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Sample records for human beings odense

  1. Literary Traces in Odense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, Ejnar Stig

    2016-01-01

    Artiklen giver en lille litteraturhistorie, der knytter sig til Odense lige fra de første skrifttegn, de første skrifter, de første trykte bøger, de første skuespil og den første roman i Norden....

  2. Procedures for Derivation and Characterisation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells from Odense, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda; Kassem, Moustapha

    2012-01-01

    In 1998, a development occurred in stem cell biology with the fi rst report of the derivation of a human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line. Since then a number of techniques have been used to derive and characterise hESCs. Here, we describe the derivation methods used by our laboratory for isolatio...

  3. The Odense Child Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhl, Henriette Boye; Jensen, Tina Kold; Barington, Torben

    2015-01-01

    , the Odense Childhood Cohort (OCC) study aims to provide new information about the environmental impact on child health by sequential follow-up to 18 years of age among children born between 2010 and 2012. METHODS: A total of 2874 of 6707 pregnancies (43%) were recruited between January 2010 and December 2012...... provides material for in-depth analysis of environmental and genetic factors that are important for child health and disease. Registry data from non-participating women and infants are available which ensures a high degree of comparable data....

  4. Odense Pharmacoepidemiological Database (OPED)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, Jesper; Poulsen, Maja Hellfritzsch; Hansen, Morten Rix

    2017-01-01

    The Odense University Pharmacoepidemiological Database (OPED) is a prescription database established in 1990 by the University of Southern Denmark, covering reimbursed prescriptions from the county of Funen in Denmark and the region of Southern Denmark (1.2 million inhabitants). It is still active...... and thereby has more than 25 years' of continuous coverage. In this MiniReview, we review its history, content, quality, coverage, governance and some of its uses. OPED's data include the Danish Civil Registration Number (CPR), which enables unambiguous linkage with virtually all other health......-related registers in Denmark. Among its research uses, we review record-linkage studies of drug effects, advanced drug utilization studies, some examples of method development and use of OPED as sampling frame to recruit patients for field studies or clinical trials. With the advent of other, more comprehensive...

  5. Subtle, yet radical in Kongens Have, Odense (DK)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vera Bardeloch, Noldus; Riesto, Svava

    2014-01-01

    Review of revitalization of historical garden in Odense city centre, by Erik Brandt Dam Arkitekter.......Review of revitalization of historical garden in Odense city centre, by Erik Brandt Dam Arkitekter....

  6. Ambulanceudrykning i København, Odense og Ringkøbing Amt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C F; Trier, H

    1992-01-01

    district with smaller towns (the County of Ringkøbing). The conditions of the patients were assessed by the ambulance staff: 7-12% of the patients transported had visible haemorrhage, 5-8% were unconscious, 4-7% were cyanotic, 2-3% had seizures and 1-2% had pareses. The serious cases tended to be most......In this investigation, the results from a spot test investigation comprising 3182 emergency ambulance services (AU) from three geographical regions with different degrees of urbanization are presented: The Danish capital (Municipality of Copenhagen), a large provincial town (Odense) and a rural...... in Copenhagen, mainly by means of medically staffed ambulances. In the County of Ringkøbing, doctors, usually the doctor-on-call, participated in 27% of these services while medical support was only available in 2% of the cases in Odense. Registration of the diagnoses by the hospitals which received...

  7. Suitable for human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daeubler-Gmelin, H.; Adlerstein, W.

    1986-01-01

    If a society decides to make use of the advantages of technologies that at the same time bear extensive potentials of harm, society has to prevent abuse of these potentials. Physical protection and other security measures inevitably entail a curtailment of personal liberty. The civil rights will not provide sufficient protection against such creeping loss of personal freedom. The high priority of the objects of legal protection in question will make it necessary to specify the civil rights according to conditions if the security measures are to become effective in practice. Weighing the legal merits and the principle of reasonableness will be the main instruments that will pave the way for a camouflaged change of legal concepts and, finally, a factual restriction of civil rights. Any policy of law intended to protect the civil rights therefore will have to clain responsible participation in research activities, technological development, and energy policy. The policy of law has to take care that the criterion of compatibility with the constitution, the weakening or strengthening effect of a technological system on the civil rights, will duly be taken into account in the process of democratic technology steering, and as early as possible. (orig./HSCH) [de

  8. Trends in deliberate interpersonal violence in the Odense Municipality, Denmark 1991-2002. The Odense study on deliberate interpersonal violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faergemann, Christian; Lauritsen, Jens; Brink, Ole

    2007-01-01

    A 12-year study was carried out to investigate the development of interpersonal violence based on A and E department and/or forensic data from a Danish urban population. Included in the study were all victims of violence from the Odense municipality treated at the Odense University Hospital...... or subjected to medicolegal autopsy at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Southern Denmark 1991-2002. Overall 14,316 victims of violence were included in the study. The incidence rates of violence were 9.9 and 3.4 per 1000 population/year for males and females. For males the incidence rate...... decreased in the study period whereas the incidence rate was unchanged among females. Less serious lesions and wounds were the most common type of lesions. The percentage of less serious lesions increased in the study period. The percentage of potential severe lesions such as bone fractures and deep lesions...

  9. Hjertestop uden for hospital. Prospektiv undersøgelse af forskellige typer af udvidet præhospital behandling i Odense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J R; Lybecker, H; Andersen, C

    1990-01-01

    During the period 1.2.1988-31.1.1989, a prospective investigation was undertaken of the intensive prehospital treatment in Odense. Comparison was undertaken between a medically staffed ambulance (2 months), a motorized doctor (rendez-vous, model 4 months) and the heart ambulance (recommended......%) was discharged alive. The results of this investigation reveal that the prehospital treatment of cardiac arrest in Odense can be improved by participation of a doctor in the treatment, (particularly the rendezvous model). Suggested improvements consist of 1) improved alarm system, 2) intensification of training...

  10. To be human is to be creative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2013-01-01

    , their creativity is discouraged in many ways. We conceptualise creativity developmentally: It is possible to use activities, teaching methods, motivation and procedures to enhance and develop creativity, even in older people. This paper gives some guides that can be used both at home and at work to explore......, enhance and develop ones own creativity and the creativity of others. Each suggestion is presented from a practical viewpoint and then related to some of the tools and concepts that scientists and artists use in their creative endeavours....

  11. The effects of the Odense Overweight Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Traberg; Huang, Tao; Ried-Larsen, Mathias

    of the DCIA in BMI z-score, clustered risk z-score, systolic blood pressure, abdominal fat-%, waist circumference, cardiorespiratory fitness, and total cholesterol/HDL ratio. In body fat-%, waist circumference and triglycerides, there is only a significant group difference at 6 weeks and not at 52 weeks......Aim: The primary aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of the Odense Overweight Intervention Study on BMI development. Methods: The OOIS is a semi-blinded randomized controlled trial with three measurement occasions. Participants were allocated into two intervention arms; a day camp...... intervention arm (DCIA) and a standard intervention arm (SIA). For the DCIA the camp lasted for six weeks and consisted of fun-based physical activities, healthy eating, and health classes. The following 10 months a family based intervention was accomplished. The SIA was offered a weekly activity session...

  12. Can human populations be stabilized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Stephen G.

    2015-02-01

    Historical examples of demographic change, in China, Italy, Nigeria, Utah, Easter Island, and elsewhere, together with simple mathematics and biological principles, show that stabilizing world population before it is limited by food supply will be more difficult than is generally appreciated. United Nations population projections are wrong because they assume, in spite of the absence of necessary feedbacks, that all nations will converge rapidly to replacement-level fertility and thereafter remain at that level. Education of women and provision of contraceptives have caused dramatic reductions in fertility, but many groups, including some that are well-educated, maintain high fertility. Small groups with persistent high fertility can grow to supplant low-fertility groups, resulting in continued growth of the total population. The global average fertility rate could rise even if each country's fertility rate is falling. In some low-fertility European countries where deaths exceed births, the population continues to grow because of immigration. Producing more than two offspring is normal for all animal species with stable populations because their populations are limited by resources or predation rather than birth control. It may therefore be appropriate to view the growth of human population as the result not of excess fertility but rather of excess food.

  13. Odense Kunstihoones eksponeeritakse ainult maailmakunsti paremikku / Reiu Tüür

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tüür, Reiu

    2005-01-01

    1920. a. ehitatud Odense kunstihoonest, mille ekspositsioonipind kahekordistus 2004. a. juurdeehitusega. 7. IV 2004. a. avatud Arhusi kaasaegse kunsti muuseumist ARoS (arhitektid Morten Schmidt, Bjarne Lassen, John Lassen)

  14. By Virtue of Being Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, S. Claire

    1998-01-01

    Describes some efforts to ensure that teachers in the United States understand and teach about the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Although the declaration is 50 years old, it is not as well known in the United States as it is in other parts of the world. Teaching its content and meaning to children is discussed. (SLD)

  15. Odense Pharmacoepidemiological Database: A Review of Use and Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallas, Jesper; Hellfritzsch, Maja; Rix, Morten; Olesen, Morten; Reilev, Mette; Pottegård, Anton

    2017-05-01

    The Odense University Pharmacoepidemiological Database (OPED) is a prescription database established in 1990 by the University of Southern Denmark, covering reimbursed prescriptions from the county of Funen in Denmark and the region of Southern Denmark (1.2 million inhabitants). It is still active and thereby has more than 25 years of continuous coverage. In this MiniReview, we review its history, content, quality, coverage, governance and some of its uses. OPED's data include the Danish Civil Registration Number (CPR), which enables unambiguous linkage with virtually all other health-related registers in Denmark. Among its research uses, we review record linkage studies of drug effects, advanced drug utilization studies, some examples of method development and use of OPED as sampling frame to recruit patients for field studies or clinical trials. With the advent of other, more comprehensive sources of prescription data in Denmark, OPED may still play a role as in certain data-intensive regional studies. © 2017 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  16. Nurses are human beings too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeson, Jimmy

    2017-03-15

    Your story 'Thousands of nurses leave NHS posts to maintain work-life balance' (online news, 3 March) made me think. Maybe it would be better if employers didn't break the Working Time Directive, making us swap from a 12-hour night shift to a 14-hour day with no day off in-between, or two long days in a row with not enough time to go home, shower, sleep and get ready for work between them.

  17. SHE was a human being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Britta Kusk

    , but also an educational level regarding the professionals’ ability to cope with essential values, dilemmas and ethics are in focus. Many findings could be the same for the field of Alzheimer’s and Dementia. In Denmark our way of fulfilling the UNConvention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities needs......AIMs: In a world where you see NPM, evidence based methods and financial cut downs it is likely that values as understanding, communication and recognition are under pressure in the professional work with people with intellectual disabilities – especially if the disability is invisible. Methods......: A phenomenological investigation based on life world interviews, observations combined with document analysis and discourse analysis – integrating perspectives of persons with invisible intellectual disabilities as well as professionals in the field. Results: The field needs focus. Structural obstacles are obvious...

  18. The age-dependent incidence of injuries due to road traffic accidents in Odense, Denmark from 1980 to 1992

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L B; Poulsen, T K; Johannsen, H G

    1995-01-01

    The study was based on data concerning persons treated at Odense University Hospital as a result of road traffic accidents in the period 1980-92. Incidence rates of road traffic accident injuries were calculated on the basis of the population in Odense municipality. The study group included persons...

  19. Organized crime-trafficking with human being

    OpenAIRE

    Jelenová, Jana

    2011-01-01

    Organized crime - Trafficking in human beings This thesis deals with the criminal offence of trafficking in human beings under Sec. 168 of the Czech Criminal Code. A trafficking in human being is not a frequent criminal offence but with its consequences belongs to the most dangerous crimes. After the Velvet revolution the relevance of this crime has raised subsequently and therefore the regulation of this crime requires particular attention. It is important to find new ways and improve curren...

  20. A tale of two fjords – en analyse af bundfauna samfund i Odense og Roskilde Fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banta, Gary Thomas; Delefosse, Matthieu; Canal Vergés, Paula

    gravende muslinger (f.eks. Cerastoderma spp.) mens Odense Fjord (OF) havde flere orme. Ligeledes så vi mange tubificide orme i den indre del af OF. I den indre del af RF så vi i stedet mange dansemyggelarver (Chironomidae). Af de undersøgte miljøvariable var vanddybde og salinitet (både niveauet og...

  1. Lægelig medvirken ved detentionsanbringelser. Et års erfaringer fra Odense politikreds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardt-Madsen, M; Larsen, C F; Schmidt, D

    1990-01-01

    in 1988. Out of 918 persons placed in detention in the Odense police district, 66% were medically examined and of these 5% were referred to hospital for further examination and/or treatment. Four of these were admitted, three of whom had life-threatening poisonings and one on account of a potentially...

  2. Trends in weapon-related injuries from violence in Odense Municipality, Denmark 1991-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Luef, Stefan; Lauritsen, Jens Martin; Faergemann, Christian

    2016-01-01

    rate was 4.8 per 1,000 victims in males and 29.1 per 1,000 victims in females. More than half (57%) of the homicides were caused by lesions due to sharp weapons. CONCLUSION: Weapon-related injuries are rare in the Odense Municipality. The incidence rate of weapon-related violence did not increase...

  3. Corporate Strategies and Global Competition: Odense Steel Shipyard, 1918-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Rene Taudal; Jensen, Kristoffer; Christensen, Rene Schroder

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the competitive strategies of Odense Steel Shipyard between 1918 and 2012 and challenges existing scholarship on competition in global industries. Until the 1980s, the yard adopted typical strategies in shipbuilding, starting with cost leadership and subsequently adopting...

  4. Human cloning: can it be made safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhind, Susan M; Taylor, Jane E; De Sousa, Paul A; King, Tim J; McGarry, Michelle; Wilmut, Ian

    2003-11-01

    There are continued claims of attempts to clone humans using nuclear transfer, despite the serious problems that have been encountered in cloning other mammals. It is known that epigenetic and genetic mechanisms are involved in clone failure, but we still do not know exactly how. Human reproductive cloning is unethical, but the production of cells from cloned embryos could offer many potential benefits. So, can human cloning be made safe?

  5. Outside St. Jørgen: leprosy in the medieval Danish city of Odense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldsen, Jesper L; Mollerup, Lene

    2006-07-01

    Leprosy was a common and dreaded disease in the Danish Middle Ages (AD 1050-1536). Starting in the second half of the 13th century, leprosaria were established in many Danish towns and cities. In the city of Odense (on the island of Funen, Denmark), the cemetery of the leprosarium was totally excavated, and four nonleprosarium medieval and early modern cemeteries have been partly excavated. This paper explores the frequency of leprosy in the nonleprosarium cemeteries in Odense, and looks for evidence of selective exclusion from the ordinary population. The analyses are based on 733 skeletons from four cemeteries in Odense: the Gray Friars monastery, St. Albani parish church, St. Knuds cathedral, and Black Friars monastery. Seven lesions are scored and, based on known epidemiological properties (i.e., specificity and sensitivity) of these lesions, scores were transformed to statistics characterizing an individual's risk of having suffered from leprosy. This statistical approach remains of primary theoretical value, pending confirmation by independent research groups at other sites. Prevalence of the skeletal manifestation of leprosy at death varied between 0-17% among the different cemeteries in Odense. The highest prevalence was seen in cemeteries with many burials before AD 1400. It is estimated that before AD 1400, between 14-17% of those buried in the nonleprosarium cemeteries suffered from leprosy. In all nonleprosarium cemeteries, there was evidence for selective exclusion of people with facial leprosy lesions. For a short period just up to AD 1300, the cemetery of the Odense leprosarium had, on average, more than 20 yearly burials. The establishment of the leprosarium was followed within a relatively short period by a dramatic decline in the number of sufferers of leprosy in the nonleprosarium cemeteries. The number of yearly burials in the leprosarium cemetery also declined rapidly during the 14th century. The present analyses do not permit conclusions about

  6. Prenatal phthalate exposure and language development in toddlers from the Odense Child Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Trine Staak; Bleses, Dorthe; Andersen, Helle Raun; Grandjean, Philippe; Frederiksen, Hanne; Trecca, Fabio; Bilenberg, Niels; Kyhl, Henriette Boye; Dalsager, Louise; Jensen, Inge Kjær; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jensen, Tina Kold

    Phthalates are a group of chemicals found in a variety of consumer products. They have anti-androgenic properties and human studies have reported associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and neuropsychological development in the offspring despite different cognitive tests, different ages and varying timing of exposure. To investigate the association between prenatal phthalate exposure and language development in children aged 20-36months. In the Odense Child Cohort, we analyzed 3rd trimester urine samples of 518 pregnant women for content of metabolites of diethyl, di-n-butyl, diisobutyl, butylbenzyl, di(2-ethylhexyl), and diisononyl phthalate, adjusted for osmolality. Language development was addressed using the Danish version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories "Words and Sentences". Associations were assessed using logistic regression models comparing children below and above the 15th percentile while stratifying by sex and adjusting for maternal age and educational level. Phthalate metabolites were detectable in all samples although in lower levels than previous studies. Among boys, increased prenatal phthalate exposure was associated with lower scores in language development; odds ratios for vocabulary score below the 15th percentile with doubling in monoethyl phthalate, and summed di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites were respectively 1.24 (95% confidence interval: 1.05,1.46), and 1.33 (1.01,1.75). Similar associations were found for language complexity. No associations were found for girls. Our findings are notable, as adverse associations were suggested even in this low-level exposed population, with only one spot urine sample for exposure assessment and control for confounders. Lower scores in early language development are of relevance to health as this test predicts later educational success. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Three concepts of cloning in human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ke-Hui

    2005-07-01

    Human cloning, organ cloning and tissue cloning are various types of cloning that occur at different levels with different methodologies. According to three standards of terminology for an embryo (fertilization through germ cells, development in the uterus and having the potential to produce a human life), tissue cloning and type I organ cloning will not produce an embryo. In contrast, human cloning and type II organ cloning will produce an embryo. Thus, only non-germinal tissue cloning and type I organ cloning are beyond the ethical question and will not change human beings as a species. Using cloned tissues to make new tissues or organs is promising for the future of medicine.

  8. Human-Level Artificial Intelligence? Be Serious!

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Nils J.

    2005-01-01

    I claim that achieving real human-level artificial intelligence would necessarily imply that most of the tasks that humans perform for pay could be automated. Rather than work toward this goal of automation by building special-purpose systems, I argue for the development of general-purpose, educable systems that can learn and be taught to perform any of the thousands of jobs that humans can perform. Joining others who have made similar proposals, I advocate beginning with a system that has mi...

  9. Legally Human? 'Novel Beings' and English Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David R; Brazier, Margaret

    2018-04-17

    Novel beings-intelligent, conscious life-forms sapient in the same way or greater than are human beings-are no longer the preserve of science fiction. Through technologies such as artificial general intelligence, synthetic genomics, gene printing, cognitive enhancement, advanced neuroscience, and more, they are becoming ever more likely and by some definitions may already be emerging. Consideration of the nature of intelligent, conscious novel beings such as those that may result from these technologies requires analysis of the concept of the 'reasonable creature in being' in English law, as well as of the right to life as founded in the European Convention on Human Rights and the attempts to endow human status on animals in recent years. Our exploration of these issues leads us to conclude that there is a strong case to recognize such 'novel' beings as entitled to the same fundamental rights to life, freedom from inhumane treatment, and liberty as we are.

  10. Does Globalization Affect Human Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Chang

    2007-01-01

    The prevailing theorizing of globalization's influence of human well-being suggests to assess both the favorable and unfavorable outcomes. This study formulates a dialectical model, adopts a comprehensive globalization measure and uses a three-wave panel data during 1980-2000 to empirically test direct and indirect effects of global flows' human…

  11. Getting Back on Track to Being Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcia Narvaez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation and compassion are forms of intelligence. Their lack is an indication of ongoing stress or toxic stress during development that undermined the usual growth of compassion capacities. Though it is hard to face at first awareness, humans in the dominant culture tend to be pretty unintelligent compared to those from societies that existed sustainably for thousands, sometimes tens of thousands, of years. Whereas in sustainable societies everyone must learn to cooperate with earth’s systems to survive and thrive, in the dominant culture this is no longer the case. Now due to technological advances that do not take into account the long-term welfare of earth systems, humans have become “free riders” until these systems collapse from abuse or misuse. The dominant human culture, a “weed species,” has come to devastate planetary ecosystems in a matter of centuries. What do we do to return ourselves to living as earth creatures, as one species among many in community? Humanity needs to restore lost capacities—relational attunement and communal imagination—whose loss occurs primarily in cultures dominated by child-raising practices and ways of thinking that undermine cooperative companionship and a sense of partnership that otherwise develops from the beginning of life. To plant the seeds of cooperation, democracy, and partnership, we need to provide the evolved nest to children, and facilitate the development of ecological attachment to their landscape. This will take efforts at the individual, policy, and institutional levels.

  12. The difference of being human: Morality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Francisco J.

    2010-01-01

    In The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, published in 1871, Charles Darwin wrote: “I fully … subscribe to the judgment of those writers who maintain that of all the differences between man and the lower animals the moral sense or conscience is by far the most important.” I raise the question of whether morality is biologically or culturally determined. The question of whether the moral sense is biologically determined may refer either to the capacity for ethics (i.e., the proclivity to judge human actions as either right or wrong), or to the moral norms accepted by human beings for guiding their actions. I propose that the capacity for ethics is a necessary attribute of human nature, whereas moral codes are products of cultural evolution. Humans have a moral sense because their biological makeup determines the presence of three necessary conditions for ethical behavior: (i) the ability to anticipate the consequences of one's own actions; (ii) the ability to make value judgments; and (iii) the ability to choose between alternative courses of action. Ethical behavior came about in evolution not because it is adaptive in itself but as a necessary consequence of man's eminent intellectual abilities, which are an attribute directly promoted by natural selection. That is, morality evolved as an exaptation, not as an adaptation. Moral codes, however, are outcomes of cultural evolution, which accounts for the diversity of cultural norms among populations and for their evolution through time. PMID:20445091

  13. Human nature: neither material nor spiritually being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alba Martínez Amorós

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The idea of «human nature» defended by Ortega y Gasset is as original as opposite to what is usually understood. We are making a mistake if the starting point is to conceive Man as one living being among others. Neither science nor philosophy, while remaining in the Eleatic tradition, can give a clear explanation. Science, because if we look at Man, as he is presented to us, it is impossible to distinguish in him materially from spiritually; his body and his psyche. Philosophy, because the concept of «human nature» is an invention of our reason, a fantasy. That nature doesn’t exist because the being of man is so strange and different from other beings that its consistency is just going to be what it never manages to be. Therefore, it is what happens, a journey, a history that is running within a circumstance. This is my life, and that of everyone.

  14. Human Being and the Philosophical Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Arsith

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis from which we start our approach is the one according to which the philosophicaldiscourse is a specific way of communicating the reality. The base of the philosophical communication issurprise, doubt, uncertainty, anxiety, all generated by the fundamental interrogations of Kantian origin: Howmuch am I able to know? What do I have to do? What am I allowed to hope? The answers to all thesequestions were set up in philosophical concepts and visions, all of them leading to communication, trying toexpress themselves and make themselves understood. Communicability is the very essence of thephilosophical approach. Actually, communication is a fundamental philosophical attitude as I, in my capacityof human being, live only with the other, in full interaction. On my own I am nothing. Throughout this paperwe find arguments for the idea according to which the philosophical discourse subordinates an art ofgenuinely living and communicating about balance and avoidance of excess, about the ability to assume andovercome, about lucidity and wisdom, about credibility, certainty and truth, about freedom and limitation,about the meaning and value of the human condition.

  15. [Ambulance services in Copenhagen, Odense and Ringkøbing County. Results of the spot test conducted by the Ministry of Health and the County Councils Association in 1990. 1. Epidemiological data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, H; Larsen, C F

    1992-02-17

    In 1990, The Danish Ministry of Health and the County Council Association undertook a spot test investigation of the activities in connection with 3,182 emergency ambulance services (AU) in the Municipality of Copenhagen (a city), the Odense district (a large provincial town) and the County of Ringkøbing (a mixed rural and urban region). The investigation included data collected by the ambulance staff before hospitalization and the diagnoses on discharge from casualty and hospital departments. The frequency of AU per 1,000 population was found to be 101 annually in Copenhagen, 44 in Odense and 19 in the County of Ringkøbing. More than 10% of the services in all three regions did not result in transport of the patient to hospital treatment. The average age of the patients was 52 years in Copenhagen compared with 44 years in the other two regions. The age-specific frequency of AU for patients aged 0-4 year-old was nine times as great in Copenhagen than in Odense and the County of Ringkøbing and, where patients aged more than 80 years were concerned, the frequency was 4-10 times as great. In all three regions, the activities of ambulance services were most numerous between 6-16 hours and lowest during the period 0-6 hours. Services to patients' homes constituted 44-46% and to traffic regions 32-40%. Services on account of illness constituted 41-45% and, on account of accidents, 27-35%. In cases of rapid emergency transport (using signals), 78% of the ambulances had reached the patient within five minutes in Copenhagen as compared with 44% in Odense and the County of Ringkøbing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Will human populations be limited by food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, S. G.

    2016-12-01

    Historical examples of demographic change, in China, Italy, Nigeria, Utah, the Philippines, and elsewhere, together with simple mathematics and biological principles, show that stabilizing world population before it is limited by food supply will be more difficult than is generally appreciated. United Nations population projections are based on a logical fallacy in that they assume, in spite of the absence of necessary negative feedbacks, that all nations will converge rapidly to replacement-level fertility and thereafter remain at that level. The benign projections that have resulted from this assumption may have hindered efforts to make availability of birth-control a priority in development-aid. Education of women and provision of contraceptives have caused dramatic reductions in fertility, but many groups, including some that are well-educated, maintain high fertility. Small groups with persistent high fertility can grow to supplant low-fertility groups, resulting in continued growth of the total population. The global average fertility rate could rise even if each country's fertility rate is falling. In some low-fertility European countries where deaths exceed births, the population continues to grow because of immigration. Producing more than two offspring is normal for all animal species with stable populations, because their populations are limited by resources or predation rather than birth control. It may therefore be appropriate to view the growth of human population as the result not of excess fertility but rather of excess food. Even if the fertility rate is maintained far in excess of 2, the population cannot grow if food is limiting. Without the agricultural advances of the 20thcentury, world population could not have grown as it did from 1.7 billion in 1900 to 6 billion in 2000. The food supply may be enhanced in the future by genetic engineering and other innovations, but it may be limited by water shortage, climate change, pollution, and energy

  17. Are (Should) Human Rights (Be) Universal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rhoda E.

    1998-01-01

    Believes that the purpose of human rights is to change many culturally ingrained habits and customs that violate the dignity of the individual. Expounds the differences between cultural relativism and cultural absolutism. States that "weak" cultural relativism is sometimes an appropriate response to human-rights violations. (CMK)

  18. Menarkalderen blandt skolepiger i Odense. Falder menarkalderen fortsat i Danmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldsen, J L; Jeune, B; Bach-Rasmussen, K L

    1993-01-01

    at the menarche was found to be the same throughout the municipality (13.27 years; 95% confidence limit 13.20-13.35). The variations were found to be significantly differentiated by the type of school district. The variations were low in the suburbs and in the surrounding rural districts, higher in the inner city...

  19. The craniomandibular mechanics of being human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroe, Stephen; Ferrara, Toni L.; McHenry, Colin R.; Curnoe, Darren; Chamoli, Uphar

    2010-01-01

    Diminished bite force has been considered a defining feature of modern Homo sapiens, an interpretation inferred from the application of two-dimensional lever mechanics and the relative gracility of the human masticatory musculature and skull. This conclusion has various implications with regard to the evolution of human feeding behaviour. However, human dental anatomy suggests a capacity to withstand high loads and two-dimensional lever models greatly simplify muscle architecture, yielding less accurate results than three-dimensional modelling using multiple lines of action. Here, to our knowledge, in the most comprehensive three-dimensional finite element analysis performed to date for any taxon, we ask whether the traditional view that the bite of H. sapiens is weak and the skull too gracile to sustain high bite forces is supported. We further introduce a new method for reconstructing incomplete fossil material. Our findings show that the human masticatory apparatus is highly efficient, capable of producing a relatively powerful bite using low muscle forces. Thus, relative to other members of the superfamily Hominoidea, humans can achieve relatively high bite forces, while overall stresses are reduced. Our findings resolve apparently discordant lines of evidence, i.e. the presence of teeth well adapted to sustain high loads within a lightweight cranium and mandible. PMID:20554545

  20. [Injuries sustained by bus passengers in the municipality of Odense 1996-1999].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, T; Faergemann, C; Larsen, L B

    2001-10-22

    Owing to several recent bus-related accidents in Denmark, we wished to investigate injuries sustained by passengers. From our ongoing registration of patients treated in the casualty department at Odense University Hospital, we identified all residents of Odense Municipality who had sustained injuries as bus passengers from 1996 to 1999. Market analysis and demographic information were used to calculate the incidence and risk. Over this four-year period, 327 consecutive injuries had been sustained by 246 bus passengers, 72 men and 174 women, mean ages 44 and 53 years. The incidence rate was 3.3 injured per 10,000 inhabitants per year, with no increasing tendency during the study period. The risk was 2.2 injured per 1,000,000 bus passengers per year, highest in women and increasing with age. Injuries most frequently occurred when the bus stopped (31%), as passengers were boarding or alighting (23%), or during collision with another vehicle (20%). Most commonly injured areas were the lower (30%) and upper (28%) extremities and the head or neck (27%). Contusions and sprains were the most common injuries (59%). The most common fractures were those of the humerus and hip region. Bus passenger injuries are not a growing problem. The incidence increases with age.

  1. The human being facing the climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bard, E.

    2006-01-01

    This book presents the results of physics, biology, environment and chemistry experts discussions concerning the climatic change. What do we know from the passed climates? Can we forecast those of the next ten years? What is the part of the human activities in this evolution? What can we do and what must we do? (A.L.B.)

  2. Black painted pottery, Kildehuse II, Odense County, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trąbska, Joanna; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Zięba-Palus, Janina; Runge, Mads Thagård

    2011-08-01

    This work aimed at characterization of a black layer covering a Bronze Age (period VI) pot surface. To solve research problems plane polarized light microscopy (PLM), scanning microscopy with X-ray microanalyser (SEM/EDS), Raman and FTIR microspectroscopies were applied. Observation of the black layer under the PLM suggests that we deal with an opaque, isotropic layer, purposely put on leather-hard, burnished surface of a pot. No traces of organic substances that might have modified a pot surface before painting were detected. The black layer coats the pot with a continuous 0.2-0.4 μm thick layer. The black layer must have been applied while warm or hot. It is recognized that the black layer is a true painting layer. Spectroscopic analyses (Raman and FTIR) point that birch tar or a birch-pine tar had been applied. Carbon black should be definitely excluded. The analyzed organic substance is structurally ordered in various degrees, due to varying temperature influence. Some Raman spectra reveal, in second-order region of the spectrum (>2000 cm -1), the graphite presence. Scarce points reveal the presence of inorganic admixtures: clay minerals, feldspars and quartz. The next question is: Is it an organic paint or a carbon-based, "mixed" paint? Inorganic admixtures are only casual. Relatively high concentration of alumina is expected to have appeared due to aluminum mobility in acidic environment and this was provided by organic tar/pitch substances. Phosphorus (usually with calcium) mostly concentrates together with clay minerals. Thus, hypothesis on bone powder or ash addition to tar/pitch should be excluded. Some elements may originate not only from inorganic substances but also from wood ashes.

  3. The cost of dementia in Denmark: the Odense Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronborg Andersen, C; Søgaard, J; Hansen, E; Kragh-Sørensen, A; Hastrup, L; Andersen, J; Andersen, K; Lolk, A; Nielsen, H; Kragh-Sørensen, P

    1999-01-01

    In a population-based study of dementia, the cost of care for 245 demented elderly and 490 controls matched by age and gender was estimated. Dementia of Alzheimer's type was diagnosed according to the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria, and vascular dementia and other types of dementia were diagnosed according to the DSM-IIIR criteria. Severity of dementia was determined by the Clinical Dementia Rating scale. The annual cost of medical care, domestic care, home help, nursing home and special equipment for nondemented patients was DKK 22,000 per person while the cost for very mildly, mildly, moderately and severely demented patients was DKK 49,000, DKK 93,000, DKK 138,000 and DKK 206,000, respectively. Except for very mild dementia the cost did not differ between elderly who suffer from Alzheimer's disease and those with other types of dementia. The net cost of dementia is the difference in cost between those with dementia and the matched controls and amounts on average to DKK 77,000 per person per year. However, priority setting cannot be based on the cost of dementia per se, but only on the cost of a specific dementia intervention compared to its health benefit.

  4. To be or not to be: Stuttering and the human costs of being "un-disabled".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermeyer, Brian; Kathard, Harsha

    2016-02-01

    The centrality of communicating in human life means that communication difficulties are experienced at a deeply personal level and have significant implications for identity. Intervention methods may interact positively or negatively with these experiences. This paper explores this intersection in the case of stuttering, suggesting that some intervention styles may dovetail unhelpfully with the "mainstream" prizing of normalcy. In particular, most "western" societies offer a performance-oriented milieu which prizes efficiency, immediacy and competitiveness, diverting energy from the equally important work of understanding and integrating difference. Given that a person who stutters speaks fluently and with a stutter, stuttering can lean toward a complex view of disability identity-being both able and disabled. This split repertoire invites psychologically costly efforts at being "un-disabled". Interventions which amplify this tendency can contribute to an alienation from self amid strivings for normalcy.

  5. Economic assessment of climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in Odense, Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Q; Halsnæs, K; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is likely to influence the water cycle by changing the precipitation patterns, in some cases leading to increased occurrences of precipitation extremes. Urban landscapes are vulnerable to such changes due to the concentrated population and socio-economic values in cities. Feasible adaptation requires better flood risk quantification and assessment of appropriate adaptation actions in term of costs and benefits. This paper presents an economic assessment of three prevailing climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in a Danish case study, Odense. A risk-based evaluation framework is used to give detailed insights of the physical and economic feasibilities of each option. Estimation of marginal benefits of adaptation options are carried out through a step-by-step cost-benefit analysis. The results are aimed at providing important information for decision making on how best to adapt to urban pluvial flooding due to climate impacts in cities.

  6. Can human amblyopia be treated in adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astle, Andrew T.; McGraw, Paul V.; Webb, Ben S.

    2012-01-01

    Amblyopia is a common visual disorder that results in a spatial acuity deficit in the affected eye. Orthodox treatment is to occlude the unaffected eye for lengthy periods, largely determined by the severity of the visual deficit at diagnosis. Although this treatment is not without its problems (poor compliance, potential to reduce binocular function etc.) it is effective in many children with moderate to severe amblyopia. Diagnosis and initiation of treatment early in life are thought to be critical to the success of this form of therapy. Occlusion is rarely undertaken in older children (over 10 years old) as the visual benefits are considered to be marginal. Therefore, in subjects where occlusion is not effective or those missed by mass screening programmes there is no alternative therapy available later in life. More recently, burgeoning evidence has begun to reveal previously unrecognised levels of residual neural plasticity in the adult brain and scientists have developed new genetic, pharmacological and behavioural interventions to activate these latent mechanisms in order to harness their potential for visual recovery. Prominent amongst these is the concept of perceptual learning - the fact that repeatedly practicing a challenging visual task leads to substantial and enduring improvements in visual performance over time. In the normal visual system the improvements are highly specific to the attributes of the trained stimulus. However, in the amblyopic visual system learned improvements have been shown to generalize to novel tasks. In this paper we ask whether amblyopic deficits can be reduced in adulthood and explore the pattern of transfer of learned improvements. We also show that developing training protocols that target the deficit in stereo acuity allows the recovery of normal stereo function even in adulthood. This information will help guide further development of learning-based interventions in this clinical group. PMID:21870913

  7. Statistical physics of human beings in games: Controlled experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Yuan; Huang Ji-Ping

    2014-01-01

    It is important to know whether the laws or phenomena in statistical physics for natural systems with non-adaptive agents still hold for social human systems with adaptive agents, because this implies whether it is possible to study or understand social human systems by using statistical physics originating from natural systems. For this purpose, we review the role of human adaptability in four kinds of specific human behaviors, namely, normal behavior, herd behavior, contrarian behavior, and hedge behavior. The approach is based on controlled experiments in the framework of market-directed resource-allocation games. The role of the controlled experiments could be at least two-fold: adopting the real human decision-making process so that the system under consideration could reflect the performance of genuine human beings; making it possible to obtain macroscopic physical properties of a human system by tuning a particular factor of the system, thus directly revealing cause and effect. As a result, both computer simulations and theoretical analyses help to show a few counterparts of some laws or phenomena in statistical physics for social human systems: two-phase phenomena or phase transitions, entropy-related phenomena, and a non-equilibrium steady state. This review highlights the role of human adaptability in these counterparts, and makes it possible to study or understand some particular social human systems by means of statistical physics coming from natural systems. (topical review - statistical physics and complex systems)

  8. Statistical physics of human beings in games: Controlled experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuan; Huang, Ji-Ping

    2014-07-01

    It is important to know whether the laws or phenomena in statistical physics for natural systems with non-adaptive agents still hold for social human systems with adaptive agents, because this implies whether it is possible to study or understand social human systems by using statistical physics originating from natural systems. For this purpose, we review the role of human adaptability in four kinds of specific human behaviors, namely, normal behavior, herd behavior, contrarian behavior, and hedge behavior. The approach is based on controlled experiments in the framework of market-directed resource-allocation games. The role of the controlled experiments could be at least two-fold: adopting the real human decision-making process so that the system under consideration could reflect the performance of genuine human beings; making it possible to obtain macroscopic physical properties of a human system by tuning a particular factor of the system, thus directly revealing cause and effect. As a result, both computer simulations and theoretical analyses help to show a few counterparts of some laws or phenomena in statistical physics for social human systems: two-phase phenomena or phase transitions, entropy-related phenomena, and a non-equilibrium steady state. This review highlights the role of human adaptability in these counterparts, and makes it possible to study or understand some particular social human systems by means of statistical physics coming from natural systems.

  9. HUMAN BEINGS TRAFFICKING IN THE EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS CASE-LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Laura-Cristiana SPĂTARU-NEGURĂ

    2017-01-01

    After last year’s analysis regarding the European Union’s commitment to fight against the human beings trafficking, we have considered to further explore the human beings trafficking approach in the European Court of Human Rights case-law, the most developped regional jurisdiction on human rights. Surprisingly, the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms does not make an express reference to the human beings trafficking. However, we have to bear in mind...

  10. Being human in a global age of technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelton, Beverly J B

    2016-01-01

    This philosophical enquiry considers the impact of a global world view and technology on the meaning of being human. The global vision increases our awareness of the common bond between all humans, while technology tends to separate us from an understanding of ourselves as human persons. We review some advances in connecting as community within our world, and many examples of technological changes. This review is not exhaustive. The focus is to understand enough changes to think through the possibility of healthcare professionals becoming cyborgs, human-machine units that are subsequently neither human and nor machine. It is seen that human technology interfaces are a different way of interacting but do not change what it is to be human in our rational capacities of providing meaningful speech and freely chosen actions. In the highly technical environment of the ICU, expert nurses work in harmony with both the technical equipment and the patient. We used Heidegger to consider the nature of equipment, and Descartes to explore unique human capacities. Aristotle, Wallace, Sokolowski, and Clarke provide a summary of humanity as substantial and relational. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. First contacts and the common behavior of human beings

    OpenAIRE

    Van Brakel, Jaap

    2005-01-01

    In this paper my aim is to shed light on the common behavior of human beings by looking at '' first contacts '': the situation where people with unshared histories first meet (who don't speak one an others' language, don't have access to interpreters, etc.). The limits of the human life form are given by what is similar in the common behavior(s) of human beings. But what is similar should not be understood as something that is biologically or psychologically or transcendentally shared by all ...

  12. Human factors/ergonomics as a systems discipline? "The human use of human beings" revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Discussions of the possible future of Human factors/ergonomics (HFE) usually take the past for granted in the sense that the future of HFE is assumed to be more of the same. This paper argues that the nature of work in the early 2010s is so different from the nature of work when HFE was formulated...

  13. Foetal exposure to food and environmental carcinogens in human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myöhänen, Kirsi; Vähäkangas, Kirsi

    2012-02-01

    Exposure to many different chemicals during pregnancy through maternal circulation is possible. Transplacental transfer of xenobiotics can be demonstrated using human placental perfusion. Also, placental perfusion can give information about the placental kinetics as well as metabolism and accumulation in the placenta because it retains the tissue structure and function. Although human placental perfusion has been used extensively to study the transplacental transfer of drugs, the information on food and environmental carcinogens is much more limited. This review deals with the foetal exposure to food and environmental carcinogens in human beings. In particular, human transplacental transfer of the food carcinogens such as acrylamide, glycidamide and nitrosodimethylamine are in focus. Because these carcinogens are genotoxic, the functional capacity of human placenta to induce DNA adduct formation or metabolize these above mentioned CYP2E1 substrates is of interest in this context. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  14. Investigation of a possible outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Odense, Denmark using PFGE, MLST and whole-genome-based SNPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, Anette M; Hansen, Frank; Skov, Marianne N

    2015-01-01

    carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii were detected at Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark. These isolates were typed by PFGE, with ApaI and SmaI, respectively, and subjected to WGS. The WGS data were used for in silico extraction of MLST types using two different schemes, resistance genes and SNPs......, to which 31 publicly available A. baumannii genomes were added. RESULTS: Using ApaI, the eight isolates had four different PFGE profiles, which were further differentiated using SmaI, separating one of the profiles into two distinct PFGE types. Five ST2 (Pasteur MLST) OXA-23-producing isolates, two ST1 OXA...

  15. [Human nature and the enhancement of human beings in the light of the transhumanist program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffi, Jean-Yves

    2011-01-01

    There are three main approaches about the question of Human Nature. essentialists consider that there exists a permanent Human Nature, shared by every human being. Existentialists consider that there is no such thing as human nature, but inescapable modes of being in the world. A moderate approach would consider that Human Nature can be modified within the limits of anthropological invariants. Transhumanists are conservative in that they think that there is a Human Nature; but they are radical in that they believe that it can (and must) be transcended by bio-technnologies and computer technologies. This project is evaluated as a caricature of suitable human enhancement.

  16. Using Drones to Study Human Beings: Ethical and Regulatory Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Elliott, Kevin C

    2018-02-27

    Researchers have used drones to track wildlife populations, monitor forest fires, map glaciers, and measure air pollution but have only begun to consider how to use these unmanned aerial vehicles to study human beings. The potential use of drones to study public gatherings or other human activities raises novel issues of privacy, confidentiality, and consent, which this article explores in depth. It argues that drone research could fall into several different categories: non-human subjects research (HSR), exempt HSR, or non-exempt HSR. In the case of non-exempt HSR, it will be difficult for institutional review boards to approve studies unless they are designed so that informed consent can be waived. Whether drone research is non-HSR, exempt HSR, or non-exempt HSR, it is important for investigators to consult communities which could be affected by the research.

  17. Recharge Rates to Deep Aquifer Layers Estimated with {sup 39}Ar, {sup 85}Kr and {sup 14}C Data: A Case Study in Odense (Denmark)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purtschert, R. [Climate and Environmental Physics, University of Bern (Switzerland); Bjerre, T. K.; Linderberg, J. [Odense Water, Odense (Denmark); Hinsby, K. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-07-15

    The increasing pressure on groundwater resources due to overexploitation, contamination and also due to the effects of climate change leads to an increasing need and interest to investigate the recharge and flow dynamics of pre-modern groundwater (>50 a old). Knowledge about turnover times and groundwater age is crucial e.g. in vulnerability assessment studies as shallow and young groundwater is more susceptible to environmental changes than deeper and generally older groundwater. The presence and age of young water can be determined by a series of transient tracers (e.g. {sup 3}H/{sup 3}He, CFC's, SF{sub 6}, etc). However, with the need to exploit deeper unpolluted resources a tracer on timescales of hundreds of years is required. {sup 39}Ar (T{sub 1/2}: 269 a), {sup 85}Kr (T{sub 1/2}: 10.8 a) and {sup 14}C (T{sub 1/2}: 5730 a) results from 35 wells around the city of Odense (Denmark) are presented. The determined age spectra range from a few years to several hundreds of years. Based on the space-depth distribution of age gradients, renewal/recharge rates to the deep aquifer layers have been estimated. The comparison of {sup 39}Ar and {sup 14}C activities reveals a remarkably good correlation but with a distinct difference in age scale suggesting mixing due to broad age distributions and activity shifts due to rock-water interaction. (author)

  18. Trafficking in human beings, enslavement, crimes against humanity: unravelling the concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wilt, H.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the conceptual relationship between trafficking in human beings, enslavement and crimes against humanity. The analysis of case law of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and the European Court on Human Rights reveals that, while trafficking in human

  19. Individual differences in the learning potential of human beings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Elsbeth

    2017-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, the genetic foundations that guide human brain development have not changed fundamentally during the past 50,000 years. However, because of their cognitive potential, humans have changed the world tremendously in the past centuries. They have invented technical devices, institutions that regulate cooperation and competition, and symbol systems, such as script and mathematics, that serve as reasoning tools. The exceptional learning ability of humans allows newborns to adapt to the world they are born into; however, there are tremendous individual differences in learning ability among humans that become obvious in school at the latest. Cognitive psychology has developed models of memory and information processing that attempt to explain how humans learn (general perspective), while the variation among individuals (differential perspective) has been the focus of psychometric intelligence research. Although both lines of research have been proceeding independently, they increasingly converge, as both investigate the concepts of working memory and knowledge construction. This review begins with presenting state-of-the-art research on human information processing and its potential in academic learning. Then, a brief overview of the history of psychometric intelligence research is combined with presenting recent work on the role of intelligence in modern societies and on the nature-nurture debate. Finally, promising approaches to integrating the general and differential perspective will be discussed in the conclusion of this review.

  20. The Future Human Being – What is it like?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matusevych Tetiana

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Realization of permanent transformational transitions has brought to necessity to apprehend complex ontological issues of a new reality for development of a complex strategy for adequate opposition to challenges faced by the humanity. Understanding the role of education in the formation and development of a future human being ranks first among these issues. In this article I have analyzed modern directions of futuristic apprehension of a sense of transformational changes of a man (transhumanism, theory of androgyny, represented a key role of the philosophy of education in development of an image of the future human being, and determined main characteristics of a personality of planetary-cosmic type, system of his personal, local and global interactions.

  1. The well-being of laboratory non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kate C; Dettmer, Amanda M

    2017-01-01

    The well-being of non-human primates in captivity is of joint concern to scientists, veterinarians, colony managers, caretakers, and researchers working with non-human primates in biomedical research. With increased regulatory, accreditation, and research focus on optimizing the use of social housing for laboratory primates, as well as the advent of techniques to assess indices of chronic stress and related measures of well-being, there is no better time to present the most current advances in the field of non-human primate behavioral management. The collective body of research presented here was inspired in part by a 2014 symposium entitled, "Chronic Hormones and Demographic Variables: Center-Wide Studies on Non-Human Primate Well-Being" held at the American Society of Primatologists' 37th Annual Meeting in Decatur, GA. By aiming to target readership with scientific and/or management oversight of captive primate behavioral management programs, this special issue provides badly-needed guidance for implementing social housing programs in a research environment and leverages collaboration across multiple facilities to address key components of behavioral management, explore refinements in how well-being can be measured, and identify the interrelationships between varying indices. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22520, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. ETHOS OF MUSIC ART AND HUMAN WELL-BEING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN COZMA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available What does make the ground of the authentic works of music art crossing the centuries and what does move the human soul any time and anywhere? Which is the support of music art – generally speaking – beyond its aesthetic dimension? How could we explain and understand, in a better and in a more efficient way, the powerful influence of musical artistic creation upon the human well-being? These are merely part of the interrogations challenging our interest in finding and revealing the profound link between ethical values, music art and human health (in its integrality. The purpose of this essay is to emphasize the foundation of human equilibrium considering the offer of the harmony carried by music art, exploring the significance of a nucleus-concept of the Greek philosophers that has been acknowledged as kalokagatheia – the self-fulfilled cultivation of body and soul, as a micro-cosmos living within the macro-cosmos. In terms of a philosophical hermeneutics of art, we reach to disclose part of the salutogenic function of music art concerning the human well-being in nowadays.

  3. Association between prenatal exposure to perfluorinated compounds and symptoms of infections at age 1-4 years among 359 children in the Odense Child Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsager, Louise; Christensen, Nikolas; Husby, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    on childhood infectious disease is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between prenatal exposure to PFAS and symptoms of infections at age 1-4years. METHODS: The Odense Child Cohort is an on-going prospective study on children's health, where serum concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonic...

  4. MTHFR c.677C>T polymorphism as an indepent predictor of peak bone mass in Danish men - results from the Odense Androgen Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Jørgensen, Henrik L.; Nielsen, Torben L.

    2005-01-01

    in the Odense Androgen Study. BMD at the spine, hip and whole-body was measured using a Hologic QDR-4500 densitometer. Genotype frequencies were compatible with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Spine BMD was significantly associated with genotype, with a decrease in BMD of 0.20 SD for each copy of the T...

  5. The human being and the climate, a dangerous relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bard, E.

    2005-11-01

    The author is analyzing the global warming problem, the human being liability facing the society debate, in front of scientific, economic and political challenges. He presents an history of the climatology from the antiquity to today and enhances the mechanisms involved in the climatic changes, and their effects on the environment and the earth. (A.L.B.)

  6. Persuasive technology for human well-being : Setting the scene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJsselsteijn, W.A.; Kort, de Y.A.W.; Midden, C.J.H.; Eggen, J.H.; Hoven, van den E.A.W.H.; Kort, de Y.A.W.; IJsselsteijn, W.A.; Midden, C.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    In this short paper we aim to give a brief introduction to persuasive technology, especially as it pertains to human well-being. We discuss a number of current research opportunities in areas of healthcare, environmental conservation, and education. We conclude by highlighting what we regard as the

  7. Why computer games can be essential for human flourishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fröding, B.; Peterson, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, playing computer games and engaging in other online activities has been seen as a threat to well-being, health and long-term happiness. It is feared that spending many hours per day in front of the screen leads the individual to forsake other, more worthwhile activities, such as human

  8. Linkages between landscapes and human well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieling, Claudia; Plieninger, Tobias; Pirker, Heidemarie

    2014-01-01

    in Germany and Austria by performing open, single-question interviews with 262 respondents. Data reveal an outstanding relevance of nonmaterial values. Linkages between landscapes and human well-being are tied to specific features of the material environment but, likewise, practices and experiences play...

  9. Presence of Beryllium (Be) in urban soils: human health risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A.; Gonzalez, M. J.; Lobo, M. C.

    2009-07-01

    Berylium (Be) is, together with As, Cd, Hg, Pb and Ti, one of the trace elements more toxic for human being (Vaessen) and Szteke, 2000; Yaman and Avci, 2006), but in spite of the exponential increment of its applications during the last decades, surprisingly there isn't hardly information about its presence and environmental distribution. The aim of this work is to evaluate the presence of Beryllium in urban soils in Alcala de Henares, (Madrid Spain).

  10. Managing the Activities Against Trafficking in Human Beings

    OpenAIRE

    Ion GANE

    2012-01-01

    Organized crime has a long history and has permanently adapted to the weaknesses of the legal system, procedures and operational capabilities of the national Law Enforcement Agencies. Economic discomfort appears to be the main reason for illegal migration movement throughout the world. Due to unemployment, many human beings become victims of trafficking- prostitution and slavery. Nevertheless, many of the willing migrants undertake the hazardous travel to their destination country with crimin...

  11. Human factors/ergonomics as a systems discipline? "The human use of human beings" revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollnagel, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Discussions of the possible future of Human factors/ergonomics (HFE) usually take the past for granted in the sense that the future of HFE is assumed to be more of the same. This paper argues that the nature of work in the early 2010s is so different from the nature of work when HFE was formulated 60-70 years ago that a critical reassessment of the basis for HFE is needed. If HFE should be a systems discipline, it should be a soft systems rather than a hard systems discipline. It is not enough for HFE to seek to improve performance and well-being through systems design, since any change to the work environment in principle alters the very basis for the change. Instead HFE should try to anticipate how the nature of work will change so that it can both foresee what work will be and propose what work should be. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Minority workers or minority human beings? A European dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove; Phillipson, Robert

    1996-07-01

    "European" identities may be politonymic, toponymic, ethnomyic or linguonymic (Bromley 1984). Each dimension may affect whether migrant minorities are treated as "European", and influence their schooling, integration and rights. Treatment and terminology vary in different states and periods of migration. However, the position for immigrated minorities is that they are still largely seen as workers rather than human beings with equal rights. Lack of success in schools is blamed on the migrants themselves rather than the educational system. This construction of migrants as being deficient is parallel to educational practice which falls within a UN definition of linguistic genocide, and contributes to mis-education. If current efforts in international bodies to codify educational linguistic human rights were to lead to greater support for minorities, this could assist in a redefinition of national identities and a reduction of racism and conflict.

  13. Teachers as Human Capital or Human Beings? USAID's Perspective on Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes three USAID education strategy documents (1998, 2005, and 2011) as well as USAID's requests for proposals for three projects to assess how teachers are represented. The main findings indicate that USAID education strategy documents a) treat teachers as human capital, a human resource input, rather than as human beings and b)…

  14. [Culpability and the problem of the human genome. Between being and having to be].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donna, Edgardo

    2011-01-01

    In a liberal-democratic system, there is no possibility of a criminal liability charge without a minimum of freedom. Nevertheless, since a long time ago and, nowadays, with the advancement of science in the human genome, understanding it as a closed system--farm theory--is intended to demonstrate that the genome is a destination, thus criminal liability will be void, giving rise to security measures.

  15. Surgery via natural orifices in human beings: yesterday, today, tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moris, Demetrios N; Bramis, Konstantinos J; Mantonakis, Eleftherios I; Papalampros, Efstathios L; Petrou, Athanasios S; Papalampros, Alexandros E

    2012-07-01

    We performed an evaluation of models, techniques, and applicability to the clinical setting of natural orifice surgery (mainly natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery [NOTES]) primarily in general surgery procedures. NOTES has attracted much attention recently for its potential to establish a completely alternative approach to the traditional surgical procedures performed entirely through a natural orifice. Beyond the potentially scar-free surgery and abolishment of dermal incision-related complications, the safety and efficacy of this new surgical technology must be evaluated. Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Entrez PubMed from 2007 to February 2011. Most of the references were identified from 2009 to 2010. There were limitations as far as the population that was evaluated (only human beings, no cadavers or animals) was concerned, but there were no limitations concerning the level of evidence of the studies that were evaluated. The studies that were deemed applicable for our review were published mainly from 2007 to 2010 (see Methods section). All the evaluated studies were conducted only in human beings. We studied the most common referred in the literature orifices such as vaginal, oral, gastric, esophageal, anal, or urethral. The optimal access route and method could not be established because of the different nature of each procedure. We mainly studied procedures in the field of general surgery such as cholecystectomy, intestinal cancers, renal cancers, appendectomy, mediastinoscopy, and peritoneoscopy. All procedures were feasible and most of them had an uneventful postoperative course. A number of technical problems were encountered, especially as far as pure NOTES procedures are concerned, which makes the need of developing new endoscopic instruments, to facilitate each approach, undeniable. NOTES is still in the early stages of development and more robust technologies will be needed to achieve reliable

  16. Quality of life philosophy II: what is a human being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Andersen, Niels Jørgen; Kromann, Maximilian; Merrick, Joav

    2003-12-01

    The human being is a complex matter and many believe that just trying to understand life and what it means to be human is a futile undertaking. We believe that we have to try to understand life and get a grip on the many faces of life, because it can be of great value to us to learn to recognize the fundamental principles of how life is lived to the fullest. Learning to recognize the good and evil forces of life helps us to make use of the good ones. To be human is to balance between hundreds of extremes. Sometimes we have to avoid these extremes, but at other times it seems we should pursue them, to better understand life. With our roots in medicine, we believe in the importance of love for better health. The secret of the heart is when reason and feelings meet and we become whole. Where reason is balanced perfectly by feelings and where mind and body come together in perfect unity, a whole new quality emerges, a quality that is neither feeling nor reason, but something deeper and more complete. In this paper, we outline only enough biology to clarify what the fundamental inner conflicts are about. The insight into these conflicts gives us the key to a great deal of the problems of life. To imagine pleasures greater than sensual pleasures seems impossible to most people. What could such a joy possibly be? But somewhere deep in life exists the finest sweetness, the greatest quality in life, the pure joy of being alive that emerges when we are fully present and life is in balance. This deep joy of life is what we call experiencing the meaning of life.

  17. Quality of Life Philosophy II: What is a Human Being?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The human being is a complex matter and many believe that just trying to understand life and what it means to be human is a futile undertaking. We believe that we have to try to understand life and get a grip on the many faces of life, because it can be of great value to us to learn to recognize the fundamental principles of how life is lived to the fullest. Learning to recognize the good and evil forces of life helps us to make use of the good ones.To be human is to balance between hundreds of extremes. Sometimes we have to avoid these extremes, but at other times it seems we should pursue them, to better understand life. With our roots in medicine, we believe in the importance of love for better health. The secret of the heart is when reason and feelings meet and we become whole. Where reason is balanced perfectly by feelings and where mind and body come together in perfect unity, a whole new quality emerges, a quality that is neither feeling nor reason, but something deeper and more complete.In this paper, we outline only enough biology to clarify what the fundamental inner conflicts are about. The insight into these conflicts gives us the key to a great deal of the problems of life. To imagine pleasures greater than sensual pleasures seems impossible to most people. What could such a joy possibly be? But somewhere deep in life exists the finest sweetness, the greatest quality in life, the pure joy of being alive that emerges when we are fully present and life is in balance. This deep joy of life is what we call experiencing the meaning of life.

  18. Can Nucleoli Be Markers of Developmental Potential in Human Zygotes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulka, Helena; Kyogoku, Hirohisa; Zatsepina, Olga; Langerova, Alena; Fulka, Josef

    2015-11-01

    In 1999, Tesarik and Greco reported that they could predict the developmental potential of human zygotes from a single static evaluation of their pronuclei. This was based on the distribution and number of specific nuclear organelles - the nucleoli. Recent studies in mice show that nucleoli play a key role in parental genome restructuring after fertilization, and that interfering with this process may lead to developmental failure. These studies thus support the Tesarik-Greco evaluation as a potentially useful method for selecting high-quality embryos in human assisted reproductive technologies. In this opinion article we discuss recent evidence linking nucleoli to parental genome reprogramming, and ask whether nucleoli can mirror or be used as representative markers of embryonic parameters such as chromosome content or DNA fragmentation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. HUMAN BEINGS TRAFFICKING IN THE EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS CASE-LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Cristiana SPĂTARU-NEGURĂ

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available After last year’s analysis regarding the European Union’s commitment to fight against the human beings trafficking, we have considered to further explore the human beings trafficking approach in the European Court of Human Rights case-law, the most developped regional jurisdiction on human rights. Surprisingly, the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms does not make an express reference to the human beings trafficking. However, we have to bear in mind that the Convention is a living instrument, its interpretation being made in the light of the present-day conditions. Thus, taking into consideration the global threat of this phenomenon, it is more obvious than ever that the Convention could not neglect this issue.

  20. Japan's silver human resource centers and participant well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Robert S; Bass, Scott A; Heimovitz, Harley K; Oka, Masato

    2005-03-01

    Japan's Silver Human Resource Center (SHRC) program provides part-time, paid employment to retirement-aged men and women. We studied 393 new program participants and examined whether part-time work influenced their well-being or "ikigai." The participants were divided into those who had worked in SHRC-provided jobs in the preceding year, and those who had not. Gender-stratified regression models were fitted to determine whether SHRC employment was associated with increased well-being. For men, actively working at a SHRC job was associated with greater well-being, compared to inactive members. And men with SHRC jobs and previous volunteering experience had the greatest increase in well-being. Women SHRC job holders did not experience increased well-being at the year's end. The study concludes that there is justification for exploring the usefulness of a similar program for American retirees who desire post-retirement part-time work.

