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Sample records for human biological rhythms

  1. Biological Rhythms Workshop IC: sleep and rhythms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Münch, M Y; Cain, S W; Duffy, J F

    2007-01-01

    Rhythms of sleep and wakefulness (typically measured as rest/activity rhythms) are among the most prominent of biological rhythms and therefore were among the first to be recorded in early chronobiological studies...

  2. Discoveries of rhythms in human biological functions: a historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmer, Björn

    2009-08-01

    Though there are very early and ancient observations on the daily variation in physiological and pathophysiological functions (e.g., bronchial asthma), more detailed and scientific reports were not published until the beginning of the 17th century. The aim of this review is to bring those reports to the attention of researchers of chronobiology and chronopharmacology. The ancient books and their contents, which constitute the basis for this review, are part of the personal library collection of the author; numerous observations and reports on biologic rhythms in man are presented here for the first time. The intent of this review is to demonstrate that the fields of chronobiology and chronopharmacology are not only a new and modern branch of science, but that it stands on the shoulders of wonderful and insightful observations and explanations made by our scientific forefathers. It is the hope that the reader will enjoy the richness of the ancient reports that contribute to our present knowledge achieved through astute early biologic rhythm research.

  3. Ethics and methods for biological rhythm research on animals and human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portaluppi, Francesco; Smolensky, Michael H; Touitou, Yvan

    2010-10-01

    This article updates the ethical standards and methods for the conduct of high-quality animal and human biological rhythm research, which should be especially useful for new investigators of the rhythms of life. The editors of Chronobiology International adhere to and endorse the Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines of the Committee On Publication Ethics (COPE), which encourages communication of such updates at regular intervals in the journal. The journal accepts papers representing original work, no part of which was previously submitted for publication elsewhere, except as brief abstracts, as well as in-depth reviews. The majority of research papers published in Chronobiology International entails animal and human investigations. The editors and readers of the journal expect authors of submitted manuscripts to have made an important contribution to the research of biological rhythms and related phenomena using ethical methods/procedures and unbiased, accurate, and honest reporting of findings. Authors of scientific papers are required to declare all potential conflicts of interest. The journal and its editors endorse compliance of investigators to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council, relating to the conduct of ethical research on laboratory and other animals, and the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association, relating to the conduct of ethical research on human beings. The peer review of manuscripts by Chronobiology International thus includes judgment as to whether or not the protocols and methods conform to ethical standards. Authors are expected to show mastery of the basic methods and procedures of biological rhythm research and proper statistical assessment of data, including the appropriate application of time series data analyses, as briefly reviewed in this article. The journal editors strive to consistently achieve

  4. Biological rhythms and preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès eDitisheim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of impaired circadian rhythm on health has been widely studied in shift workers and trans-meridian travelers. A part from its correlation with sleep and mood disorders, biological rhythm impairment is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and breast cancer.Preeclampsia is a major public health issue, associated with a significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. While the risks factors for this condition such as obesity, diabetes, pre-existing hypertension have been identified, the underlying mechanism of this multi-factorial disease is yet not fully understood.The disruption of the light/dark cycle in pregnancy has been associated with adverse outcomes. Slightly increased risk for small for gestational age babies, low birth weight babies and preterm deliveries has been reported in shift working women. Whether altered circadian cycle represents a risk factor for preeclampsia or preeclampsia is itself linked with an abnormal circadian cycle is less clear. There are only few reports available, showing conflicting results. In this review, we will discuss recent observations concerning circadian pattern of blood pressure in normotensive and hypertensive pregnancies. We explore the hypothesis that circadian misalignments may represent a risk factor for preeclampsia. Unraveling potential link between circadian clock gene and preeclampsia could offer a novel approach to our understanding of this multi-system disease specific to pregnancy.

  5. Dissipative structures and biological rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbeter, Albert

    2017-10-01

    Sustained oscillations abound in biological systems. They occur at all levels of biological organization over a wide range of periods, from a fraction of a second to years, and with a variety of underlying mechanisms. They control major physiological functions, and their dysfunction is associated with a variety of physiological disorders. The goal of this review is (i) to give an overview of the main rhythms observed at the cellular and supracellular levels, (ii) to briefly describe how the study of biological rhythms unfolded in the course of time, in parallel with studies on chemical oscillations, (iii) to present the major roles of biological rhythms in the control of physiological functions, and (iv) the pathologies associated with the alteration, disappearance, or spurious occurrence of biological rhythms. Two tables present the main examples of cellular and supracellular rhythms ordered according to their period, and their role in physiology and pathophysiology. Among the rhythms discussed are neural and cardiac rhythms, metabolic oscillations such as those occurring in glycolysis in yeast, intracellular Ca++ oscillations, cyclic AMP oscillations in Dictyostelium amoebae, the segmentation clock that controls somitogenesis, pulsatile hormone secretion, circadian rhythms which occur in all eukaryotes and some bacteria with a period close to 24 h, the oscillatory dynamics of the enzymatic network driving the cell cycle, and oscillations in transcription factors such as NF-ΚB and tumor suppressors such as p53. Ilya Prigogine's concept of dissipative structures applies to temporal oscillations and allows us to unify within a common framework the various rhythms observed at different levels of biological organization, regardless of their period and underlying mechanism.

  6. Biological rhythms and vector insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian David Marques

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The adjustment of all species, animals and plants, to the Earth’s cyclic environments is ensured by their temporal organisation. The relationships between parasites, vectors and hosts rely greatly upon the synchronisation of their biological rhythms, especially circadian rhythms. In this short note, parasitic infections by Protozoa and by microfilariae have been chosen as examples of the dependence of successful transmission mechanisms on temporal components.

  7. Biologic rhythms derived from Siberian mammoths' hairs.

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    Mike Spilde

    Full Text Available Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ∼31 cms/year and ∼16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios, which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

  8. Modeling biological rhythms in failure time data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myles James D

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human body exhibits a variety of biological rhythms. There are patterns that correspond, among others, to the daily wake/sleep cycle, a yearly seasonal cycle and, in women, the menstrual cycle. Sine/cosine functions are often used to model biological patterns for continuous data, but this model is not appropriate for analysis of biological rhythms in failure time data. Methods We adapt the cosinor method to the proportional hazards model and present a method to provide an estimate and confidence interval of the time when the minimum hazard is achieved. We then apply this model to data taken from a clinical trial of adjuvant of pre-menopausal breast cancer patients. Results The application of this technique to the breast cancer data revealed that the optimal day for pre-resection incisional or excisional biopsy of 28-day cycle (i. e. the day associated with the lowest recurrence rate is day 8 with 95% confidence interval of 4–12 days. We found that older age, fewer positive nodes, smaller tumor size, and experimental treatment were predictive of longer relapse-free survival. Conclusion In this paper we have described a method for modeling failure time data with an underlying biological rhythm. The advantage of adapting a cosinor model to proportional hazards model is its ability to model right censored data. We have presented a method to provide an estimate and confidence interval of the day in the menstrual cycle where the minimum hazard is achieved. This method is not limited to breast cancer data, and may be applied to any biological rhythms linked to right censored data.

  9. Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths Hairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Spilde; A Lanzirotti; C Qualls; G Phillips; A Ali; L Agenbroad; O Appenzeller

    2011-12-31

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was {approx}31 cms/year and {approx}16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

  10. A review of human physiological and performance changes associated with desynchronosis of biological rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winget, C. M.; Deroshia, C. W.; Markley, C. L.; Holley, D. C.

    1984-01-01

    This review discusses the effects, in the aerospace environment, of alterations in approximately 24-h periodicities (circadian rhythms) upon physiological and psychological functions and possible therapies for desynchronosis induced by such alterations. The consequences of circadian rhythm alteration resulting from shift work, transmeridian flight, or altered day lengths are known as desynchronosis, dysrhythmia, dyschrony, jet lag, or jet syndrome. Considerable attention is focused on the ability to operate jet aircraft and manned space vehicles. The importance of environmental cues, such as light-dark cycles, which influence physiological and psychological rhythms is discussed. A section on mathematical models is presented to enable selection and verification of appropriate preventive and corrective measures and to better understand the problem of dysrhythmia.

  11. Demonstration of a day-night rhythm in human skeletal muscle oxidative capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk van Moorsel

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Our results suggest that the biological clock drives robust rhythms in human skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism. It is tempting to speculate that disruption of these rhythms contribute to the deterioration of metabolic health associated with circadian misalignment.

  12. Circadian Rhythms, Sleep Deprivation, and Human Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Namni; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi; Dinges, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Much of the current science on, and mathematical modeling of, dynamic changes in human performance within and between days is dominated by the two-process model of sleep–wake regulation, which posits a neurobiological drive for sleep that varies homeostatically (increasing as a saturating exponential during wakefulness and decreasing in a like manner during sleep), and a circadian process that neurobiologically modulates both the homeostatic drive for sleep and waking alertness and performance. Endogenous circadian rhythms in neurobehavioral functions, including physiological alertness and cognitive performance, have been demonstrated using special laboratory protocols that reveal the interaction of the biological clock with the sleep homeostatic drive. Individual differences in circadian rhythms and genetic and other components underlying such differences also influence waking neurobehavioral functions. Both acute total sleep deprivation and chronic sleep restriction increase homeostatic sleep drive and degrade waking neurobehavioral functions as reflected in sleepiness, attention, cognitive speed, and memory. Recent evidence indicating a high degree of stability in neurobehavioral responses to sleep loss suggests that these trait-like individual differences are phenotypic and likely involve genetic components, including circadian genes. Recent experiments have revealed both sleep homeostatic and circadian effects on brain metabolism and neural activation. Investigation of the neural and genetic mechanisms underlying the dynamically complex interaction between sleep homeostasis and circadian systems is beginning. A key goal of this work is to identify biomarkers that accurately predict human performance in situations in which the circadian and sleep homeostatic systems are perturbed. PMID:23899598

  13. Stable isotope ratios in hair and teeth reflect biologic rhythms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Appenzeller

    Full Text Available Biologic rhythms give insight into normal physiology and disease. They can be used as biomarkers for neuronal degenerations. We present a diverse data set to show that hair and teeth contain an extended record of biologic rhythms, and that analysis of these tissues could yield signals of neurodegenerations. We examined hair from mummified humans from South America, extinct mammals and modern animals and people, both healthy and diseased, and teeth of hominins. We also monitored heart-rate variability, a measure of a biologic rhythm, in some living subjects and analyzed it using power spectra. The samples were examined to determine variations in stable isotope ratios along the length of the hair and across growth-lines of the enamel in teeth. We found recurring circa-annual periods of slow and fast rhythms in hydrogen isotope ratios in hair and carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in teeth. The power spectra contained slow and fast frequency power, matching, in terms of normalized frequency, the spectra of heart rate variability found in our living subjects. Analysis of the power spectra of hydrogen isotope ratios in hair from a patient with neurodegeneration revealed the same spectral features seen in the patient's heart-rate variability. Our study shows that spectral analysis of stable isotope ratios in readily available tissues such as hair could become a powerful diagnostic tool when effective treatments and neuroprotective drugs for neurodegenerative diseases become available. It also suggests that similar analyses of archaeological specimens could give insight into the physiology of ancient people and animals.

  14. Development and use of a biological rhythm interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, Larriany Maria Falsin; Magalhães, Pedro Vieira da Silva; Andreazza, Ana Cristina; Walz, Julio Cesar; Jakobson, Lourenço; Rucci, Paola; Rosa, Adriane Ribeiro; Hidalgo, Maria Paz; Vieta, Eduard; Kapczinski, Flávio

    2009-11-01

    As several lines of evidence point to irregular biological rhythms in bipolar disorder, and its disruption may lead to new illness episodes, having an instrument that measures biological rhythms is critical. This report describes the validation of a new instrument, the Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (BRIAN), designed to assess biological rhythms in the clinical setting. Eighty-one outpatients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder and 79 control subjects matched for type of health service used, sex, age and educational level were consecutively recruited. After a pilot study, 18 items evaluating sleep, activities, social rhythm and eating pattern were probed for discriminant, content and construct validity, concurrent validity with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), internal consistency and test-retest reliability. A three-factor solution, termed sleep/social rhythm factor, activity factor and feeding factor, provided the best theoretical and most parsimonious account of the data; items essentially loaded in factors as theoretically intended, with the exception of the sleep and social scales, which formed a single factor. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were excellent. Highly significant differences between the two groups were found for the whole scale and for each BRIAN factor. Total BRIAN scores were highly correlated with the global PSQI score. The BRIAN scale presents a consistent profile of validity and reliability. Its use may help clinicians to better assess their patients and researchers to improve the evaluation of the impact of novel therapies targeting biological rhythm pathways.

  15. Chronobiology: biological clocks and rhythms of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehling, A; Fluhr, J W

    2006-01-01

    The cyclicity of time affects virtually all aspects of our being and is the basis of the underlying rhythmicity which is typical of our lives. To 'tell time', most living organisms use internal timing mechanisms known as 'biological clocks'. These 'clocks' coordinate our physiological and behavioral functions and interactions with our environment. One of the strongest influences on rhythmicity is the solar day. The study of these temporal rhythms in biological systems has been coined chronobiology. With the present article we aim to give an overview on chronobiology. Examples of chronobiological effects on skin will be described. Particular emphasis will be placed on circadian rhythms (including rhythms that take place within a 24-hour period, including so-called infradian and/or diurnal rhythms) but also on seasonal variations (circaannual rhythms).

  16. Biological rhythms and fertility: the hypothalamus–pituitary–ovary axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toffol E

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Elena Toffol,1 Oskari Heikinheimo,2,3 Timo Partonen1 1Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, 3Kätilöopisto Hospital, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland Abstract: In addition to normal physiological processes, a number of pathological conditions exhibit diurnal and seasonal fluctuations in their incidence. These biological rhythms are generated by the circadian clocks that adjust their functions and adapt to the habitat. Misalignment of biological rhythms and disrupted functions of the circadian clocks may eventually have a negative impact on reproduction, which is the focus of this review. A large body of literature from animal studies has demonstrated the role of core clock genes and clock-controlled genes in regulation of reproductive events. In contrast, only a few studies, mostly epidemiological ones, suggest that perturbations of the circadian clock functions, eg, due to shift work or jet lag, compromise human reproduction. Keywords: animal, circadian, diurnal, human, reproduction

  17. Analysis of Nonstationary Time Series for Biological Rhythms Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leise, Tanya L

    2017-06-01

    This article is part of a Journal of Biological Rhythms series exploring analysis and statistics topics relevant to researchers in biological rhythms and sleep research. The goal is to provide an overview of the most common issues that arise in the analysis and interpretation of data in these fields. In this article on time series analysis for biological rhythms, we describe some methods for assessing the rhythmic properties of time series, including tests of whether a time series is indeed rhythmic. Because biological rhythms can exhibit significant fluctuations in their period, phase, and amplitude, their analysis may require methods appropriate for nonstationary time series, such as wavelet transforms, which can measure how these rhythmic parameters change over time. We illustrate these methods using simulated and real time series.

  18. Biological rhythms during residence in polar regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Josephine

    2012-05-01

    At Arctic and Antarctic latitudes, personnel are deprived of natural sunlight in winter and have continuous daylight in summer: light of sufficient intensity and suitable spectral composition is the main factor that maintains the 24-h period of human circadian rhythms. Thus, the status of the circadian system is of interest. Moreover, the relatively controlled artificial light conditions in winter are conducive to experimentation with different types of light treatment. The hormone melatonin and/or its metabolite 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) provide probably the best index of circadian (and seasonal) timing. A frequent observation has been a delay of the circadian system in winter. A skeleton photoperiod (2 × 1-h, bright white light, morning and evening) can restore summer timing. A single 1-h pulse of light in the morning may be sufficient. A few people desynchronize from the 24-h day (free-run) and show their intrinsic circadian period, usually >24 h. With regard to general health in polar regions, intermittent reports describe abnormalities in various physiological processes from the point of view of daily and seasonal rhythms, but positive health outcomes are also published. True winter depression (SAD) appears to be rare, although subsyndromal SAD is reported. Probably of most concern are the numerous reports of sleep problems. These have prompted investigations of the underlying mechanisms and treatment interventions. A delay of the circadian system with "normal" working hours implies sleep is attempted at a suboptimal phase. Decrements in sleep efficiency, latency, duration, and quality are also seen in winter. Increasing the intensity of ambient light exposure throughout the day advanced circadian phase and was associated with benefits for sleep: blue-enriched light was slightly more effective than standard white light. Effects on performance remain to be fully investigated. At 75°S, base personnel adapt the circadian system to night work within a week

  19. [General introduction to clinical chronobiology and the therapeutic manipulation of biological rhythms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Carpio, Pere A; Corominas, August

    2004-07-10

    In humans, most clinical variables follow biological rhythms approaching to a mathematical function defined by the cosmic-climatic rhythm. Chronophysiology, chronopathology, chronopharmacology, chronotherapy and phototherapy have common elements frequently studied in a disperse manner, thus making it difficult a global understanding of clinical chronobiology as a unitary and well-characterized discipline. This review focuses on medical chronobiology, which is much more technical since it only gathers those directives of clinical chronobiology having a health-care impact on daily practice.

  20. Working night shifts affects surgeons' biological rhythm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amirian, Ilda; Andersen, Lærke T; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic sleep deprivation combined with work during the night is known to affect performance and compromise residents' own safety. The aim of this study was to examine markers of circadian rhythm and the sleep-wake cycle in surgeons working night shifts. METHODS: Surgeons were monitored...... prospectively for 4 days: pre call, on call, post call day 1 (PC1), and post call day 2 (PC2). The urinary metabolite of melatonin and cortisol in saliva were measured to assess the circadian rhythm. Sleep and activity were measured by actigraphy. Subjective measures were assessed by the Karolinska Sleepiness...... Scale and Visual Analog Scale of fatigue, general well-being, and sleep quality. RESULTS: For both metabolite of melatonin and cortisol, a significant difference (P sleep time during the day on call...

  1. Distractor Effect of Auditory Rhythms on Self-Paced Tapping in Chimpanzees and Humans.

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    Yuko Hattori

    Full Text Available Humans tend to spontaneously align their movements in response to visual (e.g., swinging pendulum and auditory rhythms (e.g., hearing music while walking. Particularly in the case of the response to auditory rhythms, neuroscientific research has indicated that motor resources are also recruited while perceiving an auditory rhythm (or regular pulse, suggesting a tight link between the auditory and motor systems in the human brain. However, the evolutionary origin of spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms is unclear. Here, we report that chimpanzees and humans show a similar distractor effect in perceiving isochronous rhythms during rhythmic movement. We used isochronous auditory rhythms as distractor stimuli during self-paced alternate tapping of two keys of an electronic keyboard by humans and chimpanzees. When the tempo was similar to their spontaneous motor tempo, tapping onset was influenced by intermittent entrainment to auditory rhythms. Although this effect itself is not an advanced rhythmic ability such as dancing or singing, our results suggest that, to some extent, the biological foundation for spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms was already deeply rooted in the common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans, 6 million years ago. This also suggests the possibility of a common attentional mechanism, as proposed by the dynamic attending theory, underlying the effect of perceiving external rhythms on motor movement.

  2. Distractor Effect of Auditory Rhythms on Self-Paced Tapping in Chimpanzees and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yuko; Tomonaga, Masaki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    Humans tend to spontaneously align their movements in response to visual (e.g., swinging pendulum) and auditory rhythms (e.g., hearing music while walking). Particularly in the case of the response to auditory rhythms, neuroscientific research has indicated that motor resources are also recruited while perceiving an auditory rhythm (or regular pulse), suggesting a tight link between the auditory and motor systems in the human brain. However, the evolutionary origin of spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms is unclear. Here, we report that chimpanzees and humans show a similar distractor effect in perceiving isochronous rhythms during rhythmic movement. We used isochronous auditory rhythms as distractor stimuli during self-paced alternate tapping of two keys of an electronic keyboard by humans and chimpanzees. When the tempo was similar to their spontaneous motor tempo, tapping onset was influenced by intermittent entrainment to auditory rhythms. Although this effect itself is not an advanced rhythmic ability such as dancing or singing, our results suggest that, to some extent, the biological foundation for spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms was already deeply rooted in the common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans, 6 million years ago. This also suggests the possibility of a common attentional mechanism, as proposed by the dynamic attending theory, underlying the effect of perceiving external rhythms on motor movement.

  3. Monkey Lipsmacking Develops Like the Human Speech Rhythm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Ryan J.; Paukner, Annika; Ferrari, Pier F.; Ghazanfar, Asif A.

    2012-01-01

    Across all languages studied to date, audiovisual speech exhibits a consistent rhythmic structure. This rhythm is critical to speech perception. Some have suggested that the speech rhythm evolved "de novo" in humans. An alternative account--the one we explored here--is that the rhythm of speech evolved through the modification of rhythmic facial…

  4. Biological and psychological rhythms: an integrative approach to rhythm disturbances in autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botbol, Michel; Cabon, Philippe; Kermarrec, Solenn; Tordjman, Sylvie

    2013-09-01

    Biological rhythms are crucial phenomena that are perfect examples of the adaptation of organisms to their environment. A considerable amount of work has described different types of biological rhythms (from circadian to ultradian), individual differences in their patterns and the complexity of their regulation. In particular, the regulation and maturation of the sleep-wake cycle have been thoroughly studied. Its desynchronization, both endogenous and exogenous, is now well understood, as are its consequences for cognitive impairments and health problems. From a completely different perspective, psychoanalysts have shown a growing interest in the rhythms of psychic life. This interest extends beyond the original focus of psychoanalysis on dreams and the sleep-wake cycle, incorporating central theoretical and practical psychoanalytic issues related to the core functioning of the psychic life: the rhythmic structures of drive dynamics, intersubjective developmental processes and psychic containment functions. Psychopathological and biological approaches to the study of infantile autism reveal the importance of specific biological and psychological rhythmic disturbances in this disorder. Considering data and hypotheses from both perspectives, this paper proposes an integrative approach to the study of these rhythmic disturbances and offers an etiopathogenic hypothesis based on this integrative approach.

  5. Sleep-wake as a biological rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie, P

    2001-01-01

    Evidence that the sleep-wake rhythm is generated endogenously has been provided by studies employing a variety of experimental paradigms such as sleep deprivation, sleep displacement, isolating subjects in environments free of time cues, or imposing on subjects sleep-wake schedules widely deviating from 24 hours. The initial observations obtained in isolated subjects revealed that the period of the endogenous circadian pacemaker regulating sleep is of approximately 25 hours. More recent studies, however, in which a more rigorous control of subjects' behavior was exerted, particularly over lighting conditions, have shown that the true periodicity of the endogenous pacemaker deviates from 24 hours by a few minutes only. Besides sleep propensity, the circadian pacemaker has been shown to regulate sleep consolidation, sleep stage structure, and electroencephalographic activities. The pattern of light exposure throughout the 24 hours appears to participate in the entrainment of the circadian pacemaker to the geophysical day-night cycle. Melatonin, the pineal hormone produced during the dark hours, participates in communicating both between the environmental light-dark cycle and the circadian pacemaker, and between the circadian pacemaker and the sleep-wake-generating mechanism. In contrast to prevailing views that have placed great emphasis on homeostatic sleep drive, recent data have revealed a potent circadian cycle in the drive for wakefulness, which is generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This drive reaches a peak during the evening hours just before habitual bedtime.

  6. Detecting change in biological rhythms: a multivariate permutation test approach to Fourier-transformed data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, Jennifer Urbano; Salomon, Ronald M; Waller, Niels G

    2009-02-01

    Treatment-related changes in neurobiological rhythms are of increasing interest to psychologists, psychiatrists, and biological rhythms researchers. New methods for analyzing change in rhythms are needed, as most common methods disregard the rich complexity of biological processes. Large time series data sets reflect the intricacies of underlying neurobiological processes, but can be difficult to analyze. We propose the use of Fourier methods with multivariate permutation test (MPT) methods for analyzing change in rhythms from time series data. To validate the use of MPT for Fourier-transformed data, we performed Monte Carlo simulations and compared statistical power and family-wise error for MPT to Bonferroni-corrected and uncorrected methods. Results show that MPT provides greater statistical power than Bonferroni-corrected tests, while appropriately controlling family-wise error. We applied this method to human, pre- and post-treatment, serially-sampled neurotransmitter data to confirm the utility of this method using real data. Together, Fourier with MPT methods provides a statistically powerful approach for detecting change in biological rhythms from time series data.

  7. Rhythm and Randomness in Human Contact

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Mervyn P; Yoneki, Eiko; Crowcroft, Jon

    2010-01-01

    There is substantial interest in the effect of human mobility patterns on opportunistic communications. Inspired by recent work revisiting some of the early evidence for a L\\'evy flight foraging strategy in animals, we analyse datasets on human contact from real world traces. By analysing the distribution of inter-contact times on different time scales and using different graphical forms, we find not only the highly skewed distributions of waiting times highlighted in previous studies but also clear circadian rhythm. The relative visibility of these two components depends strongly on which graphical form is adopted and the range of time scales. We use a simple model to reconstruct the observed behaviour and discuss the implications of this for forwarding efficiency.

  8. [Molecular biology of biological clock--genetic regulation of circadian rhythm and sleep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Kazuhiko

    2006-07-01

    Circadian rhythm is a universal biological property functioning in most living species on the earth from bacteria and plants to animals. The molecular mechanisms creating this rhythm have recently been elucidated and the transcriptional feedback loop regulation of 'clock genes' is regarded as essential for all species studied so far. Both mammals and insects share the similar clock genes, which highlights the long conservation of circadian rhythm at the genetic level. Sleep and arousal cycles in mammals are known to be regulated by both homeostatic and circadian processes, but the genetic machinery for sleep regulation is still unclear. Recently, it has been reported that insects also have sleep-like behavior, and we showed that insects use dopamine as a regulator of their sleep/arousal cycling, which strongly suggests the similarity of arousal regulation between insects and mammals at the molecular level. In this review, these recent advancements of the molecular understanding of circadian rhythm and sleep/arousal regulation are outlined.

  9. The evolutionary biology of musical rhythm: was Darwin wrong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Aniruddh D

    2014-03-01

    In The Descent of Man, Darwin speculated that our capacity for musical rhythm reflects basic aspects of brain function broadly shared among animals. Although this remains an appealing idea, it is being challenged by modern cross-species research. This research hints that our capacity to synchronize to a beat, i.e., to move in time with a perceived pulse in a manner that is predictive and flexible across a broad range of tempi, may be shared by only a few other species. Is this really the case? If so, it would have important implications for our understanding of the evolution of human musicality.

  10. The evolutionary biology of musical rhythm: was Darwin wrong?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddh D Patel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In The Descent of Man, Darwin speculated that our capacity for musical rhythm reflects basic aspects of brain function broadly shared among animals. Although this remains an appealing idea, it is being challenged by modern cross-species research. This research hints that our capacity to synchronize to a beat, i.e., to move in time with a perceived pulse in a manner that is predictive and flexible across a broad range of tempi, may be shared by only a few other species. Is this really the case? If so, it would have important implications for our understanding of the evolution of human musicality.

  11. Physiological basis for human autonomic rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckberg, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    Oscillations of arterial pressures, heart periods, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity have been studied intensively in recent years to explore otherwise obscure human neurophysiological mechanisms. The best-studied rhythms are those occurring at breathing frequencies. Published evidence indicates that respiratory fluctuations of muscle sympathetic nerve activity and electrocardiographic R-R intervals result primarily from the action of a central 'gate' that opens during expiration and closes during inspiration. Parallel respiratory fluctuations of arterial pressures and R-R intervals are thought to be secondary to arterial baroreflex physiology: changes in systolic pressure provoke changes in the R-R interval. However, growing evidence suggests that these parallel oscillations result from the influence of respiration on sympathetic and vagal-cardiac motoneurones rather than from baroreflex physiology. There is a rapidly growing literature on the use of mathematical models of low- and high-frequency (respiratory) R-R interval fluctuations in characterizing instantaneous 'sympathovagal balance'. The case for this approach is based primarily on measurements made with patients in upright tilt. However, the strong linear relation between such measures as the ratio of low- to high-frequency R-R interval oscillations and the angle of the tilt reflects exclusively the reductions of the vagal (high-frequency) component. As the sympathetic component does not change in tilt, the low- to high-frequency R-R interval ratio provides no proof that sympathetic activity increases. Moreover, the validity of extrapolating from measurements performed during upright tilt to measurements during supine rest has not been established. Nonetheless, it is clear that measures of heart rate variability provide important prognostic information in patients with cardiovascular diseases. It is not known whether reduced heart rate variability is merely a marker for the severity of disease or a

  12. [Circadian rhythm of human lymphocyte subpopulations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualetti, P; Colantonio, D; Casale, R; Colangeli, S; Natali, G

    1988-01-01

    Circadian rhythm of lymphocyte subsets was investigated in four healthy subjects, males, aged 35-58 years old. After a period of ambiental synchronization, venous blood samples were taken during a span of a day at 0.00 a.m., 4.00 a.m., 8.00 a.m., noon, 4.00 p.m. and 8.00 p.m. Lymphocyte subsets (OKT3, OKT4, OKT8, OKB7, OKJa1) were determined by monoclonal antibodies method, and serum level of cortisol by radioimmunoassay method. The OKT4/OKT8 ratio was also calculated. Data were analyzed by chronograms (mean +/- 1SD) and by cosinor method. Results show a significant circadian rhythm for each lymphocyte subset and for serum cortisol levels. The lowest levels of all circulating subsets were seen between noon and 4.00 p.m. and the highest levels around midnight, inversely related with the circadian rhythm of serum cortisol. The OKT4/OKT8 ratio, on the contrary, was relatively constant during the day, without a significant circadian rhythm. These observations have laboratoristic, clinical, and therapeutic implications and should be considered in the course of immunological studies.

  13. Circadian Rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... microbes. The study of circadian rhythms is called chronobiology. Are circadian rhythms the same thing as biological ... the eyes cross. Do circadian rhythms have a genetic component? Yes. Researchers have already identified genes that ...

  14. Human adipose tissue expresses intrinsic circadian rhythm in insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Benso, Maria P; Rivero-Gutierrez, Belen; Lopez-Minguez, Jesus; Anzola, Andrea; Diez-Noguera, Antoni; Madrid, Juan A; Lujan, Juan A; Martínez-Augustin, Olga; Scheer, Frank A J L; Garaulet, Marta

    2016-09-01

    In humans, insulin sensitivity varies according to time of day, with decreased values in the evening and at night. Mechanisms responsible for the diurnal variation in insulin sensitivity are unclear. We investigated whether human adipose tissue (AT) expresses intrinsic circadian rhythms in insulin sensitivity that could contribute to this phenomenon. Subcutaneous and visceral AT biopsies were obtained from extremely obese participants (body mass index, 41.8 ± 6.3 kg/m(2); 46 ± 11 y) during gastric-bypass surgery. To assess the rhythm in insulin signaling, AKT phosphorylation was determined every 4 h over 24 h in vitro in response to different insulin concentrations (0, 1, 10, and 100 nM). Data revealed that subcutaneous AT exhibited robust circadian rhythms in insulin signaling (P Insulin sensitivity reached its maximum (acrophase) around noon, being 54% higher than during midnight (P = 0.009). The amplitude of the rhythm was positively correlated with in vivo sleep duration (r = 0.53; P = 0.023) and negatively correlated with in vivo bedtime (r = -0.54; P = 0.020). No circadian rhythms were detected in visceral AT (P = 0.643). Here, we demonstrate the relevance of the time of the day for how sensitive AT is to the effects of insulin. Subcutaneous AT shows an endogenous circadian rhythm in insulin sensitivity that could provide an underlying mechanism for the daily rhythm in systemic insulin sensitivity.-Carrasco-Benso, M. P., Rivero-Gutierrez, B., Lopez-Minguez, J., Anzola, A., Diez-Noguera, A., Madrid, J. A., Lujan, J. A., Martínez-Augustin, O., Scheer, F. A. J. L., Garaulet, M. Human adipose tissue expresses intrinsic circadian rhythm in insulin sensitivity. © FASEB.

  15. 生物节律与运动的关系研究%The Relationship between Biological Rhythms and Exercise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温美丽

    2012-01-01

    There are some inherent associations between human biological rhythms and exercise training.It is beneficial for improving the quality of sports training and athletic performance by rational using human biological rhythm rules.This paper describes the research progress of biological rhythms and the important relations between the circadian rhythm and sports,paying attention to the importance of the relations between movement and rhythm.%人体生物节律与运动训练存在着一定的内在联系,合理利用人体生物节律规律对运动训练的质量和运动成绩的提高都很有益处的。文章阐述了生物节律的研究进展以及生物节律与运动的重要关系,提出了重视运动与生物节律关系的重要性。

  16. Autism as a disorder of biological and behavioral rhythms: Towards new therapeutic perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie eTordjman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in the role of biological and behavioral rhythms in typical and atypical development. Recent studies in cognitive and developmental psychology have highlighted the importance of rhythmicity and synchrony of motor, emotional and relational rhythms in early development of social communication. The synchronization of rhythms allows tuning and adaptation to the external environment. The role of melatonin in the ontogenetic establishment of circadian rhythms and the synchronization of peripheral oscillators suggests that this hormone might be also involved in the synchrony of motor, emotional and relational rhythms. Autism provides a challenging model of physiological and behavioral rhythm disturbances and their possible effects on the development of social communication impairments and repetitive behaviors or interests. This article situates autism as a disorder of biological and behavioral rhythms and reviews the recent literature on the role of rhythmicity and synchrony of rhythms in child development. Finally, the hypothesis is developed that an integrated approach focusing on biological, motor, emotional and relational rhythms may open interesting therapeutic perspectives for children with autism. More specifically, promising avenues are discussed for potential therapeutic benefits in autism spectrum disorder of melatonin combined with developmental behavioral interventions that emphasize synchrony such as the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM.

  17. Disruption of biological rhythms as a core problem and therapeutic target in mood disorders: the emerging concept of 'rhythm regulators'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fountoulakis Konstantinos N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biological rhythms have always been considered to be disrupted in depression, with the predominant theory being that of hyperarousal. However, recent data suggest that it might be more appropriate to suggest that depressed patients are incapable of achieving and maintaining the particular level of internal homeostasis which permits them to function smoothly, to lower the level of arousal during sleep sufficiently so that quality of sleep is good, and to increase this level enough during the day so the person can function properly. Therefore, the transition from one state to another is somewhat problematic, delayed, incomplete and desynchronised. Thus, agents with a 'rhythm stabilising' effect could be beneficial in the treatment of mood disorders. Such an agent should have a beneficial effect on restoring and stabilising the rhythm of a physiological function while not pushing it towards a specific pole, or inducing the opposite pole; it should also allow response to internal and environmental stimuli and zeitgebers, and restore synchronisation of the various body rhythms while not inducing or worsening desynchronisation. Agomelatine could represent the first of a new class of 'rhythm stabilising antidepressants', but further research is necessary to support this theory.

  18. The nature and perception of fluctuations in human musical rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Holger; Fleischmann, Ragnar; Fredebohm, Anneke; Hagmayer, York; Nagler, Jan; Witt, Annette; Theis, Fabian; Geisel, Theo

    2012-02-01

    Although human musical performances represent one of the most valuable achievements of mankind, the best musicians perform imperfectly. Musical rhythms are not entirely accurate and thus inevitably deviate from the ideal beat pattern. Nevertheless, computer generated perfect beat patterns are frequently devalued by listeners due to a perceived lack of human touch. Professional audio editing software therefore offers a humanizing feature which artificially generates rhythmic fluctuations. However, the built-in humanizing units are essentially random number generators producing only simple uncorrelated fluctuations. Here, for the first time, we establish long-range fluctuations as an inevitable natural companion of both simple and complex human rhythmic performances [1]. Moreover, we demonstrate that listeners strongly prefer long-range correlated fluctuations in musical rhythms. Thus, the favorable fluctuation type for humanizing interbeat intervals coincides with the one generically inherent in human musical performances. [1] HH et al., PLoS ONE,6,e26457 (2011)

  19. The nature and perception of fluctuations in human musical rhythms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Hennig

    Full Text Available Although human musical performances represent one of the most valuable achievements of mankind, the best musicians perform imperfectly. Musical rhythms are not entirely accurate and thus inevitably deviate from the ideal beat pattern. Nevertheless, computer generated perfect beat patterns are frequently devalued by listeners due to a perceived lack of human touch. Professional audio editing software therefore offers a humanizing feature which artificially generates rhythmic fluctuations. However, the built-in humanizing units are essentially random number generators producing only simple uncorrelated fluctuations. Here, for the first time, we establish long-range fluctuations as an inevitable natural companion of both simple and complex human rhythmic performances. Moreover, we demonstrate that listeners strongly prefer long-range correlated fluctuations in musical rhythms. Thus, the favorable fluctuation type for humanizing interbeat intervals coincides with the one generically inherent in human musical performances.

  20. [Alteration of biological rhythms causes metabolic diseases and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saderi, Nadia; Escobar, Carolina; Salgado-Delgado, Roberto

    2013-07-16

    The incidence of obesity worldwide has become a serious, constantly growing public health issue that reaches alarming proportions in some countries. To date none of the strategies developed to combat obesity have proved to be decisive, and hence there is an urgent need to address the problem with new approaches. Today, studies in the field of chronobiology have shown that our physiology continually adapts itself to the cyclical changes in the environment, regard-less of whether they are daily or seasonal. This is possible thanks to the existence of a biological clock in our hypothalamus which regulates the expression and/or activity of enzymes and hormones involved in regulating our metabolism, as well as all the homeostatic functions. It has been observed that this clock can be upset as a result of today's modern lifestyle, which involves a drop in physical activity during the day and the abundant ingestion of food during the night, among other factors, which together promote metabolic syndrome and obesity. Hence, the aim of this review is to summarise the recent findings that show the effect that altering the circadian rhythms has on the metabolism and how this can play a part in the development of metabolic diseases.

  1. The Nature and Perception of Fluctuations in Human Musical Rhythms

    OpenAIRE

    Holger Hennig; Ragnar Fleischmann; Anneke Fredebohm; York Hagmayer; Jan Nagler; Annette Witt; Theis, Fabian J.; Theo Geisel

    2011-01-01

    Although human musical performances represent one of the most valuable achievements of mankind, the best musicians perform imperfectly. Musical rhythms are not entirely accurate and thus inevitably deviate from the ideal beat pattern. Nevertheless, computer generated perfect beat patterns are frequently devalued by listeners due to a perceived lack of human touch. Professional audio editing software therefore offers a humanizing feature which artificially generates rhythmic fluctuations. Howe...

  2. Endogenous control of waking brain rhythms induces neuroplasticity in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, T.; Munneke, M.; Ruge, D.; Gruzelier, J.H.; Rothwell, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the possibility of noninvasively inducing long-term changes in human corticomotor excitability by means of a brain-computer interface, which enables users to exert internal control over the cortical rhythms recorded from the scalp. We demonstrate that self-regulation of electroen

  3. Critical time delay of the pineal melatonin rhythm in humans due to weak electromagnetic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgamuge, Malka N

    2013-08-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) can increase free radicals, activate the stress response and alter enzyme reactions. Intracellular signalling is mediated by free radicals and enzyme kinetics is affected by radical pair recombination rates. The magnetic field component of an external EMF can delay the "recombination rate" of free radical pairs. Magnetic fields thus increase radical life-times in biological systems. Although measured in nanoseconds, this extra time increases the potential to do more damage. Melatonin regulates the body's sleep-wake cycle or circadian rhythm. The World Health Organization (WHO) has confirmed that prolonged alterations in sleep patterns suppress the body's ability to make melatonin. Considerable cancer rates have been attributed to the reduction of melatonin production as a result of jet lag and night shift work. In this study, changes in circadian rhythm and melatonin concentration are observed due to the external perturbation of chemical reaction rates. We further analyze the pineal melatonin rhythm and investigate the critical time delay or maturation time of radical pair recombination rates, exploring the impact of the mRNA degradation rate on the critical time delay. The results show that significant melatonin interruption and changes to the circadian rhythm occur due to the perturbation of chemical reaction rates, as also reported in previous studies. The results also show the influence of the mRNA degradation rate on the circadian rhythm's critical time delay or maturation time. The results support the hypothesis that exposure to weak EMFs via melatonin disruption can adversely affect human health.

  4. Ethical and methodological standards for laboratory and medical biological rhythm research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portaluppi, Francesco; Touitou, Yvan; Smolensky, Michael H

    2008-11-01

    The main objectives of this article are to update the ethical standards for the conduct of human and animal biological rhythm research and recommend essential elements for quality chronobiological research information, which should be especially useful for new investigators of the rhythms of life. A secondary objective is to provide for those with an interest in the results of chronobiology investigations, but who might be unfamiliar with the field, an introduction to the basic methods and standards of biological rhythm research and time series data analysis. The journal and its editors endorse compliance of all investigators to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association, which relate to the conduct of ethical research on human beings, and the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council, which relate to the conduct of ethical research on laboratory and other animals. The editors and the readers of the journal expect the authors of submitted manuscripts to have adhered to the ethical standards dictated by local, national, and international laws and regulations in the conduct of investigations and to be unbiased and accurate in reporting never-before-published research findings. Authors of scientific papers are required to disclose all potential conflicts of interest, particularly when the research is funded in part or in full by the medical and pharmaceutical industry, when the authors are stock-holders of the company that manufactures or markets the products under study, or when the authors are a recent or current paid consultant to the involved company. It is the responsibility of the authors of submitted manuscripts to clearly present sufficient detail about the synchronizer schedule of the studied subjects (i.e., the sleep-wake schedule, ambient light-dark cycle, intensity and spectrum of ambient light exposure, seasons when the research was

  5. Biological Rhythms Modelisation of Vigilance and Sleep in Microgravity State with COSINOR and Volterra's Kernels Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudeua de Gerlicz, C.; Golding, J. G.; Bobola, Ph.; Moutarde, C.; Naji, S.

    2008-06-01

    The spaceflight under microgravity cause basically biological and physiological imbalance in human being. Lot of study has been yet release on this topic especially about sleep disturbances and on the circadian rhythms (alternation vigilance-sleep, body, temperature...). Factors like space motion sickness, noise, or excitement can cause severe sleep disturbances. For a stay of longer than four months in space, gradual increases in the planned duration of sleep were reported. [1] The average sleep in orbit was more than 1.5 hours shorter than the during control periods on earth, where sleep averaged 7.9 hours. [2] Alertness and calmness were unregistered yield clear circadian pattern of 24h but with a phase delay of 4h.The calmness showed a biphasic component (12h) mean sleep duration was 6.4 structured by 3-5 non REM/REM cycles. Modelisations of neurophysiologic mechanisms of stress and interactions between various physiological and psychological variables of rhythms have can be yet release with the COSINOR method. [3

  6. 生物节律与麻醉%Biological rhythm and anesthesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳青; 高巨

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronobiology indicates that many kinds of physiological proceedings such as blood pressure,heart rate,cardiac output,and immunological and inflammatory processes all exhibit a circadian pattern.Objective To explore the interaction of biological rhythm and anesthesia.Content Many research showed that biological rhythm can exert effect on sedation,hypnosis,analgesia,muscle relaxation and clinical anesthesia work,and inversely,anesthesia can divert or reset biological rhythm.Trend Further study was needed for the mechanism of interaction of biological rhythm and anesthesia.%背景 时间生物学研究表明人体的多种生理活动和内分泌系统如血压、心率、心排出量、免疫、炎症反应均具有生物节律性.目的 探讨生物节律与麻醉的相互作用.内容 生物节律对镇静催眠、镇痛、肌肉松弛及临床麻醉工作均可产生影响,反之,麻醉也可转换或重置生物节律. 趋向 生物节律与麻醉的相互影响和作用机制还需进一步研究.

  7. Circadian Rhythms, Metabolism, and Chrononutrition in Rodents and Humans123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jonathan D; Scheer, Frank A; Turek, Fred W

    2016-01-01

    Chrononutrition is an emerging discipline that builds on the intimate relation between endogenous circadian (24-h) rhythms and metabolism. Circadian regulation of metabolic function can be observed from the level of intracellular biochemistry to whole-organism physiology and even postprandial responses. Recent work has elucidated the metabolic roles of circadian clocks in key metabolic tissues, including liver, pancreas, white adipose, and skeletal muscle. For example, tissue-specific clock disruption in a single peripheral organ can cause obesity or disruption of whole-organism glucose homeostasis. This review explains mechanistic insights gained from transgenic animal studies and how these data are being translated into the study of human genetics and physiology. The principles of chrononutrition have already been demonstrated to improve human weight loss and are likely to benefit the health of individuals with metabolic disease, as well as of the general population. PMID:26980824

  8. Circadian rhythms in biologically closed electrical circuits of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander; Waite, Astian J; Wooten, Joseph D; Markin, Vladislav S

    2012-02-01

    The circadian clock regulates a wide range of electrophysiological and developmental processes in plants. Here, we discuss the direct influence of a circadian clock on biologically closed electrochemical circuits in vivo. The biologically closed electrochemical circuits in the leaves of C. miniata (Kaffir lily), Aloe vera and Mimosa pudica, which regulate their physiology, were analyzed using the charge stimulation method. Plants are able to memorize daytime and nighttime. Even at continuous light or darkness, plants recognize nighttime or daytime and change the input resistance. The circadian clock can be maintained endogenously and has electrochemical oscillators, which can activate ion channels in biologically closed electrochemical circuits. The activation of voltage gated channels depends on the applied voltage, electrical charge, and the speed of transmission of electrical energy from the electrostimulator to plants.

  9. Resonance of about-weekly human heart rate rhythm with solar activity change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, G; Halberg, F; Wendt, H W; Bingham, C; Sothern, R B; Haus, E; Kleitman, E; Kleitman, N; Revilla, M A; Revilla, M; Breus, T K; Pimenov, K; Grigoriev, A E; Mitish, M D; Yatsyk, G V; Syutkina, E V

    1996-12-01

    In several human adults, certain solar activity rhythms may influence an about 7-day rhythm in heart rate. When no about-weekly feature was found in the rate of change in sunspot area, a measure of solar activity, the double amplitude of a circadian heart rate rhythm, approximated by the fit of a 7-day cosine curve, was lower, as was heart rate corresponds to about-weekly features in solar activity and/or relates to a sunspot cycle.

  10. Recent advances in sleep-wake cycle and biological rhythms in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Rébecca; Naismith, Sharon L; Hickie, Ian B

    2013-10-01

    The cyclical nature of periodic switches in energy, motor activation and sleep-wake cycles in bipolar disorder suggests a strong underlying relationship with disturbances in chronobiology. Current research is refining our understanding of the various patterns of sleep-wake and biological rhythms alterations at early and later stages of this illness, as well as across its depressive/fatigue, manic/hypomanic and euthymic phases. This research focuses on early detection and subsequent monitoring to predict and better manage recurrent episodes. Sleep-wake cycle and biological rhythms disturbances are also well known to affect other key aspects of physical health (notably metabolic functions), cognitive performance and elevated risks for suicide. Increasing evidence now supports the integration of behavioural or pharmacological therapeutic strategies that target the sleep-wake and circadian systems in the ongoing treatment of various phases of bipolar disorder.

  11. Diurnal rhythms in neurexins transcripts and inhibitory/excitatory synapse scaffold proteins in the biological clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Shapiro-Reznik

    Full Text Available The neurexin genes (NRXN1/2/3 encode two families (α and β of highly polymorphic presynaptic proteins that are involved in excitatory/inhibitory synaptic balance. Recent studies indicate that neuronal activation and memory formation affect NRXN1/2/3α expression and alternative splicing at splice sites 3 and 4 (SS#3/SS#4. Neurons in the biological clock residing in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus (SCN act as self-sustained oscillators, generating rhythms in gene expression and electrical activity, to entrain circadian bodily rhythms to the 24 hours day/night cycles. Cell autonomous oscillations in NRXN1/2/3α expression and SS#3/SS#4 exons splicing and their links to rhythms in excitatory/inhibitory synaptic balance in the circadian clock were explored. NRXN1/2/3α expression and SS#3/SS#4 splicing, levels of neurexin-2α and the synaptic scaffolding proteins PSD-95 and gephyrin (representing excitatory and inhibitory synapses, respectively were studied in mRNA and protein extracts obtained from SCN of C3H/J mice at different times of the 24 hours day/night cycle. Further studies explored the circadian oscillations in these components and causality relationships in immortalized rat SCN2.2 cells. Diurnal rhythms in mNRXN1α and mNRXN2α transcription, SS#3/SS#4 exon-inclusion and PSD-95 gephyrin and neurexin-2α levels were found in the SCN in vivo. No such rhythms were found with mNRXN3α. SCN2.2 cells also exhibited autonomous circadian rhythms in rNRXN1/2 expression SS#3/SS#4 exon inclusion and PSD-95, gephyrin and neurexin-2α levels. rNRXN3α and rNRXN1/2β were not expressed. Causal relationships were demonstrated, by use of specific siRNAs, between rNRXN2α SS#3 exon included transcripts and gephyrin levels in the SCN2.2 cells. These results show for the first time dynamic, cell autonomous, diurnal rhythms in expression and splicing of NRXN1/2 and subsequent effects on the expression of neurexin-2α and postsynaptic

  12. The Characterization of Biological Rhythms in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Ortiz-Tudela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Patients with dementia, especially Alzheimer’s disease, present several circadian impairments related to an accelerated perturbation of their biological clock that is caused by the illness itself and not merely age-related. Thus, the objective of this work was to elucidate whether these circadian system alterations were already present in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, as compared to healthy age-matched subjects. Methods. 40 subjects (21 patients diagnosed with MCI, 74.1 ± 1.5 y.o., and 19 healthy subjects, 71.7 ± 1.4 y.o. were subjected to ambulatory monitoring, recording wrist skin temperature, motor activity, body position, and the integrated variable TAP (including temperature, activity, and position for one week. Nonparametrical analyses were then applied. Results. MCI patients exhibited a significant phase advance with respect to the healthy group for the following phase markers: temperature M5 (mean ± SEM: 04:20 ± 00:21 versus 02:52 ± 00:21 and L10 (14:35 ± 00:27 versus 13:24 ± 00:16 and TAP L5 (04:18 ± 00:14 versus 02:55 ± 00:30 and M10 (14:30 ± 00:18 versus 13:28 ± 00:23. Conclusions. These results suggest that significant advances in the biological clock begin to occur in MCI patients, evidenced by an accelerated aging of the circadian clock, as compared to a healthy population of the same age.

  13. Etiopathology and neurobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder: focus on biological rhythms and chronotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robillard R

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rébecca Robillard,1,2 Addo Boafo,3,4 1University of Ottawa Institute of Mental Health Research, 2School of Psychology, University of Ottawa, 3Department of Psychiatry, Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, 4Department of Psychiatry, University of Ottawa Medical School, Ottawa, ON, Canada Abstract: This review examines biological rhythms in persons with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD and their potential relevance to the pathophysiology and treatment of this disorder. In some cases of OCD, the expression of affective, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms may be influenced by circadian and seasonal rhythms, and this could possibly interact with other neurophysiological factors. Further work is required to characterize circadian profiles linked to OCD, but findings thus far highlighted delays in both the sleep–wake cycle and melatonin secretion, as well as reduced circadian rhythmicity of body temperature. It is proposed that these changes in behavioral and endogenous rhythms may increase one’s vulnerability to obsessive–compulsive symptoms. Accordingly, obsessive–compulsive symptoms appear to be more severe in individuals with lower circadian amplitude and often worsen in the afternoon and evening. An increasing number of studies reported encouraging outcomes following the integration of sleep and circadian-based treatments in the management of OCD. There is a need for larger controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of chronotherapies in the context of OCD. Keywords: chronobiology, circadian rhythms, sleep–wake cycle

  14. The full moon as a synchronizer of circa-monthly biological rhythms: Chronobiologic perspectives based on multidisciplinary naturalistic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinberg, Alain; Smolensky, Michael H; Touitou, Yvan

    Biological rhythmicity is presumed to be an advantageous genetic adaptation of fitness and survival value resulting from evolution of life forms in an environment that varies predictably-in-time during the 24 h, month, and year. The 24 h light/dark cycle is the prime synchronizer of circadian periodicities, and its modulation over the course of the year, in terms of daytime photoperiod length, is a prime synchronizer of circannual periodicities. Circadian and circannual rhythms have been the major research focus of most scientists. Circa-monthly rhythms triggered or synchronized by the 29.5 day lunar cycle of nighttime light intensity, or specifically the light of the full moon, although explored in waterborne and certain other species, have received far less study, perhaps because of associations with ancient mythology and/or an attitude naturalistic studies are of lesser merit than ones that entail molecular mechanisms. In this editorial, we cite our recent discovery through multidisciplinary naturalistic investigation of a highly integrated circadian, circa-monthly, and circannual time structure, synchronized by the natural ambient nyctohemeral, lunar, and annual light cycles, of the Peruvian apple cactus (C. peruvianus) flowering and reproductive processes that occur in close temporal coordination with like rhythms of the honey bee as its pollinator. This finding led us to explore the preservation of this integrated biological time structure, synchronized and/or triggered by environmental light cues and cycles, in the reproduction of other species, including Homo sapiens, and how the artificial light environment of today in which humans reside may be negatively affecting human reproduction efficiency.

  15. Long-term effects of cognitive therapy on biological rhythms and depressive symptoms: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondin, Thaíse Campos; Cardoso, Taiane de Azevedo; Jansen, Karen; Silva, Giovanna Del Grande da; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; Silva, Ricardo Azevedo da

    2015-11-15

    To evaluate the effect of cognitive therapy on biological rhythm and depressive and anxious symptoms in a twelve-month follow-up period. In addition, correlations between the reduction of depression and anxiety symptoms and the regulation of biological rhythm were observed. This was a randomized clinical trial with young adults from 18 to 29 years of age who were diagnosed with depression. Two models of psychotherapy were used: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Narrative Cognitive Therapy (NCT). Biological rhythm was assessed with the Biological Rhythm Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (BRIAN). Severity of depressive and anxious symptoms was assessed by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS), respectively. The sample included 97 patients who were divided within the protocols of psychotherapy. There was a significant reduction in depressive and anxious symptoms (pcognitive therapy was effective on the reduction of depressive and anxious symptoms and on the regulation of biological rhythm at a twelve-month follow-up evaluation. This study highlights the association between biological rhythm and symptoms of depression and anxiety. We did not assess genetic, hormonal or neurochemical factors and we did not include patients under pharmaceutical treatment or those with severe symptomatology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Uncovering the mystery of opposite circadian rhythms between mouse and human leukocytes in humanized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Liu, Min; Chan, Xue Ying; Tan, Sue Yee; Subramaniam, Sharrada; Fan, Yong; Loh, Eva; Chang, Kenneth Tou En; Tan, Thiam Chye; Chen, Qingfeng

    2017-08-29

    Many immune parameters show circadian rhythms over the 24-hour day in mammals. The most striking circadian oscillation is the number of circulating immune cells which display an opposite rhythm between humans and mice. The physiological roles and mechanisms of circadian variations in mouse leukocytes are well studied, while for humans they remain unclear due to the lack of a proper model. In this study, we found that consistent with their natural host species, mouse and human circulating leukocytes exhibited opposite circadian oscillations in humanized mice. This cyclic pattern of trafficking correlated well with the diurnal expression levels of CXCR4 which were controlled by the intracellular HIF-lα/ARNTLl heterodimer. Furthermore, we also discovered that p38MAPK/MK2 had opposite effects between mice and humans in generating intracellular reactive oxygen species which subsequently regulated HIF-1α expression. In conclusion, we propose humanized mice as a robust model for human circadian studies and reveal insights on a novel molecular clock network in the human circadian rhythm. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Hematology.

  17. Rhythm Pattern of Sole through Electrification of the Human Body When Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiguchi, Kiyoaki; Wada, Takayuki; Tohyama, Shigeki

    The rhythm of automatic cyclic movements such as walking is known to be generated by a rhythm generator called CPG in the spinal cord. The measurement of rhythm characteristics in walking is considered to be important for analyzing human bipedal walking and adaptive walking on irregular terrain. In particular, the soles that contact the terrain surface perform flexible movements similar to the movement of the fins of a lungfish, which is considered to be the predecessor of land animals. The sole movements are believed to be a basic movement acquired during prehistoric times. The detailed rhythm pattern of sole motion is considered to be important. We developed a method for measuring electrification without installing device on a subject's body and footwear for stabilizing the electrification of the human body. We measured the rhythm pattern of 20 subjects including 4 infants when walking by using this system and the corresponding equipment. Therefore, we confirmed the commonality of the correlative rhythm patterns of 20 subjects. Further, with regard to an individual subject, the reproducibility of a rhythm pattern with strong correlation coefficient > 0.93 ± 0.5 (mean ± SD) concerning rhythms of trials that are differently conducted on adult subjects could be confirmed.

  18. Synchronization in human musical rhythms and mutually interacting complex systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Holger

    2014-09-09

    Though the music produced by an ensemble is influenced by multiple factors, including musical genre, musician skill, and individual interpretation, rhythmic synchronization is at the foundation of musical interaction. Here, we study the statistical nature of the mutual interaction between two humans synchronizing rhythms. We find that the interbeat intervals of both laypeople and professional musicians exhibit scale-free (power law) cross-correlations. Surprisingly, the next beat to be played by one person is dependent on the entire history of the other person's interbeat intervals on timescales up to several minutes. To understand this finding, we propose a general stochastic model for mutually interacting complex systems, which suggests a physiologically motivated explanation for the occurrence of scale-free cross-correlations. We show that the observed long-term memory phenomenon in rhythmic synchronization can be imitated by fractal coupling of separately recorded or synthesized audio tracks and thus applied in electronic music. Though this study provides an understanding of fundamental characteristics of timing and synchronization at the interbrain level, the mutually interacting complex systems model may also be applied to study the dynamics of other complex systems where scale-free cross-correlations have been observed, including econophysics, physiological time series, and collective behavior of animal flocks.

  19. Distinct α- and β-band rhythms over rat somatosensory cortex with similar properties as in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, George; van Ede, Freek

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate distinct α- (7–14 Hz) and β-band (15–30 Hz) rhythms in rat somatosensory cortex in vivo using epidural electrocorticography recordings. Moreover, we show in rats that a genuine β-rhythm coexists alongside β-activity that reflects the second harmonic of the arch-shaped somatosensory α-rhythm. This demonstration of a genuine somatosensory β-rhythm depends on a novel quantification of neuronal oscillations that is based on their rhythmic nature: lagged coherence. Using lagged coherence, we provide two lines of evidence that this somatosensory β-rhythm is distinct from the second harmonic of the arch-shaped α-rhythm. The first is based on the rhythms' spatial properties: the α- and β-rhythms are demonstrated to have significantly different topographies. The second is based on the rhythms' temporal properties: the lagged phase-phase coupling between the α- and β-rhythms is demonstrated to be significantly less than would be expected if both reflected a single underlying nonsinusoidal rhythm. Finally, we demonstrate that 1) the lagged coherence spectrum is consistent between signals from rat and human somatosensory cortex; and 2) a tactile stimulus has the same effect on the somatosensory α- and β-rhythms in both rats and humans, namely suppressing them. Thus we not only provide evidence for the existence of genuine α- and β-rhythms in rat somatosensory cortex, but also for their homology to the primate sensorimotor α- and β-rhythms. PMID:27009160

  20. Animal care practices in experiments on biological rhythms and sleep: report of the Joint Task Force of the Society for Research on Biological Rhythms and the Sleep Research Society

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bittman, Eric L; Kilduff, Thomas S; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Szymusiak, Ronald; Toth, Linda A; Turek, Fred W

    2013-01-01

    ... for the improvement of the welfare of animals and human beings. As a result, attending veterinarians and IACUC are often charged with the responsibility of evaluating experiments on such rhythms or the effects of sleep (or its deprivation...

  1. Circadian rhythms, metabolism, and chrononutrition in rodents and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrononutrition is an emerging discipline that builds on the intimate relation between endogenous circadian (24-h) rhythms and metabolism. Circadian regulation of metabolic function can be observed from the level of intracellular biochemistry to whole-organism physiology and even postprandial respon...

