Full Text Available Introduction. The incorporation of mobile phones in the daily life of human being not only alters space and time dimensions, but it also changes the perception and the way we relate with the ecosystem. Methodology. The state of the art is analyzed from the technological concept of intimacy, used by Boyce and Hancock, which describes the levels of interaction between man and technology. Then, a methodology to explore issues increasingly pressing is proposed, especially, concerning the delimitation of public and private spheres and the interaction in the common space. Results and conclusions. Following in particular the theories of Castells, Heidegger, Meyrowitz and Habermas; a set of categories for deepening the concepts of spatialization, willingness and profile are articulated. These concepts are identified as key elements in this first stage of the project for the analysis of the human being as a communication portal.
Valdivia-Gómez, Gilberto Guzmán; Velasco-Jiménez, María Teresa; Domínguez-González, Alejandro; Meneses-Ruíz, Dulce María; Padilla-García, Raúl Amauri
Research projects must demonstrate not only a rigorous scientific methodology, but also the ethical aspects that require profound reflection of the reviewers. Current regulations establish criteria for research projects on human health, but many of these aspects are subjective. How can the evaluation of such projects be standardized? This is the main subject of the current project. This project comprises two phases. First, the design and construction of an instrument of evaluation based on the fundamental principles of bioethics, which are autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice, and other aspects. The second phase consists of content validation through expert. During the phase of reviewing the instrument, it was necessary to make changes by adding, removing, or changing the concepts or criteria, which lead to the construction of the second version of the format. This new instrument was reviewed and analyzed by using the AGREE II instrument, and this version was validated by experts by greater than 95%. There are some recommendations to analyze the ethical aspects in research protocols involving human subjects, but they define the concepts and criteria to be evaluated. By presenting the criteria to be evaluated individually, the "La Salle instrument" allows the evaluation to be more objective and standardized.
Centering on strategic objective of reform and development,CIAE formulated its objectives in human resource construction for the 13th Five-year Plan period,and achieved new apparent progress in human resource construction in 2015.1 Implementation of"LONGMA Project"
Menninghaus, Winfried; Wagner, Valentin; Hanich, Julian; Wassiliwizky, Eugen; Kuehnast, Milena; Jacobsen, Thomas
The emotional state of being moved, though frequently referred to in both classical rhetoric and current language use, is far from established as a well-defined psychological construct. In a series of three studies, we investigated eliciting scenarios, emotional ingredients, appraisal patterns,
Jaeger, M.; Adair, D.
Successful construction management depends primarily on the representatives of the involved construction project parties. In addition to effective application of construction management tools and concepts, human factors impact significantly on the processes of any construction management endeavour. How can human factors in construction management…
Daeubler-Gmelin, H.; Adlerstein, W.
If a society decides to make use of the advantages of technologies that at the same time bear extensive potentials of harm, society has to prevent abuse of these potentials. Physical protection and other security measures inevitably entail a curtailment of personal liberty. The civil rights will not provide sufficient protection against such creeping loss of personal freedom. The high priority of the objects of legal protection in question will make it necessary to specify the civil rights according to conditions if the security measures are to become effective in practice. Weighing the legal merits and the principle of reasonableness will be the main instruments that will pave the way for a camouflaged change of legal concepts and, finally, a factual restriction of civil rights. Any policy of law intended to protect the civil rights therefore will have to clain responsible participation in research activities, technological development, and energy policy. The policy of law has to take care that the criterion of compatibility with the constitution, the weakening or strengthening effect of a technological system on the civil rights, will duly be taken into account in the process of democratic technology steering, and as early as possible. (orig./HSCH) [de
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
, their creativity is discouraged in many ways. We conceptualise creativity developmentally: It is possible to use activities, teaching methods, motivation and procedures to enhance and develop creativity, even in older people. This paper gives some guides that can be used both at home and at work to explore......, enhance and develop ones own creativity and the creativity of others. Each suggestion is presented from a practical viewpoint and then related to some of the tools and concepts that scientists and artists use in their creative endeavours....
Warren, Stephen G.
Historical examples of demographic change, in China, Italy, Nigeria, Utah, Easter Island, and elsewhere, together with simple mathematics and biological principles, show that stabilizing world population before it is limited by food supply will be more difficult than is generally appreciated. United Nations population projections are wrong because they assume, in spite of the absence of necessary feedbacks, that all nations will converge rapidly to replacement-level fertility and thereafter remain at that level. Education of women and provision of contraceptives have caused dramatic reductions in fertility, but many groups, including some that are well-educated, maintain high fertility. Small groups with persistent high fertility can grow to supplant low-fertility groups, resulting in continued growth of the total population. The global average fertility rate could rise even if each country's fertility rate is falling. In some low-fertility European countries where deaths exceed births, the population continues to grow because of immigration. Producing more than two offspring is normal for all animal species with stable populations because their populations are limited by resources or predation rather than birth control. It may therefore be appropriate to view the growth of human population as the result not of excess fertility but rather of excess food.
King, S. Claire
Describes some efforts to ensure that teachers in the United States understand and teach about the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Although the declaration is 50 years old, it is not as well known in the United States as it is in other parts of the world. Teaching its content and meaning to children is discussed. (SLD)
Your story 'Thousands of nurses leave NHS posts to maintain work-life balance' (online news, 3 March) made me think. Maybe it would be better if employers didn't break the Working Time Directive, making us swap from a 12-hour night shift to a 14-hour day with no day off in-between, or two long days in a row with not enough time to go home, shower, sleep and get ready for work between them.
Nørgaard, Britta Kusk
, but also an educational level regarding the professionals’ ability to cope with essential values, dilemmas and ethics are in focus. Many findings could be the same for the field of Alzheimer’s and Dementia. In Denmark our way of fulfilling the UNConvention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities needs......AIMs: In a world where you see NPM, evidence based methods and financial cut downs it is likely that values as understanding, communication and recognition are under pressure in the professional work with people with intellectual disabilities – especially if the disability is invisible. Methods......: A phenomenological investigation based on life world interviews, observations combined with document analysis and discourse analysis – integrating perspectives of persons with invisible intellectual disabilities as well as professionals in the field. Results: The field needs focus. Structural obstacles are obvious...
Predictive processing models of cognition are promising an elegant way to unite action, perception, and learning. However, in the current formulations, they are species-unspecific and have very little particularly human about them. I propose to examine how, in this framework, humans can be able to massively interact and to build shared worlds that are both material and symbolic.
Author deals the intention of Ministry of Land-management to build water dam Slatinka and water basins Garajky, Hroncek and Tichy Potok. The report about construction of water basins forecasts that in 2015 it will be the lack of water in capacity in amount of 1910 dm 3 /sec in Eastern Slovakia. Conception takes into account that average specific need of water is almost minimally 330 dm 3 per inhabitant and day, plans in 80's predicted consumption of 430 dm 3 in 1990. But the need of drinking water is descending from the beginning of 90's. The need of drinking water has descended in 30-40 per cent in the last decade. According to office of water management approximately 15 billion Slovak crowns are necessary for the construction of four new water dams. Estimation of expenses for construction of existing buildings was very inaccurate. E.g. water dam Zilina had to cost 4.2 billions Slovak crowns, but it cost lastly 13.2 billions Slovak crown and it is still not complete. Author notes that already built water basins are used only at 15-40%. It is speculated about support of construction of water basins from European Union funds. Consumption and production of drinking water in Slovak Republic are presented
Mar 29, 2010 ... Recombinant retroviral vector containing human tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) gene was ..... heavy metal ions, the protein could be express in an .... involves adhesion, degradation and movement. To.
Organized crime - Trafficking in human beings This thesis deals with the criminal offence of trafficking in human beings under Sec. 168 of the Czech Criminal Code. A trafficking in human being is not a frequent criminal offence but with its consequences belongs to the most dangerous crimes. After the Velvet revolution the relevance of this crime has raised subsequently and therefore the regulation of this crime requires particular attention. It is important to find new ways and improve curren...
Rhind, Susan M; Taylor, Jane E; De Sousa, Paul A; King, Tim J; McGarry, Michelle; Wilmut, Ian
There are continued claims of attempts to clone humans using nuclear transfer, despite the serious problems that have been encountered in cloning other mammals. It is known that epigenetic and genetic mechanisms are involved in clone failure, but we still do not know exactly how. Human reproductive cloning is unethical, but the production of cells from cloned embryos could offer many potential benefits. So, can human cloning be made safe?
A new Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) study of 26 nuclear projects shows a decrease in the leadtime for nuclear plants under construction in contrast to the findings of other studies. The EPRI study plots construction leadtime against the year of construction permit issuance rather than the year of completion, and it eliminates management delays, physical plant differences, and management differences. The result is a two-part trendline reflecting the discontinuity of regulatory ratchet effects, which cause 50% of construction leadtime delay while labor material delivery problems account for 20% and deliberate delays 22% of leadtime delay. When allowance is made for deliberate delays, there is no growth in construction leadtime. There was no correlation of utility finances, the accuracy of load growth forecasts, or the state regulatory environment to the length of construction. 3 figures,
Human cloning, organ cloning and tissue cloning are various types of cloning that occur at different levels with different methodologies. According to three standards of terminology for an embryo (fertilization through germ cells, development in the uterus and having the potential to produce a human life), tissue cloning and type I organ cloning will not produce an embryo. In contrast, human cloning and type II organ cloning will produce an embryo. Thus, only non-germinal tissue cloning and type I organ cloning are beyond the ethical question and will not change human beings as a species. Using cloned tissues to make new tissues or organs is promising for the future of medicine.
Nilsson, Nils J.
I claim that achieving real human-level artificial intelligence would necessarily imply that most of the tasks that humans perform for pay could be automated. Rather than work toward this goal of automation by building special-purpose systems, I argue for the development of general-purpose, educable systems that can learn and be taught to perform any of the thousands of jobs that humans can perform. Joining others who have made similar proposals, I advocate beginning with a system that has mi...
Lawrence, David R; Brazier, Margaret
Novel beings-intelligent, conscious life-forms sapient in the same way or greater than are human beings-are no longer the preserve of science fiction. Through technologies such as artificial general intelligence, synthetic genomics, gene printing, cognitive enhancement, advanced neuroscience, and more, they are becoming ever more likely and by some definitions may already be emerging. Consideration of the nature of intelligent, conscious novel beings such as those that may result from these technologies requires analysis of the concept of the 'reasonable creature in being' in English law, as well as of the right to life as founded in the European Convention on Human Rights and the attempts to endow human status on animals in recent years. Our exploration of these issues leads us to conclude that there is a strong case to recognize such 'novel' beings as entitled to the same fundamental rights to life, freedom from inhumane treatment, and liberty as we are.
The prevailing theorizing of globalization's influence of human well-being suggests to assess both the favorable and unfavorable outcomes. This study formulates a dialectical model, adopts a comprehensive globalization measure and uses a three-wave panel data during 1980-2000 to empirically test direct and indirect effects of global flows' human…
Raghavan, Shreya; Miyasaka, Eiichi A; Gilmont, Robert R; Somara, Sita; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Bitar, Khalil N
The internal anal sphincter (IAS) is a major contributing factor to pressure within the anal canal and is required for maintenance of rectoanal continence. IAS damage or weakening results in fecal incontinence. We have demonstrated that bioengineered, intrinsically innervated, human IAS tissue replacements possess key aspects of IAS physiology, such as the generation of spontaneous basal tone and contraction/relaxation in response to neurotransmitters. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of implantation of bioengineered IAS constructs in the perianal region of athymic rats. Human IAS tissue constructs were bioengineered from isolated human IAS circular smooth muscle cells and human enteric neuronal progenitor cells. After maturation of the bioengineered constructs in culture, they were implanted operatively into the perianal region of athymic rats. Platelet-derived growth factor was delivered to the implanted constructs through a microosmotic pump. Implanted constructs were retrieved from the animals 4 weeks postimplantation. Animals tolerated the implantation well, and there were no early postoperative complications. Normal stooling was observed during the implantation period. At harvest, implanted constructs were adherent to the perirectal rat tissue and appeared healthy and pink. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed neovascularization. Implanted smooth muscle cells maintained contractile phenotype. Bioengineered constructs responded in vitro in a tissue chamber to neuronally evoked relaxation in response to electrical field stimulation and vasoactive intestinal peptide, indicating the preservation of neuronal networks. Our results indicate that bioengineered innervated IAS constructs can be used to augment IAS function in an animal model. This is a regenerative medicine based therapy for fecal incontinence that would directly address the dysfunction of the IAS muscle. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Cooperation and compassion are forms of intelligence. Their lack is an indication of ongoing stress or toxic stress during development that undermined the usual growth of compassion capacities. Though it is hard to face at first awareness, humans in the dominant culture tend to be pretty unintelligent compared to those from societies that existed sustainably for thousands, sometimes tens of thousands, of years. Whereas in sustainable societies everyone must learn to cooperate with earth’s systems to survive and thrive, in the dominant culture this is no longer the case. Now due to technological advances that do not take into account the long-term welfare of earth systems, humans have become “free riders” until these systems collapse from abuse or misuse. The dominant human culture, a “weed species,” has come to devastate planetary ecosystems in a matter of centuries. What do we do to return ourselves to living as earth creatures, as one species among many in community? Humanity needs to restore lost capacities—relational attunement and communal imagination—whose loss occurs primarily in cultures dominated by child-raising practices and ways of thinking that undermine cooperative companionship and a sense of partnership that otherwise develops from the beginning of life. To plant the seeds of cooperation, democracy, and partnership, we need to provide the evolved nest to children, and facilitate the development of ecological attachment to their landscape. This will take efforts at the individual, policy, and institutional levels.
Ayala, Francisco J.
In The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, published in 1871, Charles Darwin wrote: “I fully … subscribe to the judgment of those writers who maintain that of all the differences between man and the lower animals the moral sense or conscience is by far the most important.” I raise the question of whether morality is biologically or culturally determined. The question of whether the moral sense is biologically determined may refer either to the capacity for ethics (i.e., the proclivity to judge human actions as either right or wrong), or to the moral norms accepted by human beings for guiding their actions. I propose that the capacity for ethics is a necessary attribute of human nature, whereas moral codes are products of cultural evolution. Humans have a moral sense because their biological makeup determines the presence of three necessary conditions for ethical behavior: (i) the ability to anticipate the consequences of one's own actions; (ii) the ability to make value judgments; and (iii) the ability to choose between alternative courses of action. Ethical behavior came about in evolution not because it is adaptive in itself but as a necessary consequence of man's eminent intellectual abilities, which are an attribute directly promoted by natural selection. That is, morality evolved as an exaptation, not as an adaptation. Moral codes, however, are outcomes of cultural evolution, which accounts for the diversity of cultural norms among populations and for their evolution through time. PMID:20445091
Thomas D. Wickham; Harry C. Zinn
Human territory research has generally been focused in a variety of settings including urban neighborhoods, libraries, mall parking lots, and areas around phones in public places. It refers to an intertwined system of emotions, beliefs, and behaviors that are place specific, socially and culturally influenced, and are linked to person-place transactions dealing with...
M. Alba Martínez Amorós
Full Text Available The idea of «human nature» defended by Ortega y Gasset is as original as opposite to what is usually understood. We are making a mistake if the starting point is to conceive Man as one living being among others. Neither science nor philosophy, while remaining in the Eleatic tradition, can give a clear explanation. Science, because if we look at Man, as he is presented to us, it is impossible to distinguish in him materially from spiritually; his body and his psyche. Philosophy, because the concept of «human nature» is an invention of our reason, a fantasy. That nature doesn’t exist because the being of man is so strange and different from other beings that its consistency is just going to be what it never manages to be. Therefore, it is what happens, a journey, a history that is running within a circumstance. This is my life, and that of everyone.
Niu, DongLing; Wang, RuiLing; Zhao, YaE; Yang, Rui; Hu, Li; Lei, YuYang; Dan, WeiChao
The research of Demodex, a type of pathogen causing various dermatoses in animals and human beings, is lacking at RNA level. This study aims at extracting RNA and constructing cDNA library for Demodex. First, P. cuniculiand D. farinaewere mixed to establish homogenization method for RNA extraction. Second, D. folliculorumand D. breviswere collected and preserved in Trizol, which were mixed with D. farinaerespectively to extract RNA. Finally, cDNA library was constructed and its quality was assessed. The results indicated that for D. folliculorum& D. farinae, the recombination rate of cDNA library was 90.67% and the library titer was 7.50 × 104 pfu/ml. 17 of the 59 positive clones were predicted to be of D. folliculorum; For D. brevis& D. farinae, the recombination rate was 90.96% and the library titer was 7.85 x104 pfu/ml. 40 of the 59 positive clones were predicted to be of D. brevis. Further detection by specific primers demonstrated that mtDNA cox1, cox3and ATP6 detected from cDNA libraries had 96.52%-99.73% identities with the corresponding sequences in GenBank. In conclusion, the cDNA libraries constructed for Demodexmixed with D. farinaewere successful and could satisfy the requirements for functional genes detection.
This paper is about the evolution of hominin intelligence. I agree with defenders of the social intelligence hypothesis in thinking that externalist models of hominin intelligence are not plausible: such models cannot explain the unique cognition and cooperation explosion in our lineage, for changes in the external environment (e.g. increasing environmental unpredictability) affect many lineages. Both the social intelligence hypothesis and the social intelligence-ecological complexity hybrid I outline here are niche construction models. Hominin evolution is hominin response to selective environments that earlier hominins have made. In contrast to social intelligence models, I argue that hominins have both created and responded to a unique foraging mode; a mode that is both social in itself and which has further effects on hominin social environments. In contrast to some social intelligence models, on this view, hominin encounters with their ecological environments continue to have profound selective effects. However, though the ecological environment selects, it does not select on its own. Accidents and their consequences, differential success and failure, result from the combination of the ecological environment an agent faces and the social features that enhance some opportunities and suppress others and that exacerbate some dangers and lessen others. Individuals do not face the ecological filters on their environment alone, but with others, and with the technology, information and misinformation that their social world provides.
I am going to discuss some present-day tendencies in the development of the very old debate on nature vs nurture. There is a widespread position describing the history of this debate as a pendulum-like process. Some three decades ago there was a time of overwhelming prevalence of the position stressing social factors in determining human character and behavior; now the pendulum has come to the opposite side and those who stress the role of biology, of genes are in favor. Yet in my view rather acute opposition of both positions still exists. Its existence depends not so much on new scientific discoveries as on some social and cultural factors which are more conservative than the development of science. More than that, we can even talk about competition of these two positions.