  1. The Science of Unitary Human Beings in a Creative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caratao-Mojica, Rhea

    2015-10-01

    In moving into a new kind of world, nurses are encouraged to look ahead and be innovative by transcending to new ways of using nursing knowledge while embracing a new worldview. "We need to recognize that we're going to have to use our imagination more and more" (Rogers, 1994). On that note, the author in this paper explicates Rogers' science of unitary human beings in a creative way relating it to painting. In addition, the author also explores works derived from Rogers' science such as Butcher's (1993) and Cowling's (1997), which are here discussed in light of an artwork. A painting is presented with the unpredictability, creativity, and the "dance of color and light" (Butcher, 1993) is appreciated through comprehending essence, pandimensionality, and wholeness. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Editorial: Human well-being from different perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Espirito-Santo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2018, the editors of the Portuguese Journal of Behavioral and Social Research (PJBSR continue to favor the publication of original articles of investigation and revision in the areas of social and behavioral sciences. The PJBSR continues to promote thinking, questioning the changes in society, their realities, and rethinking their problems, encouraging a reflection among their readers. The number 1 of the fourth volume of the PJBSR adds four original articles and one review article. Although this issue of the PJBSR addresses different contents, there is evidence of a focus on the study of positive psychological variables and their relation to human well-being, whether it is operationalized as physical or mental health, studied in the context of institutionalization or in the context of the work, evaluated at the level of the subjective perception of well-being or the level of the conception of death with dignity.

  3. Trends in research involving human beings in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Eccard da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries have experienced a dramatic increase in the number of clinical studies in the last decades. The aim of this study was to describe 1 the number of clinical trials submitted to the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, Anvisa from 2007 to 2012 and the number of human-subject research projects approved by research ethics committees (RECs and the National Research Ethics Committee (Comissão Nacional de Ética em Pesquisa, CONEP in Brazil from 2007 to 2011 and 2 the diseases most frequently studied in Brazilian states in clinical trials approved in the country from 2009 to 2012, based on information from an Anvisa databank. Two databases were used: 1 the National Information System on Research Ethics Involving Human Beings (Sistema Nacional de Informação Sobre Ética em Pesquisa envolvendo Seres Humanos, SISNEP and 2 Anvisa's Clinical Research Control System (Sistema de Controle de Pesquisa Clínica, SCPC. Data from the SCPC indicated an increase of 32.7% in the number of clinical trials submitted to Anvisa, and data from the SISNEP showed an increase of 69.9% in those approved by RECs and CONEP (from 18 160 in 2007 to 30 860 in 2011. Type 2 diabetes (26.0% and breast cancer (20.5%-related to the main causes of mortality in Brazil-were the two most frequently studied diseases. The so-called “neglected diseases,” such as dengue fever, were among the least studied diseases in approved clinical trials, despite their significant impact on social, economic, and health indicators in Brazil. Overall, the data indicated 1 a clear trend toward more research involving human beings in Brazil, 2 good correspondence between diseases most studied in clinical trials approved by Anvisa and the main causes of death in Brazil, and 3 a low level of attention to neglected diseases, an issue that should be considered in setting future research priorities, given their socioeconomic and health effects.

  4. Health as a basic human need: would this be enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Thana Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Although the value of health is universally agreed upon, its definition is not. Both the WHO and the UN define health in terms of well-being. They advocate a globally shared responsibility that all of us - states, international organizations, pharmaceutical corporations, civil society, and individuals - bear for the health (that is, the well-being) of the world's population. In this paper I argue that this current well-being conception of health is troublesome. Its problem resides precisely in the fact that the well-being conception of health, as an all-encompassing label, does not properly distinguish between the different realities of health and the different demands of justice, which arise in each case. In addressing responsibilities related to the right to health, we need to work with a more differentiated vocabulary, which can account for these different realities. A crucial distinction to bear in mind, for the purposes of moral deliberation and the crafting of political and legal institutions, is the difference between basic and non-basic health needs. This distinction is crucial because we have presumably more stringent obligations and rights in relation to human needs that are basic, as they justify stronger moral claims, than those grounded on non-basic human needs. It is important to keep this moral distinction in mind because many of the world's problems regarding the right to health relate to basic health needs. By conflating these needs with less essential ones, we risk confusing different types of moral claims and weakening the overall case for establishing duties regarding the right to health. There is, therefore, a practical need to reevaluate the current normative conception of health so that it distinguishes, within the broad scope of well-being, between what is basic and what is not. My aim here is to shed light onto this distinction and to show the need for this differentiation. I do so, first, by providing, on the basis of David Miller

  5. In defense of the dignity of being human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylin, W

    1984-08-01

    The concept of human dignity is examined in terms of the religious belief that man is created in God's image and from the Kantian viewpoint that man's autonomy gives special value to our species. The theory of psychic determinism and the prospect of genetic engineering of humans are seen as attacks on self determination. Five additional attributes that make humans "special" are explored: conceptual thought, the capacity for technology, our range of emotions, "Lamarckian" environmental genetics, and the freedom to change and modify ourselves.

  6. Healty lifestyles a fundamental rigth on human being life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Salas Cabrera

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the impact of certain lifestyles in our daily lives, and to reference some of them, among which are a sedentary lifestyle, diet, physical activity, social and family support, and the impact they have on people’ quality of life. It is clear that as a human beings, the developments in everyday life are addressed by duties and rights that affect our way of living, hence all individuals should enjoy the right to a better quality of life; to achieve this, it is necessary to maintain healthy lifestyle habits that create mechanisms to protect people against the development of chronic degenerative diseases. Historically it has been shown that people who have unhealthy life habits develop over time no only hypokinetic diseases, but also neurological ones such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Under this scenario this paper is intended to present clear and concise information about what lifestyles represent to people and their importance as a right for everyone who decides to adapt them to their daily lives.

  7. Conflicts of interest in research involving human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Dirceu; Diniz, Nilza Maria

    2008-01-01

    Conflicts of interest are inherent to the majority of relationships among individuals and of these with companies and institutions and, certainly, research involving human beings is no exception. In relation to clinical research, the main focus of this manuscript, conflicts of interest occur at different levels and usually permeate among them: In the pharmaceutical industry in their decisions to invest to develop new products, especially vaccines and drugs, and also in relation to marketing of these products; Among the investigators the conflicts may be related to the financial gains to participate in pharma sponsored trials, or to the expected academic career boost attained with the publication of the results of the trials and also to personal interests such as the financial support for trips to international conferences. Often the participation of host country investigators is restricted to performing phase III or IV protocols developed abroad, many times with low scientific relevance, and even lower relevance to public health; Universities or research institutes themselves also have conflicts of interest, as the sponsored projects may help increase their budgets, both directly (taxes) and indirectly (e.g., improvement of physical infrastructure of laboratories or out patient clinics); For the trial volunteers in developing countries, and Brazil is no exception despite free and universal access to its health system, participation in clinical trials is many times seen as, and can really be, an unique opportunity of receiving better health care, better treatment by the health professionals, easier access to costly lab exams and also to receiving certain medications which would otherwise be difficult to have access to. In order to handle these conflicts of interest, Brazil has a well-established and respected legal support and ethical normatization. The latter is represented by Resolution 196/96 of the Brazilian National Research Ethics Committee (CONEP). This

  8. Can a Human-Induced Climate Disaster be Avoided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, R.

    2012-12-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) are one of the greatest threats to our future prosperity. World emissions are currently around 50 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide-equivalent per annum and are growing rapidly. Atmospheric concentrations of GHG emissions in the atmosphere have increased, to over 400ppm of CO2e today, even after taking the offsetting radiative effects of aerosols into account, and are increasing at a rate of around 2.5ppm per year. The world's current lack of "adequate" commitments to reduce emissions are consistent with at least a 3oC rise (50-50 chance) in temperature: a temperature not seen on the planet for around 3 million years, with serious risks of 5oC rise: a temperature not seen on the planet for around 30 million years. So what are the implications of a 3-5oC rise in temperature, with associated changes in, rising sea levels, retreating mountain glaciers, melting of the Greenland ice cap, shrinking Arctic Sea ice, especially in summer, increasing frequency of extreme weather events, such as heat waves, floods, and droughts, and intensification of cyclonic events, such as hurricanes in the Atlantic. Even a 2oC increase in mean surface temperatures will adversely affect freshwater, food and fiber, natural ecosystems, coastal systems and low-lying areas, human health and social systems, especially in developing countries. The impacts of 3-5oC will be extensive, predominantly negative, undermine development and poverty alleviation goals and cut across most sectors. To address human-induced climate change requires a transition to a low carbon economy, which will require rapid technological evolution in the efficiency of energy use, environmentally sound low-carbon renewable energy sources and carbon capture and storage. The longer we wait to transition to a low carbon economy the more we are locked into a high carbon energy system with consequent environmental damage to ecological and socio-economic systems. Unfortunately the political will

  9. Psychological aspects of human cloning and genetic manipulation: the identity and uniqueness of human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, N M

    2009-01-01

    Human cloning has become one of the most controversial debates about reproduction in Western civilization. Human cloning represents asexual reproduction, but the critics of human cloning argue that the result of cloning is not a new individual who is genetically unique. There is also awareness in the scientific community, including the medical community, that human cloning and the creation of clones are inevitable. Psychology and other social sciences, together with the natural sciences, will need to find ways to help the healthcare system, to be prepared to face the new challenges introduced by the techniques of human cloning. One of those challenges is to help the healthcare system to find specific standards of behaviour that could be used to help potential parents to interact properly with cloned babies or children created through genetic manipulation. In this paper, the concepts of personality, identity and uniqueness are discussed in relationship to the contribution of twin studies in these areas. The author argues that an individual created by human cloning techniques or any other type of genetic manipulation will not show the donor's characteristics to the extent of compromising uniqueness. Therefore, claims to such an effect are needlessly alarmist.

  10. Can Nucleoli Be Markers of Developmental Potential in Human Zygotes?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fulka, Helena; Kyogoku, H.; Zatsepina, O.; Langerova, A.; Fulka, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 11 (2015), s. 663-672 ISSN 1471-4914 Grant - others:GA ČR GA13-03269S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 ; RVO:67985904 Keywords : human zygotes * developmental potential * nucleoli Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.292, year: 2015

  11. Body, thought, being-human and artificial intelligence: Merleau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus then shifts to Merleau-Ponty in order to demonstrate the remarkable extent to which his understanding of human embodiment and related issues such as perception and creativity, paved the way for the work of, among others, Lyotard, and anticipated the critique of artificial intelligence on the part of the latter.

  12. Do perfume additives termed human pheromones warrant being termed pheromones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winman, Anders

    2004-09-30

    Two studies of the effects of perfume additives, termed human pheromones by the authors, have conveyed the message that these substances can promote an increase in human sociosexual behaviour [Physiol. Behav. 75 (2003) R1; Arch. Sex. Behav. 27 (1998) R2]. The present paper presents an extended analysis of this data. It is shown that in neither study is there a statistically significant increase in any of the sociosexual behaviours for the experimental groups. In the control groups of both studies, there are, however, moderate but statistically significant decreases in the corresponding behaviour. Most notably, there is no support in data for the claim that the substances increase the attractiveness of the wearers of the substances to the other sex. It is concluded that more research using matched homogenous groups of participants is needed. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  13. Do human beings contribute to the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stordal, Frode

    1999-01-01

    The various sources to and aspects of the greenhouse gas effect were discussed. The gas and pollutant contributions were estimated and the added amounts of methane, nitrogen dioxide and chlorofluorocarbons emissions were approximately equal to that of carbon dioxide. Problems connected to sulphur dioxide emissions were mentioned. The problems of UV and IR radiation were discussed. The sun shine intensity fluctuation was also considered as well as other factors that have influenced the climate before the industrial era. It was concluded that human activities have contributed to the alterations in the greenhouse effect in last century

  14. Nature is far more imaginative than human beings!

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Is today’s science fiction really tomorrow’s science fact (*)? If you remember the Star Trek TV series, you will have noticed that extra-dimensions are becoming more plausible than you could have imagined when Captain Kirk was leading the Enterprise. Lawrence Krauss, author of "The Physics of Star Trek", visited CERN on 28 August and told us how the LHC inspires him both as a scientist and as a writer.Wearing his cosmologist’s hat, Lawrence Krauss met the CERN audience in the Main Auditorium and gave a colloquium entitled "Cosmology as Science? From Inflation to Eternity". Wearing his other hat of bestselling writer, he told us that he finds the LHC a very inspiring human adventure. "The LHC and its experiments", he says, "represent how science can span and bridge human cultures and interests, focusing for an incredibly intense period on questions which may seem esoteric but in some way will give us insights into our place in the Universe". CERN science has inspired ...

  15. The Riddle of a Human Being: A Human Singularity of Co-evolutionary Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena N. Knyazeva

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: #39;Times New Roman#39;"The theory of self-organization of complex systems studies laws of sustainable co-evolutionary development of structures having different speeds of development as well as laws of assembling of a complex evolutionary whole from parts when some elements of ldquo;memoryrdquo; (the biological memory, i.e. DNA, the memory of culture, i.e. the cultural and historical traditions, etc. must be included. The theory reveals general rules of nonlinear synthesis of complex evolutionary structures. The most important and paradoxical consequences of the holistic view, including an approach to solving the riddle of human personality, are as follows: 1 the explanation why and under what conditions a part (a human can be more complex than a whole (society; 2 in order to reconstruct society it is necessary to change an individual but not by cutting off the supposed undesirable past, since a human being as a microcosm is the synthesis of all previous stages of evolution, and as a result of repression of, it would seem, the wild past one can extinguish a ldquo;divine sparkrdquo; in his soul; 3 in the physical sense, singularity denotes a moment of instability, phase transition; one can talk about the human singularity of co-evolutionary processes, since in such a moment of instability individual actions of a human can play a key role in determining a channel of further development as well as in appearance of a new pattern of collective behavior in society; 4 as the models of nonlinear dynamics, elaborated at the Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow, show, there is a possibility of a direct influence of the future and even a touch of an infinitely remote future in certain evolutionary regimes and under rigorously definite conditions, more over, it turns out that such a possibility exists only for a human (admittedly, through a specific state of being

  16. Being human: The role of pluripotent stem cells in regenerative medicine and humanizing Alzheimer's disease models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproul, Andrew A

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have the capacity to revolutionize medicine by allowing the generation of functional cell types such as neurons for cell replacement therapy. However, the more immediate impact of PSCs on treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) will be through improved human AD model systems for mechanistic studies and therapeutic screening. This review will first briefly discuss different types of PSCs and genome-editing techniques that can be used to modify PSCs for disease modeling or for personalized medicine. This will be followed by a more in depth analysis of current AD iPSC models and a discussion of the need for more complex multicellular models, including cell types such as microglia. It will finish with a discussion on current clinical trials using PSC-derived cells and the long-term potential of such strategies for treating AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mediation As a Tool of the Human Being Acknowledgement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Silva Maillart

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to demonstrate that mediation don`t contemplate exclusively as purpose the resolution of conflicts; gets expanded to receive the aspect denominated as recognition of the human person in its anthropologic meaning, escaping from the mere legal definition of the owner of rights and obligations. The recognition of the other, adopted in the context of conflict management, contributes not only to the controversy back it up to the result of zero-sum resulting from the traditional concept of Justice, but also to individuals and  society  by  adopting  targeted  actions  for  mutual  understanding,  achieve  their independence, but also preserving interpersonal and social relations, in the true sense of co- existential justice. It is an exploratory article, which employ bibliographic research technique and social analysis of Law and also the systemic method of approach.

  18. Prenatal Phthalate Exposure and Language Development in Toddlers from the Odense Child Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Trine Staak; Bleses, Dorthe; Andersen, Helle Raun

    2018-01-01

    Background Phthalates are a group of chemicals found in a variety of consumer products. They have anti-androgenic properties and human studies have reported associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and neuropsychological development in the offspring despite different cognitive tests, diff...

  19. Derivation and characterisation of hESC lines from supernumerary embryos, experience from Odense, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda; Rasmussen, Iben Anne; Erb, Karin

    2010-01-01

    The derivation and characterisation of human embryonic stem cells provides a source of pluripotent stem cells with potential for clinical applications. Utilising locally sourced embryos from two IVF clinics, we derived and characterised five new cell lines for use in a non-clinical setting. Analy...

  20. Reflecting on the Relationship Between Human Beings and Sparrows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Trehan Sharma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Birdman of India, Salim Moizuddin Abdul Ali, was one of the first Indians to conduct a systematic and patterned survey of birds in India. W.S. Millard, the Secretary of the Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS had introduced Salim Ali to the beautiful world of the birds. Millard had identified an unusually coloured sparrow that was actually shot by a young Salim Ali with his air gun. This was a yellow-throated sparrow. Following this, Millard showed Salim Ali the Society’s collection of stuffed birds, and this became the beginning of a marvelous journey of exploring the bird kingdom and establishing great landmarks by Salim Ali. The sparrow had transformed Salim Ali’s world. Undoubtedly, his autobiography was later titled ‘The Fall of a Sparrow’. Salim Ali has very carefully noted in his autobiography as to how this yellow-throated sparrow became the turning point in his life that led him into the fascinating world of ornithology. This research contribution is not about the birdman but the bird, which is rapidly vanishing from our vicinity. The reasons for the decline of the sparrow are varied but the fact of the matter is that the natural world around us is rapidly receding. And the decline of the sparrow is an alarm, a warning against the degrading ecosystems, and an alarm against blind-folded urbanisation which is leading to human-induced disasters.

  1. Haemostatic aspects of recombinant human erythropoietin in colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, K A; Qvist, N; Winther, K

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To find out whether recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO) given perioperatively has any effect on haemostatic activity in patients undergoing elective colorectal resection. DESIGN: A placebo-controlled double-blind study. SETTING: Odense university hospital, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 24...

  2. Alvorlige personskader ved færdselsuheld med indregistrerede motorkøretøjer blandt indbyggere i Odense Kommune 1990-1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faergemann, Christian; Larsen, Lars Binderup

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Since 1990, the number of persons treated at the Odense University Hospital for injuries following road traffic with registered motor vehicles has increased. In this study we wanted to examine if the increase included an increase in more severe injuries. MATERIAL AND METHODS...... of accidents (55 per ent). 66 per cent of the persons were hospitalised and 24 per cent died as a result of their injuries. Injuries localised at the head and neck were most frequent (29 per cent) followed by injuries localised at legs and arms (18 per cent and 23 per cent). DISCUSSION: The incidence of more...

  3. Being Human or Being a Citizen? Rethinking Human Rights and Citizenship Education in the Light of Agamben and Merleau-Ponty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ruyu

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues against a trend of human rights education, where human rights are taught in the form of citizenship education. In my view, citizenship education and human rights education cannot be taken as replaceable for each other. Underpinning the idea of citizenship is a distinction between "politically qualified" and "politically…

  4. Human Waste, Estrogen and Chemicals- Will I be eating this?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, S.; Jones, K.

    2016-12-01

    Dixon School of the Arts students have partnered with From the Ground Up Community Garden to learn more about gardening and to start a school garden in Pensacola, Florida. There are many soils options to learn about and test. Just this year ECUA, Emerald Coast Utilities Authority developed a new compost using biosolids. While they advertise that it is safe to grow food in, there are many discrepancies within the local organic garden communities. This project will be designed to determine if local food can be grown in the soil, if it grows bigger and better than alternative soils and finally if it is safe to eat.

  5. Quality Education for Social Development and Human Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid

    2015-01-01

    Education as a phenomenon is rather complex which makes it difficult to define its quality. Definitions of quality must be open to change and evolution based on information, changing contexts, and new understandings of the nature of education's challenges. The main objective of the paper is to find out the significance of quality education for…

  6. Sardar Patel: A Great human Being and Statesman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2006-01-01

    Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel died 53 years ago. But still he is alive in social and Political Fields of India. It is but natural. It is the outcome of achievements which Sardar Patel acquired for the nation and the society. On one hand, he is considered to be a practical person like Mahatma Gandhi, w...

  7. [Should the human smallpox virus (variola) be destroyed?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryland, Morten

    2004-10-21

    Smallpox, caused by variola virus, was a terror for civilizations around the world for more than 3000 years. Although the disease is eradicated, hundreds of variola virus isolates are kept in two WHO-collaborating facilities, one in USA and one in Russia. In spite of several agreements on destruction, it is now doubtful that these virus isolates will be destroyed. Variola virus may exist in other places and may be used as a biological weapon in war or for terror. Further research on variola virus is thus essential in order to achieve a better understanding of the pathogenicity of the virus and to develop new anti-variola virus vaccines and antiviral drugs.

  8. The first iopentol study in human beings (phase 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakhus, T.; Stokke, O.; Stormorken, H.; Berg, K.J.; Dahlstroem, K.

    1990-01-01

    The pharmacologic effects of intravenous injections of iopentol (Nycomed AS, Oslo, Norway) in 24 healthy male volunteers were studied. Doses from 300 to 1200 mg I/kg b.w. were well tolerated. Some persons had a slight heat sensation, abnormal abdominal sensations, thirst, or nausea. Headache was reported in a few subjects both after iopentol and saline injections, and was considered to be procedure related. No severe events occurred. Minor changes were observed in some biochemical and physiological parameters, but were usually within normal ranges and without clinical importance. Some of these effects also occurred in the control group after saline injections. Iopentol was excreted mainly in the urine and no metabolites were detected. The results indicated that clinical trials with iopentol could be undertaken. (author). 7 refs.; 2 tabs

  9. [The right to human reproduction. Should surrogate maternity be allowed?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral García, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Is addressed in this work if you can accept that in Spain a reproductive rights through the use of assisted reproductive techniques, especially when the client is a single woman and when the baby has undergone a substitution pregnancy or surrogacy, regardless of those who have come to this possibility, which still continues to be considered without any efficacy in the rules governing the matter.

  10. Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilien, J.L.; Dular, P.; Sabariego, R.; Beauvois, V.; Barbier, P.P.; Lorphevre, R.

    2010-01-01

    Since the early seventies, potential health risks from ELF (Extremely Low frequency electromagnetic Fields) exposure (50 Hz) have been extensively treated in the literature (more than 1000 references registered by WHO (World Health Organisation), 2007). After 30 years of worldwide research, the major epidemiological output is the possible modest increased risk (by a factor 2) of childhood leukaemia in case of a long exposure to an ambient magnetic flux density (B-field) higher than 0.4 μT. However, this fact has not been confirmed by in vivo and in vitro studies. Moreover it has not been validated by any adverse health biological mechanisms neither for adults nor for children. International recommendations (ICNIRP, International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection) are currently, for general public, not to exceed a B-field of 100 μT (50 Hz) and an E-field of 5 kV/m (50 Hz). Herein, a rough overview of typical values of ELF fields will be presented followed by a brief literature survey on childhood leukaemia and ELF The potential carcinogenic effect of ELF would be linked to electrical disturbances in cell behaviour. The major concern linking child-hood leukaemia and ELF is thus to determine the response of bone marrow cells under ELF fields. With that purpose, transmembrane potential will be targeted and linked to the E-field at that level. This paper is three-folded: (1) the electric interactions between ambient ELF fields and the body are studied both qualitatively and quantitatively. Different sources of internal E-field are analysed and classified according to their potential risk; (2) the hypothesis of contact current is detailed; (3) key actions to undertake are highlighted. Based on the current state of the art and some authors' own developments, this paper proposes simple low cost enhancements of private electrical installations in order to annihilate the major source of potential effects of ELF. (authors)

  11. Institutions fighting Trafficking in Human Beings in the Contemporary Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Pop

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last approximately 15 years, mainly in the last decade, Romania made substantial efforts to establish the institutions fighting THB according with the EU’s Directive 38 /2011’s requirements and the recommendation assumed by the International Treaties signed and ratified in this area. The plethora of institutions were founded, but they are not functioning yet as a system because of the absence of the independent assessing institution. That is why, it must be, immediately, created. Beside, the institutional system needs, as a unavoidable complement the launching of Cultural Strategy in tabooing for good, the THB in Romania.

  12. Android Robotics and the Conceptualization of Human Beings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Marco; Platz, Anemone

    Japan has for decades been a first-mover and pacemaker with respect to the development of humanoid and android robots [1]. In this conceptual paper, we aim to demonstrate how certain android robotic projects can be embedded and interpreted within a Japanese notion of nature, where the artificial...... is not opposed to nature and where conventionalized idealizations in general are cherished over original state of the latter [2]. Furthermore, we will discuss how android robots epitomize challenges to the macro and micro levels of society. [1] J. Robertson, Robo Sapiens Japanicus: Robots, Gender, Family...

  13. Expected characteristics of future reactors for human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taketani, Kiyoaki

    1992-01-01

    Based on four reactor safety components (namely: a) God-given safety, b) Equipment safety, c) Quick-response safety, d) Containing safety), categorical assessment is made of various nuclear reactor concepts ranging from present existing reactors to future reactors based on innovative reactor design. In pursuit of nuclear reactor safety, ultimate characteristics of the ideal nuclear reactor are expected to coincide with those of an inherently safe reactor. A definition of 'inherently safe' has already been proposed by a committee in Japan. As a realistic and existable reactor, which is as close to the ideal reactor, a future reactor which is almost the same as a global reactor, is proposed. This global reactor must be constructable anywhere on earth and must permit easy operation and maintenance by anyone. It is also discussed to identify what behavior is expected of the global reactor under various conditions. At the same time, this future reactor which includes the global reactor, should solve a) the nuclear fuel resource issue, b) efficient utilization of fission energy and c) environmental issues as the greenhouse effect. (author). 7 refs., 2 figs

  14. Sociale og sundhedsmaessige uligheder i et område med almennyttigt boligbyggeri i Odense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Lander, F; Viskum, B

    1991-01-01

    . The vaccination coverage was found to be lower in the socially stressed district and lower among immigrant children. More unvaccinated children were observed among children of mothers who received public assistance and of single parents. Hospital admissions on account of diagnoses due to infection were thrice...... where the socially stressed environments are concerned e.g. immigrant families....

  15. Influences on the use of urban green space - a case study in Odense, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipperijn, Jasper; Stigsdotter, Ulrikka; Randrup, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Increasing the use of urban green space has appeared on the political agenda, primarily because increased use is expected to improve the health and well-being of the urban population. Green space is contributing to restoring mental fatigue, serving as a resource for physical activity, reducing...... from a survey sent to 2500 randomly selected adult residents within the central part of the city. We tested the relative importance of different factors on the frequency of use of the nearest urban green space by using a multivariate logistic regression model. The results show that almost half...

  16. Being a Modern Human: essentialist and hierarchical approaches to the emergence of 'modern human behaviour'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Hopkinson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the modern human mind and modern human behaviour is a prominent issue in palaeolithic archaeology. The consensus has been that modernity, understood in terms of increased rates of innovation and the emergence of symbolism, is enabled by a heritable neurophysiology unique to Homo sapiens. This consensus is characterised as biological essentialist in that it understands modernity as genotypically specified and unique to Homo sapiens. 'Archaic' hominins such as the Neanderthals are understood to have lacked the modern neuroanatomical genotype and therefore to have been innately incapable of modern cognition and behaviour. The biological-essentialist programme, however, is facing a serious challenge as evidence for innovation and symbolism is found in the archaeological records of the Eurasian Middle Palaeolithic and the African Middle Stone Age. An alternative programme is emerging that understands modern human behaviour as an emergent property of social, demographic and ecological dynamics. It is argued that this programme is currently inadequate since it cannot explain the emergence of symbolically charged material culture and relies on inexorable long-term population growth. It is suggested here that the problem is better understood in terms of hierarchy theory, a body of ideas concerned with systems organised on multiple scales. Palaeolithic behaviour is reconceptualised as social practice emerging from a multi-scale knowledge system. It is shown that enhancements in the rate at which knowledgeable practices disseminate through social fields – the social transmission of knowledge - will have the effect of increasing the likelihood that novel practices will be incorporated into long-term structuring principles and thus become persistent practices. They will also effect a scalar convergence of domains of knowledgeability such that technical practices become incorporated into the construction of personhood as meaningful or

  17. Games, tradition and 'Being Human' in Ayi Kwei Armah's "The Healers"

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Games, tradition and 'Being Human' in Ayi Kwei Armah's "The Healers" ... critique in order to question our assumptions about human activities such as the Olympic Games and general health practices. Armah ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  18. A common LRP4 haplotype is associated with bone mineral density and hip geometry in men-Data from the Odense Androgen Study (OAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudin, Eveline; Steenackers, Ellen; Freitas, Fenna de

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a common disease characterized by an increased susceptibility to fracture. It is a complex disorder resulting from the interaction of several polymorphisms in different genes and environmental factors. Since we recently reported a role for low density lipoprotein-related protein...... (LRP)-4 in monogenic disorders with bone overgrowth, we now wanted to evaluate whether genetic variation in the LRP4 gene has an effect on the susceptibility to osteoporosis in a population based cohort from the Odense Androgen Study. We chose to genotype four common (minor allele frequency (MAF)≥0.......05) and non-synonymous coding polymorphisms located in the extracellular region of the LRP4 protein: rs3816614 (A/g), rs2306029 (G/a), rs2306033 (C/t) and rs6485702 (G/a) (large and small characters indicate major and minor alleles, respectively). Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements of the hip, the spine...

  19. Cord serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is not associated with cranial anthropometrics in infants up to 6 months of age. An Odense Child Cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egge, Sissil; Christensen, Nikolas; Lykkedegn, Sine

    2018-01-01

    Skull changes are poorly described in vitamin D insufficiency [serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) 25–50 nmol/L]. We aimed to investigate factors associated with cranial anthropometrics in infants, especially s-25(OH)D. In infants 2.5–6 months old from the Odense Child Cohort, associations......)D and any cranial measure by univariate or adjusted analysis. Among significant, independent associations in multivariate analysis, fontanel area was associated inversely with gestational age (GA); HC was associated directly with GA, maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and caesarean section and inversely...... with smoking; and asymmetrical head shape showed a novel association with male sex: adjusted OR = 1.54 (95% CI 1.25; 1.89), p associations with asymmetrical head shape included parity 3+, gestational age and maternal age 30+ years (all protective). In conclusion, neither pregnancy nor cord s-25...

  20. Undergraduate research involving human subjects should not be granted ethical approval unless it is likely to be of publishable quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Cathal T; McDonald, Lisa J; McCormack, Niamh P

    2014-06-01

    Small-scale research projects involving human subjects have been identified as being effective in developing critical appraisal skills in undergraduate students. In deciding whether to grant ethical approval to such projects, university research ethics committees must weigh the benefits of the research against the risk of harm or discomfort to the participants. As the learning objectives associated with student research can be met without the need for human subjects, the benefit associated with training new healthcare professionals cannot, in itself, justify such risks. The outputs of research must be shared with the wider scientific community if it is to influence future practice. Our survey of 19 UK universities indicates that undergraduate dissertations associated with the disciplines of medicine, dentistry and pharmacy are not routinely retained in their library catalogues, thus closing a major avenue to the dissemination of their findings. If such research is unlikely to be published in a peer-reviewed journal, presented at a conference, or otherwise made available to other researchers, then the risks of harm, discomfort or inconvenience to participants are unlikely to be offset by societal benefits. Ethics committees should be satisfied that undergraduate research will be funnelled into further research that is likely to inform clinical practice before granting ethical approval.

  1. The Role of Social and Intergenerational Equity in Making Changes in Human Well-Being Sustainable

    Science.gov (United States)

    A sustainable world is one in which human needs are met equitably and without sacrificing the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Human well-being is described by four primary elements—basic human needs, economic needs, environmental needs, and subjective well-bein...

  2. What Is Humane Education and Why It Should Be Included in Modern Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Humane education has existed since at least the 18th century (Unti & DeRosa, 2003). This brief chapter begins with a brief definition of humane education and examples of how it can be incorporated in linguistics, cross cultural studies and foreign language education. Next, the chapter discusses why humane education constitutes an important…

  3. [Ecosystem services supply and consumption and their relationships with human well-being].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da-Shang; Zheng, Hua; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun

    2013-06-01

    Sustainable ecosystem services supply is the basis of regional sustainable development, and human beings can satisfy and improve their well-being through ecosystem services consumption. To understand the relationships between ecosystem services supply and consumption and human well-being is of vital importance for coordinating the relationships between the conservation of ecosystem services and the improvement of human well-being. This paper summarized the diversity, complexity, and regionality of ecosystem services supply, the diversity and indispensability of ecosystem services consumption, and the multi-dimension, regionality, and various evaluation indices of human well-being, analyzed the uncertainty and multi-scale correlations between ecosystem services supply and consumption, and elaborated the feedback and asynchronous relationships between ecosystem services and human well-being. Some further research directions for the relationships between ecosystem services supply and consumption and human well-being were recommended.

  4. [Being treated as a human being. Experiences of patients in a prenatal service of a philanthropic institution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonadio, I C

    1998-04-01

    This paper reports a qualitative study conducted in an anthropological perspective using the ethnografic research methodology. It had has the objective of knowing and understanding the needs, antenatal care values and beliefs of pregnant women in the context of Prenatal Service of a Philanthropic Institution. The central theme "be treated as a Human Being", identified from the analysis of the cultural themes, revealed that, in the women experience, the most significant element is represented either by the effective interaction or by the establishment on bond of trust between them and nurse.

  5. No choice. Human beings must continue to be fertile and to increase, but they must do so responsibly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagle Ra

    1993-06-01

    Commentary is provided on the transition mankind has made from a maintained population growth rate of 2% to adaptation to a more civilized age. When the agricultural age began 100,000 years ago, man was still tribal, and it may well be that scientists are correct in postulating that adaptation is slow. Homo sapiens are still tribal or tried to family or kin groups, rather than to the nations state. These ties to family and tribe may contribute to present day "ethnic cleansing" and the illusion of the notion of a family of all peoples. In the past, families had to be large in order to sustain life; there was still a high death rate which slowed population growth. Population reached 2 billion in 1930 after a million years of growth. Mankind's tinkering with nature produced science and technology, which eliminated the natural balance of mortality. The consequence was a doubling of population in 47 years between 1930 to 1977 to 4 billion people. BY 1987, in just 10 years, another billion was added. Homo sapiens must not act responsible and influence the birth side by practicing "contraception control." Unfortunately, the force of habit has obliterated the reasons for large families, and humans have "unwittingly defied procreation from being merely a means to the status of an end." There is nothing in the Bible that forbids contraception or mentions multiplying in an irresponsible way. Neither this vast increase in population, which presently grows at 95 million per year, nor scientific advancement has eliminated mortality or disease. Million suffer from malnutrition and starvation, and the distribution of resources has been unequal and moves in the direction of resource depletion and environmental degradation. The formula for living must change; families need to plan for few children. Fighting to kill as a means of population control is unacceptable. Human beings possess the intelligence to preserve individual and social human life in a responsible way.

  6. A Theory of Human Needs Should Be Human-Centered, Not Animal-Centered: Commentary on Kenrick et al. (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesebir, Selin; Graham, Jesse; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2010-05-01

    Kenrick et al. (2010, this issue) make an important contribution by presenting a theory of human needs within an evolutionary framework. In our opinion, however, this framework bypasses the human uniqueness that Maslow intended to capture in his theory. We comment on the unique power of culture in shaping human motivation at the phylogenetic, ontogenetic, and proximate levels. We note that culture-gene coevolution may be a more promising lead to a theory of human motivation than a mammalcentric evolutionary perspective. © The Author(s) 2010.

  7. Robotic Nudges: The Ethics of Engineering a More Socially Just Human Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstein, Jason; Arkin, Ron

    2016-02-01

    Robots are becoming an increasingly pervasive feature of our personal lives. As a result, there is growing importance placed on examining what constitutes appropriate behavior when they interact with human beings. In this paper, we discuss whether companion robots should be permitted to "nudge" their human users in the direction of being "more ethical". More specifically, we use Rawlsian principles of justice to illustrate how robots might nurture "socially just" tendencies in their human counterparts. Designing technological artifacts in such a way to influence human behavior is already well-established but merely because the practice is commonplace does not necessarily resolve the ethical issues associated with its implementation.

  8. Can Plant Viruses Cross the Kingdom Border and Be Pathogenic to Humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Balique

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytoviruses are highly prevalent in plants worldwide, including vegetables and fruits. Humans, and more generally animals, are exposed daily to these viruses, among which several are extremely stable. It is currently accepted that a strict separation exists between plant and vertebrate viruses regarding their host range and pathogenicity, and plant viruses are believed to infect only plants. Accordingly, plant viruses are not considered to present potential pathogenicity to humans and other vertebrates. Notwithstanding these beliefs, there are many examples where phytoviruses circulate and propagate in insect vectors. Several issues are raised here that question if plant viruses might further cross the kingdom barrier to cause diseases in humans. Indeed, there is close relatedness between some plant and animal viruses, and almost identical gene repertoires. Moreover, plant viruses can be detected in non-human mammals and humans samples, and there are evidence of immune responses to plant viruses in invertebrates, non-human vertebrates and humans, and of the entry of plant viruses or their genomes into non-human mammal cells and bodies after experimental exposure. Overall, the question raised here is unresolved, and several data prompt the additional extensive study of the interactions between phytoviruses and non-human mammals and humans, and the potential of these viruses to cause diseases in humans.

  9. "The human use of human beings": Interdisciplinarity, transdisciplinarity and all that in biophysics and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Marco Elio; Termini, Settimo

    2017-10-01

    Biophysics, just by looking at its name, indicates an interdisciplinary scientific activity, although the notion of interdisciplinarity, as such, seems to be not widely or specifically discussed by biophysicists. The same seems to have happened as well in the early stages of the development of cybernetics, notably in Norbert Wiener's writings. This situation seems to contrast with what has happened in subsequent developments of cybernetics ideas, notably in general system theory and cognitive sciences. After a few general reflections on the notion of interdisciplinarity, its sophisticated variants and the path leading to the birth of cognitive science, we shall refer to Wiener's thought to extracts aspects and indications that could be useful today, also for what concerns the social responsibility of scientists, which could be seen as stemming from a very general form of interdisciplinarity. After a few general reflections on the notion of interdisciplinarity, its sophisticated variants and the path leading to the birth of cognitive science, we shall refer to Wiener's thought to extracts aspects and indications that could be useful today, also for what concerns the social responsibility of scientists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Humanity as a Contested Concept: Relations between Disability and ‘Being Human’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul van Trigt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This editorial presents the theme and approach of the themed issue “Humanity as a Contested Concept: Relations between Disability and ‘Being Human’”. The way in which the concept of humanity is or must be related to disability is critically investigated from different disciplinary perspectives in the themed issue, which is, moreover, situated in the field of disability studies and related to discussions about posthumanism. The argument is made that humanity is a concept that needs to be constantly reflected upon from a disability studies perspective. Finally, the contributions of the themed issue are briefly outlined.

  11. [Elderly human being with ostomy and environments of care: reflection on the perspective of complexity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Edaiane Joana Lima; Santos, Silvana Sidney Costa; Lunardi, Valéria Lerch; Lunardi Filho, Wilson Danilo

    2012-01-01

    This is discussion about the relationship between elderly human beings with ostomy and their environments care, under the perspective of Complexity Edgar Morin. An axis holds the reflection: environments of care for elderly humans with ostomy. In this sense, we present three types of environment that surround the context of elderly humans with ostomy: home environment, group environment and hospital environment. This brings, as a social contribution, a new look about resizing caring of elderly humans with ostomy in their environment. It is considered that the environment hosting this human being contains a diversity of feelings, emotions, experiences; it binds multiple meanings, from the Complexity perspective, about the relationship between the environment and the caring process.

  12. The Human Being – He is Still ... the Living Resource of the Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Dumitrana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Almost every day, and quite often, we hear about how important the data, the informationor the knowledge at work is. The saying "The one who has information, also has control” is morecurrent than ever; it provides reliability, it awakens passion and determines you to store everything.We almost become machines, systems of these universal keys represented by knowledge. We tend toappreciate this ambulant knowledge, these bearers of knowledge and we lose sight of the essence - thehuman being. But isn’t he, the human being, who brought us to this moment? Isn’t it that all hisneeds, which became more and more refined, stricter, and more precise that caused thistransformation? We believe that this may continue,at least in accounting, far beyond the momentwhen the great economists labelled the human beingas a factor of production that advances towardsthe human being who brings performance then towardsthe possible ... human being as an asset,equity, debt. Perhaps, as in the case of great denials which have become truths, if not absolute, at leastthere will come a day when we are able to compressthe time ... the space ...., a day when we have thenecessary instruments to trade equity, assets and human liabilities... But until then, with yourpermission, we will deal with the human factor thatbrings performance, which is, we will be presentboth in reality and especially in thought, having the cliché of the transcendality of the human beingtowards new horizons of knowledge.

  13. "Being an English Major, Being a Humanities Student": Connecting Academic Subject Identity in Literary Studies to Other Social Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Evelyn T. Y.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined students' construction of academic subject identity in a university humanities discipline, English literary studies. In so doing, the study aimed to provide an empirically grounded intervention in current debates on the value of the humanities in higher education. Eight students participated in interviews lasting 15-20 minutes…

  14. The big challenges in modeling human and environmental well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuljapurkar, Shripad

    2016-01-01

    This article is a selective review of quantitative research, historical and prospective, that is needed to inform sustainable development policy. I start with a simple framework to highlight how demography and productivity shape human well-being. I use that to discuss three sets of issues and corresponding challenges to modeling: first, population prehistory and early human development and their implications for the future; second, the multiple distinct dimensions of human and environmental well-being and the meaning of sustainability; and, third, inequality as a phenomenon triggered by development and models to examine changing inequality and its consequences. I conclude with a few words about other important factors: political, institutional, and cultural.

  15. Human well-being and land cover types in the southeastern U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Gyawali; R. Fraser; J. Schelhas; Y. Wang; W. Tadesse; J. Bukenya

    2009-01-01

    The west-central region of Alabama is rich in natural resources.  Yet changes in land use seem unrelated to improvements in human well-being.  Satellite imagery and U.S. census data for 1980 and 2000 were analyzed to test whether changes in land cover were related to changes in a human well-being index-of income, employment and education at the Cenus Block Group (CBG)...

  16. Protection of Human Beings Trafficked for the Purpose of Organ Removal: Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Pascalev, Assya; Van Assche, Kristof; S?ndor, Judit; Codreanu, Natalia; Naqvi, Anwar; Gunnarson, Martin; Frunza, Mihaela; Yankov, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This report presents a comprehensive set of recommendations for protection of human beings who are trafficked for the purpose of organ removal or are targeted for such trafficking. Developed by an interdisciplinary group of international experts under the auspices of the project Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal (also known as the HOTT project), these recommendations are grounded in the view that an individual who parts with an organ for money within an ill...

  17. TO BE IS NOT-TO-BE: NIHILISM, IDEOLOGY AND THE QUESTION OF BEING IN HEIDEGGER’S POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY PART II: TRUTH, HUMANISM AND TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai NOVAC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Allegedly, Heidegger never quite finished Being and Time: his initial intention had consisted in the determination of the meaning of Being as such, apart from Dasein’s own existentiality. Afterwards, however, and despite the growing public excitement revolving around the published unfinished version of his project, his preoccupations, thematic conceptuality and very language, apparently started to shift away towards a strange and unfamiliar stance which he would never leave. Quite surely, his Nazi flirtation and subsequent withdrawal did not help in bringing clarity over this. On the other hand, this was not necessarily unexpected (although not necessarily to be expected, as well. What I mean to say is that for someone reading Being and time in spirit and not in law, the possibility of such a substantive rethought of his initial scheme is present throughout the work. One’s changing one’s mind with respect to oneself is, after all, one of the basic possibilities conveyed by Dasein’s achieved resoluteness [Entschlossenheit]. Furthermore, despite his apparent reorientation, I think we can speak of some sort of attitudinal unity between Heidegger’s initial and later work, conceptually mediated by the relationship between Dasein’s Being-unto-death [Sein-zum-Tode] and the so called concealedness [Verborgenheit] of Being.. That is precisely what I aim to lay bare through this conceptual reconstruction of some of his later works: (i On the Essence of Truth (1930 and (ii Letter on Humanism (1946. Basically, I will try to show that if in Being and Time he tried to come to Being from Dasein, in his later work he tries to get to Da-sein from Being, fact which unsurprisingly brought along some reconsiderations but that, broadly speaking, essentially amounts to what he set out to do in his initial ontological project. Surprisingly, the most concrete instance of this pendulation between Dasein and Being is to be found, at least to my knowledge, in

  18. Ethical issues of transplanting organs from transgenic animals into human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnam Manesh, Shima; Omani Samani, Reza; Behnam Manesh, Shayan

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human's body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal) and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action). The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal's organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven.

  19. Household electricity access, availability and human well-being: Evidence from India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Sohail; Mathai, Manu V.; Parayil, Govindan

    2014-01-01

    According to the 2011 Census of India, over 31% of India's 1.2 billion people lived in nearly 8000 towns and cities; the remaining 830 million people lived in over 638,000 villages. About 55% of rural households and 93% of urban households had access to electricity. The 2005 Indian Human Development Survey showed that on average, electricity availability (hours of supply per day) in rural and urban households were 14 and 19 h, respectively (Desai et al., 2007). Using nationally representative data from Indian Human Development Survey, this study estimated the impact of electricity access and availability on two attributes of human well-being, viz. education and health attainment. It found a significant positive relationship between electricity availability and well-being in rural and urban households. Electricity accessibility, revealed a significant positive relationship only for rural households. The paper concludes with implications for electricity policy and infrastructure choices. - Graphical abstract: Impact of electricity security on the attributes of human well-being. - Highlights: • Nexus between well-being, and electricity access and availability is quantified. • Electricity access is positively associated with well-being in rural but not urban. • Electricity availability negatively associates with morbidity and absenteeism. • Electricity security as human well-being enabler seeks nuanced policy attention. • Decentralized rapidly deployable modular technologies and microgrids are advocated

  20. [Correlation between PMI and DNA degradation of costicartilage and dental pulp cells in human being].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ren; Wang, Wei-ping; Xiong, Ping

    2005-08-01

    To probe the correlation between the postmortem interval (PMI) and the DNA degradation of costicartilage and dental pulp cells in human being after death, and to seek a new method for estimating PMI. The image cytometry was used to measure the DNA degradation under different ambient temperatures (30-35 degrees C, 15-20 degrees C) in 0-15 days after death. The average DNA content of two kinds of tissue was degradated with the prolongation of PMI. But there was a plateau period of 0-4 days for dental pulp cells of human being in 15-20 degrees C. There was a high negative correlativity PPMI. PMI could be estimated accurately according to the DNA degradation of costicartilage and dental pulp cells in human being after death.

  1. INTERACTION BETWEEN HUMAN BEING AND URBAN CULTURE SPACE: ONE OF THE MOTIVATIONS FOR HIGHER EDUCATION INTERNATIONALISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Liang Cai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the objective of this paper is to deeply and clearly explain the internationalisation of higher education from the aspect of the integration of human being with urban cultural space. Materials and Methods: the methods used in the research are mainly analytical and descriptive ones enabling to show how the integration of human being and urban cultural space promote and influence the internationalisation of higher education. Results: the motivation for the internationalisation of higher education is closely interrelated with that of urbanisation. Besides the economic and political incentives, modern urban culture, caused by globalisation, also plays a very important role in encouraging higher education internationalisation. Discussion and Conclusions: the appearance of higher education internationalisation is mediated by the alteration of the existing environment of urban culture space against the background of city internationalisation. Human beings’ need for self-assurance in urban culture space helps to stimulate the internationalisation of higher education, and human beings promote the development of modern culture space and their separation in urban culture space accelerates the development of higher education. From the perspective of higher education internationalisation, to sort out the cultural motivation for higher education and find its suitable form for the city’s internationalisation is crucial for adjusting the orientation and guaranteeing the efficacy of higher education internationalisation. From the aspect of human beings’ development, the separation between urban space and human beings caused by the city’s ongoing internationalisation is a pressing problem to be solved. From the aspect of the construction of urban culture space, as an important means of retaining human beings’ equilibrium, urban culture promotes the internationalisation of higher education.

  2. Well-Being With Soul: Science in Pursuit of Human Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryff, Carol D

    2018-03-01

    This essay examines core contributions of a model of psychological well-being that has had widespread scientific impact. It drew on distant formulations to identify new dimensions and measures for assessing what it means to be well. Key themes among the more than 750 studies using the model are sketched, followed by reflections about why there has been so much interest in this eudaimonic approach to well-being. A final section looks to the future, proposing new directions to illuminate the forces that work against the realization of human potential as well as those that nurture human flourishing and self-realization.

  3. Accounting for the impact of conservation on human well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner-Gulland, E J; McGregor, J A; Agarwala, M; Atkinson, G; Bevan, P; Clements, T; Daw, T; Homewood, K; Kumpel, N; Lewis, J; Mourato, S; Palmer Fry, B; Redshaw, M; Rowcliffe, J M; Suon, S; Wallace, G; Washington, H; Wilkie, D

    2014-10-01

    Conservationists are increasingly engaging with the concept of human well-being to improve the design and evaluation of their interventions. Since the convening of the influential Sarkozy Commission in 2009, development researchers have been refining conceptualizations and frameworks to understand and measure human well-being and are starting to converge on a common understanding of how best to do this. In conservation, the term human well-being is in widespread use, but there is a need for guidance on operationalizing it to measure the impacts of conservation interventions on people. We present a framework for understanding human well-being, which could be particularly useful in conservation. The framework includes 3 conditions; meeting needs, pursuing goals, and experiencing a satisfactory quality of life. We outline some of the complexities involved in evaluating the well-being effects of conservation interventions, with the understanding that well-being varies between people and over time and with the priorities of the evaluator. Key challenges for research into the well-being impacts of conservation interventions include the need to build up a collection of case studies so as to draw out generalizable lessons; harness the potential of modern technology to support well-being research; and contextualize evaluations of conservation impacts on well-being spatially and temporally within the wider landscape of social change. Pathways through the smog of confusion around the term well-being exist, and existing frameworks such as the Well-being in Developing Countries approach can help conservationists negotiate the challenges of operationalizing the concept. Conservationists have the opportunity to benefit from the recent flurry of research in the development field so as to carry out more nuanced and locally relevant evaluations of the effects of their interventions on human well-being. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  4. Computational Characterization of Exogenous MicroRNAs that Can Be Transferred into Human Circulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Shu

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs have been long considered synthesized endogenously until very recent discoveries showing that human can absorb dietary microRNAs from animal and plant origins while the mechanism remains unknown. Compelling evidences of microRNAs from rice, milk, and honeysuckle transported to human blood and tissues have created a high volume of interests in the fundamental questions that which and how exogenous microRNAs can be transferred into human circulation and possibly exert functions in humans. Here we present an integrated genomics and computational analysis to study the potential deciding features of transportable microRNAs. Specifically, we analyzed all publicly available microRNAs, a total of 34,612 from 194 species, with 1,102 features derived from the microRNA sequence and structure. Through in-depth bioinformatics analysis, 8 groups of discriminative features have been used to characterize human circulating microRNAs and infer the likelihood that a microRNA will get transferred into human circulation. For example, 345 dietary microRNAs have been predicted as highly transportable candidates where 117 of them have identical sequences with their homologs in human and 73 are known to be associated with exosomes. Through a milk feeding experiment, we have validated 9 cow-milk microRNAs in human plasma using microRNA-sequencing analysis, including the top ranked microRNAs such as bta-miR-487b, miR-181b, and miR-421. The implications in health-related processes have been illustrated in the functional analysis. This work demonstrates the data-driven computational analysis is highly promising to study novel molecular characteristics of transportable microRNAs while bypassing the complex mechanistic details.

  5. Computational Characterization of Exogenous MicroRNAs that Can Be Transferred into Human Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jiang; Chiang, Kevin; Zempleni, Janos; Cui, Juan

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs have been long considered synthesized endogenously until very recent discoveries showing that human can absorb dietary microRNAs from animal and plant origins while the mechanism remains unknown. Compelling evidences of microRNAs from rice, milk, and honeysuckle transported to human blood and tissues have created a high volume of interests in the fundamental questions that which and how exogenous microRNAs can be transferred into human circulation and possibly exert functions in humans. Here we present an integrated genomics and computational analysis to study the potential deciding features of transportable microRNAs. Specifically, we analyzed all publicly available microRNAs, a total of 34,612 from 194 species, with 1,102 features derived from the microRNA sequence and structure. Through in-depth bioinformatics analysis, 8 groups of discriminative features have been used to characterize human circulating microRNAs and infer the likelihood that a microRNA will get transferred into human circulation. For example, 345 dietary microRNAs have been predicted as highly transportable candidates where 117 of them have identical sequences with their homologs in human and 73 are known to be associated with exosomes. Through a milk feeding experiment, we have validated 9 cow-milk microRNAs in human plasma using microRNA-sequencing analysis, including the top ranked microRNAs such as bta-miR-487b, miR-181b, and miR-421. The implications in health-related processes have been illustrated in the functional analysis. This work demonstrates the data-driven computational analysis is highly promising to study novel molecular characteristics of transportable microRNAs while bypassing the complex mechanistic details. PMID:26528912

  6. Ethical leadership, employee well-being, and helping: the moderating role of human resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalshoven, K.; Boon, C.T.

    2012-01-01

    In this multi-source study, we examined the link between ethical leadership, human resource management (HRM), employee well-being, and helping. Based on the Conservation of Resources Theory, we proposed a mediated moderation model linking ethical leadership to helping, which includes well-being as

  7. Protection of Human Beings Trafficked for the Purpose of Organ Removal: Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascalev, Assya; Van Assche, Kristof; Sándor, Judit; Codreanu, Natalia; Naqvi, Anwar; Gunnarson, Martin; Frunza, Mihaela; Yankov, Jordan

    2016-02-01

    This report presents a comprehensive set of recommendations for protection of human beings who are trafficked for the purpose of organ removal or are targeted for such trafficking. Developed by an interdisciplinary group of international experts under the auspices of the project Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal (also known as the HOTT project), these recommendations are grounded in the view that an individual who parts with an organ for money within an illegal scheme is ipso facto a victim and that the crime of trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal (THBOR) intersects with the crime of trafficking in organs. Consequently, the protection of victims should be a priority for all actors involved in antitrafficking activities: those combating organ-related crimes, such as health organizations and survivor support services, and those combating trafficking in human beings, such as the criminal justice sectors. Taking into account the special characteristics of THBOR, the authors identify 5 key stakeholders in the protection of human beings trafficked for organ removal or targeted for such trafficking: states, law enforcement agencies and judiciary, nongovernmental organizations working in the areas of human rights and antitrafficking, transplant centers and health professionals involved in transplant medicine, and oversight bodies. For each stakeholder, the authors identify key areas of concern and concrete measures to identify and protect the victims of THBOR. The aim of the recommendations is to contribute to the development of a nonlegislative response to THBOR, to promote the exchange of knowledge and best practices in the area of victim protection, and to facilitate the development of a policy-driven action plan for the protection of THBOR victims in the European Union and worldwide.

  8. Can the silkworm (Bombyx mori) be used as a human disease model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabunoki, Hiroko; Bono, Hidemasa; Ito, Katsuhiko; Yokoyama, Takeshi

    2016-02-01

    Bombyx mori (silkworm) is the most famous lepidopteran in Japan. B. mori has long been used in the silk industry and also as a model insect for agricultural research. In recent years, B. mori has attracted interest in its potential for use in pathological analysis of model animals. For example, the human macular carotenoid transporter was discovered using information of B. mori carotenoid transporter derived from yellow-cocoon strain. The B. mori carotenoid transport system is useful in human studies. To develop a human disease model, we characterized the human homologs of B. mori, and by constructing KAIKO functional annotation pipeline, and to analyze gene expression profile of a unique B. mori mutant strain using microarray analysis. As a result, we identified a novel molecular network involved in Parkinson's disease. Here we describe the potential use of a spontaneous mutant silkworm strain as a human disease model. We also summarize recent progress in the application of genomic information for annotation of human homologs in B. mori. The B. mori mutant will provide a clue to pathological mechanisms, and the findings will be helpful for the development of therapies and for medical drug discovery.

  9. Ethical Issues of Transplanting Organs from Transgenic Animals into Human Beings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnam Manesh, Shima; Omani Samani, Reza; Behnam Manesh, Shayan

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human’s body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal) and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action). The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal’s organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven. PMID:25383334

  10. Trafficking in human beings as a specific form of women's migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrvić-Petrović Nataša

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The author is analyzing trafficking in human beings as a specific form of women's (illegal migration. The author is presenting detailed analysis of the international standards and recent activities of different international organizations (UN, Council of Europe, European Community, OSCE, concerning prevention of trafficking in human beings, regulation of foreign migrants' status and protection of victims of trafficking. Starting from the analysis of international documents and national legislations dealing with migration and prostitution, the author is proposing changes of existing domestic laws concerning movement and residence of foreigners. The aim of such changes is to harmonize our legislation with international standards and obligations accepted by signing the Palermo Convention.

  11. The Power of Being Vulnerable in Christian Soul Care: Common Humanity and Humility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyubo

    2017-02-01

    Soul caregivers often hesitate to be vulnerable in their pastoral practices. Jesus, however, embraced his vulnerabilities as a human to redeem humanity even though he was the Son of God. This paper first explores the dynamics of shame and power that make soul caregivers reluctant to accept their vulnerabilities and then describes the contributions of sharing caregiver's vulnerabilities in a soul care practice. This article argues that being vulnerable allows a soul caregiver to imitate Jesus by sharing in the client's common humanity, initiating an authentic relationship between the client and the soul caregiver; it is also a practice of humility, inviting God's cure in soul care. This study proposes the necessity of embracing vulnerability in soul care ministry, instead of hiding it.

  12. [Arms racing between human beings and pathogens: NDM-1 and superbugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingwei; Zheng, Beiwen; Gao, George F; Zhu, Baoli

    2010-11-01

    Throughout human history, pandemic bacterial diseases such as the plague and tuberculosis have posed an enormous threat to human beings. The discovery of antibiotics has provided us with powerful arsenal for the defense against bacterial infections. However, bacteria are acquiring more and more resistance genes to shield off antibiotics through mutation and horizontal gene transfer. Therefore, novel antibiotics must be produced and the arms race between bacterial pathogens and antibiotics is becoming increasingly intense. Recently, researchers have found that plasmids carrying a new metallo-beta-lactamase gene, blaNDM-1, and many other antibiotics resistance genes can easily spread through bacterial populations and confer recipient stains resistance to nearly all of the current antibiotics. It is a threat to the human health and a great challenge for our medical science, which we are facing. We need to find new ways to fight and win this arms racing.

  13. The Earth Sciences, Human Well-Being, and the Reduction of Global Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, John C.

    2005-04-01

    Poverty is not solely a social or political matter, nor is it caused simply by population pressures as Thomas Malthus postulated in 1798. A new understanding of poverty is emerging in which natural and environmental drivers, together with social, political, and demographic causes, underpin livelihoods. The Earth sciences, therefore, play a critical role in identifying the deep causes of human suffering and in identifying solutions. The State of the Planet: Why Are So Many So Poor? For far too many, the state of human well-being is bleak. Around one in six human beings-1 billion people-live in extreme poverty, struggling to survive on less than $1 a day; another one sixth of humanity ekes out existence on $2 per day (U.N. Development Programme (UNDP) Human Development Report, 2004; http://hdr.undp.org/2004/). The extreme poor lack all normal attributes of a decent, dignified life: adequate food, housing, sanitation, health care, education, and employment. Some 800 million people lack sufficient nourishment almost every day. It stunts their mental and physical development and shortens their lives, making them susceptible to common illnesses that attack their hunger-weakened bodies. Poor nutrition in mothers and infants is the leading cause of reduced disability-adjusted life years in poor countries [ Economist, 2004].

  14. Why the moratorium on human-animal chimera research should not be lifted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Alan

    2017-08-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) announced its plans to lift its moratorium on funding research that involves injecting human embryonic stem cells into animal embryos, which would allow for the creation of part-human and part-animal organisms known as chimeras. The NIH allowed only one month to receive public comments in the midst of a presidential election campaign. Lifting the moratorium means that, for the first time, the federal government will begin spending taxpayer dollars on the creation and manipulation of new organisms that would blur the line between humans and animals. Interestingly, this government effort is creating an uncommon coalition between pro-life groups and animal rights activists that oppose this medical research on ethical grounds; the former seeking to ensure the welfare of human embryos and the latter seeking to protect the well-being of animals. Unlike the issue of abortion, this research is complex. Yet, it is important that the pro-life laity and clergy be adequately informed on some of the basic science and ethics that surround this research. To fully understand why this research is unethical and why the NIH is pursuing this particular research, it is important to understand the ethical tenets governing human-subject research and why secular scientists are pursuing this scientific field.