  2. Rhythms, rhythmicity and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronsard, Guillaume; Bartolomei, Fabrice

    2013-09-01

    The relationships between biological rhythms and human aggressive behavior are addressed and discussed in this article: First, circadian rhythms and aggression are considered. Studies of sleep/waking cycle disturbances in aggression are reported. Severe aggression is associated with profound changes in sleep architecture. Causal link is difficult to establish given that sleep disturbance and aggressive behavior could be the symptoms of the same disorder. Specific aggressive behavior developed during sleep is also described. In addition, hormonal circadian rhythm studies are reported. Thus, low cortisol levels, in particular low cortisol variability, are associated with aggressive behavior, suggesting an inhibitory role of cortisol. Testosterone has daily and seasonal fluctuations, but no link with aggression has been established. Neurophysiological underlying mechanisms are discussed in the last part of this article, with a focus on the relationship between brain rhythm and aggression. Increase of slow-wave EEG activities is observed in individuals with aggressive behavior. Epilepsy, as a disease of brain rhythm could be associated with aggressive behavior, in pre, post and inter ictal periodes. Incidence of aggression is not likely more prevalent in epileptic individuals compared to those with other neurological conditions. Ictal changes take the form of profound behavioral changes, including aggressive behavior which has been interpreted as the emergence of "archeical" or innate motor patterns. In this multidisciplinary approach, the main difficulty is the categorization of the differents types of aggression. Finally, taken together, these studies suggest that biological rhythms, especially circadian rhythms, could provide therapeutic benefits to human aggressive behavior. Biological rhythymicity seems to be a necessary permanent training offering interesting perspectives for the adaptation to changes in the field of aggression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd

  3. Forced splitting of human sleep in free-running rhythms

    OpenAIRE

    Zulley, Jürgen; Carr, D

    1992-01-01

    The assumption of polyphasic sleep/wake regulation is based on the occurrence of nap-sleep at specific phase positions in the circadian cycle. Further support would be the split of the normal long major sleep episode into shorter components. Evidence for this hypothesis comes from the discovery of bimodal distribution in sleep duration. An experimental approach to test this hypothesis has been carried out by restricting sleep duration in free-running rhythms. The outcome was a biphasic distri...

  4. The Incarnate Rhythm of Geometrical Knowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Alfredo; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2012-01-01

    Rhythm is a fundamental dimension of human nature at both biological and social levels. However, existing research literature has not sufficiently investigated its role in mathematical cognition and behavior. The purpose of this article is to bring the concept of "incarnate rhythm" into current discourses in the field of mathematical learning and…

  5. Evaluation of the Phase-Dependent Rhythm Control of Human Walking Using Phase Response Curves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Funato

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Humans and animals control their walking rhythms to maintain motion in a variable environment. The neural mechanism for controlling rhythm has been investigated in many studies using mechanical and electrical stimulation. However, quantitative evaluation of rhythm variation in response to perturbation at various timings has rarely been investigated. Such a characteristic of rhythm is described by the phase response curve (PRC. Dynamical simulations of human skeletal models with changing walking rhythms (phase reset described a relation between the effective phase reset on stability and PRC, and phase reset around touch-down was shown to improve stability. A PRC of human walking was estimated by pulling the swing leg, but such perturbations hardly influenced the stance leg, so the relation between the PRC and walking events was difficult to discuss. This research thus examines human response to variations in floor velocity. Such perturbation yields another problem, in that the swing leg is indirectly (and weakly perturbed, so the precision of PRC decreases. To solve this problem, this research adopts the weighted spike-triggered average (WSTA method. In the WSTA method, a sequential pulsed perturbation is used for stimulation. This is in contrast with the conventional impulse method, which applies an intermittent impulsive perturbation. The WSTA method can be used to analyze responses to a large number of perturbations for each sequence. In the experiment, perturbations are applied to walking subjects by rapidly accelerating and decelerating a treadmill belt, and measured data are analyzed by the WSTA and impulse methods. The PRC obtained by the WSTA method had clear and stable waveforms with a higher temporal resolution than those obtained by the impulse method. By investigation of the rhythm transition for each phase of walking using the obtained PRC, a rhythm change that extends the touch-down and mid-single support phases is found to occur.

  6. Evaluation of the Phase-Dependent Rhythm Control of Human Walking Using Phase Response Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funato, Tetsuro; Yamamoto, Yuki; Aoi, Shinya; Imai, Takashi; Aoyagi, Toshio; Tomita, Nozomi; Tsuchiya, Kazuo

    2016-05-01

    Humans and animals control their walking rhythms to maintain motion in a variable environment. The neural mechanism for controlling rhythm has been investigated in many studies using mechanical and electrical stimulation. However, quantitative evaluation of rhythm variation in response to perturbation at various timings has rarely been investigated. Such a characteristic of rhythm is described by the phase response curve (PRC). Dynamical simulations of human skeletal models with changing walking rhythms (phase reset) described a relation between the effective phase reset on stability and PRC, and phase reset around touch-down was shown to improve stability. A PRC of human walking was estimated by pulling the swing leg, but such perturbations hardly influenced the stance leg, so the relation between the PRC and walking events was difficult to discuss. This research thus examines human response to variations in floor velocity. Such perturbation yields another problem, in that the swing leg is indirectly (and weakly) perturbed, so the precision of PRC decreases. To solve this problem, this research adopts the weighted spike-triggered average (WSTA) method. In the WSTA method, a sequential pulsed perturbation is used for stimulation. This is in contrast with the conventional impulse method, which applies an intermittent impulsive perturbation. The WSTA method can be used to analyze responses to a large number of perturbations for each sequence. In the experiment, perturbations are applied to walking subjects by rapidly accelerating and decelerating a treadmill belt, and measured data are analyzed by the WSTA and impulse methods. The PRC obtained by the WSTA method had clear and stable waveforms with a higher temporal resolution than those obtained by the impulse method. By investigation of the rhythm transition for each phase of walking using the obtained PRC, a rhythm change that extends the touch-down and mid-single support phases is found to occur.

  7. Monkeys Share the Human Ability to Internally Maintain a Temporal Rhythm

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Garibay, Otto; Cadena-Valencia, Jaime; Merchant, Hugo; de Lafuente, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Timing is a fundamental variable for behavior. However, the mechanisms allowing human and non-human primates to synchronize their actions with periodic events are not yet completely understood. Here we characterize the ability of rhesus monkeys and humans to perceive and maintain rhythms of different paces in the absence of sensory cues or motor actions. In our rhythm task subjects had to observe and then internally follow a visual stimulus that periodically changed its location along a circular perimeter. Crucially, they had to maintain this visuospatial tempo in the absence of movements. Our results show that the probability of remaining in synchrony with the rhythm decreased, and the variability in the timing estimates increased, as a function of elapsed time, and these trends were well described by the generalized law of Weber. Additionally, the pattern of errors shows that human subjects tended to lag behind fast rhythms and to get ahead of slow ones, suggesting that a mean tempo might be incorporated as prior information. Overall, our results demonstrate that rhythm perception and maintenance are cognitive abilities that we share with rhesus monkeys, and these abilities do not depend on overt motor commands. PMID:28066294

  8. Monkeys Share the Human Ability to Internally Maintain a Temporal Rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Garibay, Otto; Cadena-Valencia, Jaime; Merchant, Hugo; de Lafuente, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Timing is a fundamental variable for behavior. However, the mechanisms allowing human and non-human primates to synchronize their actions with periodic events are not yet completely understood. Here we characterize the ability of rhesus monkeys and humans to perceive and maintain rhythms of different paces in the absence of sensory cues or motor actions. In our rhythm task subjects had to observe and then internally follow a visual stimulus that periodically changed its location along a circular perimeter. Crucially, they had to maintain this visuospatial tempo in the absence of movements. Our results show that the probability of remaining in synchrony with the rhythm decreased, and the variability in the timing estimates increased, as a function of elapsed time, and these trends were well described by the generalized law of Weber. Additionally, the pattern of errors shows that human subjects tended to lag behind fast rhythms and to get ahead of slow ones, suggesting that a mean tempo might be incorporated as prior information. Overall, our results demonstrate that rhythm perception and maintenance are cognitive abilities that we share with rhesus monkeys, and these abilities do not depend on overt motor commands.

  9. Dissecting Daily and Circadian Expression Rhythms of Clock-Controlled Genes in Human Blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Lech (Karolina); K. Ackermann (Katrin); V.L. Revell (Victoria); O.S.C.A.R. Lao; D.J. Skene (Debra); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe identification and investigation of novel clock-controlled genes (CCGs) has been conducted thus far mainly in model organisms such as nocturnal rodents, with limited information in humans. Here, we aimed to characterize daily and circadian expression rhythms of CCGs in human

  10. Beat Keeping in a Sea Lion As Coupled Oscillation: Implications for Comparative Understanding of Human Rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Andrew A; Cook, Peter F; Large, Edward W; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Human capacity for entraining movement to external rhythms-i.e., beat keeping-is ubiquitous, but its evolutionary history and neural underpinnings remain a mystery. Recent findings of entrainment to simple and complex rhythms in non-human animals pave the way for a novel comparative approach to assess the origins and mechanisms of rhythmic behavior. The most reliable non-human beat keeper to date is a California sea lion, Ronan, who was trained to match head movements to isochronous repeating stimuli and showed spontaneous generalization of this ability to novel tempos and to the complex rhythms of music. Does Ronan's performance rely on the same neural mechanisms as human rhythmic behavior? In the current study, we presented Ronan with simple rhythmic stimuli at novel tempos. On some trials, we introduced "perturbations," altering either tempo or phase in the middle of a presentation. Ronan quickly adjusted her behavior following all perturbations, recovering her consistent phase and tempo relationships to the stimulus within a few beats. Ronan's performance was consistent with predictions of mathematical models describing coupled oscillation: a model relying solely on phase coupling strongly matched her behavior, and the model was further improved with the addition of period coupling. These findings are the clearest evidence yet for parity in human and non-human beat keeping and support the view that the human ability to perceive and move in time to rhythm may be rooted in broadly conserved neural mechanisms.

  11. Forced splitting of human sleep in free-running rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulley; Carr

    1992-06-01

    The assumption of polyphasic sleep/wake regulation is based on the occurrence of nap-sleep at specific phase positions in the circadian cycle. Further support would be the split of the normal long major sleep episode into shorter components. Evidence for this hypothesis comes from the discovery of bimodal distribution in sleep duration. An experimental approach to test this hypothesis has been carried out by restricting sleep duration in free-running rhythms. The outcome was a biphasic distribution of sleep within a circadian cycle with sections of dissociation and synchronization of the two sleep blocks. The results show similarities with 'splitting', a phenomenon which has been found in animal studies. The relatively short duration of the different sections as well as the asymmetric distribution of the two sleep blocks in the circadian cycle leads to the assumption of a splitting of the major sleep episode and not of the circadian rhythm. Sleep split into two, relatively short sleep episodes of comparable duration contrasts with napping, which is characterized by an extra sleep episode in addition to the long major sleep.

  12. Effects of Lycium barbarum. polysaccharide on type 2 diabetes mellitus rats by regulating biological rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Gao, Xu; Zhang, Tao; Li, Xing

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with circadian disruption. Our previous experimental results have showed that dietary Lycium barbarum. polysaccharide (LBP-4a) exhibited hypoglycemic and improving insulin resistance (IR) activities. This study was to explore the mechanisms of LBP-4a for improving hyperglycemia and IR by regulating biological rhythms in T2DM rats. Materials and Methods: The rats of T2DM were prepared by the high-sucrose-fat diets and injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The levels of insulin, leptin and melatonin were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The effect of LBP-4a on mRNA expression of melatonin receptors (MT2) in epididymal adipose tissue was evaluated by RT-PCR. The expression of CLOCK and BMAL1 in pancreatic islet cells was detected by Western blotting. Results: Our data indicated that the 24-hr rhythm of blood glucose appeared to have consistent with normal rats after gavaged administration of LBP-4a for each day of the 4 weeks, and the effects of hypoglycemia and improving hyperinsulinemia in T2DM rats treated at high dose were much better than that at low dose. The mechanisms were related to increasing MT2 level in epididymal adipose tissue and affecting circadian clocks gene expression of CLOCK and BMAL1 in pancreatic islet cells. Conclusion: LBP-4a administration could treat T2DM rats. These observations provided the background for the further development of LBP-4a as a potential dietary therapeutic agent in the treatment of T2DM. PMID:27803791

  13. What Pinnipeds Have to Say about Human Speech, Music, and the Evolution of Rhythm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravignani, Andrea; Fitch, W Tecumseh; Hanke, Frederike D; Heinrich, Tamara; Hurgitsch, Bettina; Kotz, Sonja A; Scharff, Constance; Stoeger, Angela S; de Boer, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Research on the evolution of human speech and music benefits from hypotheses and data generated in a number of disciplines. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the high relevance of pinniped research for the study of speech, musical rhythm, and their origins, bridging and complementing curr

  14. Daily feeding rhythm in proboscis monkeys: a preliminary comparison with other non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Ikki; Akiyama, Yoshihiro; Tuuga, Augustine; Bernard, Henry; Clauss, Marcus

    2014-04-01

    In non-human primates, the daily feeding rhythm, i.e., temporal fluctuation in feeding activity across the day, has been described but has rarely received much analytical interpretation, though it may play a crucial part in understanding the adaptive significance of primate foraging strategies. This study is the first to describe the detailed daily feeding rhythm in proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) based on data collected from both riverbank and inland habitats. From May 2005 to May 2006, data on feeding behavior in a group of proboscis monkeys consisting of an alpha-male, six adult females and immatures was collected via continuous focal animal sampling technique in a forest along the Menanggul River, Sabah, Malaysia. In both the male and females, the highest peak of feeding activity was in the late afternoon at 15:00-17:00, i.e., shortly before sleeping. The differences in the feeding rhythm among the seasons appeared to reflect the time spent eating fruit and/or the availability of fruit; clearer feeding peaks were detected when the monkeys spent a relevant amount of time eating fruit, but no clear peak was detected when fruit eating was less frequent. The daily feeding rhythm was not strongly influenced by daily temperature fluctuations. When comparing the daily feeding rhythm of proboscis monkeys to that of other primates, one of the most common temporal patterns detected across primates was a feeding peak in the late afternoon, although it was impossible to demonstrate this statistically because of methodological differences among studies.

  15. Beat Keeping in a Sea Lion as Coupled Oscillation: Implications for Comparative Understanding of Human Rhythm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A Rouse

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human capacity for entraining movement to external rhythms—i.e., beat keeping—is ubiquitous, but its evolutionary history and neural underpinnings remain a mystery. Recent findings of entrainment to simple and complex rhythms in non-human animals pave the way for a novel comparative approach to assess the origins and mechanisms of rhythmic behavior. The most reliable non-human beat keeper to date is a California sea lion, Ronan, who was trained to match head movements to isochronous repeating stimuli and showed spontaneous generalization of this ability to novel tempos and to the complex rhythms of music. Does Ronan’s performance rely on the same neural mechanisms as human rhythmic behavior? In the current study, we presented Ronan with simple rhythmic stimuli at novel tempos. On some trials, we introduced perturbations, altering either tempo or phase in the middle of a presentation. Ronan quickly adjusted her behavior following all perturbations, recovering her consistent phase and tempo relationships to the stimulus within a few beats. Ronan’s performance was consistent with predictions of mathematical models describing coupled oscillation: a model relying solely on phase coupling strongly matched her behavior, and the model was further improved with the addition of period coupling. These findings are the clearest evidence yet for parity in human and non-human beat keeping and support the view that the human ability to perceive and move in time to rhythm may be rooted in broadly conserved neural mechanisms.

  16. Biological Databases for Human Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Zou; Lina Ma; Jun Yu; Zhang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The completion of the Human Genome Project lays a foundation for systematically studying the human genome from evolutionary history to precision medicine against diseases. With the explosive growth of biological data, there is an increasing number of biological databases that have been developed in aid of human-related research. Here we present a collection of human-related biological databases and provide a mini-review by classifying them into different categories according to their data types. As human-related databases continue to grow not only in count but also in volume, challenges are ahead in big data storage, processing, exchange and curation.

  17. Biological Databases for Human Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Dong; Ma, Lina; Yu, Jun; Zhang, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The completion of the Human Genome Project lays a foundation for systematically studying the human genome from evolutionary history to precision medicine against diseases. With the explosive growth of biological data, there is an increasing number of biological databases that have been developed in aid of human-related research. Here we present a collection of human-related biological databases and provide a mini-review by classifying them into different categories according to their data types. As human-related databases continue to grow not only in count but also in volume, challenges are ahead in big data storage, processing, exchange and curation. PMID:25712261

  18. Reduction theories elucidate the origins of complex biological rhythms generated by interacting delay-induced oscillations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuhiro Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available Time delay is known to induce sustained oscillations in many biological systems such as electroencephalogram (EEG activities and gene regulations. Furthermore, interactions among delay-induced oscillations can generate complex collective rhythms, which play important functional roles. However, due to their intrinsic infinite dimensionality, theoretical analysis of interacting delay-induced oscillations has been limited. Here, we show that the two primary methods for finite-dimensional limit cycles, namely, the center manifold reduction in the vicinity of the Hopf bifurcation and the phase reduction for weak interactions, can successfully be applied to interacting infinite-dimensional delay-induced oscillations. We systematically derive the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation and the phase equation without delay for general interaction networks. Based on the reduced low-dimensional equations, we demonstrate that diffusive (linearly attractive coupling between a pair of delay-induced oscillations can exhibit nontrivial amplitude death and multimodal phase locking. Our analysis provides unique insights into experimentally observed EEG activities such as sudden transitions among different phase-locked states and occurrence of epileptic seizures.

  19. [Biological, behavioral and intellectual rhythms in pupils during the school-day].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagner, H; Testu, F

    1996-06-01

    We report in this paper the data separately collected for 15 years by the research teams of Montagner and Testu on the daily fluctuations of the periodical type and ultradian and circadian rhythms of biological, behavioural and mental variables which are or could be linked to or correlated with the fluctuations of intellectual activity in pupils throughout the school-day. The variables under study are the behaviours which are considered to be indicators of vigilance and non vigilance (arousal and drowsiness), corporal activation, heart rate, blood pressure, performances in tests of vigilance, targeted attention, spatial structuration and logical construction, and also in usual school tasks. Studies were carried out on different children populations at all ages (in this article we only report data on children attending primary school and partly kindergarten) in different French schools and, with regard to Testu's studies, several european schools in England, Germany and Spain. The main data collected by both teams are comparable in many respects: 1) the vigilance level and intellectual performances of pupils of all ages are weak or relatively weak at the beginning of the school activities, i.e. from 8 to 9 or 9:30 according to the studies and measured variables, as the biological constraints are not at a high level (heart rate and blood pressure); 2) the same items or patterns significantly increase throughout school time up to 11:30 or noon according to the studies with the exception of the 11:00-11:30 span in Montagner's research in children attending the first level of primary school, as the biological constraints decrease; 3) in most studies the vigilance level and intellectual performances are weak or relatively weak at the beginning of the school-time following the lunch, and the biological constraints are the strongest of the day (from 13:30 to 15:00) ; 4) the vigilance level and intellectual performances are always higher in the middle of the school-day (i

  20. Adipose circadian rhythms: translating cellular and animal studies to human physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jonathan D

    2012-02-05

    Emerging links between circadian rhythms and metabolism promise much for the understanding of metabolic physiology and pathophysiology, in which white adipose tissue (WAT) plays a prominent role. Many WAT endocrine molecules, termed adipokines, display rhythmic plasma concentration. Moreover, similar to most other tissues, WAT exhibits widespread 24-h variation in gene expression, with approximately 20% of the murine adipose transcriptome estimated to undergo daily variation. A major limitation to human chronobiology research is the availability of physiologically defined peripheral tissues. To date most analyses of in vivo human peripheral clocks has been limited to blood leucocytes. However, subcutaneous adipose tissue represents a novel opportunity to study peripheral molecular rhythms that are of clearly defined metabolic relevance. This review summarises basic concepts of circadian and metabolic physiology before then comparing alternative protocols used to analyse the rhythmic properties of human adipose tissue.

  1. Information-Theoretic Measures Predict the Human Judgment of Rhythm Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fleurian, Remi; Blackwell, Tim; Ben-Tal, Oded; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    To formalize the human judgment of rhythm complexity, we used five measures from information theory and algorithmic complexity to measure the complexity of 48 artificially generated rhythmic sequences. We compared these measurements to human prediction accuracy and easiness judgments obtained from a listening experiment, in which 32 participants guessed the last beat of each sequence. We also investigated the modulating effects of musical expertise and general pattern identification ability. Entropy rate and Kolmogorov complexity were correlated with prediction accuracy, and highly correlated with easiness judgments. A logistic regression showed main effects of musical training, entropy rate, and Kolmogorov complexity, and an interaction between musical training and both entropy rate and Kolmogorov complexity. These results indicate that information-theoretic concepts capture some salient features of the human judgment of rhythm complexity, and they confirm the influence of musical expertise on complexity judgments. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  2. The Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry in patients with bipolar disorder: correlation with affective temperaments and schizotypy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Dopierala

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the relationship of biological rhythms, evaluated by the Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (BRIAN, with affective temperaments and schizotypy. Methods: The BRIAN assessment, along with the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A and the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory for Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE, was administered to 54 patients with remitted bipolar disorder (BD and 54 healthy control (HC subjects. Results: The TEMPS-A cyclothymic temperament correlated positively and the hyperthymic temperament correlated negatively with BRIAN scores in both the BD and HC groups, although the correlation was stronger in BD subjects. Depressive temperament was associated with BRIAN scores in BD but not in HC; conversely, the irritable temperament was associated with BRIAN scores in HC, but not in BD. Several positive correlations between BRIAN scores and the schizotypal dimensions of the O-LIFE were observed in both BD and HC subjects, especially with cognitive disorganization and less so with unusual experiences and impulsive nonconformity. A correlation with introversion/anhedonia was found only in BD subjects. Conclusion: Cyclothymic and depressive temperaments predispose to disturbances of biological rhythms in BD, while a hyperthymic temperament can be protective. Similar predispositions were also found for all schizotypal dimensions, mostly for cognitive disorganization.

  3. DISTURBANCES OF BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS IN A RAT CHRONIC MILD STRESS MODEL OF DEPRESSION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie; Wiborg, Ove; Bouzinova, Elena

    with disturbances in circadian related processes. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is well known for its function as the master clock and regulates several circadian systems by clock genes expression. In addition to central expression, peripheral clock genes have been found. Methods: The study is based on a highly...... rhythm. Conclusion: Abnormalities in circadian rhythms, both centrally and peripherally, are related to depression-like state in the CMS model. Research support: This study is supported by Aarhus University and Illum fondet...

  4. Social origins of rhythm? Synchrony and temporal regularity in human vocalization

    OpenAIRE

    Bowling, Daniel L.; Herbst, Christian T.; W Tecumseh Fitch

    2013-01-01

    Humans have a capacity to perceive and synchronize with rhythms. This is unusual in that only a minority of other species exhibit similar behavior. Study of synchronizing species (particularly anurans and insects) suggests that simultaneous signal production by different individuals may play a critical role in the development of regular temporal signaling. Accordingly, we investigated the link between simultaneous signal production and temporal regularity in our own species. Specifically, we ...

  5. 子午流注与生物节律的相关性%The correlation studies of midnight-noon ebb-flow and biological rhythm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 陈进法; 王硕硕; 吴焕淦; 李璟

    2011-01-01

    The midnight-noon ebb-flow is based on the concept of holism which is called the adaptation of human body to natural environment. The acupuncture of Midnight-noon ebb-flow selects acupoints according to the theory that is in different time, the qi and blood disembogue the different meridians. It is the peak of the chronomedicine of traditional Chinese medicine. It combines the factor of time, spare with Biological Rhythm. The chronobiology which studies the biological Rhythm proves the objectivity of chronomedicine of TCM in terms of science.%子午流注以“天人相应”的整体观为理论基础,依照不同的时辰,气血流注不同经穴的原则,讲究定时、择时取穴,因时制宜.它将时间、空间因素与生物节律性结合起来,是中医时间医学的巅峰.现代时间生物学关于生物节律性的研究从科学的角度给中医时间医学的客观性提供了有力的佐证.

  6. When human walking becomes random walking: fractal analysis and modeling of gait rhythm fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Peng, Chang-K.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Goldberger, Ary L.

    2001-12-01

    We present a random walk, fractal analysis of the stride-to-stride fluctuations in the human gait rhythm. The gait of healthy young adults is scale-free with long-range correlations extending over hundreds of strides. This fractal scaling changes characteristically with maturation in children and older adults and becomes almost completely uncorrelated with certain neurologic diseases. Stochastic modeling of the gait rhythm dynamics, based on transitions between different “neural centers”, reproduces distinctive statistical properties of the gait pattern. By tuning one model parameter, the hopping (transition) range, the model can describe alterations in gait dynamics from childhood to adulthood - including a decrease in the correlation and volatility exponents with maturation.

  7. Biological and environmental rhythms in (dark deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cuvelier

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During 2011, two deep-sea observatories focusing on hydrothermal vent ecology were up and running in the Atlantic (Eiffel Tower, Lucky Strike vent field and the Northeast Pacific Ocean (NEP (Grotto, Main Endeavour Field. Both ecological modules recorded imagery and environmental variables jointly for a time span of 23 days (7–30 October 2011 and environmental variables for up to 9 months (October 2011–June 2012. Community dynamics were assessed based on imagery analysis and rhythms in temporal variation for both fauna and environment were revealed. Tidal rhythms were found to be at play in the two settings and were most visible in temperature and tubeworm appearances (at NEP. A  ∼  6 h lag in tidal rhythm occurrence was observed between Pacific and Atlantic hydrothermal vents, which corresponds to the geographical distance and time delay between the two sites.

  8. Biological and environmental rhythms in (dark) deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvelier, Daphne; Legendre, Pierre; Laës-Huon, Agathe; Sarradin, Pierre-Marie; Sarrazin, Jozée

    2017-06-01

    During 2011, two deep-sea observatories focusing on hydrothermal vent ecology were up and running in the Atlantic (Eiffel Tower, Lucky Strike vent field) and the Northeast Pacific Ocean (NEP) (Grotto, Main Endeavour Field). Both ecological modules recorded imagery and environmental variables jointly for a time span of 23 days (7-30 October 2011) and environmental variables for up to 9 months (October 2011-June 2012). Community dynamics were assessed based on imagery analysis and rhythms in temporal variation for both fauna and environment were revealed. Tidal rhythms were found to be at play in the two settings and were most visible in temperature and tubeworm appearances (at NEP). A ˜ 6 h lag in tidal rhythm occurrence was observed between Pacific and Atlantic hydrothermal vents, which corresponds to the geographical distance and time delay between the two sites.

  9. A study around the clock: human circadian rhythms, mechanisms, role in cancer and chronotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado apresentada à Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra com vista à obtenção do grau de Mestre no âmbito do ciclo de estudos de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Objective: The goal of this paper is to discuss biological rhythms, focusing on chronotherapy in cancer. The objectives are to: (1) briefly describe the circadian timing system, its physiology and networks; (2) address causal issues that have prompt progress toward an understanding of mechanisms underly...

  10. Analysis of coordination between breathing and walking rhythms in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassler, B; Kohl, J

    1996-12-01

    We investigated the coordination between breathing and walking in humans to elucidate whether the coordination degree depends more on metabolic load or on breathing or stride frequencies and whether coordination causes energetic economization expressed by reduction of oxygen uptake (VO2). Eighteen healthy volunteers walked on a treadmill at three load levels realized by different velocities and slopes. We analyzed the time intervals between step onset and the onset of inspiration or expiration related to stride duration (relative phase, phi) and computed the relative-phase histogram to assess the degree of coordination. The degree of coordination between breathing and stepping enhanced with increasing walking speed. Increased work load achieved by slope at constant walking speed improved coordination only slightly. No significant VO2 reduction due to coordination was found. VO2 was more strongly related to ventilation variations occurring during coordination. Also the sympathetic tone reflected by the spectral power of heart rate variability was not reduced during coordination. We conclude that during walking the coordination degree increases with increasing stride frequency and that coordination does not necessarily cause energetic economization.

  11. Movement-related theta rhythm in humans: coordinating self-directed hippocampal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Raphael; Doeller, Christian F; Barnes, Gareth R; Litvak, Vladimir; Düzel, Emrah; Bandettini, Peter A; Burgess, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The hippocampus is crucial for episodic or declarative memory and the theta rhythm has been implicated in mnemonic processing, but the functional contribution of theta to memory remains the subject of intense speculation. Recent evidence suggests that the hippocampus might function as a network hub for volitional learning. In contrast to human experiments, electrophysiological recordings in the hippocampus of behaving rodents are dominated by theta oscillations reflecting volitional movement, which has been linked to spatial exploration and encoding. This literature makes the surprising cross-species prediction that the human hippocampal theta rhythm supports memory by coordinating exploratory movements in the service of self-directed learning. We examined the links between theta, spatial exploration, and memory encoding by designing an interactive human spatial navigation paradigm combined with multimodal neuroimaging. We used both non-invasive whole-head Magnetoencephalography (MEG) to look at theta oscillations and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to look at brain regions associated with volitional movement and learning. We found that theta power increases during the self-initiation of virtual movement, additionally correlating with subsequent memory performance and environmental familiarity. Performance-related hippocampal theta increases were observed during a static pre-navigation retrieval phase, where planning for subsequent navigation occurred. Furthermore, periods of the task showing movement-related theta increases showed decreased fMRI activity in the parahippocampus and increased activity in the hippocampus and other brain regions that strikingly overlap with the previously observed volitional learning network (the reverse pattern was seen for stationary periods). These fMRI changes also correlated with participant's performance. Our findings suggest that the human hippocampal theta rhythm supports memory by coordinating exploratory

  12. [Heart rhythm in humans with different processing levels of acoustic information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenko, M V; Lyzohub, V S; Iukhymenko, L I; Khomenko, S M

    2011-01-01

    The peculiarities of the heart rhythm regulation were investigated in humans during the processing of acoustic information. Statistically significant differences were found in individuals with different levels of auditory-motor reactions according to the heart rhythm characteristics. Individuals with the high level of reactions were characterized by significantly lower total power spectrum (TP=1276.2 ms2), by the power spectrum of high (HL=280.1 ms12) and very low frequencies (VLF-469.8 ms2), as well as by low indexes of standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDNN=37.4 ms), when compared with the persons with the low level of reactions (5248.8; 866.7; 1937.0; 69.8 ms2). The correlation analysis confirmed the dif- ferences between the groups ol persons with adtierent number of processed information and variable (r=0.41, P<0.05) and spectral characteristics of heart rate (r=-0.49--0.56, P<0.05). Different strategies of activation of non-specific brain systems in formation of psycho-physiological reactions and participation of heart rhythm regulatory mechanisms in vegetative support of auditory information processing are discussed.

  13. Anatomic Localization and Autonomic Modulation of AV Junctional Rhythm in Failing Human Hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Vadim V.; Ambrosi, Christina M.; Kostecki, Geran; Hucker, William J.; Glukhov, Alexey V.; Wuskell, Joseph P.; Loew, Leslie M.; Moazami, Nader; Efimov, Igor R.

    2011-01-01

    Background The structure-function relationship in the atrioventricular junction (AVJ) of various animal species has been investigated in detail, however less is known about the human AVJ. In this study, we performed high-resolution optical mapping of the human AVJ (n=6) to define its pacemaker properties and response to autonomic stimulation. Methods and Results Isolated, coronary-perfused AVJ preparations from failing human hearts (n=6, 53±6 years) were optically mapped using the near-infrared, voltage-sensitive dye, di-4-ANBDQBS, with isoproterenol (Iso, 1 μM) and acetylcholine (ACh, 1μM). An algorithm detecting multiple components of optical action potentials was used to reconstruct multi-layered intramural AVJ activation and to identify specialized slow and fast conduction pathways (SP and FP). The anatomical origin and propagation of pacemaker activity was verified via histology. Spontaneous AVJ rhythms of 29±11 bpm (n=6) originated in the nodal-His region (NH, n=3) and/or the proximal His bundle (H, n=4). Iso accelerated the AVJ rhythm to 69±12 bpm (n=5); shifted the leading pacemaker to the transitional cell (TC) regions near the FP and SP (n=4) and/or coronary sinus (n=2); and triggered reentrant arrhythmias (n=2). ACh (n=4) decreased the AVJ rhythm to 18±4 bpm; slowed FP/SP conduction leading to block between the AVJ and atrium; and shifted the pacemaker to either the TC or TC/NH (bifocal activation). Conclusions We have demonstrated that the AVJ pacemaker in failing human hearts is located in the NH or H-regions and can be modified with autonomic stimulation. Moreover, we found that both the FP and SP are involved in anterograde and retrograde conduction. PMID:21646375

  14. Biological markets explain human ultrasociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheskin, Mark; Lambert, Stéphane; Baumard, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The evidence Gowdy & Krall (G&K) provide is more consistent with a biological markets explanation of human ultrasociality than a group selection explanation. Specifically, large-scale societies provide a better biological market for cooperation than do small-scale societies, allowing individuals to increase their fitness. Importantly, many of the quality-of-life costs G&K discuss (e.g., patriarchy) are not fitness costs.

  15. Social origins of rhythm? Synchrony and temporal regularity in human vocalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L Bowling

    Full Text Available Humans have a capacity to perceive and synchronize with rhythms. This is unusual in that only a minority of other species exhibit similar behavior. Study of synchronizing species (particularly anurans and insects suggests that simultaneous signal production by different individuals may play a critical role in the development of regular temporal signaling. Accordingly, we investigated the link between simultaneous signal production and temporal regularity in our own species. Specifically, we asked whether inter-individual synchronization of a behavior that is typically irregular in time, speech, could lead to evenly-paced or "isochronous" temporal patterns. Participants read nonsense phrases aloud with and without partners, and we found that synchronous reading resulted in greater regularity of durational intervals between words. Comparison of same-gender pairings showed that males and females were able to synchronize their temporal speech patterns with equal skill. These results demonstrate that the shared goal of synchronization can lead to the development of temporal regularity in vocalizations, suggesting that the origins of musical rhythm may lie in cooperative social interaction rather than in sexual selection.

  16. Social origins of rhythm? Synchrony and temporal regularity in human vocalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Daniel L; Herbst, Christian T; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2013-01-01

    Humans have a capacity to perceive and synchronize with rhythms. This is unusual in that only a minority of other species exhibit similar behavior. Study of synchronizing species (particularly anurans and insects) suggests that simultaneous signal production by different individuals may play a critical role in the development of regular temporal signaling. Accordingly, we investigated the link between simultaneous signal production and temporal regularity in our own species. Specifically, we asked whether inter-individual synchronization of a behavior that is typically irregular in time, speech, could lead to evenly-paced or "isochronous" temporal patterns. Participants read nonsense phrases aloud with and without partners, and we found that synchronous reading resulted in greater regularity of durational intervals between words. Comparison of same-gender pairings showed that males and females were able to synchronize their temporal speech patterns with equal skill. These results demonstrate that the shared goal of synchronization can lead to the development of temporal regularity in vocalizations, suggesting that the origins of musical rhythm may lie in cooperative social interaction rather than in sexual selection.

  17. DISTURBANCES OF BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS IN A RAT CHRONIC MILD STRESS MODEL OF DEPRESSION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie; Wiborg, Ove; Bouzinova, Elena

    Aim: The focus of this project is to identify biomarkers related to circadian disturbances in major depressive disorder. Background: A large body of clinical data from depressed individuals showed that sleep, temperature, hormones, physiological states and moodchanges are consistent...... validated animal model of depression, the chronic mild stress model (CMS). Depression-like and control rats were killed by decapitation within 24 h. Trunk blood, brain and liver tissue were collected. The quantitative amount of plasma corticosterone and melatonin were measured using an ELISA and RIA kit...... that depression-like animals showed an abnormal circadian rhythm in the liver and in subregions of the rat brains related to depression. However, the SCN was partly protected against stress. We found an increased level of corticosteron and melatonin, in the depression-like animals as well as a shifted circadian...

  18. 嗅球结构及其对生物节律的调控%Structure and regulation of biological rhythms of olfactory bulb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐兴远; 王毅群

    2011-01-01

    Olfactory bulb is a key component of olfaction. Recent researches have found that olfactory bulb regulates the biological rhythms, and it expresses regulatory genes relatively independent of suprachiasmatic nucleus. Based on the research of the structure and regulation of biological rhythms of olfactory bulb, it has become a new focus in basic and clinical medicineto study some nervous system diseases and biological rhythms such as sleep. This article summarizes the structure and the effect on regulating biological rhythms of olfactory bulb.%嗅球是人体控制嗅觉的关键部位.近年来研究发现,嗅球还参与了生物节律的调控,其相对独立于视交叉上核表达节律调控基因.基于嗅球与脑内的神经联系以及其对生物节律调控的作用,深入研究一些神经系统疾病和睡眠等人体自身节律可能会成为基础和临床医学研究的新热点.本文将介绍嗅球的结构,并对其参与调控生物节律的功能进行分析总结.

  19. Short wavelength light filtering by the natural human lens and IOLs -- implications for entrainment of circadian rhythm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted, Adam Elias; Lundeman, Jesper Holm; Kessel, Line

    2013-01-01

    Photoentrainment of circadian rhythm begins with the stimulation of melanopsin containing retinal ganglion cells that respond directly to blue light. With age, the human lens becomes a strong colour filter attenuating transmission of short wavelengths. The purpose of the study was to examine...

  20. [Fundamentals of chronobiology: nyctohemeral rhythms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, L; Buguet, A

    2004-09-01

    Most biological activities fluctuate throughout the day and contribute to a better adaptation to the organism's daily activity. During the last 30 Years, chronobiology has aimed at studying these biological rhythms, explaining most of the biological mechanisms of i) the endogenous circadian rhythmicity, ii) the neurophysiological mechanisms of the photic system that allows its external resetting, and iii) the neuroendocrine mechanisms of internal rhythm synchronization. Moreover, the description of specific biological rhythm disorders and rhythm problems at the cellular and even the molecular level have prompted the emerging fields of chronopharmacology and chronotherapeutics. Copyright 2004 Masson

  1. Annual rhythms that underlie phenology : biological time-keeping meets environmental change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helm, Barbara; Ben-Shlomo, Rachel; Sheriff, Michael J; Hut, Roelof A; Foster, Russell; Barnes, Brian M; Dominoni, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal recurrence of biological processes (phenology) and its relationship to environmental change is recognized as being of key scientific and public concern, but its current study largely overlooks the extent to which phenology is based on biological time-keeping mechanisms. We highlight the rel

  2. Advances in the detection methods for the biological rhythm period%生物节律周期探测方法的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨胜钊; 吴明玮

    2008-01-01

    The period detection of the biological rhythms is one ofthe hot topics in the research of chronobiology,which will help to understand the mechanism of pathological changes and how the function of the clock genes affect the organism and thus guide clinical drug administration and treatment timely.Some new methods for detecting the periods of the biological rhythms,including Lomb-Scargle periodogram,spectral analysis based on Cosinor method(e.g.Percent Rhythm Spectrum and Reverse EHiptie Spectrum),and the Maximum Entropy Spectral Analysis(MESA),ale introduced in this paper.Advantages and disadvantages of the methods ale reviewed and some suggestions to the research in the future are also proposed.These methods provide promising approaches for detecting the precise periods of the biological rhythms and discovering the rule of the changes of the biological rhythms.%探测生物节律的周期是当今时间生物学研究的热点问题之一,它的研究将有助于了解某些病变机理和时钟基因对生物体的作用,指导临床适时用药和治疗等.介绍了Lomb-Scargle周期图、基于余弦法的谱分析方法(百分节律谱方法、倒椭圆谱方法等)、最大熵谱分析方法等几种探测生物节律周期的新方法,对各种方法的优缺点进行了探讨,并对将来的研究提出了一些建议.这些方法为准确探测生物节律的周期、揭示生物节律的变化规律提供了新的思路.

  3. Human biological research since 2006 at the Christian-Albrechts-University in Kiel--aging, chronobiology, and high altitude adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the research at the Department of Human Biology at the Christian-Albrechts-University in Kiel since 2006. The research focuses on the investigation of recent human populations with respect to aging, chronobiology, and adaptation to high altitude. The research areas are outlined presenting findings, ongoing projects and future directions. Aging research examines biological changes in humans considering that aging is a multidimensional process. Changes in body composition, resting energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and sleep have been examined. The applicability of specific research methods to older people has been tested. Chronobiological research concentrates on investigating circadian rhythms of humans. The emphasis lies on the sleep-wake rhythm, body temperature rhythms, hormonal rhythms (cortisol and melatonin) and the circadian expression of so-called clock genes which are involved in the generation of circadian rhythms. Association studies examine the relationship between defined chronobiological phenotypes and clock gene polymorphisms. Genetic aspects are as well investigated within the third research area on the adaptation of native populations to life at high altitude in the South American Andes. Both candidate gene analysis and epigenetic parameters are investigated. Future research will concentrate on the aging of the circadian system.

  4. Painted Rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Duane

    1985-01-01

    In this art activity gifted students, ages 10 to 13, learn about internal and external rhythms and make a painting of an internal rhythm. The lesson can be expanded with a discussion of Kandinsky, Pollock, and other painters who have painted sound or have demonstrated rhythms. (RM)

  5. Program and Abstracts of the Society for Research on Biological Rhythms (2nd) Held in Jacksonville, Florida on 9-13 May 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-15

    Strumwasser, RHYTHMS. Gail Orpen and Meir Steiner . Neurobiol- Michael Roberts, Arnold Eskin ogy Laboratory, St. Joseph’s Hospital Research Institute, and...David R. Soil (Organizer) J. Buysse, Timothy H. Monk. Human Chronobiology Paul Russell, Rudolf Raff Program, WPIC, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh...UNDER MINIMAL Chairperson: WJ. Rietveld MASKING CONDITIONS. Heinz Martens, Hartman Endlich, Gunther Hildebrandt, Rudolf Mood. Institut fur

  6. Two Different Bifurcation Scenarios in Neural Firing Rhythms Discovered in Biological Experiments by Adjusting Two Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WV Xiao-Bo; MO Juan; YANG Ming-Hao; ZHENG Qiao-Hua; GU Hua-Guang; HEN Wei

    2008-01-01

    @@ Two different bifurcation scenarios, one is novel and the other is relatively simpler, in the transition procedures of neural firing patterns are studied in biological experiments on a neural pacemaker by adjusting two parameters. The experimental observations are simulated with a relevant theoretical model neuron. The deterministic non-periodic firing pattern lying within the novel bifurcation scenario is suggested to be a new case of chaos, which has not been observed in previous neurodynamical experiments.

  7. Human Biology teaching portfolio for education subject Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Hlasová, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to create a teaching portfolio with special attention to the educational content of Human Biology. Instructional manuals are created for teaching natural science at primary school and are focused on selected systems in Biology of the human being, which are: muscle system, breathing system, circulation system, digest system, sensuous system, and a chapter about nourishment. Regarding the present?day School educational programmes the teachers themselves choose the year ...

  8. Human consciousness and sleep/waking rhythms: a review and some neuropsychological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, R

    1982-09-01

    The relevance of sleep/waking rhythms to issues of human consciousness is reviewed from data in the literature and from personal studies. Consciousness is often considered to be markedly attenuated or absent in sleep. There is, however, much evidence for a rich subjective experience during sleep, much of which is not recalled later. This implies that William James' "stream of consciousness' persists continuously throughout sleep as well as wakefulness, but that problems of memory recall interfere with its being reported as such. Sleeping subjects show selective awareness of external stimuli, with significant stimuli generally leading to awakening and relatively nonsignificant stimuli, at least at times, being incorporated into the ongoing mental activity of REM or NREM sleep. Mentation throughout sleep is characterized by a high degree of autonomy and little willful control. Creative insight and problem solving of a very high order may occur in sleep and involve either dreaming or thought-like mentation. Parameters of waking consciousness show possibly sleep-related rhythmic fluctuations at both circadian (24 hr sleep/waking) and ultradian (90-120) min, NREM/REM sleep) rates. Moreover, waking consciousness is markedly influenced by the quality of temporal stability of preceding sleep. A substantial number of so-called "altered states of consciousness" is found to involve primarily or exclusively dysfunction of sleep/waking mechanisms. Cerebral lesions can produce selective impairment of aspects of sleep mentation. It is concluded that further analysis of subjective awareness in sleep or in partial sleep states is very relevant and indeed vital to a more comprehensive understanding of human consciousness.

  9. Sleep biological rhythms in normal infants and those at high risk for SIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, Anne Christake; Feigenbaum, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The focus of this study was on daytime and nighttime sleep and wakefulness during the peak age for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), two to four months, to determine whether there are differences between at-risk for SIDS (R) and control (C) infants. Such differences may provide insight on the frequent occurrence of SIDS in the early morning hours, when most babies are asleep. This is the only study in which R and C infants were continuously monitored for long periods of time (24-48 h) and then followed and recorded at monthly intervals until the age of 4-6 months. Data analyses indicate that ultradian REM/NREM cyclicity becomes stabilized into a regular pattern at three months of age. Infants at this age convert from a polyphasic sleep/wakefulness pattern to a circadian one. Among the changes that occur is a lengthening of short sleep periods that consolidate at night and wake periods that consolidate in the daytime. The most striking effects are related to sleep state and vary according to age and sex. The lengthening of single sleep and wakeful periods is coupled with the maturation of the brain. The development of the central nervous system facilitates the synchronization of sleeping patterns with external light input and social entrainment. One or more biological clocks or oscillators may be responsible for these REM/NREM patterns and circadian cycles. These differences during the early morning hours, when the occurrence of SIDS peaks, may have important implications for understanding the pathophysiological mechanism of SIDS.

  10. Multiple light inputs to a simple clock circuit allow complex biological rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troein, Carl; Corellou, Florence; Dixon, Laura E; van Ooijen, Gerben; O'Neill, John S; Bouget, François-Yves; Millar, Andrew J

    2011-04-01

    Circadian clocks are biological timekeepers that allow living cells to time their activity in anticipation of predictable environmental changes. Detailed understanding of the circadian network of higher plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, is hampered by the high number of partially redundant genes. However, the picoeukaryotic alga Ostreococcus tauri, which was recently shown to possess a small number of non-redundant clock genes, presents an attractive alternative target for detailed modelling of circadian clocks in the green lineage. Based on extensive time-series data from in vivo reporter gene assays, we developed a model of the Ostreococcus clock as a feedback loop between the genes TOC1 and CCA1. The model reproduces the dynamics of the transcriptional and translational reporters over a range of photoperiods. Surprisingly, the model is also able to predict the transient behaviour of the clock when the light conditions are altered. Despite the apparent simplicity of the clock circuit, it displays considerable complexity in its response to changing light conditions. Systematic screening of the effects of altered day length revealed a complex relationship between phase and photoperiod, which is also captured by the model. The complex light response is shown to stem from circadian gating of light-dependent mechanisms. This study provides insights into the contributions of light inputs to the Ostreococcus clock. The model suggests that a high number of light-dependent reactions are important for flexible timing in a circadian clock with only one feedback loop. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Rhythm and Time in Music Epitomize the Temporal Dynamics of Human Communicative Behavior: The Broad Implications of London's Trinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter E. Keller

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Three key issues about rhythm and timing in music are drawn to the attention of linguists in a paper by London (2012. In this commentary, I argue that these issues are relevant not only to linguists, but also to those in any field dealing with the temporal dynamics of human communicative behavior. Thus, the distinction between endogenously and exogenously driven mechanisms of perceptual organization, the active nature of perception, and the presence of multiple time scales are topics that also concern experimental psychologists and cognitive neuroscientists. London’s argument that these three issues play a crucial role in the perception of rhythm and timing implies that they should be considered collectively when attempting to understand diverse communicative acts.

  12. Differential regulation of circadian melatonin rhythm and sleep-wake cycle by bright lights and nonphotic time cues in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Yujiro; Hashimoto, Satoko; Masubuchi, Satoru; Natsubori, Akiyo; Nishide, Shin-Ya; Honma, Sato; Honma, Ken-Ichi

    2014-09-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that physical exercise under dim lights (cycle but not the circadian melatonin rhythm to an 8-h phase-advanced sleep schedule, indicating differential effects of physical exercise on the human circadian system. The present study examined the effects of bright light (>5,000 lux) on exercise-induced acceleration of reentrainment because timed bright lights are known to reset the circadian pacemaker. Fifteen male subjects spent 12 days in temporal isolation. The sleep schedule was advanced from habitual sleep times by 8 h for 4 days, which was followed by a free-run session. In the shift session, bright lights were given during the waking time. Subjects in the exercise group performed 2-h bicycle running twice a day. Subjects in the control kept quiet. As a result, the sleep-wake cycle was fully entrained by the shift schedule in both groups. Bright light may strengthen the resetting potency of the shift schedule. By contrast, the circadian melatonin rhythm was phase-advanced by 6.9 h on average in the exercise group but only by 2.0 h in the control. Thus physical exercise prevented otherwise unavoidable internal desynchronization. Polysomnographical analyses revealed that deterioration of sleep quality by shift schedule was protected by physical exercise under bright lights. These findings indicate differential regulation of sleep-wake cycle and circadian melatonin rhythm by physical exercise in humans. The melatonin rhythm is regulated primarily by bright lights, whereas the sleep-wake cycle is by nonphotic time cues, such as physical exercise and shift schedule.

  13. Effect of melatonin on endogenous circadian rhythm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Feng; WANG Min; ZANG Ling-he

    2008-01-01

    Objective To further authenticate the role of melatonin on endogenous biologic clock system. Methods Pinealectomized mice were used in the experiments, a series of circadian rhythm of physiology index, such as glucocorticoid, amino acid neurotransmitter, immune function, sensitivity of algesia and body temperature were measured. Results Effects of melatonin on endogenous circadian rhythm roughly appeared four forms: 1) The model of inherent rhythm was invariant, but midvalue was removed. 2) Pacing function: pinealectomy and melatonin administration changed amplitude of the circadian vibration of aspartate, peripheral blood WBC and serum hemolysin. 3) Phase of rhythm changed, such as the effects on percentage of lymphocyte and sensitivity of algesia. 4) No effect, the circadian rhythm of body temperature belong to this form Conclusions Melatonin has effects some circadian rhythm, and it can adjust endogenous inherent rhythm and make the rhythm keep step with environmental cycle. Melatonin may be a kind of Zeitgeber, Pineal gland might being a rhythm bearing organ to some circadian rhythm.

  14. Marine Biology and Human Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, F. S.

    1976-01-01

    Marine biology has become an important area for study throughout the world. The author of this article discusses some of the important discoveries and fields of research in marine biology that are useful for mankind. Topics include food from the sea, fish farming, pesticides, pollution, and conservation. (MA)

  15. Coordination-related changes in the rhythms of breathing and walking in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassler, B; Kohl, J

    2000-07-01

    Coordination of the respiratory rhythm with the rhythm of limb movements has often been observed during rhythmical exercise (e.g. in locomotion). It is usually associated with changes in the respiratory time course, but not in the locomotor rhythm. Therefore, we hypothesised that in walking, the extent of coordination-related changes (CRC) in respiratory parameters would increase with closer coordination. With respect to the controversially discussed question of a possible energetic advantage due to coordination, we devoted particular interest to the CRC in oxygen uptake (VO2). In addition, we investigated the incidence and the extent of CRC in the stepping rhythm. We examined 18 volunteers walking on a treadmill at three different workload levels, which were adjusted by altering either the velocity or slope of the treadmill. Each walking test was carried out twice, once with spontaneous breathing and once with breathing paced by a step-related acoustic signal to enhance the coordination between breathing and walking. No correlation was found between the CRC in the analysed parameters and the degree of coordination. However, the extent of CRC of ventilation and VO2 decreased with increasing workload. With the transition to coordination, increases and decreases of VO2 occurred about equally often. From this we conclude that energetic economisation in walking, as reflected by a reduction in VO2, is rather a side-effect of coordination, and is probably due to a more precise regulation of the breathing pattern. The economisation was more pronounced at higher work loads than at lower work loads. Our results revealed that coordination is also associated with changes in the stepping rate, which occurred more frequently when the variability of breathing was restricted by acoustic pacing of the breathing rhythm. This finding suggests that the choice of walking rhythm is not completely free, but can be influenced by the breathing rhythm. CRC in the walking rhythm might

  16. Melatonin and Sleep-Wake Rhythms before and after Ocular Lens Replacement in Elderly Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Giménez; Domien Beersma; Serge Daan; Bert van der Pol; Martijn Kanis; Dick van Norren; Marijke Gordijn

    2016-01-01

    Light of short wavelengths has been shown to play a key role in non-image forming responses. Due to aging, the ocular lens becomes more yellow reducing the transmission of short wavelengths in the elderly. In the present study, we make use of cataract surgery to investigate the effects of a relative increase of short wavelength transmission on melatonin- and sleep-wake rhythms (N = 14). We observed, on average, a delay of the sleep-wake and the nocturnal melatonin rhythms after cataract surge...

  17. Culture, Urbanism and Changing Human Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Schell, L M

    2014-01-01

    Anthropologists have long known that human activity driven by culture changes the environment. This is apparent in the archaeological record and through the study of the modern environment. Perhaps the largest change since the paleolithic era is the organization of human populations in cities. New environments can reshape human biology through evolution as shown by the evolution of the hominid lineage. Evolution is not the only process capable of reshaping our biology. Some changes in our hum...

  18. Microbial synthetic biology for human therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Aastha; Bhatia, Pooja; Chugh, Archana

    2012-06-01

    The emerging field of synthetic biology holds tremendous potential for developing novel drugs to treat various human conditions. The current study discusses the scope of synthetic biology for human therapeutics via microbial approach. In this context, synthetic biology aims at designing, engineering and building new microbial synthetic cells that do not pre-exist in nature as well as re-engineer existing microbes for synthesis of therapeutic products. It is expected that the construction of novel microbial genetic circuitry for human therapeutics will greatly benefit from the data generated by 'omics' approaches and multidisciplinary nature of synthetic biology. Development of novel antimicrobial drugs and vaccines by engineering microbial systems are a promising area of research in the field of synthetic biology for human theragnostics. Expression of plant based medicinal compounds in the microbial system using synthetic biology tools is another avenue dealt in the present study. Additionally, the study suggest that the traditional medicinal knowledge can do value addition for developing novel drugs in the microbial systems using synthetic biology tools. The presented work envisions the success of synthetic biology for human therapeutics via microbial approach in a holistic manner. Keeping this in view, various legal and socio-ethical concerns emerging from the use of synthetic biology via microbial approach such as patenting, biosafety and biosecurity issues have been touched upon in the later sections.

  19. Systems biology of human atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalhoub, Joseph; Sikkel, Markus B; Davies, Kerry J; Vorkas, Panagiotis A; Want, Elizabeth J; Davies, Alun H

    2014-01-01

    Systems biology describes a holistic and integrative approach to understand physiology and pathology. The "omic" disciplines include genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolic profiling (metabonomics and metabolomics). By adopting a stance, which is opposing (yet complimentary) to conventional research techniques, systems biology offers an overview by assessing the "net" biological effect imposed by a disease or nondisease state. There are a number of different organizational levels to be understood, from DNA to protein, metabolites, cells, organs and organisms, even beyond this to an organism's context. Systems biology relies on the existence of "nodes" and "edges." Nodes are the constituent part of the system being studied (eg, proteins in the proteome), while the edges are the way these constituents interact. In future, it will be increasingly important to collaborate, collating data from multiple studies to improve data sets, making them freely available and undertaking integrative analyses.

  20. Circadian rhythms in human muscular efficiency: continuous physical exercise versus continuous rest. A crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callard, D; Davenne, D; Gauthier, A; Lagarde, D; Van Hoecke, J

    2000-09-01

    This study deals with the influence of time of day on neuromuscular efficiency in competitive cyclists during continuous exercise versus continuous rest. Knee extension torque was measured in ultradistance cyclists over a 24h period (13:00 to 13:00 the next day) in the laboratory. The subjects were requested to maintain a constant speed (set at 70% of their maximal aerobic speed obtained during a preliminary test) on their own bicycles, which were equipped with cyclosimulators. Every 4h, torque developed and myoelectric activity were estimated during maximal isometric voluntary contractions of knee extensors using an isokinetic dynamometer. Mesenteric temperature was monitored by telemetry. The same measures were also recorded while the subjects were resting awake until 13:00 the next day. During activity, torque changed within the 24h period (p rhythm was observed in knee extensor torque (p rhythms were correlated significantly. Although at rest the diurnal rhythm followed muscular activity (i.e., neurophysiological factors), during exercise, this rhythm was thought to stem more from fluctuations in the contractile state of muscle.

  1. The human biology of Jim Tanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Noël

    2012-09-01

    In 1940, during his second year of medical training, Jim Tanner expressed the desire to work, 'where physiology, psychology and sociology meet'. His subsequent exposure to the breadth of an American medical education and to the social and economic environment of post-war Europe distilled his belief in the importance of viewing the human in a broad context. Following his visits to the American longitudinal growth studies in 1948. Jim's dreams of a broad scientific discipline that incorporated both the biology and ecology of the human were strengthened by an inspirational group of embryonic human biologists with whom he developed '… the new Human Biology …' from the '… Physical Anthropology of old…'. With Jo Weiner, Derek Roberts, Geoffrey Harrison, Arthur Mourant, Nigel Barnicot and Kenneth Oakley, Jim was to form the Society for the Study of Human Biology in 1958. The development of human biology over the next 50 years was shaped by the expertise and diversity of that group of visionary scientists who conceived the scientific discipline of 'human biology' in which biology, behaviour and social context define the human species.

  2. Late Sodium Current in Human Atrial Cardiomyocytes from Patients in Sinus Rhythm and Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, Claire; Wettwer, Erich; Grunnet, Morten; Jespersen, Thomas; Fabritz, Larissa; Matschke, Klaus; Knaut, Michael; Ravens, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Slowly inactivating Na+ channels conducting "late" Na+ current (INa,late) contribute to ventricular arrhythmogenesis under pathological conditions. INa,late was also reported to play a role in chronic atrial fibrillation (AF). The objective of this study was to investigate INa,late in human right atrial cardiomyocytes as a putative drug target for treatment of AF. To activate Na+ channels, cardiomyocytes from transgenic mice which exhibit INa,late (ΔKPQ), and right atrial cardiomyocytes from patients in sinus rhythm (SR) and AF were voltage clamped at room temperature by 250-ms long test pulses to -30 mV from a holding potential of -80 mV with a 100-ms pre-pulse to -110 mV (protocol I). INa,late at -30 mV was not discernible as deviation from the extrapolated straight line IV-curve between -110 mV and -80 mV in human atrial cells. Therefore, tetrodotoxin (TTX, 10 μM) was used to define persistent inward current after 250 ms at -30 mV as INa,late. TTX-sensitive current was 0.27±0.06 pA/pF in ventricular cardiomyocytes from ΔKPQ mice, and amounted to 0.04±0.01 pA/pF and 0.09±0.02 pA/pF in SR and AF human atrial cardiomyocytes, respectively. With protocol II (holding potential -120 mV, pre-pulse to -80 mV) TTX-sensitive INa,late was always larger than with protocol I. Ranolazine (30 μM) reduced INa,late by 0.02±0.02 pA/pF in SR and 0.09±0.02 pA/pF in AF cells. At physiological temperature (37°C), however, INa,late became insignificant. Plateau phase and upstroke velocity of action potentials (APs) recorded with sharp microelectrodes in intact human trabeculae were more sensitive to ranolazine in AF than in SR preparations. Sodium channel subunits expression measured with qPCR was high for SCN5A with no difference between SR and AF. Expression of SCN8A and SCN10A was low in general, and lower in AF than in SR. In conclusion, We confirm for the first time a TTX-sensitive current (INa,late) in right atrial cardiomyocytes from SR and AF patients at room

  3. Late Sodium Current in Human Atrial Cardiomyocytes from Patients in Sinus Rhythm and Atrial Fibrillation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Poulet

    Full Text Available Slowly inactivating Na+ channels conducting "late" Na+ current (INa,late contribute to ventricular arrhythmogenesis under pathological conditions. INa,late was also reported to play a role in chronic atrial fibrillation (AF. The objective of this study was to investigate INa,late in human right atrial cardiomyocytes as a putative drug target for treatment of AF. To activate Na+ channels, cardiomyocytes from transgenic mice which exhibit INa,late (ΔKPQ, and right atrial cardiomyocytes from patients in sinus rhythm (SR and AF were voltage clamped at room temperature by 250-ms long test pulses to -30 mV from a holding potential of -80 mV with a 100-ms pre-pulse to -110 mV (protocol I. INa,late at -30 mV was not discernible as deviation from the extrapolated straight line IV-curve between -110 mV and -80 mV in human atrial cells. Therefore, tetrodotoxin (TTX, 10 μM was used to define persistent inward current after 250 ms at -30 mV as INa,late. TTX-sensitive current was 0.27±0.06 pA/pF in ventricular cardiomyocytes from ΔKPQ mice, and amounted to 0.04±0.01 pA/pF and 0.09±0.02 pA/pF in SR and AF human atrial cardiomyocytes, respectively. With protocol II (holding potential -120 mV, pre-pulse to -80 mV TTX-sensitive INa,late was always larger than with protocol I. Ranolazine (30 μM reduced INa,late by 0.02±0.02 pA/pF in SR and 0.09±0.02 pA/pF in AF cells. At physiological temperature (37°C, however, INa,late became insignificant. Plateau phase and upstroke velocity of action potentials (APs recorded with sharp microelectrodes in intact human trabeculae were more sensitive to ranolazine in AF than in SR preparations. Sodium channel subunits expression measured with qPCR was high for SCN5A with no difference between SR and AF. Expression of SCN8A and SCN10A was low in general, and lower in AF than in SR. In conclusion, We confirm for the first time a TTX-sensitive current (INa,late in right atrial cardiomyocytes from SR and AF patients at room

  4. Saccades during visual exploration align hippocampal 3-8 Hz rhythms in human and non-human primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari L Hoffman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Visual exploration in primates depends on saccadic eye movements that cause alternations of neural suppression and enhancement. This modulation extends beyond retinotopic areas, and is thought to facilitate perception; yet saccades may also influence brain regions critical for forming memories of these exploratory episodes. The hippocampus, for example, shows oscillatory activity that is generally associated with encoding of information. Whether or how hippocampal oscillations are influenced by eye movements is unknown. We recorded the neural activity in the human and macaque hippocampus during visual scene search. Across species, saccadic eye movements were associated with a time-limited alignment of a low-frequency (3-8 Hz rhythm. The phase alignment depended on the task and not only on eye movements per se, and the frequency band was not a direct consequence of saccade rate. Hippocampal theta-frequency oscillations are produced by other mammals during repetitive exploratory behaviors, including whisking, sniffing, echolocation and locomotion. The present results may reflect a similar yet distinct primate homologue supporting active perception during exploration.