Full Text Available The hypothesis from which we start our approach is the one according to which the philosophicaldiscourse is a specific way of communicating the reality. The base of the philosophical communication issurprise, doubt, uncertainty, anxiety, all generated by the fundamental interrogations of Kantian origin: Howmuch am I able to know? What do I have to do? What am I allowed to hope? The answers to all thesequestions were set up in philosophical concepts and visions, all of them leading to communication, trying toexpress themselves and make themselves understood. Communicability is the very essence of thephilosophical approach. Actually, communication is a fundamental philosophical attitude as I, in my capacityof human being, live only with the other, in full interaction. On my own I am nothing. Throughout this paperwe find arguments for the idea according to which the philosophical discourse subordinates an art ofgenuinely living and communicating about balance and avoidance of excess, about the ability to assume andovercome, about lucidity and wisdom, about credibility, certainty and truth, about freedom and limitation,about the meaning and value of the human condition.
Warren, S. G.
Historical examples of demographic change, in China, Italy, Nigeria, Utah, the Philippines, and elsewhere, together with simple mathematics and biological principles, show that stabilizing world population before it is limited by food supply will be more difficult than is generally appreciated. United Nations population projections are based on a logical fallacy in that they assume, in spite of the absence of necessary negative feedbacks, that all nations will converge rapidly to replacement-level fertility and thereafter remain at that level. The benign projections that have resulted from this assumption may have hindered efforts to make availability of birth-control a priority in development-aid. Education of women and provision of contraceptives have caused dramatic reductions in fertility, but many groups, including some that are well-educated, maintain high fertility. Small groups with persistent high fertility can grow to supplant low-fertility groups, resulting in continued growth of the total population. The global average fertility rate could rise even if each country's fertility rate is falling. In some low-fertility European countries where deaths exceed births, the population continues to grow because of immigration. Producing more than two offspring is normal for all animal species with stable populations, because their populations are limited by resources or predation rather than birth control. It may therefore be appropriate to view the growth of human population as the result not of excess fertility but rather of excess food. Even if the fertility rate is maintained far in excess of 2, the population cannot grow if food is limiting. Without the agricultural advances of the 20thcentury, world population could not have grown as it did from 1.7 billion in 1900 to 6 billion in 2000. The food supply may be enhanced in the future by genetic engineering and other innovations, but it may be limited by water shortage, climate change, pollution, and energy
Howard, Rhoda E.
Believes that the purpose of human rights is to change many culturally ingrained habits and customs that violate the dignity of the individual. Expounds the differences between cultural relativism and cultural absolutism. States that "weak" cultural relativism is sometimes an appropriate response to human-rights violations. (CMK)
Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove; Phillipson, Robert
"European" identities may be politonymic, toponymic, ethnomyic or linguonymic (Bromley 1984). Each dimension may affect whether migrant minorities are treated as "European", and influence their schooling, integration and rights. Treatment and terminology vary in different states and periods of migration. However, the position for immigrated minorities is that they are still largely seen as workers rather than human beings with equal rights. Lack of success in schools is blamed on the migrants themselves rather than the educational system. This construction of migrants as being deficient is parallel to educational practice which falls within a UN definition of linguistic genocide, and contributes to mis-education. If current efforts in international bodies to codify educational linguistic human rights were to lead to greater support for minorities, this could assist in a redefinition of national identities and a reduction of racism and conflict.
To the best of our knowledge, the genetic foundations that guide human brain development have not changed fundamentally during the past 50,000 years. However, because of their cognitive potential, humans have changed the world tremendously in the past centuries. They have invented technical devices, institutions that regulate cooperation and competition, and symbol systems, such as script and mathematics, that serve as reasoning tools. The exceptional learning ability of humans allows newborns to adapt to the world they are born into; however, there are tremendous individual differences in learning ability among humans that become obvious in school at the latest. Cognitive psychology has developed models of memory and information processing that attempt to explain how humans learn (general perspective), while the variation among individuals (differential perspective) has been the focus of psychometric intelligence research. Although both lines of research have been proceeding independently, they increasingly converge, as both investigate the concepts of working memory and knowledge construction. This review begins with presenting state-of-the-art research on human information processing and its potential in academic learning. Then, a brief overview of the history of psychometric intelligence research is combined with presenting recent work on the role of intelligence in modern societies and on the nature-nurture debate. Finally, promising approaches to integrating the general and differential perspective will be discussed in the conclusion of this review.
Wroe, Stephen; Ferrara, Toni L.; McHenry, Colin R.; Curnoe, Darren; Chamoli, Uphar
Diminished bite force has been considered a defining feature of modern Homo sapiens, an interpretation inferred from the application of two-dimensional lever mechanics and the relative gracility of the human masticatory musculature and skull. This conclusion has various implications with regard to the evolution of human feeding behaviour. However, human dental anatomy suggests a capacity to withstand high loads and two-dimensional lever models greatly simplify muscle architecture, yielding less accurate results than three-dimensional modelling using multiple lines of action. Here, to our knowledge, in the most comprehensive three-dimensional finite element analysis performed to date for any taxon, we ask whether the traditional view that the bite of H. sapiens is weak and the skull too gracile to sustain high bite forces is supported. We further introduce a new method for reconstructing incomplete fossil material. Our findings show that the human masticatory apparatus is highly efficient, capable of producing a relatively powerful bite using low muscle forces. Thus, relative to other members of the superfamily Hominoidea, humans can achieve relatively high bite forces, while overall stresses are reduced. Our findings resolve apparently discordant lines of evidence, i.e. the presence of teeth well adapted to sustain high loads within a lightweight cranium and mandible. PMID:20554545
Sofronov Daniil Sergeevich
Full Text Available Human resources serve as the basis for development of the national economy, as a whole, and the construction industry, as its constituent part. The problem of inferior labor productivity within the framework of the national economy and its construction industry is considered in the paper. The author has identified the reasons why the productivity of the national economy and its construction industry is low. Low quality manpower is one of the reasons. Analysis of the statistical information has proven that the quality of the manpower in the construction industry is unsatisfactory. The author has also analyzed the relation between the construction industry development pattern and the quality of the manpower. Low manpower quality is a consequence of low personnel training and development expenditures assumed by local construction companies, if compared to the same assumed in the developed economies. Russian businesses do not invest any proceeds into their employees, as any employee may leave the company at any moment, and the employer will lose the investment. Therefore, the performance rate of the Russian construction industry cannot catch up with its western counterpart. The author also provides the analysis of the western personnel development concept. The author also makes his suggestions designated to reverse the unfavourable trend of the construction industry.
... must be included in the construction project agreement? The construction project agreement must include..., and (d) An assurance that no action will be taken on the construction phase of the project that would... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What environmental considerations must be included...
Full Text Available Network neuroscience leverages diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and tractography to quantify structural connectivity of the human brain. However, scientists and practitioners lack a clear understanding of the effects of varying tractography parameters on the constructed structural networks. With diffusion images from the Human Connectome Project (HCP, we characterize how structural networks are impacted by the spatial resolution of brain atlases, total number of tractography streamlines, and grey matter dilation with various graph metrics. We demonstrate how injudicious combinations of highly refined brain parcellations and low numbers of streamlines may inadvertently lead to disconnected network models with isolated nodes. Furthermore, we provide solutions to significantly reduce the likelihood of generating disconnected networks. In addition, for different tractography parameters, we investigate the distributions of values taken by various graph metrics across the population of HCP subjects. Analyzing the ranks of individual subjects within the graph metric distributions, we find that the ranks of individuals are affected differently by atlas scale changes. Our work serves as a guideline for researchers to optimize the selection of tractography parameters and illustrates how biological characteristics of the brain derived in network neuroscience studies can be affected by the choice of atlas parcellation schemes. Diffusion tractography has been proven to be a promising noninvasive technique to study the network properties of the human brain. However, how various tractography and network construction parameters affect network properties has not been studied using a large cohort of high-quality data. We utilize data provided by the Human Connectome Project to characterize the changes to network properties induced by varying the brain parcellation atlas scales, the number of reconstructed tractography tracks, and the degree of grey
This book presents the results of physics, biology, environment and chemistry experts discussions concerning the climatic change. What do we know from the passed climates? Can we forecast those of the next ten years? What is the part of the human activities in this evolution? What can we do and what must we do? (A.L.B.)
Chen, Duo-Ling; Dong, Liu-Xin; Li, Meng; Guo, Xiao-Juan; Wang, Min; Liu, Xin-Feng; Lu, Zhuo-Zhuang; Hung, Tao
Human adenovirus type 41 (HAdV-41) is well known for its fastidiousness in cell culture. To construct an infectious clone of HAdV-41, a DNA fragment containing the left and right ends of HAdV-41 as well as a kanamycin resistance gene and a pBR322 replication origin was excised from the previously constructed plasmid pAd41-GFP. Using homologous recombination, the plasmid pKAd41 was generated by co-transformation of the E. coli BJ5183 strain with this fragment and HAdV-41 genomic DNA. Virus was rescued from pKAd41-transfected 293TE7 cells, a HAdV-41 E1B55K-expressing cell line. The genomic integrity of the rescued virus was verified by restriction analysis and sequencing. Two fibers on the virion were confirmed by western blot. Immunofluorescence showed that more expression of the hexon protein could be found in 293TE7 cells than in 293 cells after HAdV-41 infection. The feature of non-lytic replication was preserved in 293TE7 cells, since very few progeny HAdV-41 viruses were released to the culture medium. These results show that pKAd41 is an effective infectious clone and suggest that the combination of pKAd41 and 293TE7 cells is an ideal system for virological study of HAdV-41.
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May construction project agreements be amended? 137... of the Secretary in Establishing and Implementing Construction Project Agreements § 137.362 May construction project agreements be amended? Yes, the Self-Governance Tribe, at its discretion, may request the...
The aim of HuLCC (the human language chorus corpus), is to provide a resource of sufficient size to facilitate inter-language analysis by incorporating languages from all the major language families: for the first time all aspects of typology will be incorporated within a single corpus, adhering to a consistent grammatical classification and granularity, which historically adopt a plethora of disparate schemes. An added feature will be the inclusion of a common text element, which will be translated across all languages, to provide a precise comparable thread for detailed linguistic analysis for translation strategies and a mechanism by which these mappings can be explicitly achieved. Methods developed to solve unambiguous mappings across these languages can then be adopted for any subsequent message authored by the SETI community. Initially, it is planned to provide at least 20,000 words for each chosen language, as this amount of text exceeds the point where randomly generated text can be disambiguated from natural language and is of sufficient size useful for message transmission  (Elliot, 2002). This paper details the design of this resource, which ultimately will be made available to SETI upon its completion, and discusses issues 'core' to any message construction.
Watermeyer, Brian; Kathard, Harsha
The centrality of communicating in human life means that communication difficulties are experienced at a deeply personal level and have significant implications for identity. Intervention methods may interact positively or negatively with these experiences. This paper explores this intersection in the case of stuttering, suggesting that some intervention styles may dovetail unhelpfully with the "mainstream" prizing of normalcy. In particular, most "western" societies offer a performance-oriented milieu which prizes efficiency, immediacy and competitiveness, diverting energy from the equally important work of understanding and integrating difference. Given that a person who stutters speaks fluently and with a stutter, stuttering can lean toward a complex view of disability identity-being both able and disabled. This split repertoire invites psychologically costly efforts at being "un-disabled". Interventions which amplify this tendency can contribute to an alienation from self amid strivings for normalcy.
Langer, Thomas Heegaard
-body vibration exposure was more than 20 percent and at the same time the fuel consumption was reduced significant. Training of operators is hence beneficial for both employees and employers of the construction industry. The whole-body vibration exposure on operators of dump trucks are dominated by off-road......This industrial Ph.D. project concerns whole-body vibrations in human operated construction machinery. The emissions of these vibrations is closely related to the subjective experience of comfort and in some cases these vibrations can occur in a level which can cause the operator back disorders...
Astle, Andrew T.; McGraw, Paul V.; Webb, Ben S.
Amblyopia is a common visual disorder that results in a spatial acuity deficit in the affected eye. Orthodox treatment is to occlude the unaffected eye for lengthy periods, largely determined by the severity of the visual deficit at diagnosis. Although this treatment is not without its problems (poor compliance, potential to reduce binocular function etc.) it is effective in many children with moderate to severe amblyopia. Diagnosis and initiation of treatment early in life are thought to be critical to the success of this form of therapy. Occlusion is rarely undertaken in older children (over 10 years old) as the visual benefits are considered to be marginal. Therefore, in subjects where occlusion is not effective or those missed by mass screening programmes there is no alternative therapy available later in life. More recently, burgeoning evidence has begun to reveal previously unrecognised levels of residual neural plasticity in the adult brain and scientists have developed new genetic, pharmacological and behavioural interventions to activate these latent mechanisms in order to harness their potential for visual recovery. Prominent amongst these is the concept of perceptual learning - the fact that repeatedly practicing a challenging visual task leads to substantial and enduring improvements in visual performance over time. In the normal visual system the improvements are highly specific to the attributes of the trained stimulus. However, in the amblyopic visual system learned improvements have been shown to generalize to novel tasks. In this paper we ask whether amblyopic deficits can be reduced in adulthood and explore the pattern of transfer of learned improvements. We also show that developing training protocols that target the deficit in stereo acuity allows the recovery of normal stereo function even in adulthood. This information will help guide further development of learning-based interventions in this clinical group. PMID:21870913
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May multiple projects be included in a single construction project agreement? 137.327 Section 137.327 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...-GOVERNANCE Construction Project Assumption Process § 137.327 May multiple projects be included in a single...
Timothy William Waters
Full Text Available War’s historical relationship to the creation of territorial nation-states is well known, but what empirical and normative role does war play in creating the citizen in a modern democracy? Although contemporary theories of citizenship and human rights do not readily acknowledge a legitimate, generative function for war – as evidenced by restrictions on aggression, annexation of occupied territory, expulsions, denationalization, or derogation of fundamental rights – an empirical assessment of state practice, including the interpretation of international legal obligations, suggests that war plays a powerfully transformative role in the construction of citizenship, and that international law and norms implicitly accept this. Dominant discourses on citizenship in the liberal and cosmopolitan traditions focus on the individual as the unit of analysis and normative concern, and on his rights against the state. At the same time, the choice of how to construct citizenship – to whom to grant it or from whom to withhold it, and what content to give citizenship – is closely linked to questions of security and identity: citizenship either presupposes or purports to create some measure of common identity among citizens, and implies obligations as well as rights. This chapter argues that, in assessing legal and moral positions, this role – if not necessarily approved – must be accounted for to achieve a fuller understanding of how peace, war and rights are related. Human rights may be conceptualized as universal, but their application and specific content are often mediated through the state, and therefore understanding how states retain the ability to define the contours of citizenship, including through the effects of war, is critical to an understanding of the actual scope of human rights as a legal enterprise and a lived experience. The article will examine the formal limits placed on war as an instrument that could affect citizenship; then
Stutz, Aaron J.
Human evolution unfolded through a rather distinctive, dynamically constructed ecological niche. The human niche is not only generally terrestrial in habitat, while being flexibly and extensively heterotrophic in food-web connections. It is also defined by semiotically structured and structuring embodied cognitive interfaces, connecting the individual organism with the wider environment. The embodied dimensions of niche-population co-evolution have long involved semiotic system construction, which I hypothesize to be an evolutionarily primitive aspect of learning and higher-level cognitive integration and attention in the great apes and humans alike. A clearly pre-linguistic form of semiotic cognitive structuration is suggested to involve recursively learned and constructed object icons. Higher-level cognitive iconic representation of visually, auditorily, or haptically perceived extrasomatic objects would be learned and evoked through indexical connections to proprioceptive and affective somatic states. Thus, private cognitive signs would be defined, not only by their learned and perceived extrasomatic referents, but also by their associations to iconically represented somatic states. This evolutionary modification of animal associative learning is suggested to be adaptive in ecological niches occupied by long-lived, large-bodied ape species, facilitating memory construction and recall in highly varied foraging and social contexts, while sustaining selective attention during goal-directed behavioral sequences. The embodied niche construction (ENC) hypothesis of human evolution posits that in the early hominin lineage, natural selection further modified the ancestral ape semiotic adaptations, favoring the recursive structuration of concise iconic narratives of embodied interaction with the environment. PMID:25136323
House, Ronald A; Sauvé, John T; Jiang, Depeng
Construction workers are at risk of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) but often have no periodic audiometric testing. The participants were construction workers assessed for Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS) at the Occupational Health Clinic, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario. Audiometry was offered and 169 of the 191 workers assessed for HAVS agreed to have the audiometric test. The objective was to examine the prevalence of hearing loss in these 169 workers and to determine the effect on hearing of duration of work in construction (as a proxy for noise exposure) and the severity of vibration white finger (VWF) which previous studies have suggested is a marker for increased individual susceptibility for NIHL. VWF was measured by the Stockholm vascular scale. All participants were men, median age of 57 (range: 28-75), median number of years worked in construction of 35 (range: 4-52). All of the Spearman rank correlations between years worked in construction and the hearing levels at each audiometric frequency were statistically significant (p hearing loss at or above the level at which a workers' compensation pension would be granted in Ontario and the prevalence of this auditory outcome had a statistically significant increase as years worked in construction increased. Multivariate linear regression indicated that VWF also had a statistically significant effect on hearing loss for all audiometric frequencies combined after controlling for years worked in construction. Improved prevention of hearing loss in construction workers is needed.
Macafee, David; Pranesh, Nagarajan; Horgan, Alan F.