  15. Morally relevant differences between animals and human beings justifying the use of animals in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, J U

    1997-03-01

    I have attempted to show that the differential qualities of animals and human beings indeed to have bearing on moral rules and the derivation of rights, including rights established on the basis of reason and utilitarianism. Special rights for members of our species are not simply a consequence of human domination and self-interest. I also have tried to show that rights arise from values and that the qualities we value most highly often are the ones that distinguish human beings from other species. I maintain that giving more value to human lives over animal lives achieves reflective balance with the commonsense notions that most of us have developed. Because utilitarianism, contractualism, and the classical philosophical methods of Kant and Aristotle all may allow favoring human interests over animal interests, it seems reasonable to suspect that animal rights activists embrace narrow, extremist views. There are many uniquely human experiences to which we ascribe high value-deep interpersonal relationships, achieving a life's goal, enjoying a complex cultural event such as a play or an opera, or authoring a manuscript. Therefore, it would seem improper that social and ethical considerations regarding animals be centered entirely on the notion of a biological continuum, because there are many kinds of human experience-moral, religious, aesthetic, and otherwise-that appear to be outside the realm of biology. Knowledge about the biology of animals is helpful for making moral decisions about our obligations to them. Why, then, is there a substantial population of animal rights activists in Europe, the United States, and throughout the world, who would not agree with my conclusions? Certain habitual ways of thinking may encourage anthropomorphism and equating animal interests with human interests. Certain metaphysical beliefs, such as a belief in reincarnation, also might favor animal rights. It also is possible that a number of people are being deceived and misled by

  16. Human resource management in the project-oriented organization: Employee well-being and ethical treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, R.; Huemann, M.; Keegan, A.

    2008-01-01

    As part of a wider study into human resource management (HRM) practices in project-oriented organizations, we investigated the issue of employee well-being. Project-oriented organizations adopt temporary work processes to deliver products and services to clients. This creates a dynamic work environment, where additional pressures can be imposed on the employee from fluctuating work-loads, uncertain requirements, and multiple role demands. These pressures can create issues for employee well-be...

  17. An Exploration of Human Well-Being Bundles as Identifiers of Ecosystem Service Use Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Hamann

    Full Text Available We take a social-ecological systems perspective to investigate the linkages between ecosystem services and human well-being in South Africa. A recent paper identified different types of social-ecological systems in the country, based on distinct bundles of ecosystem service use. These system types were found to represent increasingly weak direct feedbacks between nature and people, from rural "green-loop" communities to urban "red-loop" societies. Here we construct human well-being bundles and explore whether the well-being bundles can be used to identify the same social-ecological system types that were identified using bundles of ecosystem service use. Based on national census data, we found three distinct well-being bundle types that are mainly characterized by differences in income, unemployment and property ownership. The distribution of these well-being bundles approximates the distribution of ecosystem service use bundles to a substantial degree: High levels of income and education generally coincided with areas characterised by low levels of direct ecosystem service use (or red-loop systems, while the majority of low well-being areas coincided with medium and high levels of direct ecosystem service use (or transition and green-loop systems. However, our results indicate that transformations from green-loop to red-loop systems do not always entail an immediate improvement in well-being, which we suggest may be due to a time lag between changes in the different system components. Using human well-being bundles as an indicator of social-ecological dynamics may be useful in other contexts since it is based on socio-economic data commonly collected by governments, and provides important insights into the connections between ecosystem services and human well-being at policy-relevant sub-national scales.

  18. An Exploration of Human Well-Being Bundles as Identifiers of Ecosystem Service Use Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Maike; Biggs, Reinette; Reyers, Belinda

    2016-01-01

    We take a social-ecological systems perspective to investigate the linkages between ecosystem services and human well-being in South Africa. A recent paper identified different types of social-ecological systems in the country, based on distinct bundles of ecosystem service use. These system types were found to represent increasingly weak direct feedbacks between nature and people, from rural "green-loop" communities to urban "red-loop" societies. Here we construct human well-being bundles and explore whether the well-being bundles can be used to identify the same social-ecological system types that were identified using bundles of ecosystem service use. Based on national census data, we found three distinct well-being bundle types that are mainly characterized by differences in income, unemployment and property ownership. The distribution of these well-being bundles approximates the distribution of ecosystem service use bundles to a substantial degree: High levels of income and education generally coincided with areas characterised by low levels of direct ecosystem service use (or red-loop systems), while the majority of low well-being areas coincided with medium and high levels of direct ecosystem service use (or transition and green-loop systems). However, our results indicate that transformations from green-loop to red-loop systems do not always entail an immediate improvement in well-being, which we suggest may be due to a time lag between changes in the different system components. Using human well-being bundles as an indicator of social-ecological dynamics may be useful in other contexts since it is based on socio-economic data commonly collected by governments, and provides important insights into the connections between ecosystem services and human well-being at policy-relevant sub-national scales.

  19. Meteoric 10Be as a tool to investigate human induced soil fluxes: a conceptual model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campforts, Benjamin; Govers, Gerard; Vanacker, Veerle; De Vente, Joris; Boix-Fayos, Carolina; Minella, Jean; Baken, Stijn; Smolders, Erik

    2014-05-01

    The use of meteoric 10Be as a tool to understand long term landscape behavior is becoming increasingly popular. Due its high residence time, meteoric 10Be allows in principle to investigate in situ erosion rates over time scales exceeding the period studied with classical approaches such as 137Cs. The use of meteoric 10Be strongly contributes to the traditional interpretation of sedimentary archives which cannot be unequivocally coupled to sediment production and could provide biased information over longer time scales (Sadler, 1981). So far, meteoric 10Be has successfully been used in geochemical fingerprinting of sediments, to date soil profiles, to assess soil residence times and to quantify downslope soil fluxes using accumulated 10Be inventories along a hill slope. However, less attention is given to the potential use of the tracer to directly asses human induced changes in soil fluxes through deforestation, cultivation and reforestation. A good understanding of the processes governing the distribution of meteoric 10Be both within the soil profile and at landscape scale is essential before meteoric 10Be can be successfully applied to assess human impact. We developed a spatially explicit 2D-model (Be2D) in order to gain insight in meteoric 10Be movement along a hillslope that is subject to human disturbance. Be2D integrates both horizontal soil fluxes and vertical meteoric 10Be movement throughout the soil prolife. Horizontal soil fluxes are predicted using (i) well studied geomorphical laws for natural erosion and soil formation as well as (ii) human accelerated water and tillage erosion. Vertical movement of meteoric 10Be throughout the soil profile is implemented by inserting depth dependent retardation calculated using experimentally determined partition coefficients (Kd). The model was applied to different environments such as (i) the Belgian loess belt, characterized by aeolian deposits enriched in inherited meteoric 10Be, (ii) highly degraded and stony

  20. Human resource management in the project-oriented organization: Employee well-being and ethical treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, R.; Huemann, M.; Keegan, A.

    2008-01-01

    As part of a wider study into human resource management (HRM) practices in project-oriented organizations, we investigated the issue of employee well-being. Project-oriented organizations adopt temporary work processes to deliver products and services to clients. This creates a dynamic work

  1. The Freshman Nine: Helping High School Freshmen Be Successful in AP Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Teaching AP Human Geography to freshmen seems like a daunting task and while there are many arguments both for and against offering the course to freshmen, for many teachers it is reality. In this article, the author offers nine tips to help high school freshmen be successful in the course and on the AP exam.

  2. Trafficking in human beings: a modern form of slavery or a transnational crime?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wilt, H.

    2014-01-01

    Trafficking in human beings is often qualified as a modern form of slavery, with the obvious intention to stress the seriousness of the crime and to bring it within the jurisdictional scope of the International Criminal Court. This article critically assesses this position. The author argues that,

  3. [Mechanism of the light flashes induced in human beings by ionizing particles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramenitskiĭ, P V; Fetisov, I N

    1987-01-01

    Exposure of a dark adapted human eye to weak proton beams of different energy for which the yield of Cerenkov radiation varies by approximately 50 times, the other characteristics being virtually the same, showed that this radiation was mainly responsible for visual sensation.

  4. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: Ecosystems and human well-being: wetlands and water synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finlayson, M.; Cruz, R.D.; Davidson, N.; Alder, J.; Cork, S.; Groot, de R.S.; Lévêque, C.; Milton, G.R.; Peterson, G.; Pritchard, D.; Ratner, B.D.; Reid, W.V.; Revenga, C.; Rivera, M.; Schutyser, F.; Siebentritt, M.; Stuip, M.; Tharme, R.; Butchard, S.; Dieme-Amting, E.; Gitay, H.; Raaymakers, S.; Taylor, D.

    2005-01-01

    The Wetlands and Water synthesis was designed for the Ramsar Convention to meet the need for information about the consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being and sought to strengthen the link between scientific knowledge and decision-making for the conservation and wise use of wetlands.

  5. An unusual case of human rabies thought to be of chiropteran origin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-07-17

    Jul 17, 1971 ... An Unusual Case of Human Rabies Thought to be of Chiropteran Origin*. C. D. MEREDITH ... referred to hospital with a diagnosis of rabies. The same afternoon the patient was admitted to the ... Histopathologic studies were carried out on the following portions of the central nervous system-ganglion of the.

  6. Being Human Today: A Digital Storytelling Pedagogy for Transcontinental Border Crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kristian; Gachago, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a collaborative digital storytelling project titled "Being Human Today," a multimodal curricular initiative that was implemented simultaneously in both a South African and an American university classroom in 2015. By facilitating dialogue and the sharing of digital stories by means of a closed…

  7. "Learning to Be More Human": Perspectives of Respect by Young Irish People in Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Respect is a fundamental aspect of how human beings relate to each other and, arguably, is a significant factor in the relationship between student and teacher. For incarcerated adults, the relationships they foster with their teachers (and by extension the respect or disrespect cultivated within it) often have a considerable impact on their…

  8. Effects of electromagnetic fields on human beings. Technical aspects and research results. - Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieback, D.

    1996-01-01

    The present brochure of the Professional Association for Fine Mechanics and Electrical Engineering gives a selective account on the effects of electromagnetic fields on human beings. The second part deals with regulations for safety and health protection at working places exposed to electromagnetic fields. (VHE) [de

  9. Consequences of residential development for biodiversity and human well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liba Pejchar; Sarah E. Reed; Patrick Bixler; Lindsay Ex; Miranda H. Mockrin

    2015-01-01

    Residential development is a leading driver of land-use change, with important implications for biodiversity, ecosystem processes, and human well-being. We reviewed over 500 published scientific articles on the biophysical, economic, and social effects of residential development and open space in the US. We concluded that current knowledge of the effects of this type...

  10. Antibiotic resistance - the interplay between antibiotic use in animals and human beings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singer, R.S.; Finch, R.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2003-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were first identified in the 1940s, but while new antibiotics were being discovered at a steady rate, the consequences of this phenomenon were slow to be appreciated. Today, the excessive use of antibiotics compounded by the paucity of new agents on the market has...... meant the problem of antibiotic resistance is fast escalating into a global health crisis. There is no doubt that misuse of these drugs in human beings has contributed to the increasing rates of resistance, but recently the use of antibiotics in food animals and its consequent effect on resistance....... There is a growing concern over the transmission of resistant bacteria via the food chain. Many questions will be difficult to resolve, such as how do you distinguish the fraction of resistance in human beings that originated from animals? If we wait to see evidence that a significant amount of antibiotic resistance...

  11. Can results from animal studies be used to estimate dose or low dose effects in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Eberhardt, L.L.

    1981-01-01

    A method has been devised to extrapolate biological equilibrium levels between animal species and subsequently to humans. Our initial premise was based on the observation that radionuclide retention is normally a function of metabolism so that direct or indirect measures could be described by a power law based on body weights of test animal species. However, we found that such interspecies comparisons ought to be based on the coefficient of the power equation rather than on the exponential parameter. The method is illustrated using retention data obtained from five non-ruminant species (including humans) that were fed radionuclides with different properties. It appears that biological equilibrium level for radionuclides in man can be estimated using data from mice, rats, and dogs. The need to extrapolate low-dose effects data obtained from small animals (usually rodents) to humans is not unique to radiation dosimetry or radiation protection problems. Therefore, some quantitative problems connected with estimating low-dose effects from other disciplines have been reviewed, both because of the concern about effects induced by the radionuclide moiety of a radiopharmaceutical and those of the nonradioactive component. The possibility of extrapolating low-dose effects calculated from animal studies to human is discussed

  12. Can results from animal studies be used to estimate dose or low dose effects in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Eberhardt, L.L.

    1981-01-01

    We have devised a method to extrapolate biological equilibrium levels between animal species and subsequently to humans. Our initial premise was based on the observation that radionuclide retention is normally a function of metabolism so that direct or indirect measures could be described by a power law based on body weights of test animal species. However, we found that such interspecies comparisons ought to be based on the coefficient of the power equation rather than on the exponential parameter. The method is illustrated using retention data obtained from five non-ruminant species (including humans) that were fed radionuclides with different properties. It appears that biological equilibrium level for radionuclides in man can be estimated using data from mice, rats and dogs. The need to extrapolate low-dose effects data obtained from small animals (usually rodents) to humans is not unique to radiation dosimetry or radiation protection problems. Therefore, researchers have reviewed some quantitative problems connected with estimating low-dose effects from other disciplines, both because of the concern about effects induced by the radionuclide moiety of a radiopharmaceutical and those of the nonradioactive component. The possibility of extrapolating low-dose effects calculated from animal studies to humans is discussed

  13. Quantifying the combined effects of land use and climate changes on stream flow and nutrient loads: A modelling approach in the Odense Fjord catchment (Denmark).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Navarro, Eugenio; Andersen, Hans E; Nielsen, Anders; Thodsen, Hans; Trolle, Dennis

    2018-04-15

    Water pollution and water scarcity are among the main environmental challenges faced by the European Union, and multiple stressors compromise the integrity of water resources and ecosystems. Particularly in lowland areas of northern Europe, high population density, flood protection and, especially, intensive agriculture, are important drivers of water quality degradation. In addition, future climate and land use changes may interact, with uncertain consequences for water resources. Modelling approaches have become essential to address water issues and to evaluate ecosystem management. In this work, three multi-stressor future storylines combining climatic and socio-economic changes, defined at European level, have been downscaled for the Odense Fjord catchment (Denmark), giving three scenarios: High-Tech agriculture (HT), Agriculture for Nature (AN) and Market-Driven agriculture (MD). The impacts of these scenarios on water discharge and inorganic and organic nutrient loads to the streams have been simulated using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The results revealed that the scenario-specific climate inputs were most important when simulating hydrology, increasing river discharge in the HT and MD scenarios (which followed the high emission 8.5 representative concentration pathway, RCP), while remaining stable in the AN scenario (RCP 4.5). Moreover, discharge was the main driver of changes in organic nutrients and inorganic phosphorus loads that consequently increased in a high emission scenario. Nevertheless, both land use (via inputs of fertilizer) and climate changes affected the nitrate transport. Different levels of fertilization yielded a decrease in the nitrate load in AN and an increase in MD. In HT, however, nitrate losses remained stable because the fertilization decrease was counteracted by a flow increase. Thus, our results suggest that N loads will ultimately depend on future land use and management in an interaction with climate changes, and

  14. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reperant, L A; Brown, I H; Haenen, O L; de Jong, M D; Osterhaus, A D M E; Papa, A; Rimstad, E; Valarcher, J-F; Kuiken, T

    2016-07-01

    Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viruses and viruses of food production animals, and prioritized these viruses in terms of human health and economic importance. In total, 138 virus species reportedly capable of infecting companion animals were of concern for human and food production animal health: 59 of these viruses were infectious for human beings, 135 were infectious for food production mammals and birds, and 22 were infectious for food production fishes. Viruses of highest concern for human health included hantaviruses, Tahyna virus, rabies virus, West Nile virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, Aichi virus, European bat lyssavirus, hepatitis E virus, cowpox virus, G5 rotavirus, influenza A virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production mammals and birds included bluetongue virus, African swine fever virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, lumpy skin disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus, porcine circovirus, classical swine fever virus, equine herpesvirus 9, peste des petits ruminants virus and equine infectious anaemia virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production fishes included cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus), viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Of particular concern as sources of zoonotic or food production animal viruses were domestic carnivores, rodents and food production animals kept as companion animals. The current list of viruses provides an objective

  15. Antibiotic resistance - the interplay between antibiotic use in animals and human beings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singer, R.S.; Finch, R.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2003-01-01

    meant the problem of antibiotic resistance is fast escalating into a global health crisis. There is no doubt that misuse of these drugs in human beings has contributed to the increasing rates of resistance, but recently the use of antibiotics in food animals and its consequent effect on resistance...... levels in people has also come under scrutiny. Antimicrobials are used therapeutically and prophylactically in animals. More controversially, antimicrobials are also used as growth promoters to improve the ability of the animal to convert feed into body mass. Some argue that the impact of use....... There is a growing concern over the transmission of resistant bacteria via the food chain. Many questions will be difficult to resolve, such as how do you distinguish the fraction of resistance in human beings that originated from animals? If we wait to see evidence that a significant amount of antibiotic resistance...

  16. Towards a substantive knowledge that promotes the dignity of the human being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginés Marco Perles

    2017-05-01

    Regarding this failure to take such life processes into account, and given its propensity for generalization, science stood out among these spheres as placing an excessive weight on positivist values that by their very nature disregarded anything that could not be classified as such. This approach was in stark contrast with the open tradition upheld by Miguel de Unamuno that would be eagerly taken up by Spanish philosophy in the twentieth century. From the perspective of that philosophy it is, therefore, worth asking whether all of those aspects and elements (not only those that form part of any given human life but also those belonging to the other two main spheres of culture – art and morality – displaced by scientism because they were not positive or verifiable through experiment, because they did not lend themselves to being understood using a rationalist or logical/scientific reasoning were not also human. Was their rejection justified?

  17. Analysis of topological relationships and network properties in the interactions of human beings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Yuan

    Full Text Available In the animal world, various kinds of collective motions have been found and proven to be efficient ways of carrying out some activities such as searching for food and avoiding predators. Many scholars research the interactions of collective behaviors of human beings according to the rules of collective behaviors of animals. Based on the Lennard-Jones potential function and a self-organization process, our paper proposes a topological communication model to simulate the collective behaviors of human beings. In the results of simulations, we find various types of collective behavior and fission behavior and discover the threshold for the emergence of collective behavior, which is the range five to seven for the number of topology K. According to the analysis of network properties of the model, the in-degree of individuals is always equal to the number of topology. In the stable state, the out-degrees of individuals distribute around the value of the number of topology K, except that the out-degree of a single individual is approximately double the out-degrees of the other individuals. In addition, under different initial conditions, some features of different kinds of networks emerge from the model. We also find the leader and herd mentality effects in the characteristics of the behaviors of human beings in our model. Thus, this work could be used to discover how to promote the emergence of beneficial group behaviors and prevent the emergence of harmful behaviors.

  18. Radioimmunoassay of erythropoietin: circulating levels in normal and polycythemic human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J.F.; Ebbe, S.N.; Hollander, L.; Cutting, H.O.; Miller, M.E.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques are described in detail for the RIA of human Ep in unextracted plasma or serum. With 100 μl of sample, the assay is sensitive at an Ep concentration of approximately 4 mU/ml, and when required, the sensitivity can be increased to 0.4 mU/ml, a range considerably less than the concentration observed in normal human beings. This is approximately 100 times more sensitive than existing in vivo bioassays for this hormone. Studies concerned with the validation of the Ep RIA show a high degree of correlation with the polycythemic mouse bioassay. Dilutions of a variety of human serum samples show a parallel relationship with the standard reference preparation for Ep. Validation of the RIA is further confirmed by observations of appropriate increases or decreases of circulating Ep levels in physiological and clinical conditions known to be associated with stimulation or suppression of Ep secretion. Significantly different mean serum concentrations of 17.2 mU/ml for normal male subjects and 18.8 mU/ml for normal female subjects were observed. Mean plasma Ep concentrations in patients with polycythemia vera are significantly decreased, and those of patients with secondary polycythemia are significantly increased as compared to plasma levels in normal subjects. These results demonstrate an initial practical value of the Ep RA in the hematology clinic, which will most certainly be expanded with its more extensive use

  19. Urban planning with respect to environmental quality and human well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Thomas; González Duque, José Antonio; Bostenaru Dan, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The cities of today present requirements that are dissimilar to those of the past. There are cities where the industrial and service sectors are in decline, and there are other cities that are just beginning their journey into the technological and industrial sectors. In general, the political and social realms have been restructured in terms of economics, which has resulted in an entirely different shape to the primitive structures of civilization. As people begin to understand the dynamic nature of landscapes, they stop seeing landscapes as a static scene. Sustainable cities must be simultaneously economically viable, socially just, politically well managed and ecologically sustainable to maximize human comfort. The present research suggests a multi-disciplinary approach for attaining a holistic understanding of urban environmental quality and human well-being in relation to sustainable urban development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. International conference on electromagnetic fields hazard protection of the human being

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, Yu.G.

    1999-01-01

    The Second International conference concerning the problems of electromagnetic protection of the human being, fundamental and applied studies, normalization of the EMP: philosophy, criteria and harmonization which took place in Moscow in September 1999 is reported. The topics of reports covered both the mechanism of biological action of electromagnetic fields and aspects of impact of electromagnetic fields from various household appliances on the health of practically all modern people (television, radio, energetic, communication). The plenary section on evaluation of hazards of the mobile communication electromagnetic fields and the round table meeting dealing with evaluation of hazards of electromagnetic fields of the cellular communication base stations were conducted in the course of the conference. The plenary meetings were devoted to harmonization of the electromagnetic protection standards of Russia and western countries. The above conference constitutes one of the stages of the WHO international program concerning electromagnetic fields and the human being [ru

  1. Human Being as a Communication Portal: The Construction of the Profile on Mobile Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Canavilhas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The incorporation of mobile phones in the daily life of human being not only alters space and time dimensions, but it also changes the perception and the way we relate with the ecosystem. Methodology. The state of the art is analyzed from the technological concept of intimacy, used by Boyce and Hancock, which describes the levels of interaction between man and technology. Then, a methodology to explore issues increasingly pressing is proposed, especially, concerning the delimitation of public and private spheres and the interaction in the common space. Results and conclusions. Following in particular the theories of Castells, Heidegger, Meyrowitz and Habermas; a set of categories for deepening the concepts of spatialization, willingness and profile are articulated. These concepts are identified as key elements in this first stage of the project for the analysis of the human being as a communication portal.

  2. Martha C. Nussbaum – Another Approach for the Defense of the Human Being and the Human Rights of Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Monereo Atienza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper confronts the advantagesand disadvantages of Nussbaum´s theory inseeking equality for women. Nussbaum under-stands that people in general and women in par-ticular have a number of common capabilitiesbecause they are ends in themselves. You cannot treat another person as a mere object, andthis deserves a cross-cultural consensus on whatis the human being. The universal concept ofthe subject that she offers, based on a minimumcommon to all, open to dialogue and politicalconsensus, is very interesting. However, we cannot forget other approaches like the discourse ofrights.

  3. The thermal environment of the human being on the global scale

    OpenAIRE

    Jendritzky, Gerd; Tinz, Birger

    2009-01-01

    Background: The close relationship between human health, performance, well-being and the thermal environment is obvious. Nevertheless, most studies of climate and climate change impacts show amazing shortcomings in the assessment of the environment. Populations living in different climates have different susceptibilities, due to socio-economic reasons, and different customary behavioural adaptations. The global distribution of risks of hazardous thermal exposure has not been analysed before. ...

  4. Demand in the context of trafficking in human beings in the domestic work sector in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    CAMARGO MAGALHÃES, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Belgian anti-THB policy is often pointed as exemplary given its broad definition of the crime of trafficking for labour exploitation, as being the work or service carried out in conditions contrary to human dignity, in which the coercion element is not compulsory. However, hardly any policy initiatives in Belgium tackle specifically demand-side aspects in labour exploitation and THB in the domestic work sector. Recent policy changes in the domain of domestic work at diplomatic households and ...

  5. REDD+ IN COSTA RICA, WHAT CAN BE IMPROVED?: Indigenous Peoples Human Rights within REDD+

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho Mejia, Monica Judith

    2014-01-01

    This thesis analyses the development of REDD+ in Costa Rica. It sets out to analyse what the obligations of Costa Rica are under International Human Rights Law with regard to Indigenous Peoples at the moment of implementing REDD+; what laws should be changed before implementing REDD+ whether Costa Rica wants to fulfil its international obligations towards Indigenous Peoples; what impact the Payment for Environmental Services programme has had on Indigenous Peoples; and how the Costa Rican gov...

  6. Trafficking in human beings, challenges in the identification process: the Stavanger case

    OpenAIRE

    Toffano, Damiano Maria

    2014-01-01

    Master's thesis in Migration and intercultural relations Migration is a very diversified topic, where both positive and negative sides merge together providing aspects of complexity and a state of uncertainty that have repercussions on related arguments such as the case concerning Trafficking in Human Beings (THB). The huge amount of actors involved within the trafficking networks, the complex cases it generates and the particular characteristics of this crime, including ...

  7. Effective nonvaccine interventions to be considered alongside human papilloma virus vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindin, Michelle J; Bloem, Paul; Ferguson, Jane

    2015-01-01

    World Health Organization recommends that girls, ages 9-13 years, get the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine. Global Alliance for Vaccines Initiative, which provides low-cost vaccine to eligible countries, requires that an additional intervention to be offered alongside the vaccine. We systematically searched and assessed the published literature in lower- and middle-income countries to identify effective interventions. We conducted systematic searches of four databases: PubMed, EMBASE, Global Index Medicus Regional Databases, and Cochrane Reviews for effective adolescent health interventions that could be delivered with the HPV vaccine in the following areas: (1) iron and folic acid supplementation (iron alone or with folic acid); (2) voucher delivery and cash transfer programs; (3) hand washing and soap provision; (4) vision screening; (5) promotion of physical activity/exercise; (6) menstrual hygiene education; (7) sexual and reproductive health education; (8) human immunodeficiency virus prevention activities; and (9) condom promotion, condom use skill building, and demonstration. We found limited evidence of consistent positive impact. Iron supplementation reduced iron-deficiency anemia and raised serum ferritin levels. Promotion of physical activity lowered blood pressure and reduced weight gain. Sexual and reproductive health and human immunodeficiency virus interventions improved adolescent communication with adults but did not influence behavioral outcomes. Countries should consider locally relevant and proven interventions to be offered alongside the HPV vaccine. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Here, there be dragons: charting autophagy-related alterations in human tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebovitz, Chandra B; Bortnik, Svetlana B; Gorski, Sharon M

    2012-03-01

    Macroautophagy (or autophagy) is a catabolic cellular process that is both homeostatic and stress adaptive. Normal cells rely on basal levels of autophagy to maintain cellular integrity (via turnover of long-lived proteins and damaged organelles) and increased levels of autophagy to buoy cell survival during various metabolic stresses (via nutrient and energy provision through lysosomal degradation of cytoplasmic components). Autophagy can function in both tumor suppression and tumor progression, and is under investigation in clinical trials as a novel target for anticancer therapy. However, its role in cancer pathogenesis has yet to be fully explored. In particular, it remains unknown whether in vitro observations will be applicable to human cancer patients. Another outstanding question is whether there exists tumor-specific selection for alterations in autophagy function. In this review, we survey reported mutations in autophagy genes and key autophagy regulators identified in human tumor samples and summarize the literature regarding expression levels of autophagy genes and proteins in various cancer tissues. Although it is too early to draw inferences from this collection of in vivo studies of autophagy-related alterations in human cancers, their results highlight the challenges that must be overcome before we can accurately assess the scope of autophagy's predicted role in tumorigenesis.

  9. Concerning human well-being and ecosystems sustainability on water resources management for Qishan River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. Y.; Ho, C. C.; Chang, L. C.

    2016-12-01

    There are no large hydraulic structures in Qishan River cause the less human interference than other major river in Taiwan. However, the aquatic habitats still suffer disturbance from the discharge changes greatly between wet and drought season, and Jiaxian Weir and Yuemei Weir draw surplus water from Qishan River to Nanhua Reservoir and Agongdian Reservoir respectively. The weir operation rule doesn't clear define how much environmental flow should be preserved for maintaining downstream ecological environment. Hence, the study proposes a process for evaluating environmental flow under considering impact on human well-being and ecosystems sustainability. Empirical formula, hydrological, hydraulic and habitat methodologies were used to propose the environmental flow alternatives. Next, water allocation model and Habitat model were used to analysis the impact of environment flow alternatives on human well-being and ecosystems sustainability. The results show the suggested environmental flow in Qishan River is estimated by MAF10%. The environmental flow is between 8.03 10.83 cms during wet season and is between 1.07 1.44cms during wet season. The simulation results also provide the evidence from diverse aspect to help different authorities realized what they get and lose. The information can advance to reach a consensus during negotiations with different authorities and help decision maker make decisions.

  10. Toxicovigilance: A new approach for the hazard identification and risk assessment of toxicants in human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descotes, Jacques; Testud, Francois

    2005-01-01

    The concept of toxicovigilance encompasses the active detection, validation and follow-up of clinical adverse events related to toxic exposures in human beings. Poison centers are key players in this function as poisoning statistics are essential to define the cause, incidence and severity of poisonings occurring in the general population. In addition, the systematic search for unexpected shifts in the recorded causes of poisonings, e.g., following the introduction of a new product, or change in the formulation or recommended use of an old product, allows for a rapid detection of potential adverse health consequences and the implementation of preventive or corrective measures. However, toxicovigilance is genuinely a medical and not only a statistical approach of human toxicity issues. In contrast to epidemiology, toxicovigilance is based on the in-depth medical assessment of acute or chronic intoxications on an individual basis, which requires detailed information that poison centers can rarely obtain via emergency telephone calls and that epidemiologists cannot collect or process. Validation of this medical information must primarily be based on toxicological expertise to help identify causal links between otherwise unexplained pathological conditions and documented toxic exposures. Thus, toxicovigilance can contribute to hazard identification and risk assessment by providing medically validated data which are often overlooked in the process of risk assessment. So far, very few structured toxicovigilance systems have been set up and hopefully national and international initiatives will bridge this gap in our knowledge of the toxicity of many chemicals and commercial products in human beings

  11. Toxicovigilance: a new approach for the hazard identification and risk assessment of toxicants in human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descotes, Jacques; Testud, François

    2005-09-01

    The concept of toxicovigilance encompasses the active detection, validation and follow-up of clinical adverse events related to toxic exposures in human beings. Poison centers are key players in this function as poisoning statistics are essential to define the cause, incidence and severity of poisonings occurring in the general population. In addition, the systematic search for unexpected shifts in the recorded causes of poisonings, e.g., following the introduction of a new product, or change in the formulation or recommended use of an old product, allows for a rapid detection of potential adverse health consequences and the implementation of preventive or corrective measures. However, toxicovigilance is genuinely a medical and not only a statistical approach of human toxicity issues. In contrast to epidemiology, toxicovigilance is based on the in-depth medical assessment of acute or chronic intoxications on an individual basis, which requires detailed information that poison centers can rarely obtain via emergency telephone calls and that epidemiologists cannot collect or process. Validation of this medical information must primarily be based on toxicological expertise to help identify causal links between otherwise unexplained pathological conditions and documented toxic exposures. Thus, toxicovigilance can contribute to hazard identification and risk assessment by providing medically validated data which are often overlooked in the process of risk assessment. So far, very few structured toxicovigilance systems have been set up and hopefully national and international initiatives will bridge this gap in our knowledge of the toxicity of many chemicals and commercial products in human beings.

  12. Sensible biological models to be exposed to VDT (Video Display Terminal) radiations in human male reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritto, J.; North, M.-O.; Laverdure, A.M.; Surbeck, J.

    1999-01-01

    Temperature and environmental effects, particularly endocrine disrupters and EMF radiations, are actively investigated in human and non-human reproduction experimental models. Sensitivity and specificity of the different cell types of the testes seminiferous tubules in animals and in human are evaluated, showing a specific responsiveness of spermatogonia (SPG) and resting pachytene spermatocytes (SPC). At 32 o C the 24 h short-term cultures of biopsies of normal human testis show an expected low occurrence of apoptotic SPG (1 %) that increases to 3,4 % in peer samples exposed to VDT for the same period, with the appearance of apoptotic SPC (4,6 %). In samples from a thermically-impaired testis of the same subject the apoptotic occurrence of SPG is 2,6 % with 15,4 % for SPC after 24 h cultures. After 24 h exposure to VDT the apoptotic score is 7,6 % for SPG and 18,5 % for SPC in thermically impaired peer samples. With EMF-bioshields the apoptotic score for SPG is 0,8 % in normal 2,2 % for SPG and 13,8 % for SPC in T-impaired peer-samples. NMRS of the cultures fluids show a proportional production of lactate, corresponding to the different degrees of histopathological impairment of the samples. IVOS (Integrated Visual Optic System) analysis of sperm samples from thermically-impaired, not-repaired and repaired testes exposed to VDT shows sensible variations on straightness (STR), linearity (LIN) and lateral head displacement (LHD) parameters. To evaluate the thermic and non-thermic potential bioeffects of VDT on human spermatogenesis the specificity, the sensitivity and the reproducibility of the biological models on one side and the specificity of the methodologies on the other side must be provided. (author)

  13. Elasticity in ecosystem services: exploring the variable relationship between ecosystems and human well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim M. Daw

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although ecosystem services are increasingly recognized as benefits people obtain from nature, we still have a poor understanding of how they actually enhance multidimensional human well-being, and how well-being is affected by ecosystem change. We develop a concept of "ecosystem service elasticity" (ES elasticity that describes the sensitivity of human well-being to changes in ecosystems. ES Elasticity is a result of complex social and ecological dynamics and is context dependent, individually variable, and likely to demonstrate nonlinear dynamics such as thresholds and hysteresis. We present a conceptual framework that unpacks the chain of causality from ecosystem stocks through flows, goods, value, and shares to contribute to the well-being of different people. This framework builds on previous conceptualizations, but places multidimensional well-being of different people as the final element. This ultimately disaggregated approach emphasizes how different people access benefits and how benefits match their needs or aspirations. Applying this framework to case studies of individual coastal ecosystem services in East Africa illustrates a wide range of social and ecological factors that can affect ES elasticity. For example, food web and habitat dynamics affect the sensitivity of different fisheries ecosystem services to ecological change. Meanwhile high cultural significance, or lack of alternatives enhance ES elasticity, while social mechanisms that prevent access can reduce elasticity. Mapping out how chains are interlinked illustrates how different types of value and the well-being of different people are linked to each other and to common ecological stocks. We suggest that examining chains for individual ecosystem services can suggest potential interventions aimed at poverty alleviation and sustainable ecosystems while mapping out of interlinkages between chains can help to identify possible ecosystem service trade-offs and winners and

  14. Human Factors Effecting Forensic Decision Making: Workplace Stress and Well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanguenat, Amy M; Dror, Itiel E

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a growing openness about the importance of human factors in forensic work. However, most of it focused on cognitive bias, and neglected issues of workplace wellness and stress. Forensic scientists work in a dynamic environment that includes common workplace pressures such as workload volume, tight deadlines, lack of advancement, number of working hours, low salary, technology distractions, and fluctuating priorities. However, in addition, forensic scientists also encounter a number of industry-specific pressures, such as technique criticism, repeated exposure to crime scenes or horrific case details, access to funding, working in an adversarial legal system, and zero tolerance for "errors". Thus, stress is an important human factor to mitigate for overall error management, productivity and decision quality (not to mention the well-being of the examiners themselves). Techniques such as mindfulness can become powerful tools to enhance work and decision quality. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. The medicalization of love and narrow and broad conceptions of human well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyholm, Sven

    2015-07-01

    Would a "medicalization" of love be a "good" or "bad" form of medicalization? In discussing this question, Earp, Sandberg, and Savulescu primarily focus on the potential positive and negative consequences of turning love into a medical issue. But it can also be asked whether there is something intrinsically regrettable about medicalizing love. It is argued here that the medicalization of love can be seen as an "evaluative category mistake": it treats a core human value (love) as if it were mainly a means to other ends (viz. physical health and hedonic well-being). It is also argued that Earp et al's closing argument (that a scientific perspective on love actually adds more value to love) can be seen as involving another evaluative category mistake: it treats an object of desire and practical interest (namely, love) as if it mainly were an object of scientific contemplation and theoretical interest. It is concluded that, to relate love to health and well-being in a more satisfying way, we should construe the latter two in broader ways, whereby love is itself a component or element of human flourishing.

  16. Can biosemiotics be a "science" if its purpose is to be a bridge between the natural, social and human sciences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brier, Søren

    2015-12-01

    Central to the attempt to develop a biosemiotics has been the discussion of what it means to be scientific. In Marcello Barbieri's latest argument for leaving Peircean biosemiotics and creating an alternative code-biology the definition of what it means to be scientific plays a major role. For Barbieri "scientific knowledge is obtained by building machine-like models of what we observe in nature". Barbieri interestingly claims that - in combination with the empirical and experimental basis - mechanism is virtually equivalent to the scientific method. The consequences of this statement seem to be that the optimal type of knowledge science can produce about living system is to model them as machines. But the explicit goal of a Peircean semiotically based biosemiotics is (also) to model living systems as cognitive and communicative systems working on the basis of meaning and signification. These two concepts are not part of the mechanistic models of natural science today, not even of cognitive science. Barbieri tries to solve this problem by introducing a new concept of biological meaning that is separate from the Peircean biosemiotics and then add Peirce's semiotics on top. This article argues why this view is inconsistent on the grounds that Peirce's semiotic paradigm only gives meaning in its pragmaticist conception of a fallibilist view of science, which again is intrinsic connected to its non-mechanistic metaphysics of Tychism, Synechism and Agapism. The core of the biosemiotic enterprise is to establish another type of trans- and interdisciplinary wissenschaft than the received view of "science". Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The Creation of Human Being and the Birth of Freedom of Thought from Atheist and Theist Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yılmaz

    2015-12-01

    This study has demonstrated that freedom of thought arises from the creation of human being, and human being must save themselves from the natural, economic, historical and biological conditions in order to maintain their free thoughts.

  18. A miniature implantable coil that can be wrapped around a tubular organ within the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shitong; Wang, Hao; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2018-05-01

    There are many tubular or rod-shaped organs and tissues within the human body. A miniature medical implant that wraps around such a biological structure can monitor or modulate its function. In order to provide the wrap-around implant with power, a solenoidal coil coupled wirelessly with a planar coil outside the human body can be used. Unfortunately, there is a serious practical problem that this configuration cannot be realized easily because the implantable solenoidal coil cannot be positioned around the tubular biological structure unless either the structure or the coil is cut and reconnected, which is impermissible in most cases. In addition, when a planner exterior coil is used for wireless power transfer and communication, its maximum magnetic coupling with the implanted solenoidal coil is achieved when the tubular structure is perpendicular to the surface of the body. However, in human anatomy, most tubular/rod structures are oriented horizontally. In order to solve these problems, we present a new flexible coil for the class of wrapped-around implantable devices. Our multilayer coil has specially designed windings in cross patterns. The new coil can be made conveniently in high precision at low cost on a flat substrate using the same technology for making the flexible multilayer printed circuit boards along with miniature sensors and electronic circuits. This allows the implant to be made in a flat form and then wrapped around the biostructure during surgery. We present the design of this new coil, perform theoretical analysis with respect to its wireless power transfer efficiency, discuss the effects of coil parameters, and conduct experiments using constructed miniature prototypes. Our results confirm the validity of the new coil.

  19. A miniature implantable coil that can be wrapped around a tubular organ within the human body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shitong Mao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available There are many tubular or rod-shaped organs and tissues within the human body. A miniature medical implant that wraps around such a biological structure can monitor or modulate its function. In order to provide the wrap-around implant with power, a solenoidal coil coupled wirelessly with a planar coil outside the human body can be used. Unfortunately, there is a serious practical problem that this configuration cannot be realized easily because the implantable solenoidal coil cannot be positioned around the tubular biological structure unless either the structure or the coil is cut and reconnected, which is impermissible in most cases. In addition, when a planner exterior coil is used for wireless power transfer and communication, its maximum magnetic coupling with the implanted solenoidal coil is achieved when the tubular structure is perpendicular to the surface of the body. However, in human anatomy, most tubular/rod structures are oriented horizontally. In order to solve these problems, we present a new flexible coil for the class of wrapped-around implantable devices. Our multilayer coil has specially designed windings in cross patterns. The new coil can be made conveniently in high precision at low cost on a flat substrate using the same technology for making the flexible multilayer printed circuit boards along with miniature sensors and electronic circuits. This allows the implant to be made in a flat form and then wrapped around the biostructure during surgery. We present the design of this new coil, perform theoretical analysis with respect to its wireless power transfer efficiency, discuss the effects of coil parameters, and conduct experiments using constructed miniature prototypes. Our results confirm the validity of the new coil.

  20. Hazards of ionizing radiations for human beings and environment with respect to nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, Felix; Jung, Jennifer Jana; Schultmann, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, nuclear fission is used to produce electricity. On the one hand, the low emission of CO_2 is often mentioned as an advantage of this technology. On the other hand, warnings about the dangers of nuclear fission are mentioned. Consequently, an overview about the dangers of ionizing radiation to human beings as well as animals and the environment is important. However, the focus will be on possible health effects for humans with regards to nuclear power plants. In nuclear power plants, both natural types of radiation and artificially produced radiation occur. During normal operation, it is possible that small quantities of this ionizing radiation are released to the environment. In case of nuclear disasters or faults during decommissioning and dismantling processes the consequences of thereby emitted quantities can be even more severe. Reference nuclides vary by reactor type, operating stage and respective incident. At the beginning, different types of radiation and their characteristics and effects on the affected organism are explained. Sensitive organs are emphasized in this context. The individual risk is determined by numerous factors and therefore cannot be predicted. Based on scientific studies and medical publications the hazards of ionizing radiation are compiled. Effects of high exposure of ionizing radiation are well-investigated. Scientists are still divided over the connection between several diseases and the exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation. For this reason, the positions of different international organizations are critically contrasted in this study.

  1. [Pulmonary cystic disease may be a rare complication to recurrent respiratory human papilloma virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurberg, Peter Thaysen; Weinreich, Ulla M Øller

    2014-12-08

    A 19-year-old woman with a history of juvenile laryngeal papillomatosis (JLP), treated since childhood with multiple resections, was admitted with symptoms of pneumonia. A chest X-ray and CAT-scan revealed multiple lung cysts and a bronchoalveolar lavage detected human papilloma virus 11. The patient responded well to antibiotics. A body plethysmography showed small lung volumes and low diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide, but normal volume diffusion capacity divided by alveolar volume. Pulmonary cystic disease should be considered when patients with JLP have symptoms of pneumonia.

  2. First-pass metabolism of ethanol in human beings: effect of intravenous infusion of fructose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Billinger, MH; Schäfer, C.

    2004-01-01

    Intravenous infusion of fructose has been shown to enhance reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reoxidation and, thereby, to enhance the metabolism of ethanol. In the current study, the effect of fructose infusion on first-pass metabolism of ethanol was studied in human volunteers....... A significantly higher first-pass metabolism of ethanol was obtained after administration of fructose in comparison with findings for control experiments with an equimolar dose of glucose. Because fructose is metabolized predominantly in the liver and can be presumed to have virtually no effects in the stomach...

  3. Ethics and research in Human and Social Sciences: a case to be thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto dos Santos Amaral Filho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper, fundamentally through the analysis and interpretation of Resolutions that have historically been regulating ethical issues that involve scientific research (CNS Resolutions N. 196/96, N. 466/2012, N. 510/2016, seeks to show the inadequacy of such Resolutions for Human and Social Sciences research. In addition, this text wants to point to the political dispute imposed by the area of biomedical sciences that apparently seems to be little concerned with ethical issues per se and seeks, first and foremost, to maintain its power.

  4. From 21st century skills to 21st century human being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Niels-Peder Osmundsen; Jørgensen, Tobias Heiberg

    2017-01-01

    In Denmark, in Scandinavia and in all of Europe there is a lot of talk about the skills of the future. But if we want our students to aim for and gain a different learning outcome, we must set new and different standards for the way we teach – and start to walk the talk. The focus of the presenta...... CLD and we must take the next step, where we stop thinking about skills and competencies and start thinking and acting on the fundamental existential implication of the 21st century. What we need now is not more 21st century skills, but 21st century human beings....

  5. Outdoor blue spaces, human health and well-being: A systematic review of quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascon, Mireia; Zijlema, Wilma; Vert, Cristina; White, Mathew P; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2017-11-01

    A growing number of quantitative studies have investigated the potential benefits of outdoor blue spaces (lakes, rivers, sea, etc) and human health, but there is not yet a systematic review synthesizing this evidence. To systematically review the current quantitative evidence on human health and well-being benefits of outdoor blue spaces. Following PRISMA guidelines for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analysis, observational and experimental quantitative studies focusing on both residential and non-residential outdoor blue space exposure were searched using specific keywords. In total 35 studies were included in the current systematic review, most of them being classified as of "good quality" (N=22). The balance of evidence suggested a positive association between greater exposure to outdoor blue spaces and both benefits to mental health and well-being (N=12 studies) and levels of physical activity (N=13 studies). The evidence of an association between outdoor blue space exposure and general health (N=6 studies), obesity (N=8 studies) and cardiovascular (N=4 studies) and related outcomes was less consistent. Although encouraging, there remains relatively few studies and a large degree of heterogeneity in terms of study design, exposure metrics and outcome measures, making synthesis difficult. Further research is needed using longitudinal research and natural experiments, preferably across a broader range of countries, to better understand the causal associations between blue spaces, health and wellbeing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Critics to Metaphysics by Modern Philosophers: A Discourse on Human Beings in Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederikus Fios

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have entered the 21st century that is popularly known as the era of the development of modern science and technology. Philosophy provides naming for contemporary era as postmodern era. But do we suddenly come to this day and age? No! Because humans are homo viator, persona that does pilgrimage in history, space and time. Philosophy has expanded periodically in the long course of history. Since the days of classical antiquity, philosophy comes with a patterned metaphysical paradigm. This paradigm survives very long in the stage history of philosophy as maintained by many philosophers who hold fast to the philosophical-epistemic claim that philosophy should be (das sollen metaphysical. Classical Greek philosopher, Aristotle was a philosopher who claims metaphysics as the initial philosophy. Then, Immanuel Kant, Hegel, Heidegger, Marx even Habermas offer appropriate shades of metaphysical philosophy versus spirit of the age. Modern philosophers offer a new paradigm in the way of doing philosophy. The new spirit of modern philosophers declared as if giving criticism on traditional western metaphysics (since Aristotle that are considered irrelevant. This paper intends to show the argument between traditional metaphysical and modern philosophers who criticize metaphysics. The author will make a philosophical synthesis to obtain enlightenment to the position of human beings in the space of time. Using the method of Hegelian dialectic (thesis-antiteses-synthesis, this topic will be developed and assessed in accordance with the interests of this paper. 

  7. The BMA's guidance on conscientious objection may be contrary to human rights law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenitire, John Olusegun

    2017-04-01

    It is argued that the current policy of the British Medical Association (BMA) on conscientious objection is not aligned with recent human rights developments. These grant a right to conscientious objection to doctors in many more circumstances than the very few recognised by the BMA. However, this wide-ranging right may be overridden if the refusal to accommodate the conscientious objection is proportionate. It is shown that it is very likely that it is lawful to refuse to accommodate conscientious objections that would result in discrimination of protected groups. It is still uncertain, however, in what particular circumstances the objection may be lawfully refused, if it poses risks to the health and safety of patients. The BMA's policy has not caught up with these human rights developments and ought to be changed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Reservoirs and human well being: new challenges for evaluating impacts and benefits in the neotropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JG. Tundisi

    Full Text Available As in many other continents, neotropical ecosystems are impacted by the construction of reservoirs. These artificial ecosystems change considerably the natural terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and their biodiversity. The multiple uses of reservoirs promote benefits for the human beings in terms of economic development, income, jobs and employment. Services of reservoirs are important assets for the regional ecosystem. Evaluation of ecosystem services produced by artificial reservoirs, are new challenges to the understanding of the cost/benefit relationships of reservoir construction in the neotropics. Regulating and other services promoted by reservoirs lead to new trends for "green technology" and the implementation of ecohydrological and ecotechnological developments. This approach can be utilized with better success as a substitute for the usual impact/benefit evaluation of the reservoirs. Better and diversified services can be achieved with "green technology" applied to the construction.

  9. Ethics and methods for biological rhythm research on animals and human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portaluppi, Francesco; Smolensky, Michael H; Touitou, Yvan

    2010-10-01

    This article updates the ethical standards and methods for the conduct of high-quality animal and human biological rhythm research, which should be especially useful for new investigators of the rhythms of life. The editors of Chronobiology International adhere to and endorse the Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines of the Committee On Publication Ethics (COPE), which encourages communication of such updates at regular intervals in the journal. The journal accepts papers representing original work, no part of which was previously submitted for publication elsewhere, except as brief abstracts, as well as in-depth reviews. The majority of research papers published in Chronobiology International entails animal and human investigations. The editors and readers of the journal expect authors of submitted manuscripts to have made an important contribution to the research of biological rhythms and related phenomena using ethical methods/procedures and unbiased, accurate, and honest reporting of findings. Authors of scientific papers are required to declare all potential conflicts of interest. The journal and its editors endorse compliance of investigators to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council, relating to the conduct of ethical research on laboratory and other animals, and the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association, relating to the conduct of ethical research on human beings. The peer review of manuscripts by Chronobiology International thus includes judgment as to whether or not the protocols and methods conform to ethical standards. Authors are expected to show mastery of the basic methods and procedures of biological rhythm research and proper statistical assessment of data, including the appropriate application of time series data analyses, as briefly reviewed in this article. The journal editors strive to consistently achieve

  10. Ambulanceudrykning i København, Odense og Ringkøbing Amt. Resultater fra Sundhedsministeriets og Amtsrådsforeningens stikprøveundersøgelse 1990. 1. Epidemiologiske data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, H; Larsen, C F

    1992-01-01

    In 1990, The Danish Ministry of Health and the County Council Association undertook a spot test investigation of the activities in connection with 3,182 emergency ambulance services (AU) in the Municipality of Copenhagen (a city), the Odense district (a large provincial town) and the County...... in the County of Ringkøbing. More than 10% of the services in all three regions did not result in transport of the patient to hospital treatment. The average age of the patients was 52 years in Copenhagen compared with 44 years in the other two regions. The age-specific frequency of AU for patients aged 0......-4 year-old was nine times as great in Copenhagen than in Odense and the County of Ringkøbing and, where patients aged more than 80 years were concerned, the frequency was 4-10 times as great. In all three regions, the activities of ambulance services were most numerous between 6-16 hours and lowest...

  11. X-ray diffraction enhanced imaging study of intraocular tumors in human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Gao; Wang Huaqiao; Chen Yu; Yuan Qing; Li Gang; Zhu Peiping; Zhang Xiaodan; Zhong Xiufeng; Tang Jintian

    2010-01-01

    Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) with edge enhancement is suitable for the observation of weakly absorbing objects. The potential ability of the DEI was explored for displaying the microanatomy and pathology of human eyeball in this work. The images of surgical specimens from malignant intraocular tumor of hospitalized patients were taken using the hard X-rays from the topography station of Beamline 4W1A at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). The obtained radiographic images were analyzed in correlation with those of pathology. The results show that the anatomic and pathologic details of intraocular tumors in human beings can be observed clearly by DEI for the first time, with good visualization of the microscopic details of eyeball ring such as sclera, choroid and other details of intraocular organelles. And the best resolution of DEI images reaches up to the magnitude of several tens of μm. The results suggest that it is capable of exhibiting clearly the details of intraocular tumor using DEI method. (authors)

  12. Inequalities in Human Well-Being in the Urban Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Szabo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The recently endorsed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs agenda unanimously agrees on the need to focus on inclusive development, the importance of eradicating extreme poverty and managing often complex human well-being impacts of rapid urban growth. Sustainable and inclusive urbanisation will accelerate progress towards the SDGs and contribute to eradicating extreme poverty. In tropical delta regions, such as the Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna delta region, urban growth and resulting intra-urban inequalities are accelerated by the impact of environmental and climate change. In this context, the present study uses the 2010 Household Income and Expenditure Survey to analyse the extent of wealth-based inequalities in human well-being in the urban delta region and the determinants of selected welfare measures. The results suggest that the extent of intra-urban inequalities is greatest in educational attainment and access to postnatal healthcare and relatively low in the occurrence of gastric disease. The paper concludes by providing policy recommendations to reduce increasing wealth inequalities in urban areas, thus contributing to sustainable development of the region.

  13. Current demographics suggest future energy supplies will be inadequate to slow human population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, John P; Burger, Oskar; Hamilton, Marcus J

    2010-10-05

    Influential demographic projections suggest that the global human population will stabilize at about 9-10 billion people by mid-century. These projections rest on two fundamental assumptions. The first is that the energy needed to fuel development and the associated decline in fertility will keep pace with energy demand far into the future. The second is that the demographic transition is irreversible such that once countries start down the path to lower fertility they cannot reverse to higher fertility. Both of these assumptions are problematic and may have an effect on population projections. Here we examine these assumptions explicitly. Specifically, given the theoretical and empirical relation between energy-use and population growth rates, we ask how the availability of energy is likely to affect population growth through 2050. Using a cross-country data set, we show that human population growth rates are negatively related to per-capita energy consumption, with zero growth occurring at ∼13 kW, suggesting that the global human population will stop growing only if individuals have access to this amount of power. Further, we find that current projected future energy supply rates are far below the supply needed to fuel a global demographic transition to zero growth, suggesting that the predicted leveling-off of the global population by mid-century is unlikely to occur, in the absence of a transition to an alternative energy source. Direct consideration of the energetic constraints underlying the demographic transition results in a qualitatively different population projection than produced when the energetic constraints are ignored. We suggest that energetic constraints be incorporated into future population projections.

  14. Current demographics suggest future energy supplies will be inadequate to slow human population growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P DeLong

    Full Text Available Influential demographic projections suggest that the global human population will stabilize at about 9-10 billion people by mid-century. These projections rest on two fundamental assumptions. The first is that the energy needed to fuel development and the associated decline in fertility will keep pace with energy demand far into the future. The second is that the demographic transition is irreversible such that once countries start down the path to lower fertility they cannot reverse to higher fertility. Both of these assumptions are problematic and may have an effect on population projections. Here we examine these assumptions explicitly. Specifically, given the theoretical and empirical relation between energy-use and population growth rates, we ask how the availability of energy is likely to affect population growth through 2050. Using a cross-country data set, we show that human population growth rates are negatively related to per-capita energy consumption, with zero growth occurring at ∼13 kW, suggesting that the global human population will stop growing only if individuals have access to this amount of power. Further, we find that current projected future energy supply rates are far below the supply needed to fuel a global demographic transition to zero growth, suggesting that the predicted leveling-off of the global population by mid-century is unlikely to occur, in the absence of a transition to an alternative energy source. Direct consideration of the energetic constraints underlying the demographic transition results in a qualitatively different population projection than produced when the energetic constraints are ignored. We suggest that energetic constraints be incorporated into future population projections.

  15. Salivary alpha amylase activity in human beings of different age groups subjected to psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-10-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker for stress-induced changes in the body that reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Though several experiments have been conducted to determine the validity of this salivary component as a reliable stress marker in human subjects, the effect of stress induced changes on sAA level in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip. Differences in sAA level based on sex of different age groups under stress have also been studied. A total of 112 subjects consisting of both the male and female subjects, divided into two groups on basis of age were viewed a video clip of corneal transplant surgery as stressor. Activity of sAA from saliva samples of the stressed subjects were measured and compared with the activity of the samples collected from the subjects before viewing the clip. The age ranges of subjects were 18-25 and 40-60 years. The sAA level increased significantly in both the groups after viewing the stressful video. The increase was more pronounced in the younger subjects. The level of sAA was comparatively more in males than females in the respective groups. No significant change in sAA activity was observed after viewing the soothed video clip. Significant increase of sAA level in response to psychological stress suggests that it might act as a reliable sympathetic activity biochemical marker in different stages of human beings.

  16. Diploid, but not haploid, human embryonic stem cells can be derived from microsurgically repaired tripronuclear human zygotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yong; Li, Rong; Huang, Jin; Yu, Yang; Qiao, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells have shown tremendous potential in regenerative medicine, and the recent progress in haploid embryonic stem cells provides new insights for future applications of embryonic stem cells. Disruption of normal fertilized embryos remains controversial; thus, the development of a new source for human embryonic stem cells is important for their usefulness. Here, we investigated the feasibility of haploid and diploid embryo reconstruction and embryonic stem cell derivation using microsurgically repaired tripronuclear human zygotes. Diploid and haploid zygotes were successfully reconstructed, but a large proportion of them still had a tripolar spindle assembly. The reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage, although the loss of chromosomes was observed in these zygotes. Finally, triploid and diploid human embryonic stem cells were derived from tripronuclear and reconstructed zygotes (from which only one pronucleus was removed), but haploid human embryonic stem cells were not successfully derived from the reconstructed zygotes when two pronuclei were removed. Both triploid and diploid human embryonic stem cells showed the general characteristics of human embryonic stem cells. These results indicate that the lower embryo quality resulting from abnormal spindle assembly contributed to the failure of the haploid embryonic stem cell derivation. However, the successful derivation of diploid embryonic stem cells demonstrated that microsurgical tripronuclear zygotes are an alternative source of human embryonic stem cells. In the future, improving spindle assembly will facilitate the application of triploid zygotes to the field of haploid embryonic stem cells. PMID:23255130

  17. Beyond the human genome: Microbes, methaphors and what it means to be human in an interconnected post-genomic world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nerlich, B.; Hellsten, I.R.

    2009-01-01

    Four years after the completion of the Human Genome Project, the US National Institutes for Health launched the Human Microbiome Project on 19 December 2007. Using metaphor analysis, this article investigates reporting in English-language newspapers on advances in microbiomics from 2003 onwards,

  18. Why Robots Should Be Social: Enhancing Machine Learning through Social Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Greeff, Joachim; Belpaeme, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Social learning is a powerful method for cultural propagation of knowledge and skills relying on a complex interplay of learning strategies, social ecology and the human propensity for both learning and tutoring. Social learning has the potential to be an equally potent learning strategy for artificial systems and robots in specific. However, given the complexity and unstructured nature of social learning, implementing social machine learning proves to be a challenging problem. We study one particular aspect of social machine learning: that of offering social cues during the learning interaction. Specifically, we study whether people are sensitive to social cues offered by a learning robot, in a similar way to children’s social bids for tutoring. We use a child-like social robot and a task in which the robot has to learn the meaning of words. For this a simple turn-based interaction is used, based on language games. Two conditions are tested: one in which the robot uses social means to invite a human teacher to provide information based on what the robot requires to fill gaps in its knowledge (i.e. expression of a learning preference); the other in which the robot does not provide social cues to communicate a learning preference. We observe that conveying a learning preference through the use of social cues results in better and faster learning by the robot. People also seem to form a “mental model” of the robot, tailoring the tutoring to the robot’s performance as opposed to using simply random teaching. In addition, the social learning shows a clear gender effect with female participants being responsive to the robot’s bids, while male teachers appear to be less receptive. This work shows how additional social cues in social machine learning can result in people offering better quality learning input to artificial systems, resulting in improved learning performance. PMID:26422143

  19. Why Robots Should Be Social: Enhancing Machine Learning through Social Human-Robot Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Greeff, Joachim; Belpaeme, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Social learning is a powerful method for cultural propagation of knowledge and skills relying on a complex interplay of learning strategies, social ecology and the human propensity for both learning and tutoring. Social learning has the potential to be an equally potent learning strategy for artificial systems and robots in specific. However, given the complexity and unstructured nature of social learning, implementing social machine learning proves to be a challenging problem. We study one particular aspect of social machine learning: that of offering social cues during the learning interaction. Specifically, we study whether people are sensitive to social cues offered by a learning robot, in a similar way to children's social bids for tutoring. We use a child-like social robot and a task in which the robot has to learn the meaning of words. For this a simple turn-based interaction is used, based on language games. Two conditions are tested: one in which the robot uses social means to invite a human teacher to provide information based on what the robot requires to fill gaps in its knowledge (i.e. expression of a learning preference); the other in which the robot does not provide social cues to communicate a learning preference. We observe that conveying a learning preference through the use of social cues results in better and faster learning by the robot. People also seem to form a "mental model" of the robot, tailoring the tutoring to the robot's performance as opposed to using simply random teaching. In addition, the social learning shows a clear gender effect with female participants being responsive to the robot's bids, while male teachers appear to be less receptive. This work shows how additional social cues in social machine learning can result in people offering better quality learning input to artificial systems, resulting in improved learning performance.