  5. An approximation to the temporal order in endogenous circadian rhythms of genes implicated in human adipose tissue metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaulet, Marta; Ordovás, José M; Gómez-Abellán, Purificación; Martínez, Jose A; Madrid, Juan A

    2011-08-01

    Although it is well established that human adipose tissue (AT) shows circadian rhythmicity, published studies have been discussed as if tissues or systems showed only one or few circadian rhythms at a time. To provide an overall view of the internal temporal order of circadian rhythms in human AT including genes implicated in metabolic processes such as energy intake and expenditure, insulin resistance, adipocyte differentiation, dyslipidemia, and body fat distribution. Visceral and subcutaneous abdominal AT biopsies (n=6) were obtained from morbid obese women (BMI≥40 kg/m(2) ). To investigate rhythmic expression pattern, AT explants were cultured during 24-h and gene expression was analyzed at the following times: 08:00, 14:00, 20:00, 02:00 h using quantitative real-time PCR. Clock genes, glucocorticoid metabolism-related genes, leptin, adiponectin and their receptors were studied. Significant differences were found both in achrophases and relative-amplitude among genes (P30%). When interpreting the phase map of gene expression in both depots, data indicated that circadian rhythmicity of the genes studied followed a predictable physiological pattern, particularly for subcutaneous AT. Interesting are the relationships between adiponectin, leptin, and glucocorticoid metabolism-related genes circadian profiles. Their metabolic significance is discussed. Visceral AT behaved in a different way than subcutaneous for most of the genes studied. For every gene, protein mRNA levels fluctuated during the day in synchrony with its receptors. We have provided an overall view of the internal temporal order of circadian rhythms in human adipose tissue.

  6. Agriculture and Biology Teaching. Biology and Human Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A. N.; Pritchard, Alan J.

    This six-chapter document (part of a series on biology and human welfare) focuses on agriculture and the teaching of this subject area. Major topic areas considered in the first five chapters are: (1) the development of agriculture; (2) agricosystems (considering agriculture as an ecosystem, land utilization and soils, soils and food production,…

  7. Melatonin and Sleep-Wake Rhythms before and after Ocular Lens Replacement in Elderly Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Giménez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Light of short wavelengths has been shown to play a key role in non-image forming responses. Due to aging, the ocular lens becomes more yellow reducing the transmission of short wavelengths in the elderly. In the present study, we make use of cataract surgery to investigate the effects of a relative increase of short wavelength transmission on melatonin- and sleep-wake rhythms (N = 14. We observed, on average, a delay of the sleep-wake and the nocturnal melatonin rhythms after cataract surgery. This delay is tentatively attributed to a relatively large increase of light transmittance in the evening hours more than an increase of the already relatively high light intensities found in the daytime. The later phase that we observed after cataract surgery (clear lens as compared to the earlier phase observed before cataract (yellowish lens is in agreement with the general later phase reported in the young (clear lens population.

  8. Ultradian rhythms in walking gastric activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, J F; Kripke, D F

    1975-01-01

    Ninety to 120 min ultradian rhythms have been described in physiologic and behavioral functions relating to biologic drives. Gastric contractility rhythms were examined in isolated fasting volunteers to supplement behavioral observations of "oral" drives. A clear ultradian rhythms was observed, indicating inherent physiologic oscillation in stomach contractions.

  9. Biological bases of human musicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone-Capano, Carla; Volpicelli, Floriana; di Porzio, Umberto

    2017-01-20

    Music is a universal language, present in all human societies. It pervades the lives of most human beings and can recall memories and feelings of the past, can exert positive effects on our mood, can be strongly evocative and ignite intense emotions, and can establish or strengthen social bonds. In this review, we summarize the research and recent progress on the origins and neural substrates of human musicality as well as the changes in brain plasticity elicited by listening or performing music. Indeed, music improves performance in a number of cognitive tasks and may have beneficial effects on diseased brains. The emerging picture begins to unravel how and why particular brain circuits are affected by music. Numerous studies show that music affects emotions and mood, as it is strongly associated with the brain's reward system. We can therefore assume that an in-depth study of the relationship between music and the brain may help to shed light on how the mind works and how the emotions arise and may improve the methods of music-based rehabilitation for people with neurological disorders. However, many facets of the mind-music connection still remain to be explored and enlightened.

  10. A brief history of circadian time: The emergence of redox oscillations as a novel component of biological rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Wulund

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms are present in all living organisms. They organise processes such as gene transcription, mitosis, feeding, and rest at different times of day and night. These rhythms are orchestrated by a network of core ‘clock genes’ that are organised into transcription–translation feedback loops (TTFLs, producing oscillations with a period of approximately 24 h. The modern understanding of circadian timekeeping has revolved around the TTFL paradigm. Recently, however, this has been challenged by new findings that redox reactions persist in the absence of gene transcription, and that cycles of oxidation and reduction are conserved across all domain of life. These results suggest that non-transcriptional processes such as metabolic state may interact and work in parallel with the canonical genetic mechanisms of keeping circadian time.

  11. Human alpha rhythms during visual delayed choice reaction time tasks: a magnetoencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiloni, Claudio; Babiloni, Fabio; Carducci, Filippo; Cincotti, Febo; Del Percio, Claudio; Della Penna, Stefania; Franciotti, Raffaella; Pignotti, Sandro; Pizzella, Vittorio; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Sabatini, Elisabetta; Torquati, Kathya; Romani, Gian Luca

    2005-03-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) includes fast and comfortable recording procedures very suitable for the neurophysiological study of cognitive functions in aged people. In this exploratory MEG study in normal young adults, we tested whether very simple short-term memory (STM) demands induce visible changes in amplitude and latency of surface alpha rhythms. Two delayed response tasks were used. In the STM condition, a simple cue stimulus (one bit) was memorized along a brief delay period (3.5-5.5 s). In the control (no short-term memory; NSTM) condition, the cue stimulus remained available along the delay period. To make extremely simple the tasks, the explicit demand was visuospatial but the retention could be also based on phonological and somatomotor coding. Compared to the control condition, the amplitude of the alpha 1 (6-8 Hz) ERD decreased in the left hemisphere, whereas the amplitude of the alpha 2 (8-10 Hz) and alpha 3 (10-12 Hz) event-related desynchronization (ERD) increased in right and left parietal areas, respectively. Furthermore, the latency of the alpha ERD peak was slightly but significantly (P rhythms in normal young adults. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Biological stoichiometry in human cancer.

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    James J Elser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A growing tumor in the body can be considered a complex ecological and evolutionary system. A new eco-evolutionary hypothesis (the "Growth Rate Hypothesis", GRH proposes that tumors have elevated phosphorus (P demands due to increased allocation to P-rich nucleic acids, especially ribosomal RNA, to meet the protein synthesis demands of accelerated proliferation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined the elemental (C, N, P and nucleic acid contents of paired malignant and normal tissues from colon, lung, liver, or kidney for 121 patients. Consistent with the GRH, lung and colon tumors were significantly higher (by approximately two-fold in P content (fraction of dry weight and RNA content and lower in nitrogen (N:P ratio than paired normal tissue, and P in RNA contributed a significantly larger fraction of total biomass P in malignant relative to normal tissues. Furthermore, patient-specific differences for %P between malignant and normal tissues were positively correlated with such differences for %RNA, both for the overall data and within three of the four organ sites. However, significant differences in %P and %RNA between malignant and normal tissues were not seen in liver and kidney and, overall, RNA contributed only approximately 11% of total tissue P content. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Data for lung and colon tumors provide support for the GRH in human cancer. The two-fold amplification of P content in colon and lung tumors may set the stage for potential P-limitation of their proliferation, as such differences often do for rapidly growing biota in ecosystems. However, data for kidney and liver do not support the GRH. To account for these conflicting observations, we suggest that local environments in some organs select for neoplastic cells bearing mutations increasing cell division rate ("r-selected," as in colon and lung while conditions elsewhere may select for reduced mortality rate ("K-selected," as in liver and

  13. Biological Systems, Energy Sources, and Biology Teaching. Biology and Human Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribe, Michael; Pritchard, Alan J.

    This five-chapter document (part of a series on biology and human welfare) focuses on biological systems as energy sources and on the teaching of this subject area. Chapter 1 discusses various topics related to energy and ecology, including biomass, photosynthesis and world energy balances, energy flow through ecosystems, and others. Chapter 2…

  14. Circadian rhythm genes CLOCK and PER3 polymorphisms and morning gastric motility in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsue Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available Clock genes regulate circadian rhythm and are involved in various physiological processes, including digestion. We therefore investigated the association between the CLOCK 3111T/C single nucleotide polymorphism and the Period3 (PER3 variable-number tandem-repeat polymorphism (either 4 or 5 repeats 54 nt in length with morning gastric motility.Lifestyle questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were performed with 173 female volunteers (mean age, 19.4 years. Gastric motility, evaluated by electrogastrography (EGG, blood pressure, and heart rate levels were measured at 8:30 a.m. after an overnight fast. For gastric motility, the spectral powers (% normal power and dominant frequency (DF, peak of the power spectrum of the EGG were evaluated. The CLOCK and PER3 polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.Subjects with the CLOCK C allele (T/C or C/C genotypes: n = 59 showed a significantly lower DF (mean, 2.56 cpm than those with the T/T genotype (n = 114, 2.81 cpm, P < 0.05. Subjects with the longer PER3 allele (PER34/5 or PER35/5 genotypes: n = 65 also showed a significantly lower DF (2.55 cpm than those with the shorter PER34/4 genotype (n = 108, 2.83 cpm, P < 0.05. Furthermore, subjects with both the T/C or C/C and PER34/5 or PER35/5 genotypes showed a significantly lower DF (2.43 cpm, P < 0.05 than subjects with other combinations of the alleles (T/T and PER34/4 genotype, T/C or C/C and PER34/4 genotypes, and T/T and PER34/5 or PER35/5 genotypes.These results suggest that minor polymorphisms of the circadian rhythm genes CLOCK and PER3 may be associated with poor morning gastric motility, and may have a combinatorial effect. The present findings may offer a new viewpoint on the role of circadian rhythm genes on the peripheral circadian systems, including the time-keeping function of the gut.

  15. Neurobiology of circadian rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V

    1997-09-01

    Adaptation in the temporal environment is key to survival. This is achieved by the manifestation of periodicity in occurrence of vital behavioural and physiological processes at regular intervals--the biological rhythms. Biological rhythms (= biological clocks) are ubiquitous, can be demonstrated persisting at any level of organization in the living world, and are generated and controlled by some central pacemaker(s), mostly located in the brain. In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus is the principal site of the endogenous circadian pacemaker, regulating many daily physiological and behavioural functions, although other neural structures could also be contributing to the circadian timekeeping system. In other vertebrates, the neural site(s) of the circadian pacemaker is(are) still unclear. An organism without brain can have the biological clock, as well, for fully functional 24-hour temporal organization has been identified in several invertebrates, including unicellular Paramecium and Gonyaulax as well as filamentous fungus, Neurospora. This article attempts to provide an update of the informations which have accumulated over the past decade about understanding of the neurophysiological and molecular bases of circadian rhythms in animals.

  16. A better oscillation detection method robustly extracts EEG rhythms across brain state changes: the human alpha rhythm as a test case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Tara A; Hughes, Adam M; Dickson, Clayton T; Caplan, Jeremy B

    2011-01-15

    Oscillatory activity is a principal mode of operation in the brain. Despite an intense resurgence of interest in the mechanisms and functions of brain rhythms, methods for the detection and analysis of oscillatory activity in neurophysiological recordings are still highly variable across studies. We recently proposed a method for detecting oscillatory activity from time series data, which we call the BOSC (Better OSCillation detection) method. This method produces systematic, objective, and consistent results across frequencies, brain regions and tasks. It does so by modeling the functional form of the background spectrum by fitting the empirically observed spectrum at the recording site. This minimizes bias in oscillation detection across frequency, region and task. Here we show that the method is also robust to dramatic changes in state that are known to influence the shape of the power spectrum, namely, the presence versus absence of the alpha rhythm, and can be applied to independent components, which are thought to reflect underlying sources, in addition to individual raw signals. This suggests that the BOSC method is an effective tool for measuring changes in rhythmic activity in the more common research scenario wherein state is unknown. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cerebrospinal fluid sodium rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF sodium levels have been reported to rise during episodic migraine. Since migraine frequently starts in early morning or late afternoon, we hypothesized that natural sodium chronobiology may predispose susceptible persons when extracellular CSF sodium increases. Since no mammalian brain sodium rhythms are known, we designed a study of healthy humans to test if cation rhythms exist in CSF. Methods Lumbar CSF was collected every ten minutes at 0.1 mL/min for 24 h from six healthy participants. CSF sodium and potassium concentrations were measured by ion chromatography, total protein by fluorescent spectrometry, and osmolarity by freezing point depression. We analyzed cation and protein distributions over the 24 h period and spectral and permutation tests to identify significant rhythms. We applied the False Discovery Rate method to adjust significance levels for multiple tests and Spearman correlations to compare sodium fluctuations with potassium, protein, and osmolarity. Results The distribution of sodium varied much more than potassium, and there were statistically significant rhythms at 12 and 1.65 h periods. Curve fitting to the average time course of the mean sodium of all six subjects revealed the lowest sodium levels at 03.20 h and highest at 08.00 h, a second nadir at 09.50 h and a second peak at 18.10 h. Sodium levels were not correlated with potassium or protein concentration, or with osmolarity. Conclusion These CSF rhythms are the first reports of sodium chronobiology in the human nervous system. The results are consistent with our hypothesis that rising levels of extracellular sodium may contribute to the timing of migraine onset. The physiological importance of sodium in the nervous system suggests that these rhythms may have additional repercussions on ultradian functions.

  18. Patenting humans: clones, chimeras, and biological artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbut, William B

    2005-01-01

    The momentum of advances in biology is evident in the history of patents on life forms. As we proceed forward with greater understanding and technological control of developmental biology there will be many new and challenging dilemmas related to patenting of human parts and partial trajectories of human development. These dilemmas are already evident in the current conflict over the moral status of the early human embryo. In this essay, recent evidence from embryological studies is considered and the unbroken continuity of organismal development initiated at fertilization is asserted as clear and reasonable grounds for moral standing. Within this frame of analysis, it is proposed that through a technique of Altered Nuclear Transfer, non-organismal entities might be created from which embryonic stem cells could be morally procured. Criteria for patenting of such non-organismal entities are considered.

  19. The study of evolution and depression of the alpha-rhythm in the human brain EEG by means of wavelet-based methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnova, A. E.; Zhuravlev, M. O.; Khramova, M. V.; Pysarchik, A. N.

    2017-04-01

    We study the appearance, development and depression of the alpha-rhythm in human EEG data during a psychophysiological experiment by stimulating cognitive activity with the perception of ambiguous object. The new method based on continuous wavelet transform allows to estimate the energy contribution of various components, including the alpha rhythm, in the general dynamics of the electrical activity of the projections of various areas of the brain. The decision-making process by observe ambiguous images is characterized by specific oscillatory alfa-rhytm patterns in the multi-channel EEG data. We have shown the repeatability of detected principles of the alpha-rhythm evolution in a data of group of 12 healthy male volunteers.

  20. Diurnal rhythms in the human urine metabolome during sleep and total sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giskeødegård, Guro F; Davies, Sarah K; Revell, Victoria L; Keun, Hector; Skene, Debra J

    2015-10-09

    Understanding how metabolite levels change over the 24 hour day is of crucial importance for clinical and epidemiological studies. Additionally, the association between sleep deprivation and metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity requires investigation into the links between sleep and metabolism. Here, we characterise time-of-day variation and the effects of sleep deprivation on urinary metabolite profiles. Healthy male participants (n = 15) completed an in-laboratory study comprising one 24 h sleep/wake cycle prior to 24 h of continual wakefulness under highly controlled environmental conditions. Urine samples were collected over set 2-8 h intervals and analysed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Significant changes were observed with respect to both time of day and sleep deprivation. Of 32 identified metabolites, 7 (22%) exhibited cosine rhythmicity over at least one 24 h period; 5 exhibiting a cosine rhythm on both days. Eight metabolites significantly increased during sleep deprivation compared with sleep (taurine, formate, citrate, 3-indoxyl sulfate, carnitine, 3-hydroxyisobutyrate, TMAO and acetate) and 8 significantly decreased (dimethylamine, 4-DTA, creatinine, ascorbate, 2-hydroxyisobutyrate, allantoin, 4-DEA, 4-hydroxyphenylacetate). These data indicate that sampling time, the presence or absence of sleep and the response to sleep deprivation are highly relevant when identifying biomarkers in urinary metabolic profiling studies.

  1. Biological Inspiration in Human Centred Robotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Huo-sheng; LIU Jin-dong; Calderon Carlos A

    2004-01-01

    Human centred robotics (HCR) concerns with the development of various kinds of intelligent systems and robots that will be used in environments coexisting with humans. These systems and robots will be interactive and useful assistants/companions for people in different ages, situations, activities and environments in order to improve the quality of life. This paper presents the autors' current research work toward the development of advanced theory and technologies for HCR applications, based on inspiration from biological systems. More specifically, both bio-mimetic system modelling and robot learning by imitation are discussed respectively, and some preliminary results are demonstrated.

  2. 体外培养细胞生物节律研究进展%Research progress of biological rhythm of cell cultured in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖邦; 崔淑芳

    2014-01-01

    All organisms regulate their life activities through the biological clock, which makes a variety of activities regular.For example, many physiological activities such as sleep-wake cycle, temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, endocrine and metabolic activity of the kidney and liver are subject to the regulation of circadian rhythms, that is to say they are all under the control of circadian pacemaker.Physiological activity of cell cultured in vitro also possess rhythms.This paper conducts a brief overview of biological clock of cell cultured in vitro and analyzes the molecular mechanism of the biological clock of the neurons and peripheral tissue cell as well as the existing problems, which provide reference for comprehensive interpretation of the molecular mechanism of biological clock.%所有的生物体都存在着调节自身生命活动的生物钟,而使得生命体的各种活动得以有规律的进行。例如,机体内的许多生理活动过程(睡眠-觉醒循环、温度、心率、血压、内分泌、肾脏的活动、肝脏的代谢活动)都受到昼夜节律的调节,即都在昼夜节律起搏器的控制之下。体外培养的机体组织和细胞的生理活动同样具有生物节律特征。本文对体外培养细胞生物钟进行了简要的概述,分析了神经元和外周组织细胞生物钟的分子机制以及存在的问题,为全面阐释生物钟的分子机制提供参考。

  3. Alpha, beta and gamma electrocorticographic rhythms in somatosensory, motor, premotor and prefrontal cortical areas differ in movement execution and observation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiloni, Claudio; Del Percio, Claudio; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Sebastiano, Fabio; Di Gennaro, Giancarlo; Quarato, Pier P; Morace, Roberta; Pavone, Luigi; Soricelli, Andrea; Noce, Giuseppe; Esposito, Vincenzo; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Gallese, Vittorio; Mirabella, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that both movement execution and observation induce parallel modulations of alpha, beta, and gamma electrocorticographic (ECoG) rhythms in primary somatosensory (Brodmann area 1-2, BA1-2), primary motor (BA4), ventral premotor (BA6), and prefrontal (BA44 and BA45, part of putative human mirror neuron system underlying the understanding of actions of other people) areas. ECoG activity was recorded in drug-resistant epileptic patients during the execution of actions to reach and grasp common objects according to their affordances, as well as during the observation of the same actions performed by an experimenter. Both action execution and observation induced a desynchronization of alpha and beta rhythms in BA1-2, BA4, BA6, BA44 and BA45, which was generally higher in amplitude during the former than the latter condition. Action execution also induced a major synchronization of gamma rhythms in BA4 and BA6, again more during the execution of an action than during its observation. Human primary sensorimotor, premotor, and prefrontal areas do generate alpha, beta, and gamma rhythms and differently modulate them during action execution and observation. Gamma rhythms of motor areas are especially involved in action execution. Oscillatory activity of neural populations in sensorimotor, premotor and prefrontal (part of human mirror neuron system) areas represents and distinguishes own actions from those of other people. This methodological approach might be used for a neurophysiological diagnostic imaging of social cognition in epileptic patients. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Putting humanity back into the teaching of human biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Brian M

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, I draw upon debates about race in biology and philosophy as well as the concepts of ineliminable pluralism and psychological essentialism to outline the necessary subject matter knowledge that teachers should possess if they desire to: (i) increase student understanding of scientific research on genetic and behavioral variation in humans; and (ii) attenuate inegalitarian beliefs about race amongst students.

  5. Social justice and research using human biological material: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    commercial medical research that uses human biological material, such as blood samples or other ... and provide that a person from whose body human biological material is withdrawn for .... part of investigators and institutions. This could be ...

  6. The effect of blue-blocking intraocular lenses on circadian biological rhythm: protocol for a randomised controlled trial (CLOCK-IOL colour study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Tomo; Saeki, Keigo; Obayashi, Kenji; Miyata, Kimie; Tone, Nobuhiro; Tsujinaka, Hiroki; Yamashita, Mariko; Masuda, Naonori; Mizusawa, Yutarou; Okamoto, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Taiji; Maruoka, Shinji; Ueda, Tetsuo; Kojima, Masashi; Matsuura, Toyoaki; Kurumatani, Norio; Ogata, Nahoko

    2015-05-12

    Blue light information plays an important role in synchronising internal biological rhythm within the external environment. Circadian misalignment is associated with the increased risk of sleep disturbance, obesity, diabetes mellitus, depression, ischaemic heart disease, stroke and cancer. Meanwhile, blue light causes photochemical damage to the retina, and may be associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). At present, clear intraocular lenses (IOLs) and blue-blocking IOLs are both widely used for cataract surgery; there is currently a lack of randomised controlled trials to determine whether clear or blue-blocking IOLs should be used. This randomised controlled trial will recruit 1000 cataract patients and randomly allocate them to receive clear IOLs or blue-blocking IOLs in a ratio of 1:1. The primary outcomes are mortality and the incidence of cardiovascular disease, cancer and AMD. Secondary outcomes are fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, glycated haemoglobin, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness depressive symptoms, light sensitivity, the circadian rhythm of physical activity, wrist skin temperature and urinary melatonin metabolite. Primary outcomes will be followed until 20 years after surgery, and secondary outcomes will be assessed at baseline and 1 year after surgery. Ethical approval has been obtained from the Institutional Review Board of Nara Medical University (No. 13-032). The findings of this study will be communicated to healthcare professionals, participants and the public through peer-reviewed publications, scientific conferences and the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) home page. UMIN000014680. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Cloning humans? Biological, ethical, and social considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Francisco J

    2015-07-21

    There are, in mankind, two kinds of heredity: biological and cultural. Cultural inheritance makes possible for humans what no other organism can accomplish: the cumulative transmission of experience from generation to generation. In turn, cultural inheritance leads to cultural evolution, the prevailing mode of human adaptation. For the last few millennia, humans have been adapting the environments to their genes more often than their genes to the environments. Nevertheless, natural selection persists in modern humans, both as differential mortality and as differential fertility, although its intensity may decrease in the future. More than 2,000 human diseases and abnormalities have a genetic causation. Health care and the increasing feasibility of genetic therapy will, although slowly, augment the future incidence of hereditary ailments. Germ-line gene therapy could halt this increase, but at present, it is not technically feasible. The proposal to enhance the human genetic endowment by genetic cloning of eminent individuals is not warranted. Genomes can be cloned; individuals cannot. In the future, therapeutic cloning will bring enhanced possibilities for organ transplantation, nerve cells and tissue healing, and other health benefits.

  8. Physical biology of human brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eBudday

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurodevelopment is a complex, dynamic process that involves a precisely orchestrated sequence of genetic, environmental, biochemical, and physical events. Developmental biology and genetics have shaped our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms during neurodevelopment. Recent studies suggest that physical forces play a central role in translating these cellular mechanisms into the complex surface morphology of the human brain. However, the precise impact of neuronal differentiation, migration, and connection on the physical forces during cortical folding remains unknown. Here we review the cellular mechanisms of neurodevelopment with a view towards surface morphogenesis, pattern selection, and evolution of shape. We revisit cortical folding as the instability problem of constrained differential growth in a multi-layered system. To identify the contributing factors of differential growth, we map out the timeline of neurodevelopment in humans and highlight the cellular events associated with extreme radial and tangential expansion. We demonstrate how computational modeling of differential growth can bridge the scales-from phenomena on the cellular level towards form and function on the organ level-to make quantitative, personalized predictions. Physics-based models can quantify cortical stresses, identify critical folding conditions, rationalize pattern selection, and predict gyral wavelengths and gyrification indices. We illustrate that physical forces can explain cortical malformations as emergent properties of developmental disorders. Combining biology and physics holds promise to advance our understanding of human brain development and enable early diagnostics of cortical malformations with the ultimate goal to improve treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy, autism spectrum disorders, and schizophrenia.

  9. Physical biology of human brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budday, Silvia; Steinmann, Paul; Kuhl, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Neurodevelopment is a complex, dynamic process that involves a precisely orchestrated sequence of genetic, environmental, biochemical, and physical events. Developmental biology and genetics have shaped our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms during neurodevelopment. Recent studies suggest that physical forces play a central role in translating these cellular mechanisms into the complex surface morphology of the human brain. However, the precise impact of neuronal differentiation, migration, and connection on the physical forces during cortical folding remains unknown. Here we review the cellular mechanisms of neurodevelopment with a view toward surface morphogenesis, pattern selection, and evolution of shape. We revisit cortical folding as the instability problem of constrained differential growth in a multi-layered system. To identify the contributing factors of differential growth, we map out the timeline of neurodevelopment in humans and highlight the cellular events associated with extreme radial and tangential expansion. We demonstrate how computational modeling of differential growth can bridge the scales-from phenomena on the cellular level toward form and function on the organ level-to make quantitative, personalized predictions. Physics-based models can quantify cortical stresses, identify critical folding conditions, rationalize pattern selection, and predict gyral wavelengths and gyrification indices. We illustrate that physical forces can explain cortical malformations as emergent properties of developmental disorders. Combining biology and physics holds promise to advance our understanding of human brain development and enable early diagnostics of cortical malformations with the ultimate goal to improve treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy, autism spectrum disorders, and schizophrenia.

  10. Integrated Modular Teaching of Human Biology for Primary Care Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Michael S.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the use of integrated modular teaching of the human biology component of the Health Associate Program at Johns Hopkins University, where the goal is to develop an understanding of the sciences as applied to primary care. Discussion covers the module sequence, the human biology faculty, goals of the human biology faculty, laboratory…

  11. The biology of human psychosexual differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooren, Louis

    2006-11-01

    Most attempts to identify biological underpinnings of gender identity and sexual orientation in humans have investigated effects of sex steroids, so pivotal in the differentiation of the genitalia, showing strong parallels between animals and the human. The information on humans is derived from the so-called 'experiments of nature', clinical entities with a lesser-than-normal androgen exposure in XY subjects and a higher than normal androgen exposure in XX subjects. Prenatal androgenization appears to predispose to a male gender identity development, but apparently not decisively since 40-50% of 46,XY intersexed children with a history of prenatal androgen exposure do not develop a male gender identity. Obviously, male-to-female transsexuals, with a normal androgen exposure prenatally (there is no serious evidence to the contrary) develop a female gender identity, through unknown biological mechanisms apparently overriding the effects of prenatal androgens. The latest studies in 46, XX subjects exposed to prenatal androgens show that prenatal androgenization of 46,XX fetuses leads to marked masculinization of later gender-related behavior but does not lead to gender confusion/dysphoria. The example of female-to-male transsexuals, without evidence of prenatal androgen exposure, indicates that a male gender identity can develop without a significant androgen stimulus. So we are far away from any comprehensive understanding of hormonal imprinting on gender identity formation. Brain studies in homosexuals have not held up in replication studies or are in need of replication in transsexuals. Genetic studies and the fraternal birth order hypothesis provide indications of familial clustering of homosexuality but in many homosexuals these genetic patterns cannot be identified. The biological explanations advanced for the birth order hypothesis lack any experimental support.

  12. Chronotherapeutic strategy: Rhythm monitoring, manipulation and disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohdo, Shigehiro

    2010-07-31

    rhythmic administration of altered feeding schedules or several drugs appears to lead to the new concept of chronopharmacotherapy. Several drugs cause alterations in the 24h rhythms of biochemical, physiological and behavioral processes. The alteration of rhythmicity is sometimes associated with therapeutic effects, or may lead to illness and altered homeostatic regulation. Attention should be paid to the alteration of biological clock and consider it an adverse effect, when it leads to altered regulation of the circadian system which is a serious problem affecting basic functioning of living organisms. One approach to increasing the efficiency of pharmacotherapy is administering drugs at times during which they are best tolerated. From viewpoints of pharmaceutics, the application of biological rhythm to pharmacotherapy may be accomplished by the appropriate timing of conventionally formulated tablets and capsules, and the special drug delivery system to synchronize drug concentrations to rhythms in disease activity. New technology for delivering medications precisely in a time-modulated fashion by bedside or ambulatory pumps is developing to manage human diseases. Therefore, we introduce an overview of the dosing time-dependent alterations in therapeutic outcome and safety of drug. The underlying mechanisms and usefulness are introduced from viewpoint of chronopharmacology and chronotherapy. 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Simulation of biatrial conduction via different pathways during sinus rhythm with a detailed human atrial model*

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Dong-dong; Gong, Ying-lan; Shou, Guo-fa; Jiao, Pei-feng; Zhang, Heng-gui; Ye, Xue-song; Xia, Ling

    2012-01-01

    In order to better understand biatrial conduction, investigate various conduction pathways, and compare the differences between isotropic and anisotropic conductions in human atria, we present a simulation study of biatrial conduction with known/assumed conduction pathways using a recently developed human atrial model. In addition to known pathways: (1) Bachmann’s bundle (BB), (2) limbus of fossa ovalis (LFO), and (3) coronary sinus (CS), we also hypothesize that there exist two fast conducti...

  14. Imaging of Ultraweak Spontaneous Photon Emission from Human Body Displaying Diurnal Rhythm

    OpenAIRE

    Masaki Kobayashi; Daisuke Kikuchi; Hitoshi Okamura

    2009-01-01

    The human body literally glimmers. The intensity of the light emitted by the body is 1000 times lower than the sensitivity of our naked eyes. Ultraweak photon emission is known as the energy released as light through the changes in energy metabolism. We successfully imaged the diurnal change of this ultraweak photon emission with an improved highly sensitive imaging system using cryogenic charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. We found that the human body directly and rhythmically emits light. T...

  15. Human biological monitoring of occupational genotoxic exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Sorsa, M

    1993-01-01

    ) occupational exposure limit value of styrene in ambient air. The consideration of ethical issues in human genetic monitoring is an important but often overlooked aspect. This includes the scientific and preventional relevance of performing a test on individuals, pre- and post study information of donors......Human biological monitoring is a valuable tool for exposure assessment in groups of persons occupationally exposed to genotoxic agents. If the monitoring activity covers genetic material the term genetic monitoring is used. The methods used for genetic monitoring are either substance specific, e...... for and the biomonitoring results should preferentially be linked with accurate ambient air monitoring. In persons occupationally exposed to styrene the endpoints of DNA-damage and DNA-repair in genetic monitoring are methods of choice in exposure situations above the current Danish (25 ppm) or Finnish (20 ppm...

  16. Spatial-temporal structures of human alpha rhythms: theory, microcurrent sources, multiscale measurements, and global binding of local networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, P L; Wingeier, B M; Silberstein, R B

    2001-07-01

    A theoretical framework supporting experimental measures of dynamic properties of human EEG is proposed with emphasis on distinct alpha rhythms. Robust relationships between measured dynamics and cognitive or behavioral conditions are reviewed, and proposed physiological bases for EEG at cellular levels are considered. Classical EEG data are interpreted in the context of a conceptual framework that distinguishes between locally and globally dominated dynamic processes, as estimated with coherence or other measures of phase synchronization. Macroscopic (scalp) potentials generated by cortical current sources are described at three spatial scales, taking advantage of the columnar structure of neocortex. New EEG data demonstrate that both globally coherent and locally dominated behavior can occur within the alpha band, depending on narrow band frequency, spatial measurement scale, and brain state. Quasi-stable alpha phase structures consistent with global standing waves are observed. At the same time, alpha and theta phase locking between cortical regions during mental calculations is demonstrated, consistent with neural network formation. The brain-binding problem is considered in the context of EEG dynamic behavior that generally exhibits both of these local and global aspects. But specific experimental designs and data analysis methods may severely bias physiological interpretations in either local or global directions.

  17. Imaging of ultraweak spontaneous photon emission from human body displaying diurnal rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2009-07-16

    The human body literally glimmers. The intensity of the light emitted by the body is 1000 times lower than the sensitivity of our naked eyes. Ultraweak photon emission is known as the energy released as light through the changes in energy metabolism. We successfully imaged the diurnal change of this ultraweak photon emission with an improved highly sensitive imaging system using cryogenic charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. We found that the human body directly and rhythmically emits light. The diurnal changes in photon emission might be linked to changes in energy metabolism.

  18. Imaging of ultraweak spontaneous photon emission from human body displaying diurnal rhythm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Kobayashi

    Full Text Available The human body literally glimmers. The intensity of the light emitted by the body is 1000 times lower than the sensitivity of our naked eyes. Ultraweak photon emission is known as the energy released as light through the changes in energy metabolism. We successfully imaged the diurnal change of this ultraweak photon emission with an improved highly sensitive imaging system using cryogenic charge-coupled device (CCD camera. We found that the human body directly and rhythmically emits light. The diurnal changes in photon emission might be linked to changes in energy metabolism.

  19. Why Humans Die: an Unsolved Biological Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azbel', Mark Ya.

    2004-03-01

    Mortality is an instrument of natural selection, thus its theories are evolutionary motivated. They imply its irreversibility and life history dependence. This is inconsistent with demographic and biodemographic data for evolutionary unprecedented well protected populations with abundant resources. A physical approach establishes a biologically unanticipated mechanism of their mortality. It is reversible, stepwise, rapidly switches from one mode to another, and yields an exact law for a dominant fraction of mortality whose heterogeneity in the population is within the specified limits. (Any population reduces to such restricted heterogeneity groups). The (properly scaled) law is universal, i.e. independent of genetics and conditions for species as remote as humans and flies. Its mortality may be eliminated. Until old age all other mechanisms contribute ˜10% of the total mortality, but thereafter they determine the ultimate lifespan. The universal law agrees with demographic and biodemographic data. It presents a new, biologically explicit, demographic approximation of the total mortality. It suggests a possibility of a rapid (within less than two years for humans) and significant decrease in mortality at any (but very old) age.

  20. Statistical methods for detecting and comparing periodic data and their application to the nycthemeral rhythm of bodily harm: A population based study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stroebel, Armin M

    2010-11-08

    Abstract Background Animals, including humans, exhibit a variety of biological rhythms. This article describes a method for the detection and simultaneous comparison of multiple nycthemeral rhythms. Methods A statistical method for detecting periodic patterns in time-related data via harmonic regression is described. The method is particularly capable of detecting nycthemeral rhythms in medical data. Additionally a method for simultaneously comparing two or more periodic patterns is described, which derives from the analysis of variance (ANOVA). This method statistically confirms or rejects equality of periodic patterns. Mathematical descriptions of the detecting method and the comparing method are displayed. Results Nycthemeral rhythms of incidents of bodily harm in Middle Franconia are analyzed in order to demonstrate both methods. Every day of the week showed a significant nycthemeral rhythm of bodily harm. These seven patterns of the week were compared to each other revealing only two different nycthemeral rhythms, one for Friday and Saturday and one for the other weekdays.

  1. Rhythm patterns interaction--synchronization behavior for human-robot joint action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörtl, Alexander; Lorenz, Tamara; Hirche, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Interactive behavior among humans is governed by the dynamics of movement synchronization in a variety of repetitive tasks. This requires the interaction partners to perform for example rhythmic limb swinging or even goal-directed arm movements. Inspired by that essential feature of human interaction, we present a novel concept and design methodology to synthesize goal-directed synchronization behavior for robotic agents in repetitive joint action tasks. The agents' tasks are described by closed movement trajectories and interpreted as limit cycles, for which instantaneous phase variables are derived based on oscillator theory. Events segmenting the trajectories into multiple primitives are introduced as anchoring points for enhanced synchronization modes. Utilizing both continuous phases and discrete events in a unifying view, we design a continuous dynamical process synchronizing the derived modes. Inverse to the derivation of phases, we also address the generation of goal-directed movements from the behavioral dynamics. The developed concept is implemented to an anthropomorphic robot. For evaluation of the concept an experiment is designed and conducted in which the robot performs a prototypical pick-and-place task jointly with human partners. The effectiveness of the designed behavior is successfully evidenced by objective measures of phase and event synchronization. Feedback gathered from the participants of our exploratory study suggests a subjectively pleasant sense of interaction created by the interactive behavior. The results highlight potential applications of the synchronization concept both in motor coordination among robotic agents and in enhanced social interaction between humanoid agents and humans.

  2. Circadian and Ultradian Rhythms of Free Glucocorticoid Hormone Are Highly Synchronized between the Blood, the Subcutaneous Tissue, and the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiaoxiao; Droste, Susanne K.; Lightman, Stafford L.; Reul, Johannes M. H. M.

    2012-01-01

    Total glucocorticoid hormone levels in plasma of various species, including humans, follow a circadian rhythm that is made up from an underlying series of hormone pulses. In blood most of the glucocorticoid is bound to corticosteroid-binding globulin and albumin, resulting in low levels of free hormone. Although only the free fraction is biologically active, surprisingly little is known about the rhythms of free glucocorticoid hormones. We used single-probe microdialysis to measure directly the free corticosterone levels in the blood of freely behaving rats. Free corticosterone in the blood shows a distinct circadian and ultradian rhythm with a pulse frequency of approximately one pulse per hour together with an increase in hormone levels and pulse height toward the active phase of the light/dark cycle. Similar rhythms were also evident in the subcutaneous tissue, demonstrating that free corticosterone rhythms are transferred from the blood into peripheral target tissues. Furthermore, in a dual-probe microdialysis study, we demonstrated that the circadian and ultradian rhythms of free corticosterone in the blood and the subcutaneous tissue were highly synchronized. Moreover, free corticosterone rhythms were also synchronous between the blood and the hippocampus. These data demonstrate for the first time an ultradian rhythm of free corticosterone in the blood that translates into synchronized rhythms of free glucocorticoid hormone in peripheral and central tissues. The maintenance of ultradian rhythms across tissue barriers in both the periphery and the brain has important implications for research into aberrant biological rhythms in disease and for the development of improved protocols for glucocorticoid therapy. PMID:22822164

  3. A high performance sensorimotor beta rhythm-based brain computer interface associated with human natural motor behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ou; Lin, Peter; Vorbach, Sherry; Floeter, Mary Kay; Hattori, Noriaki; Hallett, Mark

    2008-03-01

    To explore the reliability of a high performance brain-computer interface (BCI) using non-invasive EEG signals associated with human natural motor behavior does not require extensive training. We propose a new BCI method, where users perform either sustaining or stopping a motor task with time locking to a predefined time window. Nine healthy volunteers, one stroke survivor with right-sided hemiparesis and one patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) participated in this study. Subjects did not receive BCI training before participating in this study. We investigated tasks of both physical movement and motor imagery. The surface Laplacian derivation was used for enhancing EEG spatial resolution. A model-free threshold setting method was used for the classification of motor intentions. The performance of the proposed BCI was validated by an online sequential binary-cursor-control game for two-dimensional cursor movement. Event-related desynchronization and synchronization were observed when subjects sustained or stopped either motor execution or motor imagery. Feature analysis showed that EEG beta band activity over sensorimotor area provided the largest discrimination. With simple model-free classification of beta band EEG activity from a single electrode (with surface Laplacian derivation), the online classifications of the EEG activity with motor execution/motor imagery were: >90%/~80% for six healthy volunteers, >80%/~80% for the stroke patient and ~90%/~80% for the ALS patient. The EEG activities of the other three healthy volunteers were not classifiable. The sensorimotor beta rhythm of EEG associated with human natural motor behavior can be used for a reliable and high performance BCI for both healthy subjects and patients with neurological disorders. Significance: The proposed new non-invasive BCI method highlights a practical BCI for clinical applications, where the user does not require extensive training.

  4. Analysis of Handwriting based on Rhythm Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya; Uchida, Masafumi; Nozawa, Akio

    Humanity fluctuation was reported in some fields. In handwriting process, fluctuation appears on handwriting-velocity. In this report, we focused attention on human rhythm perception and analyzed fluctuation in handwriting process. As a result, 1/f noise related to rhythm perception and features may caused by Kahneman's capacity model were measured on handwriting process.

  5. Simulation of biatrial conduction via different pathways during sinus rhythm with a detailed human atrial model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-dong DENG; Ying-lan GONG; Guo-fa SHOU; Pei-feng JIAO; Heng-gui ZHANG; Xue-song YE; Ling XIA

    2012-01-01

    In order to better understand biatrial conduction,investigate various conduction pathways,and compare the differences between isotropic and anisotropic conductions in human atria,we present a simulation study of biatrial conduction with known/assumed conduction pathways using a recently developed human atrial model.In addition to known pathways:(1) Bachmann's bundle (BB),(2) limbus of fossa ovalis (LFO),and (3) coronary sinus (CS),we also hypothesize that there exist two fast conduction bundles that connect the crista terminalis (CT),LFO,and CS.Our simulation demonstrates that use of these fast conduction bundles results in a conduction pattern consistent with experimental data.The comparison of isotropic and anisotropoic conductions in the BB case showed that the atrial working muscles had small effect on conduction time and conduction speed,although the conductivities assigned in anisotropic conduction were two to four times higher than the isotropic conduction.In conclusion,we suggest that the hypothesized intercaval bundles play a significant role in the biatrial conduction and that myofiber orientation has larger effects on the conduction system than the atrial working muscles.This study presents readers with new insights into human atrial conduction.

  6. Chorusing, synchrony and the evolutionary functions of rhythm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eRavignani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A central goal of biomusicology is to understand the biological basis of human musicality. One approach to this problem has been to compare core components of human musicality (relative pitch perception, entrainment, etc. with similar capacities in other animal species. Here we extend and clarify this comparative approach with respect to rhythm. First, whereas most comparisons between human music and animal acoustic behavior have focused on spectral properties (melody and harmony, we argue for the central importance of temporal properties, and propose that this domain is ripe for further comparative research. Second, whereas most rhythm research in non-human animals has examined animal timing in isolation, we consider how chorusing dynamics can shape individual timing, as in human music and dance, making group behavior key to understand the adaptive functions of rhythm. To illustrate the interdependence between individual and chorusing dynamics, we present a computational model of chorusing agents relating individual call timing with synchronous group behavior. Third, we distinguish and clarify mechanistic and functional explanations of rhythmic phenomena, often conflated in the literature, arguing that this distinction is key for understanding the evolution of musicality. Fourth, we expand biomusicological discussions beyond the species typically considered, providing an overview of chorusing and rhythmic behavior across a broad range of taxa (orthopterans, fireflies, frogs, birds, and primates. Finally, we propose an Evolving Signal Timing hypothesis, suggesting that similarities between timing abilities in biological species will be based on comparable chorusing behaviors. We conclude that the comparative study of chorusing species can provide important insights into the adaptive function(s of rhythmic behavior in our proto-musical primate ancestors, and thus inform our understanding of the biology and evolution of rhythm in human music and

  7. Chorusing, synchrony, and the evolutionary functions of rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravignani, Andrea; Bowling, Daniel L; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2014-01-01

    A central goal of biomusicology is to understand the biological basis of human musicality. One approach to this problem has been to compare core components of human musicality (relative pitch perception, entrainment, etc.) with similar capacities in other animal species. Here we extend and clarify this comparative approach with respect to rhythm. First, whereas most comparisons between human music and animal acoustic behavior have focused on spectral properties (melody and harmony), we argue for the central importance of temporal properties, and propose that this domain is ripe for further comparative research. Second, whereas most rhythm research in non-human animals has examined animal timing in isolation, we consider how chorusing dynamics can shape individual timing, as in human music and dance, arguing that group behavior is key to understanding the adaptive functions of rhythm. To illustrate the interdependence between individual and chorusing dynamics, we present a computational model of chorusing agents relating individual call timing with synchronous group behavior. Third, we distinguish and clarify mechanistic and functional explanations of rhythmic phenomena, often conflated in the literature, arguing that this distinction is key for understanding the evolution of musicality. Fourth, we expand biomusicological discussions beyond the species typically considered, providing an overview of chorusing and rhythmic behavior across a broad range of taxa (orthopterans, fireflies, frogs, birds, and primates). Finally, we propose an "Evolving Signal Timing" hypothesis, suggesting that similarities between timing abilities in biological species will be based on comparable chorusing behaviors. We conclude that the comparative study of chorusing species can provide important insights into the adaptive function(s) of rhythmic behavior in our "proto-musical" primate ancestors, and thus inform our understanding of the biology and evolution of rhythm in human music and

  8. Late Sodium Current in Human Atrial Cardiomyocytes from Patients in Sinus Rhythm and Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulet, Claire; Wettwer, Erich; Grunnet, Morten

    2015-01-01

    -pulse to -80 mV) TTX-sensitive INa,late was always larger than with protocol I. Ranolazine (30 μM) reduced INa,late by 0.02±0.02 pA/pF in SR and 0.09±0.02 pA/pF in AF cells. At physiological temperature (37°C), however, INa,late became insignificant. Plateau phase and upstroke velocity of action potentials...... to -30 mV from a holding potential of -80 mV with a 100-ms pre-pulse to -110 mV (protocol I). INa,late at -30 mV was not discernible as deviation from the extrapolated straight line IV-curve between -110 mV and -80 mV in human atrial cells. Therefore, tetrodotoxin (TTX, 10 μM) was used to define...... persistent inward current after 250 ms at -30 mV as INa,late. TTX-sensitive current was 0.27±0.06 pA/pF in ventricular cardiomyocytes from ΔKPQ mice, and amounted to 0.04±0.01 pA/pF and 0.09±0.02 pA/pF in SR and AF human atrial cardiomyocytes, respectively. With protocol II (holding potential -120 mV, pre...

  9. Neural mechanisms of transient neocortical beta rhythms: Converging evidence from humans, computational modeling, monkeys, and mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Maxwell A.; Lee, Shane; Law, Robert; Haegens, Saskia; Thorn, Catherine A.; Hämäläinen, Matti S.; Moore, Christopher I.; Jones, Stephanie R.

    2016-01-01

    Human neocortical 15–29-Hz beta oscillations are strong predictors of perceptual and motor performance. However, the mechanistic origin of beta in vivo is unknown, hindering understanding of its functional role. Combining human magnetoencephalography (MEG), computational modeling, and laminar recordings in animals, we present a new theory that accounts for the origin of spontaneous neocortical beta. In our MEG data, spontaneous beta activity from somatosensory and frontal cortex emerged as noncontinuous beta events typically lasting <150 ms with a stereotypical waveform. Computational modeling uniquely designed to infer the electrical currents underlying these signals showed that beta events could emerge from the integration of nearly synchronous bursts of excitatory synaptic drive targeting proximal and distal dendrites of pyramidal neurons, where the defining feature of a beta event was a strong distal drive that lasted one beta period (∼50 ms). This beta mechanism rigorously accounted for the beta event profiles; several other mechanisms did not. The spatial location of synaptic drive in the model to supragranular and infragranular layers was critical to the emergence of beta events and led to the prediction that beta events should be associated with a specific laminar current profile. Laminar recordings in somatosensory neocortex from anesthetized mice and awake monkeys supported these predictions, suggesting this beta mechanism is conserved across species and recording modalities. These findings make several predictions about optimal states for perceptual and motor performance and guide causal interventions to modulate beta for optimal function. PMID:27469163

  10. The Mathematical Biology of Human Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Nowak

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans are constant victims of infectious diseases. Biomedical research during this century has led to important insights into the molecular details of immune defense. Yet, many questions relating to disease require a quantitative understanding of the complex systems that arise from the nonlinear interactions between populations of immune cells and infectious agents. Exploration of such questions has lead to a newly emerging field of mathematical biology describing the spread of infectious agents both within and between infected individuals. This essay will discuss simple and complex models of evolution, and the propagation of virus and prion infections. Such models provide new perspectives for our understanding of infectious disease and provide guidelines for interpreting experimental observation; they also define what needs to be measured to improve understanding.

  11. Biological impact of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Miguel; Menéndez, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Research on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent (iPS) stem cells is currently a field of great potential in biomedicine. These cells represent a highly valuable tool for developmental biology studies, disease models, and drug screening and toxicity. The ultimate goal of hESCs and iPS cell research is the treatment of diseases or disorders for which there is currently no treatment or existing therapies are only partially effective. Despite the disproportionate short-term hopes generated, which are putting too much pressure on scientists, the international scientific community is making rapid progress in understanding hESCs and iPS cells. Nonetheless, great efforts have to be made to provide an answer to still quite basic questions concerning their biology. Moreover, translation to clinical applications in cell replacement therapy requires prior solution to ethical barriers. The recent development of iPS cells has provided a strong alternative to overcome ethical issues concerning hESCs. However, an in-depth characterization of their genetic and epigenetic features, as well as their differentiation potential still remains to be undertaken. This chapter will describe, precisely, what the critical issues are, where scientific and ethical barriers stand, and how we are to overcome them. Only then, we shall finally discover whether hESCs and iPS cells will allow building reproducible disease models, and whether they really are a safe tool, with great potential for regenerative medicine.

  12. Voiced Reading and Rhythm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹艳萍

    2007-01-01

    Since voiced reading is an important way in learning English,rhythm is the most critical factor that enables to read beautifully.This article illustrates the relationship between rhythm and voiced reading,the importance of rhythm,and the methods to develop the sense of rhythm.

  13. Human mammary microenvironment better regulates the biology of human breast cancer in humanized mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ming-Jie; Wang, Jue; Xu, Lu; Zha, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Yi; Ling, Li-Jun; Wang, Shui

    2015-02-01

    During the past decades, many efforts have been made in mimicking the clinical progress of human cancer in mouse models. Previously, we developed a human breast tissue-derived (HB) mouse model. Theoretically, it may mimic the interactions between "species-specific" mammary microenvironment of human origin and human breast cancer cells. However, detailed evidences are absent. The present study (in vivo, cellular, and molecular experiments) was designed to explore the regulatory role of human mammary microenvironment in the progress of human breast cancer cells. Subcutaneous (SUB), mammary fat pad (MFP), and HB mouse models were developed for in vivo comparisons. Then, the orthotopic tumor masses from three different mouse models were collected for primary culture. Finally, the biology of primary cultured human breast cancer cells was compared by cellular and molecular experiments. Results of in vivo mouse models indicated that human breast cancer cells grew better in human mammary microenvironment. Cellular and molecular experiments confirmed that primary cultured human breast cancer cells from HB mouse model showed a better proliferative and anti-apoptotic biology than those from SUB to MFP mouse models. Meanwhile, primary cultured human breast cancer cells from HB mouse model also obtained the migratory and invasive biology for "species-specific" tissue metastasis to human tissues. Comprehensive analyses suggest that "species-specific" mammary microenvironment of human origin better regulates the biology of human breast cancer cells in our humanized mouse model of breast cancer, which is more consistent with the clinical progress of human breast cancer.

  14. The effect of mobile phone electromagnetic fields on the alpha rhythm of human electroencephalogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, R J; Hamblin, D L; Spong, J; Wood, A W; McKenzie, R J; Stough, C

    2008-01-01

    Mobile phones (MP) emit low-level electromagnetic fields that have been reported to affect neural function in humans; however, demonstrations of such effects have not been conclusive. The purpose of the present study was to test one of the strongest findings in the literature; that of increased "alpha" power in response to MP-type radiation. Healthy participants (N = 120) were tested using a double-blind counterbalanced crossover design, with each receiving a 30-min Active and a 30-min Sham Exposure 1 week apart, while electroencephalogram (EEG) data were recorded. Resting alpha power (8-12 Hz) was then derived as a function of time, for periods both during and following exposure. Non-parametric analyses were employed as data could not be normalized. Previous reports of an overall alpha power enhancement during the MP exposure were confirmed (relative to Sham), with this effect larger at ipsilateral than contralateral sites over posterior regions. No overall change to alpha power was observed following exposure cessation; however, there was less alpha power contralateral to the exposure source during this period (relative to ipsilateral). Employing a strong methodology, the current findings support previous research that has reported an effect of MP exposure on EEG alpha power.

  15. Measurement of the occipital alpha rhythm and temporal tau rhythm by using magnetoencephalography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. E.; Gohel, Bakul; Kim, K.; Kwon, H.; An, Kyung Min [Center for Biosignals, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science(KRISS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Developing Magnetoencephalography (MEG) based on Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) facilitates to observe the human brain functions in non-invasively and high temporal and high spatial resolution. By using this MEG, we studied alpha rhythm (8-13 Hz) that is one of the most predominant spontaneous rhythm in human brain. The 8–13 Hz rhythm is observed in several sensory region in the brain. In visual related region of occipital, we call to alpha rhythm, and auditory related region of temporal call to tau rhythm, sensorimotor related region of parietal call to mu rhythm. These rhythms are decreased in task related region and increased in task irrelevant regions. This means that these rhythms play a pivotal role of inhibition in task irrelevant region. It may be helpful to attention to the task. In several literature about the alpha-band inhibition in multi-sensory modality experiment, they observed this effect in the occipital and somatosensory region. In this study, we hypothesized that we can also observe the alpha-band inhibition in the auditory cortex, mediated by the tau rhythm. Before that, we first investigated the existence of the alpha and tau rhythm in occipital and temporal region, respectively. To see these rhythms, we applied the visual and auditory stimulation, in turns, suppressed in task relevant regions, respectively.

  16. [Effect of Earth magnetic field on circadian rhythm of total antioxidant capacity of human saliva in the North].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisenkov, M F

    2007-01-01

    In the inhabitants of the North during increase of geomagnetic activity and during magnetic calm the decrease of amplitude of circadian rhythm of total antioxidant capacity of saliva is observed. The most favorable conditions to display the circadian rhythm are observed at Kp from 0,5 up to 2. The long residing in the North is connected to influence of irregularly varying geomagnetic activity causing disturbance of function of circadian and antioxidant systems that, probably, is one of the reasons of acceleration of process of aging at northerner and of higher risk of occurrence in them the age associated diseases.

  17. Population Biology, Conservation Biology, and the Future of Humanity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Paul R.

    1987-01-01

    Recounts some of the progress that has been made in the field of population biology. Presents some of the important advances made in the field, along with some of their applications to societal problems. Calls for more cooperation between population scientists and social scientists, and more environmental education for the public. (TW)

  18. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang; Westanmo, Anders; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Junhao

    2013-01-01

    Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8), non-binary integer (1:3:5:6), and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4) ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  19. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang eWu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8, non-binary integer (1:3:5:6, and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4 ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  20. Effects of coupled dose and rhythm manipulation of plasma cortisol levels on leukocyte transcriptional response to endotoxin challenge in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisoglu, Kubra; Sleight, Kirsten; Nguyen, Tung T; Calvano, Steve E; Coyle, Susette M; Corbett, Siobhan A; Androulakis, Ioannis P

    2014-10-01

    Severe traumas are associated with hypercortisolemia due to both disruption of cortisol secretion rhythm and increase in its total concentration. Understanding the effects of altered cortisol levels and rhythms on immune function is of great clinical interest, to prevent conditions such as sepsis from complicating the recovery. This in vivo study assesses the responses of circulating leukocytes to coupled dose and rhythm manipulation of cortisol, preceding an immune challenge induced by endotoxin administration. Through continuous infusion, plasma cortisol concentration was increased to and kept constant at a level associated with major physiologic stress. In response, transcriptional programming of leukocytes was altered to display a priming response before endotoxin exposure. Enhanced expression of a number of receptors and signaling proteins, as well as lowered protein translation and mitochondrial function indicated a sensitization against potential infectious threats. Despite these changes, response to endotoxin followed very similar patterns in both cortisol and saline pre-treated groups except one cluster including probe sets associated with major players regulating inflammatory response. In sum, altered dose and rhythm of plasma cortisol levels engendered priming of circulating leukocytes when preceded an immune challenge. This transcriptional program change associated with stimulated surveillance function and suppressed energy-intensive processes, emphasized permissive actions of cortisol on immune function.

  1. Light Rhythms in Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Katja

    2013-01-01

    On one hand, urban lighting expresses itself in a complex visual environment made by the interplay by between many separate lighting schemes, as street lighting, shop lighting, luminous commercials etc. On the other, a noticeable order of patterns occurs, when lighting is observed as luminous...... formation and rhythm. When integrated into an architectural concept, electrical lighting non-intended for poetic composition has the ability to contribute to place, time, and function-telling aspects of places in urban contexts. Urban environments are information wise challenging to pre-historic human...... instincts, but they can be met by careful selection and adjustment of existing light situations....

  2. Light Rhythms in Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Katja

    2013-01-01

    On one hand, urban lighting expresses itself in a complex visual environment made by the interplay by between many separate lighting schemes, as street lighting, shop lighting, luminous commercials etc. On the other, a noticeable order of patterns occurs, when lighting is observed as luminous...... formation and rhythm. When integrated into an architectural concept, electrical lighting non-intended for poetic composition has the ability to contribute to place, time, and function-telling aspects of places in urban contexts. Urban environments are information wise challenging to pre-historic human...... instincts, but they can be met by careful selection and adjustment of existing light situations....