Background: The construct validity of fresh human cadaver as a training tool has not been established previously. The aims of this study were to investigate the construct validity of fresh frozen human cadaver as a method of training in minimal access surgery and determine if novices can be rapidly trained using this model to a safe level of performance. Methods: Junior surgical trainees, novices (cadavers. Expert laparoscopists (>100 laparoscopic procedures) performed 3 repetitions of identical tasks. Performances were scored using a validated, objective Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills scale. Scores for 3 consecutive repetitions were compared between experts and novices to determine construct validity. Furthermore, to determine if the novices reached a safe level, a trimmed mean of the experts score was used to define a benchmark. Mann-Whitney U test was used for construct validity analysis and 1-sample t test to compare performances of the novice group with the benchmark safe score. Results: Ten novices and 2 experts were recruited. Four out of 5 tasks (nondominant to dominant hand transfer; simulated appendicectomy; intracorporeal and extracorporeal knot tying) showed construct validity. Novices’ scores became comparable to benchmark scores between the eighth and tenth repetition. Conclusion: Minimal access surgical training using fresh frozen human cadavers appears to have construct validity. The laparoscopic skills of novices can be accelerated through to a safe level within 8 to 10 repetitions. PMID:23318058
Full Text Available To identify the human capital construct that significantly relates to the performance of Islamic organizations, this study obtained data from Islamic microfinance organizations in Malaysia using the survey questionnaire method. In addition, we interviewed renowned scholars in the fields of Islamic accounting and Shariah law. Consequently, this study proposes an extended model of human capital that is applicable to Islamic organizations. Apart from knowledge and competency, this study includes spiritual value as another construct of human capital in Islamic organizations. Knowledge includes ideas that are relevant to the accounting and auditing spectra, as well as Shariah principles and jurisprudence. By contrast, competency refers to the ability to innovate unique Shariah-compliant products that are rare and difficult to imitate. Meanwhile, spiritual values embrace the elements of “Siddiq,” “Amanah,” “Fathonah,” and “Tabligh.” This study affirms that knowledge, competency, and satisfaction are the most significant constructs of human capital that explain performance. Factor analysis indicates that spiritual value is embedded in and forms part of the human capital construct. Hence, spiritual value is a key element in company culture and contributes significantly to organizational success. This model can be a platform for human capital reporting in the relevant Islamic and conventional organizations.
I. I. Brodetskaya
Full Text Available Purpose. Analysis is focused on the study of theoretical and methodological preconditions of social integrity phenomenon research. Trends in the conceptual base of modern social theory are focused on the research of social phenomenon, the study of the conditions and mechanisms for the development of sociality. This suggests the need to find new interpretive schemes. The methodology of political philosophy in the analysis of sociality was limited. This theory has brought the phenomenon of co-existence to the aspect of political discourse. In this regard, the reference to the existence of human co-beingness, mechanisms and modus of its formation is a necessary methodological step. It allows you to draw a parallel between the phenomenon of social integrity and totality. Existential installation integrity, unity of individual and social order is invested in the social context as a human desire to know the surrounding reality. Cognition is installation on the penetration deep into the object, understanding its nature. Cognition opens up the prospect of being a harmonious personality. Existential knowledge focuses on the identity of the co-existence and serves only the prospect of overcoming the limitations of the totality. The potential of this phenomenon allows penetration of rigid rational scheme of classical political methodology, introducing the community as a spiritual practice, the experience of communitas. Thus, as the research methodology used social integrity existential approach, which actualizes the potential of the spiritual foundations of co-existence. This methodological step allows disclosing sociality at a deep level of analysis as a spiritual practice to others, modus being-cognition of the human reality. Originality of this work is to extend the of heuristic possibilities of social theory in the analysis of the social problems aspect with the purpose construction of integrated research methodology problems. Conclusions. Thus, the
Baradan, Selim; Dikmen, Seyyit Umit; Akboga Kale, Ozge
The International Labour Organization (ILO) reports that the risk of fatal occupational injuries in developing countries is almost twice as high as in developed countries, indicating a potential relationship between the fatality rates and the development level. The human development index (HDI), based on life expectancy, knowledge level and purchasing power parity, endorsed by the United Nations Development Programme, is a widely accepted measure of the development level. This study investigates the relationship between the HDI and the fatality rates reported by the ILO. A 23-country data set is used to demonstrate the general trend of the relationship followed by country-specific analyses for Australia, Spain, Hungary and Turkey. The study conducted is limited to fatal occupational injuries in construction, where the accidents are notoriously high. The results demonstrate a statistically significant inverse relationship between the fatality rates and the HDI.
Gong, Qian; Li, Chang-ying; Chang, Ji-wu; Zhu, Tie-hong
To screen monoclonal antibodies to amylin from a constructed human phage antibody library and identify their antigenic specificity and combining activities. The heavy chain Fd fragment and light chain of human immunoglobulin genes were amplified from peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy donors using RT-PCR, and then inserted into phagemid pComb3XSS to generate a human phage antibody library. The insertion of light chain or heavy chain Fd genes were identified by PCR after the digestion of Sac I, Xba I, Xho Iand Spe I. One of positive clones was analyzed by DNA sequencing. The specific anti-amylin clones were screened from antibody library against human amylin antigens and then the positive clones were determined by Phage-ELISA analysis. A Fab phage antibody library with 0.8×10(8); members was constructed with the efficacy of about 70%. DNA sequence analysis indicated V(H); gene belonged to V(H);3 gene family and V(λ); gene belonged to the V(λ); gene family. Using human amylin as panning antigen, specific anti-amylin Fab antibodies were enriched by screening the library for three times. Phage-ELISA assay showed the positive clones had very good specificity to amylin antigen. The successful construction of a phage antibody library and the identification of anti-amylin Fab antibodies provide a basis for further study and preparation of human anti-amylin antibodies.
H. Vissing; F.G. Grosveld (Frank); E. Solomon; G. Moore; N. Lench; N. Shennan; R. Williamson
textabstractWe present an approach to the construction of an overlapping restriction fragment map of a single human chromosome. A genomic cosmid library genome was constructed from a mouse-human hybrid cell line containing chromosome 17 as its only human genetic component. Cosmids containing human
For some decades, the concept of human dignity has been widely discussed in bioethical literature. Some authors think that this concept is central to questions of respect for human beings, whereas others are very critical of it. It should be noted that, in these debates, dignity is one component of a long-lasting and widespread conceptual construct used to support a stance on the ethical question of the moral status of an action or being. This construct has been used from Modernity onward to condemn slavery and torture as violations of human dignity. In spelling it out, we can come to a better understanding of what "dignity" means and become aware that there exists a quite useful place for this notion in our ethical thought, albeit a modest one.
In the broad area of moral philosophy, critiques of well-being values have notably increased since the 1980's. Often underpinning analysis are contrasting theories of well-being, e.g. subjective constructs that value highly reflections on personal experiences and individual fulfillment, and objective theories that emphasise more through specific…
Sung, Chanho; Jung, Yeonsub [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
The main purpose of HPM(Human performance monitoring) is that no significant safety degradation occurs due to changes in design, procedures, training, or staffing during the plant operation. Accordingly, the strategy for accomplishing HPM should be to maintain the acceptable level of human performance for safety operation. This paper presents a strategy to fulfill HPM effectively for constructing NPPs in Korea. Activities for HPM in constructing plants need to be divided into two large parts on the basis of the fuel loading, which could be a good strategy to accomplish HPM effectively. That is, the activities such as making HPM plan and developing its indexes are performed before the fuel loading, while the activities of maintaining acceptable HP levels are conducted after the fuel loading. This HPM strategy includes not only maintaining the criteria of human performance established during ISV, but also improving human performance through existing activities during the plant operation. Constructing plants will also make actively use of the existing programs for enhancing human performance.
Full Text Available Objective. To understand nursing student's self-consciousness and his/her autonomy in the discipline of fundamentals of professional care in the context of a liberating pedagogical proposal. Methodology. This qualitative, case-based research in the model of Ludke and André involved 14 students participating in the discipline. Data were collected by non-participatory observation and analysis of documents. Field observation was conducted from March to July 2010 and data were collected according to the proposal of Minayo: pre-analysis, exploration of material and treatment of results. Results. We constructed two thematic units of analysis: from ''being to the self'' and exercise of ''become to be''. Conclusion. When nursing students feel more liberty, they have the opportunity to substitute the scary prospect of learning something new material to something that motivates their curiosity and leads them to become more autonomous.
Waterkemper, Roberta; do Prado, Marta Lenise; Medina-Moya, José Luis; Backes, Vânia Marli Schubert
To understand nursing student's self-consciousness and his/her autonomy in the discipline of fundamentals of professional care in the context of a liberating pedagogical proposal. This qualitative, case-based research in the model of Ludke and André involved 14 students participating in the discipline. Data were collected by non-participatory observation and analysis of documents. Field observation was conducted from March to July 2010 and data were collected according to the proposal of Minayo: pre-analysis, exploration of material and treatment of results. We constructed two thematic units of analysis: from ''being to the self'' and exercise of ''become to be''. When nursing students feel more liberty, they have the opportunity to substitute the scary prospect of learning something new material to something that motivates their curiosity and leads them to become more autonomous.
Liang Yuan; Huang Ji-Ping
It is important to know whether the laws or phenomena in statistical physics for natural systems with non-adaptive agents still hold for social human systems with adaptive agents, because this implies whether it is possible to study or understand social human systems by using statistical physics originating from natural systems. For this purpose, we review the role of human adaptability in four kinds of specific human behaviors, namely, normal behavior, herd behavior, contrarian behavior, and hedge behavior. The approach is based on controlled experiments in the framework of market-directed resource-allocation games. The role of the controlled experiments could be at least two-fold: adopting the real human decision-making process so that the system under consideration could reflect the performance of genuine human beings; making it possible to obtain macroscopic physical properties of a human system by tuning a particular factor of the system, thus directly revealing cause and effect. As a result, both computer simulations and theoretical analyses help to show a few counterparts of some laws or phenomena in statistical physics for social human systems: two-phase phenomena or phase transitions, entropy-related phenomena, and a non-equilibrium steady state. This review highlights the role of human adaptability in these counterparts, and makes it possible to study or understand some particular social human systems by means of statistical physics coming from natural systems. (topical review - statistical physics and complex systems)
Liang, Yuan; Huang, Ji-Ping
It is important to know whether the laws or phenomena in statistical physics for natural systems with non-adaptive agents still hold for social human systems with adaptive agents, because this implies whether it is possible to study or understand social human systems by using statistical physics originating from natural systems. For this purpose, we review the role of human adaptability in four kinds of specific human behaviors, namely, normal behavior, herd behavior, contrarian behavior, and hedge behavior. The approach is based on controlled experiments in the framework of market-directed resource-allocation games. The role of the controlled experiments could be at least two-fold: adopting the real human decision-making process so that the system under consideration could reflect the performance of genuine human beings; making it possible to obtain macroscopic physical properties of a human system by tuning a particular factor of the system, thus directly revealing cause and effect. As a result, both computer simulations and theoretical analyses help to show a few counterparts of some laws or phenomena in statistical physics for social human systems: two-phase phenomena or phase transitions, entropy-related phenomena, and a non-equilibrium steady state. This review highlights the role of human adaptability in these counterparts, and makes it possible to study or understand some particular social human systems by means of statistical physics coming from natural systems.
Aaron Jonas Stutz
Full Text Available Human evolution unfolded through a rather distinctive, dynamically constructed ecological niche. The human niche is not only generally terrestrial in habitat, while being flexibly and extensively heterotrophic in food-web connections. It is also defined by semiotically structured and structuring embodied cognitive interfaces, connecting the individual organism with the wider environment. The embodied dimensions of niche-population co-evolution have long involved semiotic system construction, which I hypothesize to be an evolutionarily primitive aspect of learning and higher-level cognitive integration and attention in the great apes and humans alike. A clearly pre-linguistic form of semiotic cognitive structuration is suggested to involve recursively learned and constructed object icons. Higher-level cognitive iconic representation of visually, auditorily, or haptically perceived extrasomatic objects would be learned and evoked through indexical connections to proprioceptive and affective somatic states. Thus, private cognitive signs would be defined, not only by their learned and perceived extrasomatic referents, but also by their associations to iconically represented somatic states. This evolutionary modification of animal associative learning is suggested to be adaptive in ecological niches occupied by long-lived, large-bodied ape species, facilitating memory construction and recall in highly varied foraging and social contexts, while sustaining selective attention during goal-directed behavioral sequences. The embodied niche construction (ENC hypothesis of human evolution posits that in the early hominin lineage, natural selection further modified the ancestral ape semiotic adaptations, favoring the recursive structuration of concise iconic narratives of embodied interaction with the environment.
The present state of nuclear plant maintenance and operations support reflects sexual, ethnic, and radical integration; continued educational advances; some computer literacy; mixed trades in maintenance; detailed training for maintenance and operations work in the operating plant; plant safety awareness and respect; need for top-quality, take the time to do it right mentality; and planning. With no new nuclear construction, what will be the specific talents, focus, and contributions that the craftsmen can be expected to bring to the project? To be prepared to successfully manage the next generation of nuclear plant construction, the industry must be acutely aware of the needs of the labor pool. To be aware of the needs requires an intimate knowledge of the present state of the craft talent, the changed expectations of their contributions, and the effects of new technologies, materials, methods, and individuals that will be used to design and build
Medvedev, Oleg N; Landhuis, C Erik
Existing definitions of happiness, subjective well-being, and quality of life suggest conceptual overlap between these constructs. This study explored the relationship between these well-being constructs by applying widely used measures with satisfactory psychometric properties. University students ( n = 180) completed widely used well-being measures including the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. We analyzed the data using correlation, regression, and exploratory factor analysis. All included well-being measures demonstrated high loadings on the global well-being construct that explains about 80% of the variance in the OHQ, the psychological domain of Quality of Life and subjective well-being. The results show high positive correlations between happiness, psychological and health domains of quality of life, life satisfaction, and positive affect. Social and environmental domains of quality of life were poor predictors of happiness and subjective well-being after controlling for psychological quality of life. Together, these data provide support for a global well-being dimension and interchangeable use of terms happiness, subjective well-being, and psychological quality of life with the current sample and measures. Further investigation with larger heterogeneous samples and other well-being measures is warranted.
After last year’s analysis regarding the European Union’s commitment to fight against the human beings trafficking, we have considered to further explore the human beings trafficking approach in the European Court of Human Rights case-law, the most developped regional jurisdiction on human rights. Surprisingly, the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms does not make an express reference to the human beings trafficking. However, we have to bear in mind...
Whelton, Beverly J B
This philosophical enquiry considers the impact of a global world view and technology on the meaning of being human. The global vision increases our awareness of the common bond between all humans, while technology tends to separate us from an understanding of ourselves as human persons. We review some advances in connecting as community within our world, and many examples of technological changes. This review is not exhaustive. The focus is to understand enough changes to think through the possibility of healthcare professionals becoming cyborgs, human-machine units that are subsequently neither human and nor machine. It is seen that human technology interfaces are a different way of interacting but do not change what it is to be human in our rational capacities of providing meaningful speech and freely chosen actions. In the highly technical environment of the ICU, expert nurses work in harmony with both the technical equipment and the patient. We used Heidegger to consider the nature of equipment, and Descartes to explore unique human capacities. Aristotle, Wallace, Sokolowski, and Clarke provide a summary of humanity as substantial and relational. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ng, Angela Min-Hwei; Saim, Aminuddin Bin; Tan, Kok-Keong; Tan, G H; Mokhtar, Sabarul Afian; Rose, Isa Mohamed; Othman, Fauziah; Idrus, Ruszymah Binti Haji
Osteoprogenitor cells have been reported to be present in periosteum, cancellous and cortical bone, and bone marrow; but no attempt to identify the best cell source for bone tissue engineering has yet been reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate the growth and differentiation pattern of cells derived from these four sources in terms of cell doubling time and expression of osteoblast-specific markers in both monolayer cells and three-dimensional cell constructs in vitro. In parallel, human plasma derived-fibrin was evaluated for use as biomaterial when forming three-dimensional bone constructs. Our findings showed osteoprogenitor cells derived from periosteum to be most proliferative followed by cortical bone, cancellous bone, and then bone marrow aspirate. Bone-forming activity was observed in constructs formed with cells derived from periosteum, whereas calcium deposition was seen throughout the constructs formed with cells derived from cancellous and cortical bones. Although no mineralization activity was seen in constructs formed with osteoprogenitor cells derived from bone marrow, well-organized lacunae as would appear in the early phase of bone reconstruction were noted. Scanning electron microscopy evaluation showed cell proliferation throughout the fibrin matrix, suggesting the possible application of human fibrin as the bioengineered tissue scaffold at non-load-bearing sites.
Van Brakel, Jaap
In this paper my aim is to shed light on the common behavior of human beings by looking at '' first contacts '': the situation where people with unshared histories first meet (who don't speak one an others' language, don't have access to interpreters, etc.). The limits of the human life form are given by what is similar in the common behavior(s) of human beings. But what is similar should not be understood as something that is biologically or psychologically or transcendentally shared by all ...
Discussions of the possible future of Human factors/ergonomics (HFE) usually take the past for granted in the sense that the future of HFE is assumed to be more of the same. This paper argues that the nature of work in the early 2010s is so different from the nature of work when HFE was formulated...
Myöhänen, Kirsi; Vähäkangas, Kirsi
Exposure to many different chemicals during pregnancy through maternal circulation is possible. Transplacental transfer of xenobiotics can be demonstrated using human placental perfusion. Also, placental perfusion can give information about the placental kinetics as well as metabolism and accumulation in the placenta because it retains the tissue structure and function. Although human placental perfusion has been used extensively to study the transplacental transfer of drugs, the information on food and environmental carcinogens is much more limited. This review deals with the foetal exposure to food and environmental carcinogens in human beings. In particular, human transplacental transfer of the food carcinogens such as acrylamide, glycidamide and nitrosodimethylamine are in focus. Because these carcinogens are genotoxic, the functional capacity of human placenta to induce DNA adduct formation or metabolize these above mentioned CYP2E1 substrates is of interest in this context. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.
There are three main approaches about the question of Human Nature. essentialists consider that there exists a permanent Human Nature, shared by every human being. Existentialists consider that there is no such thing as human nature, but inescapable modes of being in the world. A moderate approach would consider that Human Nature can be modified within the limits of anthropological invariants. Transhumanists are conservative in that they think that there is a Human Nature; but they are radical in that they believe that it can (and must) be transcended by bio-technnologies and computer technologies. This project is evaluated as a caricature of suitable human enhancement.
Ucciferro, J.J.; Horschel, D.S.