  20. Why Robots Should Be Social: Enhancing Machine Learning through Social Human-Robot Interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim de Greeff

    Full Text Available Social learning is a powerful method for cultural propagation of knowledge and skills relying on a complex interplay of learning strategies, social ecology and the human propensity for both learning and tutoring. Social learning has the potential to be an equally potent learning strategy for artificial systems and robots in specific. However, given the complexity and unstructured nature of social learning, implementing social machine learning proves to be a challenging problem. We study one particular aspect of social machine learning: that of offering social cues during the learning interaction. Specifically, we study whether people are sensitive to social cues offered by a learning robot, in a similar way to children's social bids for tutoring. We use a child-like social robot and a task in which the robot has to learn the meaning of words. For this a simple turn-based interaction is used, based on language games. Two conditions are tested: one in which the robot uses social means to invite a human teacher to provide information based on what the robot requires to fill gaps in its knowledge (i.e. expression of a learning preference; the other in which the robot does not provide social cues to communicate a learning preference. We observe that conveying a learning preference through the use of social cues results in better and faster learning by the robot. People also seem to form a "mental model" of the robot, tailoring the tutoring to the robot's performance as opposed to using simply random teaching. In addition, the social learning shows a clear gender effect with female participants being responsive to the robot's bids, while male teachers appear to be less receptive. This work shows how additional social cues in social machine learning can result in people offering better quality learning input to artificial systems, resulting in improved learning performance.

  1. The thermal environment of the human being on the global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendritzky, Gerd; Tinz, Birger

    2009-11-11

    The close relationship between human health, performance, well-being and the thermal environment is obvious. Nevertheless, most studies of climate and climate change impacts show amazing shortcomings in the assessment of the environment. Populations living in different climates have different susceptibilities, due to socio-economic reasons, and different customary behavioural adaptations. The global distribution of risks of hazardous thermal exposure has not been analysed before. To produce maps of the baseline and future bioclimate that allows a direct comparison of the differences in the vulnerability of populations to thermal stress across the world. The required climatological data fields are obtained from climate simulations with the global General Circulation Model ECHAM4 in T106-resolution. For the thermo-physiologically relevant assessment of these climate data a complete heat budget model of the human being, the 'Perceived Temperature' procedure has been applied which already comprises adaptation by clothing to a certain degree. Short-term physiological acclimatisation is considered via Health Related Assessment of the Thermal Environment. The global maps 1971-1980 (control run, assumed as baseline climate) show a pattern of thermal stress intensities as frequencies of heat. The heat load for people living in warm-humid climates is the highest. Climate change will lead to clear differences in health-related thermal stress between baseline climate and the future bioclimate 2041-2050 based on the 'business-as-usual' greenhouse gas scenario IS92a. The majority of the world's population will be faced with more frequent and more intense heat strain in spite of an assumed level of acclimatisation. Further adaptation measures are crucial in order to reduce the vulnerability of the populations. This bioclimatology analysis provides a tool for various questions in climate and climate change impact research. Considerations of regional or local scale require climate

  2. The Quality of Basic Education as Being of All Human Right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz de Lima Fernandes Gottardo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we address the question basic education as a right of every human being. To do this, we will use empirical data as well as literature review in the national and international levels. First, the article is talking about an ideal model of quality basic education for all, making general contours of the world stage, to specifically enter the state of education in Brazil. We discuss the text a study of the various existing regulatory provisions in Brazil that deal with the need to ensure quality basic education in an inclusive way that meets the different needs of students in different regions of our country, and thus try to find solutions to the problems we face when trying to bring quality education to all. Finally, we will address issues related to guaranteeing the right to education at the international level, pointing out the legal provisions that guarantee this right and approach the principle of human dignity as a means for the realization of this right.

  3. Social Class and the Motivational Relevance of Other Human Beings: Evidence From Visual Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Pia; Knowles, Eric D

    2016-11-01

    We theorize that people's social class affects their appraisals of others' motivational relevance-the degree to which others are seen as potentially rewarding, threatening, or otherwise worth attending to. Supporting this account, three studies indicate that social classes differ in the amount of attention their members direct toward other human beings. In Study 1, wearable technology was used to film the visual fields of pedestrians on city streets; higher-class participants looked less at other people than did lower-class participants. In Studies 2a and 2b, participants' eye movements were tracked while they viewed street scenes; higher class was associated with reduced attention to people in the images. In Study 3, a change-detection procedure assessed the degree to which human faces spontaneously attract visual attention; faces proved less effective at drawing the attention of high-class than low-class participants, which implies that class affects spontaneous relevance appraisals. The measurement and conceptualization of social class are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Radiopharmacology of iminodiacetic acid N-derivatives analysis in biological models and comparison to human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canellas, C.O.; Arguelles, M.G.; Mitta, A.E.A.

    1987-01-01

    It was studied the influence of chemical structures and molecular weight in the distribution of several iminodiacetic acid N-derivatives and to determine the potential use of these radiopharmaceuticals in humans. The study was performed with the following derivatives: N-(2,6 dimetyphenylcarbamoylmethy) iminodiacetic acid, N(2.6 dietylphenyl-carbamoylmethy) iminodiacetic acid, N-(2,6 diisopropylphenylcarbamoylmethy) iminodiacetic acid and the previously unknown N-derivative N-(2,6 diisopropyl, phenylcarbamoylethyl) iminodiacetic aced. These were sinthesized by a modified procedure by MITTA et al. and controlled by NMR, mass spectrometry, elemental composition and also toxicity pirogens, lethal dose and the chelate's radiochemical dose were determined. Liver gallbladder, intestinal and renal kinetics were studied in mice. In order to evaluate the metabolic pathways of the radiopharmaceuticals, the content of gallbladder and the urine were reinjected. Plasma kinetics and the plasmatic half life was determined by extracorporeal circulation in Wistar rats. For the use in human beings, test were carried out in different branches of nuclear medicine, in normal volunteers and carriers of different pathologic disorders. The patients were divided into four groups: acute and chronic cholecystitis, cirrhosis and jaundice. It was obtained the liver/heart activity ratio and estimated the appearance times of the intrahepatic ducts, gallbladder, duodenum and renal persistence. (M.E.L.) [es

  5. Study on techniques to use the comprehensive functions of human beings in a group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numano, Masayoshi; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Fukuto, Junji; Mitomo, Nobuo; Miyazaki, Keiko; Hirao, Yoshihiro; Ando, Hirotomo

    1997-01-01

    In an atomic power plant, it is necessary to provide sufficient informations concerning the quantity of state in the plant to the operators. However, an atomic power plant is apt to have a black box in its operation because of the automatized systems to avoid human errors. Thus, the informations of plant are needed to be provided in fitting forms for human cognitive functions. Here, an investigation was made focusing on the feedback of operation results and the presentation of the plant states in the PWR plant model. In addition, exchange and sharing of informations as well as role assignment in the operational support among groups were investigated using duty officers on bridge of a modern coastwise tanker as the subjects. To prevent an error manipulation during intelligent works in plant operation, a model room for virtual reality experiment was constructed. Then, an input system for sensory feedback and its plant model were proposed to examine the validity of the feedback inputs. (M.N.)

  6. Assessing human resources for health: what can be learned from labour force surveys?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal Poz Mario R

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human resources are an essential element of a health system's inputs, and yet there is a huge disparity among countries in how human resource policies and strategies are developed and implemented. The analysis of the impacts of services on population health and well-being attracts more interest than analysis of the situation of the workforce in this area. This article presents an international comparison of the health workforce in terms of skill mix, sociodemographics and other labour force characteristics, in order to establish an evidence base for monitoring and evaluation of human resources for health. Methods Profiles of the health workforce are drawn for 18 countries with developed market and transitional economies, using data from labour force and income surveys compiled by the Luxembourg Income Study between 1989 and 1997. Further descriptive analyses of the health workforce are conducted for selected countries for which more detailed occupational information was available. Results Considerable cross-national variations were observed in terms of the share of the health workforce in the total labour market, with little discernible pattern by geographical region or type of economy. Increases in the share were found among most countries for which time-trend data were available. Large gender imbalances were often seen in terms of occupational distribution and earnings. In some cases, health professionals, especially physicians, were overrepresented among the foreign-born compared to the total labour force. Conclusions While differences across countries in the profile of the health workforce can be linked to the history and role of the health sector, at the same time some common patterns emerge, notably a growing trend of health occupations in the labour market. The evidence also suggests that gender inequity in the workforce remains an important shortcoming of many health systems. Certain unexpected patterns of

  7. Relations between urban bird and plant communities and human well-being and connection to nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Gary W; Davidson, Penny; Boxall, Dianne; Smallbone, Lisa

    2011-08-01

    By 2050, 70% of the world's population will live in urban areas. In many cases urbanization reduces the richness and abundance of native species. Living in highly modified environments with fewer opportunities to interact directly with a diversity of native species may adversely affect residents' personal well-being and emotional connection to nature. We assessed the personal well-being, neighborhood well-being (a measure of a person's satisfaction with their neighborhood), and level of connection to nature of over 1000 residents in 36 residential neighborhoods in southeastern Australia. We modeled these response variables as a function of natural features of each neighborhood (e.g., species richness and abundance of birds, density of plants, and amount of vegetation cover) and demographic characteristics of surveyed residents. Vegetation cover had the strongest positive relations with personal well-being, whereas residents' level of connection to nature was weakly related to variation in species richness and abundance of birds and density of plants. Demographic characteristics such as age and level of activity explained the greatest proportion of variance in well-being and connection to nature. Nevertheless, when controlling for variation in demographic characteristics (examples were provided above), neighborhood well-being was positively related to a range of natural features, including species richness and abundance of birds, and vegetation cover. Demographic characteristics and how well-being was quantified strongly influenced our results, and we suggest demography and metrics of well-being must be considered when attempting to determine relations between the urban environment and human well-being. © 2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Researching chemicals in human milk can be conducted without discouraging breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Dórea

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Continued monitoring of environmental chemicals is important for understanding human exposure and potentially related health risk(s. Cinar et al. [1] contribute to our knowledge on infant exposures to environmental chemicals in breast milk. However, the messages implicit both in the title and in the paper itself are unnecessarily alarming and are likely to be interpreted by mothers and health professionals as indicating that breast feeding is generally unsafe in certain regions of Turkey. For example, the conclusion that “Rural area also may not be safe for breastfeed babies” is based on an evaluation of 90 women, without regard to differences in their potential exposure patterns; lifestyle, smoking status, occupation, body mass index, or residential history. It is unclear whether these women are in any way representative of rural areas in Turkey, or rural areas in general. Further, the authors do not provide reference values with which to compare the levels of metals that they report, and the values that they report for several metals are 10-1000 times higher than the levels reported in other studies (although it is unclear whether they have reported the levels with correct units; the authors note that the mothers’ levels were lower than recommended levels of 10 microg/L (Hg and 30 microg/L (Pb while describing the mothers’ reported levels as being in the low parts per million range [Table 4]. Only under exceptional circumstances including clinical treatment with certain pharmaceuticals or in cases of accidental poisonings have the occurrence of chemicals in breast milk resulted in a recommendation to avoid breastfeeding. Otherwise, studies have shown that breastfeeding can counter subtle adverse effects associated with in utero maternal exposure to hazardous substances [2]. Numerous studies demonstrate the superiority of breastfeeding in lowering risk of adverse health outcomes when compared to formula-fed infants. Thus, the World

  9. Guiding principles for evaluating the impacts of conservation interventions on human well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Emily; Homewood, Katherine M; Beauchamp, Emilie; Clements, Tom; McCabe, J Terrence; Wilkie, David; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-11-05

    Measures of socio-economic impacts of conservation interventions have largely been restricted to externally defined indicators focused on income, which do not reflect people's priorities. Using a holistic, locally grounded conceptualization of human well-being instead provides a way to understand the multi-faceted impacts of conservation on aspects of people's lives that they value. Conservationists are engaging with well-being for both pragmatic and ethical reasons, yet current guidance on how to operationalize the concept is limited. We present nine guiding principles based around a well-being framework incorporating material, relational and subjective components, and focused on gaining knowledge needed for decision-making. The principles relate to four key components of an impact evaluation: (i) defining well-being indicators, giving primacy to the perceptions of those most impacted by interventions through qualitative research, and considering subjective well-being, which can affect engagement with conservation; (ii) attributing impacts to interventions through quasi-experimental designs, or alternative methods such as theory-based, case study and participatory approaches, depending on the setting and evidence required; (iii) understanding the processes of change including evidence of causal linkages, and consideration of trajectories of change and institutional processes; and (iv) data collection with methods selected and applied with sensitivity to research context, consideration of heterogeneity of impacts along relevant societal divisions, and conducted by evaluators with local expertise and independence from the intervention. © 2015 The Authors.

  10. Accounting for the Impact of Conservation on Human Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner-Gulland, EJ; Mcgregor, JA; Agarwala, M; Atkinson, G; Bevan, P; Clements, T; Daw, T; Homewood, K; Kumpel, N; Lewis, J; Mourato, S; Palmer Fry, B; Redshaw, M; Rowcliffe, JM; Suon, S; Wallace, G; Washington, H; Wilkie, D

    2014-01-01

    Conservationists are increasingly engaging with the concept of human well-being to improve the design and evaluation of their interventions. Since the convening of the influential Sarkozy Commission in 2009, development researchers have been refining conceptualizations and frameworks to understand and measure human well-being and are starting to converge on a common understanding of how best to do this. In conservation, the term human well-being is in widespread use, but there is a need for guidance on operationalizing it to measure the impacts of conservation interventions on people. We present a framework for understanding human well-being, which could be particularly useful in conservation. The framework includes 3 conditions; meeting needs, pursuing goals, and experiencing a satisfactory quality of life. We outline some of the complexities involved in evaluating the well-being effects of conservation interventions, with the understanding that well-being varies between people and over time and with the priorities of the evaluator. Key challenges for research into the well-being impacts of conservation interventions include the need to build up a collection of case studies so as to draw out generalizable lessons; harness the potential of modern technology to support well-being research; and contextualize evaluations of conservation impacts on well-being spatially and temporally within the wider landscape of social change. Pathways through the smog of confusion around the term well-being exist, and existing frameworks such as the Well-being in Developing Countries approach can help conservationists negotiate the challenges of operationalizing the concept. Conservationists have the opportunity to benefit from the recent flurry of research in the development field so as to carry out more nuanced and locally relevant evaluations of the effects of their interventions on human well-being. Consideración del Impacto de la Conservación sobre el Bienestar Humano Resumen

  11. What does it mean to be genomically literate?: National Human Genome Research Institute Meeting Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurle, Belen; Citrin, Toby; Jenkins, Jean F; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Lamb, Neil; Roseman, Jo Ellen; Bonham, Vence L

    2013-08-01

    Genomic discoveries will increasingly advance the science of medicine. Limited genomic literacy may adversely impact the public's understanding and use of the power of genetics and genomics in health care and public health. In November 2011, a meeting was held by the National Human Genome Research Institute to examine the challenge of achieving genomic literacy for the general public, from kindergarten to grade 12 to adult education. The role of the media in disseminating scientific messages and in perpetuating or reducing misconceptions was also discussed. Workshop participants agreed that genomic literacy will be achieved only through active engagement between genomics experts and the varied constituencies that comprise the public. This report summarizes the background, content, and outcomes from this meeting, including recommendations for a research agenda to inform decisions about how to advance genomic literacy in our society.

  12. Rethinking urban nature to promote human well-being and livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raymond, Christopher; Gulsrud, Natalie Marie; Rodela, Romina

    On the 25thJanuary, 25 researchers, social entrepreneurs and policy makers attended a MOVIUM and SLU Urban Futures funded workshop on “Rethinking urban nature to promote human well-being and livelihoods”. The objectives of the workshop wereto identify and discuss integrated digital, social...... of urbannature in Malmö. Each group was asked to present their presentation to the wider group, what inspired them the most from the workshop activity and how their understanding of integrated solutions in urban nature changed over the day.This report presents a summary of each group’screations and findings...... and nature solutions for the use, management and governance of urban nature in the City of Malmö;and to provide a platform for knowledge sharing and networking between researchers and practitioners.Multiple enlightening presentations on how to plan, design and manage urban nature were provided by the cities...

  13. Patient centred medicine: reason, emotion, and human spirit? Some philosophical reflections on being with patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R G

    2003-06-01

    The ideal of patient centred medicine remains only partially realised. Within modern Western society, the highly individualistic culture and religious decline linked with medicine's reluctance to relinquish an outmoded form of scientific rationalism can act as reductive influences, stifling conceptual development. Some examples of the recent literature on communication skills in medicine are analysed to discern the underlying philosophy. A rationalist stance invites an examination of the possible nature of rationality. Another example accepts the need to accommodate the emotional and the unconscious. Issues of human suffering with an inherent spiritual dimension seem to remain excluded. The need to move beyond a duality of reason and emotion to embrace the existential and spiritual is suggested as a theoretical prerequisite for developing a more inclusive concept of patient centred medicine, which only then may be realised. Some brief examples are considered of the sort of notions and types of discourse that might effectively inform "teaching" of communication skills.

  14. A metabolomic evaluation of the phytochemical composition of tomato juices being used in human clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichon, Morgan J; Riedl, Ken M; Schwartz, Steven J

    2017-08-01

    Juices from the traditional red tomato and a unique tangerine tomato variety are being investigated as health promoting foods in human clinical trials. However, it is unknown how the tangerine and red tomato juices differ in biologically relevant phytochemicals beyond carotenoids. Here liquid-chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry metabolomics was used to evaluate broadly the similarities and differences in carotenoids and other phytochemicals between red and tangerine tomato juices intended for clinical interventions. This untargeted approach was successful in the rapid detection and extensive characterization of phytochemicals belonging to various compound classes. The tomato juices were found to differ significantly in a number of phytochemicals, including carotenoids, chlorophylls, neutral lipids, and cinnamic acid derivatives. The largest differences were in carotenoids, including lycopene, phytoene, phytofluene, neurosporene, and ζ-carotene. Smaller, but significant, differences were observed in polar phytochemicals, such as chlorogenic acid, hydroxyferulic acid, phloretin-di-C-glycoside, and isopropylmalic acid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A specialized isotope mass spectrometer for noninvasive diagnostics of Helicobacter pylori infection in human beings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blashenkov, N. M.; Sheshenya, E. S.; Solov'ev, S. M.; Sachenko, V. D.; Gall, L. N.; Zarutskii, I. V.; Gall, N. R.

    2013-05-01

    A specialized isotope mass spectrometer for noninvasive diagnostics of Helicobacter pylori infection in human beings based on the carbon-13 isotope breath test has been designed and constructed. Important stages of the work included (i) calculating a low-aberration mass analyzer, (ii) manufacturing and testing special gas inlet system, and (iii) creating a small-size collector of ions. The proposed instrument ensures 13C/12C isotopic ratio measurement to within 1.7‰ (pro mille) accuracy, which corresponds to requirements for a diagnostic tool. Preliminary medical testing showed that the mass spectrometer is applicable to practical diagnostics. The instrument is also capable of measuring isotopic ratios of other light elements, including N, O, B (for BF2+ ions), Ar, Cl, and S.

  16. Tick infestation in human beings in the Nilgiris and Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundararajan, C; Nagarajan, K; Arul Prakash, M

    2018-03-01

    Thirteen human beings were infested with ticks at Sandynallah and Gudalur of the Nilgiris district and Mottur Suruvakkam of Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu from January 2016 to December 2016. The collected ticks were identified as Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides , Otobius megnini and Hyalomma isaaci. The tick infestation was observed more on the persons working with animals (sheep and goats) than those working in tea estate. The person infested with R. haemaphysaloides revealed erythematous papule (2 mm size) and inflammatory lesion up to 16 days whereas, the people infested with H. isaaci showed continuous itching and irritation for > 6 months and wound formation (0.5 cm) at the biting site. The people infested with O. megnini showed irritation, vomiting sensation and fever.

  17. [Natural toxins in inter- and intraspecies interaction of human being (elements of ethnotoxinology)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelashvili, D B

    2002-01-01

    The author considers the application of natural toxins as arrow poison by Homo sapiens from ancient time till today for hunting and ethnic wars on the example of natives of Asia, Africa, South America and Oceania. Geographic isolation was important determining the spectrum of natural toxin sources and the methods of their application. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of arrow poisons effects are considered in biogeographical context: aconitin and strychnin in Asia, diamphotoxin in Africa, indole alcaloids of plants and steroid alcaloids of amphibian in Central and South America, palytoxin in Oceania islands. High efficiency and selective effect of natural toxins allow to use them as molecular markers in current studies of functional membrane architecture and cellular structures. Great differences in pace of civilization development leads to the co-existence at the beginning of the XXI century ethnic groups that use natural toxins as arrow poison and human beings that use the same toxins in fundamental and applied investigations within international scientific society.

  18. Impacts of community forest management on human economic well-being across Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasolofoson, Ranaivo Andriarilala; Ferraro, Paul J.; Ruta, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Community Forest Management (CFM) devolves forest management to local communities to achieve conservation and human well-being goals. Yet, the evidence for CFM's impacts is mixed and difficult to interpret because of inadequate attention to rival explanations for the observed empirical patterns....... In a national-scale analysis in Madagascar that carefully considers these rival explanations, we estimate CFM impacts on household living standards, as measured by per capita consumption expenditures. The estimated impact is positive, but small and not statistically different from zero. However, we can...... statistically reject substantial negative impacts (which others have suggested may exist). The estimated impacts vary conditional on household education and proximity to forests: they are more positive and statistically significant for households closer to forest and with more education. To help improve CFM...

  19. Being human and doing primatology: national, socioeconomic, and ethnic influences on primatological practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Agustin

    2011-03-01

    The emerging manifesto, center of the essay collection this commentary is part of, points out that primatology is a primate's science and field of endeavor. It is about primates, and constructed and carried out by primates. But the relationships between different primates involved in primatology cannot be described merely as scientific, zoological, or conservatory. A main point emerging from this perspective is that the relationships amongst primates (as scientists and as subjects) are affected by primatologists' experiences outside of academic science and within the cultural schema that we acquire as members of human societies. My contribution focuses on the primatologists and their sometimes discussed, but too often ignored, cultural and ethnic contexts as influences on how they study, think about, and interact with other primates. In our views and bonds with other primates, do national, class, and ethnic factors count? 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. β-Cell Generation: Can Rodent Studies Be Translated to Humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Carlotti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available β-cell replacement by allogeneic islet transplantation is a promising approach for patients with type 1 diabetes, but the shortage of organ donors requires new sources of β cells. Islet regeneration in vivo and generation of β-cells ex vivo followed by transplantation represent attractive therapeutic alternatives to restore the β-cell mass. In this paper, we discuss different postnatal cell types that have been envisaged as potential sources for future β-cell replacement therapy. The ultimate goal being translation to the clinic, a particular attention is given to the discrepancies between findings from studies performed in rodents (both ex vivo on primary cells and in vivo on animal models, when compared with clinical data and studies performed on human cells.

  1. Tampa's Well-being: A Demonstration of ORD's Human Well-being Index (web content for the Tampa Bay Ecosystem services website)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystems provide services to humans that support our well-being. Well-being is not only our health but also our quality of life. We rely upon the services provided by nature to help maintain good health and a high quality of life, including clean water, clean air, food and recr...

  2. Conservation of biodiversity as a strategy for improving human health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, A Marm; Salkeld, Daniel J; Titcomb, Georgia; Hahn, Micah B

    2017-06-05

    The Earth's ecosystems have been altered by anthropogenic processes, including land use, harvesting populations, species introductions and climate change. These anthropogenic processes greatly alter plant and animal communities, thereby changing transmission of the zoonotic pathogens they carry. Biodiversity conservation may be a potential win-win strategy for maintaining ecosystem health and protecting public health, yet the causal evidence to support this strategy is limited. Evaluating conservation as a viable public health intervention requires answering four questions: (i) Is there a general and causal relationship between biodiversity and pathogen transmission, and if so, which direction is it in? (ii) Does increased pathogen diversity with increased host biodiversity result in an increase in total disease burden? (iii) Do the net benefits of biodiversity conservation to human well-being outweigh the benefits that biodiversity-degrading activities, such as agriculture and resource utilization, provide? (iv) Are biodiversity conservation interventions cost-effective when compared to other options employed in standard public health approaches? Here, we summarize current knowledge on biodiversity-zoonotic disease relationships and outline a research plan to address the gaps in our understanding for each of these four questions. Developing practical and self-sustaining biodiversity conservation interventions will require significant investment in disease ecology research to determine when and where they will be effective.This article is part of the themed issue 'Conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease: scientific evidence and policy implications'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Diseases of poverty and lifestyle, well-being and human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R; Singh, Shakuntala A

    2008-01-01

    The problems of the haves differ substantially from those of the have-nots. Individuals in developing societies have to fight mainly against infectious and communicable diseases, while in the developed world the battles are mainly against lifestyle diseases. Yet, at a very fundamental level, the problems are the same-the fight is against distress, disability, and premature death; against human exploitation and for human development and self-actualisation; against the callousness to critical concerns in regimes and scientific power centres.While there has been great progress in the treatment of individual diseases, human pathology continues to increase. Sicknesses are not decreasing in number, they are only changing in type.The primary diseases of poverty like TB, malaria, and HIV/AIDS-and the often co-morbid and ubiquitous malnutrition-take their toll on helpless populations in developing countries. Poverty is not just income deprivation but capability deprivation and optimism deprivation as well.While life expectancy may have increased in the haves, and infant and maternal mortality reduced, these gains have not necessarily ensured that well-being results. There are ever-multiplying numbers of individuals whose well-being is compromised due to lifestyle diseases. These diseases are the result of faulty lifestyles and the consequent crippling stress. But it serves no one's purpose to understand them as such. So, the prescription pad continues to prevail over lifestyle-change counselling or research.The struggle to achieve well-being and positive health, to ensure longevity, to combat lifestyle stress and professional burnout, and to reduce psychosomatic ailments continues unabated, with hardly an end in sight.WE THUS REALISE THAT MORBIDITY, DISABILITY, AND DEATH ASSAIL ALL THREE SOCIETIES: the ones with infectious diseases, the ones with diseases of poverty, and the ones with lifestyle diseases. If it is bacteria in their various forms that are the culprit in

  4. Where and how should be placed humanity to protect against asteroidal and cometary hazards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steklov, A. F.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Dashkiev, G. N.; Zhilyaev, B. E.

    2018-05-01

    For the planetary protection of the planet Earth, we propose to create, deploy and constantly upgrade the "Single Churyumov Network" as a multi-level system of continuous monitoring of near and distant volumes around the Earth. This is necessary to identify and explore potentially dangerous objects that intruding in our atmosphere. To solve the problem of global planetary protection, it is necessary to involve enormous forces and means. According to the definition, terraformation is a change in the cosmic body that will bring the atmosphere, temperature and environmental conditions into a state that is necessary for the life of terrestrial animals, plants and people. Therefore, before sending people, for example, to Mars for a permanent settlement, it is necessary first of all there to create a huge complex of preparatory work with the aim, if not completely transform this planet, at least, to organize there the simplest housing for future settlers. At Venus, you can create settlements in "flying" cities with flotilla peculiar "airships" in the upper atmosphere. Terraformation of Mercury can be carried out at latitudes from 70 deg. to the poles, making it suitable localities for human habitation. They should be located below the surface of the planet at a depth of 3-30 m in a zone of comfortable and constant temperatures of about +20° С. And start terraforming - preferably from the Moon. Such residential complexes should be designed taking into account the need to deploy systems of early detection and counteract the global danger to the Earth by asteroid and comet invasions. That is, the areas of Venus, Mars, Mercury and the Earth - should be equipped with special orbital stations. At these stations, nuclear missile systems for early warning and combating global threats from invasion of asteroids and comets - should be deployed.

  5. Divergent Fates of the Medical Humanities in Psychiatry and Internal Medicine: Should Psychiatry Be Rehumanized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Bret R.; Hellerstein, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the degree to which the medical humanities have been integrated into the fields of internal medicine and psychiatry, the authors assessed the presence of medical humanities articles in selected psychiatry and internal medicine journals from 1950 to 2000. Methods: The journals searched were the three highest-ranking…

  6. Biodiversity and human well-being: an essential link for sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Shahid; Chazdon, Robin; Duffy, J Emmett; Prager, Case; Worm, Boris

    2016-12-14

    As society strives to transition towards more sustainable development pathways, it is important to properly conceptualize the link between biodiversity (i.e. genes, traits, species and other dimensions) and human well-being (HWB; i.e. health, wealth, security and other dimensions). Here, we explore how published conceptual frameworks consider the extent to which the biodiversity-HWB links are being integrated into public discourse and scientific research and the implications of our findings for sustainable development. We find that our understanding has gradually evolved from seeing the value of biodiversity as an external commodity that may influence HWB to biodiversity as fundamental to HWB. Analysis of the literature trends indicates increasing engagement with the terms biodiversity, HWB and sustainable development in the public, science and policy spheres, but largely as independent rather than linked terms. We suggest that a consensus framework for sustainable development should include biodiversity explicitly as a suite of internal variables that both influence and are influenced by HWB. Doing so will enhance clarity and help shape coherent research and policy priorities. We further suggest that the absence of this link in development can inadvertently lead to a ratcheting down of biodiversity by otherwise well-meaning policies. Such biotic impoverishment could lock HWB at minimum levels or lead to its decline and halt or reverse progress in achieving sustainable development. © 2016 The Authors.

  7. Biodiversity and human well-being: an essential link for sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazdon, Robin; Duffy, J. Emmett; Prager, Case; Worm, Boris

    2016-01-01

    As society strives to transition towards more sustainable development pathways, it is important to properly conceptualize the link between biodiversity (i.e. genes, traits, species and other dimensions) and human well-being (HWB; i.e. health, wealth, security and other dimensions). Here, we explore how published conceptual frameworks consider the extent to which the biodiversity–HWB links are being integrated into public discourse and scientific research and the implications of our findings for sustainable development. We find that our understanding has gradually evolved from seeing the value of biodiversity as an external commodity that may influence HWB to biodiversity as fundamental to HWB. Analysis of the literature trends indicates increasing engagement with the terms biodiversity, HWB and sustainable development in the public, science and policy spheres, but largely as independent rather than linked terms. We suggest that a consensus framework for sustainable development should include biodiversity explicitly as a suite of internal variables that both influence and are influenced by HWB. Doing so will enhance clarity and help shape coherent research and policy priorities. We further suggest that the absence of this link in development can inadvertently lead to a ratcheting down of biodiversity by otherwise well-meaning policies. Such biotic impoverishment could lock HWB at minimum levels or lead to its decline and halt or reverse progress in achieving sustainable development. PMID:27928039

  8. SAR distribution in human beings when using body-worn RF transmitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christ, A.; Samaras, T.; Neufeld, E.; Klingenboeck, A.; Kuster, N.

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzes the exposure of the human torso to electromagnetic fields caused by wireless body-mounted or hand-held devices. Because of the frequency and distance ranges from 30-5800 MHz and 10 to 200 mm, respectively, both near-field and far-field effects are considered. A generic body model and simulations of anatomical models are used to evaluate the worst case tissue composition with respect to the absorption of electromagnetic energy. Both standing wave effects and enhanced coupling of reactive near-field components can lead to a specific absorption rate (SAR) increase in comparison to homogeneous tissue. In addition, the exposure and temperature increase of different inner organs is assessed. With respect to compliance testing, the observed SAR enhancement may require the introduction of a multiplication factor for the spatial peak SAR measured in the liquid-filled phantom in order to obtain a conservative exposure assessment. The observed tissue heating at the body surface under adiabatic conditions can be significant, whereas the temperature increase in the inner organs turned out to be negligible for the cases investigated. (authors)

  9. How human-made greenhouse gas emissions can (really) be reduced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    To be efficient, any action undertaken in view of mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions requires that the reduction of CO 2 emissions not be confused with energy savings. Indeed, there is strict correlation between the two only if the energy savings achieved lead to fossil fuel savings. If a drastic reduction of greenhouse gas emissions were not mandatory, the conversion of our energy production and use would be less pressing, the known fossil fuel reserves being sufficient to supply humanity for at least one and a half centuries. Keeping these consideration in mind, under the control of its Scientific Council and with the help of partner organizations, STC has elaborated a set of proposals to reduce the economic activity's carbon content without affecting in any fundamental way the life style of the populations concerned while leaving room for economic growth in developing countries. In this sense, the ''Negatep'' scenario put forward by STC is fundamentally different from the ''Negawatt'' type scenarios. The options we recommend are ranked according to their economic efficiency. The index that is conventionally used to compare conceivable solutions is known as the ''cost of carbon avoided'' for a given action. It consists in estimating the additional cost of the action considered in relation to the amount of carbon whose release to the atmosphere is avoided thanks to the action. The index is measured in Euros per metric ton of carbon avoided. Summary of the actions and recommendations put forward by ''Save the Climate'' for energy production and energy efficiency are argued in further detail in this document. (A.L.B.)

  10. ISD technology: a strategy for reduction of low-dose radiation exposure in human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, D.A.; Larsen, K.; Fertel, D.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this project is to refocus the current national health care debate. It is the first attempt to provide scientists, health care providers, health care policy makers, politicians, health care payers and public health advocates with a method to improve health care and cut costs through decision-making strategies based primarily on medical standards and secondarily on fiscal considerations. The method for decision-making described in this paper proves more cost-effective and medically sound than current practices. Illness Specific Diagnostic (ISD) tables are introduced as a method to reduce inappropriate use of ionizing radiation in medicine. The use of ISD tables destroys the myth of a single medical standard of care and focuses on the diagnostician as the individual most capable of diagnosing disease(s) in human beings. Additionally, ionizing radiation has been used routinely under the guise that the resulting benefits outweigh the risks involved in a procedure. This dubious tradition is questioned in this document. Attention is drawn to the inappropriate amount of radiation patients receive when ionizing diagnostic tests are performed with marginal or no diagnostic benefit. The results of a pilot study are presented that explicate the reduction of needless radiation to patients and associated reduction of costs that becomes possible in the presence of appropriate scientific medical standards. Ultimately, quality medicine is indeed the most cost-effective medicine possible. The current practice by which the United States Congress issues laws aimed at dictating quality medicine is both desperate and dangerous. Politicians and legislators would be wise to focus their efforts on methodologies that establish standards of care in a scientific manner that does not interfere with medical practice. ISD technology is precisely such a scientific method. It establishes the standard of medical care at the facility from which the ISD tables are generated

  11. THE OBSERVATION OF THE HUMAN BEING DIGNITY, AS MIRRORED IN CONVENTIONS, TREATIES AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL DOCUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoaneta-Laura (MIREA SAVA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the evolution of the concept of human dignity in conventions, treaties and other international documents, starting from the 13th century, when we meet different references to the human rights in the English Charter from 1215 –Magna Charta, and continuing with the American Declaration of Independence from 1776, the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen from 1789 etc. In present times, the most important and relevant documents are The Charter of the United Nations, signed at San Francisco, California, on the 26th of June 1945, The European Convention of Human Rights, signed at Rome, on the 5th of November 1950, the United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, adopted in 1963, The Charter of Paris, called “For a new Europe” – 1989, The Inter-American Convention on Human Rights, signed at San José, in Costa Rica, on the 22nd of November 1969, The African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, adopted during the Conference for Organisation of African Unity (OAU, on the 27th of June 1981, The Asian Human Rights Charter, elaborated by the Asian Human Rights Commission and proclaimed on the 17th of May 1998 etc.

  12. Why human evolution should be a basic science for medicine and psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanza, Paola; Parmigiani, Stefano

    2016-06-20

    Based on our teaching experience in medicine and psychology degree programs, we examine different aspects of human evolution that can help students to understand how the human body and mind work and why they are vulnerable to certain diseases. Three main issues are discussed: 1) the necessity to consider not only the mechanisms, i.e. the "proximate causations", implicated in biological processes but also why these mechanisms have evolved, i.e. the "ultimate causations" or "adaptive significance", to understand the functioning and malfunctioning of human body and mind; 2) examples of how human vulnerabilities to disease are caused by phylogenetic constraints, evolutionary tradeoffs reflecting the combined actions of natural and sexual selection, and/or mismatch between past and present environment (i.e., evolution of the eye, teeth and diets, erect posture and their consequences); 3) human pair-bonding and parent-offspring relationships as the result of socio-sexual selection and evolutionary compromises between cooperation and conflict. These psychobiological mechanisms are interwoven with our brain developmental plasticity and the effects of culture in shaping our behavior and mind, and allow a better understanding of functional (normal) and dysfunctional (pathological) behaviors. Thus, because the study of human evolution offers a powerful framework for clinical practice and research, the curriculum studiorum of medical and psychology students should include evolutionary biology and human phylogeny.

  13. Preventive and Therapeutic Role of Functional Ingredients of Barley Grass for Chronic Diseases in Human Beings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawen Zeng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley grass powder is the best functional food that provides nutrition and eliminates toxins from cells in human beings; however, its functional ingredients have played an important role as health benefit. In order to better cognize the preventive and therapeutic role of barley grass for chronic diseases, we carried out the systematic strategies for functional ingredients of barley grass, based on the comprehensive databases, especially the PubMed, Baidu, ISI Web of Science, and CNKI, between 2008 and 2017. Barley grass is rich in functional ingredients, such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, flavonoids, saponarin, lutonarin, superoxide dismutase (SOD, K, Ca, Se, tryptophan, chlorophyll, vitamins (A, B1, C, and E, dietary fiber, polysaccharide, alkaloid, metallothioneins, and polyphenols. Barley grass promotes sleep; has antidiabetic effect; regulates blood pressure; enhances immunity; protects liver; has anti-acne/detoxifying and antidepressant effects; improves gastrointestinal function; has anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and antigout effects; reduces hyperuricemia; prevents hypoxia, cardiovascular diseases, fatigue, and constipation; alleviates atopic dermatitis; is a calcium supplement; improves cognition; and so on. These results support that barley grass may be one of the best functional foods for preventive chronic diseases and the best raw material of modern diet structure in promoting the development of large health industry and further reveal that GABA, flavonoids, SOD, K-Ca, vitamins, and tryptophan mechanism of barley grass have preventive and therapeutic role for chronic diseases. This paper can be used as a scientific evidence for developing functional foods and novel drugs for barley grass for preventive chronic diseases.

  14. The Humanities in Medical Education: Ways of Knowing, Doing and Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, J Donald; Fuks, Abraham

    2015-12-01

    The personhood of the physician is a crucial element in accomplishing the goals of medicine. We review claims made on behalf of the humanities in guiding professional identity formation. We explore the dichotomy that has evolved, since the Renaissance, between the humanities and the natural sciences. The result of this evolution is an historic misconstrual, preoccupying educators and diverting them from the moral development of physicians. We propose a curricular framework based on the recovery of Aristotelian concepts that bridge identity and activity. The humanities and the natural sciences, jointly and severally, can fulfill developmental, characterological and instrumental purposes.

  15. Vitamin D: Effects on human reproduction, pregnancy, and fetal well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyden, E L; Wimalawansa, S J

    2018-06-01

    Pregnancy places exceptional demands on vitamin D and calcium availability; thus, their deficiencies during pregnancy threaten the woman and her fetus. Globally, vitamin D and other micronutrient deficiencies are common during pregnancy, especially in developing countries where pregnant women have less access to nutritional supplements. Vitamin D deficiency has been reported to be as high as 40% among pregnant women. As a pregnancy progresses, the requirements for vitamin D increase and thus, can worsen preexisting hypovitaminosis D. Consequently, hypovitaminosis D is increasingly associated with a higher incidence of fetal miscarriage, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, bacterial vaginosis, and impaired fetal and childhood growth and development. This review explores the recent advances in the understanding of vitamin D and the pivotal role it plays in human reproduction, with an emphasis on pregnancy and its outcomes. Given the seriousness of the issue, there is a pressing need for clinicians to become aware of the risks associated with not identifying and correcting vitamin D deficiency. Identifying and correcting vitamin D deficiency, including safe exposure to sunlight, is particularly relevant for those who seek assistance with fertility issues or prenatal counseling, and those in the beginning of their pregnancy. The data point to a significant protective effects of vitamin D during pregnancy when the 25(OH)D serum level exceeds 30 ng/mL before pregnancy and during the first trimester and, sufficient levels are maintained throughout the pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Medical Imaging and the Human Brain: Being Warped is Not Always a Bad Thing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, James C. II

    2005-01-01

    The capacity to look inside the living human brain and image its function has been present since the early 1980s. There are some clinicians who use functional brain imaging for diagnostic or prognostic purposes, but much of the work done still relates to research evaluation of brain function. There is a striking dichotomy in the use of functional brain imaging between these two fields. Clinical evaluation of a brain PET or SPECT scan is subjective; that is, a Nuclear Medicine physician examines the brain image, and states whether the brain image looks normal or abnormal. On the other hand, modern research evaluation of functional brain images is almost always objective. Brain images are processed and analyzed with advanced software tools, and a mathematical result that relates to regional changes in brain activity is provided. The potential for this research methodology to provide a more accurate and reliable answer to clinical questions about brain function and pathology are immense, but there are still obstacles to overcome. Foremost in this regard is the use of a standardized normal control database for comparison of patient scan data. The tools and methods used in objective analysis of functional imaging data, as well as potential clinical applications will be the focus of my presentation

  17. How should Fitts' Law be applied to human-computer interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, D. J.; Holden, K.; Adam, S.; Rudisill, M.; Magee, L.

    1992-01-01

    The paper challenges the notion that any Fitts' Law model can be applied generally to human-computer interaction, and proposes instead that applying Fitts' Law requires knowledge of the users' sequence of movements, direction of movement, and typical movement amplitudes as well as target sizes. Two experiments examined a text selection task with sequences of controlled movements (point-click and point-drag). For the point-click sequence, a Fitts' Law model that used the diagonal across the text object in the direction of pointing (rather than the horizontal extent of the text object) as the target size provided the best fit for the pointing time data, whereas for the point-drag sequence, a Fitts' Law model that used the vertical size of the text object as the target size gave the best fit. Dragging times were fitted well by Fitts' Law models that used either the vertical or horizontal size of the terminal character in the text object. Additional results of note were that pointing in the point-click sequence was consistently faster than in the point-drag sequence, and that pointing in either sequence was consistently faster than dragging. The discussion centres around the need to define task characteristics before applying Fitts' Law to an interface design or analysis, analyses of pointing and of dragging, and implications for interface design.

  18. The antibiotic resistome: gene flow in environments, animals and human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yongfei; Gao, George F; Zhu, Baoli

    2017-06-01

    The antibiotic resistance is natural in bacteria and predates the human use of antibiotics. Numerous antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have been discovered to confer resistance to a wide range of antibiotics. The ARGs in natural environments are highly integrated and tightly regulated in specific bacterial metabolic networks. However, the antibiotic selection pressure conferred by the use of antibiotics in both human medicine and agriculture practice leads to a significant increase of antibiotic resistance and a steady accumulation of ARGs in bacteria. In this review, we summarized, with an emphasis on an ecological point of view, the important research progress regarding the collective ARGs (antibiotic resistome) in bacterial communities of natural environments, human and animals, i.e., in the one health settings.We propose that the resistance gene flow in nature is "from the natural environments" and "to the natural environments"; human and animals, as intermediate recipients and disseminators, contribute greatly to such a resistance gene "circulation."

  19. Can the human lumbar posterior columns be stimulated by transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation? A modeling study

    OpenAIRE

    Danner, Simon M.; Hofstoetter, Ursula S.; Ladenbauer, Josef; Rattay, Frank; Minassian, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Stimulation of different spinal cord segments in humans is a widely developed clinical practice for modification of pain, altered sensation and movement. The human lumbar cord has become a target for modification of motor control by epidural and more recently by transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation. Posterior columns of the lumbar spinal cord represent a vertical system of axons and when activated can add other inputs to the motor control of the spinal cord than stimulated posterior roots. ...

  20. Diseases of Poverty and Lifestyle, Well-Being and Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.

    2008-01-01

    The problems of the haves differ substantially from those of the have-nots. Individuals in developing societies have to fight mainly against infectious and communicable diseases, while in the developed world the battles are mainly against lifestyle diseases. Yet, at a very fundamental level, the problems are the same-the fight is against distress, disability, and premature death; against human exploitation and for human development and self-actualisation; against the callousness to critical c...

  1. THE OBSERVATION OF THE HUMAN BEING DIGNITY, AS MIRRORED IN CONVENTIONS, TREATIES AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL DOCUMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Antoaneta-Laura (MIREA) SAVA

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the evolution of the concept of human dignity in conventions, treaties and other international documents, starting from the 13th century, when we meet different references to the human rights in the English Charter from 1215 –Magna Charta, and continuing with the American Declaration of Independence from 1776, the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen from 1789 etc. In present times, the most important and relevant documents are The Charter of the ...

  2. Applicability of sodium alginate in decorporation therapy of strontium radioisotopes in human being

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Aloisio Cordilha

    1999-10-01

    The increasing release of fission products from nuclear weapon tests in the environment has been rising the levels of radioactive contamination of food chains caused by the fall-out of these elements. In cases of accidental exposure, human subjects could be submitted to an internal contamination, which is likely to include several radionuclides. Special concern must be given, however, to the radioactive isotopes of strontium, cesium and iodine, along with the highly radio toxic transuranium elements like cerium. It was found that sodium alginate, a polyelectrolyte commonly used in food industry and obtained from brown algae (Phaeophyceae), provides the selective suppression of absorption of radioactive strontium presented in the ingested food material with no disturbance of the electrolyte balance nor undesirable side effects, even for a long term treatment. Moreover, these patterns were maintained when alginate was associated to other decontamination additives, specially those related to the other radioisotopes mentioned above, as, in this case, losses in the effectiveness, mutual interference or adverse health effects were not detected. These conclusions ground the discussion about the present trend in the usual choice of EDTA/DTPA complex therapy rather than of alginate therapy for medical assistance of radiocontaminated patients, although they corroborate the efficiency and usefulness of alginate salts in situations related to extensive intakes of strontium radioisotopes alone or associated to other fission products. The purpose of the present work is to make a general review of the alginate therapy as well as to discuss its present and future therapeutic importance from the scientific and institutional points of view. (author)

  3. On the classification and evolution of endogenous retrovirus: human endogenous retroviruses may not be 'human' after all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera-Zamudio, Marina; Greenwood, Alex D

    2016-01-01

    Retroviruses, as part of their replication cycle, become integrated into the genome of their host. When this occurs in the germline the integrated proviruses can become an endogenous retrovirus (ERV) which may eventually become fixed in the population. ERVs are present in the genomes of all vertebrates including humans, where more than 50 groups of human endogenous retrovirus (HERVs) have been described within the last 30 years. Despite state-of-the-art genomic tools available for retroviral discovery and the large number of retroviral sequences described to date, there are still gaps in understanding retroviral macroevolutionary patterns and host-retrovirus interactions and a lack of a coherent systematic classification particularly for HERVs. Here, we discuss the current knowledge on ERV (and HERV) classification, distribution and origins focusing on the role of cross-species transmission in retroviral diversity. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Allowing for Psychosis to be Approachable and Understandable as a Human Experience: A Role for the Humanities in Psychotherapy Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Bethany L; Hamm, Jay A; Fogley, Rebecca L; Buck, Kelly D; Roe, David; Lysaker, Paul H

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatry and related mental health fields, in particular psychotherapy, have a long history of close ties with the humanities. That bond has weakened, however, over the last few decades as medicalized views of mental health and treatment have emerged. In this paper, we explore the potential of the reintroduction of the humanities, specifically novels and related literary genre, into the supervision of student clinicians working with clients who have psychosis. We believe that incorporation of novels and related literary genre into supervision can lead to unique and deepened understanding of the experience of psychosis, and can create an opportunity for a working therapeutic alliance. The potential mechanisms that create these unique opportunities to understand psychopathology are explored, and considerations for the implications for treatment, training, and future research are presented.

  5. The human being : when philosophy meets history. Miki Kiyoshi, Watsuji Tetsuro and their quest for a New Ningen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brivio, Chiara

    2009-01-01

    This thesis analyses the concept of the 'human being' (ningen) in the philosophies of the two modern Japanese intellectuals Miki Kiyoshi and Watsuji Tetsuro. I demonstrate that their philosophical systems, based on the idea that the creation of a new Japanese human being should have coincided with

  6. 78 FR 13688 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request: Request for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line To Be...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Comment Request: Request for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line To Be Approved for Use in NIH Funded Research... Embryonic Stem Cell Line to be Approved for Use in NIH Funded Research. OMB No. 0925-0601-- Expiration Date... and Use of Information Collection: The form is used by applicants to request that human embryonic stem...

  7. Ethics education in research involving human beings in undergraduate medicine curriculum in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Maria Rita Garbi; Guilhem, Dirce; Barragan, Elena; Mennin, Stewart

    2013-12-01

    The Brazilian national curriculum guidelines for undergraduate medicine courses inspired and influenced the groundwork for knowledge acquisition, skills development and the perception of ethical values in the context of professional conduct. The evaluation of ethics education in research involving human beings in undergraduate medicine curriculum in Brazil, both in courses with active learning processes and in those with traditional lecture learning methodologies. Curricula and teaching projects of 175 Brazilian medical schools were analyzed using a retrospective historical and descriptive exploratory cohort study. Thirty one medical schools were excluded from the study because of incomplete information or a refusal to participate. Active research for information from institutional sites and documents was guided by terms based on 69 DeCS/MeSH descriptors. Curriculum information was correlated with educational models of learning such as active learning methodologies, tutorial discussions with integrated curriculum into core modules, and traditional lecture learning methodologies for large classes organized by disciplines and reviewed by occurrence frequency of ethical themes and average hourly load per semester. Ninety-five medical schools used traditional learning methodologies. The ten most frequent ethical themes were: 1--ethics in research (26); 2--ethical procedures and advanced technology (46); 3--ethic-professional conduct (413). Over 80% of schools using active learning methodologies had between 50 and 100 hours of scheduled curriculum time devoted to ethical themes whereas more than 60% of traditional learning methodology schools devoted less than 50 hours in curriculum time to ethical themes. The data indicates that medical schools that employ more active learning methodologies provide more attention and time to ethical themes than schools with traditional discipline-based methodologies. Given the importance of ethical issues in contemporary medical

  8. Micromorphological Aspects of Forensic Geopedology: can vivianite be a marker of human remains permanence in soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ern, Stephania Irmgard Elena; Trombino, Luca; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    The number of death cases of forensic interest grows up every year. When decomposed or skeletal remains come out from the soil, the bones become of anthropological competence and the scene of crime become of soil specialists competence. The present study concerns real cases of buried/hidden remains in clandestine graves which have been studied in order to prove the permanence in soil even if the soil particles have been washed away or the body is no more buried. One hypothesis has been taken in account, related to the evidences of vivianite crystallization on the bones. The vivianite is an iron hydrate phosphate (Fe3(PO4)2·8(H2O)) that usually forms in anoxic, reducing and rich in organic matter conditions. In these conditions the iron in the soil is in reduced form (Fe2+) and associates with the phosphorous, present in the environment, as attested in archaeological contexts. Going back to the cases of buried/hidden remains, it is possible to state that the soil can be source of iron, while the bones can supply phosphorous and the decomposition process induces the anoxic/reducing conditions in the burial area. In this light, the presence of vivianite crystallizations on the bones could be a method to discriminate burial (i.e. permanence in soil) even if the remains are found in a different context than a clandestine grave. Analyses have been performed using petrographic microscope and scanning electron microscope microanalysis (SEM-EDS) on bones, and point out the presence of vivianite crystallizations on the bones. This evidence, thanks to the significance of vivianite in the archaeological context, can be regarded as a marker of the permanence of the human remains into the soil, like a ‘buried evidence' testimonial; on the contrary the absence of vivianite is not indicative of a ‘non buried status'. Further studies and new experiments are in progress in order to clarify the pathways of vivianite crystallization on different skeletal districts, in different

  9. Young and Old Pavlovian Fear Memories Can Be Modified with Extinction Training during Reconsolidation in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfurth, Elisa C. K.; Kanen, Jonathan W.; Raio, Candace M.; Clem, Roger L.; Huganir, Richard L.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Extinction training during reconsolidation has been shown to persistently diminish conditioned fear responses across species. We investigated in humans if older fear memories can benefit similarly. Using a Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm we compared standard extinction and extinction after memory reactivation 1 d or 7 d following acquisition.…

  10. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reperant, L. A.; Brown, I. H.; Haenen, O. L.; de Jong, M. D.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Papa, A.; Rimstad, E.; Valarcher, J.-F.; Kuiken, T.

    2016-01-01

    Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known

  11. Ancient DNA and the rewriting of human history: be sparing with Occam's razor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Marc; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Xue, Yali; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-01-11

    Ancient DNA research is revealing a human history far more complex than that inferred from parsimonious models based on modern DNA. Here, we review some of the key events in the peopling of the world in the light of the findings of work on ancient DNA.

  12. Relationships, Being-ness, and Voice: Exploring Multiple Dimensions of Humanizing Work with Black Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Erica; McArthur, Sherell A.; Russell-Owens, LaToya

    2016-01-01

    This work argues for an approach to research and education practices that considers the historically deficit-based research practices and views on Black girls and develops humanizing research methods that consider the multiple oppressions that act as barriers for this group. Research must acknowledge the precarious position of Black girls in order…

  13. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. Reperant (Leslie); I.H. Brown (Ian); Haenen, O.L.; M.D. de Jong (Menno); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A. Papa (Anna); Rimstad, E.; Valarcher, J.-F.; T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractCompanion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society,

  14. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: Ecosystems and human well-being: a framework for assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, R.; Groot, de R.S.

    2003-01-01

    The 245-page report lays out the approaches, assumptions, processes, and parameters scientists are using in the study. It offers decision-makers a mechanism to identify options that can better achieve core human development and sustainability goals and better understand the trade-offs in decisions

  15. Vav3 oncogene activates estrogen receptor and its overexpression may be involved in human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kiwon; Liu, Yin; Mo, Jun Qin; Zhang, Jinsong; Dong, Zhongyun; Lu, Shan

    2008-01-01

    Our previous study revealed that Vav3 oncogene is overexpressed in human prostate cancer, activates androgen receptor, and stimulates growth in prostate cancer cells. The current study is to determine a potential role of Vav3 oncogene in human breast cancer and impact on estrogen receptor a (ERα)-mediated signaling axis. Immunohistochemistry analysis was performed in 43 breast cancer specimens and western blot analysis was used for human breast cancer cell lines to determine the expression level of Vav3 protein. The impact of Vav3 on breast cancer cell growth was determined by siRNA knockdown of Vav3 expression. The role of Vav3 in ERα activation was examined in luciferase reporter assays. Deletion mutation analysis of Vav3 protein was performed to localize the functional domain involved in ERα activation. Finally, the interaction of Vav3 and ERα was assessed by GST pull-down analysis. We found that Vav3 was overexpressed in 81% of human breast cancer specimens, particularly in poorly differentiated lesions. Vav3 activated ERα partially via PI3K-Akt signaling and stimulated growth of breast cancer cells. Vav3 also potentiated EGF activity for cell growth and ERα activation in breast cancer cells. More interestingly, we found that Vav3 complexed with ERα. Consistent with its function for AR, the DH domain of Vav3 was essential for ERα activation. Vav3 oncogene is overexpressed in human breast cancer. Vav3 complexes with ERα and enhances ERα activity. These findings suggest that Vav3 overexpression may aberrantly enhance ERα-mediated signaling axis and play a role in breast cancer development and/or progression

  16. Education for Personal Life: John MacMurray on Why Learning to Be Human Requires Emotional Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAllister, James

    2014-01-01

    In this article I discuss the philosophy of John MacMurray, and in particular, his little-examined writings on discipline and emotion education. It is argued that discipline is a vital element in the emotion education MacMurray thought central to learning to be human, because for him it takes concerted effort to overcome the human tendency toward…

  17. Hard times and European youth : The effect of economic insecurity on human values, social attitudes and well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeskens, T.; Vandecasteele, Leen

    2017-01-01

    While economic downturns have adverse effects on young people's life chances, empirical studies examining whether and to what extent human values, social attitudes and well-being indicators respond to sudden economic shocks are scarce. To assess the claim that human values are less affected by

  18. Possibilities of collecting evidences about crime act of sexual exploitation in human beings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijalković Saša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Collecting evidences about organized crime act of sexual exploitation in human begins often is very difficult because of high level of organization, secrecy ant precaution taken during committing prostitution, pornography, sex tourism and human trafficking. On the other side, high illegal profit enable criminals to engage "expensive" and experienced lawyers, whose often make values and reliability of collected evidences questionable, appealing to irregularities during police collecting procedure. Among traditional criminalities methods and proofing activities, in the study, modern tendencies in special investigative measures and techniques are considered. After that, there is pointing at specificity, meaning and value of material tracks and objects, which are essential for proofing crime act or perpetrator’s guiltiness. On the end, there is pointing at importance of victims’ cooperation in collecting evidences about their sexual exploitation.

  19. Do I Dare to Be Human? The Perverse Failure to Mourn, to Think, and to Love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshani, Michael; Shoshani, Batya

    2016-06-01

    The authors discuss the relation between perverse psychic formations and the ability to develop a mind of one's own. The authors characterize the formation of perversity in terms of failure to develop the key capacities of thinking, mourning, and loving. These failures result in the abolishment of thinking and the repudiation of separateness and lead to the creation of different kinds of twisted coalitions, which shape the transference-counter-transference matrix. Persons with perverse psychic organizations have difficulties developing their own minds due to their refusal to acknowledge human limitations and their inability to accept the fundamental differences of human existence: self-other, child-adult, male-female. These characterizations are illustrated by clinical material, including a detailed analytic session, demonstrating the perverse aggresivization and sexualization of the analytic relationship. The role of the analyst is to detoxify the violence and destruction and to translate the language of perversion into the language of love.

  20. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment can be separated from lipofuscin accumulation in aged human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hütter, Eveline; Skovbro, Mette; Lener, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    According to the free radical theory of aging, reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as a driving force of the aging process, and it is generally believed that mitochondrial dysfunction is a major source of increased oxidative stress in tissues with high content of mitochondria, such as muscle or brain....... However, recent experiments in mouse models of premature aging have questioned the role of mitochondrial ROS production in premature aging. To address the role of mitochondrial impairment and ROS production for aging in human muscles, we have analyzed mitochondrial properties in muscle fibres isolated...... from the vastus lateralis of young and elderly donors. Mitochondrial respiratory functions were addressed by high-resolution respirometry, and ROS production was analyzed by in situ staining with the redox-sensitive dye dihydroethidium. We found that aged human skeletal muscles contain fully functional...

  1. Crititics to Metaphysics by Modern Philosophers (Discourse on Human Beings in Reality)

    OpenAIRE

    Frederikus Fios

    2016-01-01

    We have entered the 21st century that is popularly known as the era of the development of modern science and technology. Philosophy provides naming for contemporary era as postmodern era. But do we suddenly come to this day and age? No! Because humans are homo viator, persona that does pilgrimage in history, space and time. Philosophy has expanded periodically in the long course of history. Since the days of classical antiquity, philosophy comes with a patterned metaphysical paradigm. T...

