has also been reported. In the present report, we have tested the hypothesis that Dor may control programmed autophagy at the level of ecdysone signaling as well as by mediating autophagosome-to-lysosome fusion. We show that dor mutants are defective in programmed autophagy and provide evidence that autophagy is blocked at two levels. First, PI3K activity was not down-regulated correctly in dor larvae, which correlated with a decrease in ecdysone reporter activity. The down-regulation of PI3K activity was restored by feeding ecdysone to the mutant larvae. Second, neither exogenous ecdysone nor overexpression of PTEN, a silencer of PI3K signaling, restored fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes in the fat body of dor mutants. These results indicate that Dor controls autophagy indirectly, via ecdysone signaling, as well as directly, via autolysosomal fusion

  13. Longitudinal Association Between Physical Activity and Body Fat During Adolescence: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramires, Virgílio Viana; Dumith, Samuel Carvalho; Gonçalves, Helen

    2015-09-01

    Physical activity (PA) practice has been inversely associated to body fat (BF) and recommended as a way to reduce and prevent obesity. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review on the association of PA and BF in adolescence. The review includes 18 longitudinal studies found in the PubMed database, comprising papers published from January 1990 to July 2014. Studies assessing BF only through body mass index were excluded. Among the outcomes analyzed, waist circumference, skinfolds, and absolute and relative fat mass measurement were identified. Questionnaires were the more predominant way to evaluate PA. Most studies showed that PA promotes a protective effect against a higher BF gain. It was concluded that PA has a protective effect against BF with differences between the genders and according to the BF marker or measurement assessed; higher intensity PA leads to a greater effect against BF gain in both genders; and the maintenance or increase of PA level on BF observed through analysis of change in PA level yielded more consistent findings in the relation between PA and BF.

  14. Relation of body mass index and body fat mass for Spanish university students, taking into account leisure-time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-García, Javier; Castillo, Isabel; Pablos, Carlos; Queralt, Ana

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze the relation of Body Mass Index with body fat mass while taking into account the amount of leisure-time physical activity for 299 male university students. Body fat mass was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. An estimation of energy expenditure in leisure-time physical activity in metabolic equivalents (METs) was obtained so participants were divided into six activity groups by percentile: no physical activity by the first group and participants physically active were divided into five groups by percentiles: 90% group.

  15. The relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content and bone marrow adipose tissue in early-pubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L Newton, Anna; J Hanks, Lynae; Davis, Michelle; Casazza, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of the physiologic relevance of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) during growth may promote understanding of the bone-fat axis and confluence with metabolic factors. The objective of this pilot investigation was two-fold: (1) to evaluate the relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content (BMC) and femoral BMAT during childhood and underlying metabolic determinants and (2) to determine if the relationships differ by race. Participants included white and non-Hispanic black girls (n=59) ages 4-10 years. Femoral BMAT volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging, BMC and body fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Metabolic parameters were assessed in the fasted state. Total fat and BMC were positively associated with BMAT; however, simultaneous inclusion of BMC and body fat in the statistical model attenuated the association between BMC and BMAT. Differences in BMAT volume were observed, non-Hispanic black girls exhibiting marginally greater BMAT at age eight (P=0.05) and white girls exhibiting greater BMAT at age ten (PBMAT and leptin (P=0.02) and adiponectin (P=0.002) in white girls while BMAT and insulin were inversely related in non-Hispanic black girls (P=0.008). Our findings revealed a positive relationship between BMAT, body fat and BMC, although body fat, respective to leptin, contributed partly to the relationship between BMAT and BMC. Despite large differences in total fat between non-Hispanic black and white, the relationship between BMAT and BMC was similar to white girls. However, this relationship appeared to be impacted through different mechanisms according to race.

  16. New human milk fat substitutes from butterfat to improve fat absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanqi; Mu, Huiling; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2010-01-01

    , or (3) the reference oil without LCPUFA. The apparent fat absorption after intake of butterfat-based HMFS (95.9% +/- 1.8%) was significantly higher than the other two groups, indicating that much less calcium soap was formed after feeding butterfat-based HMFS. Calcium contents in urines and faeces from...

  17. Activation of the central melanocortin system in rats persistently reduces body and fat mass independently of caloric reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Isabelle; Green, Sara M; Morgan, Drake; Carter, Christy S; Tümer, Nihal; Scarpace, Philip J

    2018-03-01

    Recent evidence indicate that melanotan II (MTII) reduces body mass independently of caloric reduction. Because MTII induces a transient hypophagia, caloric reduction is still considered a primary mechanism for MTII-mediated body mass loss. To examine the contribution of caloric reduction to long-term body mass loss in response to MTII, we centrally infused MTII or vehicle in ad libitum fed (MTII and Control) animals in comparison with a group of animals that were pair-fed (PF) to the MTII group. Food intake and body mass were recorded daily, and body composition was assessed biweekly. The present study demonstrates that central MTII-mediated body mass loss is only partially mediated by caloric restriction, and the long-term body mass loss is independent of the initial hypophagia. More importantly, central MTII administration induced a rapid but sustained fat mass loss, independently of caloric reduction. MTII-treated animals preserved their lean/fat mass ratio throughout the study, whereas PF animals underwent a transient reduction of lean/fat mass ratio that was only normalized when food intake returned to Control level. In summary, it can be concluded that activation of the central melanocortin system in rats persistently reduces body and fat mass independently of caloric reduction.

  18. Effects of genetic strain on stress-induced weight and body fat loss in rats: Application to air pollution research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to some air pollutants is suspected of contributing to obesity. Hazelton chambers are commonly used in air pollution studies but we found unexpected reductions in body weight and body fat of rats housed in Hazelton chambers under control conditions. We suspect that stres...

  19. The role of body weight, fat distribution and weight change in ethnic differences in the 9-year incidence of hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootveld, Laura R.; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Peters, Ron J. G.; Ujcic-Voortman, Joanne K.; Brewster, Lizzy M.; Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of body composition (body weight, fat distribution and weight change over time) in ethnic differences in the incidence of hypertension in an ethnic Dutch, South Asian Surinamese and African Surinamese background population living in the Netherlands. We included 361

  20. Transgenic rescue of adipocyte glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor expression restores high fat diet-induced body weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugleholdt, Randi; Pedersen, Jens; Bassi, Maria Rosaria

    2011-01-01

    that was similar between the groups. In contrast, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide-mediated insulin secretion does not seem to be important for regulation of body weight after high fat feeding. The study supports a role of the adipocyte GIPr in nutrient-dependent regulation of body weight and lean mass...

  1. Substituting sugar-sweetened beverages with water or milk is inversely associated with body fatness development from childhood to adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Rangan, Anna; Olsen, Nanna Julie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association between different types of beverage intake and substitution of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) by water, milk, or 100% fruit juice in relation to 6-y change in body fatness. METHODS: A cohort of 9-y-old children (N = 358) who...... participated in the Danish part of the European Youth Heart Study was followed for development of body fatness over 6 y. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the associations between beverage intake at baseline and change in body fatness (body mass index z score [BMIz]), waist circumference (WC......), and sum of four skinfolds (Σ4SF) over 6 y with adjustment for potential confounders. Substitution models were used to evaluate various beverages as alternatives to SSBs. RESULTS: SSB intake at age 9 y, but not intake of other beverages, was directly associated with subsequent 6-y changes in BMIz (β = 0...

  2. Body mass index and body fat percentage are associated with decreased physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelis Theo Nikolaidis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objectives of this study were to examine (a the prevalence of overweight/obesity, and (b the relationship between body mass index (BMI, body fat percentage (BF and physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players. Materials and Methods: Adolescent (n = 102, aged 15.2 ± 2.0 year and adult (n = 57, 25.9 ± 5.0 year players were examined for anthropometric characteristics and body composition, and performed the physical working capacity in heart rate 170 min -1 test, a force-velocity test, the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT, sit-and-reach test (SAR, handgrip strength test (HST and countermovement vertical jump (CVJ. Results: Based on international BMI cut-off points, 27.5% (n = 28 of adolescent and 12.3% (n = 7 of adult participants were classified as overweight, with the prevalence of overweight being higher in girls than in women (χ2 = 4.90, P = 0.027. BMI was correlated with BF in both age groups (r = 0.72, P < 0.001 in girls; r = 0.75, P < 0.001 in women. Normal participants had superior certain physical and physiological characteristics than those who were overweight. For instance, normal girls and women had higher mean power during WAnT than their overweight counterparts (P = 0.003 and P = 0.009 respectively. Except for flexibility, BMI and BF were inversely related with physical fitness (e.g., BMI vs. HST r = -0.39, P < 0.001 in girls; BF vs. CVJ r = -0.45, P < 0.001 in women. Conclusion: The findings confirmed the negative effect of overweight and fatness on selected parameters of physical fitness. The prevalence of overweight in adolescent volleyball players was higher than in general population, which was a novel finding, suggesting that proper exercise interventions should be developed to target the excess of body mass in youth volleyball clubs.

  3. The Relationship of a Combination of Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells and Frozen Fat with the Survival Rate of Transplanted Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Young Ha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe survival rate of grafted fat is difficult to predict, and repeated procedures are frequently required. In this study, the effects of the freezing period of harvested adipose tissue and the addition of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs on the process of fat absorption were studied.MethodsAdipose tissue was obtained from patients who underwent a lipoaspirated fat graft. The fat tissue was cryopreserved at -20℃ in a domestic refrigerator. A total of 40 nude mice were used. The mice in the experimental group received three different subcutaneous injections in the back: an injection of fresh fat and ASCs, an injection of fat that had been frozen for one month and ASCs, and an injection of fat that had been frozen for two months and ASCs. The control mice received fat grafts without ASCs. The mice were sacrificed at four or eight weeks after the procedure, and the grafted fat tissues were harvested. The extracted fat was evaluated using photographic analysis, volume measurements, and histological examination.ResultsIn the control group, the fat resorption rates four weeks after transplantation in the grafts of fresh fat, fat that had been frozen for one month, and fat that had been frozen for two months were 21.14%, 22.46%, and 42.56%, respectively. In the experimental group, the corresponding resorption rates were 6.68%, 13.0%, and 33.9%, respectively.ConclusionsASCs can increase the fat graft survival rate. The use of ASCs in fat grafting can reduce the need for repeated fat grafts and provide good long term results.

  4. Fetal liver blood flow distribution: role in human developmental strategy to prioritize fat deposition versus brain development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith M Godfrey

    Full Text Available Among primates, human neonates have the largest brains but also the highest proportion of body fat. If placental nutrient supply is limited, the fetus faces a dilemma: should resources be allocated to brain growth, or to fat deposition for use as a potential postnatal energy reserve? We hypothesised that resolving this dilemma operates at the level of umbilical blood distribution entering the fetal liver. In 381 uncomplicated pregnancies in third trimester, we measured blood flow perfusing the fetal liver, or bypassing it via the ductus venosus to supply the brain and heart using ultrasound techniques. Across the range of fetal growth and independent of the mother's adiposity and parity, greater liver blood flow was associated with greater offspring fat mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, both in the infant at birth (r = 0.43, P<0.001 and at age 4 years (r = 0.16, P = 0.02. In contrast, smaller placentas less able to meet fetal demand for essential nutrients were associated with a brain-sparing flow pattern (r = 0.17, p = 0.02. This flow pattern was also associated with a higher degree of shunting through ductus venosus (P = 0.04. We propose that humans evolved a developmental strategy to prioritize nutrient allocation for prenatal fat deposition when the supply of conditionally essential nutrients requiring hepatic inter-conversion is limited, switching resource allocation to favour the brain if the supply of essential nutrients is limited. Facilitated placental transfer mechanisms for glucose and other nutrients evolved in environments less affluent than those now prevalent in developed populations, and we propose that in circumstances of maternal adiposity and nutrient excess these mechanisms now also lead to prenatal fat deposition. Prenatal developmental influences play important roles in the human propensity to deposit fat.