The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is investigating the performance of LWR containments subjected to severe accidents. This work is being performed by the Containment Integrity Division at Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia). The latest research effort involves the testing of a 1/6-scale reinforced concrete containment model. The containment, which was designed and constructed by United Engineers and Constructors, is the largest and most complex model of its kind. The design and construction of the containment model are the subject of this paper. The objective of the containment model tests is to generate data that can be used to qualify methods for reliably predicting the response of LWR containment buildings to severe accident loads. The data recorded during testing include deformations and leakage past sealing surfaces, as well as strains and displacements of the containment shell
Michiel F. Coetzer
Full Text Available Orientation: High levels of work-related well-being are imperative to ensure financial stability, competitiveness and sustainability in the construction industry. Leadership plays a fundamental role to enhance work engagement and to decrease burnout. The interrelationships between servant leadership, job demands, job resources, work engagement and burnout are still unknown, especially within the construction industry. Research purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the interrelationships between servant leadership, job demands, job resources, work engagement and burnout in a construction company. Motivation for the study: The construction industry is a highly demanding and labour intensive industry, which makes it difficult to sustain high work engagement and low burnout. This industry therefore calls for a people-orientated leadership approach, such as servant leadership, to enhance job resources to ultimately increase work engagement and to decrease burnout levels. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative research design was applied and four quantitative surveys were used to collect data. Two hundred and twenty-four sets of questionnaires were completed by employees in a South African construction company. Main findings: The results indicated that job resources mediated a positive relationship between servant leadership and work engagement and a negative relationship between servant leadership and burnout. Servant leadership had a positive significant relationship with job resources and significantly explained a proportion of the variance in job resources. Job resources, in turn, significantly explained a proportion of increase in work engagement levels and a proportion of reduction in burnout levels. An insignificant relationship was found between job demands and servant leadership. Practical or managerial implications: The findings showed that servant leadership could be used as an effective leadership approach to enhance
Motoc, A; Motoc, Marilena; Bolintineanu, S; Muşuroi, Corina; Munteanu, M
The human body building represented a complex research topic for the scientist in the most diverse domains. Although their interests and reasons were different, the goal was always the same: establishing a relation to verify the ratio between the dimensions of the constituent segments It appears that the mystery was solved out in the XIX-th century by Adolf Zeising, a German, who, using the statistic calculus, defined the division of a segment by the gold section. This purely mathematic logic confirms the human body's integration in proportion to the finest segments, thus providing the technical instrument of building a fully harmonious human body. The present study aims to compare the ideal, the calculated perfection to the reality, namely the theoretically obtained values to the average values of an 18-year-old male. It appears that the differences refer especially to the limbs; both the superior ones and the inferior ones being longer comparing to the ideal pattern while the bust is shorter and broader.
Bala, Sudha; Valsangkar, Sameer; Lakshman Rao, Reshaboyina Lakshmi Narayana; Surya Prabha, Manem Lakshmi
Hyderabad has witnessed one of the largest labor immigration in recent years and these construction workers are highly vulnerable in terms of health. Social determinants of health (SDH) arise from conditions in which they live and these factors interact with each other to produce direct impact on health. (1) To evaluate the sociodemographic and job characteristics of the construction workers. (2) To assess the impact of social determinants on well-being. A sample size of 135 construction workers working at three sites of HITEC city were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire. Health perception and the impact on well-being was measured using the Healthy Days Module and Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale. SDH were measured on a 27-item questionnaire with responses on a Likert scale ranging from 0 to 4. Proportions, percentages, P values, and mean scores were obtained. The mean age of the sample was 35.4 ± 11.94 years. Seventeen (12.6%) of the workers reported a high risk score on the Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify significant domains of social determinants independently associated with the well being of construction workers and significant among the nine domains of social determinants were addiction score domain with odds of 2.259 and a P value of 0.015 and the distress domain with odds of 1.108 and a P < 0.001. There is a significant impairment of physical and mental health due to various factors including SDH, such as addictive habits and psychological distress, which are amenable to prevention.
Tang, Yingying; Harpenslager, Sarah F.; van Kempen, Monique M. L.; Verbaarschot, Evi J. H.; Loeffen, Laury M. J. M.; Roelofs, Jan G. M.; Smolders, Alfons J. P.; Lamers, Leon P. M.
The sequestration of nutrients from surface waters by aquatic macrophytes and sediments provides an important service to both natural and constructed wetlands. While emergent species take up nutrients from the sediment, submerged and floating macrophytes filter nutrients directly from the surface water, which may be more efficient in constructed wetlands. It remains unclear, however, whether their efficiency is sufficient for wastewater purification and how plant species and nutrient loading affects nutrient distribution over plants, water and sediment. We therefore determined nutrient removal efficiencies of different vegetation (Azolla filiculoides, Ceratophyllum demersum and Myriophyllum spicatum) and sediment types (clay, peaty clay and peat) at three nutrient input rates, in a full factorial, outdoor mesocosm experiment. At low loading (0.43 mg P m-2 d-1), plant uptake was the main pathway (100 %) for phosphorus (P) removal, while sediments showed a net P release. A. filiculoides and M. spicatum showed the highest biomass production and could be harvested regularly for nutrient recycling, whereas C. demersum was outcompeted by spontaneously developing macrophytes and algae. Higher nutrient loading only stimulated A. filiculoides growth. At higher rates ( ≥ 21.4 mg P m-2 d-1), 50-90 % of added P ended up in sediments, with peat sediments becoming more easily saturated. For nitrogen (N), 45-90 % was either taken up by the sediment or lost to the atmosphere at loadings ≥ 62 mg N m-2 d-1. This shows that aquatic macrophytes can indeed function as an efficient nutrient filter but only for low loading rates (polishing) and not for high rates (purification). The outcome of this controlled study not only contributes to our understanding of nutrient dynamics in constructed wetlands but also shows the differential effects of wetland sediment types and plant species. Furthermore, the acquired knowledge may benefit the application of macrophyte harvesting to remove
Resnik, David B; Elliott, Kevin C
Researchers have used drones to track wildlife populations, monitor forest fires, map glaciers, and measure air pollution but have only begun to consider how to use these unmanned aerial vehicles to study human beings. The potential use of drones to study public gatherings or other human activities raises novel issues of privacy, confidentiality, and consent, which this article explores in depth. It argues that drone research could fall into several different categories: non-human subjects research (HSR), exempt HSR, or non-exempt HSR. In the case of non-exempt HSR, it will be difficult for institutional review boards to approve studies unless they are designed so that informed consent can be waived. Whether drone research is non-HSR, exempt HSR, or non-exempt HSR, it is important for investigators to consult communities which could be affected by the research.
van der Wilt, H.
This article explores the conceptual relationship between trafficking in human beings, enslavement and crimes against humanity. The analysis of case law of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and the European Court on Human Rights reveals that, while trafficking in human
Fischer, Gerhard; Lemke, Andreas C
.... To provide the user with the appropriate level of control and a better understanding, we have to replace human-computer communication with human problem-domain communication, which allows users...
The aim of this study was to construct a neutron source container as small as possible. For this purpose an aluminum container was ordered to reserve the Pu-Be neutron source of the TRIGA Mark-II research reactor at the Atominstitute of Austrian Universities, Vienna. The important point is the shielding of the neutrons according to the radiation protection policy at ATI. Fast neutrons, which emitted from the source, cannot be shielded directly. They have to be moderated by a suitable moderator material and then they can be absorbed using a strong neutron absorber material. The most effective moderators are elements with low atomic number; therefore hydrogen-containing materials are the major component of neutron shielding. As a moderator and absorber material together we have chosen borated polyethylene among the various materials considering its properties. It contains H and C, which are suitable moderator materials and B for neutron absorption. It is important to quickly moderate the neutron to low energy, where it can be absorbed with boron owing to the high absorption cross section. The constructed shielding, which consists of borated polyethylene, was placed into the ordered A1 container. At the end we measured the emitted radiation dose using a neutron counter at different distances from the container. (author)
Full Text Available Realization of permanent transformational transitions has brought to necessity to apprehend complex ontological issues of a new reality for development of a complex strategy for adequate opposition to challenges faced by the humanity. Understanding the role of education in the formation and development of a future human being ranks first among these issues. In this article I have analyzed modern directions of futuristic apprehension of a sense of transformational changes of a man (transhumanism, theory of androgyny, represented a key role of the philosophy of education in development of an image of the future human being, and determined main characteristics of a personality of planetary-cosmic type, system of his personal, local and global interactions.
Kang, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Sang Jin; Ko, In Kap; Kengla, Carlos; Yoo, James J; Atala, Anthony
A challenge for tissue engineering is producing three-dimensional (3D), vascularized cellular constructs of clinically relevant size, shape and structural integrity. We present an integrated tissue-organ printer (ITOP) that can fabricate stable, human-scale tissue constructs of any shape. Mechanical stability is achieved by printing cell-laden hydrogels together with biodegradable polymers in integrated patterns and anchored on sacrificial hydrogels. The correct shape of the tissue construct is achieved by representing clinical imaging data as a computer model of the anatomical defect and translating the model into a program that controls the motions of the printer nozzles, which dispense cells to discrete locations. The incorporation of microchannels into the tissue constructs facilitates diffusion of nutrients to printed cells, thereby overcoming the diffusion limit of 100-200 μm for cell survival in engineered tissues. We demonstrate capabilities of the ITOP by fabricating mandible and calvarial bone, cartilage and skeletal muscle. Future development of the ITOP is being directed to the production of tissues for human applications and to the building of more complex tissues and solid organs.
Baker, Kate C; Dettmer, Amanda M
The well-being of non-human primates in captivity is of joint concern to scientists, veterinarians, colony managers, caretakers, and researchers working with non-human primates in biomedical research. With increased regulatory, accreditation, and research focus on optimizing the use of social housing for laboratory primates, as well as the advent of techniques to assess indices of chronic stress and related measures of well-being, there is no better time to present the most current advances in the field of non-human primate behavioral management. The collective body of research presented here was inspired in part by a 2014 symposium entitled, "Chronic Hormones and Demographic Variables: Center-Wide Studies on Non-Human Primate Well-Being" held at the American Society of Primatologists' 37th Annual Meeting in Decatur, GA. By aiming to target readership with scientific and/or management oversight of captive primate behavioral management programs, this special issue provides badly-needed guidance for implementing social housing programs in a research environment and leverages collaboration across multiple facilities to address key components of behavioral management, explore refinements in how well-being can be measured, and identify the interrelationships between varying indices. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22520, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available What does make the ground of the authentic works of music art crossing the centuries and what does move the human soul any time and anywhere? Which is the support of music art – generally speaking – beyond its aesthetic dimension? How could we explain and understand, in a better and in a more efficient way, the powerful influence of musical artistic creation upon the human well-being? These are merely part of the interrogations challenging our interest in finding and revealing the profound link between ethical values, music art and human health (in its integrality. The purpose of this essay is to emphasize the foundation of human equilibrium considering the offer of the harmony carried by music art, exploring the significance of a nucleus-concept of the Greek philosophers that has been acknowledged as kalokagatheia – the self-fulfilled cultivation of body and soul, as a micro-cosmos living within the macro-cosmos. In terms of a philosophical hermeneutics of art, we reach to disclose part of the salutogenic function of music art concerning the human well-being in nowadays.
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How can I be sure that the work that is being done on my dwelling meets minimum construction standards? 256.22 Section 256.22 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS... is being done on my dwelling meets minimum construction standards? (a) At various stages of...
Chan, Evelyn T. Y.
This study examined students' construction of academic subject identity in a university humanities discipline, English literary studies. In so doing, the study aimed to provide an empirically grounded intervention in current debates on the value of the humanities in higher education. Eight students participated in interviews lasting 15-20 minutes…
The author is analyzing the global warming problem, the human being liability facing the society debate, in front of scientific, economic and political challenges. He presents an history of the climatology from the antiquity to today and enhances the mechanisms involved in the climatic changes, and their effects on the environment and the earth. (A.L.B.)
IJsselsteijn, W.A.; Kort, de Y.A.W.; Midden, C.J.H.; Eggen, J.H.; Hoven, van den E.A.W.H.; Kort, de Y.A.W.; IJsselsteijn, W.A.; Midden, C.J.H.
In this short paper we aim to give a brief introduction to persuasive technology, especially as it pertains to human well-being. We discuss a number of current research opportunities in areas of healthcare, environmental conservation, and education. We conclude by highlighting what we regard as the
Fröding, B.; Peterson, M.B.
Traditionally, playing computer games and engaging in other online activities has been seen as a threat to well-being, health and long-term happiness. It is feared that spending many hours per day in front of the screen leads the individual to forsake other, more worthwhile activities, such as human
Bieling, Claudia; Plieninger, Tobias; Pirker, Heidemarie
in Germany and Austria by performing open, single-question interviews with 262 respondents. Data reveal an outstanding relevance of nonmaterial values. Linkages between landscapes and human well-being are tied to specific features of the material environment but, likewise, practices and experiences play...
Abaci, H E; Guo, Zongyou; Doucet, Yanne; Jacków, Joanna; Christiano, Angela
specialized cell types and performs many roles including barrier, immune, and sensory functions. For human-relevant drug testing, there has been a growing interest in building more physiological skin constructs by incorporating different skin components, such as vasculature, appendages, pigment, innervation, and adipose tissue. This paper provides an overview of the strategies to build complex human skin constructs that can faithfully recapitulate human skin and thus can be used in drug development targeting skin diseases. In particular, we discuss recent developments and remaining challenges in incorporating various skin components, availability of iPSC-derived skin cell types and in vitro skin disease models. In addition, we provide insights on the future integration of these complex skin models with other organs on microfluidic platforms as well as potential readout technologies for high-throughput drug screening.
Full Text Available As in many other continents, neotropical ecosystems are impacted by the construction of reservoirs. These artificial ecosystems change considerably the natural terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and their biodiversity. The multiple uses of reservoirs promote benefits for the human beings in terms of economic development, income, jobs and employment. Services of reservoirs are important assets for the regional ecosystem. Evaluation of ecosystem services produced by artificial reservoirs, are new challenges to the understanding of the cost/benefit relationships of reservoir construction in the neotropics. Regulating and other services promoted by reservoirs lead to new trends for "green technology" and the implementation of ecohydrological and ecotechnological developments. This approach can be utilized with better success as a substitute for the usual impact/benefit evaluation of the reservoirs. Better and diversified services can be achieved with "green technology" applied to the construction.
Engler, Kim; Frohlich, Katherine; Descarries, Francine; Fernet, Mylène
Single, childless working women (SCWW) are a notable proportion of the female workforce. The budding research on this population suggests that they have issues of wellbeing that may be tied to specific needs of both their workplaces and their personal lives, and hence, distinct work-life dynamics that require attention. This study explores how SCWW construct their wellbeing. The sample was composed of 22 SCWW aged 29 to 45. A discourse analysis of the transcripts of semi-structured interviews with these women was performed. Most women drew on an interpretative repertoire of "wellbeing as balance" (e.g., diversification and reasonable dosing of life's dimensions). It was associated with a recurrent subject position we have termed "the dynamic woman" whose intensity transfused talk of the activities in her life. Here, work becomes a "passion" and a source of appreciated challenges. However, a dilemma could arise from these constructions for positioning oneself in relation to the cadence of one's active life or rather, in articulating an unambiguous claim to balance. Balance/dosing and dynamicity/passion can be uneasy bedfellows. Our analyses raise questions about possible counter[balancing] discourses and further argue the relevance of work-life issues for SCWW.
Sobala, Dariusz; Rybak, Jarosław
Some remarks concerning the necessity of employing an independent and over all ethical geotechnical survey were presented in the paper. Starting from the design phase, through the whole construction process, the importance of geotechnical engineer is stated in legal acts. Numerous testing technologies serve for the calibration of geotechnical technologies and allow for confirming the quality and capacity of piles. Special emphasis was payed to the involvement of scientifical and research institutions which can not only serve services but also can postprocess and methodize collected data. Such databases enable for new codes, methods and recommendations. Selection of deep foundations for bridge-type structures is most often dependent on complex geotechnical conditions, concentrated loads and constraints for pier displacements. Besides the last ones, prior to more common introduction of the design-construct system, could be a convenient justification for design engineer, who imposed deep foundation because he did not want or was not able to estimate the effect of pier settlement on civil engineering structure. The paper provides some notes about the need to engage a geotechnical supervising service of high competency and ethical quality during engineering and construction stages of foundations for bridge-type structures where legal requirements are of special consideration. Successive stages of projects are reviewed and research methods used for current calibration of geotechnical technologies and verification of geotechnical work quality are analysed. Special attention is given to potential involvement of independent R&D institutions which, apart from rendering specific services, also collect and systemize the research results thus enabling, in the long term, to revise engineering standards, instructions and guidelines.
Pena, A.; Gonzalez, M. J.; Lobo, M. C.
Berylium (Be) is, together with As, Cd, Hg, Pb and Ti, one of the trace elements more toxic for human being (Vaessen) and Szteke, 2000; Yaman and Avci, 2006), but in spite of the exponential increment of its applications during the last decades, surprisingly there isn't hardly information about its presence and environmental distribution. The aim of this work is to evaluate the presence of Beryllium in urban soils in Alcala de Henares, (Madrid Spain).
Organized crime has a long history and has permanently adapted to the weaknesses of the legal system, procedures and operational capabilities of the national Law Enforcement Agencies. Economic discomfort appears to be the main reason for illegal migration movement throughout the world. Due to unemployment, many human beings become victims of trafficking- prostitution and slavery. Nevertheless, many of the willing migrants undertake the hazardous travel to their destination country with crimin...