  2. Mechanism of toxicity of MPTP: A cause of Parkinsonism in human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denton, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) was found in 1983 to cause a syndrome virtually identical to Parkinson's Disease in humans and other primates. The symptoms, as in idiopathic Parkinson's syndrome, are due to destruction of dopaminergic neurons in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra resulting in depletion of dopamine in the basal ganglia. The mechanism of toxicity was investigated with a dopamine containing cell line, PC12, a MPTP resistant variant (MPTP r ), and synaptosomes from the striate cortex of mice, rats, guinea pigs and a monkey. The mechanism of acute effects was studied with membrane preparations from human and rat striate cortex. MPTP displaced [ 3 H]haloperidol from binding sites in human and rat striate cortex, but could not displace [ 3 H]flupenthixol, suggesting that MPTP is a D2 receptor ligand of equivalent potency in both species. MPTP was a competitive inhibitor of uptake of [ 3 H]dopamine in PC12 but did not accumulate in PC12 or in synaptosomes of rat, guinea pig, mouse or monkey striate cortex. 100 uM MPTP depleted catecholamine levels in PC12 cells by about 50%, without killing

  3. Reassembly of adult human testicular cells: can testis cord-like structures be created in vitro?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincheva, M; Sandhowe-Klaverkamp, R; Wistuba, J; Redmann, K; Stukenborg, J-B; Kliesch, S; Schlatt, S

    2018-02-01

    Can enzymatically dispersed testicular cells from adult men reassemble into seminiferous cord-like structures in vitro? Adult human testicular somatic cells reassembled into testicular cord-like structures via dynamic interactions of Sertoli and peritubular cells. In vitro approaches using dispersed single cell suspensions of human testes to generate seminiferous tubule structures and to initiate their functionality have as yet shown only limited success. Testes from 15 adult gender dysphoria patients (mean ± standard deviation age 35 ± 9.3 years) showing spermatogonial arrest became available for this study after sex-reassignment surgery. In vitro primary testicular somatic cell cultures were generated to explore the self-organizing ability of testicular somatic cells to form testis cords over a 2-week period. Morphological phenotype, protein marker expression and temporal dynamics of cell reassembly were analyzed. Cell suspensions obtained by two-step enzymatic digestion were plated onto glass coverslips in 24-well plates. To obtain adherent somatic cells, the supernatant was discarded on Day 2. The culture of the attached cell population was continued. Reassembly into cord-like structures was analyzed daily by microscopic observations. Endpoints were qualitative changes in morphology. Cell types were characterized by phase-contrast microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Dynamics of cord formation were recorded by time-lapse microscopy. Primary adult human testicular cells underwent sequential morphological changes including compaction and reaggregation resulting in round or elongated cord-like structures. Time-lapse video recordings within the first 4 days of culture revealed highly dynamic processes of migration and coalescence of reaggregated cells. The cellular movements were mediated by peritubular cells. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that both SRY-related high mobility box 9-positive Sertoli and α-smooth muscle actin-positive peritubular myoid cells

  4. [Legislative and legal security of supervisory activities in the sphere of protection of consumers' rights and human well-being].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumiantsev, G I; Kutsenko, G I; Polesskiĭ, V A

    2007-01-01

    Sanitary legislation plays an important role in supervisory activities ensuring the protection of consumers' rights and human well-being. The paper considers the basic laws and standard acts allowing for legal regulation in this sphere of activities.

  5. Should we clone human beings? Cloning as a source of tissue for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savulescu, J

    1999-01-01

    The most publicly justifiable application of human cloning, if there is one at all, is to provide self-compatible cells or tissues for medical use, especially transplantation. Some have argued that this raises no new ethical issues above those raised by any form of embryo experimentation. I argue that this research is less morally problematic than other embryo research. Indeed, it is not merely morally permissible but morally required that we employ cloning to produce embryos or fetuses for the sake of providing cells, tissues or even organs for therapy, followed by abortion of the embryo or fetus. PMID:10226910

  6. Abortion Is the Same as a Murder of an Innocent Human Being

    OpenAIRE

    Togzhan Yezlankyzy; Shokan Niazbekov

    2015-01-01

    Abortion is one of the most controversial and talked problem of our time. It is discussed in classrooms, work places and even on the internet. The definition of abortion is the termination of a pregnancy after, accompanied by, resulting in, or closely followed by the death of the embryo or fetus as the spontaneous expulsion of a human fetus during the first 12 weeks of gestation. Kazakhstan’s health organization records 300 thousand abortions every year. Abortion problem is unlikely to care a...

  7. Conforming to the rule of law: when person and human being finally mean the same thing in Fourteenth Amendment jurisprudence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugosi, Charles I

    The Fourteenth Amendment was intended to protect people from discrimination and harm from other people. Racism is not the only thing people need protection from. As a constitutional principle, the Fourteenth Amendment is not confined to its historical origin and purpose, but is available now to protect all human beings, including all unborn human beings. The Supreme Court can define "person" to include all human beings, born and unborn. It simply chooses not to do so. Science, history and tradition establish that unborn humans are, from the time of conception, both persons and human beings, thus strongly supporting an interpretation that the unborn meet the definition of "person" under the Fourteenth Amendment. The legal test used to extend constitutional personhood to corporations, which are artificial "persons" under the law, is more than met by the unborn, demonstrating that the unborn deserve the status of constitutional personhood. There can be no "rule of law" if the Constitution continues to be interpreted to perpetuate a discriminatory legal system of separate and unequal for unborn human beings. Relying on the reasoning of the Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education, the Supreme Court may overrule Roe v. Wade solely on the grounds of equal protection. Such a result would not return the matter of abortion to the states. The Fourteenth Amendment, properly interpreted, would thereafter prohibit abortion in every state.

  8. Consciousness, mind and body : investigating Sartre's view on human being : "what lies at the heart of man?"

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsen, Lise Storm

    2008-01-01

    “What lies at the heart of human being?” That is the central theme of this paper. An investigation into human being can be approached in many ways. Mine is different than for instance psychology, anthropology, social science and biology. It is more in the direction of the metaphorically use of the expression “at the heart”: Having “her heart in it” (being committed, motivated, truly interested): Being a leader “with heart” (being generous, emphatic, accepting): A “heartfelt truth” (an intuiti...

  9. Can the human lumbar posterior columns be stimulated by transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation? A modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Simon M; Hofstoetter, Ursula S; Ladenbauer, Josef; Rattay, Frank; Minassian, Karen

    2011-03-01

    Stimulation of different spinal cord segments in humans is a widely developed clinical practice for modification of pain, altered sensation, and movement. The human lumbar cord has become a target for modification of motor control by epidural and, more recently, by transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation. Posterior columns of the lumbar spinal cord represent a vertical system of axons and when activated can add other inputs to the motor control of the spinal cord than stimulated posterior roots. We used a detailed three-dimensional volume conductor model of the torso and the McIntyre-Richard-Grill axon model to calculate the thresholds of axons within the posterior columns in response to transcutaneous lumbar spinal cord stimulation. Superficially located large-diameter posterior column fibers with multiple collaterals have a threshold of 45.4 V, three times higher than posterior root fibers (14.1 V). With the stimulation strength needed to activate posterior column axons, posterior root fibers of large and small diameters as well as anterior root fibers are coactivated. The reported results inform on these threshold differences, when stimulation is applied to the posterior structures of the lumbar cord at intensities above the threshold of large-diameter posterior root fibers. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Milk: Carrier of Heavy Metals from Crops through Ruminant Body to Human Beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batool, F.; Iqbal, S.; Tariq, M. I.; Akbar, J.; Noreen, S.; Danish, M.; Chan, K. W.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of heavy metals to humans is higher today than ever before in modern history due to continuously increasing industrialization around the globe. Industrial wastes are rich in heavy metals and these wastes are discharged near agricultural fields or mixed with soil, from where these metals are taken up by the crops and are finally transported to humans. Due to this increasing threat of heavy metals contamination in food, it is necessary to analyze the food before consumption. Content of selected metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) in cow milk is determined in this study. To investigate the possible pathways of these metals to reach in milk; fodder supplied to these cows was analyzed besides analysis of soil samples on which this fodder was grown. Pearson correlation among metal contents in soil-forage and forage-milk was also determined to check the route of transfer of these metals from soil to forage and from forage to milk. It was found that a strong correlation (p < 0.5) exists for Cr, Cd, Cu and Zn. This shows that these metals are mainly transferred through soil. However, a weak correlation was found for Pb, which shows that Pb is introduced into forage through some other source (automobile exhaust etc.). A comparison of present study is also done with previously reported work from other countries on metal contents in milk and findings of both the studies were in good agreement mutually. (author)

  11. Behavioural responses to human-induced change: Why fishing should not be ignored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Pauli, Beatriz; Sih, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    Change in behaviour is usually the first response to human-induced environmental change and key for determining whether a species adapts to environmental change or becomes maladapted. Thus, understanding the behavioural response to human-induced changes is crucial in the interplay between ecology, evolution, conservation and management. Yet the behavioural response to fishing activities has been largely ignored. We review studies contrasting how fish behaviour affects catch by passive (e.g., long lines, angling) versus active gears (e.g., trawls, seines). We show that fishing not only targets certain behaviours, but it leads to a multitrait response including behavioural, physiological and life-history traits with population, community and ecosystem consequences. Fisheries-driven change (plastic or evolutionary) of fish behaviour and its correlated traits could impact fish populations well beyond their survival per se , affecting predation risk, foraging behaviour, dispersal, parental care, etc., and hence numerous ecological issues including population dynamics and trophic cascades . In particular, we discuss implications of behavioural responses to fishing for fisheries management and population resilience. More research on these topics, however, is needed to draw general conclusions, and we suggest fruitful directions for future studies.

  12. Computational and experimental research on infrared trace by human being contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong Zonglong; Yang Kuntao; Ding Wenxiu; Zhang Nanyangsheng; Zheng Wenheng

    2010-06-20

    The indoor detection of the human body's thermal trace plays an important role in the fields of infrared detecting, scouting, infrared camouflage, and infrared rescuing and tracking. Currently, quantitative description and analysis for this technology are lacking due to the absence of human infrared radiation analysis. To solve this problem, we study the heating and cooling process by observing body contact and removal on an object, respectively. Through finite-element simulation and carefully designed experiments, an analytical model of the infrared trace of body contact is developed based on infrared physics and heat transfer theory. Using this model, the impact of body temperature on material thermal parameters is investigated. The sensitivity of material thermal parameters, the thermal distribution, and the changes of the thermograph's contrast are then found and analyzed. Excellent matching results achieved between the simulation and the experiments demonstrate the strong impact of temperature on material thermal parameters. Conclusively, the new model, simulation, and experimental results are beneficial to the future development and implementation of infrared trace technology.

  13. Computational and experimental research on infrared trace by human being contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Zonglong; Yang Kuntao; Ding Wenxiu; Zhang Nanyangsheng; Zheng Wenheng

    2010-01-01

    The indoor detection of the human body's thermal trace plays an important role in the fields of infrared detecting, scouting, infrared camouflage, and infrared rescuing and tracking. Currently, quantitative description and analysis for this technology are lacking due to the absence of human infrared radiation analysis. To solve this problem, we study the heating and cooling process by observing body contact and removal on an object, respectively. Through finite-element simulation and carefully designed experiments, an analytical model of the infrared trace of body contact is developed based on infrared physics and heat transfer theory. Using this model, the impact of body temperature on material thermal parameters is investigated. The sensitivity of material thermal parameters, the thermal distribution, and the changes of the thermograph's contrast are then found and analyzed. Excellent matching results achieved between the simulation and the experiments demonstrate the strong impact of temperature on material thermal parameters. Conclusively, the new model, simulation, and experimental results are beneficial to the future development and implementation of infrared trace technology.

  14. Well-Being Impacts of Human-Elephant Conflict in Khumaga, Botswana: Exploring Visible and Hidden Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison L Mayberry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High densities of wild African savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana combined with widespread human land-use have increased human-elephant conflict in northern Botswana. Visible impacts (e.g. crop/property damage, injury/fatality of elephants on human well-being are well documented in scholarly literature while hidden impacts (e.g. emotional stress, restricted mobility are less so. This research uses qualitative methods to explore human experiences with elephants and perceived impacts of elephants on human well-being. Findings reveal participants are concerned about food insecurity and associated visible impacts of elephant crop raids. Findings also reveal participants are concerned about reduced safety and restricted mobility as hidden impacts threatening livelihoods and everyday life. Both visible and hidden impacts of elephants contribute to people's negative feelings towards elephants, as does the broader political context. This research emphasises the importance of investigating both visible and hidden impacts of elephants on human well-being to foster holistic understanding of human-elephant conflict scenarios and to inform future mitigation strategies.

  15. EUROPEAN UNION’S COMMITMENT TO FIGHT AGAINST THE HUMAN BEINGS TRAFFICKING, THE MODERN FORM OF SLAVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Cristiana SPĂTARU-NEGURĂ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most serious threats to the European Union is the organised crime. The EU is continuously adapting its response in order to best respond to the situation. Among different types of organised crime, human beings trafficking is one of the most seriously crimes worldwide, representing also a gross violation of human rights. Very often behind the human beings trafficking is the organised crime because is one of the most profitable criminal activities in the world. The numbers are very scary because it is estimated that the trafficked people to or within the EU are reaching several hundred thousands a year. The present study is intending to discover how the European Union intends to fight against the human beings trafficking, since there is a need to have a coherent action at the European level because of the criminals can easily operate across border.

  16. Characterization of the response chemiluminescence of neutrophils human beings to the hemolysin Escherichia coli alpha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J.

    2000-01-01

    Escherichia coli alpha hemolysin (AH) evoked a luminol-amplified chemiluminescence (CL) response from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). Analysis of kinetic parameters of the PMN CL response to AH established similarities with that of PMN to the calcium ionophore A23187. PMN CL responses to both AH and A23187 were equally decreased by preincubating PMN with A63612, a hidroxamic acid derivative and lipooxigenase inhibitor, showing that the CL response to both hemolysin and ionophore share a common mechanism, probably activation of leukotriene synthesis, due to calcium entry into the cells brought about by AH and A23187. In addition, the CL response of PMN to AH was lowered by the hydroxyl radical scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide, further suggesting arachidonate metabolism is involved in CL response. (Author) [es

  17. Long lived radionuclides in the environment, in food and in human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisenne, I.M.

    1993-01-01

    Our limited knowledge and understanding of the behavior of the naturally occurring radionuclides in the environment, food and man have relied heavily on the skills of radiochemists. The purpose of this document is to lend an appreciation of the role of the radiochemist in programs designed to establish the concentration of uranium, thorium, radium and 210 Pb in a variety of sample matrices. Part I discusses the purposes and strategies for collection of environmental and human tissue samples, chemical and measurement methods, quality assurance and reporting of results. Part II summarizes our present knowledge on the concentrations of Uranium and Thorium Series radionuclides in the environment, diet and man. (author). 183 refs., 11 tabs., 6 figs

  18. Human and nonhuman primate meninges harbor lymphatic vessels that can be visualized noninvasively by MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absinta, Martina; Ha, Seung-Kwon; Nair, Govind; Sati, Pascal; Luciano, Nicholas J; Palisoc, Maryknoll; Louveau, Antoine; Zaghloul, Kareem A; Pittaluga, Stefania; Kipnis, Jonathan; Reich, Daniel S

    2017-10-03

    Here, we report the existence of meningeal lymphatic vessels in human and nonhuman primates (common marmoset monkeys) and the feasibility of noninvasively imaging and mapping them in vivo with high-resolution, clinical MRI. On T2-FLAIR and T1-weighted black-blood imaging, lymphatic vessels enhance with gadobutrol, a gadolinium-based contrast agent with high propensity to extravasate across a permeable capillary endothelial barrier, but not with gadofosveset, a blood-pool contrast agent. The topography of these vessels, running alongside dural venous sinuses, recapitulates the meningeal lymphatic system of rodents. In primates, meningeal lymphatics display a typical panel of lymphatic endothelial markers by immunohistochemistry. This discovery holds promise for better understanding the normal physiology of lymphatic drainage from the central nervous system and potential aberrations in neurological diseases.

  19. Can Man Control His Biological Evolution? A Symposium on Genetic Engineering. Xeroxing Human Beings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Paul A.

    1972-01-01

    If the aim of new research is to improve the genetic inheritance of future generations, then decisions regarding who should decide what research should be done needs to be established. Positive and negative eugenics need to be considered thoroughly. (PS)

  20. Refractory sporotrichosis due to Sporothrix brasiliensis in humans appears to be unrelated to in vivo resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Freitas, Dayvison Francis Saraiva; Valle, Antônio Carlos Francesconi do; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2017-07-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subacute to chronic infection caused by members of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. Itraconazole is the first choice antifungal drug for treating this infection, with terbinafine and potassium iodide as alternatives and amphotericin B used in cases of severe infections. Correlation of antifungal susceptibility data with the clinical outcome of the patients is scarce. The aim of this study was to correlate clinical and mycological data in patients with refractory sporotrichosis. In this work, antifungal susceptibilities, determined according to the reference M38-A2 CLSI protocol, of 25 Sporothrix strains, isolated from seven human cases of sporotrichosis with adversities in the treatment, are presented. Tested drugs included itraconazole, ketoconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, terbinafine, and amphotericin B. Fungi were identified using the T3B PCR fingerprinting. This method identified all strains as Sporothrix brasiliensis and also demonstrated a high degree of similarity between the strains. In general, voriconazole was ineffective against all strains, and elevated minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were observed for amphotericin B. High itraconazole and terbinafine MICs were not observed in S. brasiliensis isolates from patients of this study. Moreover, a significant increase in itraconazole and terbinafine MIC values from strains isolated from the same patient in different periods was not observed. The results suggest that the antifungal susceptibility to terbinafine and itraconazole determined by the reference method does not play an important role in therapeutic failure of sporotrichosis and that acquisition of resistance during prolonged antifungal treatment is not likely to occur in S. brasiliensis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Can fruits and vegetables be used as substitute phantoms for normal human brain tissues in magnetic resonance imaging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teramoto, Daisuke; Ushioda, Yuichi; Sasaki, Ayaka; Sakurai Yuki; Nagahama, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Manami; Sugimori, Hiroyuki; Sakata, Motomichi

    2013-01-01

    Various custom-made phantoms designed to optimize magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences have been created and subsequently reported in Japanese Society of Radiological Technology (JSRT). However, custom-made phantoms that correctly match the T 1 -value and T 2 -values of human brain tissue (gray matter and white matter) cannot be made easily or quickly. The aim of this project was to search for alternative materials, such as fruits and vegetables, for optimizing MRI sequences. The following eight fruits and vegetables were investigated: apple, tomato, melon, apple mango (Mangifera indica), banana, avocado, peach, and eggplant. Their potential was studied for use in modeling phantoms of normal human brain tissues. MRI (T 1 - and T 2 -weighted sequences) was performed on the human brain and the fruits and vegetables using various concentrations of contrast medium (gadolinium) in the same size tubes as the custom-made phantom. The authors compared the signal intensity (SI) in human brain tissue (gray matter and white matter) with that of the fruits and the custom-made phantom. The T 1 and T 2 values were measured for banana tissue and compared with those for human brain tissue in the literature. Our results indicated that banana tissue is similar to human brain tissue (both gray matter and white matter). Banana tissue can thus be employed as an alternative phantom for the human brain for the purpose of MRI. (author)

  2. Current status of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in animals & humans in India: What needs to be done?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Vir Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP has emerged as a major health problem for domestic livestock and human beings. Reduced per animal productivity of domestic livestock seriously impacts the economics of dairy farming globally. High to very high bioload of MAP in domestic livestock and also in the human population has been reported from north India. Presence of live MAP bacilli in commercial supplies of raw and pasteurized milk and milk products indicates its public health significance. MAP is not inactivated during pasteurization, therefore, entering into human food chain daily. Recovery of MAP from patients with inflammatory bowel disease or Crohn's disease and animal healthcare workers suffering with chronic gastrointestinal problems indicate a close association of MAP with a number of chronic and other diseases affecting human health. Higher bioload of MAP in the animals increases the risk of exposure to the human population with MAP. This review summarizes the current status of MAP infection in animals as well as in human beings and also highlights the prospects of effective management and control of disease in animals to reduce the risk of exposure to human population.

  3. Is there a human right to be assisted in dying? [Temos um direito humano a ser assistido na morte?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Tonetto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper will focus on the issue of whether it is plausible to think about a human right to be assisted in dying. The right to be assisted in dying cannot be considered just a right of non-interference. It is better understood as a claim right because it demands assistance and positive actions. I will argue that the principles of individual autonomy and Kant’s notion of dignity taken independently cannot be considered plausible justification for the human right to be assisted in dying. Griffin’s personhood account points out that principles of liberty, minimum provision and autonomy must be taken together to justify human rights. Based on his theory, I will argue that a person with a terminal disease who was aware of her imminent death or who suffered from an intractable, incurable, irreversible disease may waive the right to life and choose death. Therefore, the right to life would not restrict the human right to be assisted in dying and a state that allowed the practice of assisted dying would not be disrespecting the human right to life. This article will defend that the personhood account is able to protect vulnerable people from making decisions under pressure and avoid the slippery slope objection.

  4. Integrating Sustainability Science with the Sciences of Human Well-being to Inform Design and Planning in an Urbanizing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, M.; Graumlich, L. J.; Frumkin, H.; Friedman, D.

    2012-12-01

    A sustainable human future requires both healthy ecosystems and communities in which people thrive, with opportunities for health, well-being, happiness, economic prosperity, and equity. To make progress towards this goal, two largely disparate communities of scholars and practitioners must come together: sustainability science needs to be integrated with the sciences of human health and well-being. The opportunity for such integration is particularly ripe for urbanizing regions which not only dominate energy and resource use but also increasingly represent the human habitat. We present a conceptual framework that integrates sustainability science with the sciences of human health and well-being to explicitly articulate testable hypotheses on the relationships between humans and their habitat. We are interested in human behaviors and metrics of health and well-being in relationship to the characteristics of the built environment at various scales from buildings to metro regions. Focusing on the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW) as a testbed, we are building on our current empirical studies on urban sprawl and ecosystem function including biodiversity, air quality, hydrological, biogeochemical, and human health to develop formal hypotheses on how alternative urban design and development patterns may influence health outcomes and well-being. The PNW is an ideal setting for this work because of the connected metropolitan areas within a region characterized by a spectacular diversity of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and deeply held cultural and political aspirations towards sustainability. The framework also highlights opportunities for translation of knowledge to practice in the design and planning of built environments. For example, understanding these associations is critical to assessing tradeoffs in design and planning strategies and exploring potential synergies that optimize both sustainability and human well-being. In complex systems such as cities, managers

  5. MSCs can be differentially isolated from maternal, middle and fetal segments of the human umbilical cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jezamine; Razi, Zainul Rashid Mohamad; Law, Jiaxian; Nawi, Azmawati Mohammed; Idrus, Ruszymah Binti Haji; Ng, Min Hwei

    2016-12-01

    Human Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hWJMSCs) are possibly the most suitable allogeneic cell source for stromal cell therapy and tissue engineering applications because of their hypo-immunogenic and non-tumorigenic properties, easy availability and minimal ethical concerns. Furthermore, hWJMSCs possess unique properties of both adult mesenchymal stromal cells and embryonic stromal cells. The human umbilical cord (UC) is approximately 50-60 cm long and the existing studies in the literature have not provided information on which segment of the UC was studied. In this study, hWJMSCs derived from three anatomical segments of the UC are compared. Three segments of the whole UC, each 3 cm in length, were identified anatomically as the maternal, middle and fetal segments. The hWJMSCs from the different segments were analyzed via trypan blue exclusion assay to determine the growth kinetics and cell viability, flow cytometry for immunophenotyping and immunofluorescence and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for expression of stromal cell transcriptional factors. Furthermore, the trilineage differentiation potential (osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic) of these cells was also assessed. hWJMSCs isolated from the maternal and fetal segments displayed greater viability and possessed a significantly higher proliferation rate compared with cells from the middle segment. Immunophenotyping revealed that hWJMSCs derived from all three segments expressed the MSC markers CD105, CD73, CD90, CD44, CD13 and CD29, as well as HLA-ABC and HLA-DR, but were negative for hematopoietic markers CD14, CD34 and CD45. Analysis of the embryonic markers showed that all three segments expressed Nanog and Oct 3/4, but only the maternal and fetal segments expressed SSEA 4 and TRA-160. Cells from all three segments were able to differentiate into chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic lineages with the middle segments showing much lower differentiation

  6. Trafficking in human beings: a transnational threat of the globalization era (comparative analysis of the Central Causasian states)

    OpenAIRE

    Allahverdieva, Aysel

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses one of the most dangerous and serious, in the social-humanitarian respect, challenges of the current stage in world globalization-trafficking in human beings, especially in women and children, which has become an international problem in recent years. The article takes a look at the special features of the human trafficking problem in post-Soviet states, primarily in the Central Caucasian countries, caused by the powerful migration flows generated by the collapse of the ...

  7. Evolutionarily conserved regions of the human c-myc protein can be uncoupled from transforming activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarid, J.; Halazonetis, T.D.; Murphy, W.; Leder, P.

    1987-01-01

    The myc family of oncogenes contains coding sequences that have been preserved in different species for over 400 million years. This conservation (which implies functional selection) is broadly represented throughout the C-terminal portion of the human c-myc protein but is largely restricted to three cluster of amino acid sequences in the N-terminal region. The authors have examined the role that the latter three regions of the c-myc protein might play in the transforming function of the c-myc gene. Several mutations, deletions and frameshifts, were introduced into the c-myc gene, and these mutant genes were tested for their ability to collaborate with the EJ-ras oncogene to transform rat embryo fibroblasts. Complete elimination of the first two N-terminal conserved segments abolished transforming activity. In contrast, genes altered in a portion of the second or the entire third conserved segment retained their transforming activity. Thus, the latter two segments are not required for the transformation process, suggesting that they serve another function related only to the normal expression of the c-myc gene

  8. The human gut microbiome of Latin America populations: a landscape to be discovered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magne, Fabien; O'Ryan, Miguel L; Vidal, Roberto; Farfan, Mauricio

    2016-10-01

    The gut microbiome is critical for human health, and its alteration is associated with intestinal, autoimmune and metabolic diseases. Numerous studies have focused on prevention or treatment of dysbiotic microbiome to reduce the risk or effect of these diseases. A key issue is to define the microbiome associated with the state of good health. The purpose of this review is to describe factors influencing the gut microbiome with special emphasis on contributions from Latin America. In addition, we will highlight opportunities for future studies on gut microbiome in Latin America. A relevant factor influencing gut microbiome composition is geographical location associated with specific genetic, dietary and lifestyle factors. Geographical specificities suggest that a universal 'healthy microbiome' is unlikely. Several research programs, mostly from Europe and North America, are extensively sequencing gut microbiome of healthy people, whereas data from Latin America remain scarce yet slowly increasing. Few studies have shown difference in the composition of gut microbiome between their local populations with that of other industrialized countries (North American populations). Latin America is composed of countries with a myriad of lifestyles, traditions, genetic backgrounds and socioeconomic conditions, which may determine differences in gut microbiome of individuals from different countries. This represents an opportunity to better understand the relationship between these factors and gut microbiome.

  9. Spectrophotometric determination of mefenamic acid excreted as free drug in urine of human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naseer, M.M.; Nawaz, R.; Shafique, M.; Rehman, R.

    2007-01-01

    Urinary excretion of free mefenamic acid was investigated in 16 healthy human volunteers, eight males and eight females, following the oral administration of 500 mg tablet of mefenamic acid. Urine samples were collected at pre-determined schedule and drug concentration was determined by spectrophotometric method. The total recovery of free mefenamic acid was 1.526 +- 0.128 and 1.193 +- 0.112% in male and female volunteers respectively. The average +- S.E values for diuresis, pH and rate of excretion of mefenamic acid was 0.0160 +- 0.004 mL/min./kg of body weight, 6.22 +- 0.167, 0.077 +- 0.016 micro g min/sup -1/kg/sup -1/in male while 0.0084 +- 0.0023mL min/sup -1/kg-1 of body weight, 6.35 +- 0.164, 0.054 +- 0.008 micro g min/sup -1/kg/sup -1/respectively in female volunteers. The results obtained are different from the earlier studies due to variability in dose, gender variation, fluctuation in urine pH, environmental conditions and nutritional ingredients. (author)

  10. Against the odds : Human values arising in unfavourable circumstances elicit the feeling of being moved

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strick, M.A.; Van Soolingen, Jantine

    2017-01-01

    People sometimes say they are ‘moved’ or ‘touched’ by something. Although the experience is familiar to most, systematic research on being moved has just begun. The current research aims to advance our understanding of the prototypical elicitors of being moved. We tested the hypothesis that being

  11. [Experience of a research Ethics Committee and the challenges of the new Chilean legislation on research in human beings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún G, Manuel; Pinto C, María Eugenia; Raineri B, Gina G; Amigo, Hugo; Cifuentes O, Lucía; González, María Julieta; Horwitz, Nina; Marshall F, Claudia; Orellana V, Gricel

    2014-07-01

    The welfare of research participants must be guaranteed by international ethical standards. This article communicates the procedures of the Research Ethics Committee of the School of Medicine, University of Chile (CEISH). The new Chilean legislation on research in human beings is also discussed. Law 20.120: "On scientific research in human beings, its genome and forbidding human cloning" establishes the ethical principles that must be accomplished in every research involving human beings. Article 28 of the Law 20.584 "Regulation of the rights and duties of health care users", forbids the participation of handicapped people who cannot express their will in scientific research. Article 13 states that people not related directly with patient care cannot have access to his clinical records (with the exception of people with notarial authorization by the patient). CEISH proposes that, in case of people with intellectual deficiency, the decision to approve a scientific research should be analyzed on an individual basis. If the person is capable of expressing his or her will or has stated his or her consent beforehand, the research can be authorized. If the person cannot express his or her will, the scientific research cannot take place. In prospective studies, a consent from the patient and an authorization of the health authority should be required to access clinical records. In retrospective studies, consent should be obtained from the patient when personal information is going to be used. If the information is nameless, the consent can be disregarded.

  12. Herpes zoster could be an early manifestation of undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu; Chen, Wen-Chi

    2016-05-01

    No formal epidemiological research based on systematic analysis has focused on the relationship between herpes zoster and immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Taiwan. Our aim was to explore whether herpes zoster is an early manifestation of undiagnosed human HIV infection in Taiwan. This was a retrospective cohort study using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. A total of 35,892 individuals aged ≤ 84 years with newly diagnosed herpes zoster from 1998 to 2010 were assigned to the herpes zoster group, whereas 143,568 sex-matched and age-matched, randomly selected individuals without herpes zoster served as the non-herpes zoster group. The incidence of HIV diagnosis at the end of 2011 was estimated in both groups. The multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) for risk of HIV diagnosis associated with herpes zoster and other comorbidities including drug dependence and venereal diseases. The overall incidence of HIV diagnosis was 4.19-fold greater in the herpes zoster group than that in the non-herpes zoster group (3.33 per 10,000 person-years vs. 0.80 per 10,000 person-years, 95% CI 4.04-4.35). The multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis revealed that the adjusted hazard ratio of HIV diagnosis was 4.37 (95% CI 3.10-6.15) for individuals with herpes zoster and without comorbidities, as compared with individuals without herpes zoster and without comorbidities. Herpes zoster is associated with HIV diagnosis. Patients who have risk behaviors of HIV infection should receive regular surveillance for undiagnosed HIV infection when they present with herpes zoster. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. The medicalization of love and narrow and broad conceptions of human well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyholm, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Would a "medicalization" of love be a "good" or "bad" form of medicalization? In discussing this question, Earp, Sandberg, and Savulescu primarily focus on the potential positive and negative consequences of turning love into a medical issue. But it can also be asked whether there is something

  14. Metastatic canine mammary carcinomas can be identified by a gene expression profile that partly overlaps with human breast cancer profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klopfleisch, Robert; Lenze, Dido; Hummel, Michael; Gruber, Achim D

    2010-01-01

    Similar to human breast cancer mammary tumors of the female dog are commonly associated with a fatal outcome due to the development of distant metastases. However, the molecular defects leading to metastasis are largely unknown and the value of canine mammary carcinoma as a model for human breast cancer is unclear. In this study, we analyzed the gene expression signatures associated with mammary tumor metastasis and asked for parallels with the human equivalent. Messenger RNA expression profiles of twenty-seven lymph node metastasis positive or negative canine mammary carcinomas were established by microarray analysis. Differentially expressed genes were functionally characterized and associated with molecular pathways. The findings were also correlated with published data on human breast cancer. Metastatic canine mammary carcinomas had 1,011 significantly differentially expressed genes when compared to non-metastatic carcinomas. Metastatic carcinomas had a significant up-regulation of genes associated with cell cycle regulation, matrix modulation, protein folding and proteasomal degradation whereas cell differentiation genes, growth factor pathway genes and regulators of actin organization were significantly down-regulated. Interestingly, 265 of the 1,011 differentially expressed canine genes are also related to human breast cancer and, vice versa, parts of a human prognostic gene signature were identified in the expression profiles of the metastatic canine tumors. Metastatic canine mammary carcinomas can be discriminated from non-metastatic carcinomas by their gene expression profiles. More than one third of the differentially expressed genes are also described of relevance for human breast cancer. Many of the differentially expressed genes are linked to functions and pathways which appear to be relevant for the induction and maintenance of metastatic progression and may represent new therapeutic targets. Furthermore, dogs are in some aspects suitable as a

  15. Further genetic characterization of the two Trypanosoma cruzi Berenice strains (Be-62 and Be-78) isolated from the first human case of Chagas disease (Chagas, 1909).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, R E; Macedo, A M; Barnabé, C; Freitas, J M; Chiari, E; Veloso, V M; Carneiro, C M; Bahia, M T; Tafuri, Washington L; Lana, M

    2006-03-01

    We describe here an extension of a previous genetic characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi strains (Be-62 and Be-78) isolated from the patient Berenice, the first human case of Chagas disease [Chagas, C., 1909. Nova Tripanomíase humana. Estudos sobre morfologia e o ciclo evolutivo do Schizotrypanum cruzi, n. gen., n. sp., agente etiolójico da nova entidade morbida do homem. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 1, 159-218]. We wanted to verify the composition of T. cruzi populations originated from these two isolates. In the present work, 22 enzymatic loci (MLEE), nine RAPD primers and 7 microsatellite loci were analyzed. Clones from both strains were also characterized to verify whether these strains are mono or polyclonal. Be-62 and Be-78 strains were different in 3 out of 22 enzymatic systems, in 3 out of 9 RAPD primers tested and in all microsatellite loci investigated. However, our data suggests that both strains are phylogenetically closely related, belonging to genetic group 32 from Tibayrenc and Ayala [Tibayrenc, M., Ayala, F.J., 1988. Isoenzime variability in Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas' disease: genetical, taxonomical, and epidemiological significance. Evolution 42, 277-292], equivalent to zymodeme 2 and T. cruzi II major lineage which, in Brazil, comprises parasites from the domestic cycle of the disease. Microsatellite analyses showed differences between the parental strains but suggested that both populations are monoclonal since each strain and their respective clones showed the same amplification products.

  16. Can mammalian cloning combined with embryonic stem cell technologies be used to treat human diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina; Papaioannou, Virginia E

    2002-01-01

    Cloning is commonly perceived as a means of generating genetically identical individuals, but it can also be used to obtain genetically matched embryo-derived stem cells, which could potentially be used in the treatment of patients. A recent report offers the first 'proof of principle' of such cloning for therapeutic purposes, referred to as nuclear transplantation to produce stem cells for autologous transplantation. PMID:12186652

  17. Indicators and Methods for Evaluating Economic, Ecosystem and Social Services Provisioning: A Human Well-being Index (HWBI) Research Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Human Well-being Index (HWBI) is a composite measure that incorporates economic, environmental, and societal well-being elements through the eight domains of connection to nature, cultural fulfillment, education, health, leisure time, living standards, safety and securit...

  18. Well-Being and Human-Animal Interactions in Schools: The Case of "Dog Daycare Co-Op"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Laura Elizabeth; Foulkes, Donna

    2015-01-01

    This study draws on Martha Nussbaum's (2000) account of the nature of human well-being in order to explore the role of animals in formal education settings. Nussbaum's capabilities approach identifies the ability "to have concern for and live with other animals, plants and the environment" (p. 80) as a necessary component for well-being.…

  19. Air quality assessment on human well-being in the vicinity of quarry site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, W. H. W.; Marinie, E.; Yunus, J.; Asra, N.; Sukor, K. Mohd

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to investigate the variation of air pollutants associated with the quarry activities prior to classified distance from quarry site. Air pollutants were monitored with the use of instruments which are Rae System Multirae Lite Pumped (PGM-6208) to measure indoor air quality while TSI 8533 Dusttrack Drx Desktop Aerosol Monitor to measure outdoor air quality. Sampling will be replicated two times. The locations of quarry are at Bandar Saujana Putra and Taman Kajang Perdana 2, Selangor. The objectives of this study are to investigate the impact of quarry mining by preparing the suitable Indoor Air Quality Index and to prepare preventive measure for residential that caused from quarry mining activities. Both Qualitative and Quantitative approaches will be implemented in this study, which employed case study and interview survey. Both quarries identified previously will be the main case study. The Respondent’s interviews are from Local Authority and Quarry Management Staff while questionnaire surveys from selected residences. Measurement method will be used to measure the Particle Matter (PM2.5) for indoor and outdoor in selected resident’s area. However, this paper is primed to discuss the method used in this study. It is not only presents the beneficial information for future research on methodologies employed but also it is anticipated the benefit to environment which can increased residents’ well-being in the vicinity of quarry sites.

  20. Human well-being values of environmental flows enhancing social equity in integrated water resources management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation discusses how the importance of river flow-sustained ecosystems for local communities can be quantified for the purpose of balancing water supply and demand in Integrated Water Resources Management. Due to the development of water resources, for example through the construction of

  1. Liberation and passion: reconstructing the passion perspective on human being and freedom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Many contemporary philosophers tell us that we are essentially purposeful, independent, willing, and acting beings. The self is presented as a citadel defending itself against external, alien influences. Alternatively, some argue that we are the sum of a determined body and a free will. Are we

  2. Ecosystems and human well-being: health synthesis : a report of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hales, Simon; Corvalan, Carlos; McMichael, Anthony (Tony) J

    2005-01-01

    ... 36 4 What actions are required to address the health consequences of ecosystem change? 4.1 Reducing vulnerability 4.2 The Millennium Development Goals 38 38 39 5 How can priorities be established for actions to address the health consequences of ecosystem change? 5.1 What considerations are important when setting priorities and what...

  3. A soluble form of the transcobalamin receptor CD320 can be detected in human serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Berg; Quadros, Edward V.; Christensen, Anna Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recently, the cell-surface receptor involved in the internalisation of the cobalamin(vitamin B12, Cbl) transporting protein, transcobalamin(TC), was described, and was found to be CD320(1). So far, it remains unsolved whether CD320 is present in a soluble form (sCD320) in serum. Our aim...

  4. Data and models for exploring sustainability of human well-being in global environmental change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deffuant, G.; Alvarez, I.; Barreteau, O.; Vries, de B.; Edmonds, B.; Gilbert, N.; Gotts, N.; Jabot, F.; Janssen, S.J.C.; Hilden, M.; Kolditz, O.; Murray-Rust, D.; Rouge, C.; Smits, P.

    2012-01-01

    This position paper proposes a vision for the research activity about sustainability in global environmental change (GEC) taking place in the FuturICT flagship project. This activity will be organised in an "Exploratory", gathering a core network of European scientists from ICT, social simulation,

  5. Sex Differences in Energy Metabolism Need to Be Considered with Lifestyle Modifications in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty N. Wu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Women have a higher proportion of body fat compared to men. However, women consume fewer kilojoules per kilogram lean mass and burn fat more preferentially during exercise compared with men. During gestation, women store even greater amounts of fat that cannot be solely attributed to increased energy intake. These observations suggest that the relationship between kilojoules consumed and kilojoules utilised is different in men and women. The reason for these sex differences in energy metabolism is not known; however, it may relate to sex steroids, differences in insulin resistance, or metabolic effects of other hormones such as leptin. When considering lifestyle modifications, sex differences in energy metabolism should be considered. Moreover, elucidating the regulatory role of hormones in energy homeostasis is important for understanding the pathogenesis of obesity and perhaps in the future may lead to ways to reduce body fat with less energy restriction.

  6. Caribbean Heat Threatens Health, Well-being and the Future of Humanity

    OpenAIRE

    Macpherson, Cheryl C.; Akpinar-Elci, Muge

    2015-01-01

    Climate change has substantial impacts on public health and safety, disease risks and the provision of health care, with the poor being particularly disadvantaged. Management of the associated health risks and changing health service requirements requires adequate responses at local levels. Health-care providers are central to these responses. While climate change raises ethical questions about its causes, impacts and social justice, medicine and bioethics typically focus on individual patien...

  7. A Comparative Analytic Study between Mulla Sadra and Mulla Hadi Sabzewari is Opinions on Beyond Abstract Status of Human Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali ArshadRiahi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available   In this paper one of human characteristic namely beyond abstract status is studied from view point of two great philosophers: Mulla Sadra and Mulla Hadi Sabzewari. In philosophic knowledge of human being, transcendental theosophy and its commentators, have paid a particular attention to this certain status and have proved its bases. In this article , opinions of Mulla Sadra and Mulla Hadi Sabzewari on this status are studied and it is concluded that from viewpoint of these two sages, human being, having no determined status, can pass all stages and reach to a stage that is abstract of both: matter and quality. Although these two sages demonstrate and express this subject in a little different ways and this lead them to two different horizon of vision about this status.

  8. [The relationships among occupational and organizational commitment, human relations in the workplace, and well-being in nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Tadayuki

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the relationship among human relations in the workplace, job involvement, affective commitment and continuance commitment with occupational and organizational commitment, and well-being. Questionnaires were completed by 855 female nurses who worked in four public hospitals (mean age = 32.6 years). The results of factor analysis showed that each component of the vocational constructs was distinguishable from the others. Path analysis showed that human relations in the workplace directly influenced job involvement and affective commitment both to the occupation and to the organization. Job involvement in turn directly influenced affective commitment and continuance commitment to the occupation. Job involvement also influenced affective commitment to the organization directly, and indirectly through affective commitment to the occupation. Finally, it was found that human relations in the workplace and affective commitment to the occupation positively influenced well-being; continuance commitment to the occupation was a negative influence. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  9. Therapeutic Role of Functional Components in Alliums for Preventive Chronic Disease in Human Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawen Zeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Functional components in alliums have long been maintained to play a key role in modifying the major risk factors for chronic disease. To obtain a better understanding of alliums for chronic disease prevention, we conducted a systematic review for risk factors and prevention strategies for chronic disease of functional components in alliums, based on a comprehensive English literature search that was conducted using various electronic search databases, especially the PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and CNKI for the period 2007–2016. Allium genus especially garlic, onion, and Chinese chive is rich in organosulfur compounds, quercetin, flavonoids, saponins, and others, which have anticancer, preventive cardiovascular and heart diseases, anti-inflammation, antiobesity, antidiabetes, antioxidants, antimicrobial activity, neuroprotective and immunological effects, and so on. These results support Allium genus; garlic and onion especially may be the promising dietotherapeutic vegetables and organopolysulfides as well as quercetin mechanism in the treatment of chronic diseases. This review may be used as scientific basis for the development of functional food, nutraceuticals, and alternative drugs to improve the chronic diseases.

  10. Natural history and the formation of the human being: Kant on active forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldow, Anik

    2016-08-01

    In his 1785-review of the Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit, Kant objects to Herder's conception of nature as being imbued with active forces. This attack is usually evaluated against the background of Kant's critical project and his epistemological concern to caution against the "metaphysical excess" of attributing immanent properties to matter. In this paper I explore a slightly different reading by investigating Kant's pre-critical account of creation and generation. The aim of this is to show that Kant's struggle with the forces of matter has a long history and revolves around one central problem: that of how to distinguish between the non-purposive forces of nature and the intentional powers of the mind. Given this history, the epistemic stricture that Kant's critical project imposes on him no longer appears to be the primary reason for his attack on Herder. It merely aggravates a problem that Kant has been battling with since his earliest writings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Well-being and human-animal interactions in schools: The case of "Dog Daycare Co-Op"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Elizabeth Pinto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on Martha Nussbaum’s account of the nature of human well-being to explore the role of animals in formal education settings. Nussbaum equates well-being with human flourishing, and argues that people live well when engaged in essential functions that are particular capabilities, each a necessary but insufficient contributor to well-being. One of these capabilities is the ability to “to have concern for and live with other animals, plants and the environment.” Yet, this condition of well-being remains largely unexplored among in education. In recent years, the benefits of human-animal interaction in education settings has been researched and discussed in the social sciences, particularly  the use of dogs to aid reluctant readers in literacy development, and the use of therapy dogs in universities during final examination blocks. This paper presents findings of one particular research project of the effects of a unique, Canadian school-based cooperative education program, “Under One Woof,” in which students work with animals.  Based on interviews, students’ own stories of the impact of animal interaction – particularly in light of other challenges they faced academically and socially – appear to support other empirical accounts of positive effects of animals in education settings, and offer insight into the nature and effects of human-animal interaction as an element of well-being.

  12. The secret bread tests: selective primary health care or experimentation on human-beings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamien, M

    1987-01-01

    This is a case history which describes an attempt to fortify the bread of Australian Aborigines in an isolated area of New South Wales. The medically successful intervention was accomplished by the publication of scientific enquiry and by attention to the culture of Aborigines. Paradoxically the long-term failure of the project was also due to the power of the written word and the neglect of the culture of the more densely populated and politically dominant white community. The need for doctors to be aware of the different approaches of primary health care and selective primary health care is stressed so that a general practitioner who provides health care for minority groups of the Fourth World can better define his role and relevance.

  13. Height preferences in humans may not be universal: evidence from the Datoga people of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokowski, P; Butovskaya, M L

    2012-09-01

    Many studies in Western societies have shown that women prefer relatively taller men as potential partners, whereas men prefer women who are slightly shorter than themselves. Here, we discuss possible limitations of previous results within the context of the stimuli used (i.e., differences in the perceived body size of female silhouettes). Our results show that, at least in a Polish sample (N=231), modified stimuli did not essentially change the observed male-taller preferences. In contrast, we report height preferences in a traditional ethnic group, the Datoga people from Tanzania (N=107), in which men and women preferred extreme sexual dimorphism in stature (SDS) sets (i.e., men and women chose women much taller or much shorter than themselves). Thus, our data do not accord with the suggestion of a universal preference for taller men, but rather suggests that height preferences may be influenced by cultural, environmental, and ecological conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Tolerance of human spinal cord to high-energy p(66)Be(49) neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, L.; Haken, R.K.T.; Mansell, J.A.; Yalavarthi, D.; Hendrickson, F.R.; Awschalom, M.

    1985-01-01

    A total of 76 patients with cancer of the head and neck have been irradiated at the Fermilab Neutron Therapy Facility using high-energy neutrons. Dose, time and cord-length factors were determined for each patient from their individual treatment plans. Cord doses ranged from 5 to 16 Gy in 8 to 24 fractions over 6 to 70 days. The treated lengths were between 5 and 15 cm. No myelopathy was seen during follow-up periods ranging from 2 to 6 years. By comparing these observations with published data, the upper and lower limits for spinal cord tolerance to neutrons can be determined. There is no apparent risk of injury with cord doses under 13 Gy

  15. ''Brain-science and education''. Towards human security and well-being

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Hideaki

    2005-01-01

    This lecture discusses concepts of learning and education that have been expressed in terms of the viewpoint of natural science, and proposes a new way of studying learning and education based on functional brain imaging such as fMRI, MEG, and OT (Optical Topography). From a biological viewpoint, they are related to brain development because the brain is an adaptable information processor that is open to environmental stimuli. Stimuli cause new neuronal connections to form, which allow better adaptation to the environment. Thus, education should be designed to guide and inspire the construction of the basic architecture for information processing in the brain by preparing and controlling the input stimuli given to the learners. Education is the process in which learning is guided to provide an optimal environment. This new approach to study of learning and education is called brain science and education.'' (S. Ohno)

  16. Medicine and the holistic understanding of the human being: ultrasound examination as dialog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maio, G

    2014-04-01

    Ultrasound can capture the living nature of a person. This capturing of life depends greatly on experience as well as sense of touch, intuition, sense of speech, and not least a sense for the distinctiveness of every person. Performing ultrasound is not simply the application of a technique but rather a merging of man and technology in the framework of an interpersonal encounter. Therefore, as much should be invested in the interpersonal nature of the encounter as in the development of the technical principles of the ultrasound probe. To effectively perform ultrasound, it is necessary to avoid viewing ultrasound from a purely technical view and to always remember the importance of the relationship to the patient, particularly during the technical examination. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Haemophilus haemolyticus: A Human Respiratory Tract Commensal to Be Distinguished from Haemophilus influenzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, T.F.; Brauer, A.L.; Sethi, S.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Haemophilus influenzae is a common pathogen in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In a prospective study, selected isolates of apparent H. influenzae had an altered phenotype. We tested the hypothesis that these variant strains were genetically different from...... typical H. influenzae.Methods. A prospective study of adults with COPD was conducted. Strains of apparent H. influenzae obtained from a range of clinical sources were evaluated by ribosomal DNA sequence analysis, multilocus sequence analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization, and sequencing of the conserved P6 gene.......Results. Variant strains were determined to be Haemophilus haemolyticus by means of 4 independent methods. Analysis of 490 apparent H. influenzae strains, identified by standard methods, revealed that 39.5% of sputum isolates and 27.3% of nasopharyngeal isolates were H. haemolyticus. Isolates obtained from...

  18. Energy consumption, human well-being and economic development in central and eastern European nations: A cautionary tale of sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgenson, Andrew K.; Alekseyko, Alina; Giedraitis, Vincentas

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability is fundamentally a challenge of tradeoffs. In order to improve human well-being through economic development we consume nonrenewable energy and other natural resources, relying on a broad range of ecosystem services. Enhancing sustainability requires reducing the “energy intensity of human well-being (EIWB)”: the amount of energy used per unit of human well-being. In this study we employ longitudinal analysis techniques to assess the temporally dynamic relationship between EIWB and economic development for a sample of 12 Central and Eastern European (CEE) nations for the 1992 to 2010 period. These are nations that have recently transitioned, which is still an ongoing process, from socialist command economies to market demand economies. During this ongoing transition, many of them have experienced declines in energy intensity, coupled with increased energy efficiency, while human well-being has improved considerably. The results of the analysis indicate that the relationship between EIWB and economic growth in CEE nations is complex and has changed dramatically through time. Of particular importance, the later years of the study exhibit an increasingly sustainable relationship between EIWB and economic development. The findings point to future possibilities for relatively more harmonious relationships between development, human well-being, and the natural environment. - Highlights: • We analyze the energy intensity of well-being in Central and Eastern European nations. • The effect of economic development is time-dynamic. • Other factors influence the energy intensity of well-being. • The results highlight possibilities for enhanced sustainability policies

  19. The implications of Ramadan fasting for human health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkandari, Jasem Ramadan; Maughan, Ronald J; Roky, Rachida; Aziz, Abdul Rashid; Karli, Umid

    2012-01-01

    Islamic Ramadan is a 29-30 day fast in which food, fluids, medications, drugs and smoking are prohibited during the daylight hours which can be extended between 13 and 18 h · day(-1) depending on the geographical location and season. The majority of health-specific findings related to Ramadan fasting are mixed. The likely causes for these heterogeneous findings lie in the amount of daily time of fasting, number of subjects who smoke, take oral medications, and/or receive intravenous fluids, in the type of food and eating habits and in changes in lifestyle. During Ramadan fasting, glucose homeostasis is maintained by meals taken during night time before dawn and by liver glycogen stores. Changes in serum lipids are variable and depend on the quality and quantity of food intake, physical activity and exercise, and changes in body weight. Compliant, well-controlled type II diabetics may observe Ramadan fasting, but fasting is not recommended for type I, noncompliant, poorly controlled and pregnant diabetics. There are no adverse effects of Ramadan fasting on respiratory and cardiovascular systems, haematologic profile, endocrine, and neuropsychiatric functions. Although Ramadan fasting is safe for all healthy individuals, those with various diseases should consult their physicians and follow medical and scientific recommendations.

  20. Caribbean Heat Threatens Health, Well-being and the Future of Humanity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Cheryl C; Akpinar-Elci, Muge

    2015-07-01

    Climate change has substantial impacts on public health and safety, disease risks and the provision of health care, with the poor being particularly disadvantaged. Management of the associated health risks and changing health service requirements requires adequate responses at local levels. Health-care providers are central to these responses. While climate change raises ethical questions about its causes, impacts and social justice, medicine and bioethics typically focus on individual patients and research participants rather than these broader issues. We broaden this focus by examining awareness among health-care providers in the Caribbean region, where geographic and socioeconomic features pose particular vulnerabilities to climate change. In focus groups, Caribbean providers described rises in mosquito-borne, flood-related, heat-related, respiratory and mental illnesses, and attributed these to local impacts of climate change. Their discussions showed that the significance of these impacts differs in different Caribbean nations, raising policy and social justice questions. Bioethics and public health ethics are situated to frame, inform and initiate public and policy dialog about values and scientific evidence associated with climate change. We urge readers to initiate such dialog within their own institutions about the context-dependent nature of the burdens of climate change, and values and policies that permit it to worsen.

  1. Shades of green: Measuring the ecology of urban green space in the context of human health and well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna Jorgensen; Paul H. Gobster

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we review and analyze the recent research literature on urban green space and human health and well-being, with an emphasis on studies that attempt to measure biodiversity and other green space concepts relevant to urban ecological restoration. We first conduct a broad scale assessment of the literature to identify typologies of urban green space and...

  2. Establishing trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal and improving cross-border collaboration in criminal cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, Conny

    2016-01-01

    In this short summary report on the legal definition of trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal and improving cross-border collaboration in criminal cases, challenges, and recommendations in the areas of defining the crime, criminal investigation and prosecution, and

  3. Can results from animal studies be used to estimate dose or low-dose effects in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Eberhardt, L.L.

    1980-09-01

    A method has been developed based on animal data which appears useful in predicting biological equilibrium level for radionuclides in humans. It is shown that measures of whole-body retention, plasma concentration, short-term toxicity and cancer incidence can be projected, at least in limited circumstances, for some elements and organic compounds. Some of the procedures used for extrapolation in other fields as well as those from radiobiology are reviewed, the similarity procedure developed discussed, and a review provided of some of the issues in low-dose-effect modelling and the extrapolation of those data to humans

  4. Sujet, être, être-là : Heidegger, ou l’être humain entre pensée juive et philosophie grecque Subject, Being, Being-there: Heidegger or the Human Being between Jewish Thinking and Greek Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Schovanec

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the sixties and seventies, theoretical discussions in European social sciences focused on the nature of the human being. Proponents of the rational subject, characterizing. Enlightenment-prone Western classical philosophy, went against the advocates of the much older and less-known anti-subjective tradition. Our study aims at giving an archaeological insight into this second paradigm, going back first to Heidegger, the master thinker of contemporary European social sciences, then to the religious – mainly Jewish – roots of his thought. It views human being not as an achieved and autonomous entity, but as an emanation of the Being. Men have to follow the path it sets and its voice, free themselves from material assets which are mere impediments, and eventually enter into a superior dimension of thinking. Beyond our limited case-study, the whole question of the persistence of another main - albeit forgotten - way of thinking in the very heart of modernity is being raised anew.

  5. The Importance of Human Ecology at the Threshold of the Next Millennium: How Can Population Growth Be Stopped?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nentwig, W.

    Ecology is defined as the set of complex interactions between the biotic and abiotic environments. Human ecology concerns principally the population ecology "only" of Homo sapiens, but it also includes all aspects of global ecology because humans are the most important species. Human demography is characterized by a recent decline in mortality and fertility rates. These demographic transitions have largely been completed in industrialized countries, but not in the 140 developing countries. Approximately 100 countries are following the same demographic pattern as industrialized countries, however with a time delay of several generations. China has effectively reduced its population increase by means that would be unacceptable in Western democracies. Some 44 developing countries still show increasing population growth and no detectable demographic transition in birth rate. Thus one part of the world shows limited (and, in the long run, shrinking) population growth, and another continues with a strong increase. All populations are limited in their development by their sustainability by their environment, for example, food and energy resources, and the extent of pollution which the use of these resources produces. It is argued that in the case of human population the limits of sustainability have already been reached with the 6 billion humans alive today, since at least 20% of these suffer from hunger, natural resources are overexploited, and biodiversity is threatened. In the coming 200years it is more likely that the total population will substantially oscillate rather than approach the predicted 12 billion. The most important goal of human ecology should therefore be to slow population growth as far as possible.

  6. Quality of Life Theory II. Quality of Life as the Realization of Life Potential: A Biological Theory of Human Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren Ventegodt

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This review presents one of the eight theories of the quality of life (QOL used for making the SEQOL (self-evaluation of quality of life questionnaire or the quality of life as realizing life potential. This theory is strongly inspired by Maslow and the review furthermore serves as an example on how to fulfill the demand for an overall theory of life (or philosophy of life, which we believe is necessary for global and generic quality-of-life research.Whereas traditional medical science has often been inspired by mechanical models in its attempts to understand human beings, this theory takes an explicitly biological starting point. The purpose is to take a close view of life as a unique entity, which mechanical models are unable to do. This means that things considered to be beyond the individual's purely biological nature, notably the quality of life, meaning in life, and aspirations in life, are included under this wider, biological treatise. Our interpretation of the nature of all living matter is intended as an alternative to medical mechanism, which dates back to the beginning of the 20th century. New ideas such as the notions of the human being as nestled in an evolutionary and ecological context, the spontaneous tendency of self-organizing systems for realization and concord, and the central role of consciousness in interpreting, planning, and expressing human reality are unavoidable today in attempts to scientifically understand all living matter, including human life.

  7. Smoking and renal function in people living with human immunodeficiency virus: a Danish nationwide cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlström MG

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Magnus Glindvad Ahlström,1 Bo Feldt-Rasmussen,2 Rebecca Legarth,1 Gitte Kronborg,3 Court Pedersen,4 Carsten Schade Larsen,5 Jan Gerstoft,1 Niels Obel1 1Department of Infectious Diseases, 2Department of Nephrology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, 3Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, 4Department of Infectious Diseases, Odense University Hospital, Odense, 5Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Aarhus, Denmark Introduction: Smoking is a main risk factor for morbidity and mortality in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV, but its potential association with renal impairment remains to be established. Methods: We did a nationwide population-based cohort study in Danish PLHIV to evaluate the association between smoking status and 1 overall renal function and risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD, 2 risk of any renal replacement therapy (aRRT, and 3 mortality following aRRT. We calculated estimated creatinine clearance using the Cockcroft–Gault equation (CG-CrCl, and evaluated renal function graphically. We calculated cumulative incidence of CKD (defined as two consecutive CG-CrCls of ≤60 mL/min, ≥3 months apart and aRRT and used Cox regression models to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs for risk of CKD, aRRT, and mortality rate ratios (MRRs following aRRT. Results: From the Danish HIV Cohort Study, we identified 1,475 never smokers, 768 previous smokers, and 2,272 current smokers. During study period, we observed no association of smoking status with overall renal function. Previous and current smoking was not associated with increased risk of CKD (adjusted IRR: 1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.7–1.7; adjusted IRR: 1.3, 95% CI: 0.9–1.8 or aRRT (adjusted IRR: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.4–1.7; adjusted IRR: 0.9, 95% CI: 0.5–1.7. Mortality following aRRT was high in PLHIV and increased in smokers vs never smokers (adjusted MRR: 3

  8. Human Resource Management (HRM) strategies and the impact on well-being of employees in Danish private and public firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Nielsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    that management give employees discretion in the work organization (human resources are seen as an investment), that motivate and involve employees and create well-being among employees. So, management practices commitment strategies shape well-being among employees. This idea of management challenges the ability...... of the organization to persist, especially when organizational and technical changes have to be implemented by employees. So, the question is: How do HRM strategies connect to the employee’s well-being? The analytical results presented shortly in the paper build on data from project Meadow (Employee and Employer...