  5. Body fat distribution, metabolic and inflammatory markers and retinal microvasculature in school-age children. The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gishti, O; Jaddoe, V W V; Hofman, A; Wong, T Y; Ikram, M K; Gaillard, R

    2015-10-01

    To examine the associations of body fatness, metabolic and inflammatory markers with retinal vessel calibers among children. We performed a population-based cohort study among 4145 school-age children. At the median age of 6.0 years (95% range 5.8, 8.0 years), we measured body mass index, total and abdominal fat mass, metabolic and inflammatory markers (blood levels of lipids, insulin and C-peptide and C-reactive protein) and retinal vascular calibers from retinal photographs. We observed that compared with normal weight children, obese children had narrower retinal arteriolar caliber (difference -0.21 s.d. score (SDS; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.35, -0.06)), but not venular caliber. Continuous analyses showed that higher body mass index and total body fat mass, but not android/gynoid fat mass ratio and pre-peritoneal fat mass, were associated with narrower retinal arteriolar caliber (Pfat mass), but not with retinal venular caliber. Lipid and insulin levels were not associated with retinal vessel calibers. Higher C-reactive protein was associated with only wider retinal venular caliber (difference 0.10 SDS (95% CI 0.06, 0.14) per SDS increase in C-reactive protein). This latter association was not influenced by body mass index. Higher body fatness is associated with narrower retinal arteriolar caliber, whereas increased C-reactive protein levels are associated with wider retinal venular caliber. Increased fat mass and inflammation correlate with microvascular development from school-age onwards.

  6. Genome-wide association of body fat distribution in African ancestry populations suggests new loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ti Liu

    Full Text Available Central obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC or waist-hip ratio (WHR, is a marker of body fat distribution. Although obesity disproportionately affects minority populations, few studies have conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS of fat distribution among those of predominantly African ancestry (AA. We performed GWAS of WC and WHR, adjusted and unadjusted for BMI, in up to 33,591 and 27,350 AA individuals, respectively. We identified loci associated with fat distribution in AA individuals using meta-analyses of GWA results for WC and WHR (stage 1. Overall, 25 SNPs with single genomic control (GC-corrected p-values<5.0 × 10(-6 were followed-up (stage 2 in AA with WC and with WHR. Additionally, we interrogated genomic regions of previously identified European ancestry (EA WHR loci among AA. In joint analysis of association results including both Stage 1 and 2 cohorts, 2 SNPs demonstrated association, rs2075064 at LHX2, p = 2.24×10(-8 for WC-adjusted-for-BMI, and rs6931262 at RREB1, p = 2.48×10(-8 for WHR-adjusted-for-BMI. However, neither signal was genome-wide significant after double GC-correction (LHX2: p = 6.5 × 10(-8; RREB1: p = 5.7 × 10(-8. Six of fourteen previously reported loci for waist in EA populations were significant (p<0.05 divided by the number of independent SNPs within the region in AA studied here (TBX15-WARS2, GRB14, ADAMTS9, LY86, RSPO3, ITPR2-SSPN. Further, we observed associations with metabolic traits: rs13389219 at GRB14 associated with HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting insulin, and rs13060013 at ADAMTS9 with HDL-cholesterol and fasting insulin. Finally, we observed nominal evidence for sexual dimorphism, with stronger results in AA women at the GRB14 locus (p for interaction = 0.02. In conclusion, we identified two suggestive loci associated with fat distribution in AA populations in addition to confirming 6 loci previously identified in populations of EA. These findings reinforce the concept

  7. Efficacy of injections of phosphatidylcholine into fat deposits-a non-surgical alternative to liposuction in body-contouring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-G Heinrich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Injecting phosphatidylcholine has been used in South America as a non-surgical treatment in body contouring. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of injecting phosphatidylcholine in the reduction of localised fat deposits. 86 patients were included in the study. Patients received 1-3 treatments in localised fat deposits in various areas of the body using phosphatidylcholine. After treatment with phosphatidylcholine (250 mg / 5 ml, fat deposits show an average circumferential reduction per application of 2.70 cm. No patient showed irregularities, dimples or any serious side effect after treatment. Results remained stable during the time of follow up. All patients showed remarkable reductions of the fat deposits treated with phosphatidylcholine. Using the correct technique, injecting phosphatidylcholine may be a safe and efficacious alternative to liposuction in patients objecting to surgery.

  8. [The solidarity of the human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioy, Xavier

    2014-06-01

    The legal and bioethical regulation of the uses of the elements of the human body can be described by means of the concept of solidarity. From the French example, we can so show that the State tries to frame solidarities which already exist, for example between people who share the same genome, in the family, or, on the contrary, tent to impose or to direct the sharing of the human biological resources (organs, tissues, gametes, stem cell...).

  9. [Relationship between body condition (back fat thickness and body condition scoring) and fertility in dairy cows (German Black Pied/HF)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossen, N; Fietze, S; Mösenfechtel, S; Hoedemaker, M

    2006-05-01

    It was the aim of this study to compare body condition scoring with ultrasonographic back fat thickness. Additionally, the relationship between back fat thickness and fertility, milk yield, number of parity and stage of lactation in dairy cows was examined. Body condition of 211 cows (German Black Pied/HF) was determined by means of ultrasonographic back fat thickness (BFT) and body condition scoring (BCS). The BFT and the BCS were measured at four different stages during the course of lactation (Time point 1 (T1) = 1.-3. d postpartum (pp); T2 = 40.-42. d pp; T3 = 90.-92. d pp and T4 = 130.-150. d pp). Number of parity, 100-day-milk-yield, incidence of ovarian cysts, incidence of acyclicity and fertility measures were recorded. There was a significant correlation between body condition scoring and ultrasonographic measurement of back fat thickness at the four time points (r = 0.68 to 0.74). Therefore, both methods were suitable to evaluate body condition. The number of lactations had an influence on body condition. At T1, the BFT in older cows was significantly higher than in younger cows (P cows was higher than in older cows (P body condition from T1 to T2 and T3. At T4, body condition increased, but did not reach the level of the postcalving values. In addition, cows with a high BFT at the beginning of lactation had a higher milk yield and a higher loss of body fat than cows with lower milk yield. Heifers compensated this loss of body fat significantly faster than older cows. Particularly at T3, body condition had an impact on fertility. Cows with a high loss of body condition between T1 and T3 developed significantly more often ovarian cysts than cows with low loss of back fat thickness. Cows with the lowest BFT at T3 had the longest calving to first service intervall and the highest 200-day-non-pregnancy index. In conclusion, our results suggest that there might be a certain relationship between body condition and fertility (delayed first service, ovarian

  10. Adipose tissue (PRR regulates insulin sensitivity, fat mass and body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulaykho Shamansurova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We previously demonstrated that the handle-region peptide, a prorenin/renin receptor [(PRR] blocker, reduces body weight and fat mass and may improve insulin sensitivity in high-fat fed mice. We hypothesized that knocking out the adipose tissue (PRR gene would prevent weight gain and insulin resistance. Methods: An adipose tissue-specific (PRR knockout (KO mouse was created by Cre-loxP technology using AP2-Cre recombinase mice. Because the (PRR gene is located on the X chromosome, hemizygous males were complete KO and had a more pronounced phenotype on a normal diet (ND diet compared to heterozygous KO females. Therefore, we challenged the female mice with a high-fat diet (HFD to uncover certain phenotypes. Mice were maintained on either diet for 9 weeks. Results: KO mice had lower body weights compared to wild-types (WT. Only hemizygous male KO mice presented with lower total fat mass, higher total lean mass as well as smaller adipocytes compared to WT mice. Although food intake was similar between genotypes, locomotor activity during the active period was increased in both male and female KO mice. Interestingly, only male KO mice had increased O2 consumption and CO2 production during the entire 24-hour period, suggesting an increased basal metabolic rate. Although glycemia during a glucose tolerance test was similar, KO males as well as HFD-fed females had lower plasma insulin and C-peptide levels compared to WT mice, suggesting improved insulin sensitivity. Remarkably, all KO animals exhibited higher circulating adiponectin levels, suggesting that this phenotype can occur even in the absence of a significant reduction in adipose tissue weight, as observed in females and, thus, may be a specific effect related to the (PRR. Conclusions: (PRR may be an important therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity and its associated complications such as type 2 diabetes. Keywords: (Prorenin receptor, Renin-angiotensin system, Adipose

  11. PLTP activity in premenopausal women. Relationship with lipoprotein lipase, HDL, LDL, body fat, and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, S J; Carr, M C; Hokanson, J E; Brunzell, J D; Albers, J J

    2000-02-01

    Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is thought to play a major role in the facilitated transfer of phospholipids between lipoproteins and in the modulation of high density lipoprotein (HDL) particle size and composition. However, little has been reported concerning the relationships of PLTP with plasma lipoprotein parameters, lipolytic enzymes, body fat distribution, insulin, and glucose in normolipidemic individuals, particularly females. In the present study, 50 normolipidemic healthy premenopausal females were investigated. The relationships between the plasma PLTP activity and selected variables were assessed. PLTP activity was significantly and positively correlated with low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (r(s) = 0.53), apoB (r(s) = 0.44), glucose (r(s) = 0.40), HDL cholesterol (r(s) = 0.38), HDL(3) cholesterol (r(s) = 0.37), lipoprotein lipase activity (r(s) = 0.36), insulin (r(s) = 0.33), subcutaneous abdominal fat (r(s) = 0.36), intra-abdominal fat (r(s) = 0.29), and body mass index (r(s) = 0.29). HDL(2) cholesterol, triglyceride, and hepatic lipase were not significantly related to PLTP activity. As HDL(2) can be decreased by hepatic lipase and hepatic lipase is increased in obesity with increasing intra-abdominal fat, the participants were divided into sub-groups of non-obese (n = 35) and obese (n = 15) individuals and the correlation of PLTP with HDL(2) cholesterol was re-examined. In the non-obese subjects, HDL(2) cholesterol was found to be significantly and positively related to PLTP activity (r(s) = 0.44). Adjustment of the HDL(2) values for the effect of hepatic lipase activity resulted in a significant positive correlation between PLTP and HDL(2) (r(s) = 0.41), indicating that the strength of the relationship between PLTP activity and HDL(2) can be reduced by the opposing effect of hepatic lipase on HDL(2) concentrations. We conclude that PLTP-facilitated lipid transfer activity is related to HDL and LDL metabolism, as well as

  12. Attention to fat- and thin-related words in body-satisfied and body-dissatisfied women before and after thin model priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Christopher R.; Zumbusch, Alicia S.; von Ranson, Kristin M.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the cognitive processes underlying body dissatisfaction provides important information on the development and perpetuation of eating pathology. Previous research suggests that body-dissatisfied women process weight-related information differently than body-satisfied women, but the precise nature of these processing differences is not yet understood. In this study, eye-gaze tracking was used to measure attention to weight-related words in body-dissatisfied (n = 40) and body-satisfied (n = 38) women, before and after exposure to images of thin fashion models. Participants viewed 8-second displays containing fat-related, thin-related, and neutral words while their eye fixations were tracked and recorded. Based on previous research and theory, we predicted that body-dissatisfied women would attend to fat-related words more than body-satisfied women and would attend to thin-related words less. It was also predicted that exposure to thin model images would increase self-rated body dissatisfaction and heighten group differences in attention. The results indicated that body-dissatisfied women attended to both fat- and thin-related words more than body-satisfied women and that exposure to thin models did not increase this effect. Implications for cognitive models of eating disorders are discussed. PMID:29447251

  13. Interrelationships of spontaneous growth hormone axis activity, body fat, and serum lipids in healthy elderly women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, K G; Harman, S M; Stevens, T E; Jayme, J J; Bellantoni, M F; Busby-Whitehead, M J; Christmas, C; Münzer, T; Tobin, J D; Roy, T A; Cottrell, E; St Clair, C; Pabst, K M; Blackman, M R

    1999-11-01

    Aging is associated with decreased growth hormone (GH) secretion and plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels, increased total and abdominal fat, total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides, and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Similar changes in lipids and body composition occur in nonelderly GH-deficient adults and are reversed with GH administration. To examine whether GH/IGF-I axis function in the elderly is related to the lipid profile independently of body fat, we evaluated GH secretion, serum IGF-I and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels, adiposity via the body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and circulating lipids in 101 healthy subjects older than 65 years. Integrated nocturnal GH secretion (log IAUPGH) was inversely related (P HDL cholesterol (P HDL cholesterol was inversely related to the WHR (P body fat, to be an independent determinant of total (P HDL cholesterol (P HDL in women (P body fat or lipid measures, except for a positive correlation of IGF-I with triglycerides in men. Thus, endogenous nocturnal GH secretion predicts total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol levels independently of total or abdominal fat, suggesting that it is an independent cardiometabolic risk factor in healthy elderly people.