Discussions of the possible future of Human factors/ergonomics (HFE) usually take the past for granted in the sense that the future of HFE is assumed to be more of the same. This paper argues that the nature of work in the early 2010s is so different from the nature of work when HFE was formulated 60-70 years ago that a critical reassessment of the basis for HFE is needed. If HFE should be a systems discipline, it should be a soft systems rather than a hard systems discipline. It is not enough for HFE to seek to improve performance and well-being through systems design, since any change to the work environment in principle alters the very basis for the change. Instead HFE should try to anticipate how the nature of work will change so that it can both foresee what work will be and propose what work should be. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Van de Vliert, Evert
This commentary seeks to refine Kashima’s (2016) timely and topical but too-general call for embedding culture within the planetary ecosystem. My starting point is that cultures are to an underestimated extent ongoing niche constructions within the merry-go-round of the Sun’s radiation, the Earth’s
Diao, Jin-Mei; Pang, Xin; Qiu, Yue; Miao, Ying; Yu, Miao-Miao; Fan, Ting-Jun
A tissue-engineered human corneal stroma (TE-HCS) has been developed as a promising equivalent to the native corneal stroma for replacement therapy. However, there is still a crucial need to improve the current approaches to render the TE-HCS equivalent more favorable for clinical applications. At the present study, we constructed a TE-HCS by incubating non-transfected human corneal stromal (HCS) cells in an acellular porcine corneal stromata (aPCS) scaffold in 20% fetal bovine serum supplemented DMEM/F12 (1:1) medium at 37 °C with 5% CO2in vitro. After 3 days of incubation, the constructed TE-HCS had a suitable tensile strength for transplantation, and a transparency that is comparable to native cornea. The TE-HCS had a normal histological structure which contained regularly aligned collagen fibers and differentiated HCS cells with positive expression of marker and functional proteins, mimicking a native HCS. After transplantation into rabbit models, the TE-HCS reconstructed normal corneal stroma in vivo and function well in maintaining corneal clarity and thickness, indicating that the completely biological TE-HCS could be used as a HCS equivalent. The constructed TE-HCS has promising potentials in regenerative medicine and treatment of diseases caused by corneal stromal disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This article analyzes three USAID education strategy documents (1998, 2005, and 2011) as well as USAID's requests for proposals for three projects to assess how teachers are represented. The main findings indicate that USAID education strategy documents a) treat teachers as human capital, a human resource input, rather than as human beings and b)…
In a liberal-democratic system, there is no possibility of a criminal liability charge without a minimum of freedom. Nevertheless, since a long time ago and, nowadays, with the advancement of science in the human genome, understanding it as a closed system--farm theory--is intended to demonstrate that the genome is a destination, thus criminal liability will be void, giving rise to security measures.
Moris, Demetrios N; Bramis, Konstantinos J; Mantonakis, Eleftherios I; Papalampros, Efstathios L; Petrou, Athanasios S; Papalampros, Alexandros E
We performed an evaluation of models, techniques, and applicability to the clinical setting of natural orifice surgery (mainly natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery [NOTES]) primarily in general surgery procedures. NOTES has attracted much attention recently for its potential to establish a completely alternative approach to the traditional surgical procedures performed entirely through a natural orifice. Beyond the potentially scar-free surgery and abolishment of dermal incision-related complications, the safety and efficacy of this new surgical technology must be evaluated. Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Entrez PubMed from 2007 to February 2011. Most of the references were identified from 2009 to 2010. There were limitations as far as the population that was evaluated (only human beings, no cadavers or animals) was concerned, but there were no limitations concerning the level of evidence of the studies that were evaluated. The studies that were deemed applicable for our review were published mainly from 2007 to 2010 (see Methods section). All the evaluated studies were conducted only in human beings. We studied the most common referred in the literature orifices such as vaginal, oral, gastric, esophageal, anal, or urethral. The optimal access route and method could not be established because of the different nature of each procedure. We mainly studied procedures in the field of general surgery such as cholecystectomy, intestinal cancers, renal cancers, appendectomy, mediastinoscopy, and peritoneoscopy. All procedures were feasible and most of them had an uneventful postoperative course. A number of technical problems were encountered, especially as far as pure NOTES procedures are concerned, which makes the need of developing new endoscopic instruments, to facilitate each approach, undeniable. NOTES is still in the early stages of development and more robust technologies will be needed to achieve reliable
Full Text Available The emergence of the modern human mind and modern human behaviour is a prominent issue in palaeolithic archaeology. The consensus has been that modernity, understood in terms of increased rates of innovation and the emergence of symbolism, is enabled by a heritable neurophysiology unique to Homo sapiens. This consensus is characterised as biological essentialist in that it understands modernity as genotypically specified and unique to Homo sapiens. 'Archaic' hominins such as the Neanderthals are understood to have lacked the modern neuroanatomical genotype and therefore to have been innately incapable of modern cognition and behaviour. The biological-essentialist programme, however, is facing a serious challenge as evidence for innovation and symbolism is found in the archaeological records of the Eurasian Middle Palaeolithic and the African Middle Stone Age. An alternative programme is emerging that understands modern human behaviour as an emergent property of social, demographic and ecological dynamics. It is argued that this programme is currently inadequate since it cannot explain the emergence of symbolically charged material culture and relies on inexorable long-term population growth. It is suggested here that the problem is better understood in terms of hierarchy theory, a body of ideas concerned with systems organised on multiple scales. Palaeolithic behaviour is reconceptualised as social practice emerging from a multi-scale knowledge system. It is shown that enhancements in the rate at which knowledgeable practices disseminate through social fields – the social transmission of knowledge - will have the effect of increasing the likelihood that novel practices will be incorporated into long-term structuring principles and thus become persistent practices. They will also effect a scalar convergence of domains of knowledgeability such that technical practices become incorporated into the construction of personhood as meaningful or
Ventegodt, Søren; Andersen, Niels Jørgen; Kromann, Maximilian; Merrick, Joav
The human being is a complex matter and many believe that just trying to understand life and what it means to be human is a futile undertaking. We believe that we have to try to understand life and get a grip on the many faces of life, because it can be of great value to us to learn to recognize the fundamental principles of how life is lived to the fullest. Learning to recognize the good and evil forces of life helps us to make use of the good ones. To be human is to balance between hundreds of extremes. Sometimes we have to avoid these extremes, but at other times it seems we should pursue them, to better understand life. With our roots in medicine, we believe in the importance of love for better health. The secret of the heart is when reason and feelings meet and we become whole. Where reason is balanced perfectly by feelings and where mind and body come together in perfect unity, a whole new quality emerges, a quality that is neither feeling nor reason, but something deeper and more complete. In this paper, we outline only enough biology to clarify what the fundamental inner conflicts are about. The insight into these conflicts gives us the key to a great deal of the problems of life. To imagine pleasures greater than sensual pleasures seems impossible to most people. What could such a joy possibly be? But somewhere deep in life exists the finest sweetness, the greatest quality in life, the pure joy of being alive that emerges when we are fully present and life is in balance. This deep joy of life is what we call experiencing the meaning of life.
Full Text Available The human being is a complex matter and many believe that just trying to understand life and what it means to be human is a futile undertaking. We believe that we have to try to understand life and get a grip on the many faces of life, because it can be of great value to us to learn to recognize the fundamental principles of how life is lived to the fullest. Learning to recognize the good and evil forces of life helps us to make use of the good ones.To be human is to balance between hundreds of extremes. Sometimes we have to avoid these extremes, but at other times it seems we should pursue them, to better understand life. With our roots in medicine, we believe in the importance of love for better health. The secret of the heart is when reason and feelings meet and we become whole. Where reason is balanced perfectly by feelings and where mind and body come together in perfect unity, a whole new quality emerges, a quality that is neither feeling nor reason, but something deeper and more complete.In this paper, we outline only enough biology to clarify what the fundamental inner conflicts are about. The insight into these conflicts gives us the key to a great deal of the problems of life. To imagine pleasures greater than sensual pleasures seems impossible to most people. What could such a joy possibly be? But somewhere deep in life exists the finest sweetness, the greatest quality in life, the pure joy of being alive that emerges when we are fully present and life is in balance. This deep joy of life is what we call experiencing the meaning of life.
Fulka, Helena; Kyogoku, Hirohisa; Zatsepina, Olga; Langerova, Alena; Fulka, Josef
In 1999, Tesarik and Greco reported that they could predict the developmental potential of human zygotes from a single static evaluation of their pronuclei. This was based on the distribution and number of specific nuclear organelles - the nucleoli. Recent studies in mice show that nucleoli play a key role in parental genome restructuring after fertilization, and that interfering with this process may lead to developmental failure. These studies thus support the Tesarik-Greco evaluation as a potentially useful method for selecting high-quality embryos in human assisted reproductive technologies. In this opinion article we discuss recent evidence linking nucleoli to parental genome reprogramming, and ask whether nucleoli can mirror or be used as representative markers of embryonic parameters such as chromosome content or DNA fragmentation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The principles of human-computer interface (HCI) realizations are investigated with the aim of getting closer to a general framework and thus, to a more or less solid background of constructing perspective efficient, reliable and cost-effective human-computer interfaces. On the basis of characterizing and classifying the different HCI solutions, the fundamental problems of interface construction are pointed out especially with respect to human error occurrence possibilities. The evolution of HCI realizations is illustrated by summarizing the main properties of past, present and foreseeable future interface generations. HCI modeling is pointed out to be a crucial problem in theoretical and practical investigations. Suggestions concerning HCI structure (hierarchy and modularity), HCI functional dynamics (mapping from input to output information), minimization of human error caused system failures (error-tolerance, error-recovery and error-correcting) as well as cost-effective HCI design and realization methodology (universal and application-oriented vs. application-specific solutions) are presented. The concept of RISC-based and SCAMP-type HCI components is introduced with the aim of having a reduced interaction scheme in communication and a well defined architecture in HCI components' internal structure. HCI efficiency and reliability are dealt with, by taking into account complexity and flexibility. The application of fast computerized prototyping is also briefly investigated as an experimental device of achieving simple, parametrized, invariant HCI models. Finally, a concise outline of an approach of how to construct ideal HCI's is also suggested by emphasizing the open questions and the need of future work related to the proposals, as well. (author). 14 refs, 6 figs
Deserno, M K; Borsboom, D; Begeer, S; Geurts, H M
Little is known about the specific factors that contribute to the well-being (WB) of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A plausible hypothesis is that ASD symptomatology has a direct negative effect on WB. In the current study, the emerging tools of network analysis allow to explore the functional interdependencies between specific symptoms of ASD and domains of WB in a multivariate framework. We illustrate how studying both higher-order (total score) and lower-order (subscale) representations of ASD symptomatology can clarify the interrelations of factors relevant for domains of WB. We estimated network structures on three different construct levels for ASD symptomatology, as assessed with the Adult Social Behavior Questionnaire (item, subscale, total score), relating them to daily functioning (DF) and subjective WB in 323 adult individuals with clinically identified ASD (aged 17-70 years). For these networks, we assessed the importance of specific factors in the network structure. When focusing on the highest representation level of ASD symptomatology (i.e. a total score), we found a negative connection between ASD symptom severity and domains of WB. However, zooming in on lower representation levels of ASD symptomatology revealed that this connection was mainly funnelled by ASD symptoms related to insistence on sameness and experiencing reduced contact and that those symptom scales, in turn, impact different domains of WB. Zooming in across construct levels of ASD symptom severity into subscales of ASD symptoms can provide us with important insights into how specific domains of ASD symptoms relate to specific domains of DF and WB.
Full Text Available After last year’s analysis regarding the European Union’s commitment to fight against the human beings trafficking, we have considered to further explore the human beings trafficking approach in the European Court of Human Rights case-law, the most developped regional jurisdiction on human rights. Surprisingly, the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms does not make an express reference to the human beings trafficking. However, we have to bear in mind that the Convention is a living instrument, its interpretation being made in the light of the present-day conditions. Thus, taking into consideration the global threat of this phenomenon, it is more obvious than ever that the Convention could not neglect this issue.
Weiss, Robert S; Bass, Scott A; Heimovitz, Harley K; Oka, Masato
Japan's Silver Human Resource Center (SHRC) program provides part-time, paid employment to retirement-aged men and women. We studied 393 new program participants and examined whether part-time work influenced their well-being or "ikigai." The participants were divided into those who had worked in SHRC-provided jobs in the preceding year, and those who had not. Gender-stratified regression models were fitted to determine whether SHRC employment was associated with increased well-being. For men, actively working at a SHRC job was associated with greater well-being, compared to inactive members. And men with SHRC jobs and previous volunteering experience had the greatest increase in well-being. Women SHRC job holders did not experience increased well-being at the year's end. The study concludes that there is justification for exploring the usefulness of a similar program for American retirees who desire post-retirement part-time work.
Salah Alaloul, Wesam; Shahir Liew, Mohd; Zawawi, Noor Amila Wan
The accomplishment of construction projects is extremely dependent on the integration of several stakeholders; therefore none of them has the control or the ability to accomplish the project alone. Each of them may influence and be influenced by the project management approach. There is no comprehensive theoretical platform for defining Communication, Coordination and Cooperation (3Cs) in the management of construction project. This paper deliberates the function of the 3Cs different theoretical perceptions. Through an analysis of selected articles from reputable academic journals in construction management, the business environment and human behaviour were identified as two main parts. A little has been done so far about the 3Cs, and how they are correlated with construction projects performance. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to explain the definitions and the association between the 3Cs. There is a significant link between communication and coordination. Coordination alternatively, is trust-based a logic of mutual and exchange. Consequently, cooperation is much more sophisticated, which needing more time and attempts.
that no matter which way they use ‘Chinese-ness’, the participants are able to reflect on their experiences and manifest a willingness to adapt to another culture, in which their identity as CFL teachers are constructed. By the end of study, the combination of teaching culture of Chinese and Danish, in which...... participants are forging new identities for them are discussed. Key words: CFL teacher, Danish university, teaching culture, Chinese-ness 中国式的汉语教师 探讨新汉语教师在构建其职业身份中对于中国特色的诠释和理解 中文摘要 在对外汉语教学中......Abstract This study reports on a qualitative research that explores how three beginning native CFL teachers in a Danish university use ‘Chinese-ness’ and how these serve in explaining their own narratives, either through identifying with, or distancing themselves from. Early results show...
... and alteration projects that are to be performed? 102-74.135 Section 102-74.135 Public Contracts and... construction and alteration projects that are to be performed? The Administrator of General Services selects construction and alteration projects to be performed. ...
Nearly a century of psychological research and recent advances in neuropsychology suggest that there is a "learning to learn" stage in early childhood, during which children need to create the foundations of human cognition, which relies upon the ability to logically categorise incoming information. Mid-twentieth-century psychologists…
Acín Raïch, Xavier
En aquesta tesina es presenta un anàlisi del paper i la importància dels recursos humans en l'eficiència de les empreses constructores i, veure la situació d'aquesta variable en una mostra d'empreses catalanes del sector.
O'Connor, Dennis; Yballe, Leodones
Given the scope and intent of Maslow's work, the current textbook treatment is wanting. Therefore, an inductive exercise has been created and is offered here to build "the road map of human nature." This age-old, philosophic focus on our true nature has been a way to successfully engage and inspire both our students and our pedagogy. In the spirit…
Quan, S; Yang, L; Abraham, N G; Kappas, A
Our objective was to determine whether overexpression and underexpression of human heme oxygenase (HHO)-1 could be controlled on a long-term basis by introduction of the HO-1 gene in sense (S) and antisense (AS) orientation with an appropriate vector into endothelial cells. Retroviral vector (LXSN) containing viral long terminal repeat promoter-driven human HO-1 S (LSN-HHO-1) and LXSN vectors containing HHO-1 promoter (HOP)-controlled HHO-1 S and AS (LSN-HOP-HHO-1 and LSN-HOP-HHO-1-AS) sequences were constructed and used to transfect rat lung microvessel endothelial cells (RLMV cells) and human dermal microvessel endothelial cells (HMEC-1 cells). RLMV cells transduced with HHO-1 S expressed human HO-1 mRNA and HO-1 protein associated with elevation in total HO activity compared with nontransduced cells. Vector-mediated expression of HHO-1 S or AS under control of HOP resulted in effective production of HO-1 or blocked induction of endogenous human HO-1 in HMEC-1 cells, respectively. Overexpression of HO-1 AS was associated with a long-term decrease (45%) of endogenous HO-1 protein and an increase (167%) in unmetabolized exogenous heme in HMEC-1 cells. Carbon monoxide (CO) production in HO-1 S- or AS-transduced HMEC-1 cells after heme treatment was increased (159%) or decreased (50%), respectively, compared with nontransduced cells. HO-2 protein levels did not change. These findings demonstrate that HHO-1 S and AS retroviral constructs are functional in enhancing and reducing HO activity, respectively, and thus can be used to regulate cellular heme levels, the activity of heme-dependent enzymes, and the rate of heme catabolism to CO and bilirubin.
Atchison, L.; Cosmis, R.L.; Atchison, M.L.
The authors are interested in identifying genes on human chromosome involved in disease processes. To date at least 20 different loci on this chromosome are implicated with various disease states. DNA libraries containing clones derived from a small chromosomal subregion implicated in a particular disease would greatly assist these studies. They have utilized the radiation hybrid (RH) technique to generate a series of somatic cell hybrids that contain small segments of human chromosome 3 as the only human genetic material. A Chinese hamster-human cell hybrid (Q314-2) containing only human chromosome 3 was used to prepare radiation hybrids. Cells were lethally X-irradiated with 6,000 rads and fused to Urd(??) Chinese hamster cells by PEG 1000 treatment. The majority of hybrids (>72%) analyzed retained portions of chromosome 3. The amount of chromosome 3 in each hybrid ranged from nearly all of the chromosome to very little. Currently these hybrids are being further characterized with single copy probes of known map location in order to isolate regions of chromosome 3 that contain specific disease locus. These reduced hybrids can then be used for the construction of region specific libraries and for the generation of new DNA probes from the specific region of interest
Helbo, Jan; Svendsen, Mads Sølver
With limited funding it seemed a very good idea to encourage master students to design and construct their own human size biped robot. Because this task is huge and very interdisciplinary different expertises were covered by students from different departments who in turn took over results from...... former students. In the last three years three student groups from respectively Department of Mechanical Engineering and Electronic Systems have been working on the project. The robot AAU-BOT1 is designed, manufactured, assembled, instrumented and the time for walking should be possible in the near...