  9. [Re-signification of the human in the context of the "ciborgzation": a look at the human being-machine relationship in intensive care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de O; Meyer, Dagmar Estermann

    2005-06-01

    This study discusses the human being-machine relationship in the process called "cyborgzation" of the nurse who works in intensive care, based on post-structuralist Cultural Studies and highlighting Haraway's concept of cyborg. In it, manuals used by nurses in Intensive Care Units have been examined as cultural texts. This cultural analysis tries to decode the various senses of "human" and "machine", with the aim of recognizing processes that turn nurses into cyborgs. The argument is that intensive care nurses fall into a process of "technology embodiment" that turns the body-professional into a hybrid that makes possible to disqualify, at the same time, notions such as machine and body "proper", since it is the hybridization between one and the other that counts there. Like cyborgs, intensive care nurses learn to "be with" the machine, and this connection limits the specificity of their actions. It is suggested that processes of "cyborgzation" such as this are useful for questioning - and to deal with in different ways - the senses of "human" and "humanity" that support a major part of knowledge/action in health.

  10. Impacts of Community Forest Management and Strictly Protected Areas on Deforestation and Human Well-Being in Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasolofoson, Ranaivo Andriarilala

    they contain) and human well-being. However, while scientifically rigorous impact evaluation of programs is well advanced in fields such as development, health and education, it is rare in nature conservation. The rare existing studies focus mostly on protected areas and other interventions, such as CFM......, conditional on household proximity to forest and education level. In conclusion, the impacts of CFM vary with household characteristics: some may lose while others may gain. iii) The potential of the Global Person Generated Index (GPGI) for evaluating the perceived impact of conservation interventions......Protected areas and Community Forest Management (CFM) are among the most widespread interventions to conserve forests in tropical countries. In addition to their impacts on forests and the biodiversity they contain, these interventions also affect human well-being, particularly that of the local...

  11. Human behaviour and energy demand : How behavioural science can be used to reduceenergy demand in the residential sector

    OpenAIRE

    Kaczmarek, Haiko

    2015-01-01

    The threat of human induced climate change is imminent. The reason is an everyincreasing demand for energy and products, producing more and more greenhousegas emissions. Everybody needs to take responsibility now. The estimations are thatwith 2% annual energy savings from residential households 12TWh and 3.3 billionmetric tonnes of CO2 can be saved per year. Greenely, a startup from KIC InnoEnergy,wants to engage residential households to change their energy behaviour athome. They combine a s...

  12. Power, trust, and Science of Unitary Human Beings influence political leadership: a celebration of Barrett's power theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Barbara W

    2010-01-01

    The importance of nurses' participation in health policy leadership is discussed within the context of Rogers' science of unitary human beings, Barrett's power theory, and one nurse-politician's experience. Nurses have a major role to play in resolving public policy issues that influence the health of people. A brief review of the history of nurses in the political arena is presented. Research related to power and trust is reviewed. Suggested strategies for success in political situations are offered.

  13. Hard times and European youth. The effect of economic insecurity on human values, social attitudes and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeskens, Tim; Vandecasteele, Leen

    2017-02-01

    While economic downturns have adverse effects on young people's life chances, empirical studies examining whether and to what extent human values, social attitudes and well-being indicators respond to sudden economic shocks are scarce. To assess the claim that human values are less affected by economic shocks than social attitudes and well-being, two distinct yet related studies based on the European Social Survey (ESS) are conducted. The first employs a fixed effects pseudo-panel analysis of the 2008-2014 ESS-waves to detect whether changes over time in the socio-demographic group's unemployment risk and national youth unemployment affect individual dispositions to varying degrees. The second study captures micro- and cross-national effects in the 2010 ESS cross-section. Unique for this set-up is that we can test whether the findings hold for over-time changes in youth unemployment within countries (pseudo-panel), as well as for cross-country differences in youth unemployment (multilevel). Both studies indicate that political trust, satisfaction with the economy and subjective well-being are lowered by economic risk and hardship, while social trust and self-rated health are less affected by changes in youth unemployment. Secondly, human values are immune to economic risk, underscoring that values transcend specific situations and are therefore resistant against sudden economic shocks. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Union of Psychological Science.

  14. Human error and the associated recovery probabilities for soft control being used in the advanced MCRs of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Inseok; Jung, Wondea; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The operation environment of MCRs in NPPs has changed by adopting digital HSIs. • Most current HRA databases are not explicitly designed to deal with digital HSI. • Empirical analysis for new HRA DB under an advanced MCR mockup are carried. • It is expected that the results can be used for advanced MCR HRA. - Abstract: Since the Three Mile Island (TMI)-2 accident, human error has been recognized as one of the main causes of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accidents, and numerous studies related to Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) have been carried out. Most of these studies were focused on considering the conventional Main Control Room (MCR) environment. However, the operating environment of MCRs in NPPs has changed with the adoption of new human-system interfaces (HSI) largely based on up-to-date digital technologies. The MCRs that include these digital and computer technologies, such as large display panels, computerized procedures, and soft controls, are called advanced MCRs. Among the many features of advanced MCRs, soft controls are a particularly important because operating actions in advanced MCRs are performed by soft control. Due to the difference in interfaces between soft control and hardwired conventional controls, different HEP should be used in the HRA for advanced MCRs. Unfortunately, most current HRA databases deal with operations in conventional MCRs and are not explicitly designed to deal with digital Human System Interface (HSI). For this reason, empirical human error and the associated error recovery probabilities were collected from the mockup of an advanced MCR equipped with soft controls. To this end, small-scaled experiments are conducted with 48 graduated students in the department of nuclear engineering in Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) are participated, and accident scenarios are designed with respect to the typical Design Basis Accidents (DBAs) in NPPs, such as Steam Generator Tube Rupture

  15. The Hague Recommendations: Improving Nonlegislative Responses to Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambagtsheer, Frederike; Weimar, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Over the years, the trade in human organs has become an object of international concern. Since the 1980s, antiorgan trade initiatives have mainly involved the strengthening of legislative responses. Little attention however is given to nonlegislative responses by law enforcement authorities. The HOTT project is a European Union-funded research project titled “trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal.” Its objectives are to increase knowledge, raise awareness, and improve the nonlegislative response to the crime. Its consortium organized a “Writers' Conference” in The Hague, The Netherlands at Europol's Headquarters where a group of 40 experts, consisting of transplant professionals, law enforcement officials, and policy makers, formulated recommendations to improve nonlegislative responses. These recommendations, presented hereafter, address the ethical and legal obligations of health care providers, the protection of persons trafficked for the purpose of organ removal, strengthening cross-border collaboration in criminal cases, and stimulating partnerships between transplant professionals and law enforcement. These recommendations offer ways in which transplant professionals can contribute to improving the nonlegislative response to trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal. PMID:27500254

  16. Novel avian-origin human influenza A(H7N9) can be transmitted between ferrets via respiratory droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lili; Bao, Linlin; Deng, Wei; Dong, Libo; Zhu, Hua; Chen, Ting; Lv, Qi; Li, Fengdi; Yuan, Jing; Xiang, Zhiguang; Gao, Kai; Xu, Yanfeng; Huang, Lan; Li, Yanhong; Liu, Jiangning; Yao, Yanfeng; Yu, Pin; Li, Xiyan; Huang, Weijuan; Zhao, Xiang; Lan, Yu; Guo, Junfeng; Yong, Weidong; Wei, Qiang; Chen, Honglin; Zhang, Lianfeng; Qin, Chuan

    2014-02-15

    The outbreak of human infections caused by novel avian-origin influenza A(H7N9) in China since March 2013 underscores the need to better understand the pathogenicity and transmissibility of these viruses in mammals. In a ferret model, the pathogenicity of influenza A(H7N9) was found to be less than that of an influenza A(H5N1) strain but comparable to that of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1), based on the clinical signs, mortality, virus dissemination, and results of histopathologic analyses. Influenza A(H7N9) could replicate in the upper and lower respiratory tract, the heart, the liver, and the olfactory bulb. It is worth noting that influenza A(H7N9) exhibited a low level of transmission between ferrets via respiratory droplets. There were 4 mutations in the virus isolated from the contact ferret: D678Y in the gene encoding PB2, R157K in the gene encoding hemagglutinin (H3 numbering), I109T in the gene encoding nucleoprotein, and T10I in the gene encoding neuraminidase. These data emphasized that avian-origin influenza A(H7N9) can be transmitted between mammals, highlighting its potential for human-to-human transmissibility.

  17. The Hague Recommendations: Improving Nonlegislative Responses to Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambagtsheer, Frederike; Weimar, Willem

    2016-02-01

    Over the years, the trade in human organs has become an object of international concern. Since the 1980s, antiorgan trade initiatives have mainly involved the strengthening of legislative responses. Little attention however is given to nonlegislative responses by law enforcement authorities. The HOTT project is a European Union-funded research project titled "trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal." Its objectives are to increase knowledge, raise awareness, and improve the nonlegislative response to the crime. Its consortium organized a "Writers' Conference" in The Hague, The Netherlands at Europol's Headquarters where a group of 40 experts, consisting of transplant professionals, law enforcement officials, and policy makers, formulated recommendations to improve nonlegislative responses. These recommendations, presented hereafter, address the ethical and legal obligations of health care providers, the protection of persons trafficked for the purpose of organ removal, strengthening cross-border collaboration in criminal cases, and stimulating partnerships between transplant professionals and law enforcement. These recommendations offer ways in which transplant professionals can contribute to improving the nonlegislative response to trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal.

  18. From Epicurus to Maslow: Happiness Then and Now and the Place of the Human Being in Social Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Gutenschwager

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Protagoras said, "The human being is the measure of all things". This implies, among other things, that language, science and religion are human inventions, as are economics, money, efficiency, race, conflict, etc. As symbol-using animals, we have created these concepts to serve our purposes. But as our societies have increased in size and our concepts have become more abstract, there is a danger that we will forget our authorship and reify these symbols. This inhibits change in the way we name things, so we are always in danger of misunderstanding the reality we are describing. We seem to be at such a stage now as we employ 18th and 19th century theories to describe and, more importantly, create 21st century reality. One such idea has to do with human needs. Influenced by the abstract (economic concepts we use, we have lost our sense of what we truly need. Epicurus and Maslow may help to review and reassess those concepts. Epicurus, by suggesting that our material needs are quite simple but that emotional and spiritual need satisfaction requires a small scale loving community, free from fear, and Maslow, by suggesting that our emotional development is age-related, which, besides therapy, may help in suggesting revisions in socioeconomic theory that would ensure the social conditions that would allow this development to take place successfully.

  19. MRI of Mouse Models for Gliomas Shows Similarities to Humans and Can Be Used to Identify Mice for Preclinical Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A. Koutcher

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has been utilized for screening and detecting brain tumors in mice based upon their imaging characteristics appearance and their pattern of enhancement. Imaging of these tumors reveals many similarities to those observed in humans with identical pathology. Specifically, high-grade murine gliomas have histologic characteristics of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM with contrast enhancement after intravenous administration of gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA, implying disruption of the blood-brain barrier in these tumors. In contrast, low-grade murine oligodendrogliomas do not reveal contrast enhancement, similar to human tumors. MRI can be used to identify mice with brain neoplasms as inclusion criteria in preclinical trials.

  20. Human Connections and Their Roles in the Occupational Well-being of Healthcare Professionals: A Study on Loneliness and Empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Soler-Gonzalez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Human connections are key to the promotion of health and prevention of illness; moreover, illness can cause deterioration of human connections. Healthcare professional–patient relationships are key to ensuring the preservation of adequate human connections. It is important for healthcare professionals to develop their ability to foster satisfactory human connections because: (i they represent social support for patients; and (ii they prevent work-related stress. In this study we assessed the relationship between absence (loneliness and presence (empathy of human connections with the occupational well-being of healthcare professionals. The Scale of Collateral Effects, which measures somatization, exhaustion, and work alienation; the Jefferson Scale of Empathy; and the Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults, were mailed to 628 healthcare professionals working in Spanish public healthcare institutions. The following explanatory variables were used to evaluate work well-being: (a empathy, as a professional competence; (b loneliness, age, and family burden, as psychological indicators; and (c professional experience, work dedication, and salary, as work indicators. Comparison, correlation, and regression analyses were performed to measure the relationships among these variables and occupational well-being. Of 628 surveys mailed, 433 (69% response rate were returned fully completed. Adequate reliability was confirmed for all instruments. The entire sample was divided into four groups, based on the combined variable, “occupation by sex.” Comparative analyses demonstrated differences among “occupation by sex” groups in collateral effects (p = 0.03 and empathy (p = 0.04, but not loneliness (p = 0.84. Inverse associations between empathy and collateral effects were confirmed for somatization (r = -0.16; p < 0.001, exhaustion (r = -0.14; p = 0.003, and work alienation (r = -0.16; p < 0.001. Furthermore, loneliness was positively

  1. Evaluation of tissue-equivalent materials to be used as human brain tissue substitute in dosimetry for diagnostic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, C.C., E-mail: cassio.c.ferreira@gmail.co [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Postal Code 353, Sergipe-SE 49100-000 (Brazil); Ximenes Filho, R.E.M., E-mail: raimundoximenes@hotmail.co [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Postal Code 353, Sergipe-SE 49100-000 (Brazil); Vieira, J.W., E-mail: jwvieira@br.inter.ne [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Pernambuco (CEFET-PE), Av. Professor Luiz Freire, 500 Curado, CEP 50740-540, Recife (Brazil); Escola Politecnica de Pernambuco, Universidade de Pernambuco (EPP/UPE), Rua Benfica, 455, Madalena, CEP 50720-001, Recife (Brazil); Tomal, A., E-mail: alessandratomal@pg.ffclrp.usp.b [Departamento de Fisica e Matematica, FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto-SP 14040-90 (Brazil); Poletti, M.E., E-mail: poletti@ffclrp.usp.b [Departamento de Fisica e Matematica, FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto-SP 14040-90 (Brazil); Garcia, C.A.B., E-mail: cgarcia@ufs.b [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Postal Code 353, Sergipe-SE 49100-000 (Brazil); Maia, A.F., E-mail: afmaia@ufs.b [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Postal Code 353, Sergipe-SE 49100-000 (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    Tissue-equivalent materials to be used as substitutes for human brain tissue in dosimetry for diagnostic radiology have been investigated in terms of calculated total mass attenuation coefficient ({mu}/{rho}), calculated mass energy-absorption coefficient ({mu}{sub en}/{rho}) and absorbed dose. Measured linear attenuation coefficients ({mu}) have been used for benchmarking the calculated total mass attenuation coefficient ({mu}/{rho}). The materials examined were bolus, nylon (registered) , orange articulation wax, red articulation wax, PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate), bees wax, paraffin I, paraffin II, pitch and water. The results show that water is the best substitute for brain among the materials investigated. The average percentage differences between the calculated {mu}/{rho} and {mu}{sub en}/{rho} coefficients for water and those for brain were 1.0% and 2.5%, respectively. Absorbed doses determined by Monte Carlo methods confirm water as being the best brain substitute to be used in dosimetry for diagnostic radiology, showing maximum difference of 0.01%. Additionally this study showed that PMMA, a material often used for the manufacturing of head phantoms for computed tomography, cannot be considered to be a suitable substitute for human brain tissue in dosimetry.

  2. [Construction and validation of the "La Salle Instrument" to evaluate the ethical aspects in biomedical research on human beings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia-Gómez, Gilberto Guzmán; Velasco-Jiménez, María Teresa; Domínguez-González, Alejandro; Meneses-Ruíz, Dulce María; Padilla-García, Raúl Amauri

    2017-01-01

    Research projects must demonstrate not only a rigorous scientific methodology, but also the ethical aspects that require profound reflection of the reviewers. Current regulations establish criteria for research projects on human health, but many of these aspects are subjective. How can the evaluation of such projects be standardized? This is the main subject of the current project. This project comprises two phases. First, the design and construction of an instrument of evaluation based on the fundamental principles of bioethics, which are autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice, and other aspects. The second phase consists of content validation through expert. During the phase of reviewing the instrument, it was necessary to make changes by adding, removing, or changing the concepts or criteria, which lead to the construction of the second version of the format. This new instrument was reviewed and analyzed by using the AGREE II instrument, and this version was validated by experts by greater than 95%. There are some recommendations to analyze the ethical aspects in research protocols involving human subjects, but they define the concepts and criteria to be evaluated. By presenting the criteria to be evaluated individually, the "La Salle instrument" allows the evaluation to be more objective and standardized.

  3. Initiating Hehe [see text] medical system of traditional Chinese medicine and biomedicine to realize health cycle of human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie-Hua

    2011-12-01

    This paper suggests a novel approach concerning the medical treatment of human beings, which appears to be economically and practically superior to either biomedicine or traditional medicine. A brand new medical system-Hehe [see text] medicine, has been proposed based on a preventive-biomedical-psycho-social treatment model. This is characterized by a dual approach in which life nurturing is consistently practised and medical treatment is applied when necessary in order to maintain a healthy life. Its core value would facilitate the self-restoration to health and self-adaptation to nature through health cultivation and medical means. Medical services would be firstly provided to the prevention of potential disease germinating in the human body, and clinical medical treatment would be the last resort of systematic medical practice. This paper discusses not only this new concept but also the advantages of traditional Chinese medicine and biomedicine, especially how both medical systems compare in cognitive style, on a cultural level, and on a technical level.

  4. Metabolism: The Physiological Power-Generating Process: A History of Methods to Test Human Beings' \\"Vital Capacity\\" [Retrospectroscope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Richard; Valentinuzzi, Max E

    2016-01-01

    A previous "Retrospectroscope" note, published early in 2014, dealt with spirometry: it described many apparatuses used to measure the volume of inhaled and exhaled air that results from breathing [1]. Such machines, when adequately modified, are also able to measure the rate at which work is produced (specifically by an animal or a human being). Metabolism in that sense is the term used by physiologists and physicians, a word that in Greek, metabolismos, means "change" or "overthrow," in the sense of breaking down material, as in burning some stuff.

  5. A Bayesian method to mine spatial data sets to evaluate the vulnerability of human beings to catastrophic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lianfa; Wang, Jinfeng; Leung, Hareton; Zhao, Sisi

    2012-06-01

    Vulnerability of human beings exposed to a catastrophic disaster is affected by multiple factors that include hazard intensity, environment, and individual characteristics. The traditional approach to vulnerability assessment, based on the aggregate-area method and unsupervised learning, cannot incorporate spatial information; thus, vulnerability can be only roughly assessed. In this article, we propose Bayesian network (BN) and spatial analysis techniques to mine spatial data sets to evaluate the vulnerability of human beings. In our approach, spatial analysis is leveraged to preprocess the data; for example, kernel density analysis (KDA) and accumulative road cost surface modeling (ARCSM) are employed to quantify the influence of geofeatures on vulnerability and relate such influence to spatial distance. The knowledge- and data-based BN provides a consistent platform to integrate a variety of factors, including those extracted by KDA and ARCSM to model vulnerability uncertainty. We also consider the model's uncertainty and use the Bayesian model average and Occam's Window to average the multiple models obtained by our approach to robust prediction of the risk and vulnerability. We compare our approach with other probabilistic models in the case study of seismic risk and conclude that our approach is a good means to mining spatial data sets for evaluating vulnerability. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Evaluation of the contamination of marine algae (seaweed) from the St. Lawrence River and likely to be consumed by humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phaneuf, D.; Cote, I.; Dumas, P.; Ferron, L.A.; LeBlanc, A. [CHUQ, Sainte-Foy, Quebec (Canada). Centre de Toxicologie du Quebec

    1999-02-01

    The goal of the study was to assess the contamination of marine algae (seaweeds) growing in the St. Lawrence River estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence and to evaluate the risks to human health from the consumption of these algae. Algae were collected by hand at low tide. A total of 10 sites on the north and south shores of the St. Lawrence as well as in Baie des Chaleurs were sampled. The most frequently collected species of algae were Fucus vesiculosus, Ascophyllum nodosum, Laminaria Longicruris, Palmaria palmata, Ulva lactuca, and Fucus distichus. Alga samples were analyzed for metals iodine, and organochlorines. A risk assessment was performed using risk factors. In general, concentrations in St. Lawrence algae were not very high. Consequently, health risks associated with these compounds in St. Lawrence algae were very low. Iodine concentration, on the other hand, could be of concern with regard to human health. Regular consumption of algae, especially of Laminaria sp., could result in levels of iodine sufficient to cause thyroid problems. For regular consumers, it would be preferable to choose species with low iodine concentrations, such as U. lactuca and P. palmata, in order to prevent potential problems. Furthermore, it would also be important to assess whether preparation for consumption or cooking affects the iodine content of algae. Algae consumption may also have beneficial health effects. Scientific literature has shown that it is a good source of fiber and vitamins, especially vitamin B{sub 12}.

  7. Should silicone prostheses be considered for specimen banking? A pilot study into their use for human biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Ian J; Bæk, Kine; Kringstad, Alfhild; Roald, Helge E; Thomas, Kevin V

    2013-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutant (POP) biomonitoring in humans is challenging and generally carried out using blood, breast milk or adipose tissue, with concentrations normalised to the lipid content of the sample matrix. The goal of this cross-sectional pilot study was to evaluate the validity and feasibility of explanted silicone prostheses as a matrix for persistent organic pollutant biomonitoring in humans. We postulate that pollutant concentrations in silicone prostheses inserted in the body will equilibrate with that in the body over time and provide a measure of the overall body burden. This study included silicone prostheses from 22 female patients of the Colosseum clinic (Oslo, Norway) collected between September 2010 and April 2012. Absorption of chlorinated and brominated POPs into silicone prostheses during implantation was observed. Relative levels of the different contaminants measured in prostheses were in agreement with those from serum and breast milk analyses from the general Norwegian population. The comparison of serum and breast milk-based literature data with prosthesis concentrations transposed into lipid-normalised concentrations supports the validity of the prosthesis measurements. The median of relative percent differences between measurements with replicate silicone prostheses from 11 patients was below 30%. Observed increases in prosthesis concentrations with patients' age were found to be very similar to literature data from studies of the Norwegian population. Silicone prostheses therefore represent a promising matrix for the biomonitoring of nonpolar and non-ionic pollutants in humans. Sample accessibility and body burden representativeness of the silicone prostheses suggest that specimen banking should be initiated. © 2013.

  8. Health, environment and development. Approaches to drafting country-level strategies for human well-being under Agenda 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, M.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past half century, the forces of national independence, population growth, technological advancement, and socioeconomic development have transformed the environments that determine human health. Whether we look at the global climate, altered regional ecosystems, patterns of urban living, the movement of ideas, or agricultural production methods, we see continuing and rapid environmental change. Many of the positive and negative health effects of these environmental changes are well known. Socioeconomic development has improved the health status of millions and extended their longevity; underdevelopment denies health to other millions. At the same time, development widens the range of health hazards, with global impacts that, if unchecked, could render the planet unable to meet the needs of the human species. These concerns for human well-being were given new prominence in the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) - the 'Earth Summit'. UNCED made it clear that our health prospects depend on whether we properly and sustainably develop our natural and social environment. Health cannot be separated from a myriad of environmental elements as diverse as air and freshwater, poverty and urban concentration, chemicals and disease vectors, overconsumption and underdevelopment, technology and trade. These conclusions, and the agreements reached at UNCED, compel new thinking, new policies, and new action programmes. Only systemic approaches can ensure that the health gains of recent decades will be retained and that good health can be attained by the billions of our contemporaries to whom decent environmental conditions are denied - or by generations to come. This document spells out the health implications of current environmental trends and of Agenda 21, UNCED's charter for action in the coming years. It is addressed not only to national and local health leaders, but also to the decision-makers in all governmental and private sectors

  9. The science and politics of human well-being: a case study in cocreating indicators for Puget Sound restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Biedenweg

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Across scientific fields, there have been calls to improve the integration of scientific knowledge in policy making. Particularly since the publication of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, these calls increasingly refer to data on human well-being related to the natural environment. However, policy decisions involve selective uptake of information across communities with different preferences and decision-making processes. Additionally, researchers face the fact that there are important trade-offs in producing knowledge that is simultaneously credible, legitimate, socially relevant, and socially just. We present a study that developed human well-being indicators for Washington State's Puget Sound ecosystem recovery agency over 3 years. Stakeholders, decision makers, and social scientists were engaged in the identification, modification, and prioritization of well-being indicators that were adopted by the agency for tracking progress toward ecosystem recovery and strategic planning. After substantial literature review, interviews, workshops, and indicator ranking exercises, 15 indicators were broadly accepted and important to all audiences. Although the scientists, decision makers, and stakeholders used different criteria to identify and prioritize indicators, they all agreed that indicators associated with each of 6 broad domains (social, cultural, psychological, physical, economic, and governance were critical to assess the holistic concept of well-being related to ecosystem restoration. Decision makers preferred indicators that mirrored stakeholder preferences, whereas social scientists preferred only a subset. The Puget Sound indicator development process provides an example for identifying, selecting, and monitoring diverse concepts of well-being related to environmental restoration in a way that promotes recognition, participation, and a fair distribution of environmental benefits across the region.

  10. Old Testament Anthropology in the Translation of the Septuagint: the Composition of the Human Being (Fundamental Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . VEVYURKO

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the meaning of the Old Testament corpus contained in the Greek translation of the Septuagint in order to better understand the anthropology of the Bible on the basis of the work of classifi cation done by G. Wolff in his survey. The author studies the derivation of terminology and defines its original meaning. This is fundamental for the study of the way the human person was conceived on the cusp of the Old and New Testaments. The Septuagint translation may be analyzed under two aspects: etymology and interpretation. In many cases, the translation allows us to understand more clearly how the translators understood not only individual words but also whole concepts. The author understands the term biblical anthropology in the German sense as the description of the nature of the human person and his place in the world from the point of view of the Bible. The author highlights the semantics underlying the use of the term body (soma, which in itself is poorly conveyed by ancient Hebrew, but which is used in the Septuagint in a way consistent with that employed by the New Testament. The word body describes the figure of the human person with great objectivity and is itself replete with definite descriptive attributes. Also new is the understanding of the word spirit (pneuma, which, in this case, is used to describe a person. In this context, it begins to enter the anthropological lexicon and at the same time foreshadows its use in the problematic surrounding early-Christian trichotomy.

  11. Effective insect repellent formulation in both surfactantless and classical microemulsions with a long-lasting protection for human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Jeremy; Verdier, Marie; Touraud, Didier; Kröckel, Ulla; Geier, Martin; Rose, Andreas; Kunz, Werner

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a new generation of repellent products with a long-lasting protection based on a natural component, para-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD). The active is first rendered soluble in a surfactantless microemulsion (H(2)O/(i)PrOH/PMD) and then in classical microemulsions. The presence of self-associated nanostructures is detected by dynamic light scattering (DLS). A synergetic system of surfactants (Cremophor) RH40 and Texapon N70) is used. Additionally, 2-ethylhexane-1,3-diol and ethyl (-)-(S)-lactate are incorporated. The final product contains, as main components, 46% of H(2)O, 25% of (i)PrOH, 20% of non-H(2)O-soluble PMD, and only 4% of surfactants. Investigations of lasting protection on human volunteers are carried out using a cage test bioassay protocol and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. A complete protection of 315 min is found on the test persons using the surfactantless microemulsion. An extension is observed with the final formulation to reach a mean of complete protection of 385 min. This study demonstrates that alternative formulations using a natural active instead of synthetic chemicals like N,N-diethyl-m-methylbenzamide (DEET) can be efficient for human protection against mosquitoes.

  12. Prostaglandin synthesis can be inhibited locally by infusion of NSAIDS through microdialysis catheters in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Helmark, Ida Carøe; Kjaer, Michael

    2008-01-01

    of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). However, to study the local role of prostaglandins, the formation of prostaglandins within the tissue must be controlled. Microdialysis enables determination of local concentrations of water-soluble substances within the tissue. In the present study......, the microdialysis method was used to infuse NSAIDs locally into human skeletal muscles producing a local block of prostaglandin formation. In addition, the graded blockade at various distances from the infusion site within the muscle during rest, exercise and recovery was determined. Microdialysis was performed...... in thigh muscles (vastus lateralis muscle) in six healthy men. One of the microdialysis catheters was used to block prostaglandin synthesis by infusion of the NSAID indomethacin. Additional catheters were placed 1 and 4 cm away from the infusion and in the contralateral leg (working control). Following 2 h...

  13. Study of drinking water fungi and its pathogenic effects on human beings from district Bhimber, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, T.; Ishtiaq, M.; Hussain, A.; Sultana, K.

    2011-01-01

    Pathogenic fungi of drinking water have potentially prevailing effects on human beings. Myco floral study of drinking water of district Bhimber, Azad Kashmir was conducted through systematic sampling and temporally during the year 2009. Drinking water samples were collected from selected spots and fungal spores were grown on two different culture media viz: potato dextrose agar (PDA) and nutrient agar (NA) and identified by employing Direct Plate method (DPM) and Baiting Technique (BT). A total of 4 resources of drinking water of the area were analyzed i.e., well, spring, hand pump and tap water (water supply system). Sixteen different fungal species were frequently prevailing in the analyzed samples and among these five species were predominantly found human pathogenic. The density of identified fungal species in well's water samples (WWS) was 11 spp. spring's water samples (SWS) 6 spp. hand pump water samples (HWS) 8 spp. and tap water samples (TWS) 7 spp. This differential incidence in the samples might be due to variation in geography, edaphalogy, altitude, temperature, in fungal growth substrate variance and analytical difference of sampling and analysis methods. The prevalence values of mycolfora in different samples were variable with WWS Mucor fragilis (18a - LSD), SWS Brevilegnia sp. (20a - LSD), HWS Aspergillus flavus (14a- LSD) and TWS Alternaria alternata (12a - LSD). It was noted that WWS more frequently depicted mycoflora because land/well provides best environment and nourishment for growth and reproduction of fungi. The economic importance and pathogenic toxicity of various species is also measured and documented in the article. (author)

  14. In vitro responses of canine alveolar lymphocytes to BeSO4 after inhalation exposure to BeO: comparisons with human chronic berylliosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haley, P.J.; Finch, G.L.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Hoover, M.D.; Bice, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    Alveolar lymphocytes obtained by broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) and peripheral blood lymphocytes from 20 dogs exposed once by inhalation to achieve low or high initial lung burdens (ILB) of beryllium oxide (BeO) calcined at one of two different temperatures, 500 deg. C or 1000 deg. C, were cultured in vitro with BeSO 4 . Positive BAL lymphocyte responses were observed at 6 and 7 mo after exposure, with peak responses occurring at 7 mo followed by a rapid decline. Peak BAL SI values ranged from a high of 64 at 6 mo to a low of 6 at 7 mo. Positive blood SI were observed at 7, 15, 18, and 22 mo after exposure in some, but not all, dogs with high or low ILBs of 500 deg. C or 1000 deg. C BeO. Lymphocytes from lung and blood of control dogs did not respond in vitro to BeSO 4 . These data indicate that a single exposure of dogs to an aerosol of BeO can result in beryllium-specific immune responses by alveolar lymphocytes. (author)

  15. Enrofloxacin and Toltrazuril Are Able to Reduce Toxoplasma gondii Growth in Human BeWo Trophoblastic Cells and Villous Explants from Human Third Trimester Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela J. da Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Classical treatment for congenital toxoplasmosis is based on combination of sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine plus folinic acid. Due to teratogenic effects and bone marrow suppression caused by pyrimethamine, the establishment of new therapeutic strategies is indispensable to minimize the side effects and improve the control of infection. Previous studies demonstrated that enrofloxacin and toltrazuril reduced the incidence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii infection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of enrofloxacin and toltrazuril in the control of T. gondii infection in human trophoblast cells (BeWo line and in human villous explants from the third trimester. BeWo cells and villous were treated with several concentrations of enrofloxacin, toltrazuril, sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine, or combination of sulfadiazine+pyrimethamine, and the cellular or tissue viability was verified. Next, BeWo cells were infected by T. gondii (2F1 clone or the ME49 strain, whereas villous samples were only infected by the 2F1 clone. Then, infected cells and villous were treated with all antibiotics and the T. gondii intracellular proliferation as well as the cytokine production were analyzed. Finally, we evaluated the direct effect of enrofloxacin and toltrazuril in tachyzoites to verify possible changes in parasite structure. Enrofloxacin and toltrazuril did not decrease the viability of cells and villous in lower concentrations. Both drugs were able to significantly reduce the parasite intracellular proliferation in BeWo cells and villous explants when compared to untreated conditions. Regardless of the T. gondii strain, BeWo cells infected and treated with enrofloxacin or toltrazuril induced high levels of IL-6 and MIF. In villous explants, enrofloxacin induced high MIF production. Finally, the drugs increased the number of unviable parasites and triggered damage to tachyzoite structure. Taken together, it can be concluded that

  16. Enrofloxacin and Toltrazuril Are Able to Reduce Toxoplasma gondii Growth in Human BeWo Trophoblastic Cells and Villous Explants from Human Third Trimester Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rafaela J; Gomes, Angelica O; Franco, Priscila S; Pereira, Ariane S; Milian, Iliana C B; Ribeiro, Mayara; Fiorenzani, Paolo; Dos Santos, Maria C; Mineo, José R; da Silva, Neide M; Ferro, Eloisa A V; de Freitas Barbosa, Bellisa

    2017-01-01

    Classical treatment for congenital toxoplasmosis is based on combination of sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine plus folinic acid. Due to teratogenic effects and bone marrow suppression caused by pyrimethamine, the establishment of new therapeutic strategies is indispensable to minimize the side effects and improve the control of infection. Previous studies demonstrated that enrofloxacin and toltrazuril reduced the incidence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii infection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of enrofloxacin and toltrazuril in the control of T. gondii infection in human trophoblast cells (BeWo line) and in human villous explants from the third trimester. BeWo cells and villous were treated with several concentrations of enrofloxacin, toltrazuril, sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine, or combination of sulfadiazine+pyrimethamine, and the cellular or tissue viability was verified. Next, BeWo cells were infected by T. gondii (2F1 clone or the ME49 strain), whereas villous samples were only infected by the 2F1 clone. Then, infected cells and villous were treated with all antibiotics and the T. gondii intracellular proliferation as well as the cytokine production were analyzed. Finally, we evaluated the direct effect of enrofloxacin and toltrazuril in tachyzoites to verify possible changes in parasite structure. Enrofloxacin and toltrazuril did not decrease the viability of cells and villous in lower concentrations. Both drugs were able to significantly reduce the parasite intracellular proliferation in BeWo cells and villous explants when compared to untreated conditions. Regardless of the T. gondii strain, BeWo cells infected and treated with enrofloxacin or toltrazuril induced high levels of IL-6 and MIF. In villous explants, enrofloxacin induced high MIF production. Finally, the drugs increased the number of unviable parasites and triggered damage to tachyzoite structure. Taken together, it can be concluded that enrofloxacin and

  17. Empowering European communities to improve natural resource management for human well-being: the OPPLA web portal & communities of practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, M.; Brown, C.; Pérez-Soba, M.; Rounsevell, M.; Verweij, P.; Delbaere, B.; Cojocaru, G.; Saarikoski, H.; Harrison, P.; Zellmer, K.

    2014-12-01

    The ecosystem services concept is seen by many as a useful paradigm to support decision-making at the complex interface between science, policy and practice. However, to be successful, it requires a strong willingness for collaboration and joint understanding. In support of this aspiration, OPPLA is being developed as a web portal to enable European communities to better manage ecosystems for human well-being and livelihoods. OPPLA will provide access to a variety of online resources such as tools, case studies, lessons learned, videos, manuals and training and educational materials. It will also provide expert forums and spaces for discussions between researchers, practitioners and decision makers. Hence a critical aspect of the success of OPPLA is the co-evolution of communities of practice. An example of a community of practice is the recently launched Ecosystem Services Community - Scotland (ESCom-Scotland; escomscotland.wordpress.com). ESCom-Scotland aims to support better management of Scotland's natural resources by helping to establish a community of practice between individuals and groups involved in the science, policy and practice behind sustainable ecosystem management. It aspires to encourage the sharing of ideas, increase collaboration and to initiate a support network for those engaging with the ecosystem services concept and it will use the OPPLA resources to support these activities. OPPLA is currently at the developmental stage and was instigated by two large European Commission funded research projects: OPERAs (www.operas-project.eu) and OpenNESS (www.openness-project.eu), with a combined budget of ca. €24m. These projects aim to improve understanding of how ecosystem services contribute to human well-being in different social-ecological systems. Research will establish whether, how and under what conditions the ecosystem services concept can move beyond the academic domain towards practical implementation in support of sustainable ecosystem

  18. The analysis and design of urban near-home environments according to psycho-social needs and behavior of human beings

    OpenAIRE

    Serpil, Burçak

    1996-01-01

    Ankara : Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and the Institute of Fine Arts of Bilkent University, 1996. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1996. Includes bibliographical references leaves 129-132. In this study, the design of urban near-home environments is examined considering the social and psychological needs of human beings as well as human spatial behavior. After an introduction to the concepts such as environment, near-home environments, human-e...

  19. The EU Legal Framework on Trafficking in Human Beings: Where to from here – the UK Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria O'Neill

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU’s current provisions on the trafficking in human beings (THB are provided for, inter alia, in Council Framework Decision 2002/629/JHA. The Council of Europe have more recent provisions in this area, which are not yet widely in force. The EU has some major proposals for reform of its legal framework in the Stockholm Programme, to include the appointment of an EU Anti-Trafficking Coordinator. In addition, the focus of EU Justice and Home Affairs is shifting to the external relations of the EU under the Stockholm Programme. A critical examination of the EU legal framework in the area of THB from a law enforcement perspective is therefore timely. THB is a highly contentious and complicated area for regulation, with issues such as the support of the victims of trafficking, the particular needs of under-aged trafficked individuals, and the issues of due process when a witness may not be considered to be reliable during court proceedings, complicating operations and prosecutions. In addition the issue of illegal immigration adds a further layer of complication, with the UK maintaining its opt out from the EU’s illegal immigration provisions. This article will, focus on the illegal trafficking of adults against their will, and the consequences of this crime, in particular, for the UK law enforcement authorities.

  20. Setting targets for human resources for eye health in sub-Saharan Africa: what evidence should be used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtright, Paul; Mathenge, Wanjiku; Kello, Amir Bedri; Cook, Colin; Kalua, Khumbo; Lewallen, Susan

    2016-03-16

    With a global target set at reducing vision loss by 25% by the year 2019, sub-Saharan Africa with an estimated 4.8 million blind persons will require human resources for eye health (HReH) that need to be available, appropriately skilled, supported, and productive. Targets for HReH are useful for planning, monitoring, and resource mobilization, but they need to be updated and informed by evidence of effectiveness and efficiency. Supporting evidence should take into consideration (1) ever-changing disease-specific issues including the epidemiology, the complexity of diagnosis and treatment, and the technology needed for diagnosis and treatment of each condition; (2) the changing demands for vision-related services of an increasingly urbanized population; and (3) interconnected health system issues that affect productivity and quality. The existing targets for HReH and some of the existing strategies such as task shifting of cataract surgery and trichiasis surgery, as well as the scope of eye care interventions for primary eye care workers, will need to be re-evaluated and re-defined against such evidence or supported by new evidence.

  1. Can Biosemiotics be a “Science” if its Purpose is to be a Bridge between the Natural, Social and Human Sciences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Søren

    2015-01-01

    to be that the optimal type of knowledge science can produce about living system is to model them as machines. But the explicit goal of a Peircean semiotically based biosemiotics is (also) to model living systems as cognitive and communicative systems working on the basis of meaning and signification. These two concepts...... are not part of the mechanistic models of natural science today, not even of cognitive science. Barbieri tries to solve this problem by introducing a new concept of biological meaning that is separate from the Peircean biosemiotics and then add Peirce's semiotics on top. This article argues why this view...... is inconsistent on the grounds that Peirce's semiotic paradigm only gives meaning in its pragmaticist conception of a fallibilist view of science, which again is intrinsic connected to its non-mechanistic metaphysics of Tychism, Synechism and Agapism. The core of the biosemiotic enterprise is to establish another...

  2. Triplet repeat sequences in human DNA can be detected by hybridization to a synthetic (5'-CGG-3')17 oligodeoxyribonucleotide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behn-Krappa, A; Mollenhauer, J; Doerfler, W

    1993-01-01

    The seemingly autonomous amplification of naturally occurring triplet repeat sequences in the human genome has been implicated in the causation of human genetic disease, such as the fragile X (Martin-Bell) syndrome, myotonic dystrophy (Curshmann-Steinert), spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy...

  3. Vyacheslav (Slava) Klimov (1945-2017): A scientist par excellence, a great human being, a friend, and a Renaissance man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I; Zharmukhamedov, Sergey K; Rodionova, Margarita V; Shuvalov, Vladimir A; Dismukes, Charles; Shen, Jian-Ren; Barber, James; Samuelsson, Göran; Govindjee

    2018-04-01

    Vyacheslav Vasilevich (V.V.) Klimov (or Slava, as most of us called him) was born on January 12, 1945 and passed away on May 9, 2017. He began his scientific career at the Bach Institute of Biochemistry of the USSR Academy of Sciences (Akademy Nauk (AN) SSSR), Moscow, Russia, and then, he was associated with the Institute of Photosynthesis, Pushchino, Moscow Region, for about 50 years. He worked in the field of biochemistry and biophysics of photosynthesis. He is known for his studies on the molecular organization of photosystem II (PSII). He was an eminent scientist in the field of photobiology, a well-respected professor, and, above all, an outstanding researcher. Further, he was one of the founding members of the Institute of Photosynthesis in Pushchino, Russia. To most, Slava Klimov was a great human being. He was one of the pioneers of research on the understanding of the mechanism of light energy conversion and of water oxidation in photosynthesis. Slava had many collaborations all over the world, and he is (and will be) very much missed by the scientific community and friends in Russia as well as around the World. We present here a brief biography and some comments on his research in photosynthesis. We remember him as a friendly and enthusiastic person who had an unflagging curiosity and energy to conduct outstanding research in many aspects of photosynthesis, especially that related to PSII.

  4. Gratitude contemplation as a method to improve human well-being and physical functioning: theoretical review of existing research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Burzyńska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Research in positive psychology aims to find and develop diverse ways to improve human well-being and the psychophysical functioning (Fredrickson, 2008; Seligman, 2002; Sheldon & Lyubomirsky, 2006. As an example, the studies regard such concepts as positive emotions, character strengths or meaning in life. One of the most frequently studied constructs is also gratitude, that is regarded as the appreciation of all what is meaningful, as well as valuable, to oneself (Sansone & Sansone, 2010. Also, the social aspect of being grateful, and the effects of gratitude on one’s health and physical functioning, are frequently emphasized (McCullough, Kimeldorf & Cohen, 2008; Fox, Kaplan, Damasio and Damasio 2015; Algoe, Haidt & Gable, 2008. Among great amount of work about general gratitude already, there is still little research about gratitude contemplation, one of the exercises that enable a person experiencing gratitude in form of meditation. In this article, first I explain the meaning of the gratitude construct and its impact on peoples psychophysical state in general. Then, I analyze one of the newest gratitude activity, that is gratitude contemplation, its definition, the way of use and the results of recent empirical studies worldwide. Finally, I critically discuss the findings and conclude with future steps for further research on gratitude contemplation. I believe that the results and analysis presented in the article create a base for further research in the area of positive psychology.

  5. How human-made greenhouse gas emissions can (really) be reduced; Comment (vraiment) reduire les gaz a effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    To be efficient, any action undertaken in view of mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions requires that the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions not be confused with energy savings. Indeed, there is strict correlation between the two only if the energy savings achieved lead to fossil fuel savings. If a drastic reduction of greenhouse gas emissions were not mandatory, the conversion of our energy production and use would be less pressing, the known fossil fuel reserves being sufficient to supply humanity for at least one and a half centuries. Keeping these consideration in mind, under the control of its Scientific Council and with the help of partner organizations, STC has elaborated a set of proposals to reduce the economic activity's carbon content without affecting in any fundamental way the life style of the populations concerned while leaving room for economic growth in developing countries. In this sense, the 'Negatep' scenario put forward by STC is fundamentally different from the 'Negawatt' type scenarios. The options we recommend are ranked according to their economic efficiency. The index that is conventionally used to compare conceivable solutions is known as the 'cost of carbon avoided' for a given action. It consists in estimating the additional cost of the action considered in relation to the amount of carbon whose release to the atmosphere is avoided thanks to the action. The index is measured in Euros per metric ton of carbon avoided. Summary of the actions and recommendations put forward by 'Save the Climate' for energy production and energy efficiency are argued in further detail in this document. (A.L.B.)

  6. Human Urine Derived Stem Cells in Combination with β-TCP Can Be Applied for Bone Regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Guan

    Full Text Available Bone tissue engineering requires highly proliferative stem cells that are easy to isolate. Human urine stem cells (USCs are abundant and can be easily harvested without using an invasive procedure. In addition, in our previous studies, USCs have been proved to be able to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. Therefore, USCs may have great potential and advantages to be applied as a cell source for tissue engineering. However, there are no published studies that describe the interactions between USCs and biomaterials and applications of USCs for bone tissue engineering. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the interactions between USCs with a typical bone tissue engineering scaffold, beta-Tricalcium Phosphate (β-TCP, and to determine whether the USCs seeded onto β-TCP scaffold can promote bone regeneration in a segmental femoral defect of rats. Primary USCs were isolated from urine and seeded on β-TCP scaffolds. Results showed that USCs remained viable and proliferated within β-TCP. The osteogenic differentiation of USCs within the scaffolds was demonstrated by increased alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium content. Furthermore, β-TCP with adherent USCs (USCs/β-TCP were implanted in a 6-mm critical size femoral defect of rats for 12 weeks. Bone regeneration was determined using X-ray, micro-CT, and histologic analyses. Results further demonstrated that USCs in the scaffolds could enhance new bone formation, which spanned bone defects in 5 out of 11 rats while β-TCP scaffold alone induced modest bone formation. The current study indicated that the USCs can be used as a cell source for bone tissue engineering as they are compatible with bone tissue engineering scaffolds and can stimulate the regeneration of bone in a critical size bone defect.

  7. Protective features of resveratrol on human spermatozoa cryopreservation may be mediated through 5' AMP-activated protein kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani Nashtaei, M; Amidi, F; Sedighi Gilani, M A; Aleyasin, A; Bakhshalizadeh, Sh; Naji, M; Nekoonam, S

    2017-03-01

    Biochemical and physical modifications during the freeze-thaw process adversely influence the restoration of energy-dependent sperm functions required for fertilization. Resveratrol, a phytoalexin, has been introduced to activate 5' AMP-activated protein kinase which is a cell energy sensor and a cell metabolism regulator. The cryoprotection of resveratrol on sperm cryoinjury via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase also remains to be elucidated. Our aim, thus, was to investigate: (i) the presence and intracellular localization of AMP-activated protein kinase protein; (ii) whether resveratrol may exert a protective effect on certain functional properties of fresh and post-thaw human spermatozoa through modulation of AMP-activated protein kinase. Spermatozoa from normozoospermic men were incubated with or without different concentrations of Compound C as an AMP-activated protein kinase inhibitor or resveratrol as an AMP-activated protein kinase activator for different lengths of time and were then cryopreserved. AMP-activated protein kinase is expressed essentially in the entire flagellum and the post-equatorial region. Viability of fresh spermatozoa was not significantly affected by the presence of Compound C or resveratrol. However, although Compound C caused a potent inhibition of spermatozoa motility parameters, resveratrol did not induce negative effect, except a significant reduction in motility at 25 μm for 1 h. Furthermore, resveratrol significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased reactive oxygen species and apoptosis-like changes in frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Nevertheless, it was not able to compensate decreased sperm viability and motility parameters following cryopreservation. In contrast, Compound C showed opposite effects to resveratrol on AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, reactive oxygen species, apoptosis-like changes, mitochondrial membrane potential, and

  8. Human parvovirus B19 antibodies induce altered membrane protein expression and apoptosis of BeWo trophoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzang, Bor-Show; Chiang, Szu-Yi; Chan, Hsu-Chin; Liu, Chung-Hsien; Hsu, Tsai-Ching

    2016-11-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19) is harmful during pregnancy since it can be vertically transmitted to the developing fetus. In addition, the anti‑B19 antibodies induced by B19 infection are believed to have a cytopathic role in B19 transmission; however, knowledge regarding the effects of anti‑B19 antibodies during pregnancy is limited. To investigate the possible roles of anti‑B19 antibodies during pregnancy, the present study examined the effects of anti‑B19‑VP1 unique region (VP1u), anti‑B19‑VP2 and anti‑B19‑nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies on BeWo trophoblasts. Briefly, BeWo trophoblasts were incubated with purified IgG against B19‑VP1u, B19‑VP2 and B19‑NS1. Subsequently, the expression of surface proteins and apoptotic molecules were assessed in BeWo trophoblasts using flow cytometry, ELISA and western blotting. The expression levels of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)‑G were significantly increased on BeWo trophoblasts treated with rabbit anti‑B19‑VP1u IgG, and were unchanged in those treated with rabbit anti‑B19‑NS1 and anti‑B19‑VP2 IgG, as compared with the control group. Furthermore, the expression levels of globoside (P blood group antigen) and cluster of differentiation (CD)29 (β1 integrin) were significantly increased in BeWo trophoblasts treated with rabbit anti‑B19‑NS1 and anti‑B19‑VP2 IgG, whereas only CD29 was also significantly increased in cells treated with anti‑B19‑VP1u IgG. In addition, the number of cells at sub‑G1 phase; caspase‑3 activity; and the expression of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic molecules, including Fas‑associated death domain protein, activated caspase‑8, activated caspase‑3, B‑cell lymphoma 2‑associated X protein, cytochrome c, apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1 and activated caspase‑9, were significantly increased in BeWo trophoblasts treated with anti‑B19‑VP1u and anti‑B19‑NS1 IgG. In conclusion, the present

  9. Navigating trade-offs in land-use planning: integrating human well-being into objective setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa M. Adams

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand for development of natural resources, which can be accompanied by environmental degradation. Planning for multiple land uses requires navigating trade-offs between social, economic, and environmental outcomes arising from different possible futures. To explore these trade-offs, we use the Daly River catchment, in Australia's Northern Territory, as a case study. The catchment contains areas of priority for both conservation and development. In response to the challenge of navigating the required trade-offs, the Daly River Management Advisory Committee (DRMAC initiated a land-use plan for the region. Both development and conservation of natural resources in the catchment will affect human well-being and the long-term provisioning of ecosystem services in diverse ways. To understand some of these impacts, an innovative engagement process was designed to elicit the relative importance of key factors to residents' well-being. The process identified 19 well-being factors grouped into four domains: biodiversity, socio-cultural, recreational, and commercial. Overall, the highest-ranked well-being factors were in the social-cultural and biodiversity domains while commercial values were ranked the least important. Respondents reported low satisfaction with commercial factors as well, noting concerns over environmental impacts from existing developments and sustainability of future developments. We identified differences in the reported importance values for several types of stakeholders, most notably between indigenous respondents and those employed in the agricultural sectors. Indigenous respondents placed greater importance on biodiversity and socio-cultural factors. Agricultural respondents placed greater importance on commercial factors. The outcomes of our engagement were integrated into DRMAC's process of objective-setting to ensure that objectives for each domain were included in land-use planning. Our results can also

  10. Being there: The continuing need for human presence in the deep ocean for scientific research and discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, P.; Fornari, D.; Perfit, M.; Von Damm, K.; Humphris, S.; Fox, P. J.; Lippsett, L.

    We see with our mind's eye. This poetic phrase attempts to describe a complex set of human interactions by which we take in and process information about the physical world around us. For millennia, scientists and philosophers have relied on our ability to apply the uniquely human traits of perception, cognition, memory and motor action to scientific observations and experiments. "There is no authority higher than the human eye," observed Leonardo Da Vinci, and his statement still holds true; as most field scientists will attest, there is no substitute for direct observation.

  11. Earth simulator project. Seeking a guide line for the symbiosis between the earth (Gaia) and human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Keiji; Yokokawa, Mitsuo

    2000-01-01

    In 1997, a project was started to promote the foreseeing study on the changes in global environment by Science and Technology Agency and three studies; a basic process study, observations and computer simulation have started by the project. This report outlines the development of e arth simulator , an ultra high-speed computer as a part of the project. Global warming due to human activities has been progressing on the earth. It is assumed that the mean temperature increase and sea level rising would reach 2degC and 50 cm, respectively before 2100 if the present environmental states still continue in future. There are two inevitable problems in the global environment simulation on global scale; mesh size of simulator and errors in observation data as the initial values for simulation. To accurately simulate the behaviors of thundercloud several kilometers in size, which is closely related to weather disaster, it is necessary to raise the analytic resolution by decreasing the mesh size from 20-30 km to about 1 km, resulting in several hundred times increase of the number of mesh. When compared with CRAY C90, which is the representative computer in the climate and weather field, it is thought necessary to increase the capacities of memory and calculation speed by more than one thousand times. Therefore, it seems necessary to construct a new computer including a parallel type calculator because a computer of effective speed, 5TFLOPS can not be constructed with a single processor. (M.N.)

  12. Consequences of nuclear accidents for human beings and the environment; Auswirkungen nuklearer Unfaelle auf den Menschen und die Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, Felix; Jung, Jennifer Jana; Schultmann, Frank

    2017-03-15

    In the 1950s and 1960s many countries believed that they could become energy self-efficient with the help of nuclear power plants. For this reason, nuclear energy experienced internationally an enormous upswing during these years. In the following decades, many nuclear power plants were planned and built. Despite a few critics, who drew attention to the dangers of nuclear power use, an end to the upturn was not foreseeable. But in 1979, the nuclear accident in Three Mile Island in Harrisburg (USA) caused international attention and the critics of the nuclear power became stronger. However, many Europeans only were aware of the danger by nuclear power plants when in 1986 the nuclear disaster occurred in the Ukrainian nuclear power plant in Chernobyl. The effects of this nuclear disaster were also felt in Central Europe. Recently, the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima nuclear power plant has prompted a nuclear phase-out in Germany and the rest of the world. This work focuses not on the political implications of these nuclear accidents, but rather on the impacts of nuclear accidents on human beings, animals and the environment. In particular, reports on the incidents in Chernobyl and Fukushima as well as studies on their effects are analysed and summarised.

  13. Jatropha cultivation in Malawi and Mozambique: impact on ecosystem services, local human well-being, and poverty alleviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham P. von Maltitz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha-based biofuels have undergone a rapid boom-and-bust cycle in southern Africa. Despite strong initial support by governments, donors, and the private sector, there is a lack of empirical studies that compare the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of Jatropha's two dominant modes of production: large plantations and smallholder-based projects. We apply a rapid ecosystem services assessment approach to understand the impact of two Jatropha projects that are still operational despite widespread project collapse across southern Africa: a smallholder-based project (BERL, Malawi and a large plantation (Niqel, Mozambique. Our study focuses on changes in provisioning ecosystem services such as biofuel feedstock, food, and woodland products that can have important effects on human well-being locally. Qualitative information is provided for other regulating and cultural ecosystem services. Although at this stage no impact is tremendously positive or negative, both projects show some signs of viability and local poverty alleviation potential. However, their long-term sustainability is not guaranteed given low yields, uncertain markets, and some prevailing management practices.

  14. Can Estragole in Fennel Seed Decoctions Really Be Considered a Danger for Human Health? A Fennel Safety Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gori

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. mature fruit (commonly known as seeds and essential oil of fennel are widely used as flavoring agents in food products such as liqueurs, bread, cheese, and an ingredient of cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. Moreover fennel infusions are the classical decoction for nursing babies to prevent flatulence and colic spasm. Traditionally in Europe and Mediterranean areas fennel is used as antispasmodic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, secretomotor, secretolytic, galactagogue, eye lotion, and antioxidant remedy and integrator. Topically, fennel powder is used as a poultice for snake bites. In Asian cultures fennel was ingested to speed the elimination of poisons. As one of the ancient Saxon people's nine sacred herbs, fennel was credited with the power to cure. Fennel was also valued as a magic herb: in the Middle Ages it was draped over doorways on Midsummer's Eve to protect the household from evil spirits. Recently because of estragole carcinogenicity, fennel has been charged to be dangerous for humans especially if used as decoction for babies. But this allegation do not consider the remedy is prepared as a matrix of substances, and recent researches confirm that pure estragole is inactivated by many substance contained in the decoction.

  15. Photodamage to human skin by suberythemal exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation can be attenuated by sunscreens: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seité, S; Fourtanier, A; Moyal, D; Young, A R

    2010-11-01

    The effects of acute or repeated suberythemal solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure on human skin have been insufficiently investigated. Such exposure almost certainly has important long-term consequences that include skin ageing and skin cancer. This review summarizes the published data on the biological effects of suberythemal exposure using a wide range of clinical, cellular and molecular endpoints, some of which may be considered as biomarkers for skin cancer and photoageing. We also include some recent unpublished results from our laboratories. The effects of UVA (320-400 nm), UVB (290-320 nm) and total solar UVR (290-400 nm) are compared. We demonstrate that avoiding sunburn does not prevent many indicators of cutaneous biological damage and that use of low sun protection factor (SPF) sunscreen can inhibit much of the damages induced by suberythemal exposure to UVR. However, even when applied correctly, sunscreen use will result in suberythemal exposure. The degree and spectral quality of such exposure will depend on the SPF and absorption spectrum of the sunscreen, but nonetheless it may contribute to cumulative photodamage. This review may help to determine the level of photoprotection required in sunscreens and daily use products, as well as the ideal ratio of UVB/UVA protection, to improve long-term photoprotection outcomes. © 2010 The Authors. BJD © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.

  16. Creatine synthesis and exchanges between brain cells: What can be learned from human creatine deficiencies and various experimental models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna-El-Daher, Layane; Braissant, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    While it has long been thought that most of cerebral creatine is of peripheral origin, the last 20 years has provided evidence that the creatine synthetic pathway (AGAT and GAMT enzymes) is expressed in the brain together with the creatine transporter (SLC6A8). It has also been shown that SLC6A8 is expressed by microcapillary endothelial cells at the blood-brain barrier, but is absent from surrounding astrocytes, raising the concept that the blood-brain barrier has a limited permeability for peripheral creatine. The first creatine deficiency syndrome in humans was also discovered 20 years ago (GAMT deficiency), followed later by AGAT and SLC6A8 deficiencies, all three diseases being characterized by creatine deficiency in the CNS and essentially affecting the brain. By reviewing the numerous and latest experimental studies addressing creatine transport and synthesis in the CNS, as well as the clinical and biochemical characteristics of creatine-deficient patients, our aim was to delineate a clearer view of the roles of the blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers in the transport of creatine and guanidinoacetate between periphery and CNS, and on the intracerebral synthesis and transport of creatine. This review also addresses the question of guanidinoacetate toxicity for brain cells, as probably found under GAMT deficiency.