  14. Body fat in children measured by DXA, air-displacement plethysmography, TBW and multicomponent models: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, Roberta de Vargas; Santos, Iná S; Chrestani, Maria Aurora D; Gigante, Denise Petrucci

    2015-07-01

    To conduct a systematic literature review to identify studies that used indirect methods to assess body fat in healthy children. A systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. We conducted a search in the MEDLINE/PubMed, SciELO and Google Scholar databases. Studies in healthy children aged 0-9 years were eligible for inclusion. Studies were kept or excluded from the review according to eligibility criteria defined a priori. Two independent reviewers conducted all steps in the study selection. Initially, 11,246 articles were retrieved, with 3,593 duplicates. After applying the eligibility criteria, 22 articles were selected for review. The methodology of each study was analyzed by each reviewer individually. The indirect methods used to assess body fat in children included dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (14 articles), air-displacement plethysmography (five articles), multicomponent models (two articles), and total body water (one article). Most studies reported absolute (in kilograms) or relative (percentage) body fat measures. Only seven studies reported the fat mass index (FMI) (kg/m(2)). DXA was the indirect method most frequently used to assess body fat in healthy children. FMI was seldom reported.

  15. Comparison of MRI-assessed body fat content between lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and matched controls: less visceral fat with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolfing, Jacoba G; Stassen, Chrit M; van Haard, Paul M M; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2011-06-01

    BACKGROUND Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder. However, PCOS has a strong resemblance to the metabolic syndrome, including preponderance of visceral fat deposition. The aim of this study is to compare fat distribution between lean women with PCOS and controls matched for body composition but with regular menstrual cycles and proven fertility. METHODS In this prospective cross-sectional study in a fertility outpatient clinic, 10 Caucasian women with PCOS and 10 controls, all with a BMI between 19 and 25 kg/m(2), were included. Fasting glucose, insulin and C-peptide concentrations, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), hormonal levels and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) variables were assessed and fat content and ovarian volume determinations were obtained with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Multiple axial cross-sections were calculated. RESULTS The age of the PCOS and control groups were [mean (SD)] 28.2 years (2.6) versus 33.7 years (2.3) P PCOS cases had higher ovarian volumes and less visceral fat compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS Lean women with PCOS have higher MRI-determined ovarian volumes and less visceral fat content when compared with control women.

  16. Pre-treatment microbial Prevotella-to-Bacteroides ratio, determines body fat loss success during a 6-month randomized controlled diet intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, M F; Roager, Henrik Munch; Larsen, T. M.

    2017-01-01

    Based on the abundance of specific bacterial genera, the human gut microbiota can be divided into two relatively stable groups that might play a role in personalized nutrition. We studied these simplified enterotypes as prognostic markers for successful body fat loss on two different diets. A total....... divided by Bacteroides spp. (P/B ratio) obtained by quantitative PCR analysis. Modifications of dietary effects of pre-treatment P/B group were examined by linear mixed models. Among individuals with high P/B the NND resulted in a 3.15 kg (95%CI 1.55;4.76, Pfat loss compared to ADD...... to lose body fat on diets high in fiber and wholegrain than subjects with a low P/B-ratio....

  17. The relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content and bone marrow adipose tissue in early-pubertal girls

    OpenAIRE

    L Newton, Anna; J Hanks, Lynae; Davis, Michelle; Casazza, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of the physiologic relevance of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) during growth may promote understanding of the bone-fat axis and confluence with metabolic factors. The objective of this pilot investigation was two-fold: (1) to evaluate the relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content (BMC) and femoral BMAT during childhood and underlying metabolic determinants and (2) to determine if the relationships differ by race. Participants included white and non-Hispanic bla...

  18. Human bipedalism and body-mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Su Do; Noh, Jae Dong; Minnhagen, Petter; Song, Mi-Young; Chon, Tae-Soo; Kim, Beom Jun

    2017-06-16

    Body-mass index, abbreviated as BMI and given by M/H 2 with the mass M and the height H, has been widely used as a useful proxy to measure a general health status of a human individual. We generalise BMI in the form of M/H p and pursue to answer the question of the value of p for populations of animal species including human. We compare values of p for several different datasets for human populations with the ones obtained for other animal populations of fish, whales, and land mammals. All animal populations but humans analyzed in our work are shown to have p ≈ 3 unanimously. In contrast, human populations are different: As young infants grow to become toddlers and keep growing, the sudden change of p is observed at about one year after birth. Infants younger than one year old exhibit significantly larger value of p than two, while children between one and five years old show p ≈ 2, sharply different from other animal species. The observation implies the importance of the upright posture of human individuals. We also propose a simple mechanical model for a human body and suggest that standing and walking upright should put a clear division between bipedal human (p ≈ 2) and other animals (p ≈ 3).

  19. DHA supplementation during pregnancy does not reduce BMI or body fat mass in children: follow-up of the DHA to Optimize Mother Infant Outcome randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlhausler, Beverly S; Yelland, Lisa N; McDermott, Robyn; Tapsell, Linda; McPhee, Andrew; Gibson, Robert A; Makrides, Maria

    2016-06-01

    The omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has proven effective at reducing fat storage in animal studies. However, a systematic review of human trials showed a lack of quality data to support or refute this hypothesis. We sought to determine whether maternal DHA supplementation during the second half of pregnancy results in a lower body mass index (BMI) and percentage of body fat in children. We conducted a follow-up at 3 and 5 y of age of children who were born to mothers enrolled in the DOMInO (DHA to Optimize Mother Infant Outcome) double-blind, randomized controlled trial, in which women with a singleton pregnancy were provided with DHA-rich fish-oil capsules (800 mg DHA/d) or vegetable-oil capsules (control group) in the second half of pregnancy. Primary outcomes were the BMI z score and percentage of body fat at 3 and 5 y of age. Potential interactions between prenatal DHA and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) genotype as a measure of the genetic predisposition to obesity were investigated. A total of 1614 children were eligible for the follow-up. Parent or caregiver consent was obtained for 1531 children (95%), and these children were included in the analysis. BMI z scores and percentages of body fat of children in the DHA group did not differ from those of children in the control group at either 3 y of age [BMI z score adjusted mean difference: 0.03 (95% CI: -0.07, 0.13; P = 0.61); percentage of body fat adjusted mean difference: -0.26 (95% CI: -0.99, 0.46; P = 0.47)] or 5 y of age [BMI z score adjusted mean difference: 0.02 (95% CI: -0.08, 0.12; P = 0.66); percentage of body fat adjusted mean difference: 0.11 (95% CI: -0.60, 0.82; P = 0.75)]. No treatment effects were modified by the PPARγ genotype of the child. Independent of a genetic predisposition to obesity, maternal intake of DHA-rich fish oil during the second half of pregnancy does not affect the growth or body composition

  20. More accurate picture of human body organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, J.

    1985-01-01

    Computerized tomography and nucler magnetic resonance tomography (NMRT) are revolutionary contributions to radiodiagnosis because they allow to obtain a more accurate image of human body organs. The principles are described of both methods. Attention is mainly devoted to NMRT which has clinically only been used for three years. It does not burden the organism with ionizing radiation. (Ha)

  1. Visuals and Visualisation of Human Body Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, Sindhu; Ramadas, Jayashree

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the role of diagrams and text in middle school students' understanding and visualisation of human body systems. We develop a common framework based on structure and function to assess students' responses across diagram and verbal modes. Visualisation is defined in terms of understanding transformations on structure and relating…

  2. Mathematical human body modelling for impact loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Happee, R.; Morsink, P.L.J.; Wismans, J.S.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Mathematical modelling of the human body is widely used for automotive crash safety research and design. Simulations have contributed to a reduction of injury numbers by optimisation of vehicle structures and restraint systems. Currently such simulations are largely performed using occupant models

  3. Analysis of time-dependent adaptations in whole-body energy balance in obesity induced by high-fat diet in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghdoori Babak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-fat (HF diet has been extensively used as a model to study metabolic disorders of human obesity in rodents. However, the adaptive whole-body metabolic responses that drive the development of obesity with chronically feeding a HF diet are not fully understood. Therefore, this study investigated the physiological mechanisms by which whole-body energy balance and substrate partitioning are adjusted in the course of HF diet-induced obesity. Methods Male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum either a standard or a HF diet for 8 weeks. Food intake (FI and body weight were monitored daily, while oxygen consumption, respiratory exchange ratio, physical activity, and energy expenditure (EE were assessed weekly. At week 8, fat mass and lean body mass (LBM, fatty acid oxidation and uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1 content in brown adipose tissue (BAT, as well as acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC content in liver and epidydimal fat were measured. Results Within 1 week of ad libitum HF diet, rats were able to spontaneously reduce FI to precisely match energy intake of control rats, indicating that alterations in dietary energy density were rapidly detected and FI was self-regulated accordingly. Oxygen consumption was higher in HF than controls throughout the study as whole-body fat oxidation also progressively increased. In HF rats, EE initially increased, but then reduced as dark cycle ambulatory activity reached values ~38% lower than controls. No differences in LBM were detected; however, epidydimal, inguinal, and retroperitoneal fat pads were 1.85-, 1.89-, and 2.54-fold larger in HF-fed than control rats, respectively. Plasma leptin was higher in HF rats than controls throughout the study, indicating the induction of leptin resistance by HF diet. At week 8, UCP-1 content and palmitate oxidation in BAT were 3.1- and 1.5-fold higher in HF rats than controls, respectively, while ACC content in liver and epididymal fat was markedly reduced

  4. Energy Generation in the Human Body by the Human Cells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We adapted the thermodynamics equation for energy generation in a diesel engine in modeling energy generation in human body by the human cells by doing a thorough study on both systems and saw that the process of energy generation is the same in them. We equally saw that the stages involved in energy generation ...