  3. Vitamin Concentrations in Human Milk Vary with Time within Feed, Circadian Rhythm, and Single-Dose Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Daniela; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Islam, M Munirul; Peerson, Janet M; Allen, Lindsay H

    2017-04-01

    Background: Human milk is the subject of many studies, but procedures for representative sample collection have not been established. Our improved methods for milk micronutrient analysis now enable systematic study of factors that affect its concentrations.Objective: We evaluated the effects of sample collection protocols, variations in circadian rhythms, subject variability, and acute maternal micronutrient supplementation on milk vitamin concentrations.Methods: In the BMQ (Breast-Milk-Quality) study, we recruited 18 healthy women (aged 18-26 y) in Dhaka, Bangladesh, at 2-4 mo of lactation for a 3-d supplementation study. On day 1, no supplements were given; on days 2 and 3, participants consumed ∼1 time and 2 times, respectively, the US-Canadian Recommended Dietary Allowances for vitamins at breakfast (0800-0859). Milk was collected during every feeding from the same breast over 24 h. Milk expressed in the first 2 min (aliquot I) was collected separately from the remainder (aliquot II); a third aliquot (aliquot III) was saved by combining aliquots I and II. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamins B-6, B-12, A, and E and fat were measured in each sample.Results: Significant but small differences (14-18%) between aliquots were found for all vitamins except for vitamins B-6 and B-12. Circadian variance was significant except for fat-adjusted vitamins A and E, with a higher contribution to total variance with supplementation. Between-subject variability accounted for most of the total variance. Afternoon and evening samples best reflected daily vitamin concentrations for all study days. Acute supplementation effects were found for thiamin, riboflavin, and vitamins B-6 and A at 2-4 h postdosing, with 0.1-6.17% passing into milk. Supplementation was reflected in fasting, 24-h postdose samples for riboflavin and vitamin B-6. Maximum amounts of dose-responding vitamins in 1 feeding ranged from 4.7% to 21.8% (day 2) and 8.2% to 35.0% (day 3) of Adequate Intake

  4. The implications of non-linear biological oscillations on human electrophysiology for electrohypersensitivity (EHS) and multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    The 'informational content' of Earth's electromagnetic signaling is like a set of operating instructions for human life. These environmental cues are dynamic and involve exquisitely low inputs (intensities) of critical frequencies with which all life on Earth evolved. Circadian and other temporal biological rhythms depend on these fluctuating electromagnetic inputs to direct gene expression, cell communication and metabolism, neural development, brainwave activity, neural synchrony, a diversity of immune functions, sleep and wake cycles, behavior and cognition. Oscillation is also a universal phenomenon, and biological systems of the heart, brain and gut are dependent on the cooperative actions of cells that function according to principles of non-linear, coupled biological oscillations for their synchrony. They are dependent on exquisitely timed cues from the environment at vanishingly small levels. Altered 'informational content' of environmental cues can swamp natural electromagnetic cues and result in dysregulation of normal biological rhythms that direct growth, development, metabolism and repair mechanisms. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) and radiofrequency radiation (RFR) can have the devastating biological effects of disrupting homeostasis and desynchronizing normal biological rhythms that maintain health. Non-linear, weak field biological oscillations govern body electrophysiology, organize cell and tissue functions and maintain organ systems. Artificial bioelectrical interference can give false information (disruptive signaling) sufficient to affect critical pacemaker cells (of the heart, gut and brain) and desynchronize functions of these important cells that orchestrate function and maintain health. Chronic physiological stress undermines homeostasis whether it is chemically induced or electromagnetically induced (or both exposures are simultaneous contributors). This can eventually break down adaptive biological responses critical to health

  5. Human biological monitoring of suspected endocrine-disrupting compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Moosa Faniband; Lindh, Christian H; Bo AG Jönsson

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds are exogenous agents that interfere with the natural hormones of the body. Human biological monitoring is a powerful method for monitoring exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds. In this review, we describe human biological monitoring systems for different groups of endocrine disrupting compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, metals, perfluronated compounds, parabens, ultraviolet filters, and o...

  6. Stem Cells: A Renaissance in Human Biology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2016-06-16

    The understanding of human biology and how it relates to that of other species represents an ancient quest. Limited access to human material, particularly during early development, has restricted researchers to only scratching the surface of this inherently challenging subject. Recent technological innovations, such as single cell "omics" and human stem cell derivation, have now greatly accelerated our ability to gain insights into uniquely human biology. The opportunities afforded to delve molecularly into scarce material and to model human embryogenesis and pathophysiological processes are leading to new insights of human development and are changing our understanding of disease and choice of therapy options.

  7. The biology of human sexuality: evolution, ecology and physiology

    OpenAIRE

    PW Bateman; NC Bennett

    2006-01-01

    Many evolutionary biologists argue that human sexual behaviour can be studied in exactly the same way as that of other species. Many sociologists argue that social influences effectively obscure, and are more important than, a reductionist biological approach to human sexual behaviour. Here,we authors attempt to provide a broad introduction to human sexual behaviour from a biological standpoint and to indicate where the ambiguous areas are. We outline the evolutionary selective pressures that...

  8. Off beat: pluralizing rhythm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstad, J.H.; Stougaard Pedersen, B.

    2013-01-01

    Off Beat: Pluralizing Rhythm draws attention to rhythm as a tool for analyzing various cultural objects. In fields as diverse as music, culture, nature, and economy, rhythm can be seen as a phenomenon that both connects and divides. It suggests a certain measure with which people, practices, and cul

  9. Integration of culture and biology in human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Jayanthi

    2013-01-01

    The challenge of integrating biology and culture is addressed in this chapter by emphasizing human development as involving mutually constitutive, embodied, and epigenetic processes. Heuristically rich constructs extrapolated from cultural psychology and developmental science, such as embodiment, action, and activity, are presented as promising approaches to the integration of cultural and biology in human development. These theoretical notions are applied to frame the nascent field of cultural neuroscience as representing this integration of culture and biology. Current empirical research in cultural neuroscience is then synthesized to illustrate emerging trends in this body of literature that examine the integration of biology and culture.

  10. A microbial perspective of human developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Mark R; Blanton, Laura V; DiGiulio, Daniel B; Relman, David A; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Mills, David A; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2016-07-07

    When most people think of human development, they tend to consider only human cells and organs. Yet there is another facet that involves human-associated microbial communities. A microbial perspective of human development provides opportunities to refine our definitions of healthy prenatal and postnatal growth and to develop innovative strategies for disease prevention and treatment. Given the dramatic changes in lifestyles and disease patterns that are occurring with globalization, we issue a call for the establishment of 'human microbial observatories' designed to examine microbial community development in birth cohorts representing populations with diverse anthropological characteristics, including those undergoing rapid change.

  11. Metagenomic Systems Biology of the Human Microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Ida

    The human microbiome is an integrated part of the human body, outnumbering the human cells by approximately a factor 10. These microorganisms are very important for human health, hence knowledge about this, ”our other genome”, has been growing rapidly in recent years. This is manly due to the adv......The human microbiome is an integrated part of the human body, outnumbering the human cells by approximately a factor 10. These microorganisms are very important for human health, hence knowledge about this, ”our other genome”, has been growing rapidly in recent years. This is manly due...... in the system. Applying the CAG clustering method to data from the human gut microbiome, we identified dependency-associations between plasmids, phages and clone-specific gene sets to their bacterial host. Connections between CRISPR-elements and phages were also observed. Additionally, the persistence of some...... bacterial species in the human gut could be predicted based on absence or presence of specific genetic modules. Based on the same CAG clustering of the human gut microbiome data, the link between bile acid degradation of bacteria in the gut and obesity was investigated. There seemed to be a slight...

  12. Teacher's Study Guide on the Biology of Human Populations: Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This teacher's guide is designed to give background information on current biological subjects not usually treated in student texts. The book is divided into five parts, each representing one of the following topics: (1) evolution of human populations; (2) environment of human populations; (3) dynamics of human populations; (4) reproduction in…

  13. Cultural Carrying Capacity: A Biological Approach to Human Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Garrett

    1992-01-01

    In discussing the human and cultural implications of scientific discoveries and knowledge, the biological concept of carrying capacity is explored. Maintaining that human beings are truly animals answering to principles that govern all animals, the author addresses the need for human populations to work within the context of culture and carrying…

  14. Circadian rhythm and its role in malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Rana, Sobia; Mahmood, Saqib

    2010-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are daily oscillations of multiple biological processes directed by endogenous clocks. The circadian timing system comprises peripheral oscillators located in most tissues of the body and a central pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. Circadian genes and the proteins produced by these genes constitute the molecular components of the circadian oscillator which form positive/negative feedback loops and generate circadian rhythms. The circ...

  15. Raymond Pearl and the shaping of human biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Michael A; Garruto, Ralph M

    2010-02-01

    Raymond Pearl (1879-1940) was a significant figure in the field of biology. He founded the journal Human Biology and almost single-handedly promoted and established the scientific discipline of human biology. His scientific versatility was one of his most important features during the first four decades of the 20th century, and he played a major role in developing the fields of biodemography, human population biology, human life-cycle and life span approaches, fertility, growth, the biology of longevity and senescence, and mortality. He was one of the earliest biologists to combine biometric analyses and experimental studies to explore the dimensions of human biology. Pearl also was broadly educated in the arts, music, literature, history, the classics, and science. His writing was sophisticated and often witty, and his views were sometimes provocative and controversial. His network of colleagues and friends among the literary and science worlds was substantial. The following biographical memoir of Raymond Pearl is designed to commemorate the 80th anniversary of the founding of his journal Human Biology and is a tribute to this great scientist. Pearl's sudden death at age 61 truncated a scientific career that was one of the most productive of the 20th century.

  16. Human Brain Basis of Musical Rhythm Perception: Common and Distinct Neural Substrates for Meter, Tempo, and Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Thaut

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhythm as the time structure of music is composed of distinct temporal components such as pattern, meter, and tempo. Each feature requires different computational processes: meter involves representing repeating cycles of strong and weak beats; pattern involves representing intervals at each local time point which vary in length across segments and are linked hierarchically; and tempo requires representing frequency rates of underlying pulse structures. We explored whether distinct rhythmic elements engage different neural mechanisms by recording brain activity of adult musicians and non-musicians with positron emission tomography (PET as they made covert same-different discriminations of (a pairs of rhythmic, monotonic tone sequences representing changes in pattern, tempo, and meter, and (b pairs of isochronous melodies. Common to pattern, meter, and tempo tasks were focal activities in right, or bilateral, areas of frontal, cingulate, parietal, prefrontal, temporal, and cerebellar cortices. Meter processing alone activated areas in right prefrontal and inferior frontal cortex associated with more cognitive and abstract representations. Pattern processing alone recruited right cortical areas involved in different kinds of auditory processing. Tempo processing alone engaged mechanisms subserving somatosensory and premotor information (e.g., posterior insula, postcentral gyrus. Melody produced activity different from the rhythm conditions (e.g., right anterior insula and various cerebellar areas. These exploratory findings suggest the outlines of some distinct neural components underlying the components of rhythmic structure.

  17. Human brain basis of musical rhythm perception: common and distinct neural substrates for meter, tempo, and pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaut, Michael H; Trimarchi, Pietro Davide; Parsons, Lawrence M

    2014-06-17

    Rhythm as the time structure of music is composed of distinct temporal components such as pattern, meter, and tempo. Each feature requires different computational processes: meter involves representing repeating cycles of strong and weak beats; pattern involves representing intervals at each local time point which vary in length across segments and are linked hierarchically; and tempo requires representing frequency rates of underlying pulse structures. We explored whether distinct rhythmic elements engage different neural mechanisms by recording brain activity of adult musicians and non-musicians with positron emission tomography (PET) as they made covert same-different discriminations of (a) pairs of rhythmic, monotonic tone sequences representing changes in pattern, tempo, and meter, and (b) pairs of isochronous melodies. Common to pattern, meter, and tempo tasks were focal activities in right, or bilateral, areas of frontal, cingulate, parietal, prefrontal, temporal, and cerebellar cortices. Meter processing alone activated areas in right prefrontal and inferior frontal cortex associated with more cognitive and abstract representations. Pattern processing alone recruited right cortical areas involved in different kinds of auditory processing. Tempo processing alone engaged mechanisms subserving somatosensory and premotor information (e.g., posterior insula, postcentral gyrus). Melody produced activity different from the rhythm conditions (e.g., right anterior insula and various cerebellar areas). These exploratory findings suggest the outlines of some distinct neural components underlying the components of rhythmic structure.

  18. The biological clock modulates the human cortisol response in a multiplicative fashion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Werken, Maan; Booij, Sanne H.; van der Zwan, J Esi; Simons, Mirre J. P.; Gordijn, Marijke C. M.; Beersma, Domien G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Human cortisol levels follow a clear circadian rhythm. We investigated the contribution of alternation of sleep and wakefulness and the circadian clock, using forced desynchrony. Cortisol levels were best described by a multiplication of a circadian and a wake-time component. The human cortisol resp

  19. Human biological monitoring of suspected endocrine-disrupting compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faniband, Moosa; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo AG

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds are exogenous agents that interfere with the natural hormones of the body. Human biological monitoring is a powerful method for monitoring exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds. In this review, we describe human biological monitoring systems for different groups of endocrine disrupting compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, metals, perfluronated compounds, parabens, ultraviolet filters, and organic solvents. The aspects discussed are origin to exposure, metabolism, matrices to analyse, analytical determination methods, determinants, and time trends. PMID:24369128

  20. Human biological monitoring of suspected endocrine-disrupting compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faniband, Moosa; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds are exogenous agents that interfere with the natural hormones of the body. Human biological monitoring is a powerful method for monitoring exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds. In this review, we describe human biological monitoring systems for different groups of endocrine disrupting compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, metals, perfluronated compounds, parabens, ultraviolet filters, and organic solvents. The aspects discussed are origin to exposure, metabolism, matrices to analyse, analytical determination methods, determinants, and time trends.

  1. Interaction among cardiac, respiratory, and locomotor rhythms during cardiolocomotor synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niizeki, K; Kawahara, K; Miyamoto, Y

    1993-10-01

    The nature of entrainment between cardiac and locomotor rhythms was investigated while normal human subjects walked or ran on a treadmill. To detect the incidence of entrainment occurrence, the phase relationships among cardiac, respiratory, and locomotor rhythms were analyzed. The phase relationship between heartbeats and gait signals showed that entrainment of cardiac rhythm to locomotor rhythm occurred in all subjects at one or more treadmill speeds. To elucidate interactions among cardiac, respiratory, and locomotor rhythms during the cardiolocomotor synchronization, spectral and coherence analyses were done for these three rhythms. Spectral and coherence analyses on fluctuations in the heart period and respiratory rhythms revealed that the strength of coupling between cardiac and respiratory rhythms decreased in the presence of cardiolocomotor synchronization. In addition, the coupling of cardiac and locomotor rhythms appeared to induce dissociation of coupling between respiratory and locomotor rhythms. These results were similar to those observed when stepping was voluntarily synchronized with cardiac rhythm. Possible mechanisms to explain coordination and interaction among the neural oscillators innervating these three rhythms are discussed.

  2. [Human angiogenin: expression, purification, biological assay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Zhang, Y Q; Yan, Z; Han, W; Yao, L B; Su, C Z

    2001-01-01

    Angiogenin cDNA was obtained by RT-PCR, and cloned into the fusion expression vector pRSETB. The recombinant Angiogenin protein was fused with His6 at its N-terminal and expressed as inclusion body. The expression level was about 10% of the total bacteria protein. After dissolved in 8 mol/L urea, the recombinant protein was purified by Ni2(+)-NTA chelating resin, according to the high affinity of His6 with Ni2+. The biological assay indicated that purified rhANG could induced the new blood vessel formation of CAM and degraded tRNA in vitro.

  3. Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Akinci

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The circadian rhythm sleep disorders define the clinical conditions where sleep and ndash;wake rhythm is disrupted despite optimum environmental and social conditions. They occur as a result of the changes in endogenous circadian hours or non-compatibility of environmental factors or social life with endogenous circadian rhythm. The sleep and ndash;wake rhythm is disrupted continuously or in repeating phases depending on lack of balance between internal and external cycles. This condition leads to functional impairments which cause insomnia, excessive sleepiness or both in people. Application of detailed sleep anamnesis and sleep diary with actigraphy record, if possible, will be sufficient for diagnosis. The treatment aims to align endogenous circadian rhythm with environmental conditions. The purpose of this article is to review pathology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of circadian rhythm disorder. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 178-189

  4. Biology, Culture and Society: An Explanation of Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Barbara

    Traditional sociological conceptions of human group development and early human group behavior are critiqued in light of anthropological, biological, and physiological data. The objective of the study was to identify shortcomings of sociological research when non-sociological data is consistently ignored. Review of sociological studies of human…

  5. The Human Genome Project and Biology Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Joseph D.

    1996-01-01

    Highlights the importance of the Human Genome Project in educating the public about genetics. Discusses four challenges that science educators must address: teaching for conceptual understanding, the nature of science, the personal and social impact of science and technology, and the principles of technology. Contains 45 references. (JRH)

  6. The biological coherence of human phenome databases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oti, M.O.; Huynen, M.A.; Brunner, H.G.

    2009-01-01

    Disease networks are increasingly explored as a complement to networks centered around interactions between genes and proteins. The quality of disease networks is heavily dependent on the amount and quality of phenotype information in phenotype databases of human genetic diseases. We explored which

  7. The Biological Basis of Human Irrationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Albert

    If we define irrationality as thought, emotion, or behavior that leads to self-defeating consequences or that significantly interferes with the survival and happiness of the organism, we find that literally hundreds of major irrationalities exist in all societies and in virtually all humans in those societies. These irrationalities persist despite…

  8. Musical rhythm and affect. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witek, Maria A. G.; Kringelbach, Morten L.; Vuust, Peter

    2015-06-01

    The Quartet Theory of Human Emotion (QT) proposed by Koelsch et al. [1] adds to existing affective models, e.g. by directing more attention to emotional contagion, attachment-related and non-goal-directed emotions. Such an approach seems particularly appropriate to modelling musical emotions, and music is indeed a recurring example in the text, used to illustrate the distinct characteristics of the affect systems that are at the centre of the theory. Yet, it would seem important for any theory of emotion to account for basic functions such as prediction and anticipation, which are only briefly mentioned. Here we propose that QT, specifically its focus on emotional contagion, attachment-related and non-goal directed emotions, might help generate new ideas about a largely neglected source of emotion - rhythm - a musical property that relies fundamentally on the mechanism of prediction.

  9. Chronobiology applied to spawning and gamete withdrawal: importance of daily rhythms

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Chronobiology is the field of science which studies the biological rhythms and the mechanisms by which the organisms adapt to a constantly changing environment. Animals synchronize their rhythms with environmental cycles choosing the most suitable moment to feed, reproduce or be active, thereby optimizing biological processes. In fish, the study of circadian activity and feeding rhythms has been profusely investigated lately; however, reproduction rhythms are often neglected. Fish species rep...

  10. Circadian rhythms, sleep, and the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Fiona C; Driver, Helen S

    2007-09-01

    Women with ovulatory menstrual cycles have a circadian rhythm superimposed on the menstrual-associated rhythm; in turn, menstrual events affect the circadian rhythm. In this paper, we review circadian rhythms in temperature, selected hormone profiles, and sleep-wake behavior in healthy women at different phases of the menstrual cycle. The effects on menstrual cycle rhythmicity of disrupted circadian rhythms, for example, with shiftwork and altered circadian rhythms in women with menstrual-related mood disturbances, are discussed. Compared to the follicular phase, in the post-ovulation luteal phase, body temperature is elevated, but the amplitude of the temperature rhythm is reduced. Evidence indicates that the amplitude of other rhythms, such as melatonin and cortisol, may also be blunted in the luteal phase. Subjective sleep quality is lowest around menses, but the timing and composition of sleep remains relatively stable across the menstrual cycle in healthy women, apart from an increase in spindle frequency activity and a minor decrease in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep during the luteal phase. Disruption of circadian rhythms is associated with disturbances in menstrual function. Female shiftworkers compared to non-shiftworkers are more likely to report menstrual irregularity and longer menstrual cycles. There also is accumulating evidence that circadian disruption increases the risk of breast cancer in women, possibly due to altered light exposure and reduced melatonin secretion. Further investigations into the biological consequences of circadian disruption in women will offer insight into some menstrual-associated disorders, including mood changes, as well as reproductive function and possible links with breast cancer.

  11. Synthetic Biology and Human Health: Potential Applications for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Carr, Christopher; Cai, Yizhi; Chen, Y.; Grenon, Marlene; Larios-Sanz, Maia; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Santos, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    Human space travelers experience a unique environment that affects homeostasis and physiologic adaptation. Spaceflight-related changes have been reported in the musculo-skeletal, cardiovascular, neurovestibular, endocrine, and immune systems. The spacecraft environment further subjects the traveler to noise and gravitational forces, as well as airborne chemical, microbiological contaminants, and radiation exposure. As humans prepare for longer duration missions effective countermeasures must be developed, verified, and implemented to ensure mission success. Over the past ten years, synthetic biology has opened new avenues for research and development in areas such as biological control, biomaterials, sustainable energy production, bioremediation, and biomedical therapies. The latter in particular is of great interest to the implementation of long-duration human spaceflight capabilities. This article discusses the effects of spaceflight on humans, and reviews current capabilities and potential needs associated with the health of the astronauts where synthetic biology could play an important role in the pursuit of space exploration.

  12. Daily rhythms in mobile telephone communication

    CERN Document Server

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Roberts, Sam G B; Reed-Tsochas, Felix; Moro, Esteban; Dunbar, Robin I M; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are known to be important drivers of human activity and the recent availability of electronic records of human behaviour has provided fine-grained data of temporal patterns of activity on a large scale. Further, questionnaire studies have identified important individual differences in circadian rhythms, with people broadly categorised into morning-like or evening-like individuals. However, little is known about the social aspects of these circadian rhythms, or how they vary across individuals. In this study we use a unique 18-month dataset that combines mobile phone calls and questionnaire data to examine individual differences in the daily rhythms of mobile phone activity. We demonstrate clear individual differences in daily patterns of phone calls, and show that these individual differences are persistent despite a high degree of turnover in the individuals' social networks. Further, women's calls were longer than men's calls, especially during the evening and at night, and these calls wer...

  13. Principles of Security: Human, Cyber, and Biological

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Blake C

    2013-01-01

    Cybersecurity attacks are a major and increasing burden to economic and social systems globally. Here we analyze the principles of security in different domains and demonstrate an architectural flaw in current cybersecurity. Cybersecurity is inherently weak because it is missing the ability to defend the overall system instead of individual computers. The current architecture enables all nodes in the computer network to communicate transparently with one another, so security would require protecting every computer in the network from all possible attacks. In contrast, other systems depend on system-wide protections. In providing conventional security, police patrol neighborhoods and the military secures borders, rather than defending each individual household. Likewise, in biology, the immune system provides security against viruses and bacteria using primarily action at the skin, membranes, and blood, rather than requiring each cell to defend itself. We propose applying these same principles to address the c...

  14. Molecular biology of human muscle disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunne, P.W.; Epstein, H.F. (Baylor Coll. of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The molecular revolution that is transforming the entire biomedical field has had far-reaching impact in its application to inherited human muscle disease. The gene for Duchenne muscular dystrophy was one of the first cloned without knowledge of the defective protein product. This success was based upon the availability of key chromosomal aberrations that provided molecular landmarks for the disease locus. Subsequent discoveries regarding the mode of expression for this gene, the structure and localization of its protein product dystrophin, and molecular diagnosis of affected and carrier individuals constitute a paradigm for investigation of human genetics. Finding the gene for myotonic muscular dystrophy is requiring the brute force approach of cloning several million bases of DNA, identifying expressed sequences, and characterizing candidate genes. The gene that causes hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has been found serendipitously to be one of the genetic markers on chromosome 14, the {beta} myosin heavy chain.

  15. Melatonin the "light of night" in human biology and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savvidou Olga D

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Melatonin "the light of night" is secreted from the pineal gland principally at night. The hormone is involved in sleep regulation, as well as in a number of other cyclical bodily activities and circadian rhythm in humans. Melatonin is exclusively involved in signalling the 'time of day' and 'time of year' (hence considered to help both clock and calendar functions to all tissues and is thus considered to be the body's chronological pacemaker or 'Zeitgeber'. The last decades melatonin has been used as a therapeutic chemical in a large spectrum of diseases, mainly in sleep disturbances and tumours and may play a role in the biologic regulation of mood, affective disorders, cardiovascular system, reproduction and aging. There are few papers regarding melatonin and its role in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS. Melatonin may play a role in the pathogenesis of scoliosis (neuroendocrine hypothesis but at present, the data available cannot clearly support this hypothesis. Uncertainties and doubts still surround the role of melatonin in human physiology and pathophysiology and future research is needed.

  16. Vestibular loss disrupts daily rhythm in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T; Mauvieux, B; Bulla, J; Quarck, G; Davenne, D; Denise, P; Philoxène, B; Besnard, S

    2015-02-01

    Hypergravity disrupts the circadian regulation of temperature (Temp) and locomotor activity (Act) mediated through the vestibular otolithic system in mice. In contrast, we do not know whether the anatomical structures associated with vestibular input are crucial for circadian rhythm regulation at 1 G on Earth. In the present study we observed the effects of bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) on the daily rhythms of Temp and Act in semipigmented rats. Our model of vestibular lesion allowed for selective peripheral hair cell degeneration without any other damage. Rats with BVL exhibited a disruption in their daily rhythms (Temp and Act), which were replaced by a main ultradian period (τ <20 h) for 115.8 ± 68.6 h after vestibular lesion compared with rats in the control group. Daily rhythms of Temp and Act in rats with BVL recovered within 1 wk, probably counterbalanced by photic and other nonphotic time cues. No correlation was found between Temp and Act daily rhythms after vestibular lesion in rats with BVL, suggesting a direct influence of vestibular input on the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Our findings support the hypothesis that the vestibular system has an influence on daily rhythm homeostasis in semipigmented rats on Earth, and raise the question of whether daily rhythms might be altered due to vestibular pathology in humans. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Meeting of the Society for Research on Biological Rhythms (2nd) Held in Jacksonville, Florida on 9-13 May 1990. Programs and Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-30

    RHY’THM IN 17:15 DNA SYNTHESIS IN MOUSE GUT. N.H. Rubin, P.R. 32 MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES TO A UNIQUE Laraby, J.B. Field, P.L. Rayford*, C.M. Townsend, Jr...W.C. Dement. Stanford Sleep Disorders THE CIRCADIAN CLOCK. Kristin A. Lindgron. Ann Center, 701 Welch Rd., Suite 2226, Palo Alto, CA Lichens -Park...functionally equivalent to a photophase at 25*C. -33- 25 EFFECT OF ENPROSTIL, A PROSTAGLANDIN E2 ANALOGUE, ON THE CIRCADIAN RHYTHM I1" DNA SYNTHESIS IN MOUSE GUT

  18. The biology of human sexuality: evolution, ecology and physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PW Bateman

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Many evolutionary biologists argue that human sexual behaviour can be studied in exactly the same way as that of other species. Many sociologists argue that social influences effectively obscure, and are more important than, a reductionist biological approach to human sexual behaviour. Here,we authors attempt to provide a broad introduction to human sexual behaviour from a biological standpoint and to indicate where the ambiguous areas are. We outline the evolutionary selective pressures that are likely to have influenced human behaviour and mate choice in the past and in the present; ecological features that influence such things as degree of parental care and polygamy; and the associated physiology of human sexuality. Then they end with a discussion of �abnormal� sexuality.

  19. Markets, Bodies, Rhythms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Christian; Bondo Hansen, Kristian; Lange, Ann-Christina

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between bodily rhythms and market rhythms in two distinctly different financial market configurations, namely the open-outcry pit (prevalent especially in the early 20th century) and present-day high-frequency trading. Drawing on Henri Lefebvre's rhythmanaly......This article explores the relationship between bodily rhythms and market rhythms in two distinctly different financial market configurations, namely the open-outcry pit (prevalent especially in the early 20th century) and present-day high-frequency trading. Drawing on Henri Lefebvre...... of financial markets, it also suggests that high-frequency trading in particular might produce new types of market rhythms that, contra Lefebvre, do not revolve around traders' bodies....

  20. Human biological monitoring of suspected endocrine-disrupting compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosa Faniband

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine-disrupting compounds are exogenous agents that interfere with the natural hormones of the body. Human biological monitoring is a powerful method for monitoring exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds. In this review, we describe human biological monitoring systems for different groups of endocrine disrupting compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, metals, perfluronated compounds, parabens, ultraviolet filters, and organic solvents. The aspects discussed are origin to exposure, metabolism, matrices to analyse, analytical determination methods, determinants, and time trends.

  1. Electromagnetic field induced biological effects in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszuba-Zwoińska, Jolanta; Gremba, Jerzy; Gałdzińska-Calik, Barbara; Wójcik-Piotrowicz, Karolina; Thor, Piotr J

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to artificial radio frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has increased significantly in recent decades. Therefore, there is a growing scientific and social interest in its influence on health, even upon exposure significantly below the applicable standards. The intensity of electromagnetic radiation in human environment is increasing and currently reaches astronomical levels that had never before experienced on our planet. The most influential process of EMF impact on living organisms, is its direct tissue penetration. The current established standards of exposure to EMFs in Poland and in the rest of the world are based on the thermal effect. It is well known that weak EMF could cause all sorts of dramatic non-thermal effects in body cells, tissues and organs. The observed symptoms are hardly to assign to other environmental factors occurring simultaneously in the human environment. Although, there are still ongoing discussions on non-thermal effects of EMF influence, on May 31, 2011--International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)--Agenda of World Health Organization (WHO) has classified radio electromagnetic fields, to a category 2B as potentially carcinogenic. Electromagnetic fields can be dangerous not only because of the risk of cancer, but also other health problems, including electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS). Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is a phenomenon characterized by the appearance of symptoms after exposure of people to electromagnetic fields, generated by EHS is characterized as a syndrome with a broad spectrum of non-specific multiple organ symptoms including both acute and chronic inflammatory processes located mainly in the skin and nervous systems, as well as in respiratory, cardiovascular systems, and musculoskeletal system. WHO does not consider the EHS as a disease-- defined on the basis of medical diagnosis and symptoms associated with any known syndrome. The symptoms may be associated with a single source of EMF

  2. 37 CFR 1.775 - Calculation of patent term extension for a human drug, antibiotic drug or human biological product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... extension for a human drug, antibiotic drug or human biological product. 1.775 Section 1.775 Patents... drug or human biological product is eligible for extension, the term shall be extended by the time as... term of the patent for a human drug, antibiotic drug or human biological product will be extended...

  3. Basic rhythm of myoelectric activities of sphcter of Oddi and its biological significance%Oddi括约肌肌电活动的基本方式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李虎城; 董家鸿; 陈飞; 邹一平; 李为民

    2010-01-01

    Objective To observe the basic rhythm of myoelectrie activities of sphcter of Oddi (SO)and explore its biological significance.Methods Healthy adult rabbits(n=32)were randomized into 4 groups with 8 in each.The first group was for recording of myoelectric activities of SO after keeping fast for 18 hours.The second group was manipulated to observe the myoelectric activities of SO after food infusion through the stoma in stomach.The myoelectric activities of SO in the third group were monitored after the classical Nardi test was performed on these rabbits.The fourth group was used to observe the myoelectric activities of SO after the cholinergic receptors had been blocked.Using the double claw metal electrodes which were put into SO and duodenum through the plasma membrance,the myoelectric signal were recorded with RM6240 multi-channel physiologic recording and signal processing system and non-stop recording was conducted for 120-150 mins.Results 1)Spike Potentials of SO with the frequency was observed in rabbits that had been fasting.2)Myoelectronic activity of SO was observed in rabbits infused with 50 ml milk through stoma.3)After the administration of 1 mg morphine and 1 mg neostigmine i.v,the myoelectric activities of SO were noted as long-lasting persistent MASO.4)Administration of anisodamine 1 mg(i.v.)in the empty abdomen group dismissed SPSO and MASO.This state lasted for 120 min before SPSO gradually reconverted to the state of empty abdomen.Conclusion There are four patterns of myoelectric activities of SO,i.e,tensional waves under empty abdomen indicating a state in which the SO kept a basic tension level.Peristaltic waves under intake of food.Spastic waves under the stimulation of drugs and relaxant waves under the post-ganglionic block of cholinergic receptors were observed in the present study.Correspondingly,their mechanic locomotion is inferred as the basic tensional state to faciliate the deposition and condensation of bile,the peristalsis for the

  4. [Circadian rhythms in body temperature and sleep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Ken-ichi

    2013-12-01

    A 24 hour variation of core body temperature in humans is primarily regulated by the endogenous circadian pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. And the expression of circadian rhythm is modified by the thermoregulatory mechanism controlling heat production and heat loss, which also show circadian rhythms. On the other hand, circadian rhythms in sleep-wakefulness are expressed by two independent but mutually coupled oscillators, the circadian pacemaker and the oscillator specific to sleep-wakefulness. However, neither the mechanism nor the site of oscillation of the latter is known. The time cues for these two oscillators are different. They are usually but frequently uncoupled under free-running conditions. Body temperature and sleep-wakefulness influence the counterpart in various extents, exerting masking effects on either circadian rhythm.

  5. Human cortical rhythms during visual delayed choice reaction time tasks. A high-resolution EEG study on normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiloni, Claudio; Babiloni, Fabio; Carducci, Filippo; Cappa, Stefano F; Cincotti, Febo; Del Percio, Claudio; Miniussi, Carlo; Vito Moretti, Davide; Rossi, Simone; Sosta, Katiuscia; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2004-08-12

    Neuroimaging cognitive study of aging requires simple tasks ensuring a high rate of correct performances even in stressful neurophysiological settings. Here two simple delayed choice reaction time tasks were used to unveil event-related desynchronization (ERD) of theta (4-6 Hz) and alpha (6-12 Hz) electroencephalographic rhythms across normal aging. In the first condition, a cue stimulus (one bit) was memorized along a brief delay period (3.5-5.5 s). The explicit demand was visuo-spatial, but the retention could be also based on phonological and somatomotor coding. In the second condition, the cue stimulus remained available along the delay period. Correct performances were higher than 95% in both groups and tasks, although they were significantly better in young than elderly subjects (P < 0.03). During the delay period, theta and alpha ERD accompanying correct responses were recognized in the two groups, the alpha ERD being stronger and prolonged during the memory than non-memory task. On the other hand, the fronto-parietal theta and parietal alpha ERD were stronger in young than elderly subjects during both tasks. Notably, the frontal alpha ERD was negligible in elderly subjects. In conclusion, the present simple tasks unveiled in elderly compared to young subjects (i) a weaker involvement of (para)hippocampal-cortical circuits as revealed by theta ERD and (ii) a weaker involvement of "executive" thalamo-cortical circuits as revealed by frontal alpha ERD. These effects might worsen behavioral performances to the simple cognitive tasks with age. The present protocol is promising for the neuroimaging study of pathological aging.

  6. Rhythm in language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langus, Alan; Mehler, Jacques; Nespor, Marina

    2016-12-16

    Spoken language is governed by rhythm. Linguistic rhythm is hierarchical and the rhythmic hierarchy partially mimics the prosodic as well as the morpho-syntactic hierarchy of spoken language. It can thus provide learners with cues about the structure of the language they are acquiring. We identify three universal levels of linguistic rhythm - the segmental level, the level of the metrical feet and the phonological phrase level - and discuss why primary lexical stress is not rhythmic. We survey experimental evidence on rhythm perception in young infants and native speakers of various languages to determine the properties of linguistic rhythm that are present at birth, those that mature during the first year of life and those that are shaped by the linguistic environment of language learners. We conclude with a discussion of the major gaps in current knowledge on linguistic rhythm and highlight areas of interest for future research that are most likely to yield significant insights into the nature, the perception, and the usefulness of linguistic rhythm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Block of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger by SEA0400 in human right atrial preparations from patients in sinus rhythm and in atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Torsten; Kovács, Peter P; Acsai, Karoly; Knaut, Michael; Eschenhagen, Thomas; Jost, Norbert; Varró, András; Wettwer, Erich; Ravens, Ursula

    2016-10-01

    The Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) plays a major role in myocardial Ca(2+) homoeostasis, but is also considered to contribute to the electrical instability and contractile dysfunction in chronic atrial fibrillation (AF). Here we have investigated the effects of the selective NCX blocker SEA0400 in human right atrial cardiomyocytes from patients in sinus rhythm (SR) and AF in order to obtain electrophysiological evidence for putative antiarrhythmic activity of this new class of drugs. Action potentials were measured in right atrial trabeculae using conventional microelectrodes. Human myocytes were enzymatically isolated. Rat atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes were used for comparison. Using perforated-patch, NCX was measured as Ni(2+)-sensitive current during ramp pulses. In ruptured-patch experiments, NCX current was activated by changing the extracellular Ca(2+) concentration from 0 to 1mM in Na(+)-free bath solution (100mM Na(+) intracellular, "Hilgemann protocol"). Although SEA0400 was effective in rat cardiomyocytes, 10µM did not influence action potentials and contractility, neither in SR nor AF. SEA0400 (10μM) also failed to affect human atrial NCX current measured with perforated patch. With the "Hilgemann protocol" SEA0400 concentration-dependently suppressed human atrial NCX current, and its amplitude was larger in AF than in SR cardiomyocytes. Our results confirm higher NCX activity in AF than SR. SEA0400 fails to block Ni(2+)-sensitive current in human atrial cells unless unphysiological conditions are used. We speculate that block of NCX with SEA0400 depends on intracellular Na(+) concentration.

  8. The DNA-damage response in human biology and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Stephen P; Bartek, Jiri

    2009-01-01

    , signal its presence and mediate its repair. Such responses, which have an impact on a wide range of cellular events, are biologically significant because they prevent diverse human diseases. Our improving understanding of DNA-damage responses is providing new avenues for disease management....

  9. Human mesenchymal stromal cells : biological characterization and clinical application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernardo, Maria Ester

    2010-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the characterization of the biological and functional properties of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), isolated from different tissue sources. The differentiation capacity of MSCs from fetal and adult tissues has been tested and compared. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has be

  10. Applied Developmental Biology: Making Human Pancreatic Beta Cells for Diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Douglas A

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the genes and signaling pathways that determine the differentiation and fate of a cell is a central goal of developmental biology. Using that information to gain mastery over the fates of cells presents new approaches to cell transplantation and drug discovery for human diseases including diabetes. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhancing Biology Instruction with the Human Genome Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxeda, Rosa J.; Moore-Russo, Deborah A.

    2003-01-01

    The Human Genome Project (HGP) is a recent scientific milestone that has received notable attention. This article shows how a biology course is using the HGP to enhance students' experiences by providing awareness of cutting edge research, with information on new emerging career options, and with opportunities to consider ethical questions raised…

  12. The Human Genome Project: Biology, Computers, and Privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter, Mary Ann G.; Drexler, Edward; Gottesman, Kay S.; Goulding, Philip G.; McCullough, Laurence B.; McInerney, Joseph D.; Micikas, Lynda B.; Mural, Richard J.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Zola, John

    This module, for high school teachers, is the second of two modules about the Human Genome Project (HGP) produced by the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS). The first section of this module provides background information for teachers about the structure and objectives of the HGP, aspects of the science and technology that underlie the…

  13. Teacher's Study Guide on the Biology of Human Populations: Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    Factual and conceptual information dealing with the biology of human populations is offered in this guide for secondary science teachers. Instructional approaches are reviewed and suggestions are offered for use of the problem method approach, the discussion technique, and the project option. Information is organized into an introduction and five…

  14. Autophagy in human skin fibroblasts: Comparison between young and aged cells and evaluation of its cellular rhythm and response to Ultraviolet A radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernodet, Nadine; Dong, Kelly; Pelle, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Autophagic mechanisms play critical roles in cell maintenance. Damaged organelles that are not removed by autophagosomes, which act by engulfing and degrading these cellular components, have been linked to various pathologies. Recently, the progression of aging has also been correlated to a compromised autophagic response. Here, we report for the first time a significant reduction in autophagic levels in synchronized aged normal human skin fibroblasts as compared to young fibroblasts. We measured a 77.9% reduction in autophagy as determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for LC3B expression, a microtubule-associated protein correlated to late stage autophagosome formation. In addition, we visualized these same changes by immunocytofluorescence with antibodies directed against LC3B. By harvesting synchronized, as well as unsynchronized cells over time, we were also able to measure for the first time a nighttime peak in autophagy that was present in young but absent in aged fibroblasts. Finally, since human skin is constantly subjected to environmentally induced oxidative stress from sunlight, we exposed fibroblasts to 10 J/cm2 ultraviolet A and found, in good agreement with current literature, not only that irradiation could partially reactivate autophagy in the aged cells, but also that this increase was phase shifted earlier from its endogenous temporal pattern because of its loss of synchronization with circadian rhythm.

  15. Human Metabolic Network: Reconstruction, Simulation, and Applications in Systems Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming; Chan, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Metabolism is crucial to cell growth and proliferation. Deficiency or alterations in metabolic functions are known to be involved in many human diseases. Therefore, understanding the human metabolic system is important for the study and treatment of complex diseases. Current reconstructions of the global human metabolic network provide a computational platform to integrate genome-scale information on metabolism. The platform enables a systematic study of the regulation and is applicable to a wide variety of cases, wherein one could rely on in silico perturbations to predict novel targets, interpret systemic effects, and identify alterations in the metabolic states to better understand the genotype-phenotype relationships. In this review, we describe the reconstruction of the human metabolic network, introduce the constraint based modeling approach to analyze metabolic networks, and discuss systems biology applications to study human physiology and pathology. We highlight the challenges and opportunities in network reconstruction and systems modeling of the human metabolic system. PMID:24957377

  16. A Qualitative Investigation of Early Childhood Teachers' Experiences of Rhythm as Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Douglas R; Ubbes, Valerie A; Freysinger, Valeria J

    2016-01-01

    Rhythm has been found to enhance not only biological functioning (e.g. balance, timing and coordination), but also to facilitate learning across sociocultural contexts. That is, rhythm may be a method of supporting child development and well-being. Hence, to the extent that children are not exposed to or engaged with rhythm, their development or…

  17. Circadian systems biology in Metazoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Ling; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Juan, Hsueh-Fen

    2015-11-01

    Systems biology, which can be defined as integrative biology, comprises multistage processes that can be used to understand components of complex biological systems of living organisms and provides hierarchical information to decoding life. Using systems biology approaches such as genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics, it is now possible to delineate more complicated interactions between circadian control systems and diseases. The circadian rhythm is a multiscale phenomenon existing within the body that influences numerous physiological activities such as changes in gene expression, protein turnover, metabolism and human behavior. In this review, we describe the relationships between the circadian control system and its related genes or proteins, and circadian rhythm disorders in systems biology studies. To maintain and modulate circadian oscillation, cells possess elaborative feedback loops composed of circadian core proteins that regulate the expression of other genes through their transcriptional activities. The disruption of these rhythms has been reported to be associated with diseases such as arrhythmia, obesity, insulin resistance, carcinogenesis and disruptions in natural oscillations in the control of cell growth. This review demonstrates that lifestyle is considered as a fundamental factor that modifies circadian rhythm, and the development of dysfunctions and diseases could be regulated by an underlying expression network with multiple circadian-associated signals.

  18. The human premotor cortex is 'mirror' only for biological actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yen F; Scherfler, Christoph; Brooks, David J; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Castiello, Umberto

    2004-01-20

    Previous work has shown that both human adults and children attend to grasping actions performed by another person but not necessarily to those made by a mechanical device. According to recent neurophysiological data, the monkey premotor cortex contains "mirror" neurons that discharge both when the monkey performs specific manual grasping actions and when it observes another individual performing the same or similar actions. However, when a human model uses tools to perform grasping actions, the mirror neurons are not activated. A similar "mirror" system has been described in humans, but whether or not it is also tuned specifically to biological actions has never been tested. Here we show that when subjects observed manual grasping actions performed by a human model a significant neural response was elicited in the left premotor cortex. This activation was not evident for the observation of grasping actions performed by a robot model commanded by an experimenter. This result indicates for the first time that in humans the mirror system is biologically tuned. This system appears to be the neural substrate for biological preference during action coding.

  19. Disrupted seasonal biology impacts health, food security and ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, T J; Visser, M E; Arnold, W; Barrett, P; Biello, S; Dawson, A; Denlinger, D L; Dominoni, D; Ebling, F J; Elton, S; Evans, N; Ferguson, H M; Foster, R G; Hau, M; Haydon, D T; Hazlerigg, D G; Heideman, P; Hopcraft, J G C; Jonsson, N N; Kronfeld-Schor, N; Kumar, V; Lincoln, G A; MacLeod, R; Martin, S A M; Martinez-Bakker, M; Nelson, R J; Reed, T; Robinson, J E; Rock, D; Schwartz, W J; Steffan-Dewenter, I; Tauber, E; Thackeray, S J; Umstatter, C; Yoshimura, T; Helm, B

    2015-10-22

    The rhythm of life on earth is shaped by seasonal changes in the environment. Plants and animals show profound annual cycles in physiology, health, morphology, behaviour and demography in response to environmental cues. Seasonal biology impacts ecosystems and agriculture, with consequences for humans and biodiversity. Human populations show robust annual rhythms in health and well-being, and the birth month can have lasting effects that persist throughout life. This review emphasizes the need for a better understanding of seasonal biology against the backdrop of its rapidly progressing disruption through climate change, human lifestyles and other anthropogenic impact. Climate change is modifying annual rhythms to which numerous organisms have adapted, with potential consequences for industries relating to health, ecosystems and food security. Disconcertingly, human lifestyles under artificial conditions of eternal summer provide the most extreme example for disconnect from natural seasons, making humans vulnerable to increased morbidity and mortality. In this review, we introduce scenarios of seasonal disruption, highlight key aspects of seasonal biology and summarize from biomedical, anthropological, veterinary, agricultural and environmental perspectives the recent evidence for seasonal desynchronization between environmental factors and internal rhythms. Because annual rhythms are pervasive across biological systems, they provide a common framework for trans-disciplinary research.

  20. Other Rhythm Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Other Heart Rhythm Disorders Updated:Dec 21,2016 In ... page to further explore diagnosis, treatment options, and other information about conditions associated with atrial flutter. SICK ...

  1. The Research on Developing the Evaluation Index of Human Rhythm Ability and Its Measurement Tool%人节奏能力测试指标及工具的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张珂

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine a measurement index of the body rhythm ability and devel -op an effective tool to measure it.In this study, testing method, literature research method, expert interviews, sta-tistics methods were adopted.This study proposed the index --rhythm reproduction indicators to test the ability of the human body rhythm , and developed a measure tool --rhythm reproduction index measurement software , which was passed by reliability and validity.This measurement tool has? the potential to be improved.%为研究并丰富体育领域测试节奏能力的量化指标及有效测量工具,主要采用文献资料法、专家访谈法、测试法、数理统计的研究方法,提出了节奏再现指标及其测量方案,编制了节奏再现测试软件并对其进行了信效度检验,结果表明此指标测试软件有效可信。该测量工具尚有继续完善的空间。

  2. The timing of the human circadian clock is accurately represented by the core body temperature rhythm following phase shifts to a three-cycle light stimulus near the critical zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, M. E.; Duffy, J. F.; Czeisler, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    A double-stimulus experiment was conducted to evaluate the phase of the underlying circadian clock following light-induced phase shifts of the human circadian system. Circadian phase was assayed by constant routine from the rhythm in core body temperature before and after a three-cycle bright-light stimulus applied near the estimated minimum of the core body temperature rhythm. An identical, consecutive three-cycle light stimulus was then applied, and phase was reassessed. Phase shifts to these consecutive stimuli were no different from those obtained in a previous study following light stimuli applied under steady-state conditions over a range of circadian phases similar to those at which the consecutive stimuli were applied. These data suggest that circadian phase shifts of the core body temperature rhythm in response to a three-cycle stimulus occur within 24 h following the end of the 3-day light stimulus and that this poststimulus temperature rhythm accurately reflects the timing of the underlying circadian clock.

  3. Melatonin in sleepless children : everything has a rhythm?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geijlswijk, I.M.

    2011-01-01

    Every living organism has an biological clock regulating endogenous melatonin production, synchronized by exogenous impulses like daylight, temperature and feeding. Inappropriately applied bright light disturbs this melatonin rhythm. Some large swine producers apply artificial light three times a da

  4. The Human Genome Project: big science transforms biology and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Leroy; Rowen, Lee

    2013-01-01

    The Human Genome Project has transformed biology through its integrated big science approach to deciphering a reference human genome sequence along with the complete sequences of key model organisms. The project exemplifies the power, necessity and success of large, integrated, cross-disciplinary efforts - so-called 'big science' - directed towards complex major objectives. In this article, we discuss the ways in which this ambitious endeavor led to the development of novel technologies and analytical tools, and how it brought the expertise of engineers, computer scientists and mathematicians together with biologists. It established an open approach to data sharing and open-source software, thereby making the data resulting from the project accessible to all. The genome sequences of microbes, plants and animals have revolutionized many fields of science, including microbiology, virology, infectious disease and plant biology. Moreover, deeper knowledge of human sequence variation has begun to alter the practice of medicine. The Human Genome Project has inspired subsequent large-scale data acquisition initiatives such as the International HapMap Project, 1000 Genomes, and The Cancer Genome Atlas, as well as the recently announced Human Brain Project and the emerging Human Proteome Project.

  5. Mechanisms by which circadian rhythm disruption may lead to cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Roden

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Humans have evolved in a rhythmic environment and display daily (circadian rhythms in physiology, metabolism and behaviour that are in synchrony with the solar day. Modern lifestyles have compromised the exposure to bright light during the day and dark nights, resulting in the desynchronisation of endogenously generated circadian rhythms from the external environment and loss of coordination between rhythms within the body. This has detrimental effects on physical and mental health, due to the misregulation and uncoupling of important cellular and physiological processes. Long-term shift workers who are exposed to bright light at night experience the greatest disruption of their circadian rhythms. Studies have shown an association between exposure to light at night, circadian rhythm disruption and an increased risk of cancer. Previous reviews have explored the relevance of light and melatonin in cancer, but here we explore the correlation of circadian rhythm disruption and cancer in terms of molecular mechanisms affecting circadian gene expression and melatonin secretion.

  6. Circadian rhythm in rest and activity: a biological correlate of quality of life and a predictor of survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innominato, Pasquale F.; Focan, Christian; Gorlia, Thierry; Moreau, Thierry; Garufi, Carlo; Waterhouse, Jim; Giacchetti, Sylvie; Coudert, Bruno; Iacobelli, Stefano; Genet, Dominique; Tampellini, Marco; Chollet, Philippe; Lentz, Marie-Ange; Mormont, Marie-Christine; Lévi, Francis; Bjarnason, Georg A.

    2009-01-01

    The rest/activity circadian rhythm (CircAct) reflects the function of the circadian timing system (CTS). In a prior single-institution study, the extent of CircAct perturbation independently predicted for survival and tumor response in 192 patients receiving chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer (MCRC). Moreover, the main CircAct parameters correlated with several quality of life (HRQoL) scales. In this prospective study we attempted to extend these results to an independent cohort of chemotherapy-naïve MCRC patients participating in an international randomized phase III trial (EORTC 05963). Patients were randomized to receive chronomodulated or conventional infusion of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and oxaliplatin as first line treatment for MCRC. Patients from nine institutions completed the EORTC QLQ-C30, and wore a wrist-accelerometer (actigraph) for 3 days before chemotherapy delivery. Two validated parameters (I|0.25|, p<0.01). I

  7. Biological clocks: riding the tides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Johnson, Carl Hirschie

    2013-10-21

    Animals with habitats in the intertidal zone often display biological rhythms that coordinate with both the tidal and the daily environmental cycles. Two recent studies show that the molecular components of the biological clocks mediating tidal rhythms are likely different from the phylogenetically conserved components that mediate circadian (daily) rhythms.

  8. Putative melatonin receptors in a human biological clock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reppert, S.M.; Weaver, D.R.; Rivkees, S.A.; Stopa, E.G.

    1988-10-07

    In vitro autoradiography with /sup 125/I-labeled melatonin was used to examine melatonin binding sites in human hypothalamus. Specific /sup 125/I-labeled melatonin binding was localized to the suprachiasmatic nuclei, the site of a putative biological clock, and was not apparent in other hypothalamic regions. Specific /sup 125/I-labeled melatonin binding was consistently found in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of hypothalami from adults and fetuses. Densitometric analysis of competition experiments with varying concentrations of melatonin showed monophasic competition curves, with comparable half-maximal inhibition values for the suprachiasmatic nuclei of adults (150 picomolar) and fetuses (110 picomolar). Micromolar concentrations of the melatonin agonist 6-chloromelatonin completely inhibited specific /sup 125/I-labeled melatonin binding, whereas the same concentrations of serotonin and norepinephrine caused only a partial reduction in specific binding. The results suggest that putative melatonin receptors are located in a human biological clock.

  9. Comparing biological motion perception in two distinct human societies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Pica

    Full Text Available Cross cultural studies have played a pivotal role in elucidating the extent to which behavioral and mental characteristics depend on specific environmental influences. Surprisingly, little field research has been carried out on a fundamentally important perceptual ability, namely the perception of biological motion. In this report, we present details of studies carried out with the help of volunteers from the Mundurucu indigene, a group of people native to Amazonian territories in Brazil. We employed standard biological motion perception tasks inspired by over 30 years of laboratory research, in which observers attempt to decipher the walking direction of point-light (PL humans and animals. Do our effortless skills at perceiving biological activity from PL animations, as revealed in laboratory settings, generalize to people who have never before seen representational depictions of human and animal activity? The results of our studies provide a clear answer to this important, previously unanswered question. Mundurucu observers readily perceived the coherent, global shape depicted in PL walkers, and experienced the classic inversion effects that are typically found when such stimuli are turned upside down. In addition, their performance was in accord with important recent findings in the literature, in the abundant ease with which they extracted direction information from local motion invariants alone. We conclude that the effortless, veridical perception of PL biological motion is a spontaneous and universal perceptual ability, occurring both inside and outside traditional laboratory environments.

  10. Linking Microbiota to Human Diseases: A Systems Biology Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Tremaroli, Valentina; Bäckhed, Fredrik

    2015-12-01

    The human gut microbiota encompasses a densely populated ecosystem that provides essential functions for host development, immune maturation, and metabolism. Alterations to the gut microbiota have been observed in numerous diseases, including human metabolic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and irritable bowel syndrome, and some animal experiments have suggested causality. However, few studies have validated causality in humans and the underlying mechanisms remain largely to be elucidated. We discuss how systems biology approaches combined with new experimental technologies may disentangle some of the mechanistic details in the complex interactions of diet, microbiota, and host metabolism and may provide testable hypotheses for advancing our current understanding of human-microbiota interaction.

  11. Human pluripotent stem cells: an emerging model in developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zengrong; Huangfu, Danwei

    2013-02-01

    Developmental biology has long benefited from studies of classic model organisms. Recently, human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells, have emerged as a new model system that offers unique advantages for developmental studies. Here, we discuss how studies of hPSCs can complement classic approaches using model organisms, and how hPSCs can be used to recapitulate aspects of human embryonic development 'in a dish'. We also summarize some of the recently developed genetic tools that greatly facilitate the interrogation of gene function during hPSC differentiation. With the development of high-throughput screening technologies, hPSCs have the potential to revolutionize gene discovery in mammalian development.

  12. Chronologic versus Biologic Aging of the Human Choroid

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Albrecht May

    2013-01-01

    Several aspects of chronologic and biologic aging in the human choroid are reviewed from the literature. They often reveal methodological problems for age-dependent changes of the following parameters: choroidal thickness, choroidal pigmentation, choroidal vasculature and blood flow, and choroidal innervation. On reinterpreting some data of studies concerning Bruch’s membrane, changes observed at different age points seem more likely to be nonlinear. Concluding from the data presented so far,...

  13. Novelty, Stress, and Biological Roots in Human Market Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Sarapultsev

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Although studies examining the biological roots of human behavior have been conducted since the seminal work Kahneman and Tversky, crises and panics have not disappeared. The frequent occurrence of various types of crises has led some economists to the conviction that financial markets occasionally praise irrational judgments and that market crashes cannot be avoided a priori (Sornette 2009; Smith 2004. From a biological point of view, human behaviors are essentially the same during crises accompanied by stock market crashes and during bubble growth when share prices exceed historic highs. During those periods, most market participants see something new for themselves, and this inevitably induces a stress response in them with accompanying changes in their endocrine profiles and motivations. The result is quantitative and qualitative changes in behavior (Zhukov 2007. An underestimation of the role of novelty as a stressor is the primary shortcoming of current approaches for market research. When developing a mathematical market model, it is necessary to account for the biologically determined diphasisms of human behavior in everyday low-stress conditions and in response to stressors. This is the only type of approach that will enable forecasts of market dynamics and investor behaviors under normal conditions as well as during bubbles and panics.

  14. Novelty, stress, and biological roots in human market behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarapultsev, Alexey; Sarapultsev, Petr

    2014-03-01

    Although studies examining the biological roots of human behavior have been conducted since the seminal work Kahneman and Tversky, crises and panics have not disappeared. The frequent occurrence of various types of crises has led some economists to the conviction that financial markets occasionally praise irrational judgments and that market crashes cannot be avoided a priori (Sornette 2009; Smith 2004). From a biological point of view, human behaviors are essentially the same during crises accompanied by stock market crashes and during bubble growth when share prices exceed historic highs. During those periods, most market participants see something new for themselves, and this inevitably induces a stress response in them with accompanying changes in their endocrine profiles and motivations. The result is quantitative and qualitative changes in behavior (Zhukov 2007). An underestimation of the role of novelty as a stressor is the primary shortcoming of current approaches for market research. When developing a mathematical market model, it is necessary to account for the biologically determined diphasisms of human behavior in everyday low-stress conditions and in response to stressors. This is the only type of approach that will enable forecasts of market dynamics and investor behaviors under normal conditions as well as during bubbles and panics.

  15. Rhythm on Your Lips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Marcela; Langus, Alan; Gutiérrez, César; Huepe-Artigas, Daniela; Nespor, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The Iambic-Trochaic Law (ITL) accounts for speech rhythm, grouping of sounds as either Iambs—if alternating in duration—or Trochees—if alternating in pitch and/or intensity. The two different rhythms signal word order, one of the basic syntactic properties of language. We investigated the extent to which Iambic and Trochaic phrases could be auditorily and visually recognized, when visual stimuli engage lip reading. Our results show both rhythmic patterns were recognized from both, auditory and visual stimuli, suggesting that speech rhythm has a multimodal representation. We further explored whether participants could match Iambic and Trochaic phrases across the two modalities. We found that participants auditorily familiarized with Trochees, but not with Iambs, were more accurate in recognizing visual targets, while participants visually familiarized with Iambs, but not with Trochees, were more accurate in recognizing auditory targets. The latter results suggest an asymmetric processing of speech rhythm: in auditory domain, the changes in either pitch or intensity are better perceived and represented than changes in duration, while in the visual domain the changes in duration are better processed and represented than changes in pitch, raising important questions about domain general and specialized mechanisms for speech rhythm processing. PMID:27877144

  16. Rhythm on your lips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Pena

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Iambic-Trochaic Law (ITL accounts for speech rhythm, grouping of sounds as either Iambs – if alternating in duration – or Trochees – if alternating in pitch and/or intensity. The two different rhythms signal word order, one of the basic syntactic properties of language. We investigated the extent to which Iambic and Trochaic phrases could be auditorily and visually recognized, when visual stimuli engage lip reading. Our results show both rhythmic patterns were recognized from both, auditory and visual stimuli, suggesting that speech rhythm has a multimodal representation. We further explored whether participants could match Iambic and Trochaic phrases across the two modalities. We found that participants auditorily familiarized with Trochees, but not with Iambs, were more accurate in recognizing visual targets, while participants visually familiarized with Iambs, but not with Trochees, were more accurate in recognizing auditory targets. The latter results suggest an asymmetric processing of speech rhythm: in auditory domain, the changes in either pitch or intensity are better perceived and represented than changes in duration, while in the visual domain the changes in duration are better processed and represented than changes in pitch, raising important questions about domain general and specialized mechanisms for speech rhythm processing.