Abaci, Hasan E; Guo, Zongyou; Coffman, Abigail; Gillette, Brian; Lee, Wen-Han; Sia, Samuel K; Christiano, Angela M
Vascularization of engineered human skin constructs is crucial for recapitulation of systemic drug delivery and for their long-term survival, functionality, and viable engraftment. In this study, the latest microfabrication techniques are used and a novel bioengineering approach is established to micropattern spatially controlled and perfusable vascular networks in 3D human skin equivalents using both primary and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived endothelial cells. Using 3D printing technology makes it possible to control the geometry of the micropatterned vascular networks. It is verified that vascularized human skin equivalents (vHSEs) can form a robust epidermis and establish an endothelial barrier function, which allows for the recapitulation of both topical and systemic delivery of drugs. In addition, the therapeutic potential of vHSEs for cutaneous wounds on immunodeficient mice is examined and it is demonstrated that vHSEs can both promote and guide neovascularization during wound healing. Overall, this innovative bioengineering approach can enable in vitro evaluation of topical and systemic drug delivery as well as improve the potential of engineered skin constructs to be used as a potential therapeutic option for the treatment of cutaneous wounds. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Saber, Haleh; Del Valle, Pedro; Ricks, Tiffany K; Leighton, John K
We retrospectively examined the nonclinical studies conducted with 17 CD3 bispecific constructs in support of first-in-human (FIH) trials in oncology. We also collected information on the design of dose-finding clinical trials. Sponsors have used different MABEL approaches for FIH dose selection. To better assess acceptable approaches, FIH doses were computed from nonclinical studies and compared to the maximum tolerated doses (MTDs) in patients, to the highest human doses (HHDs) when an MTD was not identified, or to the recommended human dose (RHD) for blinatumomab. We concluded that approaches based on receptor occupancy, highest non-severely toxic dose, or no-observed adverse effect level are not acceptable for selecting the FIH dose as they resulted in doses close to or above the MTDs, HHDs, or the RHD. A FIH dose corresponding to 10%-30% pharmacologic activity (PA) was an acceptable approach. A FIH dose corresponding to 50% PA was acceptable for all except one construct, potentially due to its biological or structural properties. The most common toxicities in animals and patients were those related to cytokine release. Doses were better tolerated when intra-animal or intra-patient dose escalation was used. Exposing naïve patients to an MTD achieved with intra-patient dose escalation design may be unsafe. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Poti, Patrizia; Hayashi, Misato; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro
Spatial construction tasks are basic tests of visual-spatial processing. Two studies have assessed spatial construction skills in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and young children (Homo sapiens sapiens) with a block modelling task. Study 1a subjects were three young chimpanzees and five adult chimpanzees. Study 1b subjects were 30 human children…
Murakami, Masaya; Kominami, Daichi; Leibnitz, Kenji; Murata, Masayuki
Virtualization of wireless sensor networks (WSN) is widely considered as a foundational block of edge/fog computing, which is a key technology that can help realize next-generation Internet of things (IoT) networks. In such scenarios, multiple IoT devices and service modules will be virtually deployed and interconnected over the Internet. Moreover, application services are expected to be more sophisticated and complex, thereby increasing the number of modifications required for the construction of network topologies. Therefore, it is imperative to establish a method for constructing a virtualized WSN (VWSN) topology that achieves low latency on information transmission and high resilience against network failures, while keeping the topological construction cost low. In this study, we draw inspiration from inter-modular connectivity in human brain networks, which achieves high performance when dealing with large-scale networks composed of a large number of modules (i.e., regions) and nodes (i.e., neurons). We propose a method for assigning inter-modular links based on a connectivity model observed in the cerebral cortex of the brain, known as the exponential distance rule (EDR) model. We then choose endpoint nodes of these links by controlling inter-modular assortativity, which characterizes the topological connectivity of brain networks. We test our proposed methods using simulation experiments. The results show that the proposed method based on the EDR model can construct a VWSN topology with an optimal combination of communication efficiency, robustness, and construction cost. Regarding the selection of endpoint nodes for the inter-modular links, the results also show that high assortativity enhances the robustness and communication efficiency because of the existence of inter-modular links of two high-degree nodes.
Full Text Available Virtualization of wireless sensor networks (WSN is widely considered as a foundational block of edge/fog computing, which is a key technology that can help realize next-generation Internet of things (IoT networks. In such scenarios, multiple IoT devices and service modules will be virtually deployed and interconnected over the Internet. Moreover, application services are expected to be more sophisticated and complex, thereby increasing the number of modifications required for the construction of network topologies. Therefore, it is imperative to establish a method for constructing a virtualized WSN (VWSN topology that achieves low latency on information transmission and high resilience against network failures, while keeping the topological construction cost low. In this study, we draw inspiration from inter-modular connectivity in human brain networks, which achieves high performance when dealing with large-scale networks composed of a large number of modules (i.e., regions and nodes (i.e., neurons. We propose a method for assigning inter-modular links based on a connectivity model observed in the cerebral cortex of the brain, known as the exponential distance rule (EDR model. We then choose endpoint nodes of these links by controlling inter-modular assortativity, which characterizes the topological connectivity of brain networks. We test our proposed methods using simulation experiments. The results show that the proposed method based on the EDR model can construct a VWSN topology with an optimal combination of communication efficiency, robustness, and construction cost. Regarding the selection of endpoint nodes for the inter-modular links, the results also show that high assortativity enhances the robustness and communication efficiency because of the existence of inter-modular links of two high-degree nodes.
Renard Yung Jhien Siew
While environmental sustainability has been the subject of much debate in the last decade, it was not until recently that attention started to shift towards human resource management as an enabler for sustainability. Yet, this is still a relatively under researched area. Much is still unknown about the role of an individual worker in contributing towards sustainable development. This paper addresses the gap by proposing a framework to measure sustainability competencies of employees within...
... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian... funds be used for road construction and other projects? Yes, any tribe can request to have its planning... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can tribal transportation planning funds be used for road...
... SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Project Assumption Process § 137.338 Must funds from other sources be... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Must funds from other sources be incorporated into a construction project agreement? 137.338 Section 137.338 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...
I. R. Karas
Full Text Available This paper describes the usage of MUSCLE (Multidirectional Scanning for Line Extraction Model for automatic generation of 3D networks in CityGML format (from raster floor plans. MUSCLE (Multidirectional Scanning for Line Extraction Model is a conversion method which was developed to vectorize the straight lines through the raster images including floor plans, maps for GIS, architectural drawings, and machine plans. The model allows user to define specific criteria which are crucial for acquiring the vectorization process. Unlike traditional vectorization process, this model generates straight lines based on a line thinning algorithm, without performing line following-chain coding and vector reduction stages. In this method the nearly vertical lines were obtained by scanning the images horizontally, while the nearly horizontal lines were obtained by scanning the images vertically. In a case where two or more consecutive lines are nearly horizontal or nearly vertical, raster data become unmanageable and the process generates wrongly vectorized lines. In this situation, to obtain the precise lines, the image with the wrongly vectorized lines is diagonally scanned. By using MUSCLE model, the network models are topologically structured in CityGML format. After the generation process, it is possible to perform 3D network analysis based on these models. Then, by using the software that was designed based on the generated models, a geodatabase of the models could be established. This paper presents the correction application in MUSCLE and explains 3D network construction in detail.
Camila Lima Miranda
Full Text Available The role of a pre-service teacher education in a construction of social representation about being teacher is the topic of this study, which included the participation of 44 first year and 27 last year undergraduate students from a course of chemistry. The theoretical lens used was Theory of Social Representation. Open questionnaires in which students had to write about their personal view about working as Chemistry teacher were used. In their answers were observed two categories: characteristics and vision of teaching. Comparing the characteristics that those students propose to the achievement of teaching and learning processes was perceived that the attitudes and pedagogical practices were suggest by both groups, what reinforces the many representations about teaching built even before start pre-service teacher education. In the social representation of last year students was observed that the characteristics and vision of teaching no longer centered on the teacher. In addition, was identified the expansion of the components of representation, by adding speeches and contents related to chemistry teaching (particularly the use of everyday life, the understanding phenomena, approached during graduation.
In moving into a new kind of world, nurses are encouraged to look ahead and be innovative by transcending to new ways of using nursing knowledge while embracing a new worldview. "We need to recognize that we're going to have to use our imagination more and more" (Rogers, 1994). On that note, the author in this paper explicates Rogers' science of unitary human beings in a creative way relating it to painting. In addition, the author also explores works derived from Rogers' science such as Butcher's (1993) and Cowling's (1997), which are here discussed in light of an artwork. A painting is presented with the unpredictability, creativity, and the "dance of color and light" (Butcher, 1993) is appreciated through comprehending essence, pandimensionality, and wholeness. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available In 2018, the editors of the Portuguese Journal of Behavioral and Social Research (PJBSR continue to favor the publication of original articles of investigation and revision in the areas of social and behavioral sciences. The PJBSR continues to promote thinking, questioning the changes in society, their realities, and rethinking their problems, encouraging a reflection among their readers. The number 1 of the fourth volume of the PJBSR adds four original articles and one review article. Although this issue of the PJBSR addresses different contents, there is evidence of a focus on the study of positive psychological variables and their relation to human well-being, whether it is operationalized as physical or mental health, studied in the context of institutionalization or in the context of the work, evaluated at the level of the subjective perception of well-being or the level of the conception of death with dignity.
Full Text Available This article deals with equality, human dignity and the need to build a social democracy. Bringing equality concepts in a broad sense as foundation work, is set to develop writing by making some remarks on the dignity of the individual and minorities, often not heard, even within democratic scenarios since democracy is the voice the most by hiding voices and demands of sectors or groups excluded from the agenda. Minorities such as LGBT, black, residents of peripheral areas of large cities, among others, do not have their demands heard from this idea, we seek a concept of social democracy, which is wider than just the voice of the majority.
Based on four reactor safety components (namely: a) God-given safety, b) Equipment safety, c) Quick-response safety, d) Containing safety), categorical assessment is made of various nuclear reactor concepts ranging from present existing reactors to future reactors based on innovative reactor design. In pursuit of nuclear reactor safety, ultimate characteristics of the ideal nuclear reactor are expected to coincide with those of an inherently safe reactor. A definition of 'inherently safe' has already been proposed by a committee in Japan. As a realistic and existable reactor, which is as close to the ideal reactor, a future reactor which is almost the same as a global reactor, is proposed. This global reactor must be constructable anywhere on earth and must permit easy operation and maintenance by anyone. It is also discussed to identify what behavior is expected of the global reactor under various conditions. At the same time, this future reactor which includes the global reactor, should solve a) the nuclear fuel resource issue, b) efficient utilization of fission energy and c) environmental issues as the greenhouse effect. (author). 7 refs., 2 figs
Ricardo Eccard da Silva
Full Text Available Developing countries have experienced a dramatic increase in the number of clinical studies in the last decades. The aim of this study was to describe 1 the number of clinical trials submitted to the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, Anvisa from 2007 to 2012 and the number of human-subject research projects approved by research ethics committees (RECs and the National Research Ethics Committee (Comissão Nacional de Ética em Pesquisa, CONEP in Brazil from 2007 to 2011 and 2 the diseases most frequently studied in Brazilian states in clinical trials approved in the country from 2009 to 2012, based on information from an Anvisa databank. Two databases were used: 1 the National Information System on Research Ethics Involving Human Beings (Sistema Nacional de Informação Sobre Ética em Pesquisa envolvendo Seres Humanos, SISNEP and 2 Anvisa's Clinical Research Control System (Sistema de Controle de Pesquisa Clínica, SCPC. Data from the SCPC indicated an increase of 32.7% in the number of clinical trials submitted to Anvisa, and data from the SISNEP showed an increase of 69.9% in those approved by RECs and CONEP (from 18 160 in 2007 to 30 860 in 2011. Type 2 diabetes (26.0% and breast cancer (20.5%-related to the main causes of mortality in Brazil-were the two most frequently studied diseases. The so-called “neglected diseases,” such as dengue fever, were among the least studied diseases in approved clinical trials, despite their significant impact on social, economic, and health indicators in Brazil. Overall, the data indicated 1 a clear trend toward more research involving human beings in Brazil, 2 good correspondence between diseases most studied in clinical trials approved by Anvisa and the main causes of death in Brazil, and 3 a low level of attention to neglected diseases, an issue that should be considered in setting future research priorities, given their socioeconomic and health effects.
Shimizu, Kazunori; Ito, Akira; Yoshida, Tatsuro; Yamada, Yoichi; Ueda, Minoru; Honda, Hiroyuki
An in vitro reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) tissues without the use of scaffolds may be an alternative strategy for tissue engineering. We have developed a novel tissue engineering strategy, termed magnetic force-based tissue engineering (Mag-TE), in which magnetite cationic liposomes (MCLs) with a positive charge at the liposomal surface, and magnetic force were used to construct 3D tissue without scaffolds. In this study, human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) magnetically labeled with MCLs were seeded onto an ultra-low attachment culture surface, and a magnet (4000 G) was placed on the reverse side. The MSCs formed multilayered sheet-like structures after a 24-h culture period. MSCs in the sheets constructed by Mag-TE maintained an in vitro ability to differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes, or chondrocytes after a 21-day culture period using each induction medium. Using an electromagnet, MSC sheets constructed by Mag-TE were harvested and transplanted into the bone defect in the crania of nude rats. Histological observation revealed that new bone surrounded by osteoblast-like cells was formed in the defect area 14 days after transplantation with MSC sheets, whereas no bone formation was observed in control rats without the transplant. These results indicated that Mag-TE could be used for the transplantation of MSC sheets using magnetite nanoparticles and magnetic force, providing novel methodology for bone tissue engineering.
de Campos, Thana Cristina
Although the value of health is universally agreed upon, its definition is not. Both the WHO and the UN define health in terms of well-being. They advocate a globally shared responsibility that all of us - states, international organizations, pharmaceutical corporations, civil society, and individuals - bear for the health (that is, the well-being) of the world's population. In this paper I argue that this current well-being conception of health is troublesome. Its problem resides precisely in the fact that the well-being conception of health, as an all-encompassing label, does not properly distinguish between the different realities of health and the different demands of justice, which arise in each case. In addressing responsibilities related to the right to health, we need to work with a more differentiated vocabulary, which can account for these different realities. A crucial distinction to bear in mind, for the purposes of moral deliberation and the crafting of political and legal institutions, is the difference between basic and non-basic health needs. This distinction is crucial because we have presumably more stringent obligations and rights in relation to human needs that are basic, as they justify stronger moral claims, than those grounded on non-basic human needs. It is important to keep this moral distinction in mind because many of the world's problems regarding the right to health relate to basic health needs. By conflating these needs with less essential ones, we risk confusing different types of moral claims and weakening the overall case for establishing duties regarding the right to health. There is, therefore, a practical need to reevaluate the current normative conception of health so that it distinguishes, within the broad scope of well-being, between what is basic and what is not. My aim here is to shed light onto this distinction and to show the need for this differentiation. I do so, first, by providing, on the basis of David Miller
Helfrich, Wijnand; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; Roovers, R.C; Westers, L; Molema, Ingrid; Hoogenboom, H.R; de Leij, Lou
We describe the construction of a recombinant bispecific antibody fragment in the diabody format with specificity for both the well-established human pancarcinoma associated target antigen EGP2 (epithelial glycoprotein 2, also known as the CO 17-1A antigen or KSA) and the CD3 epsilon chain of human
There is growing evidence that children labelled as academically gifted are subjected to negative attitudes from others and that this impacts on their self-esteem and motivation to succeed. Through an analysis of British newspaper stories about gifted children, this article explores the socially constructed nature of the concept of the "gifted…
This paper does not necessarily reflect the views of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is produced during exploration and production operations of subsidiaries of the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) in the United Arab Emirates, and accumulates in drilling tubulars, plant equipment, and components. These NORM hazardous wastes need to be managed in such a way that they do not damage human health and the environment. The primary radionuclides of concern in the oil and gas industries are radium-226 and radium-228. These radioisotopes are the decay products of uranium and thorium isotopes that are present in subsurface formations from which hydrocarbons are produced. While uranium and thorium are largely immobile, radium is slightly more soluble and may become mobilised in the fluid phases of the formation (International Association of Oil & Gas Producers, 2008). In order to treat and dispose of NORM waste products safely, ADNOC's subsidiary 'TAKREER' is developing a new facility, on behalf of all ADNOC subsidiaries, within the existing Central Environmental Protection Facilities (BeAAT) in Ruwais city. The NORM plant is envisaged to treat, handle, and dispose of NORM waste in the forms of scale, sludge, and contaminated equipment. The NORM treatment facility will cover activities such as decontamination, volume reduction, NORM handling, and concrete immobilisation of NORM waste into packages for designated landfilling. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Binding of a bacteria to a eukaryotic cell triggers a complex network of interactions in and between both cells. P. aeruginosa is a pathogen that causes acute and chronic lung infections by interacting with the pulmonary epithelial cells. We use this example for examining the ways of triggering the response of the eukaryotic cell(s, leading us to a better understanding of the details of the inflammatory process in general. Results Considering a set of genes co-expressed during the antibacterial response of human lung epithelial cells, we constructed a promoter model for the search of additional target genes potentially involved in the same cell response. The model construction is based on the consideration of pair-wise combinations of transcription factor binding sites (TFBS. It has been shown that the antibacterial response of human epithelial cells is triggered by at least two distinct pathways. We therefore supposed that there are two subsets of promoters activated by each of them. Optimally, they should be "complementary" in the sense of appearing in complementary subsets of the (+-training set. We developed the concept of complementary pairs, i.e., two mutually exclusive pairs of TFBS, each of which should be found in one of the two complementary subsets. Conclusions We suggest a simple, but exhaustive method for searching for TFBS pairs which characterize the whole (+-training set, as well as for complementary pairs. Applying this method, we came up with a promoter model of antibacterial response genes that consists of one TFBS pair which should be found in the whole training set and four complementary pairs. We applied this model to screening of 13,000 upstream regions of human genes and identified 430 new target genes which are potentially involved in antibacterial defense mechanisms.
Dai, Peishan; Wang, Boliang; Bao, Chunbo; Ju, Ying
Computer simulation of the biomechanical and biological heat transfer in ophthalmology greatly relies on having a reliable computer model of the human eye. This paper proposes a novel method on the construction of a geometric model of the human eye based on tissue slice images. Slice images were obtained from an in vitro Chinese human eye through an embryo specimen processing methods. A level set algorithm was used to extract contour points of eye tissues while a principle component analysi...
Ng, Wei Long; Qi, Jovina Tan Zhi; Yeong, Wai Yee; Naing, May Win
Three-dimensional (3D) pigmented human skin constructs have been fabricated using a 3D bioprinting approach. The 3D pigmented human skin constructs are obtained from using three different types of skin cells (keratinocytes, melanocytes and fibroblasts from three different skin donors) and they exhibit similar constitutive pigmentation (pale pigmentation) as the skin donors. A two-step drop-on-demand bioprinting strategy facilitates the deposition of cell droplets to emulate the epidermal melanin units (pre-defined patterning of keratinocytes and melanocytes at the desired positions) and manipulation of the microenvironment to fabricate 3D biomimetic hierarchical porous structures found in native skin tissue. The 3D bioprinted pigmented skin constructs are compared to the pigmented skin constructs fabricated by conventional a manual-casting approach; in-depth characterization of both the 3D pigmented skin constructs has indicated that the 3D bioprinted skin constructs have a higher degree of resemblance to native skin tissue in term of the presence of well-developed stratified epidermal layers and the presence of a continuous layer of basement membrane proteins as compared to the manually-cast samples. The 3D bioprinting approach facilitates the development of 3D in vitro pigmented human skin constructs for potential toxicology testing and fundamental cell biology research.