  5. A Single Day of Excessive Dietary Fat Intake Reduces Whole-Body Insulin Sensitivity: The Metabolic Consequence of Binge Eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siôn A. Parry

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Consuming excessive amounts of energy as dietary fat for several days or weeks can impair glycemic control and reduce insulin sensitivity in healthy adults. However, individuals who demonstrate binge eating behavior overconsume for much shorter periods of time; the metabolic consequences of such behavior remain unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a single day of high-fat overfeeding on whole-body insulin sensitivity. Fifteen young, healthy adults underwent an oral glucose tolerance test before and after consuming a high-fat (68% of total energy, high-energy (78% greater than daily requirements diet for one day. Fasting and postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids, and triglyceride were measured and the Matsuda insulin sensitivity index was calculated. One day of high-fat overfeeding increased postprandial glucose area under the curve (AUC by 17.1% (p < 0.0001 and insulin AUC by 16.4% (p = 0.007. Whole-body insulin sensitivity decreased by 28% (p = 0.001. In conclusion, a single day of high-fat, overfeeding impaired whole-body insulin sensitivity in young, healthy adults. This highlights the rapidity with which excessive consumption of calories through high-fat food can impair glucose metabolism, and suggests that acute binge eating may have immediate metabolic health consequences for the individual.

  6. DEXA measures of body fat percentage and acute phase proteins among breast cancer survivors: a Cross-Sectional Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dee, Anne; Bernstein, Leslie; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Neuhouser, Marian L; Ulrich, Cornelia; Baumgartner, Richard N; McTiernan, Anne; Baumgartner, Kathy; Alfano, Catherine M; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) and Serum amyloid A protein (SAA) increases with systemic inflammation and are related to worse survival for breast cancer survivors. This study examines the association between percent body fat and SAA and CRP and the potential interaction with NSAID use and weight change. Participants included 134 non-Hispanic white and Hispanic breast cancer survivors from the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle Study. Body fat percentage, measured with Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometer (DEXA), and circulating levels of CRP and SAA were obtained 30 months after breast cancer diagnosis. Circulating concentrations of CRP and SAA were associated with increased adiposity as measured by DEXA after adjustment for age at 24-months, race/ethnicity, dietary energy intake, weight change, and NSAID use. Survivors with higher body fat ≥35% had significantly higher concentrations of CRP (2.01 mg/l vs. 0.85 mg/l) and SAA (6.21 mg/l vs. 4.21 mg/l) compared to non-obese (body fat < 35%). Women who had gained more than 5% of their body weight since breast cancer diagnosis had non-statistically significant higher geometric mean levels of CRP and SAA. Mean levels of CRP and SAA were higher among obese women who were non-users of NSAIDs compared to current users; the association with SAA reached statistical significance (Mean SAA = 7.24, 95%CI 6.13-8.56 for non-NSAID; vs. 4.87; 95%CI 3.95-6.0 for NSAID users respectively). Breast cancer survivors with higher body fat had higher mean concentrations of CRP and SAA than women with lower body fat. Further assessment of NSAID use and weight control in reducing circulating inflammatory markers among survivors may be worthwhile to investigate in randomized intervention trials as higher inflammatory markers are associated with worse survival

  7. Measurement of Radioactivity in the Human Body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, I Oe; Nilsson, I

    1960-12-15

    A body counter with a steel room and a 4-inch-diameter by 4-inch thick Nal scintillation counter has been in operation since February 1958. It is used to control the internal contamination in people working with radioactive materials. Measurements have also been made on the natural activity in the human body. The average cesium-137/potassium ratio in a group of Swedish males was in May 1959 73 {mu}{mu}c per gram of body potassium and in June 1960 55 {mu}{mu}c per gram of body potassium. The cessation of the nuclear bomb tests has caused a decrease in the cesium level in people. This gives some information of how cesium is entering the biosphere.

  8. Measurement of Radioactivity in the Human Body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, I.Oe.; Nilsson, I.

    1960-12-01

    A body counter with a steel room and a 4-inch-diameter by 4-inch thick Nal scintillation counter has been in operation since February 1958. It is used to control the internal contamination in people working with radioactive materials. Measurements have also been made on the natural activity in the human body. The average cesium-137/potassium ratio in a group of Swedish males was in May 1959 73 μμc per gram of body potassium and in June 1960 55 μμc per gram of body potassium. The cessation of the nuclear bomb tests has caused a decrease in the cesium level in people. This gives some information of how cesium is entering the biosphere

  9. Scandinavian Semantics and the Human Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    , it is demonstrated that Scandinavian and English systems differ significantly in some aspects of the way in which the construe the human body with words. The study ventures an innovative combination of methods, pairing the Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM) approach to linguistic and conceptual analysis......This paper presents an ethnolinguistic analysis of how the space between the head and the body is construed in Scandinavian semantic systems vis-a-vis the semantic system of English. With an extensive case study of neck-related meanings in Danish, and with cross-Scandinavian reference...... with empirical evidence from the Evolution of Semantic Systems (EoSS) project. This combination of empirical and interpretative tools helps to integrate evidence from semantics and semiotics, pinning out in great detail the intricacies of the meanings of particular body words. The paper concludes that body words...

  10. The effect of mannan oligosaccharide supplementation on body weight gain and fat accrual in C57Bl/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel L; Nagy, Tim R; Wilson, Landon S; Dong, Shengli; Barnes, Stephen; Allison, David B

    2010-05-01

    The prevalence of obesity in industrialized societies has become markedly elevated. In contrast, model organism research shows that reducing caloric intake below ad libitum levels provides many health and longevity benefits. Despite these benefits, few people are willing and able to reduce caloric intake over prolonged periods. Prior research suggests that mannooligosaccharide (MOS or mannan) supplementation can increase lifespan of some livestock and in rodents can reduce visceral fat without reducing caloric intake. Hence, we tested the effect of MOS supplementation as a possible calorie restriction (CR) mimetic (CRM) in mice. C57Bl/6J male mice were fed a high-fat "western" type diet with or without 1% MOS (by weight) supplementation (n = 24/group) from 8 to 20 weeks of age. Animals were housed individually and provided 95% of ad libitum food intake throughout the study. Body weight was measured weekly and body composition (lean and fat mass) measured noninvasively every 3 weeks. Individual fat depot weights were acquired by dissection at study completion. Supplementation of a high-fat diet with 1% MOS tended to reduce total food intake (mean +/- s.d.; control (CON): 293.69 +/- 10.53 g, MOS: 288.10 +/- 11.82 g; P = 0.09) during the study. Moreover, MOS supplementation had no significant effect on final body weight (CON: 25.21 +/- 2.31 g, MOS: 25.28 +/- 1.49 g; P = 0.91), total fat (CON: 4.72 +/- 0.90 g, MOS: 4.82 +/- 0.83 g; P = 0.69), or visceral fat (CON: 1.048 +/- 0.276 g, MOS: 1.004 +/- 0.247 g; P = 0.57). Contrary to previous research, MOS supplementation had no discernable effect on body weight gain or composition during this 12-week study, challenging the potential use of MOS as a CRM or body composition enhancer.

  11. Human body as a food for sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Luiz de Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article depicts a theoretical walk, based on a historical and cultural narrative, that presents the body as a central element in the formatting and construction of human sexuality. Such walk intuits to show some projections, thoughts and materialization which ascertained the physical beauty as a promoter of desires, intentions and erotic feelings, in favor of an announced sexuality and common sense as ideal. The objective was also discuss, how the physical body aesthetic has been the driving force for configuring standard discourses on sexuality, distorting the idea that only the similar bodies to the hegemonic body models can be considered as object of desire, pleasure, and sexual and erotic practices. Finally, it learns that the body can also be admitted as an instrument to subvert the predetermined logic that body, beauty and sexual practices appear to form a triad in favor of the myth of perfect or performative sexuality. As the bodies (all of them has been recognized by the community as promoters of pleasures, desires and foundation for effective practices and sexual/erotic routines, regardless of their physiological, anatomical and aesthetic formatting.

  12. Rapid determination of vertebral fat fraction over a large range of vertebral bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Jarad; Nicholson, Geoffrey; Cowin, Gary; Ilente, Clare; Wong, Winnie; Kennedy, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral body fat fraction (FF) has been found to vary between lumbar vertebrae using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). We aim to more quickly assess a larger number of adjacent vertebrae using a single T2-weighted iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) sequence. Five men had dual-energy X-ray absorptometry (DEXA) and 1.5-T MR scans performed. MRS was performed at L3, and a sagittal IDEAL sequence was also performed, resulting in separate fat-only and water-only readings from T10 to S2. For the IDEAL measurements, two independent observers followed a set reading protocol, with five observations each per vertebra. Intra- and interobserver variability were assessed as deviations from the mean within and between observers, respectively. For FF measurements there was limited intra-observer variation, with observers being on average within 3.4% of the pooled mean value. Similarly, there was good interobserver agreement, with an average variation of 2.1%. All men showed a reduction in FF of 1.6–7% between L5 and S1. Otherwise, there was a trend of increasing FF moving inferiorly from T10 to S2. This averaged 2.7% per vertebra (range 1.1–3.8%) and may not have been dependent on MRS-measured FF at the L3 level. There was poor correlation between MRS-measured FF at L2–4 and bone mineral density measured using DEXA (R2=0.06). IDEAL measurements are generally reproducible between observers following a set protocol. There appears to be a gradient in FF moving from T10 to S2, with S1 showing a consistent decrease. This variation may better describe overall marrow function than a single-vertebra reading.

  13. Effects of different circuit training protocols on body mass, fat mass and blood parameters in overweight adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Contrò

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Benefits of exercise are known for a long time, but mechanisms underlying the exercise mode recommendations for specific chronic cardiovascular diseases remain unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different circuit training protocols in order to determine which is the best for weight loss and for specific overweight- related disorders. Forty-five female sedentary overweight participants from 20 to 50 years (average 31.8±11.2 were enrolled and assigned to three different groups; each group was compared with a control normal-weight group. Three different circuit protocols were randomly assigned to each overweight group: aerobictone- aerobic (ATA, aerobic-circuit-aerobic (ACA and mini-trampoline circuit (MTC, while control group performed a classic circuit weight training (CWT. Every group trained three times per week, for 12 weeks. The results show that ATA group reduced body fat and total body mass more than other groups (P<0.001; P=0.007. ACA group reduced total body mass in significant statistical way (P=0.032, as well as body fat (P<0.001 and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.013. In MTC group there was a significant reduction in every parameter we analyzed (total body mass, body fat and lipid profile: P<0.001. CWT group has shown a significant loss only in body fat (P<0.001. Every circuit protocol is optimal for reducing body fat and total body mass: however, MTC protocol has shown the best results on lipid profile.