  17. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgenthaler TI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bhanu P Kolla,1,2 R Robert Auger,1,2 Timothy I Morgenthaler11Mayo Center for Sleep Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USAAbstract: Misalignment between endogenous circadian rhythms and the light/dark cycle can result in pathological disturbances in the form of erratic sleep timing (irregular sleep–wake rhythm, complete dissociation from the light/dark cycle (circadian rhythm sleep disorder, free-running type, delayed sleep timing (delayed sleep phase disorder, or advanced sleep timing (advanced sleep phase disorder. Whereas these four conditions are thought to involve predominantly intrinsic mechanisms, circadian dysrhythmias can also be induced by exogenous challenges, such as those imposed by extreme work schedules or rapid transmeridian travel, which overwhelm the ability of the master clock to entrain with commensurate rapidity, and in turn impair approximation to a desired sleep schedule, as evidenced by the shift work and jet lag sleep disorders. This review will focus on etiological underpinnings, clinical assessments, and evidence-based treatment options for circadian rhythm sleep disorders. Topics are subcategorized when applicable, and if sufficient data exist. The length of text associated with each disorder reflects the abundance of associated literature, complexity of management, overlap of methods for assessment and treatment, and the expected prevalence of each condition within general medical practice.Keywords: circadian rhythm sleep disorders, assessment, treatment

  18. Decellularized Human Skeletal Muscle as Biologic Scaffold for Reconstructive Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Porzionato

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineered skeletal muscle tissues have been proposed as potential solutions for volumetric muscle losses, and biologic scaffolds have been obtained by decellularization of animal skeletal muscles. The aim of the present work was to analyse the characteristics of a biologic scaffold obtained by decellularization of human skeletal muscles (also through comparison with rats and rabbits and to evaluate its integration capability in a rabbit model with an abdominal wall defect. Rat, rabbit and human muscle samples were alternatively decellularized with two protocols: n.1, involving sodium deoxycholate and DNase I; n.2, trypsin-EDTA and Triton X-NH4OH. Protocol 2 proved more effective, removing all cellular material and maintaining the three-dimensional networks of collagen and elastic fibers. Ultrastructural analyses with transmission and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the preservation of collagen, elastic fibres, glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans. Implantation of human scaffolds in rabbits gave good results in terms of integration, although recellularization by muscle cells was not completely achieved. In conclusion, human skeletal muscles may be effectively decellularized to obtain scaffolds preserving the architecture of the extracellular matrix and showing mechanical properties suitable for implantation/integration. Further analyses will be necessary to verify the suitability of these scaffolds for in vitro recolonization by autologous cells before in vivo implantation.

  19. Daily Rhythms in Mosquitoes and Their Consequences for Malaria Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel S. C. Rund

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The 24-h day involves cycles in environmental factors that impact organismal fitness. This is thought to select for organisms to regulate their temporal biology accordingly, through circadian and diel rhythms. In addition to rhythms in abiotic factors (such as light and temperature, biotic factors, including ecological interactions, also follow daily cycles. How daily rhythms shape, and are shaped by, interactions between organisms is poorly understood. Here, we review an emerging area, namely the causes and consequences of daily rhythms in the interactions between vectors, their hosts and the parasites they transmit. We focus on mosquitoes, malaria parasites and vertebrate hosts, because this system offers the opportunity to integrate from genetic and molecular mechanisms to population dynamics and because disrupting rhythms offers a novel avenue for disease control.

  20. Forced desynchrony of circadian rhythms of body temperature and activity in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkstra, AM; Meerlo, P; Beersma, DGM

    1999-01-01

    The daily rhythm in body temperature is thought to be the result of the direct effects of activity and the effects of an endogenous circadian clock. Forced desynchrony (FD) is a tool used in human circadian rhythm research to disentangle endogenous and activity-related effects on daily rhythms. In t

  1. Another place, another timer: Marine species and the rhythms of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessmar-Raible, Kristin; Raible, Florian; Arboleda, Enrique

    2011-03-01

    The marine ecosystem is governed by a multitude of environmental cycles, all of which are linked to the periodical recurrence of the sun or the moon. In accordance with these cycles, marine species exhibit a variety of biological rhythms, ranging from circadian and circatidal rhythms to circalunar and seasonal rhythms. However, our current molecular understanding of biological rhythms and clocks is largely restricted to solar-controlled circadian and seasonal rhythms in land model species. Here, we discuss the first molecular data emerging for circalunar and circatidal rhythms and present selected species suitable for further molecular analyses. We argue that a re-focus on marine species will be crucial to understand the principles, interactions and evolution of rhythms that govern a broad range of eukaryotes, including ourselves. Copyright © 2011 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Rethinking the clockwork: redox cycles and non-transcriptional control of circadian rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lisa; Reddy, Akhilesh B

    2014-02-01

    Circadian rhythms are a hallmark of living organisms, observable in all walks of life from primitive bacteria to highly complex humans. They are believed to have evolved to co-ordinate the timing of biological and behavioural processes to the changing environmental needs brought on by the progression of day and night through the 24-h cycle. Most of the modern study of circadian rhythms has centred on so-called TTFLs (transcription-translation feedback loops), wherein a core group of 'clock' genes, capable of negatively regulating themselves, produce oscillations with a period of approximately 24 h. Recently, however, the prevalence of the TTFL paradigm has been challenged by a series of findings wherein circadian rhythms, in the form of redox reactions, persist in the absence of transcriptional cycles. We have found that circadian cycles of oxidation and reduction are conserved across all domains of life, strongly suggesting that non-TTFL mechanisms work in parallel with the canonical genetic processes of timekeeping to generate the cyclical cellular and behavioural phenotypes that we commonly recognize as circadian rhythms.

  3. Aggression in humans: what is its biological foundation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, D J; Walsh, M L; Jonik, R H

    1993-01-01

    Although human aggression is frequently inferred to parallel aggression based on testosterone in nonprimate mammals, there is little concrete support for this position. High- and low-aggression individuals do not consistently differ in serum testosterone. Aggression does not change at puberty when testosterone levels increase. Aggression does not increase in hypogonadal males (or females) when exogenous testosterone is administered to support sexual activity. Similarly, there are no reports that aggression increases in hirsute females even though testosterone levels may rise to 200% above normal. Conversely, castration or antiandrogen administration to human males is not associated with a consistent decrease in aggression. Finally, changes in human aggression associated with neuropathology are not consistent with current knowledge of the neural basis of testosterone-dependent aggression. In contrast, human aggression does have a substantial number of features in common with defensive aggression seen in nonprimate mammals. It is present at all age levels, is displayed by both males and females, is directed at both males and females, and is not dependent on seasonal changes in hormone levels or experiential events such as sexual activity. As would be expected from current knowledge of the neural system controlling defensive aggression, aggression in humans increases with tumors in the medial hypothalamus and septal region, and with seizure activity in the amygdala. It decreases with lesions in the amygdala. The inference that human aggression has its roots in the defensive aggression of nonprimate mammals is in general agreement with evidence on the consistency of human aggressiveness over age, with similarities in male and female aggressiveness in laboratory studies, and with observations that some neurological disturbances contribute to criminal violence. This evidence suggests that human aggression has its biological roots in the defensive aggression of nonprimate

  4. A circadian rhythm regulating hyphal melanization in Cercospora kikuchii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluhm, Burton H; Burnham, A Michele; Dunkle, Larry D

    2010-01-01

    Many metabolic and developmental processes in fungi are controlled by biological rhythms. Circadian rhythms approximate a daily (24 h) cycle and have been thoroughly studied in the model fungus, Neurospora crassa. However relatively few examples of true circadian rhythms have been documented among other filamentous fungi. In this study we describe a circadian rhythm underlying hyphal melanization in Cercospora kikuchii, an important pathogen of soybean. After growth in light or light : dark cycles, colonies transferred to darkness produced zonate bands of melanized hyphae interspersed with bands of hyaline hyphae. Rhythmic production of bands was remarkably persistent in the absence of external cues, lasting at least 7 d after transfer to darkness, and was compensated over a range of temperatures. As in N. crassa, blue light but not red light was sufficient to entrain the circadian rhythm in C. kikuchii, and a putative ortholog of white collar-1, one of the genes required for light responses in N. crassa, was identified in C. kikuchii. Circadian regulation of melanization is conserved in other members of the genus: Similar rhythms were identified in another field isolate of C. kikuchii as well as field isolates of C. beticola and C. sorghi, but not in wild-type strains of C. zeae-maydis or C. zeina. This report represents the first documented circadian rhythm among Dothideomycete fungi and provides a new opportunity to dissect the molecular basis of circadian rhythms among filamentous fungi.

  5. Biological characteristics of cell lines of human dental alveolus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈世璋; 黄靖香; 孙明学; 赵斌

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the biological characteristics of cell lines of healthy and diseased human dental alveoli. Methods Primary cell lines from either healthy or diseased human dental alveoli were obtained. Two cell lines, H-258 and H-171 derived from healthy and diseased human tissues respectively, were selected for morphological study and research on their growth and aging, using cell counting, and histochemical and immunohistochemical staining. Results Primary cell lines were successfully established from innormal dental alveoli. After freezing and thawing for three times, cell growth was continued and no morphological alterations were observed. The doubling time was 53.4 hours and mean division index (MDI) was 4‰. Cells were kept normal after twenty generations with no obvious reduction of doubling time and MDI. Of twenty-six primary cell lines derived from healthy human dental alveoli, only three cell lines achieved generation. After freezing and thawing for twice, cultured cells were still alive at a decreased growth speed, with doubling time of 85.9 hours and MDI of 3‰. Both cell lines, H-171 and H-258, shared the characteristics of osteoblast. Conclusions Primary cell lines of diseased human dental alveoli show greater growth potential. All cell lines of dental alveoli share characteristics of osteoblast. The technique we developed may be put into practice for the treatment of abnormal dental alveoli.

  6. BIOLOGY OF HUMAN MALARIA PLASMODIA INCLUDING PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinello Antinori

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a vector-borne infection caused by unicellular parasite of the genus Plasmodium. Plasmodia are obligate intracellular parasites that in humans after a clinically silent replication phase in the liver are able to infect and replicate within the erythrocytes. Four species (P.falciparum, P.malariae, P.ovale and P.vivax are traditionally recognized as responsible of natural infection in human beings but the recent upsurge of P.knowlesi malaria in South-East Asia has led clinicians to consider it as the fifth human malaria parasite. Recent studies in wild-living apes in Africa have revealed that P.falciparum, the most deadly form of human malaria, is not only human-host restricted as previously believed and its phylogenetic lineage is much more complex with new species identified in gorilla, bonobo and chimpanzee. Although less impressive, new data on biology of P.malariae, P.ovale and P.vivax are also emerging and will be briefly discussed in this review.

  7. Evolutionary Developmental Biology and Human Language Evolution: Constraints on Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2012-12-01

    A tension has long existed between those biologists who emphasize the importance of adaptation by natural selection and those who highlight the role of phylogenetic and developmental constraints on organismal form and function. This contrast has been particularly noticeable in recent debates concerning the evolution of human language. Darwin himself acknowledged the existence and importance of both of these, and a long line of biologists have followed him in seeing, in the concept of "descent with modification", a framework naturally able to incorporate both adaptation and constraint. Today, the integrated perspective of modern evolutionary developmental biology ("evo-devo") allows a more subtle and pluralistic approach to these traditional questions, and has provided several examples where the traditional notion of "constraint" can be cashed out in specific, mechanistic terms. This integrated viewpoint is particularly relevant to the evolution of the multiple mechanisms underlying human language, because of the short time available for novel aspects of these mechanisms to evolve and be optimized. Comparative data indicate that many cognitive aspects of human language predate humans, suggesting that pre-adaptation and exaptation have played important roles in language evolution. Thus, substantial components of what many linguists call "Universal Grammar" predate language itself. However, at least some of these older mechanisms have been combined in ways that generate true novelty. I suggest that we can insightfully exploit major steps forward in our understanding of evolution and development, to gain a richer understanding of the principles that underlie human language evolution.

  8. Rhythm quantization for transcription

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cemgil, A.T.; Desain, P.W.M.; Kappen, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Automatic Music Transcription is the extraction of an acceptable notation from performed music. One important task in this problem is rhythm quantization which refers to categorization of note durations. Although quantization of a pure mechanical performance is rather straightforward, the task becom

  9. Measuring Child Rhythm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Elinor; Post, Brechtje; Astruc, Lluisa; Prieto, Pilar; Vanrell, Maria del Mar

    2012-01-01

    Interval-based rhythm metrics were applied to the speech of English, Catalan and Spanish 2, 4 and 6 year-olds, and compared with the (adult-directed) speech of their mothers. Results reveal that child speech does not fall into a well-defined rhythmic class: for all three languages, it is more "vocalic" (higher %V) than adult speech and has a…

  10. A Causal Rhythm Grouping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a method to identify segment boundaries in music. The method is based on a multi-step model; first a features is measured from the audio, then a measure of rhythm is calculated from the feature, the diagonal of a self-similarity matrix is calculated, and finally the segment bo...

  11. Biology and relevance of human acute myeloid leukemia stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Daniel; Majeti, Ravindra

    2017-03-23

    Evidence of human acute myeloid leukemia stem cells (AML LSCs) was first reported nearly 2 decades ago through the identification of rare subpopulations of engrafting cells in xenotransplantation assays. These AML LSCs were shown to reside at the apex of a cellular hierarchy that initiates and maintains the disease, exhibiting properties of self-renewal, cell cycle quiescence, and chemoresistance. This cancer stem cell model offers an explanation for chemotherapy resistance and disease relapse and implies that approaches to treatment must eradicate LSCs for cure. More recently, a number of studies have both refined and expanded our understanding of LSCs and intrapatient heterogeneity in AML using improved xenotransplant models, genome-scale analyses, and experimental manipulation of primary patient cells. Here, we review these studies with a focus on the immunophenotype, biological properties, epigenetics, genetics, and clinical associations of human AML LSCs and discuss critical questions that need to be addressed in future research. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  12. Efficient expression and purification of biologically active human cystatin proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Sakshi; Tomar, Raghuvir S

    2016-02-01

    Cystatins are reversible cysteine protease inhibitor proteins. They are known to play important roles in controlling cathepsins, neurodegenerative disease, and in immune system regulation. Production of recombinant cystatin proteins is important for biochemical and function characterization. In this study, we cloned and expressed human stefin A, stefin B and cystatin C in Escherichia coli. Human stefin A, stefin B and cystatin C were purified from soluble fraction. For cystatin C, we used various chaperone plasmids to make cystatin C soluble, as it is reported to localize in inclusion bodies. Trigger factor, GroES-GroEL, DnaK-DnaJ-GrpE chaperones lead to the presence of cystatin C in the soluble fraction. Immobilized metal affinity chromatography, glutathione sepharose and anion exchange chromatography techniques were employed for efficient purification of these proteins. Their biological activities were tested by inhibition assays against cathepsin L and H3 protease.

  13. Applying the community partnership approach to human biology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenscroft, Julia; Schell, Lawrence M; Cole, Tewentahawih'tha'

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary human biology research employs a unique skillset for biocultural analysis. This skillset is highly appropriate for the study of health disparities because disparities result from the interaction of social and biological factors over one or more generations. Health disparities research almost always involves disadvantaged communities owing to the relationship between social position and health in stratified societies. Successful research with disadvantaged communities involves a specific approach, the community partnership model, which creates a relationship beneficial for researcher and community. Paramount is the need for trust between partners. With trust established, partners share research goals, agree on research methods and produce results of interest and importance to all partners. Results are shared with the community as they are developed; community partners also provide input on analyses and interpretation of findings. This article describes a partnership-based, 20 year relationship between community members of the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation and researchers at the University at Albany. As with many communities facing health disparity issues, research with Native Americans and indigenous peoples generally is inherently politicized. For Akwesasne, the contamination of their lands and waters is an environmental justice issue in which the community has faced unequal exposure to, and harm by environmental toxicants. As human biologists engage in more partnership-type research, it is important to understand the long term goals of the community and what is at stake so the research circle can be closed and 'helicopter' style research avoided.

  14. Reactive oxygen species and vascular biology: implications in human hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touyz, Rhian M; Briones, Ana M

    2011-01-01

    Increased vascular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS; termed oxidative stress) has been implicated in various chronic diseases, including hypertension. Oxidative stress is both a cause and a consequence of hypertension. Although oxidative injury may not be the sole etiology, it amplifies blood pressure elevation in the presence of other pro-hypertensive factors. Oxidative stress is a multisystem phenomenon in hypertension and involves the heart, kidneys, nervous system, vessels and possibly the immune system. Compelling experimental and clinical evidence indicates the importance of the vasculature in the pathophysiology of hypertension and as such much emphasis has been placed on the (patho)biology of ROS in the vascular system. A major source for cardiovascular, renal and neural ROS is a family of non-phagocytic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases (Nox), including the prototypic Nox2 homolog-based NADPH oxidase, as well as other Noxes, such as Nox1 and Nox4. Nox-derived ROS is important in regulating endothelial function and vascular tone. Oxidative stress is implicated in endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, hypertrophy, apoptosis, migration, fibrosis, angiogenesis and rarefaction, important processes involved in vascular remodeling in hypertension. Despite a plethora of data implicating oxidative stress as a causative factor in experimental hypertension, findings in human hypertension are less conclusive. This review highlights the importance of ROS in vascular biology and focuses on the potential role of oxidative stress in human hypertension.

  15. Quantitative mass spectrometry of unconventional human biological matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Ewelina P.; Urban, Pawel L.

    2016-10-01

    The development of sensitive and versatile mass spectrometric methodology has fuelled interest in the analysis of metabolites and drugs in unconventional biological specimens. Here, we discuss the analysis of eight human matrices-hair, nail, breath, saliva, tears, meibum, nasal mucus and skin excretions (including sweat)-by mass spectrometry (MS). The use of such specimens brings a number of advantages, the most important being non-invasive sampling, the limited risk of adulteration and the ability to obtain information that complements blood and urine tests. The most often studied matrices are hair, breath and saliva. This review primarily focuses on endogenous (e.g. potential biomarkers, hormones) and exogenous (e.g. drugs, environmental contaminants) small molecules. The majority of analytical methods used chromatographic separation prior to MS; however, such a hyphenated methodology greatly limits analytical throughput. On the other hand, the mass spectrometric methods that exclude chromatographic separation are fast but suffer from matrix interferences. To enable development of quantitative assays for unconventional matrices, it is desirable to standardize the protocols for the analysis of each specimen and create appropriate certified reference materials. Overcoming these challenges will make analysis of unconventional human biological matrices more common in a clinical setting. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'.

  16. Chorusing, synchrony, and the evolutionary functions of rhythm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ravignani, Andrea; Bowling, Daniel L; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2014-01-01

    .... Here we extend and clarify this comparative approach with respect to rhythm. First, whereas most comparisons between human music and animal acoustic behavior have focused on spectral properties (melody and harmony...

  17. Isolation of biologically-active exosomes from human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Laurent; Hong, Chang-Sook; Stolz, Donna B; Watkins, Simon C; Whiteside, Theresa L

    2014-09-01

    Effects of exosomes present in human plasma on immune cells have not been examined in detail. Immunological studies with plasma-derived exosomes require their isolation by procedures involving ultracentrifugation. These procedures were largely developed using supernatants of cultured cells. To test biologic activities of plasma-derived exosomes, methods are necessary that ensure adequate recovery of exosome fractions free of contaminating larger vesicles, cell fragments and protein/nucleic acid aggregates. Here, an optimized method for exosome isolation from human plasma/serum specimens of normal controls (NC) or cancer patients and its advantages and pitfalls are described. To remove undesirable plasma-contaminating components, ultrafiltration of differentially-centrifuged plasma/serum followed by size-exclusion chromatography prior to ultracentrifugation facilitated the removal of contaminants. Plasma or serum was equally acceptable as a source of exosomes based on the recovered protein levels (in μg protein/mL plasma) and TEM image quality. Centrifugation on sucrose density gradients led to large exosome losses. Fresh plasma was the best source of morphologically-intact exosomes, while the use of frozen/thawed plasma decreased exosome purity but not their biologic activity. Treatments of frozen plasma with DNAse, RNAse or hyaluronidase did not improve exosome purity and are not recommended. Cancer patients' plasma consistently yielded more isolated exosomes than did NCs' plasma. Cancer patients' exosomes also mediated higher immune suppression as evidenced by decreased CD69 expression on responder CD4+ T effector cells. Thus, the described procedure yields biologically-active, morphologically-intact exosomes that have reasonably good purity without large protein losses and can be used for immunological, biomarker and other studies.

  18. Identification of biologically relevant enhancers in human erythroid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Mack Y; Steiner, Laurie A; Bogardus, Hannah; Mishra, Tejaswini; Schulz, Vincent P; Hardison, Ross C; Gallagher, Patrick G

    2013-03-22

    Identification of cell type-specific enhancers is important for understanding the regulation of programs controlling cellular development and differentiation. Enhancers are typically marked by the co-transcriptional activator protein p300 or by groups of cell-expressed transcription factors. We hypothesized that a unique set of enhancers regulates gene expression in human erythroid cells, a highly specialized cell type evolved to provide adequate amounts of oxygen throughout the body. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel sequencing, genome-wide maps of candidate enhancers were constructed for p300 and four transcription factors, GATA1, NF-E2, KLF1, and SCL, using primary human erythroid cells. These data were combined with gene expression analyses, and candidate enhancers were identified. Consistent with their predicted function as candidate enhancers, there was statistically significant enrichment of p300 and combinations of co-localizing erythroid transcription factors within 1-50 kb of the transcriptional start site (TSS) of genes highly expressed in erythroid cells. Candidate enhancers were also enriched near genes with known erythroid cell function or phenotype. Candidate enhancers exhibited moderate conservation with mouse and minimal conservation with nonplacental vertebrates. Candidate enhancers were mapped to a set of erythroid-associated, biologically relevant, SNPs from the genome-wide association studies (GWAS) catalogue of NHGRI, National Institutes of Health. Fourteen candidate enhancers, representing 10 genetic loci, mapped to sites associated with biologically relevant erythroid traits. Fragments from these loci directed statistically significant expression in reporter gene assays. Identification of enhancers in human erythroid cells will allow a better understanding of erythroid cell development, differentiation, structure, and function and provide insights into inherited and acquired hematologic disease.

  19. The use of buccal cells in human biological monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Błaszczyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic methods for determining the degree of environmental risk posed to humans is identification of harmful substances in various environmental elements (air, water, soil, food. In contrast to environmental monitoring human biological monitoring (HBM enables the estimation of an absorbed dose, general or localized in a specific organ. HBM enables the assessment of exposure to substances which are absorbed by the body via different exposure pathways and with different contaminant carriers. It is based on the measurement of indicators, the so-called biomarkers, in body fluids (blood, urine, saliva, etc. or in tissues and organs. Biomarkers can be divided into markers of exposure, effects and susceptibility. A particularly useful method is determination of adducts, i.e. carcinogenic compounds (or their metabolites with proteins or DNA, which are markers of exposure. Biomarkers of biological effects are different cytogenetic changes, including micronuclei. These are extranuclear structures containing fragments of chromatin (arising as a result of DNA breaks or whole chromosomes (damage to the spindle apparatus during mitosis. Up to now most studies on the DNA adduct levels and micronuclei have been conducted in peripheral lymphocytes. At present, studies using blood, especially in children to restricted to ethical aspects, and therefore tests using epithelial cells from the oral cavity have become more popular. Epithelial cells are the main building material of an epithelial tissue which makes up about 60% of all cells of the human body. The main function of the epithelial tissue is covering and lining of the outer and inner surfaces of the body. Epithelium underwent high specialisation in various parts of the human body, which is associated with its structure and function. Human oral cavity is covered by stratified squamous epithelium, which is comprised of cells called keratinocytes. Oral epithelial cells may differentiate in two

  20. Recombinant human thrombopoietin: basic biology and evaluation of clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuter, David J; Begley, C Glenn

    2002-11-15

    Thrombocytopenia is a common medical problem for which the main treatment is platelet transfusion. Given the increasing use of platelets and the declining donor population, identification of a safe and effective platelet growth factor could improve the management of thrombocytopenia. Thrombopoietin (TPO), the c-Mpl ligand, is the primary physiologic regulator of megakaryocyte and platelet development. Since the purification of TPO in 1994, 2 recombinant forms of the c-Mpl ligand--recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO) and pegylated recombinant human megakaryocyte growth and development factor (PEG-rHuMGDF)--have undergone extensive clinical investigation. Both have been shown to be potent stimulators of megakaryocyte growth and platelet production and are biologically active in reducing the thrombocytopenia of nonmyeloablative chemotherapy. However, neither TPO has demonstrated benefit in stem cell transplantation or leukemia chemotherapy. Other clinical studies have investigated the use of TPO in treating chronic nonchemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia associated with myelodysplastic syndromes, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, thrombocytopenia due to human immunodeficiency virus, and liver disease. Based solely on animal studies, TPO may be effective in reducing surgical thrombocytopenia and bleeding, ex vivo expansion of pluripotent stem cells, and as a radioprotectant. Ongoing and future studies will help define the clinical role of recombinant TPO and TPO mimetics in the treatment of chemotherapy- and nonchemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia.

  1. Amplitude reduction and phase shifts of melatonin, cortisol and other circadian rhythms after a gradual advance of sleep and light exposure in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derk-Jan Dijk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The phase and amplitude of rhythms in physiology and behavior are generated by circadian oscillators and entrained to the 24-h day by exposure to the light-dark cycle and feedback from the sleep-wake cycle. The extent to which the phase and amplitude of multiple rhythms are similarly affected during altered timing of light exposure and the sleep-wake cycle has not been fully characterized. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed the phase and amplitude of the rhythms of melatonin, core body temperature, cortisol, alertness, performance and sleep after a perturbation of entrainment by a gradual advance of the sleep-wake schedule (10 h in 5 days and associated light-dark cycle in 14 healthy men. The light-dark cycle consisted either of moderate intensity 'room' light (∼90-150 lux or moderate light supplemented with bright light (∼10,000 lux for 5 to 8 hours following sleep. After the advance of the sleep-wake schedule in moderate light, no significant advance of the melatonin rhythm was observed whereas, after bright light supplementation the phase advance was 8.1 h (SEM 0.7 h. Individual differences in phase shifts correlated across variables. The amplitude of the melatonin rhythm assessed under constant conditions was reduced after moderate light by 54% (17-94% and after bright light by 52% (range 12-84%, as compared to the amplitude at baseline in the presence of a sleep-wake cycle. Individual differences in amplitude reduction of the melatonin rhythm correlated with the amplitude of body temperature, cortisol and alertness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Alterations in the timing of the sleep-wake cycle and associated bright or moderate light exposure can lead to changes in phase and reduction of circadian amplitude which are consistent across multiple variables but differ between individuals. These data have implications for our understanding of circadian organization and the negative health outcomes associated with shift

  2. [Circadian rhythm sleep disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Kazuo

    2013-12-01

    Primary pathophysiology of circadian rhythm sleep disorders(CRSDs) is a misalignment between the endogenous circadian rhythm phase and the desired or socially required sleep-wake schedule, or dysfunction of the circadian pacemaker and its afferent/efferent pathways. CRSDs consist of delayed sleep phase type, advanced sleep phase type, free-running type, irregular sleep-wake type, shift work type and jet lag type. Chronotherapy using strong zeitgebers (time cues), such as bright light and melatonin/ melatonin type 2 receptor agonist, is effective when administered with proper timing. Bright light is the strongest entraining agent of circadian rhythms. Bright light therapy (appropriately-timed exposure to bright light) for CRSDs is an effective treatment option, and can shift the sleep-wake cycle to earlier or later times, in order to correct for misalignment between the circadian system and the desired sleep-wake schedule. Timed administration of melatonin, either alone or in combination with light therapy has also been shown to be useful in the treatment of CRSDs.

  3. Modeling human risk: Cell & molecular biology in context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    It is anticipated that early in the next century manned missions into outer space will occur, with a mission to Mars scheduled between 2015 and 2020. However, before such missions can be undertaken, a realistic estimation of the potential risks to the flight crews is required. One of the uncertainties remaining in this risk estimation is that posed by the effects of exposure to the radiation environment of outer space. Although the composition of this environment is fairly well understood, the biological effects arising from exposure to it are not. The reasons for this are three-fold: (1) A small but highly significant component of the radiation spectrum in outer space consists of highly charged, high energy (HZE) particles which are not routinely experienced on earth, and for which there are insufficient data on biological effects; (2) Most studies on the biological effects of radiation to date have been high-dose, high dose-rate, whereas in space, with the exception of solar particle events, radiation exposures will be low-dose, low dose-rate; (3) Although it has been established that the virtual absence of gravity in space has a profound effect on human physiology, it is not clear whether these effects will act synergistically with those of radiation exposure. A select panel will evaluate the utilizing experiments and models to accurately predict the risks associated with exposure to HZE particles. Topics of research include cellular and tissue response, health effects associated with radiation damage, model animal systems, and critical markers of Radiation response.

  4. The Psychophysics of Brain Rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rufin eVanrullen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly apparent that brain oscillations in various frequency bands play important roles in perceptual and attentional processes. Understandably, most of the associated experimental evidence comes from human or animal electrophysiological studies, allowing direct access to the oscillatory activities. However, such periodicities in perception and attention should, in theory, also be observable using the proper psychophysical tools. Here, we review a number of psychophysical techniques that have been used by us and other authors, in successful and sometimes unsuccessful attempts, to reveal the rhythmic nature of perceptual and attentional processes. We argue that the two existing and largely distinct debates about discrete vs. continuous perception and parallel vs. sequential attention should in fact be regarded as two facets of the same question: how do brain rhythms shape the psychological operations of perception and attention?

  5. Relation between functional connectivity and rhythm discrimination in children who do and do not stutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Eun Chang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to perceive and produce rhythmic patterns in the environment supports fundamental human capacities ranging from music and language processing to the coordination of action. This article considers whether spontaneous correlated brain activity within a basal ganglia-thalamocortical (rhythm network is associated with individual differences in auditory rhythm discrimination. Moreover, do children who stutter with demonstrated deficits in rhythm perception have weaker links between rhythm network functional connectivity and rhythm discrimination? All children in the study underwent a resting-state fMRI session, from which functional connectivity measures within the rhythm network were extracted from spontaneous brain activity. In a separate session, the same children completed an auditory rhythm-discrimination task, where behavioral performance was assessed using signal detection analysis. We hypothesized that in typically developing children, rhythm network functional connectivity would be associated with behavioral performance on the rhythm discrimination task, but that this relationship would be attenuated in children who stutter. Results supported our hypotheses, lending strong support for the view that (1 children who stutter have weaker rhythm network connectivity and (2 the lack of a relation between rhythm network connectivity and rhythm discrimination in children who stutter may be an important contributing factor to the etiology of stuttering.

  6. An ESR study on biological dosimeters: Human hair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colak, Seyda, E-mail: seyda@hacettepe.edu.t [Hacettepe University, Physics Engineering Department, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Ozbey, Turan [Hacettepe University, Physics Engineering Department, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-05-15

    In the present work, characteristic features of the radicals found in untreated, gamma and UV-irradiated and mechanical damaged human hair samples were investigated by ESR spectroscopy. Heights of the resonance peaks measured with respect to the spectrum base line were used to monitor microwave power, dose-response, storage time and temperature dependent kinetic features of the radical species contributing to the formation of recorded experimental ESR spectra. Peak heights and g-values (2.0037-2.0052) determined from recorded spectra of hair were color dependent with {Delta}Hpp-0.47 mT. The act of cutting hair samples gene rates sulfur centered radicals which are found in the a-keratin structure of hair. The variations of the peak heights with temperature were related with the water content found in the hair samples. In the 6-1100 Gy dose range, a linear + quadratic dose-response curve was recorded for hair and the mean radiation yield (G{sub mean}) was calculated to be 0.4. The gamma radiation induced radicals were stable for a several hours at room temperature storage conditions. Based on these findings it was concluded that human hair samples could be used as biological/personnel dosimeters and that ESR spectroscopy could be successfully used as a potential technique for monitoring its dosimetric behaviours.

  7. Rhythm as an affordance for the entrainment of movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Fred

    2009-01-01

    A general account of rhythm in human behaviour is provided, according to which rhythm inheres in the affordance that a signal provides for the entrainment of movement on the part of a perceiver. This generic account is supported by an explication of the central concepts of affordance and entrainment. When viewed in this light, rhythm appears as the correct explanandum to account for coordinated behaviour in a wide variety of situations, including such core senses as dance and the production of music. Speech may appear to be only marginally rhythmical under such an account, but several experimental studies reveal that speech, too, has the potential to entrain movement.

  8. Modelling Complexity in Musical Rhythm

    OpenAIRE

    Liou, Cheng-Yuan; Wu, Tai-Hei; Lee, Chia-Ying

    2007-01-01

    This paper constructs a tree structure for the music rhythm using the L-system. It models the structure as an automata and derives its complexity. It also solves the complexity for the L-system. This complexity can resolve the similarity between trees. This complexity serves as a measure of psychological complexity for rhythms. It resolves the music complexity of various compositions including the Mozart effect K488. Keyword: music perception, psychological complexity, rhythm, L-system, autom...

  9. What is human in humans? Responses from biology, anthropology, and philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibeau, Gilles

    2011-08-01

    Genomics has brought biology, medicine, agriculture, psychology, anthropology, and even philosophy to a new threshold. In this new context, the question about "what is human in humans" may end up being answered by geneticists, specialists of technoscience, and owners of biotech companies. The author defends, in this article, the idea that humanity is at risk in our age of genetic engineering, biotechnologies, and market-geared genetic research; he also argues that the values at the very core of our postgenomic era bring to its peak the science-based ideology that has developed since the time of Galileo, Newton, Descartes, and Harvey; finally, it shows that the bioindustry has invented a new genomythology that goes against the scientific evidence produced by the research in human sciences in which life is interpreted as a language.

  10. Circadian rhythms and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Like all circadian (near-24-h) rhythms, those of cognition have endogenous and exogenous components. The origins of these components, together with effects of time awake upon cognitive performance, are described in subjects living conventionally (sleeping at night and active during the daytime). Based on these considerations, predictions can be made about changes that might be expected in the days after a time-zone transition and during night work. The relevant literature on these circumstances is then reviewed. The last section of the chapter deals with sleep-wake schedules where both regular and irregular sleeps are taken (anchor sleep). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. On the Advantages, Disadvantages and Root of the Derivative and Reproduced Films and TV Series from the Perspective of Biological Rhythms%从生物节律看影视剧套拍续拍翻拍重拍的利弊与根源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨新磊

    2012-01-01

    续拍与翻拍,是电影史与电视史上普遍存在的一种创作取向,近年尤甚,二者容易与套拍、重拍混淆。学界对其以伐挞和贬抑为主,无人界定并辨析,更缺乏对其根源的深入分析。除了要从人文社会科学切入外,还需从自然科学寻求智力支持,时间生物学是一个强大的思想利器。影视主创者的生物节律乃至生命周期存在很大不同,高度依赖机器与技术的影视艺术对从业者生物钟的破坏毋容置疑,亿万影视受众的审美疲劳更受制于时间生物学特征。人类的"生物三节律"滋蘖传受双方的逆反心理与厌倦情绪,导致艺术创作尤其影视重复拍摄与乏味翻续的生理心理基因正是人类的"生物三节律"。%The derivative and reproduced films and TV series is a common tendency in history of film and that of television, especially in recent years, which was mixed with reproduction of original works. The aca- demic circles depreciate it and nobody defines or discriminates and never analyses the underlying causes. Ex- cept for social sciences, we need to seek technical support from natural sciences, especially, from the subjects of chronobiology or medical biology. The producers of the films and TV series differ in biological rhythms and life period. The audio-visual arts that highly depend on machines and technologies cause damage on the biologi- cal clock of the producers and technicians, and the chronobiological characteristics result in aesthetic fatigue of audiences. "Biological three rhythms" of human being cause aesthetic fatigue of the audiences, which lead to the derivative and reproduced films and TV series.

  12. Cyclic Variations in Sustained Human Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aue, William R.; Arruda, James E.; Kass, Steven J.; Stanny, Claudia J.

    2009-01-01

    Biological rhythms play a prominent role in the modulation of human physiology and behavior. [Smith, K., Valentino, D., & Arruda, J. (2003). "Rhythmic oscillations in the performance of a sustained attention task." "Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology," 25, 561-570] suggested that sustained human performance may systematically…

  13. Circadian rhythms regulate amelogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li; Seon, Yoon Ji; Mourão, Marcio A; Schnell, Santiago; Kim, Doohak; Harada, Hidemitsu; Papagerakis, Silvana; Papagerakis, Petros

    2013-07-01

    Ameloblasts, the cells responsible for making enamel, modify their morphological features in response to specialized functions necessary for synchronized ameloblast differentiation and enamel formation. Secretory and maturation ameloblasts are characterized by the expression of stage-specific genes which follows strictly controlled repetitive patterns. Circadian rhythms are recognized as key regulators of the development and diseases of many tissues including bone. Our aim was to gain novel insights on the role of clock genes in enamel formation and to explore the potential links between circadian rhythms and amelogenesis. Our data shows definitive evidence that the main clock genes (Bmal1, Clock, Per1 and Per2) oscillate in ameloblasts at regular circadian (24 h) intervals both at RNA and protein levels. This study also reveals that the two markers of ameloblast differentiation i.e. amelogenin (Amelx; a marker of secretory stage ameloblasts) and kallikrein-related peptidase 4 (Klk4, a marker of maturation stage ameloblasts) are downstream targets of clock genes. Both, Amelx and Klk4 show 24h oscillatory expression patterns and their expression levels are up-regulated after Bmal1 over-expression in HAT-7 ameloblast cells. Taken together, these data suggest that both the secretory and the maturation stages of amelogenesis might be under circadian control. Changes in clock gene expression patterns might result in significant alterations of enamel apposition and mineralization.

  14. The DNA sequence and biology of human chromosome 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimwood, Jane; Gordon, Laurie A; Olsen, Anne; Terry, Astrid; Schmutz, Jeremy; Lamerdin, Jane; Hellsten, Uffe; Goodstein, David; Couronne, Olivier; Tran-Gyamfi, Mary; Aerts, Andrea; Altherr, Michael; Ashworth, Linda; Bajorek, Eva; Black, Stacey; Branscomb, Elbert; Caenepeel, Sean; Carrano, Anthony; Caoile, Chenier; Chan, Yee Man; Christensen, Mari; Cleland, Catherine A; Copeland, Alex; Dalin, Eileen; Dehal, Paramvir; Denys, Mirian; Detter, John C; Escobar, Julio; Flowers, Dave; Fotopulos, Dea; Garcia, Carmen; Georgescu, Anca M; Glavina, Tijana; Gomez, Maria; Gonzales, Eidelyn; Groza, Matthew; Hammon, Nancy; Hawkins, Trevor; Haydu, Lauren; Ho, Isaac; Huang, Wayne; Israni, Sanjay; Jett, Jamie; Kadner, Kristen; Kimball, Heather; Kobayashi, Arthur; Larionov, Vladimer; Leem, Sun-Hee; Lopez, Frederick; Lou, Yunian; Lowry, Steve; Malfatti, Stephanie; Martinez, Diego; McCready, Paula; Medina, Catherine; Morgan, Jenna; Nelson, Kathryn; Nolan, Matt; Ovcharenko, Ivan; Pitluck, Sam; Pollard, Martin; Popkie, Anthony P; Predki, Paul; Quan, Glenda; Ramirez, Lucia; Rash, Sam; Retterer, James; Rodriguez, Alex; Rogers, Stephanine; Salamov, Asaf; Salazar, Angelica; She, Xinwei; Smith, Doug; Slezak, Tom; Solovyev, Victor; Thayer, Nina; Tice, Hope; Tsai, Ming; Ustaszewska, Anna; Vo, Nu; Wagner, Mark; Wheeler, Jeremy; Wu, Kevin; Xie, Gary; Yang, Joan; Dubchak, Inna; Furey, Terrence S; DeJong, Pieter; Dickson, Mark; Gordon, David; Eichler, Evan E; Pennacchio, Len A; Richardson, Paul; Stubbs, Lisa; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Myers, Richard M; Rubin, Edward M; Lucas, Susan M

    2004-04-01

    Chromosome 19 has the highest gene density of all human chromosomes, more than double the genome-wide average. The large clustered gene families, corresponding high G + C content, CpG islands and density of repetitive DNA indicate a chromosome rich in biological and evolutionary significance. Here we describe 55.8 million base pairs of highly accurate finished sequence representing 99.9% of the euchromatin portion of the chromosome. Manual curation of gene loci reveals 1,461 protein-coding genes and 321 pseudogenes. Among these are genes directly implicated in mendelian disorders, including familial hypercholesterolaemia and insulin-resistant diabetes. Nearly one-quarter of these genes belong to tandemly arranged families, encompassing more than 25% of the chromosome. Comparative analyses show a fascinating picture of conservation and divergence, revealing large blocks of gene orthology with rodents, scattered regions with more recent gene family expansions and deletions, and segments of coding and non-coding conservation with the distant fish species Takifugu.

  15. Can Chimpanzee Biology Highlight Human Origin and Evolution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itai Roffman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The closest living relatives of humans are their chimpanzee/bonobo (Pan sister species, members of the same subfamily “Homininae”. This classification is supported by over 50 years of research in the fields of chimpanzee cultural diversity, language competency, genomics, anatomy, high cognition, psychology, society, self-consciousness and relation to others, tool use/production, as well as Homo level emotions, symbolic competency, memory recollection, complex multifaceted problem-solving capabilities, and interspecies communication. Language competence and symbolism can be continuously bridged from chimpanzee to man. Emotions, intercommunity aggression, body language, gestures, facial expressions, and vocalization of intonations seem to parallel between the sister taxa Homo and Pan. The shared suite of traits between Pan and Homo genus demonstrated in this article integrates old and new information on human–chimpanzee evolution, bilateral informational and cross-cultural exchange, promoting the urgent need for Pan cultures in the wild to be protected, as they are part of the cultural heritage of mankind. Also, we suggest that bonobos, Pan paniscus, based on shared traits with Australopithecus, need to be included in Australopithecine’s subgenus, and may even represent living-fossil Australopithecines. Unfolding bonobo and chimpanzee biology highlights our common genetic and cultural evolutionary origins.

  16. The DNA sequence and biology of human chromosome 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimwood, J; Gordon, L A; Olsen, A; Terry, A; Schmutz, J; Lamerdin, J; Hellsten, U; Goodstein, D; Couronne, O; Tran-Gyamfi, M

    2004-04-06

    Chromosome 19 has the highest gene density of all human chromosomes, more than double the genome-wide average. The large clustered gene families, corresponding high GC content, CpG islands and density of repetitive DNA indicate a chromosome rich in biological and evolutionary significance. Here we describe 55.8 million base pairs of highly accurate finished sequence representing 99.9% of the euchromatin portion of the chromosome. Manual curation of gene loci reveals 1,461 protein-coding genes and 321 pseudogenes. Among these are genes directly implicated in Mendelian disorders, including familial hypercholesterolemia and insulin-resistant diabetes. Nearly one quarter of these genes belong to tandemly arranged families, encompassing more than 25% of the chromosome. Comparative analyses show a fascinating picture of conservation and divergence, revealing large blocks of gene orthology with rodents, scattered regions with more recent gene family expansions and deletions, and segments of coding and non-coding conservation with the distant fish species Takifugu.

  17. The DNA sequence and biology of human chromosome 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimwood, Jane; Gordon, Laurie A.; Olsen, Anne; Terry, Astrid; Schmutz, Jeremy; Lamerdin, Jane; Hellsten, Uffe; Goodstein, David; Couronne, Olivier; Tran-Gyamfi, Mary; Aerts, Andrea; Altherr, Michael; Ashworth, Linda; Bajorek, Eva; Black, Stacey; Branscomb, Elbert; Caenepeel, Sean; Carrano, Anthony; Caoile, Chenier; Chan, Yee Man; Christensen, Mari; Cleland, Catherine A.; Copeland, Alex; Dalin, Eileen; Dehal, Paramvir; Denys, Mirian; Detter, John C.; Escobar, Julio; Flowers, Dave; Fotopulos, Dea; Garcia, Carmen; Georgescu, Anca M.; Glavina, Tijana; Gomez, Maria; Gonzales, Eldelyn; Groza, Matthew; Hammon, Nancy; Hawkins, Trevor; Haydu, Lauren; Ho, Issac; Huang, Wayne; Israni, Sanjay; Jett, Jamie; Kadner, Kristen; Kimball, Heather; Kobayashi, Arthur; Larionov, Vladimer; Leem, Sun-Hee; Lopez, Frederick; Lou, Yunian; Lowry, Steve; Malfatti, Stephanie; Martinez, Diego; McCready, Paula; Medina, Catherine; Morgan, Jenna; Nelson, Kathryn; Nolan, Matt; Ovcharenko, Ivan; Pitluck, Sam; Pollard, Martin; Popkie, Anthony P.; Predki, Paul; Quan, Glenda; Ramirez, Lucia; Rash, Sam; Retterer, James; Rodriguez, Alex; Rogers, Stephanine; Salamov, Asaf; Salazar, Angelica; She, Xinwei; Smith, Doug; Slezak, Tom; Solovyev, Victor; Thayer, Nina; Tice, Hope; Tsai, Ming; Ustaszewska, Anna; Vo, Nu; Wagner, Mark; Wheeler, Jeremy; Wu, Kevin; Xie, Gary; Yang, Joan; Dubchak, Inna; Furey, Terrence S.; DeJong, Pieter; Dickson, Mark; Gordon, David; Eichler, Evan E.; Pennacchio, Len A.; Richardson, Paul; Stubbs, Lisa; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Myers, Richard M.; Rubin, Edward M.; Lucas, Susan M.

    2003-09-15

    Chromosome 19 has the highest gene density of all human chromosomes, more than double the genome-wide average. The large clustered gene families, corresponding high G1C content, CpG islands and density of repetitive DNA indicate a chromosome rich in biological and evolutionary significance. Here we describe 55.8 million base pairs of highly accurate finished sequence representing 99.9 percent of the euchromatin portion of the chromosome. Manual curation of gene loci reveals 1,461 protein-coding genes and 321 pseudogenes. Among these are genes directly implicated in mendelian disorders, including familial hypercholesterolaemia and insulin-resistant diabetes. Nearly one-quarter of these genes belong to tandemly arranged families, encompassing more than 25 percent of the chromosome. Comparative analyses show a fascinating picture of conservation and divergence, revealing large blocks of gene orthology with rodents, scattered regions with more recent gene family expansions and deletions, a nd segments of coding and non-coding conservation with the distant fish species Takifugu.

  18. 近日节律对麻醉药物作用的影响%Effect of circadian rhythms on the action of anaesthetic agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾海波; 尚游; 袁世荧

    2010-01-01

    多数麻醉医生认为,人体是一个非常稳定的有机体.事实上,机体的许多方面因为受到生物节律的影响而会表现出周期性的变化.近日节律是一种重要的生物节律,对动植物乃至人都有诸多重要的影响,这其中也包括对麻醉药物作用的影响.因此,在从事科学研究和临床工作时,近日节律对麻醉药物作用的这种影响不容忽视.%Many anaesthetists assume that humans are homeostatic organisms but in reality we show periodic variations in nearly all facets of our physiology and behaviour, influenced by biologic rhythms. Circadian rhythms is an important biologic rhythm which can affect animals, plants and human beings. Also it make effects on anesthetics, The effects of circadian rhythms should be considered in scientific research of anaesthetic drugs and works of clinical practice of anaesthesia.

  19. Human development I: twenty fundamental problems of biology, medicine, and neuro-psychology related to biological information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansen, Tyge Dahl; Ventegodt, Søren; Rald, Erik; Clausen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Maj Lyck; Merrick, Joav

    2006-07-06

    In a new series of papers, we address a number of unsolved problems in biology today. First of all, the unsolved enigma concerning how the differentiation from a single zygote to an adult individual happens has been object for severe research for decades. By uncovering a new holistic biological paradigm that introduces an energetic-informational interpretation of reality as a new way to experience biology, these papers will try to solve the problems connected with the events of biological ontogenesis involving a fractal hierarchy, from a single cell to the function of the human brain. The problems discussed are interpreted within the frames of a universe of roomy fractal structures containing energetic patterns that are able to deliver biological information. We think biological organization is guided by energetic changes on the level of quantum mechanics, interacting with the intention that again guides the energetic conformation of the fractal structures to gain disorders or healthiness. Furthermore, we introduce two new concepts: "metamorphous top down" evolution and "adult human metamorphosis". The first is a new evolutionary theory involving metamorphosis as a main concept of evolution. The last is tightly linked to the evolutionary principle and explains how human self-recovery is governed. Other subjects of special interest that we shall look deeper into are the immunological self-nonself discrimination, the structure and function of the human brain, the etiology and salutogenesis of mental and somatic diseases, and the structure of the consciousness of a human being. We shall criticize Szentagothai's model for the modulated structure of the human cerebral cortex and Jerne's theory of the immunological regulatory anti-idiotypic network.

  20. Human development I: Twenty Fundamental Problems of Biology, Medicine, and Neuro-Psychology Related to Biological Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyge Dahl Hermansen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In a new series of papers, we address a number of unsolved problems in biology today. First of all, the unsolved enigma concerning how the differentiation from a single zygote to an adult individual happens has been object for severe research for decades. By uncovering a new holistic biological paradigm that introduces an energetic-informational interpretation of reality as a new way to experience biology, these papers will try to solve the problems connected with the events of biological ontogenesis involving a fractal hierarchy, from a single cell to the function of the human brain. The problems discussed are interpreted within the frames of a universe of roomy fractal structures containing energetic patterns that are able to deliver biological information. We think biological organization is guided by energetic changes on the level of quantum mechanics, interacting with the intention that again guides the energetic conformation of the fractal structures to gain disorders or healthiness. Furthermore, we introduce two new concepts: “metamorphous top down” evolution and “adult human metamorphosis”. The first is a new evolutionary theory involving metamorphosis as a main concept of evolution. The last is tightly linked to the evolutionary principle and explains how human self-recovery is governed. Other subjects of special interest that we shall look deeper into are the immunological self-nonself discrimination, the structure and function of the human brain, the etiology and salutogenesis of mental and somatic diseases, and the structure of the consciousness of a human being. We shall criticize Szentagothai’s model for the modulated structure of the human cerebral cortex and Jerne’s theory of the immunological regulatory anti-idiotypic network.

  1. Neural mechanisms of rhythm perception: current findings and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn, Jessica A

    2012-10-01

    Perception of temporal patterns is fundamental to normal hearing, speech, motor control, and music. Certain types of pattern understanding are unique to humans, such as musical rhythm. Although human responses to musical rhythm are universal, there is much we do not understand about how rhythm is processed in the brain. Here, I consider findings from research into basic timing mechanisms and models through to the neuroscience of rhythm and meter. A network of neural areas, including motor regions, is regularly implicated in basic timing as well as processing of musical rhythm. However, fractionating the specific roles of individual areas in this network has remained a challenge. Distinctions in activity patterns appear between "automatic" and "cognitively controlled" timing processes, but the perception of musical rhythm requires features of both automatic and controlled processes. In addition, many experimental manipulations rely on participants directing their attention toward or away from certain stimulus features, and measuring corresponding differences in neural activity. Many temporal features, however, are implicitly processed whether attended to or not, making it difficult to create controlled baseline conditions for experimental comparisons. The variety of stimuli, paradigms, and definitions can further complicate comparisons across domains or methodologies. Despite these challenges, the high level of interest and multitude of methodological approaches from different cognitive domains (including music, language, and motor learning) have yielded new insights and hold promise for future progress.

  2. Circadian rhythms in cognitive performance: implications for neuropsychological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdez P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pablo Valdez, Candelaria Ramírez, Aída GarcíaLaboratory of Psychophysiology, School of Psychology, University of Nuevo León, Monterrey, Nuevo León, MéxicoAbstract: Circadian variations have been found in human performance, including the efficiency to execute many tasks, such as sensory, motor, reaction time, time estimation, memory, verbal, arithmetic calculations, and simulated driving tasks. Performance increases during the day and decreases during the night. Circadian rhythms have been found in three basic neuropsychological processes (attention, working memory, and executive functions, which may explain oscillations in the performance of many tasks. The time course of circadian rhythms in cognitive performance may be modified significantly in patients with brain disorders, due to chronotype, age, alterations of the circadian rhythm, sleep deprivation, type of disorder, and medication. This review analyzes the recent results on circadian rhythms in cognitive performance, as well as the implications of these rhythms for the neuropsychological assessment of patients with brain disorders such as traumatic head injury, stroke, dementia, developmental disorders, and psychiatric disorders.Keywords: human circadian rhythms, cognitive performance, neuropsychological assessment, attention, working memory, executive functions

  3. Believe it or not: Moving non-biological stimuli believed to have human origin can be represented as human movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, E; Bolton, E; Poliakoff, E

    2016-01-01

    Does our brain treat non-biological movements (e.g. moving abstract shapes or robots) in the same way as human movements? The current work tested whether the movement of a non-biological rectangular object, believed to be based on a human action is represented within the observer's motor system. A novel visuomotor priming task was designed to pit true imitative compatibility, due to human action representation against more general stimulus response compatibility that has confounded previous belief experiments. Stimulus response compatibility effects were found for the object. However, imitative compatibility was found when participants repeated the object task with the belief that the object was based on a human finger movement, and when they performed the task viewing a real human hand. These results provide the first demonstration that non-biological stimuli can be represented as a human movement if they are believed to have human agency and have implications for interactions with technology and robots.

  4. Biologic effect of a hybrid preparation of human chorionic gonadotropin in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemberg, E

    1982-01-01

    Alpha and beta-hCG subunits were recombined generating a hybrid hCG preparation (AB1ER-CR-2XY) which met the required specifications of a pharmaceutical product. The biologic activity contained in each vial of AB1ER-CR-2XY was equivalent to 10 000IU of hCG-IS. This preparation was given as a single dose of 10 000IU by the i.m. route to four female subjects presenting unexplained infertility. The hCG hybrid was demonstrated to effect gonadal stimulation in humans.

  5. Gamma Rhythms and Beta Rhythms Have Different Synchronization Properties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    N. Kopell; G. B. Ermentrout; M. A. Whittington; R. D. Traub

    2000-01-01

    ...) have a different dynamical structure than that of gamma (30-70 Hz). We use a simplified model to show that the different rhythms employ different dynamical mechanisms to synchronize, based on different ionic currents...

  6. Monitoring cell-autonomous circadian clock rhythms of gene expression using luciferase bioluminescence reporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Chidambaram; Khan, Sanjoy K; Kathale, Nimish D; Xu, Haiyan; Liu, Andrew C

    2012-09-27

    genome of both dividing and non-dividing cells. Once a reporter cell line is established, the dynamics of clock function can be examined through bioluminescence recording. We first describe the generation of P(Per2)-dLuc reporter lines, and then present data from this and other circadian reporters. In these assays, 3T3 mouse fibroblasts and U2OS human osteosarcoma cells are used as cellular models. We also discuss various ways of using these clock models in circadian studies. Methods described here can be applied to a great variety of cell types to study the cellular and molecular basis of circadian clocks, and may prove useful in tackling problems in other biological systems.

  7. [Circadian rhythm in myocardial infarct].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciso, R; Ramos, M A; Badui, E; Hurtado, R

    1988-01-01

    In order to determine if the beginning of the Myocardial Infarction (MI) is at random along the day or if it follows a circadian rhythm, we analyzed the clinical charts of 819 patients admitted to the Coronary Care Unite. Among them, 645 were male and 174 female. It was established that the beginning of the MI follows a circadian rhythm with maximal frequency between 8 and 9 a.m. and minimal at 0 hours (p greater than 0.01). This rhythm is sex independent. In patients younger than 45 years as well as those who received beta-block agents in less than 24 hours previous the MI no circadian rhythm was observed.

  8. Substances and Heart Rhythm Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drink coffee or tea or eat chocolate. Red wine and eating too much can bring about symptoms ... Rhythm Society 2017 Privacy Policy | Linking Policy | Patient Education Disclaimer You are about to exit the Heart ...

  9. Circadian Rhythm Management System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The value of measuring sleep-wake cycles is significantly enhanced by measuring other physiological signals that depend on circadian rhythms (such as heart rate and...

  10. Metabolic adaptation of a human pathogen during chronic infections - a systems biology approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Juliane Charlotte

    by classical molecular biology approaches where genes and reactions typically are investigated in a one to one relationship. This thesis is an example of how mathematical approaches and modeling can facilitate new biologi-­‐ cal understanding and provide new surprising ideas to important biological processes....... modeling to uncover how human pathogens adapt to the human host. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in cystic fibrosis patients are used as a model system for under-­‐ standing these adaptation processes. The exploratory systems biology approach facilitates identification of important phenotypes...

  11. Scientific controversies on biological knowledge construction: investigating a continued formation course for teachers with respect for human biological evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Erdmann Bulla

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The research here presented has as central theme the human biological evolution, its scientific controversies and the continued formation of science and biology teachers. We evaluate the development of a teaching sequence on the topic, emphasizing the scientific controversy regarding the supposed fossil hominid Ardipithecus ramidus (“Ardi” in a continued formation course for teachers of science and biology of basic public network Cascavel-PR and region. The empirical work involved collecting data from the responses provided by teachers to an initial questionnaire and a final. The analysis and data discussion has highlighted the importance of scientific controversy for the development of scientific knowledge and the urgency to insert the contents of human evolution in subjects on the initial formation of courses in licentiate of Biological Sciences. It is necessary also to offer continued formation courses to include such content for teachers already inserted in schools. We conclude that teaching biology and science using scientific controversies may be in satisfactory teaching tool to introduce the history and nature of science, since scientific activity is permeated by conflicts.

  12. 'The clocks that time us'-circadian rhythms in neurodegenerative disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videnovic, A.; Lazar, A.S.; Barker, R.A.; Overeem, S.

    2014-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are physiological and behavioural cycles generated by an endogenous biological clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. The circadian system influences the majority of physiological processes, including sleep-wake homeostasis. Impaired sleep and alertness are common symptoms of neurodeg

  13. 'The clocks that time us'-circadian rhythms in neurodegenerative disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videnovic, A.; Lazar, A.S.; Barker, R.A.; Overeem, S.

    2014-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are physiological and behavioural cycles generated by an endogenous biological clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. The circadian system influences the majority of physiological processes, including sleep-wake homeostasis. Impaired sleep and alertness are common symptoms of

  14. 'The clocks that time us'-circadian rhythms in neurodegenerative disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videnovic, A.; Lazar, A.S.; Barker, R.A.; Overeem, S.

    2014-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are physiological and behavioural cycles generated by an endogenous biological clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. The circadian system influences the majority of physiological processes, including sleep-wake homeostasis. Impaired sleep and alertness are common symptoms of neurodeg

  15. Circadian Rhythms and Sleep in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowy, Christine; Sehgal, Amita

    2017-04-01

    The advantages of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, including low genetic redundancy, functional simplicity, and the ability to conduct large-scale genetic screens, have been essential for understanding the molecular nature of circadian (∼24 hr) rhythms, and continue to be valuable in discovering novel regulators of circadian rhythms and sleep. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of these interrelated biological processes in Drosophila and the wider implications of this research. Clock genes period and timeless were first discovered in large-scale Drosophila genetic screens developed in the 1970s. Feedback of period and timeless on their own transcription forms the core of the molecular clock, and accurately timed expression, localization, post-transcriptional modification, and function of these genes is thought to be critical for maintaining the circadian cycle. Regulators, including several phosphatases and kinases, act on different steps of this feedback loop to ensure strong and accurately timed rhythms. Approximately 150 neurons in the fly brain that contain the core components of the molecular clock act together to translate this intracellular cycling into rhythmic behavior. We discuss how different groups of clock neurons serve different functions in allowing clocks to entrain to environmental cues, driving behavioral outputs at different times of day, and allowing flexible behavioral responses in different environmental conditions. The neuropeptide PDF provides an important signal thought to synchronize clock neurons, although the details of how PDF accomplishes this function are still being explored. Secreted signals from clock neurons also influence rhythms in other tissues. SLEEP is, in part, regulated by the circadian clock, which ensures appropriate timing of sleep, but the amount and quality of sleep are also determined by other mechanisms that ensure a homeostatic balance between sleep and wake. Flies have been useful

  16. Interests of 5th through 10th Grade Students toward Human Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten, Sinan

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the middle and high school students' interests towards the subjects of human biology, specifically, "Human Health and Nutrition" and "Human Body and Organs." The study also investigated sources of their interests and factors that impact their interests, namely people that they interact and courses that…

  17. Salvia divinorum: toxicological aspects and analysis in human biological specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalho, Cláudia; Corte-Real, Francisco; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Gallardo, Eugenia

    2016-07-01

    The identification and quantitation of the main psychoactive component of Salvia divinorum (salvinorin A) in biological specimens are crucial in forensic and clinical toxicology. Despite all the efforts made, its uncontrolled abuse has increased quickly, exposing its users' health to serious risks both in the short and long term. The use of alternative biological matrices in toxicological analyzes can be advantageous as complementary postmortem samples, or in situations when neither blood nor urine can be collected; they may be useful tools in those determinations, providing important information about prior exposure. The aim of this article is to present a brief summary of legal aspects of Salvia divinorum and salvinorin A, including the methods used for the determination of the latter in biological matrices.