Schnurr, Stephanie; Zayts, Olga
In spite of the increasing globalisation of the work domain and the mobilization of the workforce (Wong et al. 2007) only very little attention has been paid to the interplay between culture and professional identities in workplace contexts. This paper addresses this gap by exploring some of the ways through which professionals are required to construct and negotiate their various identities in increasingly multicultural contexts where notions of culture may become particularly salient.\\ud We...
Tabunoki, Hiroko; Bono, Hidemasa; Ito, Katsuhiko; Yokoyama, Takeshi
Bombyx mori (silkworm) is the most famous lepidopteran in Japan. B. mori has long been used in the silk industry and also as a model insect for agricultural research. In recent years, B. mori has attracted interest in its potential for use in pathological analysis of model animals. For example, the human macular carotenoid transporter was discovered using information of B. mori carotenoid transporter derived from yellow-cocoon strain. The B. mori carotenoid transport system is useful in human studies. To develop a human disease model, we characterized the human homologs of B. mori, and by constructing KAIKO functional annotation pipeline, and to analyze gene expression profile of a unique B. mori mutant strain using microarray analysis. As a result, we identified a novel molecular network involved in Parkinson's disease. Here we describe the potential use of a spontaneous mutant silkworm strain as a human disease model. We also summarize recent progress in the application of genomic information for annotation of human homologs in B. mori. The B. mori mutant will provide a clue to pathological mechanisms, and the findings will be helpful for the development of therapies and for medical drug discovery.
The concept of human dignity is examined in terms of the religious belief that man is created in God's image and from the Kantian viewpoint that man's autonomy gives special value to our species. The theory of psychic determinism and the prospect of genetic engineering of humans are seen as attacks on self determination. Five additional attributes that make humans "special" are explored: conceptual thought, the capacity for technology, our range of emotions, "Lamarckian" environmental genetics, and the freedom to change and modify ourselves.
Jorge Salas Cabrera
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the impact of certain lifestyles in our daily lives, and to reference some of them, among which are a sedentary lifestyle, diet, physical activity, social and family support, and the impact they have on people’ quality of life. It is clear that as a human beings, the developments in everyday life are addressed by duties and rights that affect our way of living, hence all individuals should enjoy the right to a better quality of life; to achieve this, it is necessary to maintain healthy lifestyle habits that create mechanisms to protect people against the development of chronic degenerative diseases. Historically it has been shown that people who have unhealthy life habits develop over time no only hypokinetic diseases, but also neurological ones such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Under this scenario this paper is intended to present clear and concise information about what lifestyles represent to people and their importance as a right for everyone who decides to adapt them to their daily lives.
Hu Liang Cai
Full Text Available Introduction: the objective of this paper is to deeply and clearly explain the internationalisation of higher education from the aspect of the integration of human being with urban cultural space. Materials and Methods: the methods used in the research are mainly analytical and descriptive ones enabling to show how the integration of human being and urban cultural space promote and influence the internationalisation of higher education. Results: the motivation for the internationalisation of higher education is closely interrelated with that of urbanisation. Besides the economic and political incentives, modern urban culture, caused by globalisation, also plays a very important role in encouraging higher education internationalisation. Discussion and Conclusions: the appearance of higher education internationalisation is mediated by the alteration of the existing environment of urban culture space against the background of city internationalisation. Human beings’ need for self-assurance in urban culture space helps to stimulate the internationalisation of higher education, and human beings promote the development of modern culture space and their separation in urban culture space accelerates the development of higher education. From the perspective of higher education internationalisation, to sort out the cultural motivation for higher education and find its suitable form for the city’s internationalisation is crucial for adjusting the orientation and guaranteeing the efficacy of higher education internationalisation. From the aspect of human beings’ development, the separation between urban space and human beings caused by the city’s ongoing internationalisation is a pressing problem to be solved. From the aspect of the construction of urban culture space, as an important means of retaining human beings’ equilibrium, urban culture promotes the internationalisation of higher education.
Greco, Dirceu; Diniz, Nilza Maria
Conflicts of interest are inherent to the majority of relationships among individuals and of these with companies and institutions and, certainly, research involving human beings is no exception. In relation to clinical research, the main focus of this manuscript, conflicts of interest occur at different levels and usually permeate among them: In the pharmaceutical industry in their decisions to invest to develop new products, especially vaccines and drugs, and also in relation to marketing of these products; Among the investigators the conflicts may be related to the financial gains to participate in pharma sponsored trials, or to the expected academic career boost attained with the publication of the results of the trials and also to personal interests such as the financial support for trips to international conferences. Often the participation of host country investigators is restricted to performing phase III or IV protocols developed abroad, many times with low scientific relevance, and even lower relevance to public health; Universities or research institutes themselves also have conflicts of interest, as the sponsored projects may help increase their budgets, both directly (taxes) and indirectly (e.g., improvement of physical infrastructure of laboratories or out patient clinics); For the trial volunteers in developing countries, and Brazil is no exception despite free and universal access to its health system, participation in clinical trials is many times seen as, and can really be, an unique opportunity of receiving better health care, better treatment by the health professionals, easier access to costly lab exams and also to receiving certain medications which would otherwise be difficult to have access to. In order to handle these conflicts of interest, Brazil has a well-established and respected legal support and ethical normatization. The latter is represented by Resolution 196/96 of the Brazilian National Research Ethics Committee (CONEP). This
Emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) are one of the greatest threats to our future prosperity. World emissions are currently around 50 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide-equivalent per annum and are growing rapidly. Atmospheric concentrations of GHG emissions in the atmosphere have increased, to over 400ppm of CO2e today, even after taking the offsetting radiative effects of aerosols into account, and are increasing at a rate of around 2.5ppm per year. The world's current lack of "adequate" commitments to reduce emissions are consistent with at least a 3oC rise (50-50 chance) in temperature: a temperature not seen on the planet for around 3 million years, with serious risks of 5oC rise: a temperature not seen on the planet for around 30 million years. So what are the implications of a 3-5oC rise in temperature, with associated changes in, rising sea levels, retreating mountain glaciers, melting of the Greenland ice cap, shrinking Arctic Sea ice, especially in summer, increasing frequency of extreme weather events, such as heat waves, floods, and droughts, and intensification of cyclonic events, such as hurricanes in the Atlantic. Even a 2oC increase in mean surface temperatures will adversely affect freshwater, food and fiber, natural ecosystems, coastal systems and low-lying areas, human health and social systems, especially in developing countries. The impacts of 3-5oC will be extensive, predominantly negative, undermine development and poverty alleviation goals and cut across most sectors. To address human-induced climate change requires a transition to a low carbon economy, which will require rapid technological evolution in the efficiency of energy use, environmentally sound low-carbon renewable energy sources and carbon capture and storage. The longer we wait to transition to a low carbon economy the more we are locked into a high carbon energy system with consequent environmental damage to ecological and socio-economic systems. Unfortunately the political will
Morales, N M
Human cloning has become one of the most controversial debates about reproduction in Western civilization. Human cloning represents asexual reproduction, but the critics of human cloning argue that the result of cloning is not a new individual who is genetically unique. There is also awareness in the scientific community, including the medical community, that human cloning and the creation of clones are inevitable. Psychology and other social sciences, together with the natural sciences, will need to find ways to help the healthcare system, to be prepared to face the new challenges introduced by the techniques of human cloning. One of those challenges is to help the healthcare system to find specific standards of behaviour that could be used to help potential parents to interact properly with cloned babies or children created through genetic manipulation. In this paper, the concepts of personality, identity and uniqueness are discussed in relationship to the contribution of twin studies in these areas. The author argues that an individual created by human cloning techniques or any other type of genetic manipulation will not show the donor's characteristics to the extent of compromising uniqueness. Therefore, claims to such an effect are needlessly alarmist.
Möller, Thomas; Amoroso, Matteo; Hägg, Daniel; Brantsing, Camilla; Rotter, Nicole; Apelgren, Peter; Lindahl, Anders; Kölby, Lars; Gatenholm, Paul
The three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology allows creation of 3D constructs in a layer-by-layer fashion utilizing biologically relevant materials such as biopolymers and cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of 3D bioprinting in a clinically relevant setting to evaluate the potential of this technique for in vivo chondrogenesis. Thirty-six nude mice (Balb-C, female) received a 5- × 5- × 1-mm piece of bioprinted cell-laden nanofibrillated cellulose/alginate construct in a subcutaneous pocket. Four groups of printed constructs were used: (1) human (male) nasal chondrocytes (hNCs), (2) human (female) bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs), (3) coculture of hNCs and hBMSCs in a 20/80 ratio, and (4) Cell-free scaffolds (blank). After 14, 30, and 60 days, the scaffolds were harvested for histological, immunohistochemical, and mechanical analysis. The constructs had good mechanical properties and keep their structural integrity after 60 days of implantation. For both the hNC constructs and the cocultured constructs, a gradual increase of glycosaminoglycan production and hNC proliferation was observed. However, the cocultured group showed a more pronounced cell proliferation and enhanced deposition of human collagen II demonstrated by immunohistochemical analysis. In vivo chondrogenesis in a 3D bioprinted human cell-laden hydrogel construct has been demonstrated. The trophic role of the hBMSCs in stimulating hNC proliferation and matrix deposition in the coculture group suggests the potential of 3D bioprinting of human cartilage for future application in reconstructive surgery.
Fulka, Helena; Kyogoku, H.; Zatsepina, O.; Langerova, A.; Fulka, J.
Roč. 21, č. 11 (2015), s. 663-672 ISSN 1471-4914 Grant - others:GA ČR GA13-03269S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 ; RVO:67985904 Keywords : human zygotes * developmental potential * nucleoli Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.292, year: 2015
The focus then shifts to Merleau-Ponty in order to demonstrate the remarkable extent to which his understanding of human embodiment and related issues such as perception and creativity, paved the way for the work of, among others, Lyotard, and anticipated the critique of artificial intelligence on the part of the latter.
Frenzel, André; Kügler, Jonas; Wilke, Sonja; Schirrmann, Thomas; Hust, Michael
Antibody phage display is the most commonly used in vitro selection technology and has yielded thousands of useful antibodies for research, diagnostics, and therapy.The prerequisite for successful generation and development of human recombinant antibodies using phage display is the construction of a high-quality antibody gene library. Here, we describe the methods for the construction of human immune and naive scFv gene libraries.The success also depends on the panning strategy for the selection of binders from these libraries. In this article, we describe a panning strategy that is high-throughput compatible and allows parallel selection in microtiter plates.
Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of toll and capacity choice of a new highway with a bottleneck added onto an existing transit network under four ownership/tolling regimes: public fine toll, public flat toll, private fine toll, and private flat toll. Whenever fine toll and flat toll are imposed, in a competitive highway/transit network with constant returns to scale in road construction, an optimally designed and priced privately owned highway would produce positive net benefit justly equal to the total markup with respect to all autocommuters, whereas an optimally designed and priced publicly owned highway would lead to a deficit; that is, the toll revenues are insufficient to cover its all costs. The economic conditions to invest a new road are investigated under different ownership/tolling regimes.
Two studies of the effects of perfume additives, termed human pheromones by the authors, have conveyed the message that these substances can promote an increase in human sociosexual behaviour [Physiol. Behav. 75 (2003) R1; Arch. Sex. Behav. 27 (1998) R2]. The present paper presents an extended analysis of this data. It is shown that in neither study is there a statistically significant increase in any of the sociosexual behaviours for the experimental groups. In the control groups of both studies, there are, however, moderate but statistically significant decreases in the corresponding behaviour. Most notably, there is no support in data for the claim that the substances increase the attractiveness of the wearers of the substances to the other sex. It is concluded that more research using matched homogenous groups of participants is needed. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available We take a social-ecological systems perspective to investigate the linkages between ecosystem services and human well-being in South Africa. A recent paper identified different types of social-ecological systems in the country, based on distinct bundles of ecosystem service use. These system types were found to represent increasingly weak direct feedbacks between nature and people, from rural "green-loop" communities to urban "red-loop" societies. Here we construct human well-being bundles and explore whether the well-being bundles can be used to identify the same social-ecological system types that were identified using bundles of ecosystem service use. Based on national census data, we found three distinct well-being bundle types that are mainly characterized by differences in income, unemployment and property ownership. The distribution of these well-being bundles approximates the distribution of ecosystem service use bundles to a substantial degree: High levels of income and education generally coincided with areas characterised by low levels of direct ecosystem service use (or red-loop systems, while the majority of low well-being areas coincided with medium and high levels of direct ecosystem service use (or transition and green-loop systems. However, our results indicate that transformations from green-loop to red-loop systems do not always entail an immediate improvement in well-being, which we suggest may be due to a time lag between changes in the different system components. Using human well-being bundles as an indicator of social-ecological dynamics may be useful in other contexts since it is based on socio-economic data commonly collected by governments, and provides important insights into the connections between ecosystem services and human well-being at policy-relevant sub-national scales.
Hamann, Maike; Biggs, Reinette; Reyers, Belinda
We take a social-ecological systems perspective to investigate the linkages between ecosystem services and human well-being in South Africa. A recent paper identified different types of social-ecological systems in the country, based on distinct bundles of ecosystem service use. These system types were found to represent increasingly weak direct feedbacks between nature and people, from rural "green-loop" communities to urban "red-loop" societies. Here we construct human well-being bundles and explore whether the well-being bundles can be used to identify the same social-ecological system types that were identified using bundles of ecosystem service use. Based on national census data, we found three distinct well-being bundle types that are mainly characterized by differences in income, unemployment and property ownership. The distribution of these well-being bundles approximates the distribution of ecosystem service use bundles to a substantial degree: High levels of income and education generally coincided with areas characterised by low levels of direct ecosystem service use (or red-loop systems), while the majority of low well-being areas coincided with medium and high levels of direct ecosystem service use (or transition and green-loop systems). However, our results indicate that transformations from green-loop to red-loop systems do not always entail an immediate improvement in well-being, which we suggest may be due to a time lag between changes in the different system components. Using human well-being bundles as an indicator of social-ecological dynamics may be useful in other contexts since it is based on socio-economic data commonly collected by governments, and provides important insights into the connections between ecosystem services and human well-being at policy-relevant sub-national scales.
Albertsen, H.M.; Abderrahim, H.; Cann, H.M.; Dausset, J.; Le Paslier, D.; Cohen, D.
Prior to constructing a library of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) containing very large human DNA fragments, the authors performed a series of preliminary experiments aimed at developing a suitable protocol. They found an inverse relationship between YAC insert size and transformation efficiency. Evidence of occasional rearrangement within YAC inserts was found resulting in clonally stable internal deletions or clonally unstable size variations. A protocol was developed for preparative electrophoretic enrichment of high molecular mass human DNA fragments from partial restriction digests and ligation with the YAC vector in agarose. A YAC library has been constructed from large fragments of DNA from an Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human lymphoblastoid cell line. The library presently contains 50,000 clones, 95% of which are greater than 250 kilobase pairs in size. The mean YAC size of the library, calculated from 132 randomly isolated clones, is 430 kilobase pairs. The library thus contains the equivalent of approximately seven haploid human genomes
Ribeiro de Oliveira, Marcelo Magaldi; Nicolato, Arthur; Santos, Marcilea; Godinho, Joao Victor; Brito, Rafael; Alvarenga, Alexandre; Martins, Ana Luiza Valle; Prosdocimi, André; Trivelato, Felipe Padovani; Sabbagh, Abdulrahman J; Reis, Augusto Barbosa; Maestro, Rolando Del
OBJECT The development of neurointerventional treatments of central nervous system disorders has resulted in the need for adequate training environments for novice interventionalists. Virtual simulators offer anatomical definition but lack adequate tactile feedback. Animal models, which provide more lifelike training, require an appropriate infrastructure base. The authors describe a training model for neurointerventional procedures using the human placenta (HP), which affords haptic training with significantly fewer resource requirements, and discuss its validation. METHODS Twelve HPs were prepared for simulated endovascular procedures. Training exercises performed by interventional neuroradiologists and novice fellows were placental angiography, stent placement, aneurysm coiling, and intravascular liquid embolic agent injection. RESULTS The endovascular training exercises proposed can be easily reproduced in the HP. Face, content, and construct validity were assessed by 6 neurointerventional radiologists and 6 novice fellows in interventional radiology. CONCLUSIONS The use of HP provides an inexpensive training model for the training of neurointerventionalists. Preliminary validation results show that this simulation model has face and content validity and has demonstrated construct validity for the interventions assessed in this study.
Afrov, A.; Berkovich, V.; Generalov, V.; Dragunov, Yu.; Krushelnitskij, V.
The design of a new-generation nuclear power plant with advanced WWER-1000 units, currently under construction at Novovoronezh, is dealt with in considerable detail. Information is given on the general layout of the power plant, and the monoblock comprising the four-loop reactor plant with double containment, the turbine hall with two turbine-driven feedwater pumps and safety and auxiliary systems is described. In a separate building at the power plant site, a new fuel storage facility is located designed for extreme external effects. The operations involved in fuel handling, in both the storage facility and the reactor department, are mentioned. The management of various types of radioactive waste is highlighted. The basic principles of the engineering solutions pertaining to the plant's electrical part are outlined. The concept of the instrumentation and control system is explained. Information is also given on the double containment system. A considerable part of the presentation is devoted to the philosophy and concept of the power plant safety, to the results of safety evaluation and to the research carried out in this respect. The paper is concluded with a discussion of the experiments and analyses performed with the aim to justify the design solutions as regards the passive heat removal system. (A.K.)