  14. [Microbiota and representations of the human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodet, Betty

    2016-11-01

    Although the presence of an intestinal flora has been known for a long time, the discovery of the role of gut microbiota in human health and disease has been widely recognized as one of the most important advances in the recent years. Chronic diseases may result from dysbiosis, i.e. a disruption of the balance within the bacterial population hosted by the human body. These developments open new prospects in terms of prevention and treatment, including the design of adapted diets, the development of functional foods and fecal transplantation. These discoveries have profoundly altered our view of microbes, of health and disease, of self and non-self, as well as our representations of the body and its relationship with its ecosystem. Gut microbiota is now generally considered as an organ in its own right. A model of the "microbiotic person" thus arises, in which the human organism is defined as an ecosystem, a chimeric superorganism with a double genome, both human and microbial. Thought should be given to the way in which these new paradigms modify lay perceptions of the human body. © 2016 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  15. Dietary pattern associated with selenoprotein P and MRI-derived body fat volumes, liver signal intensity, and metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Giuseppe, Romina; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra; Koch, Manja; Nöthlings, Ute; Schlesinger, Sabrina; Borggrefe, Jan; Both, Marcus; Müller, Hans-Peter; Kassubek, Jan; Jacobs, Gunnar; Lieb, Wolfgang

    2018-02-14

    The association of complex dietary patterns with circulating selenoprotein P (SELENOP) levels in humans is unknown. In a general population sample, we aimed to identify a dietary pattern explaining inter-individual variation in circulating SELENOP concentrations and to study this pattern in relation to prevalent diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MetS), MRI-determined total volumes of visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) abdominal adipose tissue, and liver signal intensity/fatty liver disease. In this cross-sectional study, serum SELENOP levels were measured in 853 individuals. In a subsample of 553 participants, whole-body MRI was performed to assess body fat distribution and liver fat. Dietary intake was assessed by a self-administered food frequency questionnaire and the dietary pattern identified using reduced-rank regression (RRR). Multivariable linear and logistic regressions were used to investigate associations between dietary pattern score and metabolic traits. Characterized by high intake of fruit, vegetables and antioxidant beverages, the RRR-derived dietary pattern displayed inverse associations with VAT, SAT, MetS, and prevalent diabetes in multivariable-adjusted restricted cubic splines. Each unit increase in dietary pattern score was associated with 31% higher SELENOP levels, 12% lower VAT (95% CI: - 19%; - 5%), 13% (95% CI: - 20%; - 6%) lower SAT values and 46% (95% CI: 27%; 60%) and 53% (95% CI: 22%; 72%) lower odds of having MetS or diabetes, respectively. No meaningful relations were observed between the dietary pattern and liver traits. Our observations propose diet-related regulation in SELENOP levels and that the identified dietary pattern is inversely related to VAT, SAT, MetS, and prevalent diabetes.

  16. Effects of Yogurt Containing Fermented Pepper Juice on the Body Fat and Cholesterol Level in High Fat and High Cholesterol Diet Fed Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Su-Jung; Hong, Go-Eun; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Park, Woo Joon; Kim, Soo-Ki; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This experiment investigated whether yogurt containing fermented pepper juice (FPJY) affects cholesterol level in high fat and high cholesterol diet (HFCD) fed rat. Twenty five Sprague-Dawley male rats of 7 wk were divided into 5 groups, and fed following diets for 9 wk; CON (control diet), HFCD (HFCD), PY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of plain yogurt), LFY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of FPJY), and HFY (HFCD supplemented with 5% of FPJY). In the LFY group, hepatic total lipid level decreased significantly compared to the HFCD group (p0.05). In HFY group, body weight and hepatic total lipid level significantly decreased over the HFCD group (p0.05). Liver weight decreased as FPJY content was increased. Results suggested FPJY would inhibit organ hypertrophy and accumulation of body fat, hepatic lipid, and cholesterol in HFCD fed rat.

  17. Postpartum maternal fat distribution and its association with offspring body fat through the first year of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal obesity is known to increase the risk of offspring obesity. Despite the evidence supporting the impact of maternal obesity on infant health, there are no studies examining the effects of maternal fat distribution on the programming of offspring obesity. We hypothesized that increased matern...

  18. Gender differences and age-related changes in body fat mass in Tibetan children and teenagers: an analysis by the bioelectrical impedance method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Long; Fu, Qiang; Li, Wen-Hui; Liu, Su-Wei; Zhong, Hua; Duoji, Bai-Ma; Zhang, Mei-Zhi; Lv, Po; Xi, Huan-Jiu

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to obtain the fat base value and the fat distribution characteristics of Tibetan children and teenagers by estimating their body fat content with the bioelectrical impedance method. We recruited 1427 healthy children and teenagers by a stratified cluster sampling method. By using bioelectrical impedance analysis, we obtained various values relevant to fat. We found that total body fat mass and the fat mass of various body parts increased with age in boys and girls. Yet there were no differences between age groups until 11 years. However, fat mass increased quickly between 11 and 18 years, and significant differences were seen between adolescent boys and girls; all fat indices were higher in girls than in boys (pfat in Tibetan children and teenagers in Tibet is related to age and gender related hormone secretion, which reflects the physiological characteristics in different developmental stages.

  19. Intermittent fasting reduces body fat but exacerbates hepatic insulin resistance in young rats regardless of high protein and fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Yoo, Kyung Min; Hyun, Joo Suk; Kang, Suna

    2017-02-01

    Intermittent fasting (IMF) is a relatively new dietary approach to weight management, although the efficacy and adverse effects have not been full elucidated and the optimal diets for IMF are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that a one-meal-per-day intermittent fasting with high fat (HF) or protein (HP) diets can modify energy, lipid, and glucose metabolism in normal young male Sprague-Dawley rats with diet-induced obesity or overweight. Male rats aged 5 weeks received either HF (40% fat) or HP (26% protein) diets ad libitum (AL) or for 3 h at the beginning of the dark cycle (IMF) for 5 weeks. Epidydimal fat pads and fat deposits in the leg and abdomen were lower with HP and IMF. Energy expenditure at the beginning of the dark cycle, especially from fat oxidation, was higher with IMF than AL, possibly due to greater activity levels. Brown fat content was higher with IMF. Serum ghrelin levels were higher in HP-IMF than other groups, and accordingly, cumulative food intake was also higher in HP-IMF than HF-IMF. HF-IMF exhibited higher area under the curve (AUC) of serum glucose at the first part (0-40 min) during oral glucose tolerance test, whereas AUC of serum insulin levels in both parts were higher in IMF and HF. During intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test, serum glucose levels were higher with IMF than AL. Consistently, hepatic insulin signaling (GLUT2, pAkt) was attenuated and PEPCK expression was higher with IMF and HF than other groups, and HOMA-IR revealed significantly impaired attenuated insulin sensitivity in the IMF groups. However, surprisingly, hepatic and skeletal muscle glycogen storage was higher in IMF groups than AL. The higher glycogen storage in the IMF groups was associated with the lower expression of glycogen phosphorylase than the AL groups. In conclusion, IMF especially with HF increased insulin resistance, possibly by attenuating hepatic insulin signaling, and lowered glycogen phosphorylase expression despite decreased fat mass in young

  20. New Insight into Fat, Muscle and Bone Relationship in Women: Determining the Threshold at Which Body Fat Assumes Negative Relationship with Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Although LM has strong positive relationship with BMD, FM above 33% in overweight/obese women is negatively related to BMD of most skeletal sites. Therefore, overweight/obesity after certain amount of FM, may not be a protective factor against osteoporosis in females. For clinical practice in women, it is important to maintain LM and keep FM accrual below ~30% body fat to maintain good skeletal health.

  1. Polyphenolic extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa reduces body fat by inhibiting hepatic lipogenesis and preadipocyte adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Erl-Shyh; Yang, Mon-Yuan; Hung, Chia-Hung; Huang, Chien-Ning; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Diets high in fat lead to excess lipid accumulation in adipose tissue, which is a crucial factor in the development of obesity, hepatitis, and hyperlipidemia. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (HSE) in vivo. Hamsters fed a high-fat diet (HFD) develop symptoms of obesity, which were determined based on body weight changes and changes in plasma and serum triglycerides, free fatty acid concentrations, total cholesterol levels, LDL-C levels, HDL-C levels, and adipocyte tissue weight. HFD-fed hamsters were used to investigate the effects of HSE on symptoms of obesity such as adipogenesis and fatty liver, loss of blood glucose regulation, and serum ion imbalance. Interestingly, HSE treatment effectively reduced the effects of the HFD in hamsters in a dose-dependent manner. Further, after inducing maturation of preadipocytes, Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenolic extract (HPE) was shown to suppress the adipogenesis of adipocytes. However, HPE does not affect the viability of preadipocytes. Therefore, both HSE and HPE are effective and viable treatment strategies for preventing the development and treating the symptoms of obesity.

  2. BDA-410 Treatment Reduces Body Weight and Fat Content by Enhancing Lipolysis in Sedentary Senescent Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Andrea S; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, Maria Laura; Zhang, Tan; Wu, Hanzhi; Register, Thomas C; Forbes, Elizabeth; Devarie-Baez, Nelmi O; Files, Daniel Clark; Abba, Martin C; Furdui, Cristina; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2017-08-01

    Loss of muscle mass and force with age leads to fall risk, mobility impairment, and reduced quality of life. This article shows that BDA-410, a calpain inhibitor, induced loss of body weight and fat but not lean mass or skeletal muscle proteins in a cohort of sedentary 23-month-old mice. Food and water intake and locomotor activity were not modified, whereas BDA-410 treatment decreased intramyocellular lipid and perigonadal fat, increased serum nonesterified fatty acids, and upregulated the genes mediating lipolysis and oxidation, lean phenotype, muscle contraction, muscle transcription regulation, and oxidative stress response. This finding is consistent with our recent report that lipid accumulation in skeletal myofibers is significantly correlated with slower fiber-contraction kinetics and diminished power in obese older adult mice. A proteomic analysis and immunoblot showed downregulation of the phosphatase PPP1R12B, which increases phosphorylated myosin half-life and modulates the calcium sensitivity of the contractile apparatus. This study demonstrates that BDA-410 exerts a beneficial effect on skeletal muscle contractility through new, alternative mechanisms, including enhanced lipolysis, upregulation of "lean phenotype-related genes," downregulation of the PP1R12B phosphatase, and enhanced excitation-contraction coupling. This single compound holds promise for treating age-dependent decline in muscle composition and strength. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Waist Circumference Adjusted for Body Mass Index and Intra-Abdominal Fat Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Ängquist, Lars; Kotronen, Anna; Borra, Ronald; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Iozzo, Patricia; Parkkola, Riitta; Nuutila, Pirjo; Ross, Robert; Allison, David B.; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Overvad, Kim; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2012-01-01

    Background The association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality is particularly strong and direct when adjusted for body mass index (BMI). One conceivable explanation for this association is that WC adjusted for BMI is a better predictor of the presumably most harmful intra-abdominal fat mass (IAFM) than WC alone. We studied the prediction of abdominal subcutaneous fat mass (ASFM) and IAFM by WC alone and by addition of BMI as an explanatory factor. Methodology/Principal Findings WC, BMI and magnetic resonance imaging data from 742 men and women who participated in clinical studies in Canada and Finland were pooled. Total adjusted squared multiple correlation coefficients (R2) of ASFM and IAFM were calculated from multiple linear regression models with WC and BMI as explanatory variables. Mean BMI and WC of the participants in the pooled sample were 30 kg/m2 and 102 cm, respectively. WC explained 29% of the variance in ASFM and 51% of the variance in IAFM. Addition of BMI to WC added 28% to the variance explained in ASFM, but only 1% to the variance explained in IAFM. Results in subgroups stratified by study center, sex, age, obesity level and type 2 diabetes status were not systematically different. Conclusion/Significance The prediction of IAFM by WC is not improved by addition of BMI. PMID:22384179

  4. Stretch sensors for human body motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ben; Gisby, Todd; Anderson, Iain A.

    2014-03-01

    Sensing motion of the human body is a difficult task. From an engineers' perspective people are soft highly mobile objects that move in and out of complex environments. As well as the technical challenge of sensing, concepts such as comfort, social intrusion, usability, and aesthetics are paramount in determining whether someone will adopt a sensing solution or not. At the same time the demands for human body motion sensing are growing fast. Athletes want feedback on posture and technique, consumers need new ways to interact with augmented reality devices, and healthcare providers wish to track recovery of a patient. Dielectric elastomer stretch sensors are ideal for bridging this gap. They are soft, flexible, and precise. They are low power, lightweight, and can be easily mounted on the body or embedded into clothing. From a commercialisation point of view stretch sensing is easier than actuation or generation - such sensors can be low voltage and integrated with conventional microelectronics. This paper takes a birds-eye view of the use of these sensors to measure human body motion. A holistic description of sensor operation and guidelines for sensor design will be presented to help technologists and developers in the space.