  18. Human diseases through the lens of network biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Laura I

    2013-03-01

    One of the challenges raised by next generation sequencing (NGS) is the identification of clinically relevant mutations among all the genetic variation found in an individual. Network biology has emerged as an integrative and systems-level approach for the interpretation of genome data in the context of health and disease. Network biology can provide insightful models for genetic phenomena such as penetrance, epistasis, and modes of inheritance, all of which are integral aspects of Mendelian and complex diseases. Moreover, it can shed light on disease mechanisms via the identification of modules perturbed in those diseases. Current challenges include understanding disease as a result of the interplay between environmental and genetic perturbations and assessing the impact of personal sequence variations in the context of networks. Full realization of the potential of personal genomics will benefit from network biology approaches that aim to uncover the mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis, identify new biomarkers, and guide personalized therapeutic interventions.

  19. Multiple changes in sialic acid biology during human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varki, Ajit

    2009-04-01

    Humans are genetically very similar to "great apes", (chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas and orangutans), our closest evolutionary relatives. We have discovered multiple genetic and biochemical differences between humans and these other hominids, in relation to sialic acids and in Siglecs (Sia-recognizing Ig superfamily lectins). An inactivating mutation in the CMAH gene eliminated human expression of N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) a major sialic acid in "great apes". Additional human-specific changes have been found, affecting at least 10 of the dietary sources, particularly red meat and milk products. As humans also have varying and sometime high levels of circulating anti-Neu5Gc antibodies, there are implications for biotechnology products, and for some human diseases associated with chronic inflammation.

  20. Coupled oscillators utilised as gait rhythm generators of a two-legged walking machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, T

    1996-03-01

    The gait of current two-legged walking machines differs from that of humans, although the kinematic structures of these machines' legs frequently imitate human limbs. This paper presents a method of generating the trajectories of hip and knee joint angles resulting in a gait pattern similar to that of a human. For this purpose the solutions of coupled van der Pol oscillator equations are utilised. There is much evidence that these equations can be treated as a good model of the central pattern generator generating functional (also locomotional) rhythms in living creatures. The oscillator equations are solved by numerical integration. The method of changing the type of gait by changing appropriate parameter values in the oscillator equations is presented (change of velocity and trajectory of leg-ends). The results obtained enable enhanced control of two-legged walking systems by including gait pattern generators which will assume a similar role to that of biological generators.

  1. The physical characteristics of human proteins in different biological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tengjiao; Tang, Hailin

    2017-01-01

    The physical properties of gene products are the foundation of their biological functions. In this study, we systematically explored relationships between physical properties and biological functions. The physical properties including origin time, evolution pressure, mRNA and protein stability, molecular weight, hydrophobicity, acidity/alkaline, amino acid compositions, and chromosome location. The biological functions are defined from 4 aspects: biological process, molecular function, cellular component and cell/tissue/organ expression. We found that the proteins associated with basic material and energy metabolism process originated earlier, while the proteins associated with immune, neurological system process etc. originated later. Tissues may have a strong influence on evolution pressure. The proteins associated with energy metabolism are double-stable. Immune and peripheral cell proteins tend to be mRNA stable/protein unstable. There are very few function items with double-unstable of mRNA and protein. The proteins involved in the cell adhesion tend to consist of large proteins with high proportion of small amino acids. The proteins of organic acid transport, neurological system process and amine transport have significantly high hydrophobicity. Interestingly, the proteins involved in olfactory receptor activity tend to have high frequency of aromatic, sulfuric and hydroxyl amino acids.

  2. Dimeric ligands for GPCRs involved in human reproduction : synthesis and biological evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonger, Kimberly Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Dimeric ligands for G-protein coupled receptors that are involved in human reproduction, namely the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor, the luteinizing hormone receptor and the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, were synthesized and biologically evaluated.

  3. A SIMPLE COLORIMETRIC METHOD TO DETECT BIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO MICROCYSTINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxic cyanobacteria are contaminants of surface waters worldwide. Microcystins are some of the most commonly detected toxins. Biological evidence of human exposure may be difficult to obtain due to limitations associated with cost, laboratory capacity, analytic support, and exp...

  4. Biological Effects of TMPRSS2/ERG Fusion Isoforms in Human Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    TITLE: Biological Effects of TMPRSS2/ERG Fusion Isoforms in Human Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jianghua Wang, M.D...6 JAN 2009 / / /4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Biological Effects of TMPRSS2/ERG Fusion Isoforms in Human Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH...quantitative RT-PCR arrays we have identified candidate mediators of these phenotypic effects . We propose to extend these studies to primary prostate epithelial

  5. Endogenous rhythms influence interpersonal synchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamm, Anna; Wellman, Chelsea; Palmer, Caroline

    2016-05-01

    Interpersonal synchrony, the temporal coordination of actions between individuals, is fundamental to social behaviors from conversational speech to dance and music-making. Animal models indicate constraints on synchrony that arise from endogenous rhythms: Intrinsic periodic behaviors or processes that continue in the absence of change in external stimulus conditions. We report evidence for a direct causal link between endogenous rhythms and interpersonal synchrony in a music performance task, which places high demands on temporal coordination. We first establish that endogenous rhythms, measured by spontaneous rates of individual performance, are stable within individuals across stimulus materials, limb movements, and time points. We then test a causal link between endogenous rhythms and interpersonal synchrony by pairing each musician with a partner who is either matched or mismatched in spontaneous rate and by measuring their joint behavior up to 1 year later. Partners performed melodies together, using either the same or different hands. Partners who were matched for spontaneous rate showed greater interpersonal synchrony in joint performance than mismatched partners, regardless of hand used. Endogenous rhythms offer potential to predict optimal group membership in joint behaviors that require temporal coordination.

  6. Feto-maternal biology and ethics of human society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulesu, Luana; Ietta, Francesca; Petraglia, Felice

    2005-01-01

    The growing interest in human reproduction and the identity of the embryo have prompted us to bring some considerations to the attention of scientists. In particular, we focus on the interactive relationship between the embryo and the mother starting from the earliest stages of development. Principles governing the acceptance and growth of the embryo in the uterus may represent a model for mutual tolerance and peaceful co-existence in human society. PMID:16232317

  7. Feto-maternal biology and ethics of human society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petraglia Felice

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The growing interest in human reproduction and the identity of the embryo have prompted us to bring some considerations to the attention of scientists. In particular, we focus on the interactive relationship between the embryo and the mother starting from the earliest stages of development. Principles governing the acceptance and growth of the embryo in the uterus may represent a model for mutual tolerance and peaceful co-existence in human society.

  8. Acanthamoeba: biology and increasing importance in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2006-07-01

    Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic protozoan that is widely distributed in the environment and is well recognized to produce serious human infections, including a blinding keratitis and a fatal encephalitis. This review presents our current understanding of the burden of Acanthamoeba infections on human health, their pathogenesis and pathophysiology, and molecular mechanisms associated with the disease, as well as virulence traits of Acanthamoeba that may be targets for therapeutic interventions and/or the development of preventative measures.

  9. Computed Tomography of the Human Pineal Gland for Study of the Sleep-Wake Rhythm: Reproducibility of a Semi-Quantitative Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, S.A.; Platzek, I.; Kunz, D.; Mahlberg, R.; Wolf, K.J.; Heidenreich, J.O. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

    2006-10-15

    Purpose: To propose a semi-quantitative computed tomography (CT) protocol for determining uncalcified pineal tissue (UCPT), and to evaluate its reproducibility in modification of studies showing that the degree of calcification is a potential marker of deficient melatonin production and may prove an instability marker of circadian rhythm. Material and Methods: Twenty-two pineal gland autopsy specimens were scanned in a skull phantom with different slice thickness twice and the uncalcified tissue visually assessed using a four-point scale. The maximum gland density was measured and its inverse graded on a non-linear four-point scale. The sum of both scores was multiplied by the gland volume to yield the UCPT. The within-subject variance of UCPT was determined and compared between scans of different slice thickness. Results: The UCPT of the first measurement, in arbitrary units, was 39{+-}52.5 for 1 mm slice thickness, 44{+-}51.1 for 2 mm, 45{+-}34.8 for 4 mm, and 84{+-}58.0 for 8 mm. Significant differences of within-subject variance of UCPT were found between 1 and 4 mm, 1 and 8 mm, and 2 and 8 mm slice thicknesses ( P <0.05). Conclusion: A superior reproducibility of the semi-quantitative CT determination of UCPT was found using 1 and 2 mm slice thicknesses. These data support the use of thin slices of 1 and 2 mm. The benefit in reproducibility from thin slices has to be carefully weighted against their considerably higher radiation exposure.

  10. Circadian Rhythm in Cytokines Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trufakin, Valery A; Shurlygina, Anna V

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, a number of diseases involving immune system dysfunction have appeared. This increases the importance of research aimed at finding and developing optimized methods for immune system correction. Numerous studies have found a positive effect in using cytokines to treat a variety of diseases, yet the clinical use of cytokines is limited by their toxicity. Research in the field of chronotherapy, aimed at designing schedules of medicine intake using circadian biorhythms of endogenous production of factors, and receptors' expression to the factors on the target cells, as well as chronopharmacodynamics and chronopharmacokinetics of medicines may contribute to the solution of this problem. Advantages of chronotherapy include a greater effectiveness of treatment, reduced dose of required drugs, and minimized adverse effects. This review presents data on the presence of circadian rhythms of spontaneous and induced cytokine production, as well as the expression of cytokine receptors in the healthy body and in a number of diseases. The article reviews various effects of cytokines, used at different times of the day in humans and experimental animals, as well as possible mechanisms underlying the chronodependent effects of cytokines. The article presents the results of chronotherapeutic modes of administering IL-2, interferons, G-CSF, and GM-CSF in treatment of various types of cancer as well as in experimental models of immune suppression and inflammation, which lead to a greater effectiveness of therapy, the possibility of reducing or increasing the dosage, and reduced drug toxicity. Further research in this field will contribute to the effectiveness and safety of cytokine therapy.

  11. Applying systems biology methods to the study of human physiology in extreme environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lindsay M; Thiele, Ines

    2013-03-22

    Systems biology is defined in this review as 'an iterative process of computational model building and experimental model revision with the aim of understanding or simulating complex biological systems'. We propose that, in practice, systems biology rests on three pillars: computation, the omics disciplines and repeated experimental perturbation of the system of interest. The number of ethical and physiologically relevant perturbations that can be used in experiments on healthy humans is extremely limited and principally comprises exercise, nutrition, infusions (e.g. Intralipid), some drugs and altered environment. Thus, we argue that systems biology and environmental physiology are natural symbionts for those interested in a system-level understanding of human biology. However, despite excellent progress in high-altitude genetics and several proteomics studies, systems biology research into human adaptation to extreme environments is in its infancy. A brief description and overview of systems biology in its current guise is given, followed by a mini review of computational methods used for modelling biological systems. Special attention is given to high-altitude research, metabolic network reconstruction and constraint-based modelling.

  12. Speed of human biological form and motion processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Buzzell

    Full Text Available Recent work suggests that biological motion processing can begin within ~110 ms of stimulus onset, as indexed by the P1 component of the event-related potential (ERP. Here, we investigated whether modulation of the P1 component reflects configural processing alone, rather than the processing of both configuration and motion cues. A three-stimulus oddball task was employed to evaluate bottom-up processing of biological motion. Intact point-light walkers (PLWs or scrambled PLWs served as distractor stimuli, whereas point-light displays of tool motion served as standard and target stimuli. In a second experiment, the same design was used, but the dynamic stimuli were replaced with static point-light displays. The first experiment revealed that dynamic PLWs elicited a larger P1 as compared to scrambled PLWs. A similar P1 increase was also observed for static PLWs in the second experiment, indicating that these stimuli were more salient than static, scrambled PLWs. These findings suggest that the visual system can rapidly extract global form information from static PLWs and that the observed P1 effect for dynamic PLWs is not dependent on the presence of motion cues. Finally, we found that the N1 component was sensitive to dynamic, but not static, PLWs, suggesting that this component reflects the processing of both form and motion information. The sensitivity of P1 to static PLWs has implications for dynamic form models of biological motion processing that posit temporal integration of configural cues present in individual frames of PLW animations.

  13. [Circadian rhythm and stress in the elderly: a study using salivary cortisol levels as an indicator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujibayashi, S; Koizumi, A

    1989-10-01

    Biological response to stress was studied in the healthy elderly by fluctuations of their circadian rhythms using salivary cortisol levels as an indicator. Social activities per se may not be stressors, but may serve as a "eustress" to the elderly when they are in good health because their rhythm is maintained. Concerning the occupations of the subjects, the rhythms of elderly watchmen showed no disturbance when they slept for three hours between 23:00 and 2:00. However, those who were unable to sleep showed disturbed rhythms. We concluded that disturbance of a rhythm that has been established on the basis of being active during the day time and sleeping at night could be a stressor to the elderly rather than stress due to working as a guard.

  14. In the darkness of the polar night, scallops keep on a steady rhythm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Damien; Sow, Mohamedou; Camus, Lionel; Ciret, Pierre; Berge, Jorgen; Massabuau, Jean-Charles

    2016-08-01

    Although the prevailing paradigm has held that the polar night is a period of biological quiescence, recent studies have detected noticeable activity levels in marine organisms. In this study, we investigated the circadian rhythm of the scallop Chlamys islandica by continuously recording the animal’s behaviour over 3 years in the Arctic (Svalbard). Our results showed that a circadian rhythm persists throughout the polar night and lasts for at least 4 months. Based on observations across three polar nights, we showed that the robustness and synchronicity of the rhythm depends on the angle of the sun below the horizon. The weakest rhythm occurred at the onset of the polar night during the nautical twilight. Surprisingly, the circadian behaviour began to recover during the darkest part of the polar night. Because active rhythms optimize the fitness of an organism, our study brings out that the scallops C. islandica remain active even during the polar night.

  15. Preference for Point-Light Human Biological Motion in Newborns: Contribution of Translational Displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidet-Ildei, Christel; Kitromilides, Elenitsa; Orliaguet, Jean-Pierre; Pavlova, Marina; Gentaz, Edouard

    2014-01-01

    In human newborns, spontaneous visual preference for biological motion is reported to occur at birth, but the factors underpinning this preference are still in debate. Using a standard visual preferential looking paradigm, 4 experiments were carried out in 3-day-old human newborns to assess the influence of translational displacement on perception…

  16. Human embryonic stem cells : advancing biology and cardiogenesis towards functional applications l

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, Stefan Robbert

    2010-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) hold great potential as a model for human development, disease pathology, drug discovery and safety pharmacology. All these applications will depend on comprehensive knowledge of their biology and control of their signaling mechanisms and fate choices. To begin to a

  17. 75 FR 33312 - Indexing Structured Product Labeling for Human Prescription Drug and Biological Products; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Indexing Structured Product Labeling for Human Prescription... Evaluation and Research (CDER) and Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) are indexing certain... class as a top priority for indexing of product labeling information. FDA is now announcing that...

  18. Preference for Point-Light Human Biological Motion in Newborns: Contribution of Translational Displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidet-Ildei, Christel; Kitromilides, Elenitsa; Orliaguet, Jean-Pierre; Pavlova, Marina; Gentaz, Edouard

    2014-01-01

    In human newborns, spontaneous visual preference for biological motion is reported to occur at birth, but the factors underpinning this preference are still in debate. Using a standard visual preferential looking paradigm, 4 experiments were carried out in 3-day-old human newborns to assess the influence of translational displacement on perception…

  19. "Eve" in Africa: Human Evolution Meets Molecular Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a discussion of recent evidence on the evolution of human forms on earth gathered and evaluated using mitochondrial DNA techniques. Theories regarding the possibility that a common female ancestor existed in Africa about 200,000 years ago are discussed. A list of teaching aids is provided. (CW)

  20. Computational biology in human aging : an omics data integration approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, Erik Ben van den

    2015-01-01

    Throughout this thesis, human aging and its relation to health are studied in the context of two parallel though complementary lines of research: biomarkers and genetics. The search for informative biomarkers of aging focuses on easy accessible and quantifiable substances of the body that can be u

  1. Temperature compensation and entrainment in circadian rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenstein, C.; Heiland, I.; Schuster, S.

    2012-06-01

    To anticipate daily variations in the environment and coordinate biological activities into a daily cycle many organisms possess a circadian clock. In the absence of external time cues the circadian rhythm persists with a period of approximately 24 h. The clock phase can be shifted by single pulses of light, darkness, chemicals, or temperature and this allows entrainment of the clock to exactly 24 h by cycles of these zeitgebers. On the other hand, the period of the circadian rhythm is kept relatively constant within a physiological range of constant temperatures, which means that the oscillator is temperature compensated. The mechanisms behind temperature compensation and temperature entrainment are not fully understood, neither biochemically nor mathematically. Here, we theoretically investigate the interplay of temperature compensation and entrainment in general oscillatory systems. We first give an analytical treatment for small temperature shifts and derive that every temperature-compensated oscillator is entrainable to external small-amplitude temperature cycles. Temperature compensation ensures that this entrainment region is always centered at the endogenous period regardless of possible seasonal temperature differences. Moreover, for small temperature cycles the entrainment region of the oscillator is potentially larger for rectangular pulses. For large temperature shifts we numerically analyze different circadian clock models proposed in the literature with respect to these properties. We observe that for such large temperature shifts sinusoidal or gradual temperature cycles allow a larger entrainment region than rectangular cycles.

  2. [Effects of culture supernatant of human amnion mesenchymal stem cells on biological characteristics of human fibroblasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qi'er; Lyu, Lu; Xin, Haiming; Luo, Liang; Tong, Yalin; Mo, Yongliang; Yue, Yigang

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effects of culture supernatant of human amnion mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs-CS) on biological characteristics of human fibroblasts. (1) hAMSCs were isolated from deprecated human fresh amnion tissue of placenta and then sub-cultured. The morphology of hAMSCs on culture day 3 and hAMSCs of the third passage were observed with inverted phase contrast microscope. (2) Two batches of hAMSCs of the third passage were obtained, then the expression of vimentin of cells was observed with immunofluorescence method, and the expression of cell surface marker CD90, CD73, CD105, and CD45 was detected by flow cytometer. (3) hAMSCs-CS of the third passage at culture hour 72 were collected, and the content of insulin-like growth factor Ⅰ (IGF-Ⅰ), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (4) Human fibroblasts were isolated from deprecated human fresh prepuce tissue of circumcision and then sub-cultured. Human fibroblasts of the third passage were used in the following experiments. Cells were divided into blank control group and 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% hAMSCs-CS groups according to the random number table (the same grouping method below), with 48 wells in each group. Cells in blank control group were cultured with DMEM/F12 medium containing 2% fetal bovine serum (FBS), while cells in the latter 4 groups were cultured with DMEM/F12 medium containing corresponding volume fraction of hAMSCs-CS and 2% FBS. The proliferation activity of cells was detected by cell counting kit 8 and microplate reader at culture hour 12, 24, 48, and 72, respectively, and corresponding volume fraction of hAMSCs-CS which causing the best proliferation activity of human fibroblasts was used in the following experiments. (5) Human fibroblasts were divided into blank control group and 50% hAMSCs-CS group and treated as in (4), with 4 wells in each group, at post

  3. Comparison of English Language Rhythm and Kalhori Kurdish Language Rhythm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Taghva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigating on quantitative features of languages rhythm is a recent issue that attracts the attention of linguists. Interval-based method is a method of studying the rhythmic quantitative features of languages. This method use Pairwise Variability Index (PVI to consider the variability of vocalic duration and inter-vocalic duration of sentences which leads to classification of languages rhythm into stress-timed languages and syllable-timed ones. This study aims to consider the rhythm of British English and Kalhori Kurdish, which is spoken in some part of west of Iran, based on interval-based method. In order to reach this aim the duration variability of vocalic interval and inter-vocalic interval of English and Kalhori Kurdish are measured by PVI. Afterward the outcomes of this study were compared to the existed results of other languages. The results of this research demonstrated that the rhythmic quantitative features of these two languages are placed among stress-timed languages.   Keywords: Rhythm, interval-based method, syllable-timed, stress-timed

  4. Biological effects of Echinacea purpurea on human blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joksić, Gordana; Petrović, Sandra; Joksić, Ivana; Leskovac, Andreja

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate radioprotective properties of Echinacea purpurea tablets in vivo. We analysed lymphocyte chromosome aberrations (CA), micronuclei (MN), apoptosis of leukocytes and haematological parameters in a group of radiation workers who were identified as carrying dicentric chromosomes in their lymphocytes. All radiation workers were taking two 275 mg Echinacea tablets b.i.d., according to a pharmacist's recommendation. All parameters were analysed before and after the two-week treatment. At the end of the treatment lymphocyte CA frequency dropped significantly, and the number of apoptotic cells increased. The inverse lymphocyte-to-granulocyte ratio at the beginning of the study changed to normal at its end. In conclusion, biological effects observed after administration of Echinacea purpurea preparation suggest that it may be beneficial for the prevention of adverse health effects in workers exposed to ionising radiation.

  5. Pathophysiology and pathogenesis of circadian rhythm sleep disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hida Akiko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metabolic, physiological and behavioral processes exhibit 24-hour rhythms in most organisms, including humans. These rhythms are driven by a system of self-sustained clocks and are entrained by environmental cues such as light-dark cycles as well as food intake. In mammals, the circadian clock system is hierarchically organized such that the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus integrates environmental information and synchronizes the phase of oscillators in peripheral tissues. The transcription and translation feedback loops of multiple clock genes are involved in the molecular mechanism of the circadian system. Disturbed circadian rhythms are known to be closely related to many diseases, including sleep disorders. Advanced sleep phase type, delayed sleep phase type and nonentrained type of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSDs are thought to result from disorganization of the circadian system. Evaluation of circadian phenotypes is indispensable to understanding the pathophysiology of CRSD. It is laborious and costly to assess an individual's circadian properties precisely, however, because the subject is usually required to stay in a laboratory environment free from external cues and masking effects for a minimum of several weeks. More convenient measurements of circadian rhythms are therefore needed to reduce patients' burden. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of CRSD as well as surrogate measurements for assessing an individual's circadian phenotype.

  6. Human mast cell tryptase in biology and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitte, Joana

    2015-01-01

    The most abundant prestored enzyme of human mast cell secretory granules is the serine-protease tryptase. In humans, there are four tryptase isoforms, but only two of them, namely the alpha and beta tryptases, are known as medically important. Low levels of continuous tryptase production as an immature monomer makes up the major part of the baseline serum tryptase levels, while transient release of mature tetrameric tryptase upon mast cell degranulation accounts for the anaphylactic rise of serum tryptase levels. Serum tryptase determination contributes to the diagnosis or monitoring of mast cell disorders including mast cell activation - induced anaphylaxis, mastocytosis and a number of myeloproliferative conditions with mast cell lineage involvement. Baseline serum tryptase levels are predictive of the severity risk in some allergic conditions.

  7. THERMOREGULATION AND HUMAN PERFORMANCE: PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank E Marino

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Vol 53 (Medicine & Sport Science This collection on the latest interpretation of research data about the relationship between thermoregulation, exercise performance and fatigue is published as the 53rd volume of Medicine and Sport Science Journal. PURPOSE The book aims to explain how the advances in technology and methodology allowed studying the affects of the changing body temperature on metabolism and the role played by the nervous system in shaping human performance under challenging thermal situations. FEATURES This publication provides different interpretations of recent research for a better understanding of the limitations of thermoregulation in nine titles. The presented titles are: The Evolutionary Basis of Thermoregulation and Exercise Performance; Comparative Thermoregulation and the Quest for Athletic Supremacy; Thermoregulation, Fatigue and Exercise Modality; Neuromuscular Response to Exercise Heat Stress; Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction, Endotoxemia and Gastrointestinal Symptoms: The 'Canary in the Coal Mine' during Exercise-Heat Stress?; Effects of Peripheral Cooling on Characteristics of Local Muscle; Cooling Interventions for the Protection and Recovery of Exercise Performance from Exercise-Induced Heat Stress; Ethnicity and Temperature Regulation; Exercise Heat Stress and Metabolism. The evidence for the human's ability to adjust their performance according to the thermal limits in order to preserve cellular homeostasis is particularly noteworthy. AUDIENCE This is a fundamental book for any students and/or researchers involved in the fields of medicine, exercise physiology and human performance with special reference to thermal regulation. ASSESSMENT This publication is a must-read text for all those working in thermal medicine, exercise physiology and human performance fields

  8. Role of Epigenetics in Biology and Human Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Moosavi, Azam; Ardekani, Ali Motevalizadeh

    2016-01-01

    For a long time, scientists have tried to describe disorders just by genetic or environmental factors. However, the role of epigenetics in human diseases has been considered from a half of century ago. In the last decade, this subject has attracted many interests, especially in complicated disorders such as behavior plasticity, memory, cancer, autoimmune disease, and addiction as well as neurodegenerative and psychological disorders. This review first explains the history and classification o...

  9. Body movement selectively shapes the neural representation of musical rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemin, Baptiste; Mouraux, André; Nozaradan, Sylvie

    2014-12-01

    It is increasingly recognized that motor routines dynamically shape the processing of sensory inflow (e.g., when hand movements are used to feel a texture or identify an object). In the present research, we captured the shaping of auditory perception by movement in humans by taking advantage of a specific context: music. Participants listened to a repeated rhythmical sequence before and after moving their bodies to this rhythm in a specific meter. We found that the brain responses to the rhythm (as recorded with electroencephalography) after body movement were significantly enhanced at frequencies related to the meter to which the participants had moved. These results provide evidence that body movement can selectively shape the subsequent internal representation of auditory rhythms.

  10. New frontiers in human cell biology and medicine: can pluripotent stem cells deliver?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Lawrence S B

    2012-11-12

    Human pluripotent stem cells provide enormous opportunities to treat disease using cell therapy. But human stem cells can also drive biomedical and cell biological discoveries in a human model system, which can be directly linked to understanding disease or developing new therapies. Finally, rigorous scientific studies of these cells can and should inform the many science and medical policy issues that confront the translation of these technologies to medicine. In this paper, I discuss these issues using amyotrophic lateral sclerosis as an example.

  11. Effectiveness of melatonin treatment on circadian rhythm disturbances in dementia. Are there implications for delirium? A systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonghe, A. de; Korevaar, J.C.; Munster, B.C. van; Rooij, S.E. de

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Circadian rhythm disturbances, like sundowning, are seen in dementia. Because the circadian rhythm is regulated by the biological clock, melatonin might be effective in the treatment of these disturbances. We systematically studied the effect of melatonin treatment in patients with dement

  12. Effectiveness of melatonin treatment on circadian rhythm disturbances in dementia. Are there implications for delirium? : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonghe, A; Korevaar, J C; van Munster, B C; de Rooij, S E

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Circadian rhythm disturbances, like sundowning, are seen in dementia. Because the circadian rhythm is regulated by the biological clock, melatonin might be effective in the treatment of these disturbances. We systematically studied the effect of melatonin treatment in patients with dement

  13. Genetic correlation between the pre-adult developmental period and locomotor activity rhythm in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K H; Teramura, K; Muraoka, S; Okada, Y; Miyatake, T

    2013-04-01

    Biological clocks regulate various behavioural and physiological traits; slower circadian clocks are expected to slow down the development, suggesting a potential genetic correlation between the developmental period and circadian rhythm. However, a correlation between natural genetic variations in the developmental period and circadian rhythm has only been found in Bactrocera cucurbitae. The number of genetic factors that contribute to this genetic correlation is largely unclear. In this study, to examine whether natural genetic variations in the developmental period and circadian rhythm are correlated in Drosophila melanogaster, we performed an artificial disruptive selection on the developmental periods using wild-type strains and evaluated the circadian rhythms of the selected lines. To investigate whether multiple genetic factors mediate the genetic correlation, we reanalyzed previously published genome-wide deficiency screening data based on DrosDel isogenic deficiency strains and evaluated the effect of 438 genomic deficiencies on the developmental periods. We then randomly selected 32 genomic deficiencies with significant effects on the developmental periods and tested their effects on circadian rhythms. As a result, we found a significant response to selection for longer developmental periods and their correlated effects on circadian rhythms of the selected lines. We also found that 18 genomic regions had significant effects on the developmental periods and circadian rhythms, indicating their potential for mediating the genetic correlation between the developmental period and circadian rhythm. The novel findings of our study might lead to a better understanding of how this correlation is regulated genetically in broader taxonomic groups.

  14. Rhythm generation through period concatenation in rat somatosensory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Kramer

    Full Text Available Rhythmic voltage oscillations resulting from the summed activity of neuronal populations occur in many nervous systems. Contemporary observations suggest that coexistent oscillations interact and, in time, may switch in dominance. We recently reported an example of these interactions recorded from in vitro preparations of rat somatosensory cortex. We found that following an initial interval of coexistent gamma ( approximately 25 ms period and beta2 ( approximately 40 ms period rhythms in the superficial and deep cortical layers, respectively, a transition to a synchronous beta1 ( approximately 65 ms period rhythm in all cortical layers occurred. We proposed that the switch to beta1 activity resulted from the novel mechanism of period concatenation of the faster rhythms: gamma period (25 ms+beta2 period (40 ms = beta1 period (65 ms. In this article, we investigate in greater detail the fundamental mechanisms of the beta1 rhythm. To do so we describe additional in vitro experiments that constrain a biologically realistic, yet simplified, computational model of the activity. We use the model to suggest that the dynamic building blocks (or motifs of the gamma and beta2 rhythms combine to produce a beta1 oscillation that exhibits cross-frequency interactions. Through the combined approach of in vitro experiments and mathematical modeling we isolate the specific components that promote or destroy each rhythm. We propose that mechanisms vital to establishing the beta1 oscillation include strengthened connections between a population of deep layer intrinsically bursting cells and a transition from antidromic to orthodromic spike generation in these cells. We conclude that neural activity in the superficial and deep cortical layers may temporally combine to generate a slower oscillation.

  15. The importance of selecting a proper biological milieu for protein corona analysis in vitro: Human plasma versus human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshafiee, Vahid; Kim, Raehyun; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Kraft, Mary L

    2016-06-01

    Nanoparticle (NP) exposure to biological fluids in the body results in protein binding to the NP surface, which forms a protein coating that is called the "protein corona". To simplify studies of protein-NP interactions and protein corona formation, NPs are incubated with biological solutions, such as human serum or human plasma, and the effects of this exposure are characterized in vitro. Yet, how NP exposure to these two different biological milieus affects protein corona composition and cell response has not been investigated. Here, we explore the differences between the protein coronas that form when NPs are incubated in human serum versus human plasma. NP characterization indicated that NPs that were exposed to human plasma had higher amounts of proteins bound to their surfaces, and were slightly larger in size than those exposed to human serum. In addition, significant differences in corona composition were also detected with gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, where a higher fraction of coagulation proteins and complement factors were found on the plasma-exposed NPs. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy showed that the uptake of plasma-exposed NPs was higher than that of serum-exposed NPs by RAW 264.7 macrophage immune cells, but not by NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells. This difference is likely due to the elevated amounts of opsonins, such as fibrinogen, on the surfaces of the NPs exposed to plasma, but not serum, because these components trigger NP internalization by immune cells. As the human plasma better mimics the composition of the in vivo environment, namely blood, in vitro protein corona studies should employ human plasma, and not human serum, so the biological phenomena that is observed is more similar to that occurring in vivo.

  16. Circadian rhythms in microalgae production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, de L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Thesis: Circadian rhythms in microalgae production Lenneke de Winter The sun imposes a daily cycle of light and dark on nearly all organisms. The circadian clock evolved to help organisms program their activities at an appropriate time during this daily cycle. For example,

  17. ADHD, circadian rhythms and seasonality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wynchank, Dora S.; Bijlenga, Denise; Lamers, Femke; Bron, Tannetje I.; Winthorst, Wim H.; Vogel, Suzan W.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Beekman, Aartjan T.; Kooij, J. Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated whether the association between Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) was mediated by the circadian rhythm. Method: Data of 2239 persons from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were used. Two groups we

  18. ADHD, circadian rhythms and seasonality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wynchank, Dora S.; Bijlenga, Denise; Lamers, Femke; Bron, Tannetje I.; Winthorst, Wim H.; Vogel, Suzan W.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Beekman, Aartjan T.; Kooij, J. Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated whether the association between Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) was mediated by the circadian rhythm. Method: Data of 2239 persons from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were used. Two groups we

  19. ADHD, circadian rhythms and seasonality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wynchank, Dora S.; Bijlenga, Denise; Lamers, Femke; Bron, Tannetje I.; Winthorst, Wim H.; Vogel, Suzan W.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Beekman, Aartjan T.; Kooij, J. Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated whether the association between Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) was mediated by the circadian rhythm. Method: Data of 2239 persons from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were used. Two groups

  20. Circadian rhythms in microalgae production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, de L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Thesis: Circadian rhythms in microalgae production Lenneke de Winter The sun imposes a daily cycle of light and dark on nearly all organisms. The circadian clock evolved to help organisms program their activities at an appropriate time during this daily cycle. For example,

  1. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  2. DFA on Cardiac Rhythm: Fluctuation of the Heartbeat Interval Contain Useful Information for the Risk of Mortality in Both, Animal Models and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Yazawa

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the heartbeat interval to test the possibility that the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA distinguishes a sick condition from a healthy condition of the cardiac control network. The healthy heart exhibited exponents ranging from 0.8 to 1.0 in both, animal models and humans. In the sick animal models, the exponents declined with an approaching very low range leading to a natural death (~0.6 in the end. Other models, which had a myocardial injury, exhibited extremely high exponents (~1.4. The high exponent was maintained until they died. Human arrhythmic hearts exhibited low exponent (~0.7. A human subject who has an abnormally high heart rate exhibited high exponents (as high as 1.4. A Human transplanted heart, which has no nervous controls, exhibited exponent 1.2. The fluctuation of the heartbeat interval contains information for the risk of a cardiac cessation or mortality.

  3. [Influence of light and electromagnetic radiation of Sun on circadian rhythms of the total antioxidant capacity of human saliva in the North].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisenkov, M F; Perminova, E V; Kosova, A L

    2008-01-01

    The literature and results of own researches concerning the influence of climatic conditions of the North on human organism are analyzed in the paper. Experimental and clinical data are in accordance with a hypothesis of "circadian destruction" covering the mechanism of negative influence of factors of the North on human health. The model to describe the possible mechanism of action of electromagnetic radiations on circadian system of an organism is offered.

  4. Comparative systems biology between human and animal models based on next-generation sequencing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-Qi; Li, Gong-Hua; Huang, Jing-Fei

    2013-04-01

    Animal models provide myriad benefits to both experimental and clinical research. Unfortunately, in many situations, they fall short of expected results or provide contradictory results. In part, this can be the result of traditional molecular biological approaches that are relatively inefficient in elucidating underlying molecular mechanism. To improve the efficacy of animal models, a technological breakthrough is required. The growing availability and application of the high-throughput methods make systematic comparisons between human and animal models easier to perform. In the present study, we introduce the concept of the comparative systems biology, which we define as "comparisons of biological systems in different states or species used to achieve an integrated understanding of life forms with all their characteristic complexity of interactions at multiple levels". Furthermore, we discuss the applications of RNA-seq and ChIP-seq technologies to comparative systems biology between human and animal models and assess the potential applications for this approach in the future studies.

  5. Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: Bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Dziechciaż

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: Bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging. The aging of humans is a physiological and dynamic process ongoing with time. In accordance with most gerontologists’ assertions it starts in the fourth decade of life and leads to death. The process of human aging is complex and individualized, occurs in the biological, psychological and social sphere. Biological aging is characterized by progressive age-changes in metabolism and physicochemical properties of cells, leading to impaired self-regulation, regeneration, and to structural changes and functional tissues and organs. It is a natural and irreversible process which can run as successful aging, typical or pathological. Biological changes that occur with age in the human body affect mood, attitude to the environment, physical condition and social activity, and designate the place of seniors in the family and society. Psychical ageing refers to human awareness and his adaptability to the ageing process. Among adaptation attitudes we can differentiate: constructive, dependence, hostile towards others and towards self attitudes. With progressed age, difficulties with adjustment to the new situation are increasing, adverse changes in the cognitive and intellectual sphere take place, perception process involutes, perceived sensations and information received is lowered, and thinking processes change. Social ageing is limited to the role of an old person is culturally conditioned and may change as customs change. Social ageing refers to how a human being perceives the ageing process and how society sees it.

  6. Mitochondrial biology. Replication-transcription switch in human mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaronyan, Karen; Morozov, Yaroslav I; Anikin, Michael; Temiakov, Dmitry

    2015-01-30

    Coordinated replication and expression of the mitochondrial genome is critical for metabolically active cells during various stages of development. However, it is not known whether replication and transcription can occur simultaneously without interfering with each other and whether mitochondrial DNA copy number can be regulated by the transcription machinery. We found that interaction of human transcription elongation factor TEFM with mitochondrial RNA polymerase and nascent transcript prevents the generation of replication primers and increases transcription processivity and thereby serves as a molecular switch between replication and transcription, which appear to be mutually exclusive processes in mitochondria. TEFM may allow mitochondria to increase transcription rates and, as a consequence, respiration and adenosine triphosphate production without the need to replicate mitochondrial DNA, as has been observed during spermatogenesis and the early stages of embryogenesis.

  7. Human pressures predict species' geographic range size better than biological traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marco, Moreno; Santini, Luca

    2015-06-01

    Geographic range size is the manifestation of complex interactions between intrinsic species traits and extrinsic environmental conditions. It is also a fundamental ecological attribute of species and a key extinction risk correlate. Past research has primarily focused on the role of biological and environmental predictors of range size, but macroecological patterns can also be distorted by human activities. Here, we analyse the role of extrinsic (biogeography, habitat state, climate, human pressure) and intrinsic (biology) variables in predicting range size of the world's terrestrial mammals. In particular, our aim is to compare the predictive ability of human pressure vs. species biology. We evaluated the ability of 19 intrinsic and extrinsic variables in predicting range size for 4867 terrestrial mammals. We repeated the analyses after excluding restricted-range species and performed separate analyses for species in different biogeographic realms and taxonomic groups. Our model had high predictive ability and showed that climatic variables and human pressures are the most influential predictors of range size. Interestingly, human pressures predict current geographic range size better than biological traits. These findings were confirmed when repeating the analyses on large-ranged species, individual biogeographic regions and individual taxonomic groups. Climatic and human impacts have determined the extinction of mammal species in the past and are the main factors shaping the present distribution of mammals. These factors also affect other vertebrate groups globally, and their influence on range size may be similar as well. Measuring climatic and human variables can allow to obtain approximate range size estimations for data-deficient and newly discovered species (e.g. hundreds of mammal species worldwide). Our results support the need for a more careful consideration of the role of climate change and human impact - as opposed to species biological

  8. The human endogenous circadian system causes greatest platelet activation during the biological morning independent of behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A J L Scheer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Platelets are involved in the thromboses that are central to myocardial infarctions and ischemic strokes. Such adverse cardiovascular events have day/night patterns with peaks in the morning (~9 AM, potentially related to endogenous circadian clock control of platelet activation. The objective was to test if the human endogenous circadian system influences (1 platelet function and (2 platelet response to standardized behavioral stressors. We also aimed to compare the magnitude of any effects on platelet function caused by the circadian system with that caused by varied standardized behavioral stressors, including mental arithmetic, passive postural tilt and mild cycling exercise. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 12 healthy adults (6 female who lived in individual laboratory suites in dim light for 240 h, with all behaviors scheduled on a 20-h recurring cycle to permit assessment of endogenous circadian function independent from environmental and behavioral effects including the sleep/wake cycle. Circadian phase was assessed from core body temperature. There were highly significant endogenous circadian rhythms in platelet surface activated glycoprotein (GP IIb-IIIa, GPIb and P-selectin (6-17% peak-trough amplitudes; p ≤ 0.01. These circadian peaks occurred at a circadian phase corresponding to 8-9 AM. Platelet count, ATP release, aggregability, and plasma epinephrine also had significant circadian rhythms but with later peaks (corresponding to 3-8 PM. The circadian effects on the platelet activation markers were always larger than that of any of the three behavioral stressors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data demonstrate robust effects of the endogenous circadian system on platelet activation in humans--independent of the sleep/wake cycle, other behavioral influences and the environment. The 9 AM timing of the circadian peaks of the three platelet surface markers, including platelet surface activated GPIIb-IIIa, the

  9. Mozart, Mozart Rhythm and Retrograde Mozart Effects: Evidences from Behaviours and Neurobiology Bases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xing, Yingshou; Xia, Yang; Kendrick, Keith; Liu, Xiuxiu; Wang, Maosen; Wu, Dan; Yang, Hua; Jing, Wei; Guo, Daqing; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-01

    .... But there have been inconsistent reports in previous studies of the Mozart effect. Here conducted was a systematic study, with Mozart and retrograde Mozart music, Mozart music rhythm and pitch, behaviours and neurobiology tests, rats and humans subjects...

  10. MORPHIN: a web tool for human disease research by projecting model organism biology onto a human integrated gene network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sohyun; Kim, Eiru; Yang, Sunmo; Marcotte, Edward M; Lee, Insuk

    2014-07-01

    Despite recent advances in human genetics, model organisms are indispensable for human disease research. Most human disease pathways are evolutionally conserved among other species, where they may phenocopy the human condition or be associated with seemingly unrelated phenotypes. Much of the known gene-to-phenotype association information is distributed across diverse databases, growing rapidly due to new experimental techniques. Accessible bioinformatics tools will therefore facilitate translation of discoveries from model organisms into human disease biology. Here, we present a web-based discovery tool for human disease studies, MORPHIN (model organisms projected on a human integrated gene network), which prioritizes the most relevant human diseases for a given set of model organism genes, potentially highlighting new model systems for human diseases and providing context to model organism studies. Conceptually, MORPHIN investigates human diseases by an orthology-based projection of a set of model organism genes onto a genome-scale human gene network. MORPHIN then prioritizes human diseases by relevance to the projected model organism genes using two distinct methods: a conventional overlap-based gene set enrichment analysis and a network-based measure of closeness between the query and disease gene sets capable of detecting associations undetectable by the conventional overlap-based methods. MORPHIN is freely accessible at http://www.inetbio.org/morphin.

  11. Evaluation of the biological differences of canine and human factor VIII in gene delivery: Implications in human hemophilia treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The canine is the most important large animal model for testing novel hemophilia A(HA) treatment. It is often necessary to use canine factor VIII (cFIII) gene or protein for the evaluation of HA treatment in the canine model. However, the different biological properties between cFVIII and human FVII...

  12. Spontaneous synchronized tapping to an auditory rhythm in a chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yuko; Tomonaga, Masaki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2013-01-01

    Humans actively use behavioral synchrony such as dancing and singing when they intend to make affiliative relationships. Such advanced synchronous movement occurs even unconsciously when we hear rhythmically complex music. A foundation for this tendency may be an evolutionary adaptation for group living but evolutionary origins of human synchronous activity is unclear. Here we show the first evidence that a member of our closest living relatives, a chimpanzee, spontaneously synchronizes her movement with an auditory rhythm: After a training to tap illuminated keys on an electric keyboard, one chimpanzee spontaneously aligned her tapping with the sound when she heard an isochronous distractor sound. This result indicates that sensitivity to, and tendency toward synchronous movement with an auditory rhythm exist in chimpanzees, although humans may have expanded it to unique forms of auditory and visual communication during the course of human evolution.

  13. How Two Players Negotiate Rhythm in a Shared Rhythm Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Marie; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2012-01-01

    In a design and working prototype of a shared music interface eleven teams of two people were to collaborate about filling in holes with tones and beats in an evolving ground rhythm. The hypothesis was that users would tune into each other and have sections of characteristic rhythmical relationsh......In a design and working prototype of a shared music interface eleven teams of two people were to collaborate about filling in holes with tones and beats in an evolving ground rhythm. The hypothesis was that users would tune into each other and have sections of characteristic rhythmical...... from each other. Video analysis of user interaction shines light upon how users engaged in a rhythmical relationship, and interviews give information about the user experience in terms of the game play and user collaboration. Based on the findings in this paper we propose design guidelines...... for collaborative rhythmical game play....

  14. Biological Effects of Culture Substrates on Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Hayashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, as human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs have been commonly cultured in feeder-free conditions, a number of cell culture substrates have been applied or developed. However, the functional roles of these substrates in maintaining hPSC self-renewal remain unclear. Here in this review, we summarize the types of these substrates and their effect on maintaining hPSC self-renewal. Endogenous extracellular matrix (ECM protein expression has been shown to be crucial in maintaining hPSC self-renewal. These ECM molecules interact with integrin cell-surface receptors and transmit their cellular signaling. We discuss the possible effect of integrin-mediated signaling pathways on maintaining hPSC self-renewal. Activation of integrin-linked kinase (ILK, which transmits ECM-integrin signaling to AKT (also known as protein kinase B, has been shown to be critical in maintaining hPSC self-renewal. Also, since naïve pluripotency has been widely recognized as an alternative pluripotent state of hPSCs, we discuss the possible effects of culture substrates and integrin signaling on naïve hPSCs based on the studies of mouse embryonic stem cells. Understanding the role of culture substrates in hPSC self-renewal and differentiation enables us to control hPSC behavior precisely and to establish scalable or microfabricated culture technologies for regenerative medicine and drug development.

  15. A quantum biological hypothesis of human secondary dentinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, M L; Moss-Salentijn, L; Hasselgren, G; Ling, H

    2005-01-01

    It is hypothesized that human coronal secondary dentin (SD) is a final classical mechanical (CM) response to a chain of prior quantum mechanical (QM) transductions of the information of initial CM occlusal loadings of enamel. Such CM energy is transduced into QM quanta (as protons) that are translocated centripetally via clustered water (CW), (as "proton wires"), that is structurally related to both enamel prism sheath and hydroxyapatite crystal hydration shells. These quanta pass into odontoblastic cell processes (OP), lying within dentinal tubules (DT). OP's contain abundant parallel arrays of cylindrical microtubules (MT). These are the sites of two further CW-related QM events: (i) proton translocation associated with conformal changes of MT tubulin protein dimers; and (ii) coherent energetic oscillations within the CW filling the MT's hollow cores. Finally, these quanta pass into the odontoblastic soma, where QM wave function collapse transduces this information into a final CM state that initiates the processes of SD formation. A critical portion of this hypothesis may be experimentally tested.

  16. A biologically plausible model of human shape symmetry perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Frédéric J A M; Wilson, Hugh R

    2010-01-19

    Symmetry is usually computationally expensive to encode reliably, and yet it is relatively effortless to perceive. Here, we extend F. J. A. M. Poirier and H. R. Wilson's (2006) model for shape perception to account for H. R. Wilson and F. Wilkinson's (2002) data on shape symmetry. Because the model already accounts for shape perception, only minimal neural circuitry is required to enable it to encode shape symmetry as well. The model is composed of three main parts: (1) recovery of object position using large-scale non-Fourier V4-like concentric units that respond at the center of concentric contour segments across orientations, (2) around that recovered object center, curvature mechanisms combine multiplicatively the responses of oriented filters to encode object-centric local shape information, with a preference for convexities, and (3) object-centric symmetry mechanisms. Model and human performances are comparable for symmetry perception of shapes. Moreover, with some improvement of edge recovery, the model can encode symmetry axes in natural images such as faces.

  17. Structural biology of human H3K9 methyltransferases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wu

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: SET domain methyltransferases deposit methyl marks on specific histone tail lysine residues and play a major role in epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. We solved the structures of the catalytic domains of GLP, G9a, Suv39H2 and PRDM2, four of the eight known human H3K9 methyltransferases in their apo conformation or in complex with the methyl donating cofactor, and peptide substrates. We analyzed the structural determinants for methylation state specificity, and designed a G9a mutant able to tri-methylate H3K9. We show that the I-SET domain acts as a rigid docking platform, while induced-fit of the Post-SET domain is necessary to achieve a catalytically competent conformation. We also propose a model where long-range electrostatics bring enzyme and histone substrate together, while the presence of an arginine upstream of the target lysine is critical for binding and specificity. ENHANCED VERSION: This article can also be viewed as an enhanced version in which the text of the article is integrated with interactive 3D representations and animated transitions. Please note that a web plugin is required to access this enhanced functionality. Instructions for the installation and use of the web plugin are available in Text S1.

  18. Determination of cadmium and lead in human biological samples by spectrometric techniques: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Valfredo Azevedo; de Carvalho, Anaildes Lago

    2010-12-01

    The analysis of human biological samples, such as blood, urine, nails, and hair, is generally used for the verification of human exposure to toxic metals. In this review, various spectrometric methods for the determination of cadmium and lead in biological samples are discussed and compared. Several spectrometric techniques are presented and discussed with respect to various characteristics such as sensitivity, selectivity, and cost. Special attention is drawn to the procedures for digestion prior to the determination of cadmium and lead in hair, nails, blood, and urine.

  19. Establishing a cell biology platform: isolation and preservation of human blood products

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Genética Molecular e Biomedicina The use of human primary cells provide researchers in different areas with irrefutable more biologically relevant data than using cell lines or animal blood cells. The work was performed in the scope of the Cell Biology Services @ CEDOC, aiming to provide viable and trustful human primary cells and products. We had three main objectives: protocol optimizations for blood cell isolation, culture and cryopre...

  20. Towards a systems biology understanding of human health: interplay between genotype, environment and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desiere, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Sequencing of the human genome has opened the door to the most exciting new era for the holistic system description of human health. It is now possible to study the underlying mechanisms of human health in relation to diet and other environmental factors such as drugs and toxic pollutants. Technological advances make it feasible to envisage that in the future personalized drug treatment and dietary advice and possibly tailored food products can be used for promoting optimal health on an individual basis, in relation to genotype and lifestyle. Life-Science research has in the past very much focused on diseases and how to reestablish human health after illness. Today, the role of food and nutrition in human health and especially prevention of illness is gaining recognition. Diseases of modern civilization, such as diabetes, heart disease and cancer have been shown to be effected by dietary patterns. The risk of disease is often associated with genetic polymorphisms, but the effect is dependent on dietary intake and nutritional status. To understand the link between diet and health, nutritional-research must cover a broad range of areas, from the molecular level to whole body studies. Therefore it provides an excellent example of integrative biology requiring a systems biology approach. The current state and implications of systems biology in the understanding of human health are reviewed. It becomes clear that a complete mechanistic description of the human organism is not yet possible. However, recent advances in systems biology provide a trajectory for future research in order to improve health of individuals and populations. Disease prevention through personalized nutrition will become more important as the obvious avenue of research in life sciences and more focus will need to be put upon those natural ways of disease prevention. In particular, the new discipline of nutrigenomics, which investigates how nutrients interact with humans, taking predetermined genetic

  1. A brief history of the Human Biology Association: 1974-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Michael A; James, Gary D

    2005-01-01

    Originally incorporated as the Human Biology Council in 1974, the Human Biology Association, as it has been known since 1994, has matured in the intervening 30 years to become a society that represents broadly the interests of human biologists in the U.S. and throughout the world. The purpose of this paper is to trace the development of the Association from its foundation to the present in the context of changes in the organization of the Association and in its By-Laws, officers, committees, and membership; the history of the two journals that served as the Association's official organs (Human Biology and American Journal of Human Biology); and how the annual meetings have evolved from a modest one-day plenary session to meetings that last more than two days and include a variety of scientific contributions. Highlights of the national meetings include the Raymond Pearl Memorial Lecture, the Franz Boas Distinguished Achievement Award, and the Edward E. Hunt, Jr. Student Prize. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. External stimuli mediate collective rhythms: artificial control strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianshou Zhou

    Full Text Available The artificial intervention of biological rhythms remains an exciting challenge. Here, we proposed artificial control strategies that were developed to mediate the collective rhythms emerging in multicellular structures. Based on noisy repressilators and by injecting a periodic control amount to the extracellular medium, we introduced two typical kinds of control models. In one, there are information exchanges among cells, where signaling molecules receive the injected stimulus that freely diffuses toward/from the intercellular medium. In the other, there is no information exchange among cells, but signaling molecules also receive the stimulus that directionally diffuses into each cell from the common environment. We uncovered physical mechanisms for how the stimulus induces, enhances or ruins collective rhythms. We found that only when the extrinsic period is close to an integer multiplicity of the averaged intrinsic period can the collective behaviors be induced/enhanced; otherwise, the stimulus possibly ruins the achieved collective behaviors. Such entrainment properties of these oscillators to external signals would be exploited by realistic living cells to sense external signals. Our results not only provide a new perspective to the understanding of the interplays between extrinsic stimuli and intrinsic physiological rhythms, but also would lead to the development of medical therapies or devices.

  3. Circadian Rhythm Shapes the Gut Microbiota Affecting Host Radiosensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ming; Xiao, Huiwen; Luo, Dan; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Shuyi; Zheng, Qisheng; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Yu; Dong, Jiali; Li, Hang; Wang, Haichao; Fan, Saijun

    2016-10-26

    Modern lifestyles, such as shift work, nocturnal social activities, and jet lag, disturb the circadian rhythm. The interaction between mammals and the co-evolved intestinal microbiota modulates host physiopathological processes. Radiotherapy is a cornerstone of modern management of malignancies; however, it was previously unknown whether circadian rhythm disorder impairs prognosis after radiotherapy. To investigate the effect of circadian rhythm on radiotherapy, C57BL/6 mice were housed in different dark/light cycles, and their intestinal bacterial compositions were compared using high throughput sequencing. The survival rate, body weight, and food intake of mice in diverse cohorts were measured following irradiation exposure. Finally, the enteric bacterial composition of irradiated mice that experienced different dark/light cycles was assessed using 16S RNA sequencing. Intriguingly, mice housed in aberrant light cycles harbored a reduction of observed intestinal bacterial species and shifts of gut bacterial composition compared with those of the mice kept under 12 h dark/12 h light cycles, resulting in a decrease of host radioresistance. Moreover, the alteration of enteric bacterial composition of mice in different groups was dissimilar. Our findings provide novel insights into the effects of biological clocks on the gut bacterial composition, and underpin that the circadian rhythm influences the prognosis of patients after radiotherapy in a preclinical setting.

  4. [11C]Doxepin binding to histamine H1 receptors in living human brain: reproducibility during attentive waking and circadian rhythm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Katsuhiko; Funaki, Yoshihito; Hiraoka, Kotaro; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Naganuma, Fumito; Miyake, Masayasu; Watanuki, Shoichi; Sato, Hirotoshi; Tashiro, Manabu; Yanai, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Molecular imaging in neuroscience is a new research field that enables visualization of the impact of molecular events on brain structure and function in humans. While magnetic resonance-based imaging techniques can provide complex information at the level of system, positron emission tomography (PET) enables determination of the distribution and density of receptor and enzyme in the human brain. Previous studies using [11C]raclopride and [11C]FLB457 revealed that the release of neuronal dopamine was increased in human brain by psychostimulants or reward stimuli. Following on from these previous [11C]raclopride studies, we examined whether the levels of neuronal release of histamine might change [11C]doxepin binding to the H1 receptors under the influence of physiological stimuli. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the test–retest reliability of quantitative measurement of [11C]doxepin binding between morning and afternoon and between resting and attentive waking conditions in healthy human subjects. There was a trend for a decrease in [11C]doxepin binding during attentive calculation tasks compared with that in resting conditions, but the difference (less than 10%) was not significant. Similarly, the binding potential of [11C]doxepin in the cerebral cortex was slightly higher in the morning than that in the afternoon, but it was also insignificant. These data suggest that higher histamine release during wakefulness could not decrease the [11C]doxepin binding in the brain. This study confirmed the reproducibility and reliability of [11C]doxepin in the previous imaging studies to measure the H1 receptor. PMID:22701403

  5. Circadian Rhythm Control: Neurophysiological Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotzbach, S. F.

    1985-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) was implicated as a primary component in central nervous system mechanisms governing circadian rhythms. Disruption of the normal synchronization of temperature, activity, and other rhythms is detrimental to health. Sleep wake disorders, decreases in vigilance and performance, and certain affective disorders may result from or be exacerbated by such desynchronization. To study the basic neurophysiological mechanisms involved in entrainment of circadian systems by the environment, Parylene-coated, etched microwire electrode bundles were used to record extracellular action potentials from the small somata of the SCN and neighboring hypothalamic nuclei in unanesthetized, behaving animals. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized and chronically prepared with EEG ane EMG electrodes in addition to a moveable microdrive assembly. The majority of cells had firing rates 10 Hz and distinct populations of cells which had either the highest firing rate or lowest firing rate during sleep were seen.

  6. Temporal interactions between cortical rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita K Roopun

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple local neuronal circuits support different, discrete frequencies of network rhythm in neocortex. Relationships between different frequencies correspond to mechanisms designed to minimise interference, couple activity via stable phase interactions, and control the amplitude of one frequency relative to the phase of another. These mechanisms are proposed to form a framework for spectral information processing. Individual local circuits can also transform their frequency through changes in intrinsic neuronal properties and interactions with other oscillating microcircuits. Here we discuss a frequency transformation in which activity in two coactive local circuits may combine sequentially to generate a third frequency whose period is the concatenation sum of the original two. With such an interaction, the intrinsic periodicity in each component local circuit is preserved – alternate, single periods of each original rhythm form one period of a new frequency - suggesting a robust mechanism for combining information processed on multiple concurrent spatiotemporal scales.

  7. Human evolution, life history theory, and the end of biological reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, Cadell

    2014-01-01

    Throughout primate history there have been three major life history transitions towards increasingly delayed sexual maturation and biological reproduction, as well as towards extended life expectancy. Monkeys reproduce later and live longer than do prosimians, apes reproduce later and live longer than do monkeys, and humans reproduce later and live longer than do apes. These life history transitions are connected to increased encephalization. During the last life history transition from apes to humans, increased encephalization co-evolved with increased dependence on cultural knowledge for energy acquisition. This led to a dramatic pressure for more energy investment in growth over current biological reproduction. Since the industrial revolution socioeconomic development has led to even more energy being devoted to growth over current biological reproduction. I propose that this is the beginning of an ongoing fourth major primate life history transition towards completely delayed biological reproduction and an extension of the evolved human life expectancy. I argue that the only fundamental difference between this primate life history transition and previous life history transitions is that this transition is being driven solely by cultural evolution, which may suggest some deeper evolutionary transition away from biological evolution is already in the process of occurring.

  8. Kant on epigenesis, monogenesis and human nature: the biological premises of anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alix A

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that for Kant, a combination of epigenesis and monogenesis is the condition of possibility of anthropology as he conceives of it and that moreover, this has crucial implications for the biological dimension of his account of human nature. More precisely, I begin by arguing that Kant's conception of mankind as a natural species is based on two premises: firstly the biological unity of the human species (monogenesis of the human races); and secondly the existence of 'seeds' which may or may not develop depending on the environment (epigenesis of human natural predispositions). I then turn to Kant's account of man's natural predispositions and show that far from being limited to the issue of races, it encompasses unexpected human features such as gender, temperaments and nations. These predispositions, I argue, are means to the realisation of Nature's overall purpose for the human species. This allows me to conclude that man's biological determinism leads to the species' preservation, cultivation and civilisation.

  9. Entrainment of circadian rhythms to irregular light/dark cycles: a subterranean perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flôres, Danilo E F L; Jannetti, Milene G; Valentinuzzi, Veronica S; Oda, Gisele A

    2016-10-04

    Synchronization of biological rhythms to the 24-hour day/night has long been studied with model organisms, under artificial light/dark cycles in the laboratory. The commonly used rectangular light/dark cycles, comprising hours of continuous light and darkness, may not be representative of the natural light exposure for most species, including humans. Subterranean rodents live in dark underground tunnels and offer a unique opportunity to investigate extreme mechanisms of photic entrainment in the wild. Here, we show automated field recordings of the daily light exposure patterns in a South American subterranean rodent, the tuco-tuco (Ctenomys aff. knighti ). In the laboratory, we exposed tuco-tucos to a simplified version of this natural light exposure pattern, to determine the minimum light timing information that is necessary for synchronization. As predicted from our previous studies using mathematical modeling, the activity rhythm of tuco-tucos synchronized to this mostly simplified light/dark regimen consisting of a single light pulse per day, occurring at randomly scattered times within a day length interval. Our integrated semi-natural, lab and computer simulation findings indicate that photic entrainment of circadian oscillators is robust, even in face of artificially reduced exposure and increased phase instability of the synchronizing stimuli.