  17. A Smartphone App Reveals Erratic Diurnal Eating Patterns in Humans that Can Be Modulated for Health Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Shubhroz; Panda, Satchidananda

    2015-11-03

    A diurnal rhythm of eating-fasting promotes health, but the eating pattern of humans is rarely assessed. Using a mobile app, we monitored ingestion events in healthy adults with no shift-work for several days. Most subjects ate frequently and erratically throughout wakeful hours, and overnight fasting duration paralleled time in bed. There was a bias toward eating late, with an estimated 35% after 6 p.m. "Metabolic jetlag" resulting from weekday/weekend variation in eating pattern akin to travel across time zones was prevalent. The daily intake duration (95% interval) exceeded 14.75 hr for half of the cohort. When overweight individuals with >14 hr eating duration ate for only 10-11 hr daily for 16 weeks assisted by a data visualization (raster plot of dietary intake pattern, "feedogram") that we developed, they reduced body weight, reported being energetic, and improved sleep. Benefits persisted for a year. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Thioredoxin Reductase Activity may be More Important than GSH Level in Protecting Human Lens Epithelial Cells Against UVA Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgaonkar, Vanita A.; Leverenz, Victor R.; Bhat, Aparna V.; Pelliccia, Sara E.; Giblin, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    This study compares the abilities of the glutathione (GSH) and thioredoxin (Trx) antioxidant systems in defending cultured human lens epithelial cells (LECs) against UVA light. Levels of GSH were depleted with either L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) or 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB). CDNB treatment also inhibited the activity of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). Two levels of O2, 3% and 20%, were employed during a 1 hr exposure of the cells to 25 J/cm2 of UVA radiation (338-400nm wavelength, peak at 365nm). Inhibition of TrxR activity by CDNB, combined with exposure to UVA light, produced a substantial loss of LECs and cell damage, with the effects being considerably more severe at 20% O2 compared to 3%. In contrast, depletion of GSH by BSO, combined with exposure to UVA light, produced only a slight cell loss, with no apparent morphological effects. Catalase was highly sensitive to UVA-induced inactivation, but was not essential for protection. Although UVA light presented a challenge for the lens epithelium, it was well-tolerated under normal conditions. The results demonstrate an important role for TrxR activity in defending the lens epithelium against UVA light, possibly related to the ability of the Trx system to assist DNA synthesis following UVA-induced cell damage. PMID:25495870

  19. Key Insights into Hand Biomechanics: Human Grip Stiffness Can Be Decoupled from Force by Cocontraction and Predicted from Electromyography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Höppner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the relation between grip force and grip stiffness for the human hand with and without voluntary cocontraction. Apart from gaining biomechanical insight, this issue is particularly relevant for variable-stiffness robotic systems, which can independently control the two parameters, but for which no clear methods exist to design or efficiently exploit them. Subjects were asked in one task to produce different levels of force, and stiffness was measured. As expected, this task reveals a linear coupling between force and stiffness. In a second task, subjects were then asked to additionally decouple stiffness from force at these force levels by using cocontraction. We measured the electromyogram from relevant groups of muscles and analyzed the possibility to predict stiffness and force. Optical tracking was used for avoiding wrist movements. We found that subjects were able to decouple grip stiffness from force when using cocontraction on average by about 20% of the maximum measured stiffness over all force levels, while this ability increased with the applied force. This result contradicts the force–stiffness behavior of most variable-stiffness actuators. Moreover, we found the thumb to be on average twice as stiff as the index finger and discovered that intrinsic hand muscles predominate our prediction of stiffness, but not of force. EMG activity and grip force allowed to explain 72 ± 12% of the measured variance in stiffness by simple linear regression, while only 33 ± 18% variance in force. Conclusively the high signal-to-noise ratio and the high correlation to stiffness of these muscles allow for a robust and reliable regression of stiffness, which can be used to continuously teleoperate compliance of modern robotic hands.

  20. Being There & Getting Back Again: Half a Century of Deep Ocean Research & Discovery with the Human Occupied Vehicle "Alvin"

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, C. R.; Fornari, D. J.; Fryer, P.; Girguis, P. R.; Humphris, S. E.; Kelley, D. S.; Tivey, M.; Van Dover, C. L.; Von Damm, K.

    2012-12-01

    can sustain chemosynthetic seep ecosystems comparable to, and sometimes sharing species with, hot vents. What will Alvin's next 50 years discover? During 2011-12, Alvin has undergone a transformation, including a larger personnel sphere with more & larger viewports to provide improved overlapping fields of view for the pilot & observers. The new Alvin will be certified for operations to 4500m depth initially, but the new sphere will be 6500m-rated and planned future upgrades will ultimately allow the vehicle to dive that deep, enabling human access to 98% of the global ocean floor. This will allow the study of processes and dynamics of Earth's largest ecosystem (the abyssal plains) as well as margin and ridge environments and the overlying water column. Meantime, the current upgrades to Alvin already include a suite of scientific enhancements including new HD video & still imaging, sophisticated data acquisition systems for seafloor observations and mapping, a new work platform with greater payload capacity and improved observer ergonomics. The new Alvin is poised to play important roles in core Earth and Life science programs and to serve large-scale programs such as the Ocean Observatory Initiative (OOI) and the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP). It will continue to attract, engage and inspire a new generation of scientists & students to explore and study the largest ecosystem on Earth, just as it has done throughout its first half century.

  1. Assessments of ecosystem services and human well-being in Thailand build and create demand for coproductive capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Lebel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessments of ecosystem services have been proposed as one way of incorporating concerns about environmental change and ecosystem conditions into subnational development planning. In Thailand a policy window for such initiatives is opening because of a transition in national policy toward area-based planning combined with broader political reforms to expand public participation and encourage more evidence-based decision making. We explored three case studies in Thailand in which central and local government agencies and research organizations partnered to engage local communities and other stakeholders in assessments of ecosystem services and human well-being. The analysis focused on the role ecosystem assessments play in building and creating demand for coproductive capacity. By coproductive capacities we mean the ability to combine scientific resources and governance capabilities in ways that bring about informed social change. We found evidence that the assessments built capacities for governance actors to explore scientific and research-based evidence, to consult scientific experts, and then to evaluate existing policies and plans using this newly acquired information. At the same time, scientific experts also learned to explore public policy issues, to consult planners and decision makers in government, and based on this knowledge to evaluate scientific evidence and revise the scope and goals of their research and analytical activities to better meet policy needs and demands. Coproductive capacities were built when various stakeholders jointly engaged in compilation and interpretation of evidence. Doing so helped legitimize the assessment process with positive feedback on both governance and science capacities. We also found evidence, however, of significant cultural and institutional constraints to designing and making better use of ecosystem services assessments. These constraints included insufficient resources for both knowledge making

  2. Task analysis of human-in-the-loop tele-operated maintenance: What can be learned from JET?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boessenkool, H.; Thomas, J.; Heemskerk, C.J.M.; Baar, M.R. de; Steinbuch, M.; Abbink, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Maintenance task execution at JET was analyzed to guide improvements for ITER. •A large variation in task duration was found for various operator experience levels. •Results indicate significant room for improvement for tele-operated performance. •Improvent of visual feedback and artificial guiding forces was considered promising. -- Abstract: Remote maintenance will determine the available uptime of future fusion plants such as ITER. Experience at predecessor JET showed that a human-in-the-loop tele-operated approach is crucial, although this approach entails drawbacks such as the unavoidable extensive operator training and relatively long execution times. These drawbacks are common knowledge, but little quantitative research is available to guide improvements (such as improved training methods, or active operator support systems). The aim of this paper is to identify the key areas for further improvement of tele-operated maintenance. This is achieved by a detailed task analysis based on recent maintenance at JET, using task logbooks and video data as well as interviews with experienced master–slave operators. The resulting task analysis shows the (sub)tasks that were most time-consuming and shows a large variance in time performance within operators, but also substantial differences between qualified operators with different levels of experience. The operator interviews indicate that intuitive (virtual) visual feedback and artificial (guiding) forces are promising directions for improvement. The results found in this study will be used for future research and development activities focusing on haptic guiding strategies, with the aim to further design and optimize RH maintenance systems for ITER and beyond

  3. Mutant p53 protein in serum could be used as a molecular marker in human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, G A; Mailo, D A; Corte, M M; Roncoroni, P; Nardi, H; Vincent, E; Martinez, D; Cafasso, M E; Frizza, A; Ponce, G; Vincent, E; Barutta, E; Lizarraga, P; Lizarraga, G; Monti, C; Paolillo, E; Vincent, R; Quatroquio, R; Grimi, C; Maturi, H; Aimale, M; Spinsanti, C; Montero, H; Santiago, J; Shulman, L; Rivadulla, M; Machiavelli, M; Salum, G; Cuevas, M A; Picolini, J; Gentili, A; Gentili, R; Mordoh, J

    2006-04-01

    p53 wild-type is a tumor suppressor gene involved in DNA gene transcription or DNA repair mechanisms. When damage to DNA is unrepairable, p53 induces programmed cell death (apoptosis). The mutant p53 gene is the most frequent molecular alteration in human cancer, including breast cancer. Here, we analyzed the genetic alterations in p53 oncogene expression in 55 patients with breast cancer at different stages and in 8 normal women. We measured by ELISA assay the serum levels of p53 mutant protein and p53 antibodies. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR using specific p53 primers as well as mutation detection by DNA sequencing were also evaluated in breast tumor tissue. Serological p53 antibody analysis detected 0/8 (0%), 0/4 (0%) and 9/55 (16.36%) positive cases in normal women, in patients with benign breast disease and in breast carcinoma, respectively. We found positive p53 mutant in the sera of 0/8 (0.0%) normal women, 0/4 (0%) with benign breast disease and 29/55 (52.72%) with breast carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry evaluation was positive in 29/55 (52.73%) with mammary carcinoma and 0/4 (0%) with benign breast disease. A very good correlation between p53 mutant protein detected in serum and p53 accumulation by immunohistochemistry (83.3% positive in both assays) was found in this study. These data suggest that detection of mutated p53 could be a useful serological marker for diagnostic purposes.

  4. The study of regional cerebral glucose metabolic change in human being normal aging process by using PET scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Mingjue; Huang Gang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: With the technique development, PET has been more and more applied in brain function research. The aim of this study was to investigate the tendency of regional cerebral glucose metabolism changes in human being normal aging process by using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) software. Methods: 18 F-FDG PET/CT brain imaging data acquired from 252 healthy normal subjects (age ranging: 21 to 88 years old) were divided into 6 groups according to their age: 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70, 71-88. All 5 groups with age ≥31 years old were compared to the control group of 21-30 years old, and pixel-by-pixel t-statistic analysis was applied using the SPM2. The hypo-metabolic areas were identified by MNI space utility (MSU) software and the voxel value of each brain areas were calculated (P 60 years old showed significant metabolic decreases with aging mainly involved bilateral frontal lobe (pre-motto cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, frontal pole), temporal lobe (temporal pole), insula, anterior cingulate cortex and cerebellum. The most significant metabolic decrease area with aging was the frontal lobe , followed by the anterior cingulate cortex, temporal lobe, insula and cerebellum at predominance right hemisphere (P<0.0001). Parietal lobe, parahippocampal gyrus, basal ganglia and thalamus remain metabolically unchanged with advancing aging. Conclusions: Cerebral metabolic function decrease with normal aging shows an inconstant and unsymmetrical process. The regional cerebral metabolic decrease much more significantly in older than 60 years old healthy volunteers, mainly involving bilateral frontal lobe, temporal lobe, insula, anterior cingulate cortex and cerebellum at right predominance hemisphere. (authors)

  5. From Brokenness of Death to Refigured Forgiveness: Reflections on Ricoeur’s Fault, Narrativity, and Capable Human Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Ray Villacorta

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Indeed, death, even the ones that some people are prepared for, comes with painful blows in the hearts of loved ones left behind. One, then, can only imagine the great pangs of pain that pierce the hearts of the bereaved upon hearing a young life that has been ended abruptly by series of uncontrollable occurrences—alas! Tragedy! This particular human experience pushes man’s brokenness to fore, illuminating the gap in human constitution, casting on humanity’s fault a blinding radiance which forces one to think and rethink his life and its possibilities.

  6. Human growth hormone may be detrimental when used to accelerate recovery from acute tendon-bone interface injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Keith M; Oliver, Harvey A; Foley, Jack; Chen, Ding-Geng; Autenried, Peter; Duan, Shanzhong; Heiser, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    There have been few scientific studies that have examined usage of human growth hormone to accelerate recovery from injury. The hypothesis of this study was that human growth hormone would accelerate tendon-to-bone healing compared with control animals treated with placebo in a rat model of acute rotator cuff injury repair. Seventy-two rats underwent repair of acute rotator cuff injuries and were randomized into the following postoperative dosing regimens: placebo, and human growth hormone at 0.1, 1, 2, 5, and 10 mg/kg/day, administered subcutaneously once per day for fourteen days (Protocol 1). An additional twenty-four rats were randomized to receive either (1) placebo or (2) human growth hormone at 5 mg/kg, administered subcutaneously twice per day for seven days preoperatively and twenty-eight days postoperatively (Protocol 2). All rats were killed twenty-eight days postoperatively. Mechanical testing was performed. Ultimate stress, ultimate force, stiffness, energy to failure, and ultimate distension were determined. For Protocol 1, analysis of variance testing showed no significant difference between the groups with regard to ultimate stress, ultimate force, stiffness, energy to failure, or ultimate distension. In Protocol 2, ultimate force to failure was significantly worse in the human growth hormone group compared with the placebo group (21.1 ± 5.85 versus 26.3 ± 5.47 N; p = 0.035). Failure was more likely to occur through the bone than the tendon-bone interface in the human growth hormone group compared with the placebo group (p = 0.001). No significant difference was found for ultimate stress, ultimate force, stiffness, energy to failure, or ultimate distension between the groups in Protocol 2. In this rat model of acute tendon-bone injury repair, daily subcutaneous postoperative human growth hormone treatment for fourteen days failed to demonstrate a significant difference in any biomechanical parameter compared with placebo. Furthermore, subcutaneous

  7. Being Human: A Qualitative Interview Study Exploring Why a Telehealth Intervention for Management of Chronic Conditions Had a Modest Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Drabble, Sarah J; Foster, Alexis; Horspool, Kimberley; Edwards, Louisa; Thomas, Clare; Salisbury, Chris

    2016-06-30

    their specific risk factors. Implementation was not optimal in the early part of the CVD risk trial owing to technical difficulties and the need to adapt the intervention for use in practice. For both conditions, enthusiastic and motivated staff offering continuity of intervention delivery tailored to individual patients' needs were identified as important for patient engagement with telehealth; this was not delivered consistently, particularly in the early stages of the trials. Finally, there was a lack of active engagement from primary care. The conceptual model was supported and could be used to develop further telehealth interventions for chronic conditions. It may be possible to increase the effectiveness of this, and similar interventions, by attending to the human as well as the technical aspects of telehealth: offering it to patients actively wanting the intervention, ensuring continuity of delivery by enthusiastic and motivated staff, and encouraging active engagement from primary care staff.

  8. "The Project Cannot Be Approved in Its Current Form": Feminist Visual Research Meets the Human Research Ethics Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    This article reflects on a university human research ethics committee's unease regarding a feminist visual pilot study within the field of education. The small exploratory study proposed to explore a migrant mother's production of her son's identity through her family photograph collection. The committee requested substantial…

  9. Trafficking in human beings as an enterprise: : Highlighting key questions about data shortage on the business side

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muraszkiewicz, J.; Watson, H; Wadwa, K.; de Hert, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers face a shortage of data on the business side of human trafficking. This inevitably leads to problems when trying to combat this crime. Questions such as: who is involved in trafficking, how do they operate, what is their relationship with organised crime groups (or other

  10. A keyword approach to finding common ground in community-based definitions of human well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem-based management involves the integration of ecosystem services and their human beneficiaries into decision making. This can occur at multiple scales; addressing global issues such as climate change down to local problems such as flood protection and maintaining water q...

  11. Clinical responses to adoptive T-cell transfer can be modeled in an autologous immune-humanized mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Henrik; Lindberg, Mattias F; Donia, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of autologous tumor-infiltrating T cells have shown durable responses in patients with melanoma. To study ACT and immunotherapies in a humanized model, we have developed PDXv2.0 - a melanoma PDX model where tumor cells and tumor...

  12. Differential properties of human ACL and MCL stem cells may be responsible for their differential healing capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Freddie H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human anterior cruciate ligament (hACL and medial collateral ligament (hMCL of the knee joint are frequently injured, especially in athletic settings. It has been known that, while injuries to the MCL typically heal with conservative treatment, ACL injuries usually do not heal. As adult stem cells repair injured tissues through proliferation and differentiation, we hypothesized that the hACL and hMCL contain stem cells exhibiting unique properties that could be responsible for the differential healing capacity of the two ligaments. Methods To test the above hypothesis, we derived ligament stem cells from normal hACL and hMCL samples from the same adult donors using tissue culture techniques and characterized their properties using immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR, and flow cytometry. Results We found that both hACL stem cells (hACL-SCs and hMCL stem cells (hMCL-SCs formed colonies in culture and expressed stem cell markers nucleostemin and stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4. Moreover, both hACL-SCs and hMCL-SCs expressed CD surface markers for mesenchymal stem cells, including CD44 and CD90, but not those markers for vascular cells, CD31, CD34, CD45, and CD146. However, hACL-SCs differed from hMCL-SCs in that the size and number of hACL-SC colonies in culture were much smaller and grew more slowly than hMCL-SC colonies. Moreover, fewer hACL-SCs in cell colonies expressed stem cell markers STRO-1 and octamer-binding transcription factor-4 (Oct-4 than hMCL-SCs. Finally, hACL-SCs had less multi-differentiation potential than hMCL-SCs, evidenced by differing extents of adipogenesis, chondrogenesis, and osteogenesis in the respective induction media. Conclusions This study shows for the first time that hACL-SCs are intrinsically different from hMCL-SCs. We suggest that the differences in their properties contribute to the known disparity in healing capabilities between the two ligaments.

  13. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 - Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 Commerce and... Supplement No. 2 to Part 740—Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian... Medicines and Supplies (c) Clothes and Household Goods Bedding Clothes Cooking Utensils Fabric Personal...

  14. Learnings from LCA-based methods: should chemicals in food packaging be a priority focus to protect human health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Stylianou, Katerina S.; Fantke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Given the scale and variety of human health damage (HHD) caused by food systems, prioritization methods are urgently needed. In this study HHD is estimated for case studies on red meat and sugary sweetened beverages (SSB) packaged in high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) due to various relevant health...... impacts. Specifically, we aim to asses if chemicals in food packaging are important to HHD in a life cycle context. The functional unit is "daily consumption of a packaged food per person in the United States." Method developments focus on human toxicity characterization of chemicals migrating from...... packaging into food. Chemicals and their concentrations in HIPS were identified from regulatory lists. A new high-throughput model estimated migration into food, depending on properties of chemicals, packaging, food, and scenario, and HHD was extrapolated following LCA characterization methods. An LCA...

  15. Unaccompanied Children at the United States Border, a Human Rights Crisis that can be Addressed with Policy Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataiants, Janna; Cohen, Chari; Riley, Amy Henderson; Tellez Lieberman, Jamile; Reidy, Mary Clare; Chilton, Mariana

    2017-04-08

    In recent years, unaccompanied minors have been journeying to the United States (U.S.)-Mexico border in great numbers in order to escape violence, poverty and exploitation in their home countries. Yet, unaccompanied children attempting to cross the United States border face treatment at the hands of government representatives which violates their inherent rights as children. The result is a human rights crisis that has severe health consequences for the children. Their rights as children are clearly delineated in various, international human rights documents which merit increased understanding of and recognition by the U.S. government. This paper calls for the improvement of policies and procedures for addressing the rights of unaccompanied immigrant children; it provides specific, rights-based recommendations which work together to safeguard the rights of the child at the U.S. southwestern border.

  16. The Impact of Gender Inequality and Environmental Degradation on Human Well-Being in The Case of Pakistan: A Time Series Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bibi, Chan; Audi, Marc; Ali, Amjad

    2017-01-01

    This study has investigated the impact of gender inequality and environmental degradation on human well-being in the case of Pakistan from 1980 to 2014. Augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test is used for stationarity of the variables. Autoregressive Distributed Lag model (ARDL) is used for co-integration among the variables of the model. The results show that gender inequality has a negative and significant impact on human well-being in Pakistan, while gender equality encourages human well-be...

  17. Confortamos? Lidamos com o humano sem conhecer o que de humano temos dentro de nós Do we comfort? We deal with human beings without being aware of our humanness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carneiro Mussi

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Faço um convite à reflexão propondo um confronto entre o que pensam, esperam e precisam alguns pacientes e familiares quanto ao conforto e comportamentos habituais adotados pelas pessoas do sistema de atendimento nas interações com seus clientes. Se o conforto, na perspectiva dos clientes, está associado a uma prática humanística que comportamentos profissionais podem se constituir em obstáculos para a sua promoção? A reflexão se estende a compreensão de fatores que influenciam os comportamentos profissionais e a identificação de possíveis caminhos para. a promoção de um prática humanística.Reflections are intended to propose a confrontation between patients and families' thoughts, expectation, and needs regarding comfort and the usual behaviors adopted by health care agents during their interactions the clients. If comfort as viewed by patients is seen as a humanistic practice, which professional attitudes can become an obstacle to comfort? Reflections are also associated to factors that determine professional behaviors and the identification of the paths for a more humanistic practice.

  18. A key centriole assembly interaction interface between human PLK4 and STIL appears to not be conserved in flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Cottee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A small number of proteins form a conserved pathway of centriole duplication. In humans and flies, the binding of PLK4/Sak to STIL/Ana2 initiates daughter centriole assembly. In humans, this interaction is mediated by an interaction between the Polo-Box-3 (PB3 domain of PLK4 and the coiled-coil domain of STIL (HsCCD. We showed previously that the Drosophila Ana2 coiled-coil domain (DmCCD is essential for centriole assembly, but it forms a tight parallel tetramer in vitro that likely precludes an interaction with PB3. Here, we show that the isolated HsCCD and HsPB3 domains form a mixture of homo-multimers in vitro, but these readily dissociate when mixed to form the previously described 1:1 HsCCD:HsPB3 complex. In contrast, although Drosophila PB3 (DmPB3 adopts a canonical polo-box fold, it does not detectably interact with DmCCD in vitro. Thus, surprisingly, a key centriole assembly interaction interface appears to differ between humans and flies.

  19. The Shared Goals and Distinct Strengths of the Medical Humanities: Can the Sum of the Parts Be Greater Than the Whole?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jeremy A; Jones, David S

    2017-12-01

    Since the 1960s, faculty from diverse fields have banded together under the banner of the medical humanities, a term which unites art, literature, history, anthropology, religious studies, philosophy, and other disciplines. Arguments for the relevance of medical humanities often emphasize contributions that any of these disciplines can make to medical education, whether those involve empathy, professionalism, critical reasoning, or tolerating ambiguity. The authors argue that the constituent disciplines of the medical humanities are not interchangeable parts, but represent different perspectives and methodologies that offer their own distinct contributions to medical training. Efforts to define a role for medical humanities in medical education should pursue two strategies in parallel. On the one hand, advocates of the medical humanities should continue to make the case for the shared contributions that all of the disciplines can make to medical education. But advocates for the medical humanities should also emphasize the valuable contributions of each specific discipline, in terms that medical educators can understand. The authors illustrate this point by delineating contributions of their own discipline, medical history. Historical analysis contributes essential insights to the understanding of disease, therapeutics, and institutions-things that all physicians must know in order to be effective as clinicians, just as they must learn anatomy or pathophysiology. Analogous but different arguments can be made for literature, philosophy, and the other disciplines that constitute the medical humanities. The field of medical humanities will be most successful if it builds on both the shared and the distinct contributions of its disciplines.

  20. Socioeconomic influences on biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being: a quantitative application of the DPSIR model in Jiangsu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ying; Zhou, Shudong; Burkhard, Benjamin; Müller, Felix

    2014-08-15

    One focus of ecosystem service research is the connection between biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being as well as the socioeconomic influences on them. Despite existing investigations, exact impacts from the human system on the dynamics of biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being are still uncertain because of the insufficiency of the respective quantitative analyses. Our research aims are discerning the socioeconomic influences on biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being and demonstrating mutual impacts between these items. We propose a DPSIR framework coupling ecological integrity, ecosystem services as well as human well-being and suggest DPSIR indicators for the case study area Jiangsu, China. Based on available statistical and surveying data, we revealed the factors significantly impacting biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being in the research area through factor analysis and correlation analysis, using the 13 prefecture-level cities of Jiangsu as samples. The results show that urbanization and industrialization in the urban areas have predominant positive influences on regional biodiversity, agricultural productivity and tourism services as well as rural residents' living standards. Additionally, the knowledge, technology and finance inputs for agriculture also have generally positive impacts on these system components. Concerning regional carbon storage, non-cropland vegetation cover obviously plays a significant positive role. Contrarily, the expansion of farming land and the increase of total food production are two important negative influential factors of biodiversity, ecosystem's food provisioning service capacity, regional tourism income and the well-being of the rural population. Our study provides a promising approach based on the DPSIR model to quantitatively capture the socioeconomic influential factors of biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being for human-environmental systems

  1. The alpha hemolisina of Escherichia Coli induces increases in the calcium citoplasmico of neutrofilos and monocytes human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J.

    2000-01-01

    Escherichia coli alpha hemolysin (AH) and the calcium ionophores ionomycin and 4 Br A23187 caused increases in cell fluorescence, indicative of elevations in cytoplasmic calcium, in fura 2-loaded human polymorphonuclear leukocytes(PMN) and monocytes (MN). The increase in fluorescence caused by AH was dose dependent. Quelation of extracellular calcium with EGTA prevented fluorescence increases in PMN exposed to 2 HU50/ml AH, but did not prevent a small increase in 4 μM, ionomycin-treated PMN, indicating that ionomycin treatment under conditions of calcium quelation can mobilize calcium from internal stores, and that entry of external calcium accounts for most of the increases in cell fluorescence in cells treated with both AH and calcium ionophores. AH, as well as calcium ionophores and the chemotactic peptide FMLP caused rease of myeloperoxidase (MPO) from PMM suggesting that increments in intracellular calcium cause degramulation with release of granule contents (Author) [es

  2. Small molecule screening with laser cytometry can be used to identify pro-survival molecules in human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Sean P; Pyle, April D

    2013-01-01

    Differentiated cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) provide an unlimited source of cells for use in regenerative medicine. The recent derivation of human induced pluripotent cells (hiPSCs) provides a potential supply of pluripotent cells that avoid immune rejection and could provide patient-tailored therapy. In addition, the use of pluripotent cells for drug screening could enable routine toxicity testing and evaluation of underlying disease mechanisms. However, prior to establishment of patient specific cells for cell therapy it is important to understand the basic regulation of cell fate decisions in hESCs. One critical issue that hinders the use of these cells is the fact that hESCs survive poorly upon dissociation, which limits genetic manipulation because of poor cloning efficiency of individual hESCs, and hampers production of large-scale culture of hESCs. To address the problems associated with poor growth in culture and our lack of understanding of what regulates hESC signaling, we successfully developed a screening platform that allows for large scale screening for small molecules that regulate survival. In this work we developed the first large scale platform for hESC screening using laser scanning cytometry and were able to validate this platform by identifying the pro-survival molecule HA-1077. These small molecules provide targets for both improving our basic understanding of hESC survival as well as a tool to improve our ability to expand and genetically manipulate hESCs for use in regenerative applications.

  3. Small molecule screening with laser cytometry can be used to identify pro-survival molecules in human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P Sherman

    Full Text Available Differentiated cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs provide an unlimited source of cells for use in regenerative medicine. The recent derivation of human induced pluripotent cells (hiPSCs provides a potential supply of pluripotent cells that avoid immune rejection and could provide patient-tailored therapy. In addition, the use of pluripotent cells for drug screening could enable routine toxicity testing and evaluation of underlying disease mechanisms. However, prior to establishment of patient specific cells for cell therapy it is important to understand the basic regulation of cell fate decisions in hESCs. One critical issue that hinders the use of these cells is the fact that hESCs survive poorly upon dissociation, which limits genetic manipulation because of poor cloning efficiency of individual hESCs, and hampers production of large-scale culture of hESCs. To address the problems associated with poor growth in culture and our lack of understanding of what regulates hESC signaling, we successfully developed a screening platform that allows for large scale screening for small molecules that regulate survival. In this work we developed the first large scale platform for hESC screening using laser scanning cytometry and were able to validate this platform by identifying the pro-survival molecule HA-1077. These small molecules provide targets for both improving our basic understanding of hESC survival as well as a tool to improve our ability to expand and genetically manipulate hESCs for use in regenerative applications.

  4. Examination of DNA methylation status of the ELOVL2 marker may be useful for human age prediction in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbieć-Piekarska, Renata; Spólnicka, Magdalena; Kupiec, Tomasz; Makowska, Żanetta; Spas, Anna; Parys-Proszek, Agnieszka; Kucharczyk, Krzysztof; Płoski, Rafał; Branicki, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Age estimation in forensic investigations may complement the prediction of externally visible characteristics and the inference of biogeographical ancestry, thus allowing a better description of an unknown individual. Multiple CpG sites that show linear correlation between age and degree of DNA methylation have been identified in the human genome, providing a selection of candidates for age prediction. In this study, we optimized an assay based on bisulfite conversion and pyrosequencing of 7 CpG sites located in the ELOVL2 gene. Examination of 303 blood samples collected from individuals aged 2-75 years allowed selection of the most informative site, explaining 83% of variation in age. The final linear regression model included two CpG sites in ELOVL2 and enabled age prediction with R(2)=0.859, prediction error=6.85 and mean absolute deviation MAD=5.03. Examination of a testing set of 124 blood samples (MAD=5.75) showed that 68.5% of samples were correctly predicted, assuming that chronological and predicted ages matched ± 7 years. It was found that the ELOVL2 methylation status in bloodstains had not changed significantly after 4 weeks of storage in room temperature conditions. Analysis of 45 bloodstains deposited on tissue paper after 5, 10 and 15 years of storage in room conditions indicated that although a gradual decrease of positive PCR results was observed, the general age prediction success rate remained similar and equaled 60-78%. The obtained results show that the ELOVL2 locus provides a very good source of information about human chronological age based on analysis of blood, including bloodstains, and it may constitute a powerful and reliable predictor in future forensic age estimation models. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Being or To Be?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runehov, Anne Leona Cesarine

    2006-01-01

    Can we find a theoretical framework that could build bridges between different disciplines that broadens our insight into the religious dimension of a human being? In the present paper it is suggested that being should be comprehended as comprising ‘being' in terms of ‘a being' (ein Wesen......) and in terms of ‘being' (sein). Hence ‘being' reflects the person's neurological-physiological aspects as well as her cultural-religious-personal aspects. If this distinction were to be applied to the study of a person suffering from Alzheimer's disease, this would entail that the neurological...... and physiological aspects of the person would be considered along with the psychological and spiritual person encapsulated in the damaged brain and body, as well as her relations towards her environment. It is also emphasized that, if a full explanation of a human (religious) being is to be given, it has to be done...

  6. Human papillomavirus 13 in a Mexican Mayan community with multifocal epithelial hyperplasia: could saliva be involved in household transmission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Villanueva, Maria Eugenia; Conde-Ferráez, Laura; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe; Cerón-Espinosa, Jose D; González-Losa, Maria del Refugio

    2011-01-01

    Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia (MEH) is a disease of the oral mucosa. Human papillomaviruses 13 and 32 have been detected in these lesions. We describe the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of patients with MEH in a rural community in the Mayan area of Mexico with 53 cases and 54 controls. Clinical and epidemiological data were collected through a direct interview. Oral cell samples were collected with a cytobrush. Subjects collected their own saliva sample in a sterile bottle. All samples were tested for HPV 13 and 32 by polymerase chain reaction using specific primers. Of the 53 patients and 54 healthy subjects, 56% were < 12 years old, 25% were males and 75% females. Evolution of the lesions was between two months and 17 years. The lesions affected lips, jugal mucosa, and tongue, 96% had multiple lesions. From 53 patients, fifty samples of oral cells and 31 samples of saliva were analyzed. HPV 13 was detected in 100% oral cell and 100% saliva samples studied. 16 healthy subjects were HVP 13 positive. A highly significant association of HPV 13 infection and MEH was found, as determined by chi square test (p = 0.00) Household transmission of HPV 13 may happen through saliva and the shared use of contaminated objects.

  7. “An Environment Built to Include Rather than Exclude Me”: Creating Inclusive Environments for Human Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha A. Layton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary discourses which challenge the notion of health as the “absence of disease” are prompting changes in health policy and practice. People with disability have been influential in progressing our understanding of the impact of contextual factors in individual and population health, highlighting the impact of environmental factors on functioning and inclusion. The World Health Organization’s (WHO more holistic definition of health as “wellbeing” is now applied in frameworks and legislation, and has long been understood in occupational therapy theory. In practice, however, occupational therapists and other professionals often address only local and individual environmental factors to promote wellbeing, within systems and societies that limit equity in population health and restrict inclusion in communities. This paper presents an in-depth analysis of the supports and accommodations identified by a cohort of individuals (n-100 living with disability. A range of environmental facilitators and barriers were identified in peoples’ experience of “inclusive community environs” and found to influence inclusion and wellbeing. The roles and responsibilities of individuals, professionals, and society to enact change in environments are discussed in light of these findings. Recommendations include a focus on the subjective experience of environments, and application of theory from human rights and inclusive economics to address the multiple dimensions and levels of environments in working towards inclusion and wellbeing.

  8. Poor Prognosis Associated With Human Papillomavirus α7 Genotypes in Cervical Carcinoma Cannot Be Explained by Intrinsic Radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, John S.; Iype, Rohan; Armenoult, Lucile S.C.; Taylor, Janet; Miller, Crispin J.; Davidson, Susan; Sanjose, Silvia de; Bosch, Xavier; Stern, Peter L.; West, Catharine M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype and outcome after radiation therapy and intrinsic radiosensitivity. Methods and Materials: HPV genotyping was performed on cervix biopsies by polymerase chain reaction using SPF-10 broad-spectrum primers, followed by deoxyribonucleic acid enzyme immunoassay and genotyping by reverse hybridization line probe assay (LiPA 25 ) (version 1) (n=202). PapilloCheck and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to genotype cervix cancer cell lines (n=16). Local progression-free survival after radiation therapy alone was assessed using log-rank and Cox proportionate hazard analyses. Intrinsic radiosensitivity was measured as surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) using clonogenic assays. Results: Of the 202 tumors, 107 (53.0%) were positive for HPV16, 29 (14.4%) for HPV18, 9 (4.5%) for HPV45, 23 (11.4%) for other HPV genotypes, and 22 (10.9%) were negative; 11 (5.5%) contained multiple genotypes, and 1 tumor was HPV X (0.5%). In 148 patients with outcome data, those with HPVα9-positive tumors had better local progression-free survival compared with α7 patients in univariate (P<.004) and multivariate (hazard ratio 1.54, 95% confidence interval 1.11-1.76, P=.021) analyses. There was no difference in the median SF2 of α9 and α7 cervical tumors (n=63). In the cell lines, 9 were α7 and 4 α9 positive and 3 negative. There was no difference in SF2 between α9 and α7 cell lines (n=14). Conclusion: The reduced radioresponsiveness of α7 cervical tumors is not related to intrinsic radiosensitivity

  9. Poor Prognosis Associated With Human Papillomavirus α7 Genotypes in Cervical Carcinoma Cannot Be Explained by Intrinsic Radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, John S.; Iype, Rohan; Armenoult, Lucile S.C. [Translational Radiobiology Group, Institute of Cancer Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Taylor, Janet [Translational Radiobiology Group, Institute of Cancer Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Applied Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Group, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Manchester (United Kingdom); Miller, Crispin J. [Applied Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Group, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Manchester (United Kingdom); Davidson, Susan [Christie National Health Service Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Sanjose, Silvia de; Bosch, Xavier [Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Stern, Peter L. [Immunology Group, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Manchester (United Kingdom); West, Catharine M.L., E-mail: Catharine.West@manchester.ac.uk [Translational Radiobiology Group, Institute of Cancer Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype and outcome after radiation therapy and intrinsic radiosensitivity. Methods and Materials: HPV genotyping was performed on cervix biopsies by polymerase chain reaction using SPF-10 broad-spectrum primers, followed by deoxyribonucleic acid enzyme immunoassay and genotyping by reverse hybridization line probe assay (LiPA{sub 25}) (version 1) (n=202). PapilloCheck and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to genotype cervix cancer cell lines (n=16). Local progression-free survival after radiation therapy alone was assessed using log-rank and Cox proportionate hazard analyses. Intrinsic radiosensitivity was measured as surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) using clonogenic assays. Results: Of the 202 tumors, 107 (53.0%) were positive for HPV16, 29 (14.4%) for HPV18, 9 (4.5%) for HPV45, 23 (11.4%) for other HPV genotypes, and 22 (10.9%) were negative; 11 (5.5%) contained multiple genotypes, and 1 tumor was HPV X (0.5%). In 148 patients with outcome data, those with HPVα9-positive tumors had better local progression-free survival compared with α7 patients in univariate (P<.004) and multivariate (hazard ratio 1.54, 95% confidence interval 1.11-1.76, P=.021) analyses. There was no difference in the median SF2 of α9 and α7 cervical tumors (n=63). In the cell lines, 9 were α7 and 4 α9 positive and 3 negative. There was no difference in SF2 between α9 and α7 cell lines (n=14). Conclusion: The reduced radioresponsiveness of α7 cervical tumors is not related to intrinsic radiosensitivity.

  10. Can human-induced land degradation be distinguished from the effects of rainfall variability? A case study in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available be detected if its impacts on vegetation production can be distinguished from the effects of rainfall. Two methods were tested (i) Rain-Use Efficiency (RUE = NPP/Rainfall or Sigma NDVI/ Rainfall) and (ii) Residual Trends (RESTREND), i.e. negative trends...

  11. Survival, causes of death, and estimated tissue doses in a group of human beings injected with plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland, R.E.; Durbin, P.W.

    1975-01-01

    To determine the relationship between urinary excretion and plutonium body content, 18 persons of short life expectancy were injected with plutonium between 1945 and 1947. Seventeen of these 18 individuals have been identified; eight were found to have survived for at least eight years and four are still alive today (1975). The causes of death of 13 of these individuals have been determined from death certificates; none appear to be related to the administered plutonium. Doses to the liver and to the cells on the surface of bone have been calculated for these plutonium cases. The liver doses do not appear to be high enough to be carcinogenic, but comparison of the bone-surface doses with radium doses that have induced bone tumors indicates that six of these cases have received doses high enough to be considered carcinogenic. However, no bone tumors have yet appeared. (auth)

  12. Future perspectives in imaging human brain function: A theoretical analysis of techniques that could be used to image neuronal firing in the human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holder, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    There have been enormous advances in the applications of computerised tomography since its inception just over a decade ago, and, as may be seen in many of the other presentations in this symposium, imaging techniques such as PET and NMR can be used to give three dimensional images of various types of metabolic activity. However, attempts to use these techniques to produce images of neuronal functional activity in the sense of neuronal discharge rate have proved to be more difficult, largely because the only parameters that can be measured at present are metabolic, and these have an uncertain relation to the underlying neuronal electrical activity. There appears to be a linear relationship between metabolic activity and the rate of neuronal discharge for lower rates of discharge but it is non-linear over the whole range, and only applies to the steady state. For clinical and neurophysiological applications, it would be very useful to have an imaging device that could produce images of neuronal electrical activity directly, with a high temporal resolution of the order of the action potential, so that individual spikes could be distinguished. This paper is a summary of recent theoretical work which represents an attempt to determine whether such a device could be constructed in the forseeable future. The results are based on an extensive review of the literature and recalculation of data where appropriate. The conclusions are, perhaps surprisingly, positive, and two techniques are put forward as suitable candidates. However, the work is naturally speculative, and is intended more as a basis for discussion with respect to directions for future research than as a statement of certain fact

  13. Human resource practices and organisational performance: Can the HRM-performance linkage be explained by the cooperative behaviours of employees?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, Mattijs; Sanders, Karin; Koster, Ferry; Zwiers, Marieke

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the question as to whether the linkage between HRM and organisational performance can be explained by the effect of the internal and strategic fit of HRM on the cooperative behaviours of employees. We expect that the more HRM practices are aligned within themselves (internal

  14. 'Als het getij verloopt, verzet men de bakens'. Sustainable employability policy as being part of Strategic Human Resource Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Beatrice

    2012-01-01

    Ageing and dejuvenization of the working population urge us to pay directed attention to sustainable employability policy as being part of Strategic HRM. In this shortened version of my inaugural lecture, a positive psychological approach is used to deal with the possibilities both employees and

  15. Modeling placental transport: correlation of in vitro BeWo cell permeability and ex vivo human placental perfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Marie Sønnegaard; Rytting, Erik; Mose, Tina

    2009-01-01

    across the BeWo cells was observed in the rank order of caffeine>antipyrine>benzoic acid>glyphosate in terms of both the apparent permeability coefficient and the initial slope, defined as the linear rate of substance transferred to the fetal compartment as percent per time, a parameter used to compare...

  16. Can immunotherapy be useful as a “functional cure” for infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanham Guido

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Immunotherapy aims to assist the natural immune system in achieving control over viral infection. Various immunotherapy formats have been evaluated in either therapy-naive or therapy-experienced HIV-infected patients over the last 20 years. These formats included non-antigen specific strategies such as cytokines that stimulate immunity or suppress the viral replication, as well as antibodies that block negative regulatory pathways. A number of HIV-specific therapeutic vaccinations have also been proposed, using in vivo injection of inactivated virus, plasmid DNA encoding HIV antigens, or recombinant viral vectors containing HIV genes. A specific format of therapeutic vaccines consists of ex vivo loading of autologous dendritic cells with one of the above mentioned antigenic formats or mRNA encoding HIV antigens. This review provides an extensive overview of the background and rationale of these different therapeutic attempts and discusses the results of trials in the SIV macaque model and in patients. To date success has been limited, which could be explained by insufficient quality or strength of the induced immune responses, incomplete coverage of HIV variability and/or inappropriate immune activation, with ensuing increased susceptibility of target cells. Future attempts at therapeutic vaccination should ideally be performed under the protection of highly active antiretroviral drugs in patients with a recovered immune system. Risks for immune escape should be limited by a better coverage of the HIV variability, using either conserved or mosaic sequences. Appropriate molecular adjuvants should be included to enhance the quality and strength of the responses, without inducing inappropriate immune activation. Finally, to achieve a long-lasting effect on viral control (i.e. a “functional cure” it is likely that these immune interventions should be combined with anti-latency drugs and/or gene therapy.

  17. The Weight of Evidence Does Not Support the Listing of Styrene as “Reasonably Anticipated to be a Human Carcinogen” in NTP's Twelfth Report on Carcinogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhomberg, Lorenz R.; Goodman, Julie E.; Prueitt, Robyn L.

    2013-01-01

    Styrene was listed as “reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen” in the twelfth edition of the National Toxicology Program's Report on Carcinogens based on what we contend are erroneous findings of limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans, sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals, and supporting mechanistic data. The epidemiology studies show no consistent increased incidence of, or mortality from, any type of cancer. In animal studies, increased incidence rates of mostly benign tumors have been observed only in certain strains of one species (mice) and at one tissue site (lung). The lack of concordance of tumor incidence and tumor type among animals (even within the same species) and humans indicates that there has been no particular cancer consistently observed among all available studies. The only plausible mechanism for styrene-induced carcinogenesis—a non-genotoxic mode of action that is specific to the mouse lung—is not relevant to humans. As a whole, the evidence does not support the characterization of styrene as “reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen,” and styrene should not be listed in the Report on Carcinogens. PMID:23335843

  18. Establishing Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal and Improving Cross-Border Collaboration in Criminal Cases: Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Paul; Rijken, Conny; D'Orsi, Sergio; Esser, Luuk; Hol, Floor; Gallagher, Anne; Greenberg, Galit; Helberg, Louis; Horvatits, Lisa; McCarthy, Sean; Ratel, Jonathan; Scheper-Hughes, Nancy; Forsythe, John

    2016-02-01

    In this short summary report on the legal definition of trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal and improving cross-border collaboration in criminal cases, challenges, and recommendations in the areas of defining the crime, criminal investigation and prosecution, and cross-border cooperation are made. These are the outcomes of a working group discussion during the writers' conference of the HOTT project, a European Union-funded project against trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal.

  19. Objective confirmation of subjective measures of human well-being: evidence from the U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Andrew J; Wu, Stephen

    2010-01-29

    A huge research literature, across the behavioral and social sciences, uses information on individuals' subjective well-being. These are responses to questions--asked by survey interviewers or medical personnel--such as, "How happy do you feel on a scale from 1 to 4?" Yet there is little scientific evidence that such data are meaningful. This study examines a 2005-2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System random sample of 1.3 million U.S. citizens. Life satisfaction in each U.S. state is measured. Across America, people's answers trace out the same pattern of quality of life as previously estimated, from solely nonsubjective data, in one branch of economics (so-called "compensating differentials" neoclassical theory, originally from Adam Smith). There is a state-by-state match (r = 0.6, P < 0.001) between subjective and objective well-being. This result has some potential to help to unify disciplines.

  20. Girls' explanations for being unvaccinated or under vaccinated against human papillomavirus: a content analysis of survey responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Alice S; Waller, Jo; Bowyer, Harriet L; Marlow, Laura A V

    2015-12-22

    In England HPV vaccination is offered to all girls age 12-13 years, free-at-the-point-of-receipt, mostly in schools. Coverage is good, but around 20% of girls remain unvaccinated. This research sought to explore reasons for being un-/under vaccinated. An ethnically diverse sample of girls aged 15-16 years attending one of twelve London schools completed a survey three years after being offered HPV vaccination. Girls reported their HPV vaccine status and those who were unvaccinated (had not received any doses of the vaccine) or under vaccinated (had not completed the recommended 3-dose course) recorded reasons for their un-/under vaccinated status. Reasons were reported using free-text and content analysis was used to analyse responses. Around 74% of un-/under vaccinated girls provided a reason for their vaccination status (n = 259). Among unvaccinated girls, the most common reasons related to lack of perceived need for vaccination, concerns about safety and lack of parental consent. Girls who were under vaccinated gave practical reasons, including the need for more information (e.g. not knowing that multiple doses were needed), administrative issues (e.g. school absence), health and procedural concerns (e.g. fear of needles). Descriptively, there were few differences in the reasons given between girls from different ethnic backgrounds. Girls from Black and Asian backgrounds more commonly thought that the vaccine was not needed. Lack of parental consent without providing further explanation was most often cited by girls from Black backgrounds. Safety concerns and lack of perceived need should be addressed to encourage informed uptake of HPV vaccination. Immunisation programme coordinators may be able to increase series completion by tackling practical problems facing under vaccinated girls.

  1. Laboratory, Epidemiological, and Human Intervention Studies Show That Tea (Camellia sinensis) May Be Useful in the Prevention of Obesity12

    OpenAIRE

    Grove, Kimberly A.; Lambert, Joshua D.

    2010-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis, Theaceae) and tea polyphenols have been studied for the prevention of chronic diseases, including obesity. Obesity currently affects >20% of adults in the United States and is a risk factor for chronic diseases such as type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Given this increasing public health concern, the use of dietary agents for the prevention of obesity would be of tremendous benefit. Whereas many laboratory studies have demonstrated the potential eff...

  2. In normal human fibroblasts variation in DSB repair capacity cannot be ascribed to radiation-induced changes in the localisation, expression or activity of major NHEJ proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasten-Pisula, Ulla; Vronskaja, Svetlana; Overgaard, Jens

    2008-01-01

    in the activity of the DNA-PK complex induced upon irradiation. CONCLUSIONS: For normal human fibroblasts, the level or activity of NHEJ proteins measured prior to or after irradiation cannot be used to predict the DSB repair capacity or cellular radiosensitivity. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Mar......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to test whether for normal human fibroblasts the variation in double-strand break (DSB) repair capacity results from radiation-induced differences in localisation, expression or activity of major non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) proteins....... MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experiments were performed with 11 normal human fibroblast strains AF01-11. NHEJ proteins were determined by Western blot and DNA-PK activity by pulldown-assay. RESULTS: The four NHEJ proteins tested (Ku70, Ku80, XRCC4 and DNA-PKcs) were found to be localised almost exclusively...

  3. Correlates of women’s intentions to be screened for human papillomavirus for cervical cancer screening with an extended interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina S. Ogilvie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-risk HPV DNA testing has been proposed as a primary tool for cervical cancer screening (HPV-CCS as an alternative to the Papanicolaou cytology- method. This study describes factors associated with women’s intentions to attend cervical cancer screening if high-risk HPV DNA testing (HPV-CCS was implemented as a primary screening tool, and if screening were conducted every 4 years starting after age 25. Methods This online survey was designed using the Theory of Planned Behaviour to assess factors that impact women’s intentions to attend HPV-CCS among women aged 25–69 upon exit of the HPV FOCAL trial. Univariate and regression analyses were performed to compare the demographic, sexual history, and smoking characteristics between women willing and unwilling to screen, and scales for intention to attend HPV-CCS. A qualitative analysis was performed by compiling and coding the comments section of the survey. Results Of the 981 women who completed the survey in full, only 51.4 % responded that they intended to attend HPV-CCS with a delayed start age and extended screening interval. Women who intended to screen were more likely to have higher education (AOR 0.59, 95 % CI [0.37, 0.93], while both positive attitudes (AOR 1.26, 95 % CI [1.23, 1.30] and perceived behavior control (AOR 1.06, 95 % CI [1.02, 1.10] were significant predictors of intention to screen. Among women who provided comments in the survey, a large number of women expressed fears about not being checked more than every 4 years, but 12 % stated that these fears may be alleviated by having more information. Conclusions Acceptability of increased screening intervals and starting age could be improved through enhanced education of benefits. Program planners should consider measures to assess and improve women’s knowledge, attitudes and beliefs prior to the implementation of new screening programs to avoid unintended consequences.

  4. "We as Human Beings Get Farther and Farther Apart": the experiences of patients with remote monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenberg, Abigale L; Swetz, Keith M; Mueller, Luke A; Gerhardson, Samantha; Mueller, Paul S

    2013-01-01

    To explore the experiences of patients living with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) who had received remote monitoring (RM). Anecdotal evidence suggests that not all patients with RM use the technology. Focus groups of patients with an ICD who received an RM system. Transcripts reviewed using thematic analysis. Nine patients (3 women and 6 men; median [range] age, 73 [58-91] years) received an RM system. Patients were assigned to a group in regard to RM system use (nonusers, n = 5; users, n = 4). Few nonusers recalled having prior conversations about the system. Users described it as "simple" and "easy" to use. Nonusers often were unsure whether their system was correctly transmitting information. System benefits perceived by users included convenience and security. Nonusers expressed mistrust. Recommendations included early education and help lines. Patient adherence to RM systems can be improved by explaining perceived benefits and addressing barriers to use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Lessoning of radiation exposure. Radiation effect on humans and points to be noticed learned by Fukushima nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Described are the process of medical measures taken along with the time after the Accident in the title (Mar. 12, 2011) and the present state (June, 2013) of Fukushima. The author at first presents the fundamental knowledge of radiation like unit, natural/medical doses, and the scale of the Accident compared with Chernobyl Accident (1986) involving observed diseases like thyroid cancer. On the day before the Accident, the Earthquake and Tsunami attacked Fukushima, and the University Hospital built up an anti-disaster medical headquarter. Until 15th, the hospital accepted about 500 persons for their contamination survey and subsequent de-contamination, then played a role for relaying 1,300 patients to other facilities and accepted 125 hospitalizations, during which communication by phone had been scarcely available, leading to complication and confusion. The radioisotope subjected to be noted was radioiodine earlier and then radiocesium. Emergent medical supports were conducted for various evacuation areas involving 20-30 km zone from the Plant by pediatric and infection teams with joint doctors from Thailand. The University had been defined to be the secondary emergent, expertized medical facility since 2001 and began to conduct the long-term project Fukushima Health Management Survey after the Accident for the fundamental and detailed studies of residents. The secondary facility at the emergency was inevitably the center of medicare as the primary hospitals were mostly in the radiological evacuation area and tertiary ones located afar. The University Hospital is now revising the formal manual for medical response to exposure. In Fukushima City, 60 km distant from the Plant, the ambient dose is about 0.5 mc-Sv and external exposure dose is lowering to 2-4 mSv/y. Decrease of medical staff like doctors and nurses is significant in the prefecture. (T.T.)

  6. Validation of celiac disease diagnoses recorded in the Danish National Patient Register using duodenal biopsies, celiac disease-specific antibodies, and human leukocyte-antigen genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dydensborg Sander S

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stine Dydensborg Sander,1-3 Ketil Størdal,4,5 Tine Plato Hansen,6 Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen,7 Joseph A Murray,8 Søren Thue Lillevang,9 Steffen Husby1,2 1Hans Christian Andersen Children’s Hospital, Odense University Hospital, 2Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, 3Odense Patient Data Explorative Network (OPEN, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; 4Mental and Physical Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, 5Department of Pediatrics, Ostfold Hospital Trust, Fredrikstad, Norway; 6Department of Pathology, Hvidovre Hospital, 7Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 8Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 9Department of Clinical Immunology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark Purpose: The purpose of this study was to validate the celiac disease diagnoses recorded in the Danish National Patient Register. To validate the diagnoses, we used information on duodenal biopsies from a national register of pathology reports (the Patobank and information on celiac disease-specific antibodies and human leukocyte antigen (HLA genotypes obtained from patient medical records.Patients and methods: We included all the children who were born from 1995 to 2012 and who were registered as having celiac disease in the Danish National Patient Register. We reviewed all the pathology reports on duodenal biopsies in the Patobank and the information in the medical records on celiac disease-specific antibodies (ie, anti-tissue transglutaminase 2 IgA and IgG, endomysial antibodies IgA, and anti-deamidated gliadin peptide IgG and HLA genotypes.Results: We identified 2,247 children who were registered in the Danish National Patient Register with celiac disease. Duodenal biopsies for 1,555 of the children (69% were registered in the Patobank; 1,127 (50% had a biopsy that was compatible with celiac disease (ie, Marsh 2–3. We accessed the medical

  7. Human immunodeficiency virus and human papilloma virus - why HPV-induced lesions do not spontaneously resolve and why therapeutic vaccination can be successful

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Burg Sjoerd H

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HIV and HPV can both cause chronic infections and are acquired during sexual contact. HIV infection results in a progressive loss of CD4+ T cells that is associated with an increased prevalence of HPV infections, type-specific persistence and an increase in HPV-associated malignancies. On the one hand this illustrates the important role of HPV-specific CD4+ helper T-cell immunity, on the other it shows the Achilles heel of the HPV-specific immune response. The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART results in a rapid reduction of HIV and a reconstitution of systemic CD4+ T-cell levels. The use of HAART thus has the potential to raise immunity to HPV but to the surprise of many, the incidence of HPV-induced diseases has increased rather than declined since the introduction of HAART. Here, the knowledge on how HPV-induced diseases develop in the face of a non-compromised immune system will be used to explain why the effect of HAART on HPV-induced diseases is modest at best. Furthermore, exciting new data in the field of therapeutic vaccines against HPV will be discussed as this may form a more durable and clinically successful therapeutic approach for the treatment of HPV-induced high-grade lesions in HIV-positive subjects on HAART.

  8. Metabolism of progesterone-4-14C in organ cultures of fetal adrenal glands in the human being

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, S.

    1979-01-01

    1. In 72 hours of incubation in two subsequent cultures, progesterone-4- 14 C was converted into different corticosteroids and androgenes by using explants of the adrenal glands in organ cultures, which were taken from a male fetus with a crown-to-rump length of 8.5 cm. In the most cases the water-dilutable metabolites are steroidsulfates. 2. The following individual progesterone metabolites were found: 17α-hydroxyprogesterone-4- 14 C, 16α-hydroxyprogesterone-4- 14 C, corticosterone-4- 14 C, cortisole-4- 14 C, cortisone-4- 14 C, androstendione-4- 14 C, and 11β-hydroxyandrostendione-4- 14 C. 3. These steroides let appear possible the presence and efficacy of the following enzyme systems: 17α-hydroxylase, 16α-hydroxylase, 21-hydroxylase, 11β-hydroxylase, 11β-hydroxysteroide-dehydrogenase, and Csub(17-20) desmolase. 4. Calculations of our dates by the analogue computer, which are present by now, apparently seem to render possible the kinetic of the corticosteroide biosynthesis in the tissue of fetal adrenal glands by organ cultures, because under the present conditions incubations can be carried out for considerably longer periods than by cell fractions, cell homogenates, and organ sections. (orig.) [de

  9. Influences on the onset and tempo of puberty in human beings and implications for adolescent psychological development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yvonne; Styne, Dennis

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Historical records reveal a secular trend toward earlier onset of puberty in both males and females, often attributed to improvements in nutrition and health status. The trend stabilized during the mid 20th century in many countries, but recent studies describe a recurrence of a decrease in age of pubertal onset. There appears to be an associated change in pubertal tempo in girls, such that girls who enter puberty earlier have a longer duration of puberty. Puberty is influenced by genetic factors but since these effects cannot change dramatically over the past century, environmental effects, including endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and perinatal conditions offer alternative etiologies. Observations that the secular trends in puberty in girls parallel the obesity epidemic provide another plausible explanation. Early puberty has implications for poor behavioral and psychosocial outcomes as well as health later in life. Irrespective of the underlying cause of the ongoing trend toward early puberty, experts in the field have debated whether these trends should lead clinicians to reconsider a lower age of normal puberty, or whether such a new definition will mask a pathologic etiology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Plasma Triglyceride Levels May Be Modulated by Gene Expression of IQCJ, NXPH1, PHF17 and MYB in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastien Vallée Marcotte

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A genome-wide association study (GWAS by our group identified loci associated with the plasma triglyceride (TG response to ω-3 fatty acid (FA supplementation in IQCJ, NXPH1, PHF17 and MYB. Our aim is to investigate potential mechanisms underlying the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the four genes and TG levels following ω-3 FA supplementation. 208 subjects received 3 g/day of ω-3 FA (1.9–2.2 g of EPA and 1.1 g of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA for six weeks. Plasma TG were measured before and after the intervention. 67 SNPs were selected to increase the density of markers near GWAS hits. Genome-wide expression and methylation analyses were conducted on respectively 30 and 35 participants’ blood sample together with in silico analyses. Two SNPs of IQCJ showed different affinities to splice sites depending on alleles. Expression levels were influenced by genotype for one SNP in NXPH1 and one in MYB. Associations between 12 tagged SNPs of IQCJ, 26 of NXPH1, seven of PHF17 and four of MYB and gene-specific CpG site methylation levels were found. The response of plasma TG to ω-3 FA supplementation may be modulated by the effect of DNA methylation on expression levels of genes revealed by GWAS.

  11. Comparison of the effects of enteral feeding with continuous and intermittent parenteral nutrition on hepatic triglyceride secretion in human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isabel-Martinez, L.; Skinner, C.; Parkin, A.; Hall, R.I.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma triglyceride turnover was measured during steady-state conditions in 22 postoperative patients. Nine had received nutritional support with an enteral regimen, seven had received an equivalent regimen as continuous parenteral nutrition, and six received the same parenteral regimen as a cyclical infusion. After 5 days of nutritional support, each patient received an intravenous bolus of tritiated glycerol. Plasma radiolabeled triglyceride content was measured during the subsequent 24 hours. The data were analyzed by means of a simple deterministic model of plasma triglyceride kinetics and compared with the results obtained by stochastic analysis. The rates of hepatic triglyceride secretion obtained by deterministic analysis were higher than those obtained by the stochastic approach. However, the mode of delivery of the nutritional regimen did not affect the rate of hepatic triglyceride secretion regardless of the method of analysis. The results suggest that neither complete nutritional bypass of the gastrointestinal tract nor interruption of parenteral nutrition in an attempt to mimic normal eating has any effect on hepatic triglyceride secretion. Any beneficial effect that enteral feeding or cyclical parenteral nutrition may have on liver dysfunction associated with standard parenteral nutrition appears to be unrelated to changes in hepatic triglyceride secretion

  12. Transmission of H7N7 avian influenza A virus to human beings during a large outbreak in commercial poultry farms in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, M.; Wilbrink, B.; Conyn, M.; Natrop, G.; Nat, H. van der; Vennema, H.; Meijer, A.; Steenbergen, J. van; Fouchier, R.; Osterhaus, A.; Bosman, A.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus subtype H7N7 started at the end of February, 2003, in commercial poultry farms in the Netherlands. Although the risk of transmission of these viruses to humans was initially thought to be low, an outbreak investigation was launched

  13. MIBG causes oxidative stress and up-regulation of anti-oxidant enzymes in the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-BE(2c)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J.; van Kuilenburg, A. B.; Voûte, P. A.; van Gennip, A. H.

    1997-01-01

    We report the effects of meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), a neuroblastoma-seeking agent, on cell proliferation and several oxidative stress-related parameters in the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-BE(2c). MIBG inhibited the proliferation of this cell line in micromolar concentrations.