  5. Differences in body fat and central adiposity between Swedes and European immigrants: the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmann, P H; Lissner, L; Gullberg, B; Berglund, G

    2000-12-01

    Comparative data on ecological differences in body fatness and fat distribution within Europe are sparse. Migration studies may provide information on the impact of environmental factors on body size in different populations. The objective was to investigate differences in adiposity between European immigrants and native Swedes, specifically to examine gender differences and the effect of time since immigration, and to compare two selected immigrant groups with their native countrymen. A cross-sectional analysis of 27,808 adults aged 45 to 73 years participating in the Malmö Diet and Cancer prospective cohort study in Sweden was performed. Percentage body fat (impedance analysis) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were compared between Swedish-born and foreign-born participants. Obesity was 40% more prevalent in non-Swedish Europeans compared with Swedes. Controlling for age, height, smoking, physical activity, and occupation, it was found that women born in the former Yugoslavia, southern Europe, Hungary, and Finland had a significantly higher percentage of body fat, and those from Hungary, Poland, and Germany had more centralized adiposity compared with Swedish women. Men born in the former Yugoslavia, Hungary, and Denmark had a significantly higher mean percentage of body fat compared with Swedish-born men, whereas Yugoslavian, Finnish, and German men differed significantly in mean WHR. Length of residence in Sweden was inversely associated with central adiposity in immigrants. A comparison between German and Danish immigrants, their respective native populations, and Swedes indicated an intermediate positioning of German immigrants with regard to body mass index and WHR. Differences in general and central adiposity by country of origin appear to remain after migration. Central adiposity seems to be more influenced than fatness per se by time of residency in Sweden.

  6. Prostaglandins - universal biological regulators in the human body (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. V. Tymoshchuk

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers of different industries pay great attention to the problem of prostaglandins. Objective: to study and systematize the basic questions of structure, biological action and metabolism of prostaglandins in the human body and using their analogues in pharmacy through the domestic and foreign literature data analysis. Prostaglandins – biologically active substances which are similar in effect to hormones, but are synthesized in cells of different tissues. Prostaglandins as universal cellular mediators are widely distributed in the body, synthesized in small amounts in almost all tissues, have both local and systemic effects. For each prostaglandin there is a target organ. On chemical structure they are small molecules related to eicosanoids - a group of fat-like substances (lipids. Depending on the chemical structure prostaglandins are divided into series (A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I and J and three groups (1–3; type F isomers are to be indicated by additional letters α and β. Prostaglandins have an extremely wide range of physiological effects in the body and have three main functions: supporting, molecular, neurotransmitter. Most prostaglandins interact with specific receptors of plasma membranes, but some prostaglandins (group A can act without receptors. There is no stock of prostaglandins in the body, their life cycle is short, and they are quickly produced in response to biological stimulants exposure, have their effect in extremely small quantity and are rapidly inactivated in the bloodstream. Due to the extremely rapid breakdown of prostaglandins in the body they work near their place of secretion. Preparations of prostaglandins and their derivatives are used in experimental and clinical medicine for abortion and induction of labor, treatment of stomach ulcers, asthma, certain heart diseases, congenital heart defects in newborns, glaucoma, atherosclerosis, rheumatic and neurological diseases, kidney diseases, diabetes

  7. Long-term vegetarians have low oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Cho, Sang Woon; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2012-04-01

    Excessive oxidative stress and abnormal blood lipids may cause chronic diseases. This risk can be reduced by consuming an antioxidant- and fiber-rich vegetarian diet. We compared biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and lipid profiles of sex- and age-matched long-term vegetarians and omnivores in Korea. Forty-five vegetarians (23 men and 22 women; mean age, 49.5 ± 5.3 years), who had maintained a vegetarian diet for a minimum of 15 years, and 30 omnivores (15 men and 15 women; mean age, 48.9 ± 3.6 years) participated in this study. Their 1-day, 24-h recall, and 2-day dietary records were analyzed. Oxidative stress was measured by the levels of diacron reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM). Antioxidant status was determined by the biological antioxidant potential (BAP) and levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. We observed that vegetarians had a significantly lower body fat percentage (21.6 ± 6.4%) than that of omnivores (25.4 ± 4.6%; P vegetarians than those in omnivores (331.82 ± 77.96 and 375.80 ± 67.26 Carratelli units; P vegetarians and omnivores were 173.73 ± 31.42 mg/dL and 193.17 ± 37.89 mg/dL, respectively (P vegetarians and omnivores, respectively, indicating that vegetarians had significantly lower lipid levels. Thus, oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels were lower in long-term vegetarians than those in omnivores.

  8. Long-lasting improvements in liver fat and metabolism despite body weight regain after dietary weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufe, Sven; Haas, Verena; Utz, Wolfgang; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Jeran, Stephanie; Böhnke, Jana; Mähler, Anja; Luft, Friedrich C; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Boschmann, Michael; Jordan, Jens; Engeli, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    Weight loss reduces abdominal and intrahepatic fat, thereby improving metabolic and cardiovascular risk. Yet, many patients regain weight after successful diet-induced weight loss. Long-term changes in abdominal and liver fat, along with liver test results and insulin resistance, are not known. We analyzed 50 overweight to obese subjects (46 ± 9 years of age; BMI, 32.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2; women, 77%) who had participated in a 6-month hypocaloric diet and were randomized to either reduced carbohydrates or reduced fat content. Before, directly after diet, and at an average of 24 (range, 17-36) months follow-up, we assessed body fat distribution by magnetic resonance imaging and markers of liver function and insulin resistance. Body weight decreased with diet but had increased again at follow-up. Subjects also partially regained abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. In contrast, intrahepatic fat decreased with diet and remained reduced at follow-up (7.8 ± 9.8% [baseline], 4.5 ± 5.9% [6 months], and 4.7 ± 5.9% [follow-up]). Similar patterns were observed for markers of liver function, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and hepatic insulin resistance. Changes in intrahepatic fat und intrahepatic function were independent of macronutrient composition during intervention and were most effective in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease at baseline. A 6-month hypocaloric diet induced improvements in hepatic fat, liver test results, and insulin resistance despite regaining of weight up to 2 years after the active intervention. Body weight and adiposity measurements may underestimate beneficial long-term effects of dietary interventions.

  9. Long-Lasting Improvements in Liver Fat and Metabolism Despite Body Weight Regain After Dietary Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufe, Sven; Haas, Verena; Utz, Wolfgang; Birkenfeld, Andreas L.; Jeran, Stephanie; Böhnke, Jana; Mähler, Anja; Luft, Friedrich C.; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Boschmann, Michael; Jordan, Jens; Engeli, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Weight loss reduces abdominal and intrahepatic fat, thereby improving metabolic and cardiovascular risk. Yet, many patients regain weight after successful diet-induced weight loss. Long-term changes in abdominal and liver fat, along with liver test results and insulin resistance, are not known. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed 50 overweight to obese subjects (46 ± 9 years of age; BMI, 32.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2; women, 77%) who had participated in a 6-month hypocaloric diet and were randomized to either reduced carbohydrates or reduced fat content. Before, directly after diet, and at an average of 24 (range, 17–36) months follow-up, we assessed body fat distribution by magnetic resonance imaging and markers of liver function and insulin resistance. RESULTS Body weight decreased with diet but had increased again at follow-up. Subjects also partially regained abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. In contrast, intrahepatic fat decreased with diet and remained reduced at follow-up (7.8 ± 9.8% [baseline], 4.5 ± 5.9% [6 months], and 4.7 ± 5.9% [follow-up]). Similar patterns were observed for markers of liver function, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and hepatic insulin resistance. Changes in intrahepatic fat und intrahepatic function were independent of macronutrient composition during intervention and were most effective in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease at baseline. CONCLUSIONS A 6-month hypocaloric diet induced improvements in hepatic fat, liver test results, and insulin resistance despite regaining of weight up to 2 years after the active intervention. Body weight and adiposity measurements may underestimate beneficial long-term effects of dietary interventions. PMID:23963894

  10. EFFECT OF ADDING AN EXERCISE REGIMEN TO DIET THERAPY IN DECREASING BODY FAT PERCENTAGE AND BODY MASS INDEX AMONG OBESE FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeena Haneefa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Obesity is one among the leading health problems in many developing countries including India. Lifestyle modifications, which include diet therapy and regular exercises are considered as the mainstay in the management of this health issue. Brisk walking is the preferred socially and economically acceptable mode of exercise. This randomised controlled trial tries to evaluate the efficacy of adding an exercise regimen to diet therapy in reducing body fat percentage and Body Mass Index (BMI among obese females. MATERIALS AND METHODS One hundred female patients aged between 20 and 60 years with BMI greater than 25 were recruited for this study of 6 months duration. Participants were randomised into either diet therapy alone group or diet therapy with exercise group. All participants were prescribed a low-calorie diet of 1500 kcal per day. The exercise intervention group was subjected to a home-based exercise regimen; walking for 30 minutes 5 days a week. Outcomes were measured by BMI and body fat percentage, documented every month. RESULTS Both groups showed significant reduction in body fat percentage and BMI, but the reduction was more in the exercise with diet therapy group (p value <0.001. CONCLUSION Adding a simple exercise like walking to other lifestyle modification measures can more efficiently bring down BMI and body fat percentage in turn significantly reducing the cardiovascular risk, morbidity and mortality in women.

  11. Supplementing five-point body condition score with body fat percentage increases the sensitivity for assessing overweight status of small to medium sized dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arai T

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Gebin Li,1 Peter Lee,1 Nobuko Mori,1 Ichiro Yamamoto,1 Koh Kawasumi,1 Hisao Tanabe,2 Toshiro Arai11Department of Veterinary Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, 2Komazawa Animal Hospital, Tokyo, JapanBackground and methods: Currently, five-point body condition scoring (BCS is widely used by veterinarians and clinicians to assess adiposity in dogs in Japan. However, BCS score assignment is subjective in nature, and most clinicians do not score with half points, instead preferring to round off values, thereby rendering less accurate assessments. Therefore, we sought to determine whether assessing body fat percentage using simple morphometric measurements and supplementing this with five-point BCS can have increased sensitivity for detecting increasing adiposity in overweight small-medium sized dog breeds via plasma metabolite validation.Results: Overall, lean body fat percentage was determined to be 15%–22% for male (non-neutered/neutered dogs and 15%–25% for female (nonspayed/spayed. Dogs categorized as overweight by BCS had significantly higher levels of nonesterified fatty acids (P = 0.005, whereas animals categorized as overweight by BCS + body fat percentage were observed to have significantly higher levels of nonesterified fatty acids (P = 0.006, total cholesterol (P = 0.029, and triglycerides (P = 0.001 than lean animals. The increased sensitivity due to body fat percentage for gauging alterations in plasma metabolite levels may be due to increased correlation strength. Body fat percentage correlated positively with plasma insulin (r = 0.627, P = 0.002, nonesterified fatty acids (r = 0.674, P < 0.001, total cholesterol (r = 0.825, P < 0.0001, triglycerides (r = 0.5823, P < 0.005, blood urea nitrogen (r = 0.429, P < 0.05, creatinine (r = 0.490, P = 0.021, and total protein (r = 0.737, P< 0.0001 levels, which all tend to increase as a result of increasing adiposity

  12. Body maps on the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniak, Christopher; Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul

    2013-12-20

    Chromosomes have territories, or preferred locales, in the cell nucleus. When these sites are taken into account, some large-scale structure of the human genome emerges. The synoptic picture is that genes highly expressed in particular topologically compact tissues are not randomly distributed on the genome. Rather, such tissue-specific genes tend to map somatotopically onto the complete chromosome set. They seem to form a "genome homunculus": a multi-dimensional, genome-wide body representation extending across chromosome territories of the entire spermcell nucleus. The antero-posterior axis of the body significantly corresponds to the head-tail axis of the nucleus, and the dorso-ventral body axis to the central-peripheral nucleus axis. This large-scale genomic structure includes thousands of genes. One rationale for a homuncular genome structure would be to minimize connection costs in genetic networks. Somatotopic maps in cerebral cortex have been reported for over a century.