  10. HPD: an online integrated human pathway database enabling systems biology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowbina, Sudhir R; Wu, Xiaogang; Zhang, Fan; Li, Peter M; Pandey, Ragini; Kasamsetty, Harini N; Chen, Jake Y

    2009-10-08

    Pathway-oriented experimental and computational studies have led to a significant accumulation of biological knowledge concerning three major types of biological pathway events: molecular signaling events, gene regulation events, and metabolic reaction events. A pathway consists of a series of molecular pathway events that link molecular entities such as proteins, genes, and metabolites. There are approximately 300 biological pathway resources as of April 2009 according to the Pathguide database; however, these pathway databases generally have poor coverage or poor quality, and are difficult to integrate, due to syntactic-level and semantic-level data incompatibilities. We developed the Human Pathway Database (HPD) by integrating heterogeneous human pathway data that are either curated at the NCI Pathway Interaction Database (PID), Reactome, BioCarta, KEGG or indexed from the Protein Lounge Web sites. Integration of pathway data at syntactic, semantic, and schematic levels was based on a unified pathway data model and data warehousing-based integration techniques. HPD provides a comprehensive online view that connects human proteins, genes, RNA transcripts, enzymes, signaling events, metabolic reaction events, and gene regulatory events. At the time of this writing HPD includes 999 human pathways and more than 59,341 human molecular entities. The HPD software provides both a user-friendly Web interface for online use and a robust relational database backend for advanced pathway querying. This pathway tool enables users to 1) search for human pathways from different resources by simply entering genes/proteins involved in pathways or words appearing in pathway names, 2) analyze pathway-protein association, 3) study pathway-pathway similarity, and 4) build integrated pathway networks. We demonstrated the usage and characteristics of the new HPD through three breast cancer case studies. HPD http://bio.informatics.iupui.edu/HPD is a new resource for searching, managing

  11. Egg-laying rhythm in Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T. Manjunatha; Shantala Hari Dass; Vijay Kumar Sharma

    2008-12-01

    Extensive research has been carried out to understand how circadian clocks regulate various physiological processes in organisms. The discovery of clock genes and the molecular clockwork has helped researchers to understand the possible role of these genes in regulating various metabolic processes. In Drosophila melanogaster, many studies have shown that the basic architecture of circadian clocks is multi-oscillatory. In nature, different neuronal subgroups in the brain of D. melanogaster have been demonstrated to control different circadian behavioural rhythms or different aspects of the same circadian rhythm. Among the circadian phenomena that have been studied so far in Drosophila, the egg-laying rhythm is unique, and relatively less explored. Unlike most other circadian rhythms, the egg-laying rhythm is rhythmic under constant light conditions, and the endogenous or free-running period of the rhythm is greater than those of most other rhythms. Although the clock genes and neurons required for the persistence of adult emergence and activity/rest rhythms have been studied extensively, those underlying the circadian egg-laying rhythm still remain largely unknown. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the circadian egg-laying rhythm in D. melanogaster, and the possible molecular and physiological mechanisms that control the rhythmic output of the egg-laying process.

  12. Critical values of the external magnetic field leading biological effects in the human organism

    CERN Document Server

    Kanokov, Zakirjon

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the simplified stochastic model the critical values of an induction of the external magnetic field leading to sharp increase of fluctuations of a casual current of biologically important ions in different blood vessels of a human body are calculated.

  13. 78 FR 32668 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Changes to an Approved Application: Biological Products: Human Blood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Changes to an Approved Application: Biological Products: Human Blood and Blood Components Intended for Transfusion or for Further Manufacture'' dated June 2013. The draft guidance document provides manufacturers of licensed Whole Blood and blood components intended for......

  14. Nutrition and the biology of human ageing: Proceedings of the ninth nestle international nutrition symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 9th Nestle Nutrition Symposium on “Nutrition and the Biology of Human Ageing” is presented at a time of unprecedented demographic change worldwide. The UN population division forecasts that the number of people living over age 65 will rise to almost 1 billion (12% percent of the world’s populat...

  15. The Use of Ethical Frameworks for Implementing Science as a Human Endeavour in Year 10 Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Siew Fong; Dawson, Vaille

    2014-01-01

    This research focuses on the use of ethical frameworks as a pedagogical model for socio-scientific education in implementing the "Science as a Human Endeavour" (SHE) strand of the Australian Curriculum: Science in a Year 10 biology class in a Christian college in metropolitan Perth, Western Australia. Using a case study approach, a mixed…

  16. Human biological monitoring for exposure assessment in response to an incident involving hazardous materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Brederode, N.E. van; Bos, P.M.J.; Nijhuis, N.J.; Weerdt, R.H. van de; Woude, I. van der; Eggens, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Biological monitoring in humans (HBM) is widely used in the field of occupational and environmental health. In the situation of an unexpected release of hazardous materials HBM may contribute to the medical support and treatment of exposed individuals from the general population or of emergency

  17. Biohorizons: An eConference to Assess Human Biology in Large, First-Year Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moni, Roger W.; Moni, Karen B.; Poronnik, Philip; Lluka, Lesley J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors detail the design, implementation and evaluation of an eConference entitled "Biohorizons," using a presage-process-product model to describe the development of an eLearning community. Biohorizons was a summative learning and assessment task aiming to introduce large classes of first-year Human Biology students to the practices of…

  18. Disturbance and strategies for reactivation of the circadian rhythm system in aging and Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.-H.; Swaab, D.F.

    2007-01-01

    Circadian rhythm disturbances, such as sleep disorders, are frequently seen in aging and are even more pronounced in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Alterations in the biological clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), and the pineal gland during aging and AD are considered to be the biological basis fo

  19. How do precision medicine and system biology response to human body's complex adaptability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bing

    2016-12-01

    In the field of life sciences, although system biology and "precision medicine" introduce some complex scientifific methods and techniques, it is still based on the "analysis-reconstruction" of reductionist theory as a whole. Adaptability of complex system increase system behaviour uncertainty as well as the difficulties of precise identifification and control. It also put systems biology research into trouble. To grasp the behaviour and characteristics of organism fundamentally, systems biology has to abandon the "analysis-reconstruction" concept. In accordance with the guidelines of complexity science, systems biology should build organism model from holistic level, just like the Chinese medicine did in dealing with human body and disease. When we study the living body from the holistic level, we will fifind the adaptability of complex system is not the obstacle that increases the diffificulty of problem solving. It is the "exceptional", "right-hand man" that helping us to deal with the complexity of life more effectively.

  20. In vivo biological response to extracorporeal shockwave therapy in human tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waugh, C. M.; Morrissey, D.; Jones, E.

    2015-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is a non-invasive treatment for chronic tendinopathies, however little is known about the in-vivo biological mechanisms of ESWT. Using microdialysis, we examined the real-time biological response of healthy and pathological tendons to ESWT. A single session...... significantly elevated for four hours post-ESWT (p biological response to ESWT treatment could be differentiated between possible responders and non......-responders based on a minimum 5-fold increase in any inflammatory marker or MMP from pre- to post-ESWT. Our findings provide novel evidence of the biological mechanisms underpinning ESWT in humans in vivo. They suggest that the mechanical stimulus provided by ESWT might aid tendon remodelling in tendinopathy...

  1. Air Travel, Circadian Rhythms/Hormones, and Autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Ruiz, J; Sulli, A; Cutolo, M; Shoenfeld, Y

    2017-02-27

    Biological rhythms are fundamental for homeostasis and have recently been involved in the regulatory processes of various organs and systems. Circadian cycle proteins and hormones have a direct effect on the inflammatory response and have shown pro- or anti-inflammatory effects in animal models of autoimmune diseases. The cells of the immune system have their own circadian rhythm, and the light-dark cycle directly influences the inflammatory response. On the other hand, patients with autoimmune diseases characteristically have sleep disorders and fatigue, and in certain disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a frank periodicity in the signs and symptoms is recognized. The joint symptoms predominate in the morning, and apparently, subjects with RA have relative adrenal insufficiency, with a cortisol peak unable to control the late night load of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Transatlantic flights represent a challenge in the adjustment of biological rhythms, since they imply sleep deprivation, time zone changes, and potential difficulties for drug administration. In patients with autoimmune diseases, the use of DMARDs and prednisone at night is probably best suited to lessen morning symptoms. It is also essential to sleep during the trip to improve adaptation to the new time zone and to avoid, as far as possible, works involving flexible or nocturnal shifts. The study of proteins and hormones related to biological rhythms will demonstrate new pathophysiological pathways of autoimmune diseases, which will emphasize the use of general measures for sleep respect and methods for drug administration at key daily times to optimize their anti-inflammatory and immune modulatory effects.

  2. HExpoChem: a systems biology resource to explore human exposure to chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Jacobsen, Ulrik Plesner; Kalhauge, Christian Gram

    2013-01-01

    of computational biology approaches are needed to assess the health risks of chemical exposure. Here we present HExpoChem, a tool based on environmental chemicals and their bioactivities on human proteins with the objective of aiding the qualitative exploration of human exposure to chemicals. The chemical......Summary: Humans are exposed to diverse hazardous chemicals daily. Although an exposure to these chemicals is suspected to have adverse effects on human health, mechanistic insights into how they interact with the human body are still limited. Therefore, acquisition of curated data and development......–protein interactions have been enriched with a quality-scored human protein–protein interaction network, a protein–protein association network and a chemical–chemical interaction network, thus allowing the study of environmental chemicals through formation of protein complexes and phenotypic outcomes enrichment...

  3. Circadian Rhythms in Diet-Induced Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Atilla

    2017-01-01

    The biological clocks of the circadian timing system coordinate cellular and physiological processes and synchronizes these with daily cycles, feeding patterns also regulates circadian clocks. The clock genes and adipocytokines show circadian rhythmicity. Dysfunction of these genes are involved in the alteration of these adipokines during the development of obesity. Food availability promotes the stimuli associated with food intake which is a circadian oscillator outside of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Its circadian rhythm is arranged with the predictable daily mealtimes. Food anticipatory activity is mediated by a self-sustained circadian timing and its principal component is food entrained oscillator. However, the hypothalamus has a crucial role in the regulation of energy balance rather than food intake. Fatty acids or their metabolites can modulate neuronal activity by brain nutrient-sensing neurons involved in the regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis. The timing of three-meal schedules indicates close association with the plasma levels of insulin and preceding food availability. Desynchronization between the central and peripheral clocks by altered timing of food intake and diet composition can lead to uncoupling of peripheral clocks from the central pacemaker and to the development of metabolic disorders. Metabolic dysfunction is associated with circadian disturbances at both central and peripheral levels and, eventual disruption of circadian clock functioning can lead to obesity. While CLOCK expression levels are increased with high fat diet-induced obesity, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha increases the transcriptional level of brain and muscle ARNT-like 1 (BMAL1) in obese subjects. Consequently, disruption of clock genes results in dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and obesity. Modifying the time of feeding alone can greatly affect body weight. Changes in the circadian clock are associated with temporal alterations in

  4. Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziechciaż, Małgorzata; Filip, Rafał

    2014-01-01

    The aging of humans is a physiological and dynamic process ongoing with time. In accordance with most gerontologists' assertions it starts in the fourth decade of life and leads to death. The process of human aging is complex and individualized, occurs in the biological, psychological and social sphere. Biological aging is characterized by progressive age-changes in metabolism and physicochemical properties of cells, leading to impaired self-regulation, regeneration, and to structural changes and functional tissues and organs. It is a natural and irreversible process which can run as successful aging, typical or pathological. Biological changes that occur with age in the human body affect mood, attitude to the environment, physical condition and social activity, and designate the place of seniors in the family and society. Psychical ageing refers to human awareness and his adaptability to the ageing process. Among adaptation attitudes we can differentiate: constructive, dependence, hostile towards others and towards self attitudes. With progressed age, difficulties with adjustment to the new situation are increasing, adverse changes in the cognitive and intellectual sphere take place, perception process involutes, perceived sensations and information received is lowered, and thinking processes change. Social ageing is limited to the role of an old person is culturally conditioned and may change as customs change. Social ageing refers to how a human being perceives the ageing process and how society sees it.

  5. Contributions of A. Roberto Frisancho to human population biology: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, William R

    2009-01-01

    Over the span of his career, A. Roberto Frisancho has been one of the prime architects of the development and expansion of human population biology. His research and scholarly publications have helped to move the field beyond simple descriptions of human variation to address the nature and evolutionary origins of human biological diversity. Frisancho's early work in the Peruvian Andes elegantly demonstrated the importance of developmental acclimatization for promoting adaptive responses to the multiple stressors of high-altitude environments. Since mid-1970s, he has played a major role in developing and expanding the use of anthropometric techniques for assessing physical growth and nutritional status. Frisancho's influential publications have helped to make the use of anthropometric methods commonplace in the fields of nutritional science and public health. Throughout his career, Frisancho's work has examined how environmental, genetic, and developmental factors interact to influence human health and nutritional status. His research has addressed topics ranging from the determinants of low-birth weight infants in teenage mothers to the origins of obesity and associated metabolic diseases in populations of the developing world. Both the breadth and impact of Frisancho's work have been truly remarkable. The field of human population biology owes much to the tremendous contributions of A. Roberto Frisancho.

  6. Dopamine-dependent non-linear correlation between subthalamic rhythms in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceglia, S; Foffani, G; Bianchi, A M; Baselli, G; Tamma, F; Egidi, M; Priori, A

    2006-03-15

    The basic information architecture in the basal ganglia circuit is under debate. Whereas anatomical studies quantify extensive convergence/divergence patterns in the circuit, suggesting an information sharing scheme, neurophysiological studies report an absence of linear correlation between single neurones in normal animals, suggesting a segregated parallel processing scheme. In 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated monkeys and in parkinsonian patients single neurones become linearly correlated, thus leading to a loss of segregation between neurones. Here we propose a possible integrative solution to this debate, by extending the concept of functional segregation from the cellular level to the network level. To this end, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs) from electrodes implanted for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) of parkinsonian patients. By applying bispectral analysis, we found that in the absence of dopamine stimulation STN LFP rhythms became non-linearly correlated, thus leading to a loss of segregation between rhythms. Non-linear correlation was particularly consistent between the low-beta rhythm (13-20 Hz) and the high-beta rhythm (20-35 Hz). Levodopa administration significantly decreased these non-linear correlations, therefore increasing segregation between rhythms. These results suggest that the extensive convergence/divergence in the basal ganglia circuit is physiologically necessary to sustain LFP rhythms distributed in large ensembles of neurones, but is not sufficient to induce correlated firing between neurone pairs. Conversely, loss of dopamine generates pathological linear correlation between neurone pairs, alters the patterns within LFP rhythms, and induces non-linear correlation between LFP rhythms operating at different frequencies. The pathophysiology of information processing in the human basal ganglia therefore involves not only activities of individual rhythms, but also

  7. THEORY AND PRACTICE OF RHYTHM IN THE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING SYSTEM FOR ATHLETES AND TEACHING STAFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftimichuk Olga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background . Rhythm is important for the implementation of all processes as in nature and in living organisms. It organizes motor human activity making it more productive and rational. On teaching working and sports motions the process of the impellent work correct rhythm assimilation plays an important role because it determines the movement performance optimum that is shown in its automation process reduction. As a result, man’s physical strength and nervous energy are saved. Rhythm category acquires a special status for the physical training specialist. All his activity including the motor component depends on the rhythm. The aim of the research is to study the physiology of rhythm and justify the more efficient training process for future teachers and coaches. Methods . The following theoretical research methods were used: the abstract and axiomatic methods, analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, idealization, comparison and generalization. Results. As a result of study of materials from the natural sciences, numerology, psychology, music, cybernetics, synergetic, physiology, was found that the change of different states, as in nature and in living organisms, is an undulating rhythmic character. Physiological basis of the same rhythm is dynamic change excitation and inhibition processes occurring in the central nervous system. In this paper features of rhythm were identified. To accelerate the assimilation of motor action rational rhythm it is necessary to develop a sense of rhythm which is successfully formed in during the musical-motor activities. Conclusions. For today the study of the rhythm phenomenon in professional preparation on physical education and sport, in our opinion, requires the further study. Adding exercises involving certain motor skills elements similar in rhythmic structure with professional and technical actions to the coaches and teachers education and the competitive technology formation should be

  8. Evolutionary interrogation of human biology in well-annotated genomic framework of rhesus macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shi-Jian; Liu, Chu-Jun; Yu, Peng; Zhong, Xiaoming; Chen, Jia-Yu; Yang, Xinzhuang; Peng, Jiguang; Yan, Shouyu; Wang, Chenqu; Zhu, Xiaotong; Xiong, Jingwei; Zhang, Yong E; Tan, Bertrand Chin-Ming; Li, Chuan-Yun

    2014-05-01

    With genome sequence and composition highly analogous to human, rhesus macaque represents a unique reference for evolutionary studies of human biology. Here, we developed a comprehensive genomic framework of rhesus macaque, the RhesusBase2, for evolutionary interrogation of human genes and the associated regulations. A total of 1,667 next-generation sequencing (NGS) data sets were processed, integrated, and evaluated, generating 51.2 million new functional annotation records. With extensive NGS annotations, RhesusBase2 refined the fine-scale structures in 30% of the macaque Ensembl transcripts, reporting an accurate, up-to-date set of macaque gene models. On the basis of these annotations and accurate macaque gene models, we further developed an NGS-oriented Molecular Evolution Gateway to access and visualize macaque annotations in reference to human orthologous genes and associated regulations (www.rhesusbase.org/molEvo). We highlighted the application of this well-annotated genomic framework in generating hypothetical link of human-biased regulations to human-specific traits, by using mechanistic characterization of the DIEXF gene as an example that provides novel clues to the understanding of digestive system reduction in human evolution. On a global scale, we also identified a catalog of 9,295 human-biased regulatory events, which may represent novel elements that have a substantial impact on shaping human transcriptome and possibly underpin recent human phenotypic evolution. Taken together, we provide an NGS data-driven, information-rich framework that will broadly benefit genomics research in general and serves as an important resource for in-depth evolutionary studies of human biology.

  9. The species translation challenge-a systems biology perspective on human and rat bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poussin, Carine; Mathis, Carole; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G; Messinis, Dimitris E; Dulize, Rémi H J; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Melas, Ioannis N; Sakellaropoulos, Theodore; Rhrissorrakrai, Kahn; Bilal, Erhan; Meyer, Pablo; Talikka, Marja; Boué, Stéphanie; Norel, Raquel; Rice, John J; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The biological responses to external cues such as drugs, chemicals, viruses and hormones, is an essential question in biomedicine and in the field of toxicology, and cannot be easily studied in humans. Thus, biomedical research has continuously relied on animal models for studying the impact of these compounds and attempted to 'translate' the results to humans. In this context, the SBV IMPROVER (Systems Biology Verification for Industrial Methodology for PROcess VErification in Research) collaborative initiative, which uses crowd-sourcing techniques to address fundamental questions in systems biology, invited scientists to deploy their own computational methodologies to make predictions on species translatability. A multi-layer systems biology dataset was generated that was comprised of phosphoproteomics, transcriptomics and cytokine data derived from normal human (NHBE) and rat (NRBE) bronchial epithelial cells exposed in parallel to more than 50 different stimuli under identical conditions. The present manuscript describes in detail the experimental settings, generation, processing and quality control analysis of the multi-layer omics dataset accessible in public repositories for further intra- and inter-species translation studies.

  10. Prediction of phenotypes of missense mutations in human proteins from biological assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiong; Xu, Qifang; Dunbrack, Roland L

    2013-02-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent variation in the human genome. Nonsynonymous SNPs that lead to missense mutations can be neutral or deleterious, and several computational methods have been presented that predict the phenotype of human missense mutations. These methods use sequence-based and structure-based features in various combinations, relying on different statistical distributions of these features for deleterious and neutral mutations. One structure-based feature that has not been studied significantly is the accessible surface area within biologically relevant oligomeric assemblies. These assemblies are different from the crystallographic asymmetric unit for more than half of X-ray crystal structures. We find that mutations in the core of proteins or in the interfaces in biological assemblies are significantly more likely to be disease-associated than those on the surface of the biological assemblies. For structures with more than one protein in the biological assembly (whether the same sequence or different), we find the accessible surface area from biological assemblies provides a statistically significant improvement in prediction over the accessible surface area of monomers from protein crystal structures (P = 6e-5). When adding this information to sequence-based features such as the difference between wildtype and mutant position-specific profile scores, the improvement from biological assemblies is statistically significant but much smaller (P = 0.018). Combining this information with sequence-based features in a support vector machine leads to 82% accuracy on a balanced dataset of 50% disease-associated mutations from SwissVar and 50% neutral mutations from human/primate sequence differences in orthologous proteins.

  11. Research and Application of Human Capital Strategic Classification Tool: Human Capital Classification Matrix Based on Biological Natural Attribute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the causes of weak human capital structure strategic classification management in China, we analyze that enterprises around the world face increasingly difficult for human capital management. In order to provide strategically sound answers, the HR managers need the critical information provided by the right technology processing and analytical tools. In this study, there are different types and levels of human capital in formal organization management, which is not the same contribution to a formal organization. An important guarantee for sustained and healthy development of the formal or informal organization is lower human capital risk. To resist this risk is primarily dependent on human capital hedge force and appreciation force in value, which is largely dependent on the strategic value of the performance of senior managers. Based on the analysis of high-level managers perspective, we also discuss the value and configuration of principles and methods to be followed in human capital strategic classification based on Boston Consulting Group (BCG matrix and build Human Capital Classification (HCC matrix based on biological natural attribute to effectively realize human capital structure strategic classification.

  12. T3 Regulates a Human Macrophage-Derived TSH-β Splice Variant: Implications for Human Bone Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliram, R; Latif, R; Morshed, S A; Zaidi, M; Davies, T F

    2016-09-01

    TSH and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) are intimately involved in bone biology. We have previously reported the presence of a murine TSH-β splice variant (TSH-βv) expressed specifically in bone marrow-derived macrophages and that exerted an osteoprotective effect by inducing osteoblastogenesis. To extend this observation and its relevance to human bone biology, we set out to identify and characterize a TSH-β variant in human macrophages. Real-time PCR analyses using human TSH-β-specific primers identified a 364-bp product in macrophages, bone marrow, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells that was sequence verified and was homologous to a human TSH-βv previously reported. We then examined TSH-βv regulation using the THP-1 human monocyte cell line matured into macrophages. After 4 days, 46.1% of the THP-1 cells expressed the macrophage markers CD-14 and macrophage colony-stimulating factor and exhibited typical morphological characteristics of macrophages. Real-time PCR analyses of these cells treated in a dose-dependent manner with T3 showed a 14-fold induction of human TSH-βv mRNA and variant protein. Furthermore, these human TSH-βv-positive cells, induced by T3 exposure, had categorized into both M1 and M2 macrophage phenotypes as evidenced by the expression of macrophage colony-stimulating factor for M1 and CCL-22 for M2. These data indicate that in hyperthyroidism, bone marrow resident macrophages have the potential to exert enhanced osteoprotective effects by oversecreting human TSH-βv, which may exert its local osteoprotective role via osteoblast and osteoclast TSH receptors.

  13. Human telomere biology: A contributory and interactive factor in aging, disease risks, and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Elizabeth H; Epel, Elissa S; Lin, Jue

    2015-12-04

    Telomeres are the protective end-complexes at the termini of eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomere attrition can lead to potentially maladaptive cellular changes, block cell division, and interfere with tissue replenishment. Recent advances in the understanding of human disease processes have clarified the roles of telomere biology, especially in diseases of human aging and in some aging-related processes. Greater overall telomere attrition predicts mortality and aging-related diseases in inherited telomere syndrome patients, and also in general human cohorts. However, genetically caused variations in telomere maintenance either raise or lower risks and progression of cancers, in a highly cancer type-specific fashion. Telomere maintenance is determined by genetic factors and is also cumulatively shaped by nongenetic influences throughout human life; both can interact. These and other recent findings highlight both causal and potentiating roles for telomere attrition in human diseases.

  14. Improving human forensics through advances in genetics, genomics and molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Manfred; de Knijff, Peter

    2011-03-01

    Forensic DNA profiling currently allows the identification of persons already known to investigating authorities. Recent advances have produced new types of genetic markers with the potential to overcome some important limitations of current DNA profiling methods. Moreover, other developments are enabling completely new kinds of forensically relevant information to be extracted from biological samples. These include new molecular approaches for finding individuals previously unknown to investigators, and new molecular methods to support links between forensic sample donors and criminal acts. Such advances in genetics, genomics and molecular biology are likely to improve human forensic case work in the near future.

  15. Acquisition of speech rhythm in first language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyanskaya, Leona; Ordin, Mikhail

    2015-09-01

    Analysis of English rhythm in speech produced by children and adults revealed that speech rhythm becomes increasingly more stress-timed as language acquisition progresses. Children reach the adult-like target by 11 to 12 years. The employed speech elicitation paradigm ensured that the sentences produced by adults and children at different ages were comparable in terms of lexical content, segmental composition, and phonotactic complexity. Detected differences between child and adult rhythm and between rhythm in child speech at various ages cannot be attributed to acquisition of phonotactic language features or vocabulary, and indicate the development of language-specific phonetic timing in the course of acquisition.

  16. 21 CFR 201.56 - Requirements on content and format of labeling for human prescription drug and biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... human prescription drug and biological products. 201.56 Section 201.56 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... human prescription drug and biological products. (a) General requirements. Prescription drug labeling... requirements in §§ 201.56(d) and 201.57. (1) The following categories of prescription drug products are...

  17. Characterization of infant mu rhythm immediately before crawling: A high-resolution EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ran; Qi, Xiao; Patino, Alejandro; Fagg, Andrew H; Kolobe, Thubi H A; Miller, David P; Ding, Lei

    2017-02-01

    Crawling is an important milestone in infant motor development. However, infants with developmental motor disorders can exhibit delays, or even miss, in the acquisition of crawling skill. And little information is available from the neurodevelopmental domain about the changes in brain function with intervention. The mu rhythm can potentially play a substantial role in understanding human motor development at early ages in infants, as it has in adults. Studies about the mu rhythm in infants were in coarse temporal resolution with longitudinal samples taken months or years apart. Details about the infant mu rhythm at a fine age resolution has not been fully revealed, which leads to contradictory evidence about its formulation and developmental changes of its spectral origins and, therefore, impedes the full understanding of motor brain development before crawling skill acquisition. The present study aims to expand knowledge about the infant mu rhythm and its spatio-spectral pattern shifts along maturation immediately before crawling. With high-density EEG data recorded on a weekly basis and simultaneous characterization of spatio-spectral patterns of the mu rhythm, subtle developmental changes in its spectral peak, frequency range, and scalp topography are revealed. This mu rhythm further indicates a significant correlation to the crawling onset while powers from other frequency bands do not show such correlations. These details of developmental changes about the mu rhythm provide an insight of rapid changes in the human motor cortex in the first year of life. Our results are consistent with previous findings about the peak frequency shifting of the mu rhythm and further depict detailed developmental curves of its frequency ranges and spatial topographies. The infant mu rhythm could potentially be used to assess motor brain deficiencies at early ages and to evaluate intervention effectiveness in children with neuromotor disorders.

  18. Speech-like rhythm in a voiced and voiceless orangutan call.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano R Lameira

    Full Text Available The evolutionary origins of speech remain obscure. Recently, it was proposed that speech derived from monkey facial signals which exhibit a speech-like rhythm of ∼5 open-close lip cycles per second. In monkeys, these signals may also be vocalized, offering a plausible evolutionary stepping stone towards speech. Three essential predictions remain, however, to be tested to assess this hypothesis' validity; (i Great apes, our closest relatives, should likewise produce 5Hz-rhythm signals, (ii speech-like rhythm should involve calls articulatorily similar to consonants and vowels given that speech rhythm is the direct product of stringing together these two basic elements, and (iii speech-like rhythm should be experience-based. Via cinematic analyses we demonstrate that an ex-entertainment orangutan produces two calls at a speech-like rhythm, coined "clicks" and "faux-speech." Like voiceless consonants, clicks required no vocal fold action, but did involve independent manoeuvring over lips and tongue. In parallel to vowels, faux-speech showed harmonic and formant modulations, implying vocal fold and supralaryngeal action. This rhythm was several times faster than orangutan chewing rates, as observed in monkeys and humans. Critically, this rhythm was seven-fold faster, and contextually distinct, than any other known rhythmic calls described to date in the largest database of the orangutan repertoire ever assembled. The first two predictions advanced by this study are validated and, based on parsimony and exclusion of potential alternative explanations, initial support is given to the third prediction. Irrespectively of the putative origins of these calls and underlying mechanisms, our findings demonstrate irrevocably that great apes are not respiratorily, articulatorilly, or neurologically constrained for the production of consonant- and vowel-like calls at speech rhythm. Orangutan clicks and faux-speech confirm the importance of rhythmic speech

  19. Development of human protein reference database as an initial platform for approaching systems biology in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peri, Suraj; Navarro, J Daniel; Amanchy, Ramars

    2003-01-01

    Human Protein Reference Database (HPRD) is an object database that integrates a wealth of information relevant to the function of human proteins in health and disease. Data pertaining to thousands of protein-protein interactions, posttranslational modifications, enzyme/substrate relationships, di...

  20. Human Biological Monitoring of Diisononyl Phthalate and Diisodecyl Phthalate: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurusankar Saravanabhavan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High molecular-weight phthalates, such as diisononyl phthalate (DINP, and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP, are widely used as plasticizers in the manufacturing of polymers and consumer products. Human biological monitoring studies have employed the metabolites of DINP and DIDP as biomarkers to assess human exposure. In this review, we summarize and analyze publicly available scientific data on chemistry, metabolism, and excretion kinetics, of DINP and DIDP, to identify specific and sensitive metabolites. Human biological monitoring data on DINP and DIDP are scrutinised to assess the suitability of these metabolites as biomarkers of exposure. Results from studies carried out in animals and humans indicate that phthalates are metabolised rapidly and do not bioaccmulate. During Phase-I metabolism, ester hydrolysis of DINP and DIDP leads to the formation of hydrolytic monoesters. These primary metabolites undergo further oxidation reactions to produce secondary metabolites. Hence, the levels of secondary metabolites of DINP and DIDP in urine are found to be always higher than the primary metabolites. Results from human biological monitoring studies have shown that the secondary metabolites of DINP and DIDP in urine were detected in almost all tested samples, while the primary metabolites were detected in only about 10% of the samples. This indicates that the secondary metabolites are very sensitive biomarkers of DINP/DIDP exposure while primary metabolites are not. The NHANES data indicate that the median concentrations of MCIOP and MCINP (secondary metabolites of DINP and DIDP, resp. at a population level are about 5.1 μg/L and 2.7 μg/L, respectively. Moreover, the available biological monitoring data suggest that infants/children are exposed to higher levels of phthalates than adults.

  1. 人中性粒细胞防御素1~3的日节律性分泌%The circadian rhythm expression of the human neutrophil peptide 1-3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈意; 陶人川; 林雪芳; 刘贞敏; 雍翔智; 李润英

    2013-01-01

      Objective To detect the human neutrophil peptide 1-3(HNP1-3) expression in circadian rhythm. Methods Saliva, peripheral venous blood and gingival crevicular fluid(GCF) samples from mesio-buccal gingival crevice of four first molars of six healthy individuals were collected at two consecutive days from 6∶00 to 22∶00, and the expression of HNP1-3 was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) method. Results The median in GCF was 5.86μg·L-1, the overall trend was a sinusoidal waveform, with peak at 14∶00 and valley at 20∶00. The median in saliva was 2.15μg·L-1, the overall trend was the “V” word waveform, higher in the morning and evening, the valley at 14∶00. The median in peripheral venous blood was 4.79μg·L-1, the overall trend was single peak waveform, reach-ing a peak from 6∶00 to 10∶00, and then declining slowly. Conclusion The expression HNP1-3 in saliva, GCF, pe-ripheral venous blood samples existed differences. The trend from high to low was GCF, blood, saliva and showed a certain circadian rhythm.%  目的探索人中性粒细胞防御素1~3(HNP1~3)表达水平的日节律性,为其作为生物学指标提供科学依据。方法对6名健康志愿者,连续2 d从6时至22时定点采集唾液、外周血及4颗第一恒磨牙近颊沟处的龈沟液,运用酶联免疫吸附测定(ELISA)方法检测HNP1~3的表达量。结果6名受试者HNP1~3的表达量和变化趋势为:龈沟液的中位数为5.86μg·L-1,总体变化趋势为正弦波形,14时最高,18时最低;唾液的中位数为2.15μg·L-1,总体变化趋势为“V”字波形,早晚较高,14时达峰谷;血液的中位数为4.79μg·L-1,总体变化趋势为单峰波形,6时至10时呈上升趋势并达峰值,继而缓慢下降。结论在3种体液中, HNP1~3表达量存在差异性,其昼夜的表达呈现一定节律性。

  2. Learning by joining the rhythm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ole; Ravn, Susanne; Christensen, Mette Krogh

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to explore how a joint rhythm is learned. The exploration is based on a combination of a case study of training in elite rowing and theoretical considerations concerning mutual incorporation of skills in learning. In 2009 Juliane and Anne start to row the double sculler together...... and mutually affecting process rather than as unidirectional exchanges of information. This means that not only the inexperienced athlete is learning: the experienced athlete is also learning by compensating for the inexperienced athlete’s inadequacy....

  3. The Science and Issues of Human DNA Polymorphisms: A Training Workshop for High School Biology Teachers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micklos, David A.

    2006-10-30

    This project achieved its goal of implementing a nationwide training program to introduce high school biology teachers to the key uses and societal implications of human DNA polymorphisms. The 2.5-day workshop introduced high school biology faculty to a laboratory-based unit on human DNA polymorphisms â which provides a uniquely personal perspective on the science and Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. As proposed, 12 workshops were conducted at venues across the United States. The workshops were attended by 256 high school faculty, exceeding proposed attendance of 240 by 7%. Each workshop mixed theoretical, laboratory, and computer work with practical and ethical implications. Program participants learned simplified lab techniques for amplifying three types of chromosomal polymorphisms: an Alu insertion (PV92), a VNTR (pMCT118/D1S80), and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the mitochondrial control region. These polymorphisms illustrate the use of DNA variations in disease diagnosis, forensic biology, and identity testing - and provide a starting point for discussing the uses and potential abuses of genetic technology. Participants also learned how to use their Alu and mitochondrial data as an entrée to human population genetics and evolution. Our work to simplify lab techniques for amplifying human DNA polymorphisms in educational settings culminated with the release in 1998 of three Advanced Technology (AT) PCR kits by Carolina Biological Supply Company, the nationâÂÂs oldest educational science supplier. The kits use a simple 30-minute method to isolate template DNA from hair sheaths or buccal cells and streamlined PCR chemistry based on Pharmacia Ready-To-Go Beads, which incorporate Taq polymerase, deoxynucleotide triphosphates, and buffer in a freeze-dried pellet. These kits have greatly simplified teacher implementation of human PCR labs, and their use is growing at a rapid pace. Sales of human

  4. Use of melatonin in circadian rhythm disorders and following phase shifts

    OpenAIRE

    Skene, DJ; Deacon, S; Arendt, J.

    1996-01-01

    Following abrupt phase shifts (real or simulated time zone changes, night shift work) there is desynchronisation between the internal circadian rhythms (including melatonin) and the external environment with consequent disturbances in sleep, mood and performance. In humans the pineal hormone melatonin has phase-shifting and resynchronising properties with regard to a number of circadian rhythms. Suitably timed melatonin adrninstration hastened adaptation to phase shift and significantly impro...

  5. Identification of the Main Intermediate Precursor of l-Ergothioneine Biosynthesis in Human Biological Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Sotgia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A capillary electrophoresis coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (CE–MS/MS has been used to make a qualitative determination of hercynine—the main precursor of l-ergothioneine biosynthesis—in some key human biological specimens, such as urine, whole blood, plasma, and saliva. From semiquantitative analysis results, the highest concentrations of hercynine were detected in saliva and whole blood, whereas much lower concentrations were measured in urine and plasma. Whole blood was the biological matrix with the highest concentration of l-ergothioneine followed by plasma, saliva, and urine. The antioxidant effects attributed to l-ergothioneine, along with its peculiar antioxidant mechanism, offer a possible explanation for the presence of the hercynine, as well as its concentration, in the considered biological matrices.

  6. Molecular biology in a distributed world. A Kantian perspective on scientific practices and the human mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariagrazia Portera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the number of scholarly publications devoted to Kant's theory of biology has rapidly growing, with particular attention being given to Kant's thoughts about the concepts of teleology, function, organism, and their respective roles in scientific practice. Moving from these recent studies, and distancing itself from their mostly evolutionary background, the main aim of the present paper is to suggest an original "cognitive turn" in the interpretation of Kant's theory of biology. More specifically, the Authors will trace a connection between some Kantian theses about the “peculiar” or special nature of the human mind (intellectus ectypus, advanced in the Critique of the Power of Judgement (§ 76, 77, and some specific epistemological issues pertaining to the research practice of contemporary molecular biology.

  7. Current Status and Development of Vaccines and Other Biologics for Human Rabies Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, Charles E; Nagarajan, Thirumeni; Ertl, Hildegund

    2016-06-01

    Rabies is a neglected viral zoonosis with the highest case fatality of any infectious disease. Pasteur's historical accomplishments during the late 19(th) century began the process of human vaccine development, continuing to evolve into the 21(st) century. Over the past 35 years, great improvements occurred in the production of potent tissue culture vaccines and the gradual removal from the market of unsafe nerve tissue products. Timely and appropriate administration of modern biologics virtually assures survivorship, even after severe exposures. Nevertheless, in the developing world, if not provided for free nationally, the cost of a single course of human prophylaxis exceeds the average monthly wage of the common worker. Beyond traditional approaches, recombinant, sub-unit and other novel methods are underway to improve the availability of safe, effective and more affordable rabies biologics.

  8. Utilizing population variation, vaccination, and systems biology to study human immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, John S

    2015-08-01

    The move toward precision medicine has highlighted the importance of understanding biological variability within and across individuals in the human population. In particular, given the prevalent involvement of the immune system in diverse pathologies, an important question is how much and what information about the state of the immune system is required to enable accurate prediction of future health and response to medical interventions. Towards addressing this question, recent studies using vaccination as a model perturbation and systems-biology approaches are beginning to provide a glimpse of how natural population variation together with multiplexed, high-throughput measurement and computational analysis can be used to uncover predictors of immune response quality in humans. Here I discuss recent developments in this emerging field, with emphasis on baseline correlates of vaccination responses, sources of immune-state variability, as well as relevant features of study design, data generation, and computational analysis.

  9. Biological Width around One- and Two-Piece Implants Retrieved from Human Jaws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Judgar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several histologic studies regarding peri-implant soft tissues and biological width around dental implants have been done in animals. However, these findings in human peri-implant soft tissues are very scarce. Therefore, the aim of this case series was to compare the biological width around unloaded one- and two-piece implants retrieved from human jaws. Eight partially edentulous patients received 2 test implants in the posterior mandible: one-piece (solid implants that comprise implant and abutment in one piece and two-piece (external hexagon with a healing abutment implants. After 4 months of healing, the implants and surrounding tissue were removed for histologic analysis. The retrieved implants showed healthy peri-implant bone and exhibited early stages of maturation. Marginal bone loss, gaps, and fibrous tissue were not present around retrieved specimens. The biologic width dimension ranged between 2.55 ± 0.16 and 3.26 ± 0.15 to one- and two-piece implants, respectively (P0.05. Within the limits of this study, it could be shown that two-piece implants resulted in the thickening of the connective tissue attachment, resulting in the increase of the biological width, when compared to one-piece implants.

  10. Probing Human NK Cell Biology Using Human Immune System (HIS) Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Di Santo, James P

    2016-01-01

    Our incomplete understanding of the mechanisms that orchestrate human lymphocyte differentiation and condition human immune responses is in part due to the limited access to normal human tissue samples that can inform on these complex processes. In addition, in vitro culture conditions fail to recapitulate the three-dimensional microenvironments that influence cell-cell interactions and impact on immune outcomes. Small animals provide a preclinical model to dissect and probe immunity and over the past decades, development of immunodeficient hosts that can be engrafted with human hematopoietic precursors and mature cells have led to the development of new in vivo models to study human lymphocyte development and function. Natural killer (NK) cells are implicated in the recognition and elimination of pathogen-infected and transformed cells and belong to a family of diverse innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) that provide early immune defense against disease. Here, we summarize the use of humanized mouse models for the study of NK cell and group 1 ILCs and their respective roles in immunity and tissue homeostasis.

  11. Rhythms essential to logical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John M.; Madjid, F. Hadi

    2011-05-01

    In the context of quantum theory, recently we distinguished mathematics for expressing evidence from mathematics for explaining evidence. Here this distinction is made in spacetime physics. We offer a system of mathematical thought-or as termed in geodesy a reference system-for evidence, separated out from additional assumptions of a geometry in terms of which to explain that evidence. The offered reference system for evidence, free of any assumption of a particular explanatory geometry, whether Euclidean or general relativistic, amounts to a (theoretical) "assemblage of histories accumulated in the memories of parties to a synchronous communications network." The assemblage of histories gives voice to the known experimental finding, sometimes forgotten by theorists, that any memory device for recording logical symbols must be insensitive to variations in signals in which those symbols are carried. Out of acknowledging this insensitivity comes an appreciation of rhythms essential to the communication of digital symbols and of the need for analog measurements to maintain these rhythms. The separate reference system for evidence reconciles what otherwise is a conflict between the demand in quantum mechanics for repeatable experiments and the lack in spacetime metrics appropriate to the Global Positioning System of any exact symmetry, a lack that rules out an isometry between two spacetime regions for two occurrences of an experiment.

  12. Advances in radiation biology: Relative radiation sensitivities of human organ systems. Volume 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lett, J.T.; Altman, K.I.; Ehmann, U.K.; Cox, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is a thematically focused issue of Advances in Radiation Biology. The topic surveyed is relative radiosensitivity of human organ systems. Topics considered include relative radiosensitivities of the thymus, spleen, and lymphohemopoietic systems; relative radiosensitivities of the small and large intestine; relative rediosensitivities of the oral cavity, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus; relative radiation sensitivity of the integumentary system; dose response of the epidermal; microvascular, and dermal populations; relative radiosensitivity of the human lung; relative radiosensitivity of fetal tissues; and tolerance of the central and peripheral nervous system to therapeutic irradiation.

  13. Stability and biological activity evaluations of PEGylated human basic fibroblast growth factor

    OpenAIRE

    Hadadian, Shahin; Shamassebi, Dariush Norouzian; Mirzahoseini, Hasan; Shokrgozar, Mohamad Ali; Bouzari, Saeid; Sepahi, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human basic fibroblast growth factor (hBFGF) is a heparin-binding growth factor and stimulates the proliferation of a wide variety of cells and tissues causing survival properties and its stability and biological activity improvements have received much attention. Materials and Methods: In the present work, hBFGF produced by engineered Escherichia coli and purified by cation exchange and heparin affinity chromatography, was PEGylated under appropriate condition employing 10 kD pol...

  14. From old organisms to new molecules: integrative biology and therapeutic targets in accelerated human ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, L S; Faragher, R. G. A.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. Understanding the basic biology of human ageing is a key milestone in attempting to ameliorate the deleterious consequences of old age. This is an urgent research priority given the global demographic shift towards an ageing population. Although some molecular pathways that have been proposed to contribute to ageing have been discovered using classical biochemistry and genetics, the complex, polygenic and stochastic nature of ageing is such that the process as a whole is not immedia...

  15. The Biological Study of the Cultured Human Lens Epithelial Cells in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    The human lens epithelial cells (HLE) cultured in vitro was established in normal and cataractous lenses. The biological feature, histological characteristics and the ultrastructure of the cultured HLE cells were investigated. The results reveal that the proliferative capacity of the culutured HLE cells is reversely proportional to the donour age; the cultured HLE cells has the limited proliferative capacity in vitro. The relieve of the contact inhibition is the effective trigger of the HLE cell prolife...

  16. The marmoset monkey: a multi-purpose preclinical and translational model of human biology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    't Hart, Bert A; Abbott, David H; Nakamura, Katsuki; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2012-11-01

    The development of biologic molecules (monoclonal antibodies, cytokines, soluble receptors) as specific therapeutics for human disease creates a need for animal models in which safety and efficacy can be tested. Models in lower animal species are precluded when the reagents fail to recognize their targets, which is often the case in rats and mice. In this Feature article we will highlight the common marmoset, a small-bodied nonhuman primate (NHP), as a useful model in biomedical and preclinical translational research.

  17. Biological effects of exposure to static electric fields in humans and vertebrates: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Anne-Kathrin; Schmiedchen, Kristina; Stunder, Dominik; Dechent, Dagmar; Kraus, Thomas; Bailey, William H; Driessen, Sarah

    2017-04-17

    High-voltage direct current (HVDC) lines are the technology of choice for the transport of large amounts of energy over long distances. The operation of these lines produces static electric fields (EF), but the data reviewed in previous assessments were not sufficient to assess the need for any environmental limit. The aim of this systematic review was to update the current state of research and to evaluate biological effects of static EF. Using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) recommendations, we collected and evaluated experimental and epidemiological studies examining biological effects of exposure to static EF in humans (n = 8) and vertebrates (n = 40). There is good evidence that humans and animals are able to perceive the presence of static EF at sufficiently high levels. Hair movements caused by electrostatic forces may play a major role in this perception. A large number of studies reported responses of animals (e.g., altered metabolic, immunologic or developmental parameters) to a broad range of static EF strengths as well, but these responses are likely secondary physiological responses to sensory stimulation. Furthermore, the quality of many of the studies reporting physiological responses is poor, which raises concerns about confounding. The weight of the evidence from the literature reviewed did not indicate that static EF have adverse biological effects in humans or animals. The evidence strongly supported the role of superficial sensory stimulation of hair and skin as the basis for perception of the field, as well as reported indirect behavioral and physiological responses. Physical considerations also preclude any direct effect of static EF on internal physiology, and reports that some physiological processes are affected in minor ways may be explained by other factors. While this literature does not support a level of concern about biological effects of exposure to static EF, the conditions

  18. Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 signaling as a regulator of human sebocyte biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Balázs I; Géczy, Tamás; Griger, Zoltán; Dózsa, Anikó; Seltmann, Holger; Kovács, László; Nagy, László; Zouboulis, Christos C; Paus, Ralf; Bíró, Tamás

    2009-02-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1), originally described as a central integrator of nociception, is expressed on human epidermal and hair follicle keratinocytes and is involved in regulation of cell growth and death. In human pilosebaceous units, we had shown that TRPV1 stimulation inhibits hair shaft elongation and matrix keratinocyte proliferation, and induces premature hair follicle regression and keratinocyte apoptosis. In the current study, we have explored the role of TRPV1-mediated signaling in sebaceous gland (SG) biology, using a human sebocyte cell culture model (SZ95 sebocytes). Demonstrating that human skin SG in situ and SZ95 sebocytes in vitro express TRPV1, we show that the prototypic TRPV1 agonist, capsaicin, selectively inhibits basal and arachidonic acid-induced lipid synthesis in a dose-, time-, and extracellular calcium-dependent and a TRPV1-specific manner. Low-dose capsaicin stimulates cellular proliferation via TRPV1, whereas higher concentrations inhibit sebocyte growth and induce cell death independent of TRPV1. Moreover, capsaicin suppresses the expression of genes involved in lipid homeostasis and of selected proinflammatory cytokines. Collectively, these findings support the concept that TRPV1 signaling is a significant, previously unreported player in human sebocyte biology and identify TRPV1 as a promising target in the clinical management of inflammatory SG disorders (for example, acne vulgaris).

  19. Are humans prone to autoimmunity? Implications from evolutionary changes in hominin sialic acid biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varki, Ajit

    2017-09-01

    Given varied intrinsic and extrinsic challenges to the immune system, it is unsurprising that each evolutionary lineage evolves distinctive features of immunoreactivity, and that tolerance mechanisms fail, allowing autoimmunity. Humans appear prone to many autoimmune diseases, with mechanisms both genetic and environmental. Another rapidly evolving biological system involves sialic acids, a family of monosaccharides that are terminal caps on cell surface and secreted molecules of vertebrates, and play multifarious roles in immunity. We have explored multiple genomic changes in sialic acid biology that occurred in human ancestors (hominins), some with implications for enhanced immunoreactivity, and hence for autoimmunity. Human ancestors lost the enzyme synthesizing the common mammalian sialic acid Neu5Gc, with an accumulation of the precursor sialic acid Neu5Ac. Resulting changes include an enhanced reactivity by some immune cells and increased ability of macrophages to kill bacteria, at the cost of increased endotoxin sensitivity. There are also multiple human-specific evolutionary changes in inhibitory and activating Siglecs, immune cell receptors that recognize sialic acids as "self-associated molecular patterns" (SAMPs) to modulate immunity, but can also be hijacked by pathogen molecular mimicry of SAMPs. Altered expression patterns and fixed or polymorphic SIGLEC pseudogenization in humans has modulated both innate and adaptive immunity, sometimes favoring over-reactivity. Meanwhile, dietary intake of Neu5Gc (derived primarily from red meats) allows metabolic incorporation of this non-human molecule into human cells--apparently the first example of "xeno-autoimmunity" involving "xeno-autoantigen" interactions with circulating "xeno-autoantibodies". Taken together, some of these factors may contribute to the apparent human propensity for autoimmunity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Biological stimulation of the Human skin applying health promoting light and plasma sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awakowicz, P.; Bibinov, N. [Center for Plasma Science and Technology, Ruhr-University, Bochum (Germany); Born, M.; Niemann, U. [Philips Research, Aachen (Germany); Busse, B. [Zell-Kontakt GmbH, Noerten-Hardenberg (Germany); Gesche, R.; Kuehn, S.; Porteanu, H.E. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Berlin (Germany); Helmke, A. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Goettingen (Germany); Kaemling, A.; Wandke, D. [CINOGY GmbH, Duderstadt (Germany); Kolb-Bachofen, V.; Liebmann, J. [Institute for Immunobiology, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Kovacs, R.; Mertens, N.; Scherer, J. [Aurion Anlagentechnik GmbH, Seligenstadt (Germany); Oplaender, C.; Suschek, C. [Clinic for Plastic Surgery, University Clinic, Aachen (Germany); Vioel, W. [Laser-Laboratorium, Goettingen (Germany); University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Goettingen (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    In the frame of BMBF project ''BioLiP'', new physical treatment techniques aiming at medical treatment of the human skin have been developed. The acronym BioLiP stands for ''Desinfektion, Entkeimung und biologische Stimulation der Haut durch gesundheitsfoerdernde Licht- und Plasmaquellen'' (Disinfection, germ reduction and biological stimulation of the human skin by health promoting light and plasma sources). A source applying a low-temperature dielectric barrier discharge plasma (DBD) has been investigated on its effectiveness for skin disinfection and stimulation of biological material. Alternatively an atmospheric plasma source consisting of a microwave resonator combined with a solid state power oscillator has been examined. This concept which allows for a compact and efficient design avoiding external microwave power supply and matching units has been optimized with respect to nitrogen monoxide (NO) production in high yields. In both cases various application possibilities in the medical and biological domain are opened up. Light sources in the visible spectral range have been investigated with respect to the proliferation of human cell types. Intensive highly selective blue light sources based on LED technology can slow down proliferation rates without inducing toxic effects which offers new opportunities for treatments of so-called hyperproliferative skin conditions (e.g. with psoriasis or in wound healing) using UV-free light. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Biological knowledge-driven analysis of epistasis in human GWAS with application to lipid traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Keinan, Alon; Clark, Andrew G

    2015-01-01

    While the importance of epistasis is well established, specific gene-gene interactions have rarely been identified in human genome-wide association studies (GWAS), mainly due to low power associated with such interaction tests. In this chapter, we integrate biological knowledge and human GWAS data to reveal epistatic interactions underlying quantitative lipid traits, which are major risk factors for coronary artery disease. To increase power to detect interactions, we only tested pairs of SNPs filtered by prior biological knowledge, including GWAS results, protein-protein interactions (PPIs), and pathway information. Using published GWAS and 9,713 European Americans (EA) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, we identified an interaction between HMGCR and LIPC affecting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. We then validated this interaction in additional multiethnic cohorts from ARIC, the Framingham Heart Study, and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Both HMGCR and LIPC are involved in the metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, and LIPC itself has been marginally associated with HDL-C. Furthermore, no significant interaction was detected using PPI and pathway information, mainly due to the stringent significance level required after correcting for the large number of tests conducted. These results suggest the potential of biological knowledge-driven approaches to detect epistatic interactions in human GWAS, which may hold the key to exploring the role gene-gene interactions play in connecting genotypes and complex phenotypes in future GWAS.

  2. Detecting and Correcting Speech Rhythm Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtbasi, Metin

    2015-01-01

    Every language has its own rhythm. Unlike many other languages in the world, English depends on the correct pronunciation of stressed and unstressed or weakened syllables recurring in the same phrase or sentence. Mastering the rhythm of English makes speaking more effective. Experiments have shown that we tend to hear speech as more rhythmical…

  3. Development of cortisol circadian rhythm in infancy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerth, C. de; Zijl, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cortisol is the final product of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. It is secreted in a pulsatile fashion that displays a circadian rhythm. Infants are born without a circadian rhythm in cortisol and they acquire it during their first year of life. Studies do not agr

  4. Quantifying Speech Rhythm Abnormalities in the Dysarthrias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Julie M.; White, Laurence; Mattys, Sven L.; Lansford, Kaitlin; Lotto, Andrew J.; Spitzer, Stephanie M.; Caviness, John N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined whether rhythm metrics capable of distinguishing languages with high and low temporal stress contrast also can distinguish among control and dysarthric speakers of American English with perceptually distinct rhythm patterns. Methods: Acoustic measures of vocalic and consonantal segment durations were…

  5. A Variation on Kodaly's Rhythm Syllable System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the rhythm syllable system within Zoltan Kodaly's method that is often used to teach elementary students in general music classes. Offers background information about this method as well as an alternative technique for teaching students about the single sixteenth-note rhythm. (CMK)

  6. Synchronous circadian voltage rhythms with asynchronous calcium rhythms in the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoki, Ryosuke; Oda, Yoshiaki; Mieda, Michihiro; Ono, Daisuke; Honma, Sato; Honma, Ken-Ichi

    2017-03-07

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master circadian clock, contains a network composed of multiple types of neurons which are thought to form a hierarchical and multioscillator system. The molecular clock machinery in SCN neurons drives membrane excitability and sends time cue signals to various brain regions and peripheral organs. However, how and at what time of the day these neurons transmit output signals remain largely unknown. Here, we successfully visualized circadian voltage rhythms optically for many days using a genetically encoded voltage sensor, ArcLightD. Unexpectedly, the voltage rhythms are synchronized across the entire SCN network of cultured slices, whereas simultaneously recorded Ca(2+) rhythms are topologically specific to the dorsal and ventral regions. We further found that the temporal order of these two rhythms is cell-type specific: The Ca(2+) rhythms phase-lead the voltage rhythms in AVP neurons but Ca(2+) and voltage rhythms are nearly in phase in VIP neurons. We confirmed that circadian firing rhythms are also synchronous and are coupled with the voltage rhythms. These results indicate that SCN networks with asynchronous Ca(2+) rhythms produce coherent voltage rhythms.

  7. Development of human protein reference database as an initial platform for approaching systems biology in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peri, Suraj; Navarro, J Daniel; Amanchy, Ramars; Kristiansen, Troels Z; Jonnalagadda, Chandra Kiran; Surendranath, Vineeth; Niranjan, Vidya; Muthusamy, Babylakshmi; Gandhi, T K B; Gronborg, Mads; Ibarrola, Nieves; Deshpande, Nandan; Shanker, K; Shivashankar, H N; Rashmi, B P; Ramya, M A; Zhao, Zhixing; Chandrika, K N; Padma, N; Harsha, H C; Yatish, A J; Kavitha, M P; Menezes, Minal; Choudhury, Dipanwita Roy; Suresh, Shubha; Ghosh, Neelanjana; Saravana, R; Chandran, Sreenath; Krishna, Subhalakshmi; Joy, Mary; Anand, Sanjeev K; Madavan, V; Joseph, Ansamma; Wong, Guang W; Schiemann, William P; Constantinescu, Stefan N; Huang, Lily; Khosravi-Far, Roya; Steen, Hanno; Tewari, Muneesh; Ghaffari, Saghi; Blobe, Gerard C; Dang, Chi V; Garcia, Joe G N; Pevsner, Jonathan; Jensen, Ole N; Roepstorff, Peter; Deshpande, Krishna S; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Hamosh, Ada; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2003-10-01

    Human Protein Reference Database (HPRD) is an object database that integrates a wealth of information relevant to the function of human proteins in health and disease. Data pertaining to thousands of protein-protein interactions, posttranslational modifications, enzyme/substrate relationships, disease associations, tissue expression, and subcellular localization were extracted from the literature for a nonredundant set of 2750 human proteins. Almost all the information was obtained manually by biologists who read and interpreted >300,000 published articles during the annotation process. This database, which has an intuitive query interface allowing easy access to all the features of proteins, was built by using open source technologies and will be freely available at http://www.hprd.org to the academic community. This unified bioinformatics platform will be useful in cataloging and mining the large number of proteomic interactions and alterations that will be discovered in the postgenomic era.

  8. The preparation of albumin as a biological drug from human plasma by fiber filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousavi Hosseini K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: In recent years, consumption of whole-blood for the treatment of patients has decreased but use of biological plasma-derived medicines such as albumin, immunoglobulin and coagulation factors have increased instead. Paying attention to albumin molecular structure is important for its isolation from human plasma. Albumin is a single-chain protein consisting of about 585 amino acids and a molecular weight of 66500 Daltons. Albumin is a stable molecule and it is spherical in shape. There are different methods for human albumin preparation. Considering the large consumption of this biological drug in clinical settings, methods with fewer steps in production line are of big advantage in saving time and manufacturing more products."n "nMethods: In this project, we prepared human albumin using hollow fiber cartridges in order to omit the rework on fraction V+VI. Human albumin is usually produced by the application of cold ethanol method, where albumin is obtained from fraction V by doing a rework on fraction V+VI to separate fraction V."n "nResults: In the current work, human albumin was prepared from fraction V+VI by the help of hollow fiber cartridges. With a concentration of 20%, the obtained albumin had 96.5% of monomer and 3.5% of polymer and polymer aggregate."n "nConclusion: Comparing the obtained human albumin with a number of commercial human albumin samples by the use of SDS-page, the results were satisfactory regarding the 3.5 percent polymer and aggregate rate for the prepared albumin.

  9. Folding into being: early embryology and the epistemology of rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmann, Janina

    2015-03-01

    Historians have often described embryology and concepts of development in the period around 1800 in terms of "temporalization" or "dynamization". This paper, in contrast, argues that a central epistemological category in the period was "rhythm", which played a major role in the establishment of the emerging discipline of biology. I show that Caspar Friedrich Wolff's epigenetic theory of development was based on a rhythmical notion, namely the hypothesis that organic development occurs as a series of ordered rhythmical repetitions and variations. Presenting Christian Heinrich Pander's and Karl Ernst von Baer's theory of germ layers, I argue that Pander and Baer regarded folding as an organizing principle of ontogenesis, and that the principle's explanatory power stems from their understanding of folding as a rhythmical figuration. In a brief discussion of the notion of rhythm in contemporary music theory, I identify an underlying physiological epistemology in the new musical concept of rhythm around 1800. The paper closes with a more general discussion of the relationship between the rhythmic episteme, conceptions of life, and aesthetic theory at the end of the eighteenth century.

  10. Redox rhythm reinforces the circadian clock to gate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mian; Wang, Wei; Karapetyan, Sargis; Mwimba, Musoki; Marqués, Jorge; Buchler, Nicolas E; Dong, Xinnian

    2015-07-23

    Recent studies have shown that in addition to the transcriptional circadian clock, many organisms, including Arabidopsis, have a circadian redox rhythm driven by the organism's metabolic activities. It has been hypothesized that the redox rhythm is linked to the circadian clock, but the mechanism and the biological significance of this link have only begun to be investigated. Here we report that the master immune regulator NPR1 (non-expressor of pathogenesis-related gene 1) of Arabidopsis is a sensor of the plant's redox state and regulates transcription of core circadian clock genes even in the absence of pathogen challenge. Surprisingly, acute perturbation in the redox status triggered by the immune signal salicylic acid does not compromise the circadian clock but rather leads to its reinforcement. Mathematical modelling and subsequent experiments show that NPR1 reinforces the circadian clock without changing the period by regulating both the morning and the evening clock genes. This balanced network architecture helps plants gate their immune responses towards the morning and minimize costs on growth at night. Our study demonstrates how a sensitive redox rhythm interacts with a robust circadian clock to ensure proper responsiveness to environmental stimuli without compromising fitness of the organism.