  14. History, memory and reconciliation: Njabulo Ndebele’s The cry of Winnie Mandela and Pumla Gobodo-Madikizela’s A human being died that night

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Goodman

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with two texts written during the process of transition in South Africa, using them to explore the cultural and ethical complexity of that process. Both Njabulo Ndebele’s “The cry of Winnie Mandela” and Pumla Gobodo-Madikizela’s “A human being died that night” deal with controversial public figures, Winnie Mandela and Eugene de Kock respectively, whose role in South African history has made them part of the national iconography. Ndebele and Gobodo-Madikizela employ narrative techniques that expose and exploit faultlines in the popular representations of these figures. The two texts offer radical ways of understanding the communal and individual suffering caused by apartheid, challenging readers to respond to the past in ways that will promote healing rather than perpetuate a spirit of revenge. The part played by official histories is implicitly questioned and the role of individual stories is shown to be crucial. Forgiveness and reconciliation are seen as dependent on an awareness of the complex circumstances and the humanity of those who are labelled as offenders. This requirement applies especially to the case of “A human being died that night”, a text that insists that the overt acknowledgement of the humanity of people like Eugene de Kock is an important way of healing South African society.

  15. Dialogue: Professionalism and Human Beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazler, Richard J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Focuses on two implicit assumptions that Carl Rogers saw as dangerous undercurrents in the educational process: that ability to pass examinations is the best criterion for student selection and for judging professional promise, and that evaluation is education and education is evaluation. Opinions are offered by three professionals, each with…

  16. Indigenous well-being in four countries: An application of the UNDP'S Human Development Index to Indigenous Peoples in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimond Eric

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canada, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand consistently place near the top of the United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Index (HDI rankings, yet all have minority Indigenous populations with much poorer health and social conditions than non-Indigenous peoples. It is unclear just how the socioeconomic and health status of Indigenous peoples in these countries has changed in recent decades, and it remains generally unknown whether the overall conditions of Indigenous peoples are improving and whether the gaps between Indigenous peoples and other citizens have indeed narrowed. There is unsettling evidence that they may not have. It was the purpose of this study to determine how these gaps have narrowed or widened during the decade 1990 to 2000. Methods Census data and life expectancy estimates from government sources were used to adapt the Human Development Index (HDI to examine how the broad social, economic, and health status of Indigenous populations in these countries have changed since 1990. Three indices – life expectancy, educational attainment, and income – were combined into a single HDI measure. Results Between 1990 and 2000, the HDI scores of Indigenous peoples in North America and New Zealand improved at a faster rate than the general populations, closing the gap in human development. In Australia, the HDI scores of Indigenous peoples decreased while the general populations improved, widening the gap in human development. While these countries are considered to have high human development according to the UNDP, the Indigenous populations that reside within them have only medium levels of human development. Conclusion The inconsistent progress in the health and well-being of Indigenous populations over time, and relative to non-Indigenous populations, points to the need for further efforts to improve the social, economic, and physical health of Indigenous peoples.

  17. Indigenous well-being in four countries: an application of the UNDP'S human development index to indigenous peoples in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Martin; Mitrou, Francis; Lawrence, David; Guimond, Eric; Beavon, Dan

    2007-12-20

    Canada, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand consistently place near the top of the United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Index (HDI) rankings, yet all have minority Indigenous populations with much poorer health and social conditions than non-Indigenous peoples. It is unclear just how the socioeconomic and health status of Indigenous peoples in these countries has changed in recent decades, and it remains generally unknown whether the overall conditions of Indigenous peoples are improving and whether the gaps between Indigenous peoples and other citizens have indeed narrowed. There is unsettling evidence that they may not have. It was the purpose of this study to determine how these gaps have narrowed or widened during the decade 1990 to 2000. Census data and life expectancy estimates from government sources were used to adapt the Human Development Index (HDI) to examine how the broad social, economic, and health status of Indigenous populations in these countries have changed since 1990. Three indices - life expectancy, educational attainment, and income - were combined into a single HDI measure. Between 1990 and 2000, the HDI scores of Indigenous peoples in North America and New Zealand improved at a faster rate than the general populations, closing the gap in human development. In Australia, the HDI scores of Indigenous peoples decreased while the general populations improved, widening the gap in human development. While these countries are considered to have high human development according to the UNDP, the Indigenous populations that reside within them have only medium levels of human development. The inconsistent progress in the health and well-being of Indigenous populations over time, and relative to non-Indigenous populations, points to the need for further efforts to improve the social, economic, and physical health of Indigenous peoples.

  18. Evidence that bisphenol A (BPA) can be accurately measured without contamination in human serum and urine, and that BPA causes numerous hazards from multiple routes of exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    vom Saal, Frederick S.; Welshons, Wade V.

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that bisphenol A (BPA) is related to a wide range of adverse health effects based on both human and experimental animal studies. However, a number of regulatory agencies have ignored all hazard findings. Reports of high levels of unconjugated (bioactive) serum BPA in dozens of human biomonitoring studies have also been rejected based on the prediction that the findings are due to assay contamination and that virtually all ingested BPA is rapidly converted to inactive metabolites. NIH and industry-sponsored round robin studies have demonstrated that serum BPA can be accurately assayed without contamination, while the FDA lab has acknowledged uncontrolled assay contamination. In reviewing the published BPA biomonitoring data, we find that assay contamination is, in fact, well controlled in most labs, and cannot be used as the basis for discounting evidence that significant and virtually continuous exposure to BPA must be occurring from multiple sources. PMID:25304273

  19. Links between the discovery of primates and anatomical comparisons with humans, the chain of being, our place in nature, and racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui

    2018-04-01

    I focus on the crucial links between the discovery of nonhuman primates by Westerners, discussions on our place in nature, the chain of being, racism, and the history of primate comparative anatomy and of so-called "anatomical human racial studies." Strikingly, for more than a millennium humans knew more about the internal anatomy of a single monkey species than about that of their own bodies. This is because Galen used monkeys to infer human anatomy, in line with the human-animal continuity implied by the Greek notion of scala naturae. With the rise of Christianity, nonhuman primates were increasingly seen in a negative way. A more positive view emerged in the 14th century when nonhuman primates were directly studied/seen by Europeans, culminating in Tyson's 1699 work showing that chimps share more gross anatomical similarities with humans than with monkeys. However, the discomfort caused by this human-chimp similarity then led to a new idea of animal-human discontinuity, now related not to anatomy but to "civilization": between Europeans vs. non-Europeans + other primates. Moreover, Linnaeus' Systema Naturae and the emergence of "anatomical racial studies" influenced by Camper's craniology then led to even more extreme ideas, such as the notion that Europeans were both mentally and morphologically "ideal." Unfortunately the biased and often incorrect "results" of such studies, combined with ideas based on Darwin's "struggle for survival", became crucial in propaganda that lead to the rise of eugenics in the end of the 19th/first half of 20th centuries and that culminated in Nazism. Since the 1950s there has been an emphasis on the continuity/unity between all human groups and other primates, in great part influenced by what happened during World War 2. Reviews such as this one are, therefore, particularly necessary to illuminate and guard against attitudes against "the Other" and racist ideologies that are re-emerging in modern political discourse across the

  20. Establishing Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal and Improving Cross-Border Collaboration in Criminal Cases: Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Paul; Rijken, Conny; D'Orsi, Sergio; Esser, Luuk; Hol, Floor; Gallagher, Anne; Greenberg, Galit; Helberg, Louis; Horvatits, Lisa; McCarthy, Sean; Ratel, Jonathan; Scheper-Hughes, Nancy; Forsythe, John

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this short summary report on the legal definition of trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal and improving cross-border collaboration in criminal cases, challenges, and recommendations in the areas of defining the crime, criminal investigation and prosecution, and cross-border cooperation are made. These are the outcomes of a working group discussion during the writers' conference of the HOTT project, a European Union-funded project against trafficking in huma...

  1. Prostitution and (illegal migration as possible hidden forms of trafficking in human beings: The analyses of the practice of the Magistrate Court in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Marija

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author analyses all the cases from the 2002 practice of Magistrate Court in Belgrade, which relate to prostitution and illegal migration. The main aim of this paper is to show who are the women and men who are accused and punished for prostitution and illegal migration, as well as to argue that the part of them are in fact victims of trafficking in human beings. In conclusion, the author suggests the necessity for training of magistrate judges in order to be able to recognize victims of trafficking and, consequently, to be able to treat them as victims rather than as offenders.

  2. Critical Studies on Integrating Land-Use Induced Effects on Climate Regulation Services into Impact Assessment for Human Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihui Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly acknowledged that land use changes (LUC and climate changes have exerted significant effects on ecosystem services which are essential and vital to human well-being. Among all the services provided by ecosystem, climate regulation services are relatively sensitive to LUC and climate changes. This study aims to comprehensively review studies on the complex effects of LUC and climate changes on climate regulation services and further integrates the effects on climate regulation services into impact assessment for human well-being. In this study, we firstly introduced research efforts in which the drivers of and their corresponding effects on climate regulation services are briefly identified. Then, we explicitly reviewed the researches on the effects of LUC and climate changes on climate regulation services, especially focused on the certain methods and models used to quantify the effects on the major drivers of climate regulation services. After that, the effects of LUC and climate changes on human well-being via climate regulation services were revisited and commented accordingly. Finally, this paper discussed the current research gaps and proposed some research prospects in future studies.

  3. Analysis of the Catecholaminergic Phenotype in Human SH-SY5Y and BE(2-M17 Neuroblastoma Cell Lines upon Differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Filograna

    Full Text Available Human cell lines are often used to investigate cellular pathways relevant for physiological or pathological processes or to evaluate cell toxicity or protection induced by different compounds, including potential drugs. In this study, we analyzed and compared the differentiating activities of three agents (retinoic acid, staurosporine and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate on the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and BE(2-M17 cell lines; the first cell line is largely used in the field of neuroscience, while the second is still poorly characterized. After evaluating their effects in terms of cell proliferation and morphology, we investigated their catecholaminergic properties by assessing the expression profiles of the major genes involved in catecholamine synthesis and storage and the cellular concentrations of the neurotransmitters dopamine and noradrenaline. Our results demonstrate that the two cell lines possess similar abilities to differentiate and acquire a neuron-like morphology. The most evident effects in SH-SY5Y cells were observed in the presence of staurosporine, while in BE(2-M17 cells, retinoic acid induced the strongest effects. Undifferentiated SH-SY5Y and BE(2-M17 cells are characterized by the production of both NA and DA, but their levels are considerably higher in BE(2-M17 cells. Moreover, the NAergic phenotype appears to be more pronounced in SH-SY5Y cells, while BE(2-M17 cells have a more prominent DAergic phenotype. Finally, the catecholamine concentration strongly increases upon differentiation induced by staurosporine in both cell lines. In conclusion, in this work the catecholaminergic phenotype of the human BE(2-M17 cell line upon differentiation was characterized for the first time. Our data suggest that SH-SY5Y and BE(2-M17 represent two alternative cell models for the neuroscience field.

  4. Analysis of the Catecholaminergic Phenotype in Human SH-SY5Y and BE(2)-M17 Neuroblastoma Cell Lines upon Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filograna, Roberta; Civiero, Laura; Ferrari, Vanni; Codolo, Gaia; Greggio, Elisa; Bubacco, Luigi; Beltramini, Mariano; Bisaglia, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Human cell lines are often used to investigate cellular pathways relevant for physiological or pathological processes or to evaluate cell toxicity or protection induced by different compounds, including potential drugs. In this study, we analyzed and compared the differentiating activities of three agents (retinoic acid, staurosporine and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate) on the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and BE(2)-M17 cell lines; the first cell line is largely used in the field of neuroscience, while the second is still poorly characterized. After evaluating their effects in terms of cell proliferation and morphology, we investigated their catecholaminergic properties by assessing the expression profiles of the major genes involved in catecholamine synthesis and storage and the cellular concentrations of the neurotransmitters dopamine and noradrenaline. Our results demonstrate that the two cell lines possess similar abilities to differentiate and acquire a neuron-like morphology. The most evident effects in SH-SY5Y cells were observed in the presence of staurosporine, while in BE(2)-M17 cells, retinoic acid induced the strongest effects. Undifferentiated SH-SY5Y and BE(2)-M17 cells are characterized by the production of both NA and DA, but their levels are considerably higher in BE(2)-M17 cells. Moreover, the NAergic phenotype appears to be more pronounced in SH-SY5Y cells, while BE(2)-M17 cells have a more prominent DAergic phenotype. Finally, the catecholamine concentration strongly increases upon differentiation induced by staurosporine in both cell lines. In conclusion, in this work the catecholaminergic phenotype of the human BE(2)-M17 cell line upon differentiation was characterized for the first time. Our data suggest that SH-SY5Y and BE(2)-M17 represent two alternative cell models for the neuroscience field.

  5. Demineralized bone matrix and human cancellous bone enhance fixation of titanium implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babiker, Hassan; Ding, Ming; Overgaard, Søren

    Best Poster 5Demineralized bone matrix and human cancellous bone enhance fixation of titanium implants AuthorsBabiker , H.; Ding M.; Overgaard S.InstitutionOrthopaedic Research Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Odense University Hospital, Clinical Institute, University of Southern...... from human tissue were included (IsoTis OrthoBiologics, Inc. USA). Both materials are commercially available. Titanium alloy implants (Biomet Inc.) of 10 mm in length and 10 mm in diameter were inserted bilaterally into the femoral condyles of 8 skeletally mature sheep. Thus four implants...... with a concentric gap of 2 mm were implanted in each sheep. The gap was filled with: DBM; DBM/CB with ratio of 1/3; DBM/allograft with ratio of 1/3; or allograft (Gold standard), respectively. Standardised surgical procedure was used1. At sacrifice, 6 weeks after surgery, both distal femurs were harvested...

  6. Biodistribution dosimetric study of radiopharmaceutical 99mTc Ixolaris in mice for melanoma diagnosis by molecular image and translational model for human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soriano, Sarah Canuto Silva

    2015-01-01

    The labeling of Ixolaris with 99m Tc was developed by Barboza et.al. (2013) aiming its use primarily in glioblastoma and after in melanoma diagnosis, a less common but very aggressive cancer and with high mortality rate. Preliminary tests on animals have proven its effectiveness of labeling but a dosimetric study to human clinical trials should be performed. This study aimed to: (1) determine the biokinetic model for the radiotracer 99m Tc-Ixolaris in mice by imaging dosimetry method; and (2) estimate the absorbed and effective dose resulting from the use of a new radiopharmaceutical for melanoma and metastases diagnosis in human beings, since a dosimetric study of new radiopharmaceuticals in animals is necessary to test them subsequently in humans and apply for registration in ANVISA. According to SPECT images, was found a latency period of 15 to 21 days for the development of lung metastasis in mice. Three C57BL6 mice, one control animal, and two animals with induced cell line B16-F10 murine melanoma were tested. The 99m Tc-Ixolaris radiopharmaceutical was administered intravenously in a caudal vein, and SPECT images were acquired 0.5 h, 1.5 h, 2.5 h, 3.5 h and 24 h post-administration for analysis and biodistribution quantification. The biokinetic model was determined and thus, obtained cumulative activity in order to estimate the absorbed dose in each organ. The mass and metabolic differences between mice and humans were considered and used to extrapolate the data acquired at different scales. Based on dose factors provided by the software MIRDOSE and Olinda (S factor), absorbed doses in irradiated target organs were calculated for the source organs, and finally the effective dose was estimated. The results indicate that for diagnostic exams conducted in human melanoma patients by administering approximately 25.7 MBq the estimated effective dose was 4.3 mSv. Comparing with effective doses obtained in other diagnostic techniques with 99m Tc, a range of effective

  7. A Window Toward the World: Older Adults' Experiences of Becoming in Health and Developing as Human Beings Through Interacting With Others Using Real Video Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemberg, Jessica; Santamäki Fischer, Regina

    The population in the Nordic countries, as well as globally, is increasingly becoming older. Concurrently, with an increased aging population, there is an increase in poor health and loneliness among older adults. The aim of this study was to uncover, from a caring science perspective, community-living older adults' experiences of interacting with others via real video communication. The study uses a hermeneutical approach. The material consists of interviews with older adults regarding their experiences of using real video communication. The texts were interpreted through hermeneutical reading. Study participation and data storage and handling for research purposes were approved by the participants when they provided their informed consent. Ethical permission to conduct this study was granted by a research board. The findings uncovered that welfare technology offers a metaphor-a window toward the world-that comprises the overarching core theme "Being in a movement toward becoming a unity as a human being," and 3 main themes: "Alleviating suffering through beating involuntary solitude," "Being in the world as an equal and dignified human being," and "Dedicating new perspectives and meaning in life." Welfare technology seems to be an important means to improve the quality of life for older adults living at home. Welfare technology enables older people to be in contact with other people in an easy way. Further research is needed to uncover issues of welfare technology from different perspectives.

  8. Perception of Urban Environmental Risks and the Effects of Urban Green Infrastructures (UGIs) on Human Well-being in Four Public Green Spaces of Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Junya; Wang, Yafei; Fan, Chen; Xia, Beicheng; de Groot, Rudolf

    2018-05-28

    Cities face many challenging environmental problems that affect human well-being. Environmental risks can be reduced by Urban Green Infrastructures (UGIs). The effects of UGIs on the urban environment have been widely studied, but less attention has been given to the public perception of these effects. This paper presents the results of a study in Guangzhou, China, on UGI users' perceptions of these effects and their relationship with sociodemographic variables. A questionnaire survey was conducted in four public green spaces. Descriptive statistics, a binary logistic regression model and cross-tabulation analysis were applied on the data from 396 valid questionnaires. The results show that UGI users were more concerned about poor air quality and high temperature than about flooding events. Their awareness of environmental risks was partly in accordance with official records. Regarding the perception of the impacts of environmental risks on human well-being, elderly and female respondents with higher education levels were the most sensitive to these impacts. The respondents' perceptions of these impacts differed among the different green spaces. The effects of UGIs were well perceived and directly observed by the UGI users, but were not significantly influenced by most sociodemographic variables. Moreover, tourists had a lower perception of the impacts of environmental risks and the effects of UGI than residents did. This study provides strong support for UGIs as an effective tool to mitigate environmental risks. Local governments should consider the role of UGIs in environmental risk mitigation and human well-being with regard to urban planning and policy making.

  9. Hazards of ionizing radiations for human beings and environment with respect to nuclear facilities; Gefahren ionisierender Strahlung fuer Mensch und Umwelt in Bezug auf kerntechnische Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, Felix; Jung, Jennifer Jana; Schultmann, Frank

    2017-03-15

    Worldwide, nuclear fission is used to produce electricity. On the one hand, the low emission of CO{sub 2} is often mentioned as an advantage of this technology. On the other hand, warnings about the dangers of nuclear fission are mentioned. Consequently, an overview about the dangers of ionizing radiation to human beings as well as animals and the environment is important. However, the focus will be on possible health effects for humans with regards to nuclear power plants. In nuclear power plants, both natural types of radiation and artificially produced radiation occur. During normal operation, it is possible that small quantities of this ionizing radiation are released to the environment. In case of nuclear disasters or faults during decommissioning and dismantling processes the consequences of thereby emitted quantities can be even more severe. Reference nuclides vary by reactor type, operating stage and respective incident. At the beginning, different types of radiation and their characteristics and effects on the affected organism are explained. Sensitive organs are emphasized in this context. The individual risk is determined by numerous factors and therefore cannot be predicted. Based on scientific studies and medical publications the hazards of ionizing radiation are compiled. Effects of high exposure of ionizing radiation are well-investigated. Scientists are still divided over the connection between several diseases and the exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation. For this reason, the positions of different international organizations are critically contrasted in this study.

  10. The core of the energy issue. The responsibility of human beings for the creation; Vom Kern der Energiefrage. Die Verantwortung des Menschen fuer die Schoepfung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knizia, K.

    2001-07-01

    The responsibility of human beings for the creation in its ethical dimension can only be made clear against a scientific-technical and economic background since human beings have to act in their natural surroundings in view of the world that is becoming more and more complex and at the same time closer through technology, and in view of the fast growing world population and the possible hazards of the viability of the biotope Earth. After World War I, Max Weber differentiated in his famous essay 'Politics as a Vocation' between the ethics of believe and the ethics of responsibility. It can be discussed whether both streams are according to the opinion of Max Weber 'in abysmal contrast'. (orig.) [German] In dem Wort 'Verantwortung' steckt der Wortstamm 'antworten' -, und zwar zunaechst dem eigenen Gewissen zu antworten. Das aber basiert auf sittlichem Bewusstsein, aber auch auf Wissen und Urteilsfaehigkeit und damit auf der Moeglichkeit, zu werten. Werten zu koennen, das erfordert aber, den Wirkungszusammenhang des Geschehens und die Rolle des Menschen in ihm zu verstehen. Die Verantwortung des Menschen fuer die Schoepfung ist nur vor einem naturwissenschaftlich-technischen und einem volkswirtschaftlichen Hintergrund in ihrem ethischen Bezug zu verdeutlichen. (orig.)

  11. Aspectos Éticos de la Investigación Clínica en seres humanos Clinic research in human beings: Ethical aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M Albornoz López del Castillo

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available La ética de la experimentación con seres humanos no es sólo una de las áreas fundamentales de la bioética, sino también una de las problemáticas que le dieron origen. Se describen en este trabajo algunas implicaciones éticas de la experimentación en seres humanos; se analizan el origen y evolución de la bioética, los aspectos regulatorios para la realización de ensayos clínicos y su valoración moral, los tipos de experimentación; la realidad mundial y cubana en cuanto a investigación clínica y tecnología y el consentimiento informado. Se concluye que el criterio ético fundamental de las investigaciones en seres humanos es su disposición al servicio del hombreThe ethics of experimentation with human beings is not only one of the fundamental areas of bioethics, but also one of the problems that originated this field. In this work some ethical implications of experimentation in human beings are described; the origin and evolution of bioethics are analyzed, the regulatory aspects for the realization of clinical trials and their moral valuation, the experimentation types; international and Cuban reality as for clinical investigation and technology and the informed consent. It is assumed that the fundamental ethical approach of the investigations with human beings is its disposition to serve mankind

  12. GRETA’s First Years of Work: Review of the monitoring of implementation of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Planitzer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring mechanism of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (CoE Convention consists of an independent group of experts (GRETA and a Committee of Parties. GRETA, which began work in 2009, develops questionnaires for States Parties, reviews their replies and conducts study visits. It then produces a report that is used by the Committee of Parties to make recommendations. This article analyses GRETA’s work until November 2011 by assessing the available materials including the questionnaire, the three published replies of States Parties to the questionnaire and the five published final reports on the parties. The objective of the article is to examine the capacity of this process to contribute to enhancing the accountability of States Parties, and to consider whether the application of a human rights-based approach by the parties can, in fact, be effectively monitored. The article also considers the role of civil society in the monitoring process and the ways in which this could be enhanced.

  13. Human HepaRG Cells can be Cultured in Hanging-drop Plates for Cytochrome P450 Induction and Function Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Norie; Usui, Takashi; Slawny, Nicky; Chesné, Christophe; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Recent guidance/guidelines for industry recommend that cytochrome P450 induction can be assessed using human hepatocyte enzyme activity and/or mRNA levels to evaluate potential drug- drug interactions. To evaluate time-dependent cytochrome P450 induction precisely, induction of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 mRNA was confirmed (>2-fold) by the treatment with omeprazole, phenobarbital, and rifampicin, respectively, for 24 or 48 h on day 3 from the start of culture. After 24 h, the fold induction of CYP1A2 with 3.6 and 1.8x10(4) HepaRG cells per well was lower than that for 7.2x10(4) cells. CYP1A2 induction levels at 24 h were higher than those after 48 h. In contrast, higher CYP2B6 inductions were confirmed after 48 h exposure than after 24 h, independent of the number of cells per well. To help reduce the use of human cryopreserved hepatocytes, typical P450-dependent enzyme activities were investigated in human HepaRG cells cultured in commercial hanging-drop plates. Newly designed 96-well hanging-drop plates were capable of maintaining human CYP3A-dependent midazolam hydroxylation activities for up to 4 days using only 10% of the recommended initial 7.2x10(4) cells per well. Favorable HepaRG function using hanging-drop plates was confirmed by detecting 1'- hydroxymidazolam O-glucuronide on day 3, suggesting an improvement over traditional control plates in which this metabolite can be detected for 24-well plates. These results suggest that the catalytic function and/or induction of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 can be readily assessed with reduced numbers of starting HepaRG cells cultured in three-dimensional cultures in drops prepared with hanging-drop plates.

  14. Can intrinsic human tissue radiosensitivity be correlated with late responding gene RNA expression in white blood cells using a 96 gene micro-array?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, D.; Streeter, O.; Dagliyan, G.; Hill, C.K.; Williams-Hill, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation is widely used in the treatment of cancers. It is generally believed there is a sigmoid relationship between radiation dose and probability of cure. There is also a sigmoid relationship between radiation dose and normal tissue response. Generally total radiation dose to a tumor is limited by normal tissue tolerance. It has been postulated that up to 70% of inter-individual differences in radiosensitivity may be due to genetic predisposition (Tureson I. Et al, IJROBP, 1996;36:1065). However, to date, clinicians have no way of estimating or predicting an individual's normal tissue response to radiation exposure. Thus the prescribed dose cannot be tailored to an individuals actual expected response but is an empirically derived compromise based on experience. Although a number of studies using cellular techniques have shown that human cell radiosensitivity can be measured, none of these can be performed quick enough to be used in the clinic. In this study we are looking at gene expression that occurs some 24 hours after an exposure compared to expression before any exposure in peripheral white blood cells from patients undergoing radiotherapy for various tumors. The patients will be followed for overt radiation sensitivity by standard criteria by clinicians in the Department. The main aims are: does RNA expression level in a 96 gene micro-array vary before and after radiation and do these changes in RNA expression correlate with the objective measurements of acute radiation response observed by the clinicians in the patients. The USC IRB recently approved the protocol and human consent for this study to enter 50 patients in the next 12 months using mostly head and neck and endometrial cancer patients where we can get a normal tissue sample to examine as well as the blood sample. We will present the rationale, protocol, methods and early results in detail

  15. The effects of preferred natural stimuli on humans' affective states, physiological stress and mental health, and the potential implications for well-being in captive animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Misha; Mason, Georgia J

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to certain natural stimuli improves people's moods, reduces stress, enhances stress resilience, and promotes mental and physical health. Laboratory studies and real estate prices also reveal that humans prefer environments containing a broad range of natural stimuli. Potential mediators of these outcomes include: 1) therapeutic effects of specific natural products; 2) positive affective responses to stimuli that signalled safety and resources to our evolutionary ancestors; 3) attraction to environments that satisfy innate needs to explore and understand; and 4) ease of sensory processing, due to the stimuli's "evolutionary familiarity" and/or their fractal, self-repeating properties. These processes, and the benefits humans gain from natural stimuli, seem to be largely innate. They thus have strong implications for other species (including laboratory, farm and zoo animals living in environments devoid of natural stimuli), suggesting that they too may have nature-related "sensory needs". By promoting positive affect and stress resilience, preferred natural stimuli (including views, sounds and odours) could therefore potentially provide effective and efficient ways to improve captive animal well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. How many proteins can be identified in a 2DE gel spot within an analysis of a complex human cancer tissue proteome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xianquan; Yang, Haiyan; Peng, Fang; Li, Jianglin; Mu, Yun; Long, Ying; Cheng, Tingting; Huang, Yuda; Li, Zhao; Lu, Miaolong; Li, Na; Li, Maoyu; Liu, Jianping; Jungblut, Peter R

    2018-04-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) in proteomics is traditionally assumed to contain only one or two proteins in each 2DE spot. However, 2DE resolution is being complemented by the rapid development of high sensitivity mass spectrometers. Here we compared MALDI-MS, LC-Q-TOF MS and LC-Orbitrap Velos MS for the identification of proteins within one spot. With LC-Orbitrap Velos MS each Coomassie Blue-stained 2DE spot contained an average of at least 42 and 63 proteins/spot in an analysis of a human glioblastoma proteome and a human pituitary adenoma proteome, respectively, if a single gel spot was analyzed. If a pool of three matched gel spots was analyzed this number further increased up to an average of 230 and 118 proteins/spot for glioblastoma and pituitary adenoma proteome, respectively. Multiple proteins per spot confirm the necessity of isotopic labeling in large-scale quantification of different protein species in a proteome. Furthermore, a protein abundance analysis revealed that most of the identified proteins in each analyzed 2DE spot were low-abundance proteins. Many proteins were present in several of the analyzed spots showing the ability of 2DE-MS to separate at the protein species level. Therefore, 2DE coupled with high-sensitivity LC-MS has a clearly higher sensitivity as expected until now to detect, identify and quantify low abundance proteins in a complex human proteome with an estimated resolution of about 500 000 protein species. This clearly exceeds the resolution power of bottom-up LC-MS investigations. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The IGF-I/JAK2-STAT3/miR-21 signaling pathway may be associated with human renal cell carcinoma cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ying; Zhao, An; Cheng, Guoping; Xu, Jingjing; Ji, Enming; Sun, Wenyong

    2017-07-04

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the highest mortality rate of the genitourinary cancers, and the treatment options are very limited. Thus, identification of molecular mechanisms underlying RCC tumorigenesis, is critical for identifying biomarkers for RCC diagnosis and prognosis. To validate whether the IGF-I/JAK2-STAT3/miR-21 signaling pathway is associated with human RCC cell growth. qRT-PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression levels, respectively. The MTT assay was performed to determine cell survival rate. The Annexin V-FITC/PI apoptosis detection kit was used to detect cell apoptosis. We employed RCC tissues and cell lines (A498; ACHN; Caki-1; Caki-2 and 786-O) in the study. IGF-I, and its inhibitor (NT-157) were administrated to detect the effects of IGF-I on the expression of miR-21 and p-JAK2. JAK2 inhibitor (AG490), and si-STAT3 were used to detect the effects of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway on the expression of miR-21. In our study, we firstly showed that the expression levels of IGF-I and miR-21 were up-regulated in RCC tissues and cell lines. After exogenous IGF-I treatment, the expression levels of miR-21, p-IGF-IR and p-JAK2 were significantly increased, whereas NT-157 treatment showed the reversed results. Further study indicated that JAK2 inhibitor or si-STAT3 significantly reversed the IGF-I-induced miR-21 expression level. Finally, we found that IGF-I treatment significantly prompted human RCC cell survival and inhibited cell apoptosis, and NT-157 treatment showed the reversed results. The IGF-I/JAK2-STAT3/miR-21 signaling pathway may be associated with human RCC cell growth.

  18. The impact of stroke aphasia on health and well-being and appropriate nursing interventions: an exploration using the Theory of Human Scale Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Juliana; McKeever, Margo

    2014-02-01

    This paper considers the impact of aphasia on health and well-being and provides suggestions for appropriate nursing interventions. Background.  Effective communication is essential to holistic care and positive outcomes for individuals affected by aphasia. When verbal communication is absent, nurses fail to adequately use alternative strategies so that the standard of nurse/patient communication is frequently poor. This is a discursive paper which reviews relevant literature and uses the Theory of Human Scale Development as a framework for discussion. The Theory of Human Scale Development is introduced. This theory emphasises that quality of life depends as much upon self-actualisation and relation building as on physical health. The theory is used within the discussion to highlight the significance of communication to quality of life and how its loss has profound psychological and social consequences. Aphasia results in 'loss of self'. The situation is exacerbated by inadequate healthcare communication strategies. Suggestions are offered regarding more appropriate strategies. Efficacy of family input is considered; nursing competence regarding language practice therapies is discussed, and the 'quest approach' is explored. Aphasia has a negative impact on relationships by denying access to support networks, which results in isolation. The individual's predicament is worsened by negative nursing responses. Positive nursing strategies, which alleviate effects of aphasia on individuals' social health, are investigated. Concept analysis and self-awareness exercises as methods of enhancing compassion skills are explored. The social model of disability is discussed to highlight the benefits to individuals of environmental adaptations. The social benefits of aphasia-group affiliation are discussed. The paper concludes by emphasising that fundamental human needs involve social and psychological as well as physical aspects. Nursing interventions must address all needs to

  19. The emergence of influenza A H7N9 in human beings 16 years after influenza A H5N1: a tale of two cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Kelvin K W; Chan, Jasper F W; Chen, Honglin; Li, Lanjuan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2013-09-01

    Infection with either influenza A H5N1 virus in 1997 or avian influenza A H7N9 virus in 2013 caused severe pneumonia that did not respond to typical or atypical antimicrobial treatment, and resulted in high mortality. Both viruses are reassortants with internal genes derived from avian influenza A H9N2 viruses that circulate in Asian poultry. Both viruses have genetic markers of mammalian adaptation in their haemagglutinin and polymerase PB2 subunits, which enhanced binding to human-type receptors and improved replication in mammals, respectively. Hong Kong (affected by H5N1 in 1997) and Shanghai (affected by H7N9 in 2013) are two rapidly flourishing cosmopolitan megacities that were increasing in human population and poultry consumption before the outbreaks. Both cities are located along the avian migratory route at the Pearl River delta and Yangtze River delta. Whether the widespread use of the H5N1 vaccine in east Asia-with suboptimum biosecurity measures in live poultry markets and farms-predisposed to the emergence of H7N9 or other virus subtypes needs further investigation. Why H7N9 seems to be more readily transmitted from poultry to people than H5N1 is still unclear. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Edaravone protects rats and human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells against hyperoxia injury: heme oxygenase-1 and PI3K/Akt pathway may be involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huifang; Feng, Ying; Ning, Yunye; Zhang, Zinan; Li, Weihao; Li, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Hyperoxic acute lung injury (HALI) is a clinical syndrome as a result of prolonged supplement of high concentrations of oxygen. As yet, no specific treatment is available for HALI. The present study aims to investigate the effects of edaravone on hyperoxia-induced oxidative injury and the underlying mechanism. We treated rats and human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells with hyperoxia and different concentration of edaravone, then examined the effects of edaravone on cell viability, cell injury and two oxidative products. The roles of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and PI3K/Akt pathway were explored using Western blot and corresponding inhibitors. The results showed that edaravone reduced lung biochemical alterations induced by hyperoxia and mortality of rats, dose-dependently alleviated cell mortality, cell injury, and peroxidation of cellular lipid and DNA oxidative damage. It upregulated cellular HO-1 expression and activity, which was reversed by PI3K/Akt pathway inhibition. The administration of zinc protoporphyrin-IX, a HO-1 inhibitor, and LY249002, a PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitor, abolished the protective effects of edaravone in cells. This study indicates that edaravone protects rats and human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells against hyperoxia-induced injury and the antioxidant effect may be related to upregulation of HO-1, which is regulated by PI3K/Akt pathway.

  1. Demonstration of tyrosinase in the vitiligo skin of human beings by a sensitive fluorometric method as well as by 14C(U)-L-tyrosine incorporation into melanin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, I.; Vijayan, E.; Ramaiah, A.; Pasricha, J.S.; Madan, N.C.

    1982-01-01

    Tyrosinase activity (Monophenol, dihydroxyphenylalanine: oxygen oxidoreductase EC 1.14.18.1) in vitiligo and normal epidermal homogenates of skin from human beings was measured by estimating beta 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) by a highly sensitive fluorometric method described in this paper. The tyrosine activity in the vitiligo skin was about 4 to 37% of corresponding normal skin. The activity of tyrosinase in normal human skin from different individuals and from different regions of the body was in the range of 4 to 140 picomoles of beta 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine formed per min/mg protein of epidermal homogenate. The enzyme from vitiligo and normal skin was severely inhibited by substance(s) of low molecular weight. The enzyme exhibits a lag of about 4 hr in the absence of added beta 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and 1 hr in presence of 5 microM dopa. Tyrosinase from the normal and vitiligo skin was inhibited by excess concentration of tyrosine. The homogenates from vitiligo skin could synthesize melanin from C14(U)-L-Tyrosine. The rate of tyrosine incorporation into melanin by the epidermal homogenates is increased by 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) disproportionate to its effect on tyrosinase activity. Based on the data presented in this paper it is concluded that melanocytes are present in the vitiligo skin. A tentative hypothesis is put forward to explain the lack of melanin synthesis by the vitiligo skin under in vivo conditions, although melanocytes are present

  2. Small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein alpha is present in human ovaries but may not be differentially expressed in relation to polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Miriam S; Yang, Xing; Ricciardelli, Carmela; Liang, Xiaoyan; Norman, Robert J; Tilley, Wayne D; Hickey, Theresa E

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the expression and function of small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein alpha (SGTA), an androgen receptor (AR) molecular chaperone, in human ovarian tissues. Examine the effect of SGTA on AR subcellular localization in granulosa tumor cells (KGN) and SGTA expression in ovarian tissues. University-based research laboratory. Archived tissues from premenopausal women and granulosa cells from infertile women receiving assisted reproduction. None. AR subcellular localization and SGTA protein or mRNA levels. SGTA and AR proteins were expressed in the cytoplasm of KGN cells and exposure to androgen stimulated AR nuclear localization. SGTA protein knockdown increased AR nuclear localization at low (0-0.1 nmol/L) but not high (1-10 nmol/L) concentrations of androgen hormone. In ovarian tissues, SGTA was localized to the cytoplasm of granulosa cells at all stages of folliculogenesis and in thecal cells of antral follicles. SGTA protein levels were similar when comparing primordial and primary follicles within core biopsies (n = 40) from women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Likewise, SGTA mRNA levels were not significantly different in granulosa cells from preovulatory follicles after hyperstimulation of women with and without PCOS. SGTA is present in human ovaries and has the potential to modulate AR signalling, but it may not be differentially expressed in PCOS. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. [Difficulties of the negotiation process of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Dignity of the Human Being with regard to the application of biology and medicine (and a call for its adhesion)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alba Ulloa, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Making an attempt to frame the controversial topic of bioethics within international law and with the aim of watching over the society, the Council of Europe elaborated the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Dignity of the Human Being with regard to the application of biology and medicine. The instrument, which came into force 12 years ago, is opened to all countries but only 29 states have ratified it. This legal document represents the base of a universal legislation on the subject. The present article examines the origin of the Convention, its process and evolution. It analyses the intense debates with regard to the human dignity, the freedom of science, the beginning of life, among others; equally it explores the interests at stake within the convention, whether political, moral, scientific, and economic, at the moment of its draft and in the present. Finally, the article analyses the possibility of the adoption of the Convention by the Mexican government. It concludes on the effectiveness of the international law of bioethics, and calls for the need that the Convention be used as a base for universal legislation.

  4. A study of the relationship between variables from the model of human occupation and subjective well-being among university students in jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Farzaneh; Jibril, Musa; Kielhofner, Gary

    2008-01-01

    The occupational role of a university student can create challenges that negatively affect subjective well-being. Cultural factors can make these problems particularly acute for students from Arab backgrounds. This study examined the relationship between variables derived from the Model of Human Occupation (MOHO) and Jordanian university students' subjective well-being. Using cluster sampling, a total of 670 participants were recruited from the undergraduate student body at the University of Jordan. Data were collected from these students using the Role checklist, the Occupational Self-Assessment, the Affectometer 2, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. As hypothesized, reported roles, valuation of roles, perceived competence in volition, habituation, performance capacity/skills, and the environment were significantly correlated with subjective well-being. A discriminant analysis using the most strongly correlated items significantly classified students into known groups of high and low subjective well-being. Overall, MOHO-based variables offered an effective explanation of factors that influence subjective well-being in Jordanian university students.

  5. Transcribed sequences in the human genome to be held in San Francisco, November 7 and 8, 1992. Final report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardiner, K.

    1993-11-01

    The Second International Workshop on the Identification of Transcribed Sequences was held in San Francisco on November 7--8, 1992. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss and evaluate techniques for developing a complete transcriptional map of the human genome. Such a map requires the positions, sequences, and expression patterns of all genes. This goal is being approached from two different directions, each with strengths and weaknesses. One method is to identify the transcribed sequences from genomic DNA of a given region; the other is to systematically sequence and map cDNAs. The cDNA approach yields sequence information rapidly, but mapping each cDNA is a technical challenge. In the first approach, the map locations of genomic sequences are known at the outset, and the challenge is to identify exons. The efficient construction of a transcriptional map will require a diverse array of techniques.

  6. Review of Evidence Suggesting That the Fascia Network Could Be the Anatomical Basis for Acupoints and Meridians in the Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Bai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical basis for the concept of meridians in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has not been resolved. This paper reviews the evidence supporting a relationship between acupuncture points/meridians and fascia. The reviewed evidence supports the view that the human body's fascia network may be the physical substrate represented by the meridians of TCM. Specifically, this hypothesis is supported by anatomical observations of body scan data demonstrating that the fascia network resembles the theoretical meridian system in salient ways, as well as physiological, histological, and clinical observations. This view represents a theoretical basis and means for applying modern biomedical research to examining TCM principles and therapies, and it favors a holistic approach to diagnosis and treatment.

  7. The vertical dispersión of Anopheles (Kerteszia cruzi in a forest in southern Brazil suggests that human cases of malaria of simian origin might be expected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas M. Deane

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available By staining females of Anopheles cruzi with fluorescent coloured powders in a forest in the State of Santa Catarina, we showed that they move from canopy to ground and vice-versa to feed. This suggests that in areas where this mosquito is a vector of human and simian malarias sporadic infections of man with monkey plasmodia might be expected.Pintando fêmeas de Anopheles cruzi com pós fluorescentes coloridos, numa floresta de Santa Catarina, mostramos que elas movimentam-se da copa ao solo e vice-versa para se alimentar de sangue. Isso sugere que em áreas onde esse mosquito for tansmissor das malárias humana e simiana pode-se esperar que ocorram infecções humanas esporádicas por plasmódios de macacos.

  8. How human brucellosis incidence in urban Kampala can be reduced most efficiently? A stochastic risk assessment of informally-marketed milk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Makita

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Kampala, Uganda, studies have shown a significant incidence of human brucellosis. A stochastic risk assessment involving two field surveys (cattle farms and milk shops and a medical record survey was conducted to assess the risk of human brucellosis infection through consumption of informally marketed raw milk potentially infected with Brucella abortus in Kampala and to identify the best control options.In the cattle farm survey, sera of 425 cows in 177 herds in the Kampala economic zone were sampled and tested for brucellosis using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CELISA. Farmers were interviewed for dairy information. In the milk shop surveys, 135 milk sellers in the urban areas were interviewed and 117 milk samples were collected and tested using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IELISA. A medical record survey was conducted in Mulago National Referral Hospital for serological test results. A risk model was developed synthesizing data from these three surveys. Possible control options were prepared based on the model and the reduction of risk was simulated for each scenario. Overall, 12.6% (6.8-18.9: 90%CI of informally marketed milk in urban Kampala was contaminated with B.abortus at purchase and the annual incidence rate was estimated to be 5.8 (90% CI: 5.3-6.2 per 10,000 people. The best control option would be the construction of a milk boiling centre either in Mbarara, the largest source of milk, or in peri-urban Kampala and to ensure that milk traders always sell milk to the boiling centre; 90% success in enforcing these two options would reduce risk by 47.4% (21.6-70.1: 90%CI and 82.0% (71.0-89.0: 90%CI, respectively.This study quantifies the risk of human brucellosis infection through informally marketed milk and estimates the incidence rate in Kampala for the first time; risk-based mitigation strategies are outlined to assist in developing policy.

  9. Additive mixture effects of estrogenic chemicals in human cell-based assays can be influenced by inclusion of chemicals with differing effect profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Mark Evans

    Full Text Available A growing body of experimental evidence indicates that the in vitro effects of mixtures of estrogenic chemicals can be well predicted from the estrogenicity of their components by the concentration addition (CA concept. However, some studies have observed small deviations from CA. Factors affecting the presence or observation of deviations could include: the type of chemical tested; number of mixture components; mixture design; and assay choice. We designed mixture experiments that address these factors, using mixtures with high numbers of components, chemicals from diverse chemical groups, assays with different in vitro endpoints and different mixture designs and ratios. Firstly, the effects of mixtures composed of up to 17 estrogenic chemicals were examined using estrogenicity assays with reporter-gene (ERLUX and cell proliferation (ESCREEN endpoints. Two mixture designs were used: 1 a 'balanced' design with components present in proportion to a common effect concentration (e.g. an EC(10 and 2 a 'non-balanced' design with components in proportion to potential human tissue concentrations. Secondly, the individual and simultaneous ability of 16 potential modulator chemicals (each with minimal estrogenicity to influence the assay outcome produced by a reference mixture of estrogenic chemicals was examined. Test chemicals included plasticizers, phthalates, metals, PCBs, phytoestrogens, PAHs, heterocyclic amines, antioxidants, UV filters, musks, PBDEs and parabens. In all the scenarios tested, the CA concept provided a good prediction of mixture effects. Modulation studies revealed that chemicals possessing minimal estrogenicity themselves could reduce (negatively modulate the effect of a mixture of estrogenic chemicals. Whether the type of modulation we observed occurs in practice most likely depends on the chemical concentrations involved, and better information is required on likely human tissue concentrations of estrogens and of potential

  10. Additive mixture effects of estrogenic chemicals in human cell-based assays can be influenced by inclusion of chemicals with differing effect profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Richard Mark; Scholze, Martin; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of experimental evidence indicates that the in vitro effects of mixtures of estrogenic chemicals can be well predicted from the estrogenicity of their components by the concentration addition (CA) concept. However, some studies have observed small deviations from CA. Factors affecting the presence or observation of deviations could include: the type of chemical tested; number of mixture components; mixture design; and assay choice. We designed mixture experiments that address these factors, using mixtures with high numbers of components, chemicals from diverse chemical groups, assays with different in vitro endpoints and different mixture designs and ratios. Firstly, the effects of mixtures composed of up to 17 estrogenic chemicals were examined using estrogenicity assays with reporter-gene (ERLUX) and cell proliferation (ESCREEN) endpoints. Two mixture designs were used: 1) a 'balanced' design with components present in proportion to a common effect concentration (e.g. an EC(10)) and 2) a 'non-balanced' design with components in proportion to potential human tissue concentrations. Secondly, the individual and simultaneous ability of 16 potential modulator chemicals (each with minimal estrogenicity) to influence the assay outcome produced by a reference mixture of estrogenic chemicals was examined. Test chemicals included plasticizers, phthalates, metals, PCBs, phytoestrogens, PAHs, heterocyclic amines, antioxidants, UV filters, musks, PBDEs and parabens. In all the scenarios tested, the CA concept provided a good prediction of mixture effects. Modulation studies revealed that chemicals possessing minimal estrogenicity themselves could reduce (negatively modulate) the effect of a mixture of estrogenic chemicals. Whether the type of modulation we observed occurs in practice most likely depends on the chemical concentrations involved, and better information is required on likely human tissue concentrations of estrogens and of potential modulators

  11. Can the controversy about the putative role of the human female orgasm in sperm transport be settled with our current physiological knowledge of coitus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Roy J

    2011-06-01

    Spermatozoal uptake, facilitated by uterine contractions induced by oxytocin at orgasm during coitus, has been a long term concept. Studies attempting its support, however, have been poorly examined especially in the context of the changes in the female genital tract activated by sexual arousal. To examine experimental support for the concept. Using a variety of search engines, mainly peer reviewed articles and un-reviewed books were examined relating to sperm transport and function in the human female genital tract in the absence and presence of arousal to orgasm. Identifying evidence-based data to support authority-based opinion. All the experimental observations of sperm or model substitute's transport have been undertaken in women who were not sexually aroused. They fail to take into account that arousal creates vaginal tenting lifting the cervico-uterine complex into the false pelvis away from the ejaculated semen. This delays sperm uptake and transport making conclusions from these observations invalid in relation to transport during coitus. Studies injecting oxytocin have not used women in their sexually aroused state and used supraphysiological doses unlikely to be comparable with coitus and orgasm. The proposal that the transport of extra sperm by oxytocin-induced uterine contractions at orgasm is needed to facilitate fertility ignores possible harm from increased sperm numbers creating polyspermy and sperm enzyme release causing ovum degeneration, leading to decreased fertility. The role of sperm motility in their uptake from the vagina into the cervix as opposed to en bloc transfer through uterine archimyometrial-mediated transport in the absence of orgasm is at present unresolvable because of conflicting studies. The bulk of the reported evidence favors the conclusion that the female orgasm, with its concomitant central release of oxytocin, has little or no effective role in the transport of spermatozoa in natural human coitus. © 2010 International

  12. Subcutaneous injection of thallium-201 chloride and gallium-67 citrate at acupuncture point K-3; An animal experiment and human-being study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johg, Shiang-Bin; Wu, Chung-Chieng; Chen, Ming-Feng; Wu, Sheng-Nan (Kaohsiung Medical Coll., Taiwan (China))

    1992-09-01

    Subcutaneous (SC) injection of [sup 99m]Tc pertechnetate ([sup 99m]Tc) at acupuncture points K-3 is a new method of lower-limb radionuclide venography. To investigate the mechanism of absorption of [sup 99m]Tc from SC injected sites into vascular system, various radioisotopes such as [sup 201]Tl chloride ([sup 201]Tl) and [sup 67]Ga citrate ([sup 67]Ga) were SC injected at K-3 points in animal and human-beings experiments. It was found that [sup 99m]Tc and [sup 201]Tl were absorbed rapidly from K-3 points through venous system and into whole body soft tissue. However, [sup 67]Ga with a larger effective ionic radius than [sup 201]Tl was not absorbed throughout the observation of 5 minutes. Furthermore, intravenous administration of digitalis, a Na[sup +]-K[sup +] pump blocker, did not inhibit the absorption of [sup 99m]Tc and [sup 201]Tl after SC injection at K-3 points. These results suggest that absorption of radionuclides on SC injection at K-3 points is mainly through the passive pathway of diffusion rather than the active transport, and the effective ionic radius may be a major factor influencing the absorption rate of the radionuclides. (author).

  13. Human platelet glycoprotein Ia. One component is only expressed on the surface of activated platelets and may be a granule constituent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienz, D.; Clemetson, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Glycoprotein Ia (GP Ia) is a relatively minor component of human blood platelets thought to be a receptor involved in collagen-induced platelet activation. However, some difficulties exist with the definition of this glycoprotein. The expression of GP Ia on resting (prostacyclin analogue-treated) and thrombin-activated platelets was compared by surface labeling with 125 I-lactoperoxidase. Intact platelets or platelets solubilized in sodium dodecyl sulfate were labeled with periodate/[ 3 H]NaBH 4 . Analysis on two-dimensional isoelectric focusing/sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels showed that GP Ia is very poorly labeled in resting platelets. After activation a new spot (GP Ia*) appears with the same relative molecular mass as GP Ia under reducing conditions. GP Ia and Ia* can be clearly separated by two-dimensional nonreduced/reduced gel electrophoresis. Therefore, two glycoproteins which have been termed GP Ia exist in platelets with similar molecular weight and pI under reducing conditions. One of these (GP Ia*) is only surface-labeled when platelets are activated, indicating that it is only exposed on the surface of activated platelets. Supernatant from activated platelets contains this glycoprotein as well as other granule components. This glycoprotein is missing in platelets from two patients with collagen-response defects

  14. Human MTHFR-G1793A transition may be a protective mutation against male infertility: a genetic association study and in silico analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian, Mohammad; Hosseinzadeh Colagar, Abasalt

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the association of the human methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR)-G1793A transition with male infertility using a case-control study, a meta-analysis and an in silico analysis. In the case-control study, 308 blood samples (169 infertile and 139 fertile men) were collected. MTHFR-G1793A genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP. The study revealed a significant protective association between the GA genotype (OR: 0.3737, 95%CI: 0.1874-0.7452, p = 0.0052) and A allele (OR: 0.4266, 95%CI: 0.2267-0.8030, p = 0.0083) with male infertility. Meta-analysis showed that the G1793A transition might be a protective mutation against male infertility in both A vs. G (OR: 0.608, 95%CI: 0.466-0.792, p silico-analysis revealed that although G1793A could not make fundamental changes in the function and structure of MTHFR, it could modify the structure of the mRNA (Distance =0.1809, p = 0.1095; p < 0.2 is significant). The results suggest that G1793A substitution might be a protective genetic factor against male infertility. However, further case-control studies are required to provide a more robust conclusion.

  15. Fisetin inhibits IL-31 production in stimulated human mast cells: Possibilities of fisetin being exploited to treat histamine-independent pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Denis Nchang; Cho, Byoung Ok; Shin, Jae Young; Kang, Hyun Ju; Kim, Young-Soo; Jang, Seon Il

    2018-05-15

    Interleukin-31 (IL-31) is a recently discovered cytokine that is tightly linked to the pathogenesis of pruritus seen in atopic dermatitis. Flavonoids, like fisetin, are naturally occurring molecules with antioxidant, cytoprotective, and anti-inflammatory actions. the present study sought to investigate whether fisetin modulates IL-31 and histamine release in human mast cells (HMC-1). HMC-1 cells were pretreated with fisetin at various doses and stimulated with phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PI) for different time intervals. We evaluated IL-31 production and histamine release and signaling mechanism of the action of fisetin on IL-31 production. We also investigated the effects of fisetin on scratching behaviors in mice. Fisetin decreased PI-stimulated mRNA expression and production of IL-31 in HMC-1 cells. Fisetin inhibited PI-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases that further suppressed nuclear factor (NF-κB) activation and translocation to the nucleus through the inhibition of IκB-α phosphorylation. Fisetin also prevented mast cell release of histamine in HMC-1 cells. Mice in-vivo studies show that fisetin reduced scratching behaviors in mice. These pharmacological actions of fisetin provide new suggestions that fisetin can be of potential use for the treatment of pruritus that cannot be treated with histamine receptor blockers alone. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sonar Subsea Images of Large Temples, Mammoths, Giant Sloths. Huge Artwork Carvings, Eroded Cities, Human Images, and Paleo Astronomy Sites that Must be Over Ten Thousand Years Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. L.

    2016-12-01

    Computer enhancing of side scanning sonar plots revealed images of massive art, apparent ruins of cities, and subsea temples. Some images are about four to twenty kilometers in length. Present water depths imply that many of the finds must have been created over ten thousand years ago. Also, large carvings of giant sloths, Ice Age elk, mammoths, mastodons, and other cold climate creatures concurrently indicate great age. In offshore areas of North America, some human faces have beards and what appear to be Caucasian characteristics that clearly contrast with the native tribal images. A few images have possible physical appearances associated with Polynesians. Contacts and at least limited migrations must have occurred much further in the ancient past than previously believed. Greatly rising sea levels and radical changes away from late Ice Age climates had to be devastating to very ancient civilizations. Many images indicate that these cultures were capable of construction and massive art at or near the technological level of the Old Kingdom in Egypt. Paleo astronomy is obvious in some plots. Major concerns are how to further evaluate, catalog, protect, and conserve the creations of those cultures.

  17. Fiscal 2000 report on result of R and D on robot system cooperating and coexisting with human beings. R and D on robot system cooperating and coexisting with human beings; 2000 nendo ningen kyocho kyozongata robot system kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    A highly safe and reliable robot is being developed capable of cooperating with human beings and executing complicated operations in a human working/living space. This paper describes the fiscal 2000 results. Development of robot motion library was continued for extended task for providing services to people in care houses for the aged controlling motions of the humanoid robot. A basic design for a personal service system by the humanoid robot was conducted with the aim of nursing assistance and for the objective of developing a portable terminal type tele-operation device. A public and a home cockpit were researched with the purpose of developing user interfaces for telexistence control. A dynamic simulator for humanoid robots was built, with motions of standing-up and walking examined, in order to develop basic theories for the dual-handed tasks aided by the leg-arm cooperative motion. To develop a robot that properly and safely cooperates and coexists with the human beings, it is essential to obtain a dynamically reasonable and natural control law, so that the basic studies were conducted in this direction. With the purpose of developing a motion capture and learning system, a virtual robot platform and an information acquiring interface were developed. Studies were also conducted on modeling technique for achieving realistic material properties from high-precision image synthesis and actual images. (NEDO)

  18. Survivin knockdown increased anti-cancer effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in human malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-BE2 and SH-SY5Y cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Md. Motarab [Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC (United States); Banik, Naren L. [Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Ray, Swapan K., E-mail: swapan.ray@uscmed.sc.edu [Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Neuroblastoma is a solid tumor that mostly occurs in children. Malignant neuroblastomas have poor prognosis because conventional chemotherapeutic agents are hardly effective. Survivin, which is highly expressed in some malignant neuroblastomas, plays a significant role in inhibiting differentiation and apoptosis and promoting cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. We examined consequences of survivin knockdown by survivin short hairpin RNA (shRNA) plasmid and then treatment with (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a green tea flavonoid, in malignant neuroblastoma cells. Our Western blotting and laser scanning confocal immunofluorescence microscopy showed that survivin was highly expressed in malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-BE2 and SH-SY5Y cell lines and slightly in SK-N-DZ cell line. Expression of survivin was very faint in malignant neuroblastoma IMR32 cell line. We transfected SK-N-BE2 and SH-SY-5Y cells with survivin shRNA, treated with EGCG, and confirmed knockdown of survivin at mRNA and protein levels. Survivin knockdown induced morphological features of neuronal differentiation, as we observed following in situ methylene blue staining. Combination of survivin shRNA and EGCG promoted neuronal differentiation biochemically by increases in the expression of NFP, NSE, and e-cadherin and also decreases in the expression of Notch-1, ID2, hTERT, and PCNA. Our in situ Wright staining and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining showed that combination therapy was highly effective in inducing, respectively, morphological and biochemical features of apoptosis. Apoptosis occurred with activation of caspase-8 and cleavage of Bid to tBid, increase in Bax:Bcl-2 ratio, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, and increases in the expression and activity of calpain and caspase-3. Combination therapy decreased migration of cells through matrigel and inhibited proliferative (p-Akt and NF-{kappa}B), invasive (MMP-2 and MMP-9), and angiogenic (VEGF and b-FGF) factors. Also, in vitro

  19. Yellow fever virus envelope protein expressed in insect cells is capable of syncytium formation in lepidopteran cells and could be used for immunodetection of YFV in human sera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagata Tatsuya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yellow fever is an haemorrhagic disease caused by a virus that belongs to the genus Flavivirus (Flaviviridae family and is transmitted by mosquitoes. Among the viral proteins, the envelope protein (E is the most studied one, due to its high antigenic potencial. Baculovirus are one of the most popular and efficient eukaryotic expression system. In this study a recombinant baculovirus (vSynYFE containing the envelope gene (env of the 17D vaccine strain of yellow fever virus was constructed and the recombinant protein antigenicity was tested. Results Insect cells infected with vSynYFE showed syncytium formation, which is a cytopathic effect characteristic of flavivirus infection and expressed a polypeptide of around 54 kDa, which corresponds to the expected size of the recombinant E protein. Furthermore, the recombinant E protein expression was also confirmed by fluorescence microscopy of vSynYFE-infected insect cells. Total vSynYFE-infected insect extracts used as antigens detected the presence of antibodies for yellow fever virus in human sera derived from yellow fever-infected patients in an immunoassay and did not cross react with sera from dengue virus-infected patients. Conclusions The E protein expressed by the recombinant baculovirus in insect cells is antigenically similar to the wild protein and it may be useful for different medical applications, from improved diagnosis of the disease to source of antigens for the development of a subunit vaccine.

  20. TC-1 Overexpression Promotes Cell Proliferation in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer that Can Be Inhibited by PD173074

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Bai, Guangzhen; Zhong, Daixing; Su, Kai; Liu, Boya; Li, Xiaofei; Wang, Yunjie; Wang, Xiaoping

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid cancer-1 (TC-1), a natively disordered protein, is widely expressed in vertebrates and overexpressed in many kinds of tumors. However, its exact role and regulation mechanism in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are still unclear. In the present study, we found that TC-1 is highly expressed in NSCLC and that its aberrant expression is strongly associated with NSCLC cell proliferation. Exogenous TC-1 overexpression promotes cell proliferation, accelerates the cell G1-to-S-phase transition, and reduces apoptosis in NSCLC. The knockdown of TC-1, however, inhibits NSCLC cell proliferation, cycle transition, and apoptosis resistance. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that PD173074, which functions as an inhibitor of the TC-1 in NSCLC, decreases the expression of TC-1 and inhibits TC-1 overexpression mediated cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Nevertheless, the inhibition function of PD173074 on NSCLC cell proliferation was eliminated in cells with TC-1 knockdown. These results suggest that PD173074 plays a significant role in TC-1 overexpression mediated NSCLC cell proliferation and may be a potential intervention target for the prevention of cell proliferation in NSCLC. PMID:24941347