  13. Comparison of lumbar force between pubertal and post-pubertal adolescents: interference of physical growth, body fat and lifestyle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Seabra Moraes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: To compare performance in the lumbar force test in pubertal and post-pubertal adolescents by controlling the interference of physical growth, body fat, screen time and physical activity. Methods: A cross-sectional study with 933 adolescents (492 girls aged 14-19 from the city of São José, Brazil. Lumbar strength was assessed using the isometric lumbar extension test proposed by the Canadian Society of Exercise Physiology. Sexual maturation was classified according to Tanner’s criteria. Physical growth variables (age, body weight, stature, BMI, body fat (triceps and subscapular skinfolds, sedentary behavior based on screen time and overall physical activity were controlled in the Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA, with a significance level of 5%. Results: Post-pubertal boys presented higher lumbar force compared to pubertal ones only when interference of BMI, body fat, screen time and physical activity was controlled. Pubertal girls presented higher lumbar force compared to post-pubertal ones, both when controlling the analysis for the studied variables and when not controlled by them. Conclusion: BMI, body fat, screen time and physical activity interfere in the difference in lumbar strength of boys, in which post-pubertal boys presented better performance in lumbar force compared to pubertal ones. Regardless of interference or not of these variables, pubertal girls presented better performance in lumbar force when compared to post-pubertal ones.

  14. Percentiles of body fat measured by bioelectrical impedance in children and adolescents from Bogotá (Colombia): the FUPRECOL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Cardozo, Germán D; Correa-Bautista, Jorge E; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of body composition is a fundamental part of nutritional status assessment. The objective of this study was to establish body fat percentiles by bioelectrical impedance in children and adolescents from Bogotá (Colombia) who were part of the FUPRECOL study (Asociación de la Fuerza Prensil con Manifestaciones Tempranas de Riesgo Cardiovascular en Niños y Adolescentes Colombianos - Association between prehensile force and early signs of cardiovascular risk in Colombian children and adolescents). This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 5850 students aged 9-17.9 years old from Bogotá (Colombia). Body fat percentage was measured using foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance (Tanita®, BF-689), by age and gender. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured, and sexual maturity was self-staged. Percentiles (P3, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90 and P97) and centile curves were estimated using the LMS method (L [BoxCox curve], M [median curve] and S [variation coefficient curve]), by age and gender. Subjects included were 2526 children and 3324 adolescents. Body fat percentages and centile curves by age and gender were established. For most age groups, values resulted higher among girls than boys. Participants with values above P90 were considered to have a high cardiovascular risk due to excess fat (boys > 23.428.3, girls > 31.0-34.1). Body fat percentage percentiles measured using bioelectrical impedance by age and gender are presented here and may be used as reference to assess nutritional status and to predict cardiovascular risk due to excess fat at an early age. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  15. Centralized Networks to Generate Human Body Motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakulenko, Sergei; Radulescu, Ovidiu; Morozov, Ivan; Weber, Andres

    2017-12-14

    We consider continuous-time recurrent neural networks as dynamical models for the simulation of human body motions. These networks consist of a few centers and many satellites connected to them. The centers evolve in time as periodical oscillators with different frequencies. The center states define the satellite neurons' states by a radial basis function (RBF) network. To simulate different motions, we adjust the parameters of the RBF networks. Our network includes a switching module that allows for turning from one motion to another. Simulations show that this model allows us to simulate complicated motions consisting of many different dynamical primitives. We also use the model for learning human body motion from markers' trajectories. We find that center frequencies can be learned from a small number of markers and can be transferred to other markers, such that our technique seems to be capable of correcting for missing information resulting from sparse control marker settings.

  16. Short term and dosage influences of palm based medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols on body fat and blood parameters in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee-Ying; Tang, Teck-Kim; Ab Karim, Nur Azwani; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu Mohamed; Lai, Oi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Structured lipid medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (MLCT) are claimed to be able to manage obesity. The present study investigated the body fat influence of enzymatically interesterifed palm-based medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (P-MLCT) on diet-induced obesity (DIO) C57BL/6J mice compared with commercial MLCT oil (C-MLCT) and a control, which was the non enzymatically modified palm kernel and palm oil blend (PKO-PO blend). It also investigated the low fat and high fat effects of P-MLCT. DIO C57BL/6J mice were fed ad libitum with low fat (7%) and high fat (30%) experimental diets for 8 weeks before being sacrificed to obtain blood serum for analysis. From the results, there is a trend that P-MLCT fed mice were found to have the lowest body weight, body weight gain, total fat pad accumulation (perirenal, retroperitoneal, epididymal and mesenteric), total triglyceride levels and efficiency in controlling blood glucose level, compared with C-MLCT and the PKO-PO blend in both low fat and high fat diets. Nevertheless, the PKO-PO blend and P-MLCT caused significantly (P < 0.05) higher total cholesterol levels compared to C-MLCT. P-MLCT present in low fat and high fat dosage were shown to be able to suppress body fat accumulation. This effect is more prominent with the low fat dosage.

  17. Effects of exenatide, insulin, and pioglitazone on liver fat content and body fat distributions in drug-naive subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yan; Zhang, Bing; Xu, Wen; Yang, Huijie; Feng, Wenhuan; Li, Cuiliu; Tong, Guoyu; Li, Ming; Wang, Xin; Shen, Shanmei; Zhu, Bin; Weng, Jianping; Zhu, Dalong

    2014-10-01

    Ectopic accumulation of lipids in nonadipose tissues plays a primary role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study was to examine the effects of exenatide, insulin, and pioglitazone on liver fat content and body fat distributions in T2DM. Thirty-three drug-naive T2DM patients (age 52.7 ± 1.7 years, HbA1c 8.7 ± 0.2 %, body mass index 24.5 ± 0.5 kg/m(2)) were randomized into exenatide, insulin, or pioglitazone for 6 months. Intrahepatic fat (IHF), visceral fat (VF), and subcutaneous fat (SF) were measured using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Plasma tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and adiponectin were assayed by ELISA. HbA1c declined significantly in all three groups. Body weight, waist, and serum triglycerides decreased with exenatide. After interventions, IHF significantly reduced with three treatments (exenatide Δ = -68 %, insulin Δ = -58 %, pioglitazone Δ = -49 %). Exenatide reduced VF (Δ = -36 %) and SF (Δ = -13 %), and pioglitazone decreased VF (Δ = -30 %) with no impact on SF, whereas insulin had no impact on VF or SF. Levels of TNFα (exenatide/insulin/pioglitazone) decreased, and levels of adiponectin (exenatide/pioglitazone) increased. Analysis showed that ΔIHF correlated with ΔHbA1c and Δweight. Besides, ΔIHF correlated with Δtriglycerides and ΔTNFα, but the correlations fell short of significance after BMI adjustment. By linear regression analysis, ΔHbA1c alone explained 41.5 % of the variance of ΔIHF, and ΔHbA1c + Δweight explained 57.6 % of the variance. Liver fat content can be significantly reduced irrespective of using exenatide, insulin, and pioglitazone. Early glycaemic control plays an important role in slowing progression of fatty liver in T2DM.

  18. [Survival Strategies of Aspergillus in the Human Body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Masato; Izumikawa, Koichi

    2017-01-01

     The human body is a hostile environment for Aspergillus species, which originally live outside the human body. There are lots of elimination mechanisms against Aspergillus inhaled into the human body, such as high body temperature, soluble lung components, mucociliary clearance mechanism, or responses of phagocytes. Aspergillus fumigatus, which is the primary causative agent of human infections among the human pathogenic species of Aspergillus, defend itself from the hostile human body environment by various mechanisms, such as thermotolerance, mycotoxin production, and characteristic morphological features. Here we review mechanisms of defense in Aspergillus against elimination from the human body.

  19. Sedentary behaviors, physical activity behaviors, and body fat in 6-year-old children: the generation R study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijtzes, Anne I; Bouthoorn, Selma H; Jansen, Wilma; Franco, Oscar H; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent Wv; Raat, Hein

    2014-08-15

    Childhood overweight and obesity is a major public health concern. Knowledge on modifiable risk factors is needed to design effective intervention programs. This study aimed to assess associations of children's sedentary behaviors (television viewing and computer game use) and physical activity behaviors (sports participation, outdoor play, and active transport to/from school) with three indicators of body fat, i.e., percent fat mass, body mass index (BMI) standard deviation scores, and weight status (normal weight, overweight). Cross-sectional data from 5913 6-year-old ethnically diverse children were analyzed. Children's weight and height were objectively measured and converted to BMI. Weight status was defined according to age- and sex-specific cut-off points of the International Obesity Task Force. BMI standard deviation scores were created, based on Dutch reference growth curves. Fat mass was measured my dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Sedentary and physical activity behaviors were assessed by parent-reported questionnaires. Series of logistic and linear regression analyses were performed, controlling for confounders (i.e., socio-demographic factors, family lifestyle factors, and other sedentary behaviors and physical activity behaviors). Sports participation was inversely associated with fat mass (p sedentary behaviors and physical activity behaviors. No other independent associations were observed. The results of this study indicate that sports participation is inversely associated with percent body fat among ethnically diverse 6-year-old children. More research in varied populations including objective measurements and longitudinal designs are needed to confirm these current results.

  20. Body weight as an indicator of fat-free mass in active elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonati, Jaqueline G; Modeneze, Dênis M; Vilarta, Roberto; Maciel, Erika S; Boccaletto, Estela M A

    2011-04-01

    Fat-free mass (FFM) reduction and the tendency for a reduction in surrounding fatty issue and increase in the middle are a natural consequence of growing old and should be studied in order to gain a better understanding of the aging process. This study set out to find the FFM differences between active elderly women in two age groups (60-69 and 70-80 years) and to determine which of the anthropometric measurements, body weight (BW), abdominal circumference (AC), or body mass index (BMI) are the best predictors of FFM variation within the group. Eighty-one (n=81) active elderly women of the Third Age willingly signed up to participate in the research during the activities at the University of the Third Age (UTA) in Brazil. The research was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medical Sciences of the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP). Body weight (BW), height (H) and the BMI were measured according to the international standards. The AC was measured in centimetres at the H of the navel and body composition was ascertained using bioimpedance analysis. The SAS program was used to perform the statistical analysis of independent samples and parametric data. The results showed FFM values with significant differences between the two groups, with the lowest values occurring among the women who were over 70 years of age. In the analysis, the Pearson's Correlation Coefficient for each measured independent variable was ascertained, with the BW measurement showing the highest ratio (0.900). The BW measurement was regarded as reliable, low-cost and easy to use for monitoring FFM in elderly women who engage in physical activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Brown adipose tissue quantification in human neonates using water-fat separated MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerod M Rasmussen