  11. Prokaryotic Expression and Biological Activity Analysis of Human Ar-resten Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Zifang; ZHENG Qichang; LI Wei; XIONG Jun; SHANG Dan; SHU Xiaogang

    2005-01-01

    To express recombinant arresten in Escherichia coli (E. Coli) and investigate its biological activity, prokaryotic expression vector of human arresten gene was constructed by gene engineering. Human arresten gene was amplified from recombinant plasmid pGEMArr by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and inserted into prokaryotic expression vector pRSET containing T7 promoter. Restriction analysis and DNA sequencing verified that the arresten gene was correctly cloned into the expression vector. The recombinant plasmid pRSETAt was subsequently transformed into E. Coli BL21 (DE3), and the target gene was expressed under induction of IPTG. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the recombinant protein with a molecular weight of 29 kD (1 kD=0. 992 1 ku) amounted to 29 % of the total bacterial proteins. After purification and renaturation, the recombinant protein could significantly suppress the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). These results suggested that the expression of a biologically active form of human arresten in the pRSET expression system laid a foundation for further study on the mechanistic insight into arresten action on angiogenesis and the development of powerful anti-cancer drugs.

  12. Purification and characterization of biologically active recombinant human Eppin expressed in Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Qing-yi; GU Xiao-jian; YANG Jin; WANG Jun-hong; TANG Bo; WU Hong-fei

    2008-01-01

    Background Eppin(epididymis protease inhibitor)appears to play an important role in primate fertility.However,the function of Eppin and its antibody in men and its relationship with men's infertility are poorly studied.To reveal the significance and possibility of detection of anti-Eppin antibody in clinical infertilty cases,we developed an Escherichia coli expression system for the expression of biologically actire human Eppin.Methods The human Eppin gene was cloned into PET-28a(+)vector after induction with 0.5 mmol/L isopropy-β-D-thiogalactoside(IPTG)at 26℃ for 4 hours,and the expressed fusion protein His6-Eppin was purified by Ni2+ affinity chromatography.Afterwards,six female 8-week-old Balb/c mice were immunized with purified His6-Eppin for three weeks.Their sera were collected and polyclonal antibodies against His6-Eppin were purified,all of which were further verified by Western-blot and immunofluorescence analysis.Results About 18.33 mg His6-Eppin was obtained from 1-L flask culture.The produced polyclonal antibodies against His6-Eppin recognized the Eppin protein both in human epididymis and in HEK293T cells by over-expression of the recombinant human Eppin.Conclusion The purified His6-Eppin protein has biological activity,which might be a candidate for clinical diagnosis of infertility and development of male immuno-contraceptive agents.

  13. The Occurrence, Fate and Biological Activities of C-glycosyl Flavonoids in the Human Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courts, Fraser L; Williamson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The human diet contains a wide variety of plant-derived flavonoids, many of which are glycosylated via an O- or less commonly a C-glycosidic linkage. The distribution, quantity, and biological effects of C-glycosyl flavonoids in the human diet have received little attention in the literature in comparison to their O-linked counterparts, however, despite being present in many common foodstuffs. The structural nature, nomenclature, and distribution of C-glycosyl flavonoids in the human diet are, therefore, reviewed. Forty-three dietary flavonoids are revealed to be C-glycosylated, arising from the dihydrochalcone, flavone, and flavan-3-ol backbones, and distributed among edible fruits, cereals, leaves, and stems. C-linked sugar groups are shown to include arabinose, galactose, glucose, rutinose, and xylose, often being present more than once on a single flavonoid backbone and occasionally in tandem with O-linked glucose or rutinose groups. The pharmacokinetic fate of these compounds is discussed with particular reference to their apparent lack of interaction with hydrolytic mechanisms known to influence the fate of O-glycosylated dietary flavonoids, explaining the unusual but potentially important appearance of intact C-glycosylated flavonoid metabolites in human urine following oral administration. Finally, the potential biological significance of these compounds is reviewed, describing mechanisms of antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, anxiolytic, antispasmodic, and hepatoprotective effects.

  14. Molecular circadian rhythm shift due to bright light exposure before bedtime is related to subthreshold bipolarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chul-Hyun; Moon, Joung-Ho; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Kang, Seung-Gul; Geum, Dongho; Son, Gi-Hoon; Lim, Jong-Min; Kim, Leen; Lee, Eun-Il; Lee, Heon-Jeong

    2016-08-22

    This study examined the link between circadian rhythm changes due to bright light exposure and subthreshold bipolarity. Molecular circadian rhythms, polysomnography, and actigraphy data were studied in 25 young, healthy male subjects, divided into high and low mood disorder questionnaire (MDQ) score groups. During the first 2 days of the study, the subjects were exposed to daily-living light (150 lux) for 4 hours before bedtime. Saliva and buccal cells were collected 5 times a day for 2 consecutive days. During the subsequent 5 days, the subjects were exposed to bright light (1,000 lux), and saliva and buccal cell samples were collected in the same way. Molecular circadian rhythms were analyzed using sine regression. Circadian rhythms of cortisol (F = 16.956, p < 0.001) and relative PER1/ARNTL gene expression (F = 122.1, p < 0.001) showed a delayed acrophase in both groups after bright light exposure. The high MDQ score group showed a significant delay in acrophase compared to the low MDQ score group only in salivary cortisol (F = 8.528, p = 0.008). The high MDQ score group showed hypersensitivity in cortisol rhythm shift after bright light exposure, suggesting characteristic molecular circadian rhythm changes in the high MDQ score group may be related to biological processes downstream from core circadian clock gene expression.

  15. Biological dysrhythm in remitted bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Aishwarya; Palaniappan, Pradeep

    2017-05-17

    Recent treatment guidelines support treatment of biological rhythm abnormalities as a part of treatment of bipolar disorder, but still, literature examining various domains (Sleep, Activity, Social, and Eating) of biological rhythm and its clinical predictors are less. The main aim of our study is to compare various domains of biological rhythm among remitted bipolar I subjects and healthy controls. We also explored for any association between clinical variables and biological rhythm among bipolar subjects. 40 subjects with Bipolar I disorder and 40 healthy controls who met inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited for the study. Diagnoses were ascertained by a qualified psychiatrist using MINI 5.0. Sociodemographic details, biological rhythm (BRIAN-Biological Rhythm Interview of assessment in Neuropsychiatry) and Sleep functioning (PSQI- Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) were assessed in all subjects. Mean age of the Bipolar subjects and controls were 41.25±11.84years and 38.25±11.25 years respectively. Bipolar subjects experienced more biological rhythm disturbance when compared to healthy controls (total BRIAN score being 34.25±9.36 vs 28.2±6.53) (p=0.002). Subsyndromal depressive symptoms (HDRS) had significant positive correlation with BRIAN global scores(r=0.368, p=0.02). Linear regression analysis showed that number of episodes which required hospitalization (β=0.601, t=3.106, P=0.004), PSQI (β=0.394, t=2.609, p=0.014), HDRS (β=0.376, t=2.34, t=0.036) explained 31% of variance in BRIAN scores in remitted bipolar subjects. Biological rhythm disturbances seem to persist even after clinical remission of bipolar illness. More studies to look into the impact of subsyndromal depressive symptoms on biological rhythm are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Circadian rhythms in healthy aging--effects downstream from the pacemaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, T. H.; Kupfer, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Using both previously published findings and entirely new data, we present evidence in support of the argument that the circadian dysfunction of advancing age in the healthy human is primarily one of failing to transduce the circadian signal from the circadian timing system (CTS) to rhythms "downstream" from the pacemaker rather than one of failing to generate the circadian signal itself. Two downstream rhythms are considered: subjective alertness and objective performance. For subjective alertness, we show that in both normal nychthemeral (24 h routine, sleeping at night) and unmasking (36 h of constant wakeful bed rest) conditions, advancing age, especially in men, leads to flattening of subjective alertness rhythms, even when circadian temperature rhythms are relatively robust. For objective performance, an unmasking experiment involving manual dexterity, visual search, and visual vigilance tasks was used to demonstrate that the relationship between temperature and performance is strong in the young, but not in older subjects (and especially not in older men).

  17. Alignment strategies for the entrainment of music and movement rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moens, Bart; Leman, Marc

    2015-03-01

    Theories of entrainment assume that spontaneous entrainment emerges from dynamic laws that operate via mediators on interactions, whereby entrainment is facilitated if certain conditions are fulfilled. In this study, we show that mediators can be built that affect the entrainment of human locomotion to music. More specifically, we built D-Jogger, a music player that functions as a mediator between music and locomotion rhythms. The D-Jogger makes it possible to manipulate the timing differences between salient moments of the rhythms (beats and footfalls) through the manipulation of the musical period and phase, which affect the condition in which entrainment functions. We conducted several experiments to explore different strategies for manipulating the entrainment of locomotion and music. The results of these experiments showed that spontaneous entrainment can be manipulated, thereby suggesting different strategies on how to embark. The findings furthermore suggest a distinction among different modalities of entrainment: finding the beat (the most difficult part of entrainment), keeping the beat (easier, as a temporal scheme has been established), and being in phase (no entrainment is needed because the music is always adapted to the human rhythm). This study points to a new avenue of research on entrainment and opens new perspectives for the neuroscience of music.

  18. Relationship between Oxidative Stress, Circadian Rhythms, and AMD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanjul-Moles, María Luisa; López-Riquelme, Germán Octavio

    2016-01-01

    This work reviews concepts regarding oxidative stress and the mechanisms by which endogenous and exogenous factors produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). It also surveys the relationships between oxidative stress, circadian rhythms, and retinal damage in humans, particularly those related to light and photodamage. In the first section, the production of ROS by different cell organelles and biomolecules and the antioxidant mechanisms that antagonize this damage are reviewed. The second section includes a brief review of circadian clocks and their relationship with the cellular redox state. In the third part of this work, the relationship between retinal damage and ROS is described. The last part of this work focuses on retinal degenerative pathology, age-related macular degeneration, and the relationships between this pathology, ROS, and light. Finally, the possible interactions between the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), circadian rhythms, and this pathology are discussed. PMID:26885250

  19. A systems biology approach to studying the role of microbes in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Ines; Heinken, Almut; Fleming, Ronan M T

    2013-02-01

    Host-microbe interactions play a crucial role in human health and disease. Of the various systems biology approaches, reconstruction of genome-scale metabolic networks combined with constraint-based modeling has been particularly successful at in silico predicting the phenotypic characteristics of single organisms. Here, we summarize recent studies, which have applied this approach to investigate microbe-microbe and host-microbe metabolic interactions. This approach can be also expanded to investigate the properties of an entire microbial community, as well as single organisms within the community. We illustrate that the constraint-based modeling approach is suitable to model host-microbe interactions at molecular resolution and will enable systematic investigation of metabolic links between the human host and its microbes. Such host-microbe models, combined with experimental data, will ultimately further our understanding of how microbes influence human health.

  20. ADHD, circadian rhythms and seasonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynchank, Dora S; Bijlenga, Denise; Lamers, Femke; Bron, Tannetje I; Winthorst, Wim H; Vogel, Suzan W; Penninx, Brenda W; Beekman, Aartjan T; Kooij, J Sandra

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated whether the association between Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) was mediated by the circadian rhythm. Data of 2239 persons from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were used. Two groups were compared: with clinically significant ADHD symptoms (N = 175) and with No ADHD symptoms (N = 2064). Sleep parameters were sleep-onset and offset times, mid sleep and sleep duration from the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire. We identified the prevalence of probable SAD and subsyndromal SAD using the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ). Clinically significant ADHD symptoms were identified by using a T score>65 on the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale. The prevalence of probable SAD was estimated at 9.9% in the ADHD group (vs. 3.3% in the No ADHD group) and of probable s-SAD at 12.5% in the ADHD group (vs 4.6% in the No ADHD group). Regression analyses showed consistently significant associations between ADHD symptoms and probable SAD, even after adjustment for current depression and anxiety, age, sex, education, use of antidepressants and benzodiazepines (B = 1.81, p < 0.001). Late self-reported sleep onset was an important mediator in the significant relationship between ADHD symptoms and probable SAD, even after correction for confounders (total model effects: B = 0.14, p ≤ 0.001). Both seasonal and circadian rhythm disturbances are significantly associated with ADHD symptoms. Delayed sleep onset time in ADHD may explain the increase in SAD symptoms. Treating patients with SAD for possible ADHD and delayed sleep onset time may reduce symptom severity in these complex patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Calcium Channel Genes Associated with Bipolar Disorder Modulate Lithium's Amplification of Circadian Rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Michael J.; LeRoux, Melissa; Wei, Heather; Beesley, Stephen; Kelsoe, John R.; Welsh, David K.

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with mood episodes and low amplitude circadian rhythms. Previously, we demonstrated that fibroblasts grown from BD patients show weaker amplification of circadian rhythms by lithium compared to control cells. Since calcium signals impact upon the circadian clock, and L-type calcium channels (LTCC) have emerged as genetic risk factors for BD, we examined whether loss of function in LTCCs accounts for the attenuated response to lithium in BD cells. We used fluorescent dyes to measure Ca2+ changes in BD and control fibroblasts after lithium treatment, and bioluminescent reporters to measure Per2∷luc rhythms in fibroblasts from BD patients, human controls, and mice while pharmacologically or genetically manipulating calcium channels. Longitudinal expression of LTCC genes (CACNA1C, CACNA1D and CACNB3) was then measured over 12-24 hr in BD and control cells. Our results indicate that independently of LTCCs, lithium stimulated intracellular Ca2+ less effectively in BD vs. control fibroblasts. In longitudinal studies, pharmacological inhibition of LTCCs or knockdown of CACNA1A, CACNA1C, CACNA1D and CACNB3 altered circadian rhythm amplitude. Diltiazem and knockdown of CACNA1C or CACNA1D eliminated lithium's ability to amplify rhythms. Knockdown of CACNA1A or CACNB3 altered baseline rhythms, but did not affect rhythm amplification by lithium. In human fibroblasts, CACNA1C genotype predicted the amplitude response to lithium, and the expression profiles of CACNA1C, CACNA1D and CACNB3 were altered in BD vs. controls. We conclude that in cells from BD patients, calcium signaling is abnormal, and that LTCCs underlie the failure of lithium to amplify circadian rhythms. PMID:26476274

  2. Finite element analysis (FEA): applying an engineering method to functional morphology in anthropology and human biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotopoulou, O

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental research question for morphologists is how morphological variation in the skeleton relates to function. Traditional approaches have advanced our understanding of form-function relationships considerably but have limitations. Strain gauges can only record strains on a surface, and the geometry of the structure can limit where they can be bonded. Theoretical approaches, such as geometric abstractions, work well on problems with simple geometries and material properties but biological structures typically have neither of these. Finite element analysis (FEA) is a method that overcomes these problems by reducing a complex geometry into a finite number of elements with simple geometries. In addition, FEA allows strain to be modelled across the entire surface of the structure and throughout the internal structure. With advances in the processing power of computers, FEA has become more accessible and as such is becoming an increasingly popular tool to address questions about form-function relationships in development and evolution, as well as human biology generally. This paper provides an introduction to FEA including a review of the sequence of steps needed for the generation of biologically accurate finite element models that can be used for the testing of biological and functional morphology hypotheses.

  3. Exploration of Circadian Rhythms in Patients with Bilateral Vestibular Loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Martin

    Full Text Available New insights have expanded the influence of the vestibular system to the regulation of circadian rhythmicity. Indeed, hypergravity or bilateral vestibular loss (BVL in rodents causes a disruption in their daily rhythmicity for several days. The vestibular system thus influences hypothalamic regulation of circadian rhythms on Earth, which raises the question of whether daily rhythms might be altered due to vestibular pathology in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate human circadian rhythmicity in people presenting a total bilateral vestibular loss (BVL in comparison with control participants.Nine patients presenting a total idiopathic BVL and 8 healthy participants were compared. Their rest-activity cycle was recorded by actigraphy at home over 2 weeks. The daily rhythm of temperature was continuously recorded using a telemetric device and salivary cortisol was recorded every 3 hours from 6:00AM to 9:00PM over 24 hours. BVL patients displayed a similar rest activity cycle during the day to control participants but had higher nocturnal actigraphy, mainly during weekdays. Sleep efficiency was reduced in patients compared to control participants. Patients had a marked temperature rhythm but with a significant phase advance (73 min and a higher variability of the acrophase (from 2:24 PM to 9:25 PM with no correlation to rest-activity cycle, contrary to healthy participants. Salivary cortisol levels were higher in patients compared to healthy people at any time of day.We observed a marked circadian rhythmicity of temperature in patients with BVL, probably due to the influence of the light dark cycle. However, the lack of synchronization between the temperature and rest-activity cycle supports the hypothesis that the vestibular inputs are salient input to the circadian clock that enhance the stabilization and precision of both external and internal entrainment.

  4. Exploration of Circadian Rhythms in Patients with Bilateral Vestibular Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Tristan; Moussay, Sébastien; Bulla, Ingo; Bulla, Jan; Toupet, Michel; Etard, Olivier; Denise, Pierre; Davenne, Damien; Coquerel, Antoine; Quarck, Gaëlle

    2016-01-01

    New insights have expanded the influence of the vestibular system to the regulation of circadian rhythmicity. Indeed, hypergravity or bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) in rodents causes a disruption in their daily rhythmicity for several days. The vestibular system thus influences hypothalamic regulation of circadian rhythms on Earth, which raises the question of whether daily rhythms might be altered due to vestibular pathology in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate human circadian rhythmicity in people presenting a total bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) in comparison with control participants. Nine patients presenting a total idiopathic BVL and 8 healthy participants were compared. Their rest-activity cycle was recorded by actigraphy at home over 2 weeks. The daily rhythm of temperature was continuously recorded using a telemetric device and salivary cortisol was recorded every 3 hours from 6:00AM to 9:00PM over 24 hours. BVL patients displayed a similar rest activity cycle during the day to control participants but had higher nocturnal actigraphy, mainly during weekdays. Sleep efficiency was reduced in patients compared to control participants. Patients had a marked temperature rhythm but with a significant phase advance (73 min) and a higher variability of the acrophase (from 2:24 PM to 9:25 PM) with no correlation to rest-activity cycle, contrary to healthy participants. Salivary cortisol levels were higher in patients compared to healthy people at any time of day. We observed a marked circadian rhythmicity of temperature in patients with BVL, probably due to the influence of the light dark cycle. However, the lack of synchronization between the temperature and rest-activity cycle supports the hypothesis that the vestibular inputs are salient input to the circadian clock that enhance the stabilization and precision of both external and internal entrainment.

  5. Social modulation of the daily activity rhythm in a solitary subterranean rodent, the tuco-tuco (Ctenomys sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Mizumo Tomotani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available South American subterranean rodents are mainly described as solitary and mutual synchronization was never observed among individuals maintained together in laboratory. We report that a single birth event was capable of disrupting the robust nocturnal activity rhythm of singly housed tuco-tucos from north-west Argentina. “Around-the-clock activity” was displayed by 8 out of 13 animals whose cages were closer to the newborn pups. However, experimental exposure to a pup vocalization did not produce a similar effect on the rhythms of adult animals. Our results indicate an effect of social interaction in the expression of biological rhythms even in solitary animals.

  6. Urgent Biophilia: Human-Nature Interactions and Biological Attractions in Disaster Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith G. Tidball

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution builds upon contemporary work on principles of biological attraction as well as earlier work on biophilia while synthesizing literatures on restorative environments, community-based ecological restoration, and both community and social-ecological disaster resilience. It suggests that when humans, faced with a disaster, as individuals and as communities and populations, seek engagement with nature to further their efforts to summon and demonstrate resilience in the face of a crisis, they exemplify an urgent biophilia. This urgent biophilia represents an important set of human-nature interactions in SES characterized by hazard, disaster, or vulnerability, often appearing in the 'backloop' of the adaptive cycle. The relationships that human-nature interactions have to other components within interdependent systems at many different scales may be one critical source of resilience in disaster and related contexts. In other words, the affinity we humans have for the rest of nature, the process of remembering that attraction, and the urge to express it through creation of restorative environments, which may also restore or increase ecological function, may confer resilience across multiple scales. In making this argument, the paper also represents a novel contribution to further theorizing alternatives to anthropocentric understandings of human-nature relations, and strongly makes the case for humans as part of, not separate from, ecosystems.

  7. Melatonin: a "Higgs boson" in human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragojevic Dikic, Svetlana; Jovanovic, Ana Mitrovic; Dikic, Srdjan; Jovanovic, Tomislav; Jurisic, Aleksandar; Dobrosavljevic, Aleksandar

    2015-02-01

    As the Higgs boson could be a key to unlocking mysteries regarding our Universe, melatonin, a somewhat mysterious substance secreted by the pineal gland primarily at night, might be a crucial factor in regulating numerous processes in human reproduction. Melatonin is a powerful antioxidant which has an essential role in controlling several physiological reactions, as well as biological rhythms throughout human reproductive life. Melatonin, which is referred to as a hormone, but also as an autocoid, a chronobiotic, a hypnotic, an immunomodulator and a biological modifier, plays a crucial part in establishing homeostatic, neurohumoral balance and circadian rhythm in the body through synergic actions with other hormones and neuropeptides. This paper aims to analyze the effects of melatonin on the reproductive function, as well as to shed light on immunological and oncostatic properties of one of the most powerful hormones.

  8. On the Effect of Lengthening Circadian Rhythm by Heavy Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmedov T. R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of time sensor of biological clock (BC attracts interest of many scientists, and a great number of experiments are being conducted to stud y the influence of vari- ous physical and chemical factors on functioning of BC. Special attention is drawn to studying the influence of heavy water (D 2 O on functioning of BC that always leads to lengthening of circadian rhythms (CR. This work presents theoretical consideration of lengthening of CR, when hydrogen (H 2 in water is replaced by deuterium (D 2 , that is based on spacial difference of energy levels with similar principle quantum numbers.

  9. Biological Activity of Polynesian Calophyllum inophyllum Oil Extract on Human Skin Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansel, Jean-Luc; Lupo, Elise; Mijouin, Lily; Guillot, Samuel; Butaud, Jean-François; Ho, Raimana; Lecellier, Gaël; Raharivelomanana, Phila; Pichon, Chantal

    2016-07-01

    Oil from the nuts of Calophyllum inophyllum, locally called "Tamanu oil" in French Polynesia, was traditionally used for wound healing and to cure various skin problems and ailments. The skin-active effect of "Tamanu oil emulsion" was investigated on human skin cells (keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts) and showed cell proliferation, glycosaminoglycan and collagen production, and wound healing activity. Transcriptomic analysis of the treated cells revealed gene expression modulation including genes involved in the metabolic process implied in O-glycan biosynthesis, cell adhesion, and cell proliferation. The presence of neoflavonoids as bioactive constituents in Tamanu oil emulsion may contribute to these biological activities. Altogether, consistent data related to targeted histological and cellular functions brought new highlights on the mechanisms involved in these biological processes induced by Tamanu oil effects in skin cells.

  10. Human Permanent Ectoparasites; Recent Advances on Biology and Clinical Significance of Demodex Mites: Narrative Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota LITWIN

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Demodex is a genus of mites living predominantly in mammalian pilosebaceous units. They are commonly detected in the skin of face, with increasing numbers in inflammatory lesions. Causation between Demodex mites and inflammatory diseases, such as rosacea, blepharitis, perioral and seborrhoeic dermatitis or chalazion, is controversially discussed. Clinical observations indicate a primary form of human Demodex infection. The aim of this review was to highlight the biological aspects of Demodex infestation and point out directions for the future research.Methods: We conducted a broad review based on the electronic database sources such as MEDLINE, PubMed and Scopus with regard to the characteristics of the Demodex species, methods of examination and worldwide epidemiology, molecular studies and its role in the complex human ecosystem.Results: Demodex mites are organisms with a worldwide importance as they act in indicating several dermatoses, under certain conditions. However, correlations between Demodex and other parasites or microorganisms occupying one host, as well as interactions between these arachnids and its symbiotic bacteria should be considered. There are few methods of human mites' examination depending on purpose of the study. Nevertheless, paying attention must be needed as polymorphism of Demodex species has been reported.Conclusion: Overall, the present review will focus on different aspects of Demodex mites’ biology and significance of these arachnids in human’s health.

  11. Synthetic biology meets bioprinting: enabling technologies for humans on Mars (and Earth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration off planet is severely limited by the cost of launching materials into space and by re-supply. Thus materials brought from Earth must be light, stable and reliable at destination. Using traditional approaches, a lunar or Mars base would require either transporting a hefty store of metals or heavy manufacturing equipment and construction materials for in situ extraction; both would severely limit any other mission objectives. Long-term human space presence requires periodic replenishment, adding a massive cost overhead. Even robotic missions often sacrifice science goals for heavy radiation and thermal protection. Biology has the potential to solve these problems because life can replicate and repair itself, and perform a wide variety of chemical reactions including making food, fuel and materials. Synthetic biology enhances and expands life's evolved repertoire. Using organisms as feedstock, additive manufacturing through bioprinting will make possible the dream of producing bespoke tools, food, smart fabrics and even replacement organs on demand. This new approach and the resulting novel products will enable human exploration and settlement on Mars, while providing new manufacturing approaches for life on Earth. PMID:27528764

  12. An Augmented γ-Spray System to Visualize Biological Effects for Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Seiya; Tenzou, Hideki; Kasuga, Takaaki; Iwakura, Yukiko; Johnston, Robert

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new educational system with an easy-to-use interface in order to support comprehension of the biological effects of radiation on the human body within a short period of time. A paint spray-gun was used as a gamma rays source mock-up for the system. The application screen shows the figure of a human body for radiation deposition using the γ-Sprayer, a virtual radiation source, as well as equivalent dosage and a panel for setting the irradiation conditions. While the learner stands in front of the PC monitor, the virtual radiation source is used to deposit radiation on the graphic of the human body that is displayed. Tissue damage is calculated using an interpolation method from the data calculated by the PHITS simulation code in advance while the learner is pulling the trigger with respect to the irradiation time, incident position, and distance from the screen. It was confirmed that the damage was well represented by the interpolation method. The augmented ?-Spray system was assessed by questionnaire. Pre-post questionnaire was taken for our 41 students in National Institute of Technology, Kagawa College. It was also confirmed that the system has a capability of teaching the basic radiation protection concept, quantitative feeling of the radiation dose, and the biological effects

  13. Biologically active recombinant human progastrin(6-80) contains a tightly bound calcium ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, G S; Hollande, F; Yang, Z; Karelina, Y; Paterson, A; Strang, R; Fourmy, D; Neumann, G; Shulkes, A

    2001-03-16

    Evidence is accumulating that gastrin precursors may act as growth factors for the colonic mucosa in vivo. The aims of this study were to prepare recombinant human progastrin(6-80) and to investigate its structure and biological activities in vitro. Human progastrin(6-80) was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein. After thrombin cleavage progastrin(6-80) was purified by reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography and characterized by radioimmunoassay, amino acid sequencing, and mass spectrometry. Assays for metal ions by atomic emission spectroscopy revealed the presence of a single tightly bound calcium ion. Progastrin(6-80) at concentrations in the pm to nm range stimulated proliferation of the conditionally transformed mouse colon cell line YAMC. The observations that progastrin(6-80) did not bind to either the cholecystokinin (CCK)-A or the gastrin/CCK-B receptor expressed in COS cells and that antagonists selective for either receptor did not reverse the proliferative effects of progastrin(6-80) suggested that progastrin(6-80) stimulated proliferation independently of either the CCK-A or the gastrin/CCK-B receptor. We conclude that recombinant human progastrin(6-80) is biologically active and contains a single calcium ion. With the exception of the well known zinc-dependent polymerization of insulin and proinsulin, this is the first report of selective, high affinity binding of metal ions to a prohormone.

  14. Synthetic biology meets bioprinting: enabling technologies for humans on Mars (and Earth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J

    2016-08-15

    Human exploration off planet is severely limited by the cost of launching materials into space and by re-supply. Thus materials brought from Earth must be light, stable and reliable at destination. Using traditional approaches, a lunar or Mars base would require either transporting a hefty store of metals or heavy manufacturing equipment and construction materials for in situ extraction; both would severely limit any other mission objectives. Long-term human space presence requires periodic replenishment, adding a massive cost overhead. Even robotic missions often sacrifice science goals for heavy radiation and thermal protection. Biology has the potential to solve these problems because life can replicate and repair itself, and perform a wide variety of chemical reactions including making food, fuel and materials. Synthetic biology enhances and expands life's evolved repertoire. Using organisms as feedstock, additive manufacturing through bioprinting will make possible the dream of producing bespoke tools, food, smart fabrics and even replacement organs on demand. This new approach and the resulting novel products will enable human exploration and settlement on Mars, while providing new manufacturing approaches for life on Earth.

  15. Chamber bioaerosol study: human emissions of size-resolved fluorescent biological aerosol particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhangar, S; Adams, R I; Pasut, W; Huffman, J A; Arens, E A; Taylor, J W; Bruns, T D; Nazaroff, W W

    2016-04-01

    Humans are a prominent source of airborne biological particles in occupied indoor spaces, but few studies have quantified human bioaerosol emissions. The chamber investigation reported here employs a fluorescence-based technique to evaluate bioaerosols with high temporal and particle size resolution. In a 75-m(3) chamber, occupant emission rates of coarse (2.5-10 μm) fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAPs) under seated, simulated office-work conditions averaged 0.9 ± 0.3 million particles per person-h. Walking was associated with a 5-6× increase in the emission rate. During both walking and sitting, 60-70% or more of emissions originated from the floor. The increase in emissions during walking (vs. while sitting) was mainly attributable to release of particles from the floor; the associated increased vigor of upper body movements also contributed. Clothing, or its frictional interaction with human skin, was demonstrated to be a source of coarse particles, and especially of the highly fluorescent fraction. Emission rates of FBAPs previously reported for lecture classes were well bounded by the experimental results obtained in this chamber study. In both settings, the size distribution of occupant FBAP emissions had a dominant mode in the 3-5 μm diameter range.

  16. Highlights of the Biology and Disease-driven Human Proteome Project, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eyk, Jennifer E; Corrales, Fernando J; Aebersold, Ruedi; Cerciello, Ferdinando; Deutsch, Eric W; Roncada, Paola; Sanchez, Jean-Charles; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Yang, Pengyuan; Zhang, Hui; Omenn, Gilbert S

    2016-11-04

    The Biology and Disease-driven Human Proteome Project (B/D-HPP) is aimed at supporting and enhancing the broad use of state-of-the-art proteomic methods to characterize and quantify proteins for in-depth understanding of the molecular mechanisms of biological processes and human disease. Based on a foundation of the pre-existing HUPO initiatives begun in 2002, the B/D-HPP is designed to provide standardized methods and resources for mass spectrometry and specific protein affinity reagents and facilitate accessibility of these resources to the broader life sciences research and clinical communities. Currently there are 22 B/D-HPP initiatives and 3 closely related HPP resource pillars. The B/D-HPP groups are working to define sets of protein targets that are highly relevant to each particular field to deliver relevant assays for the measurement of these selected targets and to disseminate and make publicly accessible the information and tools generated. Major developments are the 2016 publications of the Human SRM Atlas and of "popular protein sets" for six organ systems. Here we present the current activities and plans of the BD-HPP initiatives as highlighted in numerous B/D-HPP workshops at the 14th annual HUPO 2015 World Congress of Proteomics in Vancouver, Canada.

  17. Lamellar bone is an incremental tissue reconciling enamel rhythms, body size, and organismal life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromage, Timothy G; Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Hogg, Russell; Goldman, Haviva M; McFarlin, Shannon C; Warshaw, Johanna; Dirks, Wendy; Perez-Ochoa, Alejandro; Smolyar, Igor; Enlow, Donald H; Boyde, Alan

    2009-05-01

    Mammalian enamel formation is periodic, including fluctuations attributable to the daily biological clock as well as longer-period oscillations that enigmatically correlate with body mass. Because the scaling of bone mass to body mass is an axiom of vertebrate hard tissue biology, we consider that long-period enamel formation rhythms may reflect corresponding and heretofore unrecognized rhythms in bone growth. The principal aim of this study is to seek a rhythm in bone growth demonstrably related to enamel oscillatory development. Our analytical approach is based in morphology, using a variety of hard tissue microscopy techniques. We first ascertain the relationship among long-period enamel rhythms, the striae of Retzius, and body mass using a large sample of mammalian taxa. In addition, we test whether osteocyte lacuna density (a surrogate for rates of cell proliferation) in bone is correlated with mammalian body mass. Finally, using fluorescently labeled developing bone tissues, we investigate whether the bone lamella, a fundamental microanatomical unit of bone, relates to rhythmic enamel growth increments. Our results confirm a positive correlation between long-period enamel rhythms and body mass and a negative correlation between osteocyte density and body mass. We also confirm that lamellar bone is an incremental tissue, one lamella formed in the species-specific time dependency of striae of Retzius formation. We conclude by contextualizing our morphological research with a current understanding of autonomic regulatory control of the skeleton and body mass, suggesting a central contribution to the coordination of organismal life history and body mass.

  18. Scientific Goals and Objectives for the Human Exploration of Mars: 1. Biology and Atmosphere/Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Joel S.; Garvin, J. B.; Anbar, A. D.; Beaty, D. W.; Bell, M. S.; Clancy, R. T.; Cockell, C. S.; Connerney, J. E.; Doran, P. T.; Delory, G.; Dickson, J. T.; Elphic, R. C.; Eppler, D. B.; Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Head, J. W.; Helper, M.; Gruener, J. E.; Heldmann, J.; Hipkin, V.; Lane, M. D.; Levy, J.; Moersch, J.; Ori, G. G.; Peach, L.; Poulet, F.

    2008-01-01

    To prepare for the exploration of Mars by humans, as outlined in the new national vision for Space Exploration (VSE), the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG), chartered by NASA's Mars Exploration Program (MEP), formed a Human Exploration of Mars Science Analysis Group (HEM-SAG), in March 2007. HEM-SAG was chartered to develop the scientific goals and objectives for the human exploration of Mars based on the Mars Scientific Goals, Objectives, Investigations, and Priorities.1 The HEM-SAG is one of several humans to Mars scientific, engineering and mission architecture studies chartered in 2007 to support NASA s plans for the human exploration of Mars. The HEM-SAG is composed of about 30 Mars scientists representing the disciplines of Mars biology, climate/atmosphere, geology and geophysics from the U.S., Canada, England, France, Italy and Spain. MEPAG selected Drs. James B. Garvin (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center) and Joel S. Levine (NASA Langley Research Center) to serve as HEMSAG co-chairs. The HEM-SAG team conducted 20 telecons and convened three face-to-face meetings from March through October 2007. The management of MEP and MEPAG were briefed on the HEM-SAG interim findings in May. The HEM-SAG final report was presented on-line to the full MEPAG membership and was presented at the MEPAG meeting on February 20-21, 2008. This presentation will outline the HEM-SAG biology and climate/atmosphere goals and objectives. A companion paper will outline the HEM-SAG geology and geophysics goals and objectives.

  19. A human haploid gene trap collection to study lncRNAs with unusual RNA biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornienko, Aleksandra E; Vlatkovic, Irena; Neesen, Jürgen; Barlow, Denise P; Pauler, Florian M

    2016-01-01

    Many thousand long non-coding (lnc) RNAs are mapped in the human genome. Time consuming studies using reverse genetic approaches by post-transcriptional knock-down or genetic modification of the locus demonstrated diverse biological functions for a few of these transcripts. The Human Gene Trap Mutant Collection in haploid KBM7 cells is a ready-to-use tool for studying protein-coding gene function. As lncRNAs show remarkable differences in RNA biology compared to protein-coding genes, it is unclear if this gene trap collection is useful for functional analysis of lncRNAs. Here we use the uncharacterized LOC100288798 lncRNA as a model to answer this question. Using public RNA-seq data we show that LOC100288798 is ubiquitously expressed, but inefficiently spliced. The minor spliced LOC100288798 isoforms are exported to the cytoplasm, whereas the major unspliced isoform is nuclear localized. This shows that LOC100288798 RNA biology differs markedly from typical mRNAs. De novo assembly from RNA-seq data suggests that LOC100288798 extends 289kb beyond its annotated 3' end and overlaps the downstream SLC38A4 gene. Three cell lines with independent gene trap insertions in LOC100288798 were available from the KBM7 gene trap collection. RT-qPCR and RNA-seq confirmed successful lncRNA truncation and its extended length. Expression analysis from RNA-seq data shows significant deregulation of 41 protein-coding genes upon LOC100288798 truncation. Our data shows that gene trap collections in human haploid cell lines are useful tools to study lncRNAs, and identifies the previously uncharacterized LOC100288798 as a potential gene regulator.

  20. Quantification of Human Kallikrein-Related Peptidases in Biological Fluids by Multiplatform Targeted Mass Spectrometry Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakosta, Theano D; Soosaipillai, Antoninus; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Batruch, Ihor; Drabovich, Andrei P

    2016-09-01

    Human kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) are a group of 15 secreted serine proteases encoded by the largest contiguous cluster of protease genes in the human genome. KLKs are involved in coordination of numerous physiological functions including regulation of blood pressure, neuronal plasticity, skin desquamation, and semen liquefaction, and thus represent promising diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Until now, quantification of KLKs in biological and clinical samples was accomplished by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Here, we developed multiplex targeted mass spectrometry assays for the simultaneous quantification of all 15 KLKs. Proteotypic peptides for each KLK were carefully selected based on experimental data and multiplexed in single assays. Performance of assays was evaluated using three different mass spectrometry platforms including triple quadrupole, quadrupole-ion trap, and quadrupole-orbitrap instruments. Heavy isotope-labeled synthetic peptides with a quantifying tag were used for absolute quantification of KLKs in sweat, cervico-vaginal fluid, seminal plasma, and blood serum, with limits of detection ranging from 5 to 500 ng/ml. Analytical performance of assays was evaluated by measuring endogenous KLKs in relevant biological fluids, and results were compared with selected ELISAs. The multiplex targeted proteomic assays were demonstrated to be accurate, reproducible, sensitive, and specific alternatives to antibody-based assays. Finally, KLK4, a highly prostate-specific protein and a speculated biomarker of prostate cancer, was unambiguously detected and quantified by immunoenrichment-SRM assay in seminal plasma and blood serum samples from individuals with confirmed prostate cancer and negative biopsy. Mass spectrometry revealed exclusively the presence of a secreted isoform and thus unequivocally resolved earlier disputes about KLK4 identity in seminal plasma. Measurements of KLK4 in either 41 seminal plasma or 58 blood serum samples

  1. Musical alexia for rhythm notation: a discrepancy between pitch and rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midorikawa, Akira; Kawamura, Mitsuru; Kezuka, Machiko

    2003-06-01

    In the process of reading music, the reading of rhythm and pitch might be differentiated, although there is no evidence of this to date. There have been cases of disorders restricted to the reading of pitch, but none in which the disorder has been restricted to the reading of rhythm. We present a case of musical alexia and agraphia with Wernicke's aphasia. An in-depth assessment of the subject's musical reading ability showed that her musical alexia was restricted to unfamiliar melodies. When a melody was divided into rhythm elements and pitch elements, pitch reading was preserved, but rhythm reading was severely disturbed. This is the first case reported of a disorder restricted to rhythm reading, and suggests the independence of rhythm reading and pitch reading.

  2. Human Development VII: A Spiral Fractal Model of Fine Structure of Physical Energy Could Explain Central Aspects of Biological Information, Biological Organization and Biological Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have made a draft of a physical fractal essence of the universe, a sketch of a new cosmology, which we believe to lay at the root of our new holistic biological paradigm. We present the fractal roomy spiraled structures and the energy-rich dancing “infinite strings” or lines of the universe that our hypothesis is based upon. The geometric language of this cosmology is symbolic and both pre-mathematical and pre-philosophical. The symbols are both text and figures, and using these we step by step explain the new model that at least to some extent is able to explain the complex informational system behind morphogenesis, ontogenesis, regeneration and healing. We suggest that it is from this highly dynamic spiraled structure that organization of cells, organs, and the wholeness of the human being including consciousness emerge. The model of ““dancing fractal spirals” carries many similarities to premodern cultures descriptions of the energy of the life and universe. Examples are the Native American shamanistic descriptions of their perception of energy and the old Indian Yogis descriptions of the life-energy within the body and outside. Similar ideas of energy and matter are found in the modern superstring theories. The model of the informational system of the organism gives new meaning to Bateson’s definition of information: “A difference that makes a difference”, and indicates how information-directed self-organization can exist on high structural levels in living organisms, giving birth to their subjectivity and consciousness.

  3. Genome-scale modeling of human metabolism - a systems biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardinoglu, Adil; Gatto, Francesco; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-09-01

    Altered metabolism is linked to the appearance of various human diseases and a better understanding of disease-associated metabolic changes may lead to the identification of novel prognostic biomarkers and the development of new therapies. Genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) have been employed for studying human metabolism in a systematic manner, as well as for understanding complex human diseases. In the past decade, such metabolic models - one of the fundamental aspects of systems biology - have started contributing to the understanding of the mechanistic relationship between genotype and phenotype. In this review, we focus on the construction of the Human Metabolic Reaction database, the generation of healthy cell type- and cancer-specific GEMs using different procedures, and the potential applications of these developments in the study of human metabolism and in the identification of metabolic changes associated with various disorders. We further examine how in silico genome-scale reconstructions can be employed to simulate metabolic flux distributions and how high-throughput omics data can be analyzed in a context-dependent fashion. Insights yielded from this mechanistic modeling approach can be used for identifying new therapeutic agents and drug targets as well as for the discovery of novel biomarkers. Finally, recent advancements in genome-scale modeling and the future challenge of developing a model of whole-body metabolism are presented. The emergent contribution of GEMs to personalized and translational medicine is also discussed. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. A shift in paradigm towards human biology-based systems for cholestatic-liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Fozia

    2015-12-01

    Cholestatic-liver diseases (CLDs) arise from diverse causes ranging from genetic factors to drug-induced cholestasis. The so-called diseases of civilization (obesity, diabetes, metabolic disorders, non-alcoholic liver disease, cardiovascular diseases, etc.) are intricately implicated in liver and gall bladder diseases. Although CLDs have been extensively studied, there seem to be important gaps in the understanding of human disease. Despite the fact that many animal models exist and substantial clinical data are available, translation of this knowledge towards therapy has been disappointingly limited. Recent advances in liver cell culture such as in vivo-like 3D cultivation of human primary hepatic cells, human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocytes; and cutting-edge analytical techniques such as 'omics' technologies and high-content screenings could play a decisive role in deeper mechanistic understanding of CLDs. This Topical Review proposes a roadmap to human biology-based research using omics technologies providing quantitative information on mechanisms in an adverse outcome/disease pathway framework. With modern sensitive tools, a shift in paradigm in human disease research seems timely and even inevitable to overcome species barriers in translation.

  5. A New Perspective on Teaching English Pronunciation: Rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Fen; And Others

    This paper explores the features of rhythm that make English difficult for speakers of Chinese and suggests some techniques for helping students speak English with an English rhythm. The focus is on information obtained during a workshop: the rhythmic differences between Chinese and English, word rhythm in English, and sentence rhythm in English.…

  6. Proteome profile and biological activity of caprine, bovine and human milk fat globules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spertino, Stefano; Cipriani, Valentina; De Angelis, Chiara; Giuffrida, Maria Gabriella; Marsano, Francesco; Cavaletto, Maria

    2012-04-01

    Upon combining bidimensional electrophoresis with monodimensional separation, a more comprehensive analysis of the milk fat globule membrane has been obtained. The proteomic profile of caprine milk fat globules revealed the presence of butyrophilin, lactadherin and perilipin as the major proteins, they were also associated to bovine and human milk fat globule membranes. Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase has been detected only in monodimensional gels. Biological activity of milk fat globules has been evaluated in Caco2-cells, as a representative model of the intestinal barrier. The increase of cell viability was indicative of a potential nutraceutical role for the whole milk fat globule, suggesting a possible employment in milk formula preparation.

  7. The Science and Issues of Human DNA Polymoprhisms: A Training Workshop for High School Biology Teachers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David. A Micklos

    2006-10-30

    This project achieved its goal of implementing a nationwide training program to introduce high school biology teachers to the key uses and societal implications of human DNA polymorphisms. The 2.5-day workshop introduced high school biology faculty to a laboratory-based unit on human DNA polymorphisms – which provides a uniquely personal perspective on the science and Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. As proposed, 12 workshops were conducted at venues across the United States. The workshops were attended by 256 high school faculty, exceeding proposed attendance of 240 by 7%. Each workshop mixed theoretical, laboratory, and computer work with practical and ethical implications. Program participants learned simplified lab techniques for amplifying three types of chromosomal polymorphisms: an Alu insertion (PV92), a VNTR (pMCT118/D1S80), and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the mitochondrial control region. These polymorphisms illustrate the use of DNA variations in disease diagnosis, forensic biology, and identity testing - and provide a starting point for discussing the uses and potential abuses of genetic technology. Participants also learned how to use their Alu and mitochondrial data as an entrée to human population genetics and evolution. Our work to simplify lab techniques for amplifying human DNA polymorphisms in educational settings culminated with the release in 1998 of three Advanced Technology (AT) PCR kits by Carolina Biological Supply Company, the nation’s oldest educational science supplier. The kits use a simple 30-minute method to isolate template DNA from hair sheaths or buccal cells and streamlined PCR chemistry based on Pharmacia Ready-To-Go Beads, which incorporate Taq polymerase, deoxynucleotide triphosphates, and buffer in a freeze-dried pellet. These kits have greatly simplified teacher implementation of human PCR labs, and their use is growing at a rapid pace. Sales of human polymorphism

  8. The Science and Issues of Human DNA Polymorphisms: A Training Workshop for High School Biology Teachers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micklos, David A.

    2006-10-30

    This project achieved its goal of implementing a nationwide training program to introduce high school biology teachers to the key uses and societal implications of human DNA polymorphisms. The 2.5-day workshop introduced high school biology faculty to a laboratory-based unit on human DNA polymorphisms â which provides a uniquely personal perspective on the science and Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. As proposed, 12 workshops were conducted at venues across the United States. The workshops were attended by 256 high school faculty, exceeding proposed attendance of 240 by 7%. Each workshop mixed theoretical, laboratory, and computer work with practical and ethical implications. Program participants learned simplified lab techniques for amplifying three types of chromosomal polymorphisms: an Alu insertion (PV92), a VNTR (pMCT118/D1S80), and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the mitochondrial control region. These polymorphisms illustrate the use of DNA variations in disease diagnosis, forensic biology, and identity testing - and provide a starting point for discussing the uses and potential abuses of genetic technology. Participants also learned how to use their Alu and mitochondrial data as an entrée to human population genetics and evolution. Our work to simplify lab techniques for amplifying human DNA polymorphisms in educational settings culminated with the release in 1998 of three Advanced Technology (AT) PCR kits by Carolina Biological Supply Company, the nationâÂÂs oldest educational science supplier. The kits use a simple 30-minute method to isolate template DNA from hair sheaths or buccal cells and streamlined PCR chemistry based on Pharmacia Ready-To-Go Beads, which incorporate Taq polymerase, deoxynucleotide triphosphates, and buffer in a freeze-dried pellet. These kits have greatly simplified teacher implementation of human PCR labs, and their use is growing at a rapid pace. Sales of human

  9. The Biology of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus and the Infection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Di QIN; Chun LU

    2008-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV),also known as human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8),is discovered in 1994 from Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) lesion of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)patient.In addition to its association with KS,KSHV has also been implicated as the causative agent of two other AIDS-associated malignancies:primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD).KSHV is a complex DNA virus that not only has the ability to promote cellular growth and survival for tumor development,but also can provoke deregulated angiogenesis,inflammation,and modulate the patient's immune system in favor of tumor growth.As KSHV is a necessary but not sufficient etiological factor for KS,human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a very important cofactor.Here we review the basic information about the biology of KSHV,development of pathogenesis and interaction between KSHV and HIV.

  10. Isolation and culture of human hematopoietic progenitors for studies of dendritic cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Mattias

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the regulation of distinct dendritic cell (DC) function and differentiation pathways is important in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. This includes infectious and neoplastic diseases, vaccination and immunotherapy, allograft rejection, and the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Isolation and culture of human hematopoietic progenitor cells provide a valuable model for studies on DC biology and may help uncover new means to manipulate DC differentiation and function in therapeutic settings. Here, a detailed protocol for the isolation of CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells from human cord blood is described. The isolated cell population consists of approximately 85% CD34+ CD45+ hematopoietic progenitor cells that in response to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) plus tumor necrosis factor (TNF) expand and differentiate into CD11c+ HLA-DR+ DC-expressing CD1a.

  11. [Gamma interferon induced in human leukocytes by phytohemagglutinin: its production and biological characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielescu, G; Maniu, H; Georgescu, T; Cajal, N

    1988-01-01

    Human gamma type interferon (IFN) preparations were obtained through phytohemagglutinin stimulation of leukocytes from the peripheral blood. Biological value of these preparations varied between 160 u and 800 u/ml, depending on leukocyte incubation medium, culture system and inductor conservation. The rising of the antiviral activity through association between gamma (3 u) and alpha (27 u) interferons was revealed by the virus quantity reduction (in this case the vesicular stomatitis virus was used) during a 24-hour multiplication cycle. The protection ensured by the mixture of the two types of interferon was about ten times higher than the additive effect of the two preparations. Study of the antiproliferative activity of a gamma interferon preparation was conducted on two human cell lines of tumoral origin (T-10 from a glioblastoma, and HEp-2) and revealed the difficulties to quantify precisely this property of the crude gamma interferon preparations.

  12. Genome dynamics of the human embryonic kidney 293 lineage in response to cell biology manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yao-Cheng; Boone, Morgane; Meuris, Leander; Lemmens, Irma; Van Roy, Nadine; Soete, Arne; Reumers, Joke; Moisse, Matthieu; Plaisance, Stéphane; Drmanac, Radoje; Chen, Jason; Speleman, Frank; Lambrechts, Diether; Van de Peer, Yves; Tavernier, Jan; Callewaert, Nico

    2014-09-03

    The HEK293 human cell lineage is widely used in cell biology and biotechnology. Here we use whole-genome resequencing of six 293 cell lines to study the dynamics of this aneuploid genome in response to the manipulations used to generate common 293 cell derivatives, such as transformation and stable clone generation (293T); suspension growth adaptation (293S); and cytotoxic lectin selection (293SG). Remarkably, we observe that copy number alteration detection could identify the genomic region that enabled cell survival under selective conditions (i.c. ricin selection). Furthermore, we present methods to detect human/vector genome breakpoints and a user-friendly visualization tool for the 293 genome data. We also establish that the genome structure composition is in steady state for most of these cell lines when standard cell culturing conditions are used. This resource enables novel and more informed studies with 293 cells, and we will distribute the sequenced cell lines to this effect.

  13. Biological Characteristics of Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Cultured in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FA Xian'en; WANG Lixia; HOU Jianfeng; ZHANG Ruicheng; WANG Haiyong; YANG Chenyuan

    2005-01-01

    Summary: Some biological characteristics of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured in vitro were observed. hMSCs were isolated from bone marrow and purified by density gradient centrifugation method, and then cultured in vitro. The proliferation and growth characteristics of hMSCs were observed in primary and passage culture. MSCs of passage 3 were examined for the purify by positive rate of CD29 and CD44 through flow cytometry. Human bone marrow MSCs showed active proliferation capacity in vitro. The purify of MSCs separated by our method was higher than 90 %. It was concluded that hMSCs have been successfully cultured and expanded effectively. It provided a foundation for further investigation and application of MSCs.

  14. Review of the biological effects of weightlessness on the human endocrine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.

    1993-01-01

    Studies from space flights over the past two decades have demonstrated that there are basic physiological changes in humans during space flight. These changes include cephalad fluid shifts, loss of fluid and electrolytes, loss of muscle mass, space motion sickness, anemia, reduced immune response, and loss of calcium and mineralized bone. The cause of most of these manifestations is not known but the general approach has been to investigate systemic and hormonal changes. However, data from the 1973-1974 Skylabs, Spacelab 3 (SL-3), Spacelab D-I (SL-DI), and now the new SLS-1 missions support a more basic biological response to microgravity that may occur at the tissue, cellular, and molecular level. This report summarizes ground-based and SLS-1 experiments that examined the mechanism of loss of red blood cell mass in humans, the loss of bone mass and lowered osteoblast growth under space flight conditions, and loss of immune function in microgravity.

  15. Pluripotent stem cell-derived organoids: using principles of developmental biology to grow human tissues in a dish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Heather A; Wells, James M

    2017-03-15

    Pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived organoids are miniature, three-dimensional human tissues generated by the application of developmental biological principles to PSCs in vitro The approach to generate organoids uses a combination of directed differentiation, morphogenetic processes, and the intrinsically driven self-assembly of cells that mimics organogenesis in the developing embryo. The resulting organoids have remarkable cell type complexity, architecture and function similar to their in vivo counterparts. In the past five years, human PSC-derived organoids with components of all three germ layers have been generated, resulting in the establishment of a new human model system. Here, and in the accompanying poster, we provide an overview of how principles of developmental biology have been essential for generating human organoids in vitro, and how organoids are now being used as a primary research tool to investigate human developmental biology. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Holistic systems biology approaches to molecular mechanisms of human helper T cell differentiation to functionally distinct subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z; Lönnberg, T; Lahesmaa, R

    2013-08-01

    Current knowledge of helper T cell differentiation largely relies on data generated from mouse studies. To develop therapeutical strategies combating human diseases, understanding the molecular mechanisms how human naïve T cells differentiate to functionally distinct T helper (Th) subsets as well as studies on human differentiated Th cell subsets is particularly valuable. Systems biology approaches provide a holistic view of the processes of T helper differentiation, enable discovery of new factors and pathways involved and generation of new hypotheses to be tested to improve our understanding of human Th cell differentiation and immune-mediated diseases. Here, we summarize studies where high-throughput systems biology approaches have been exploited to human primary T cells. These studies reveal new factors and signalling pathways influencing T cell differentiation towards distinct subsets, important for immune regulation. Such information provides new insights into T cell biology and into targeting immune system for therapeutic interventions.

  17. Influence of photoperiod and running wheel access on the entrainment of split circadian rhythms in hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott Jeffrey A

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the laboratory, behavioral and physiological states of nocturnal rodents alternate, with a period near 24 h, between those appropriate for the night (e.g., elevated wheel-running activity and high melatonin secretion and for the day (e.g., rest and low melatonin secretion. Under appropriate 24 h light:dark:light:dark conditions, however, rodents may be readily induced to express bimodal rest/activity cycles that reflect a global temporal reorganization of the central neural pacemaker in the hypothalamus. We examine here how the relative length of the light and dark phases of the environmental cycle influences this rhythm splitting and the necessity of a running wheel for expression of this entrainment condition. Results Rhythm splitting was observed in wheel-running and general locomotion of Siberian and Syrian hamsters. The latter also manifest split rhythms in body temperature. Access to a running wheel was necessary neither for the induction nor maintenance of this entrainment pattern. While rhythms were only transiently split in many animals with two 5 h nights, the incidence of splitting was greater with twice daily nights of shorter duration. Removal of running wheels altered the body temperature rhythm but did not eliminate its clear bimodality. Conclusion The expression of entrained, split circadian rhythms exhibits no strict dependence on access to a running wheel, but can be facilitated by manipulation of ambient lighting conditions. These circadian entrainment patterns may be of therapeutic value to human shift-workers and others facing chronobiological challenges.

  18. Knowledge Gaps in Rodent Pancreas Biology: Taking Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Pancreatic Beta Cells into Our Own Hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosa, Munirah Mohamad; Low, Blaise Su Jun; Pek, Nicole Min Qian; Teo, Adrian Kee Keong

    2015-01-01

    In the field of stem cell biology and diabetes, we and others seek to derive mature and functional human pancreatic β cells for disease modeling and cell replacement therapy. Traditionally, knowledge gathered from rodents is extended to human pancreas developmental biology research involving human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). While much has been learnt from rodent pancreas biology in the early steps toward Pdx1(+) pancreatic progenitors, much less is known about the transition toward Ngn3(+) pancreatic endocrine progenitors. Essentially, the later steps of pancreatic β cell development and maturation remain elusive to date. As a result, the most recent advances in the stem cell and diabetes field have relied upon combinatorial testing of numerous growth factors and chemical compounds in an arbitrary trial-and-error fashion to derive mature and functional human pancreatic β cells from hPSCs. Although this hit-or-miss approach appears to have made some headway in maturing human pancreatic β cells in vitro, its underlying biology is vaguely understood. Therefore, in this mini-review, we discuss some of these late-stage signaling pathways that are involved in human pancreatic β cell differentiation and highlight our current understanding of their relevance in rodent pancreas biology. Our efforts here unravel several novel signaling pathways that can be further studied to shed light on unexplored aspects of rodent pancreas biology. New investigations into these signaling pathways are expected to advance our knowledge in human pancreas developmental biology and to aid in the translation of stem cell biology in the context of diabetes treatments.

  19. Circadian rhythms, the molecular clock, and skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefta, Mellani; Wolff, Gretchen; Esser, Karyn A

    2011-01-01

    Almost all organisms ranging from single cell bacteria to humans exhibit a variety of behavioral, physiological, and biochemical rhythms. In mammals, circadian rhythms control the timing of many physiological processes over a 24-h period, including sleep-wake cycles, body temperature, feeding, and hormone production. This body of research has led to defined characteristics of circadian rhythms based on period length, phase, and amplitude. Underlying circadian behaviors is a molecular clock mechanism found in most, if not all, cell types including skeletal muscle. The mammalian molecular clock is a complex of multiple oscillating networks that are regulated through transcriptional mechanisms, timed protein turnover, and input from small molecules. At this time, very little is known about circadian aspects of skeletal muscle function/metabolism but some progress has been made on understanding the molecular clock in skeletal muscle. The goal of this chapter is to provide the basic terminology and concepts of circadian rhythms with a more detailed review of the current state of knowledge of the molecular clock, with reference to what is known in skeletal muscle. Research has demonstrated that the molecular clock is active in skeletal muscles and that the muscle-specific transcription factor, MyoD, is a direct target of the molecular clock. Skeletal muscle of clock-compromised mice, Bmal1(-/-) and Clock(Δ19) mice, are weak and exhibit significant disruptions in expression of many genes required for adult muscle structure and metabolism. We suggest that the interaction between the molecular clock, MyoD, and metabolic factors, such as PGC-1, provide a potential system of feedback loops that may be critical for both maintenance and adaptation of skeletal muscle.

  20. Dendritic Cells in the Context of Human Tumors: Biology and Experimental Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volovitz, Ilan; Melzer, Susanne; Amar, Sarah; Bocsi, József; Bloch, Merav; Efroni, Sol; Ram, Zvi; Tárnok, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are the most potent and versatile antigen-presenting cells (APC) in the immune system. DC have an exceptional ability to comprehend the immune context of a captured antigen based on molecular signals identified from its vicinity. The analyzed information is then conveyed to other immune effector cells. Such capability enables DC to play a pivotal role in mediating either an immunogenic response or immune tolerance towards an acquired antigen. This review summarizes current knowledge on DC in the context of human tumors. It covers the basics of human DC biology, elaborating on the different markers, morphology and function of the different subsets of human DC. Human blood-borne DC are comprised of at least three subsets consisting of one plasmacytoid DC (pDC) and two to three myeloid DC (mDC) subsets. Some tissues have unique DC. Each subset has a different phenotype and function and may induce pro-tumoral or anti-tumoral effects. The review also discusses two methods fundamental to the research of DC on the single-cell level: multicolor flow cytometry (FCM) and image-based cytometry (IC). These methods, along with new genomics and proteomics tools, can provide high-resolution information on specific DC subsets and on immune and tumor cells with which they interact. The different layers of collected biological data may then be integrated using Immune-Cytomics modeling approaches. Such novel integrated approaches may help unravel the complex network of cellular interactions that DC carry out within tumors, and may help harness this complex immunological information into the development of more effective treatments for cancer.