    Full Text Available There is a major resurgence of interest in brown adipose tissue (BAT biology, particularly regarding its determinants and consequences in newborns and infants. Reliable methods for non-invasive BAT measurement in human infants have yet to be demonstrated. The current study first validates methods for quantitative BAT imaging of rodents post mortem followed by BAT excision and re-imaging of excised tissues. Identical methods are then employed in a cohort of in vivo infants to establish the reliability of these measures and provide normative statistics for BAT depot volume and fat fraction. Using multi-echo water-fat MRI, fat- and water-based images of rodents and neonates were acquired and ratios of fat to the combined signal from fat and water (fat signal fraction were calculated. Neonatal scans (n = 22 were acquired during natural sleep to quantify BAT and WAT deposits for depot volume and fat fraction. Acquisition repeatability was assessed based on multiple scans from the same neonate. Intra- and inter-rater measures of reliability in regional BAT depot volume and fat fraction quantification were determined based on multiple segmentations by two raters. Rodent BAT was characterized as having significantly higher water content than WAT in both in situ as well as ex vivo imaging assessments. Human neonate deposits indicative of bilateral BAT in spinal, supraclavicular and axillary regions were observed. Pairwise, WAT fat fraction was significantly greater than BAT fat fraction throughout the sample (ΔWAT-BAT = 38 %, p<10(-4. Repeated scans demonstrated a high voxelwise correlation for fat fraction (Rall = 0.99. BAT depot volume and fat fraction measurements showed high intra-rater (ICCBAT,VOL = 0.93, ICCBAT,FF = 0.93 and inter-rater reliability (ICCBAT,VOL = 0.86, ICCBAT,FF = 0.93. This study demonstrates the reliability of using multi-echo water-fat MRI in human neonates for quantification throughout the torso of BAT depot volume and fat

  2. Small-bodied humans from Palau, Micronesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee R Berger

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Newly discovered fossil assemblages of small bodied Homo sapiens from Palau, Micronesia possess characters thought to be taxonomically primitive for the genus Homo. BACKGROUND: Recent surface collection and test excavation in limestone caves in the rock islands of Palau, Micronesia, has produced a sizeable sample of human skeletal remains dating roughly between 940-2890 cal ybp. PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Preliminary analysis indicates that this material is important for two reasons. First, individuals from the older time horizons are small in body size even relative to "pygmoid" populations from Southeast Asia and Indonesia, and thus may represent a marked case of human insular dwarfism. Second, while possessing a number of derived features that align them with Homo sapiens, the human remains from Palau also exhibit several skeletal traits that are considered to be primitive for the genus Homo. SIGNIFICANCE: These features may be previously unrecognized developmental correlates of small body size and, if so, they may have important implications for interpreting the taxonomic affinities of fossil specimens of Homo.

  3. Stearic acid-rich interesterified fat and trans-rich fat raise the LDL/HDL ratio and plasma glucose relative to palm olein in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karupaiah Tilakavati

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary trans-rich and interesterified fats were compared to an unmodified saturated fat for their relative impact on blood lipids and plasma glucose. Each fat had melting characteristics, plasticity and solids fat content suitable for use as hardstock in margarine and other solid fat formulations. Methods Thirty human volunteers were fed complete, whole food diets during 4 wk periods, where total fat (~31% daily energy, >70% from the test fats and fatty acid composition were tightly controlled. A crossover design was used with 3 randomly-assigned diet rotations and repeated-measures analysis. One test fat rotation was based on palm olein (POL and provided 12.0 percent of energy (%en as palmitic acid (16:0; a second contained trans-rich partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSO and provided 3.2 %en as trans fatty acids plus 6.5 %en as 16:0, while the third used an interesterified fat (IE and provided 12.5 %en as stearic acid (18:0. After 4 wk the plasma lipoproteins, fatty acid profile, as well as fasting glucose and insulin were assessed. In addition, after 2 wk into each period an 8 h postprandial challenge was initiated in a subset of 19 subjects who consumed a meal containing 53 g of test fat. Results After 4 wk, both PHSO and IE fats significantly elevated both the LDL/HDL ratio and fasting blood glucose, the latter almost 20% in the IE group relative to POL. Fasting 4 wk insulin was 10% lower after PHSO (p > 0.05 and 22% lower after IE (p Conclusion Both PHSO and IE fats altered the metabolism of lipoproteins and glucose relative to an unmodified saturated fat when fed to humans under identical circumstances.

  4. Impact of high-fat diet and voluntary running on body weight and endothelial function in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, Heike; Hofmann, Anja; Brunssen, Coy; Goettsch, Winfried; Morawietz, Henning

    2015-05-01

    Obesity and physical inactivity are important cardiovascular risk factors. Regular physical exercise has been shown to mediate beneficial effects in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. However, the impact of physical exercise on endothelial function in proatherosclerotic low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice has not been studied so far. Six-week-old male LDLR(-/-) mice were fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet (39 kcal% fat diet) for 20 weeks. The impact of high-fat diet and voluntary running on body weight and amount of white adipose tissue was monitored. Basal tone and endothelial function was investigated in aortic rings using a Mulvany myograph. LDLR(-/-) mice on high-fat diet had increased cumulative food energy intake, but also higher physical activity compared to mice on control diet. Body weight and amount of visceral and retroperitoneal white adipose tissue of LDLR(-/-) mice were significantly increased by high-fat diet and partially reduced by voluntary running. Endothelial function in aortae of LDLR(-/-) mice was impaired after 20 weeks on standard and high-fat diet and could not be improved by voluntary running. Basal tone showed a trend to be increased by high-fat diet. Voluntary running reduced body weight and amount of white adipose tissue in LDLR(-/-) mice. Endothelial dysfunction in LDLR(-/-) mice could not be improved by voluntary running. In a clinical context, physical exercise alone might not have an influence on functional parameters and LDL-C levels in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. However, physical activity in these patients may be in general beneficial and should be performed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The initial changes of fat deposits during the decomposition of human and pig remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notter, Stephanie J; Stuart, Barbara H; Rowe, Rebecca; Langlois, Neil

    2009-01-01

    The early stages of adipocere formation in both pig and human adipose tissue in aqueous environments have been investigated. The aims were to determine the short-term changes occurring to fat deposits during decomposition and to ascertain the suitability of pigs as models for human decomposition. Subcutaneous adipose tissue from both species after immersion in distilled water for up to six months was compared using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Changes associated with decomposition were observed, but no adipocere was formed during the initial month of decomposition for either tissue type. Early-stage adipocere formation in pig samples during later months was detected. The variable time courses for adipose tissue decomposition were attributed to differences in the distribution of total fatty acids between species. Variations in the amount of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium were also detected between species. The study shows that differences in total fatty acid composition between species need to be considered when interpreting results from experimental decomposition studies using pigs as human body analogs.

  6. Human body contour data based activity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myagmarbayar, Nergui; Yuki, Yoshida; Imamoglu, Nevrez; Gonzalez, Jose; Otake, Mihoko; Yu, Wenwei

    2013-01-01

    This research work is aimed to develop autonomous bio-monitoring mobile robots, which are capable of tracking and measuring patients' motions, recognizing the patients' behavior based on observation data, and providing calling for medical personnel in emergency situations in home environment. The robots to be developed will bring about cost-effective, safe and easier at-home rehabilitation to most motor-function impaired patients (MIPs). In our previous research, a full framework was established towards this research goal. In this research, we aimed at improving the human activity recognition by using contour data of the tracked human subject extracted from the depth images as the signal source, instead of the lower limb joint angle data used in the previous research, which are more likely to be affected by the motion of the robot and human subjects. Several geometric parameters, such as, the ratio of height to weight of the tracked human subject, and distance (pixels) between centroid points of upper and lower parts of human body, were calculated from the contour data, and used as the features for the activity recognition. A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is employed to classify different human activities from the features. Experimental results showed that the human activity recognition could be achieved with a high correct rate.

  7. Effect of Body Fat Distribution on Pulmonary Functions in Young Healthy Obese Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya Timmanna Koraddi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is defined as “abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health”. WHO defines obesity as Body Mass Index (BMI ≥30 2 Kg/m . Obesity is becoming more prevalent in the world and has effects on different body systems. Main is the impact on respiratory function. Aim & Objectives: We have aimed to study the gender difference in obesity induced changes on pulmonary functions and determine adiposity marker which best predicts the pulmonary function in young adult obese individuals and age-matched non-obese young adult subjects. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional 2 study was conducted on obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m male (n=32 and female (n=18 students aged 18-25 years and compared with age matched non-obese (BMI 2 18.5–24.99 Kg/m male (n=23 and female subjects (n=27 as controls. Weight(kg, Height(cm, Body -2 Mass Index(BMI, kgm , Waist Circumference(WC, cm, Waist to Hip Ratio(WHR,Waist to Height Ratio (WHtR, Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, L, Forced Expiratory Volume in first second (FEV , L/min, 1 FEV , FEF (L/sec, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate 1% 25-75% (PEFR, L/min and Maximum Expiratory Pressure (MEP, mm Hg were recorded. Results: Systolic Blood Pressure, Diastolic Blood Pressure, Pulse Rate and Respiratory Rate were significantly higher in obese students when compared to their respective controls. We observed highly significant reduction in PEFR (p<0.001 and MEP (p<0.001 in both obese male and female groups compared to controls. FEV was 1% significantly lower in obese female students. Linear regression analysis revealed that BMI, WHR and WC were significant predictors of PEFR. BMI was only the significant predictor of MEP. WHtR and WHR were best predictors of FVC, FEF and FEV . 25-75% 1 Conclusion: Obesity and pattern of fat distribution have independent effect on pulmonary function.

  8. Relationship of life style choices on body fat mass in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Rehana; ullah Shaikh, Saif; Syed, Sadiqa; Shakeel, Nayyab

    2010-01-01

    Healthy diets and regular, adequate physical activity are major factors in the promotion and maintenance of good health throughout entire life course. Accumulation of fat occurs whenever energy consumed by food and drinks exceeds that which can be utilised by an individual's metabolism and physical activity. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of lifestyle characteristics of a representative segment of medical students in terms of fast food preferences and participation in physical activity with respect to Body Mass Index (BMI). This cross-sectional study was carried out in Physiology Department, Bahria University Medical & Dental College, Karachi on 192 students of 1st and 2nd year MBBS. Body Mass index of students was calculated. They were classified into 4 groups with BMI or = 25 respectively. A life style questionnaire, based on preferences for healthy/unhealthy food, dietary habits and participation in physical activity was filled. Most of medical students (65%) had BMI less than 23. It was because of selection of healthy dietary pattern with nutritious food (p < 0.09) and participation in outdoor games (p < 0.03). Males who had high BMI showed a tendency to daily intake of fast food (p < 0.03). Walking in both the sexes had a positive impact in maintaining normal BMI (p = Males < 0.04, females < 0.001). Obesity can be prevented by innovative approaches, easiest of which is to promote active life styles with intake of healthy diet and involvement in physical activity.

  9. Muscle performance, body fat, pain and function in the elderly with arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Wagner Teixeira; Rodrigues, Erika de Carvalho; Mainenti, Míriam Raquel Meira

    2014-01-01

    To correlate muscule performance, body composition, pain and joint function in elderly people with gonarthrosis. 21 elderly patients were submitted to bioelectrical impedance analysis, dynamometry associated with electromyographic (EMG) evaluation of isometric knee extension, in addition to pain assessment by the Numeric Pain Intensity Scale and function assessment, by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis (OA) questionnaire. Correlations were checked by the Pearson's correlation coefficient. The sample characteristics were mean age 67.36 ± 4.21 years old, body fat percentage 40.57±6.15%, total WOMAC score 43.27 ± 16.32%, and maximum strength 19.95 ± 6.99 kgF. Pain during movement showed a statistical association with WOMAC physical activity domain (r = 0.47) and its general score (r = 0.51); pain intensity at night presented association with WOMAC stiffness domain (r = 0.55), in addition to the negative correlation with the slope values of the Medium Frequency of the EMG signal (r = - 0.57). pain intensity is correlated to functional incapacity in elderly people with knee OA and to a greater expression of fatigue in EMG signal. Levels of Evidence III, Study of non consecutive patients.