This study is one of a series designed to support Air Force leadership in promoting resilience among Airmen, its civilian employees, and Air Force family members. One key component to resilience is social fitness, or the combined resources a person gets from his or her social world. This concept encompasses the availability and maintenance of social relationships, and the ability to utilize those ties to manage stressors and successfully perform tasks. Social fitness resources are the aspects of those relationships that strengthen a person's ability to withstand and rebound from challenges and even grow from them. U.S. Airmen and their families face several unique challenges that can strain the strength and accessibility of these resources, particularly geographic movement. This study identifies several scales and indexes used in social science research to measure three primary social fitness resources, emotional support, instrumental support, and informational support, and proposes that interventions aimed at increasing the quantity and quality of social support should focus on (1) sociodemographic characteristics and dispositional traits; (2) dynamics that strengthen social groups, support networks, and teams; (3) practices that improve social skills and promote more frequent and constructive interactions; and (4) activities that reduce conflict and group division. Particular attention is given to interventions that utilize cyber or virtual communities as an effective means of increasing social connectedness and social support among U.S. Airmen and their families.
The various sources to and aspects of the greenhouse gas effect were discussed. The gas and pollutant contributions were estimated and the added amounts of methane, nitrogen dioxide and chlorofluorocarbons emissions were approximately equal to that of carbon dioxide. Problems connected to sulphur dioxide emissions were mentioned. The problems of UV and IR radiation were discussed. The sun shine intensity fluctuation was also considered as well as other factors that have influenced the climate before the industrial era. It was concluded that human activities have contributed to the alterations in the greenhouse effect in last century
Xin, Sui; Chaoyang, Sun; Mo, Li
Rural planning is perceived as a spatial planning centered on the human settlements and there are many activities for rural reconstruction and researches conducted from the perspective of active intervention, with fewer studies regarding the village as the main body for the establishment of self-built system. And the other-organization built by the rural areas is strongly oriented. In Asian countries like China, South Korea and Japan, there are farming traditions, in which the familial and small-scale farmland holding and agricultural production mode are deep-rooted. Traditional agriculture and rural areas are not fundamentally changed by industrialization and modernization process. And the small-scale peasant in the East is marked by the decentralized possession of farmland and management in the rural areas and a large number of farmers to be remained. But the rural population keeps decreasing. After analyzing the status quo of human settlements in China, Korea and Japan, the paper makes an analysis from the different ways of thinking and professional perspective and focuses on putting forward the solutions to the problems on macro level, with the feasibility of the practical significance and the landing researches still staying in the testing stage. In the context of increasingly missing regional and contextual features, the launching and researches of “co-constructed community” as the folk protection way to emerging rural heritage are just started, and the researches on rural construction in Northeast China from the perspective of catalyst are absent. The contact agent with the catalytic action mechanism of seeing big things through small ones fits the rural areas marked by vast territory and diversified aspect, which is applicable to the bottom-up operation mechanism autonomously built by the villagers.
Is today’s science fiction really tomorrow’s science fact (*)? If you remember the Star Trek TV series, you will have noticed that extra-dimensions are becoming more plausible than you could have imagined when Captain Kirk was leading the Enterprise. Lawrence Krauss, author of "The Physics of Star Trek", visited CERN on 28 August and told us how the LHC inspires him both as a scientist and as a writer.Wearing his cosmologist’s hat, Lawrence Krauss met the CERN audience in the Main Auditorium and gave a colloquium entitled "Cosmology as Science? From Inflation to Eternity". Wearing his other hat of bestselling writer, he told us that he finds the LHC a very inspiring human adventure. "The LHC and its experiments", he says, "represent how science can span and bridge human cultures and interests, focusing for an incredibly intense period on questions which may seem esoteric but in some way will give us insights into our place in the Universe". CERN science has inspired ...
... integration were detected in all cell lines after transfection. A novel lentiviral vector carrying human FVIII³BD was constructed, which was able to transfect different mammalian cell types accompanied by high-level activity. This lentiviral vector may provide a theoretical basis for the gene therapy of patients with hemophilia ...
The tumor-suppressor gene p53 and its downstream genes consist of a complicated gene network, and the challenge to understand the network is to identify p53 downstream genes. In order to isolate and identify new p53 regulated genes, we constructed and characterized a normalized cDNA library from human brain ...
Helena N. Knyazeva
Full Text Available span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: #39;Times New Roman#39;"The theory of self-organization of complex systems studies laws of sustainable co-evolutionary development of structures having different speeds of development as well as laws of assembling of a complex evolutionary whole from parts when some elements of ldquo;memoryrdquo; (the biological memory, i.e. DNA, the memory of culture, i.e. the cultural and historical traditions, etc. must be included. The theory reveals general rules of nonlinear synthesis of complex evolutionary structures. The most important and paradoxical consequences of the holistic view, including an approach to solving the riddle of human personality, are as follows: 1 the explanation why and under what conditions a part (a human can be more complex than a whole (society; 2 in order to reconstruct society it is necessary to change an individual but not by cutting off the supposed undesirable past, since a human being as a microcosm is the synthesis of all previous stages of evolution, and as a result of repression of, it would seem, the wild past one can extinguish a ldquo;divine sparkrdquo; in his soul; 3 in the physical sense, singularity denotes a moment of instability, phase transition; one can talk about the human singularity of co-evolutionary processes, since in such a moment of instability individual actions of a human can play a key role in determining a channel of further development as well as in appearance of a new pattern of collective behavior in society; 4 as the models of nonlinear dynamics, elaborated at the Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow, show, there is a possibility of a direct influence of the future and even a touch of an infinitely remote future in certain evolutionary regimes and under rigorously definite conditions, more over, it turns out that such a possibility exists only for a human (admittedly, through a specific state of being
Sproul, Andrew A
Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have the capacity to revolutionize medicine by allowing the generation of functional cell types such as neurons for cell replacement therapy. However, the more immediate impact of PSCs on treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) will be through improved human AD model systems for mechanistic studies and therapeutic screening. This review will first briefly discuss different types of PSCs and genome-editing techniques that can be used to modify PSCs for disease modeling or for personalized medicine. This will be followed by a more in depth analysis of current AD iPSC models and a discussion of the need for more complex multicellular models, including cell types such as microglia. It will finish with a discussion on current clinical trials using PSC-derived cells and the long-term potential of such strategies for treating AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adriana Silva Maillart
Full Text Available The goal of this article is to demonstrate that mediation don`t contemplate exclusively as purpose the resolution of conflicts; gets expanded to receive the aspect denominated as recognition of the human person in its anthropologic meaning, escaping from the mere legal definition of the owner of rights and obligations. The recognition of the other, adopted in the context of conflict management, contributes not only to the controversy back it up to the result of zero-sum resulting from the traditional concept of Justice, but also to individuals and society by adopting targeted actions for mutual understanding, achieve their independence, but also preserving interpersonal and social relations, in the true sense of co- existential justice. It is an exploratory article, which employ bibliographic research technique and social analysis of Law and also the systemic method of approach.
Jyoti Trehan Sharma
Full Text Available The Birdman of India, Salim Moizuddin Abdul Ali, was one of the first Indians to conduct a systematic and patterned survey of birds in India. W.S. Millard, the Secretary of the Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS had introduced Salim Ali to the beautiful world of the birds. Millard had identified an unusually coloured sparrow that was actually shot by a young Salim Ali with his air gun. This was a yellow-throated sparrow. Following this, Millard showed Salim Ali the Society’s collection of stuffed birds, and this became the beginning of a marvelous journey of exploring the bird kingdom and establishing great landmarks by Salim Ali. The sparrow had transformed Salim Ali’s world. Undoubtedly, his autobiography was later titled ‘The Fall of a Sparrow’. Salim Ali has very carefully noted in his autobiography as to how this yellow-throated sparrow became the turning point in his life that led him into the fascinating world of ornithology. This research contribution is not about the birdman but the bird, which is rapidly vanishing from our vicinity. The reasons for the decline of the sparrow are varied but the fact of the matter is that the natural world around us is rapidly receding. And the decline of the sparrow is an alarm, a warning against the degrading ecosystems, and an alarm against blind-folded urbanisation which is leading to human-induced disasters.
The niche construction model postulates that human bio-social evolution is composed of three inheritance domains, genetic, cultural and ecological, linked by feedback selection. This paper argues that many kinds of archaeological data can serve as proxies for human niche construction processes, and presents a method for investigating specific niche construction hypotheses. To illustrate this method, the repeated emergence of specialized reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) hunting/herding economies during the Late Palaeolithic (ca 14.7-11.5 kyr BP) in southern Scandinavia is analysed from a niche construction/triple-inheritance perspective. This economic relationship resulted in the eventual domestication of Rangifer. The hypothesis of whether domestication was achieved as early as the Late Palaeolithic, and whether this required the use of domesticated dogs (Canis familiaris) as hunting, herding or transport aids, is tested via a comparative analysis using material culture-based phylogenies and ecological datasets in relation to demographic/genetic proxies. Only weak evidence for sustained niche construction behaviours by prehistoric hunter-gatherer in southern Scandinavia is found, but this study nonetheless provides interesting insights into the likely processes of dog and reindeer domestication, and into processes of adaptation in Late Glacial foragers.
Chen Xiaosui; Zhou Lijun; Wang Yuxiao; Qu Jia; Feng Jiangbing; Lu Xue; Chen Deqing; Liu Qingjie
Objective: To construct a stable plasmid that spanning deleted human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) 4977 bp induced by ionizing radiation and another one for control DNA fragment, in order to use in the human mitochondrial genome study in the future. Methods: The peripheral blood, which had no mtDNA 4977 bp deletion found in previous study, was exposed to 10 Gy 60 Co γ-rays in vitro. The total cell DNA was extracted and PCR was carried out: a nest-PCR of three-round PCR was used for the mtDNA 4977 bp deletion and one- round regular PCR was used for the control ND1 gene. The PCR products were used for transfection by electroporation and the positive clones were obtained after screening. The plasmid DNA was isolated and sequenced after enzymatic digestion and purification. The sequence result was BLASTed with the human mitochondrial genome. Results: The sizes of PCR products for the flanked 4977 bp deletion and the ND1 gene were similar with those predicted according to GeneBank. The sequences for the positive clones were above 99 per cent homologous with the human mitochondrial genome after BLASTed. Conclusion: The plasmids for deleted human mtDNA 4977 bp and control DNA fragment have been constructed successfully, and they could be used in the quality and quantity studies on human mtDNA 4977 bp deletion. (authors)
Deserno, M. K.; Borsboom, D.; Begeer, S.; Geurts, H. M.
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the specific factors that contribute to the well-being (WB) of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A plausible hypothesis is that ASD symptomatology has a direct negative effect on WB. In the current study, the emerging tools of network analysis allow
Deserno, Marie K.; Borsboom, D.; Begeer, S; Geurts, H M
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the specific factors that contribute to the well-being (WB) of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A plausible hypothesis is that ASD symptomatology has a direct negative effect on WB. In the current study, the emerging tools of network analysis allow
Ion, S.; Nicholls, D.; Matzie, R.; Matzner, D.
Substantial interest has been generated in advanced reactors over the past few years. This interest is motivated by the view that new nuclear power reactors will be needed to provide low carbon generation of electricity and possibly hydrogen to support the future growth in demand for both of these commodities. Some governments feel that substantially different designs will be needed to satisfy the desires for public perception, improved safety, proliferation resistance, reduced waste and competitive economics. This has motivated the creation of the Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems programme in which ten countries have agreed on a framework for international cooperation in research for advanced reactors. Six designs have been selected for continued evaluation, with the objective of deployment by 2030. One of these designs is the very high temperature reactor (VHTR), which is a thermal neutron spectrum system with a helium-cooled core utilising carbon-based fuel. The pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR), being developed in South Africa through a worldwide international collaborative effort led by Eskom, the national utility, will represent a key milestone on the way to achievement of the VHTR design objectives, but in the much nearer term. This paper outlines the design objectives, safety approach and design details of the PBMR, which is already at a very advanced stage of development. (author)
S. A. Starovoitova
Full Text Available Modern huge and world-wide known projects concerning studying of human microbial ecology and construction of probiotics, particularly: Society for Microbial Ecology and Disease, Probiotics & Health Targeted Initiative of International Science and Technology Center (TI PROBIO ISTC, Human Microbiome Project of National Institutes of Health, MetaHIT Project (Metagenomics of the Human Intestinal Tract of European Commission, Human Metabolome Project of Canadian University of Alberta and some more else were characterized in the article. Brief historical information and reference to official sites of every discussed project were given. Main goals and tasks of every project were described. Short characteristic of discussed projects and also modern accessible results of researches were given. Importance of every examined project for widening scientific knowledge in the field of human microbial ecology and also for improvement and/or for construction of modern effective probiotics on basis of human normal intestinal microflora were paid attention. Close interaction of scientific data received by realization of every discussed project was shown.
This paper argues against a trend of human rights education, where human rights are taught in the form of citizenship education. In my view, citizenship education and human rights education cannot be taken as replaceable for each other. Underpinning the idea of citizenship is a distinction between "politically qualified" and "politically…
Farmer, S.; Jones, K.
Dixon School of the Arts students have partnered with From the Ground Up Community Garden to learn more about gardening and to start a school garden in Pensacola, Florida. There are many soils options to learn about and test. Just this year ECUA, Emerald Coast Utilities Authority developed a new compost using biosolids. While they advertise that it is safe to grow food in, there are many discrepancies within the local organic garden communities. This project will be designed to determine if local food can be grown in the soil, if it grows bigger and better than alternative soils and finally if it is safe to eat.
Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid
Education as a phenomenon is rather complex which makes it difficult to define its quality. Definitions of quality must be open to change and evolution based on information, changing contexts, and new understandings of the nature of education's challenges. The main objective of the paper is to find out the significance of quality education for…
Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel died 53 years ago. But still he is alive in social and Political Fields of India. It is but natural. It is the outcome of achievements which Sardar Patel acquired for the nation and the society. On one hand, he is considered to be a practical person like Mahatma Gandhi, w...
Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; Lester, David
The aim of the present study was to explore the associations of religiosity with subjective well-being (SWB) and psychopathology (anxiety and depression) among college students recruited from two different cultures, Kuwait (n = 192) and the USA (n = 158). The students responded to the following scales in their native languages, Arabic and English, respectively: the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, the Love of Life Scale, the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale and the Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression Scale. They also responded to six self-rating scales assessing happiness, satisfaction with life, mental health, physical health, religiosity and strength of religious belief. The Kuwaiti students obtained higher mean scores on religiosity, religious belief and depression than did their American counterparts, whereas American students had higher mean scores on happiness and love of life. Two factors were extracted: 'SWB versus psychopathology' and 'Religiosity'. Based on the responses of the present two samples, it was concluded that those who consider themselves as religious experienced greater well-being.
Smallpox, caused by variola virus, was a terror for civilizations around the world for more than 3000 years. Although the disease is eradicated, hundreds of variola virus isolates are kept in two WHO-collaborating facilities, one in USA and one in Russia. In spite of several agreements on destruction, it is now doubtful that these virus isolates will be destroyed. Variola virus may exist in other places and may be used as a biological weapon in war or for terror. Further research on variola virus is thus essential in order to achieve a better understanding of the pathogenicity of the virus and to develop new anti-variola virus vaccines and antiviral drugs.
Aakhus, T.; Stokke, O.; Stormorken, H.; Berg, K.J.; Dahlstroem, K.
The pharmacologic effects of intravenous injections of iopentol (Nycomed AS, Oslo, Norway) in 24 healthy male volunteers were studied. Doses from 300 to 1200 mg I/kg b.w. were well tolerated. Some persons had a slight heat sensation, abnormal abdominal sensations, thirst, or nausea. Headache was reported in a few subjects both after iopentol and saline injections, and was considered to be procedure related. No severe events occurred. Minor changes were observed in some biochemical and physiological parameters, but were usually within normal ranges and without clinical importance. Some of these effects also occurred in the control group after saline injections. Iopentol was excreted mainly in the urine and no metabolites were detected. The results indicated that clinical trials with iopentol could be undertaken. (author). 7 refs.; 2 tabs
Corral García, Eduardo
Is addressed in this work if you can accept that in Spain a reproductive rights through the use of assisted reproductive techniques, especially when the client is a single woman and when the baby has undergone a substitution pregnancy or surrogacy, regardless of those who have come to this possibility, which still continues to be considered without any efficacy in the rules governing the matter.
Lauridsen, B.; Hedemann Jensen, P.
The basic dosimetric quantity in ICRP-publication no. 30 is the aborbed fraction AF(T<-S). This parameter is the fraction of energy absorbed in a target organ T per emission of radiation from activity deposited in the source organ S. Based upon this fraction it is possible to calculate the Specific Effective Energy SEE(T<-S). From this, the committed effective dose equivalent from an intake of radioactive material can be found, and thus the annual limit of intake for given radionuclides can be determined. A male phantom has been constructed with the aim of measuring the Specific Effective Energy SEE(T<-S) in various target organs. Impressions-of real human organs have been used to produce vacuum forms. Tissue equivalent plastic sheets were sucked into the vacuum forms producing a shell with a shape identical to the original organ. Each organ has been made of two shells. The same procedure has been used for the body. Thin tubes through the organs make it possible to place TL dose meters in a matrix so the dose distribution can be measured. The phantom has been supplied with lungs, liver, kidneys, spleen, stomach, bladder, pancreas, and thyroid gland. To select a suitable body liquid for the phantom, laboratory experiments have been made with different liquids and different radionuclides. In these experiments the change in dose rate due to changes in density and composition of the liquid was determined. Preliminary results of the experiments are presented. (orig.)
Lilien, J.L.; Dular, P.; Sabariego, R.; Beauvois, V.; Barbier, P.P.; Lorphevre, R.
Since the early seventies, potential health risks from ELF (Extremely Low frequency electromagnetic Fields) exposure (50 Hz) have been extensively treated in the literature (more than 1000 references registered by WHO (World Health Organisation), 2007). After 30 years of worldwide research, the major epidemiological output is the possible modest increased risk (by a factor 2) of childhood leukaemia in case of a long exposure to an ambient magnetic flux density (B-field) higher than 0.4 μT. However, this fact has not been confirmed by in vivo and in vitro studies. Moreover it has not been validated by any adverse health biological mechanisms neither for adults nor for children. International recommendations (ICNIRP, International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection) are currently, for general public, not to exceed a B-field of 100 μT (50 Hz) and an E-field of 5 kV/m (50 Hz). Herein, a rough overview of typical values of ELF fields will be presented followed by a brief literature survey on childhood leukaemia and ELF The potential carcinogenic effect of ELF would be linked to electrical disturbances in cell behaviour. The major concern linking child-hood leukaemia and ELF is thus to determine the response of bone marrow cells under ELF fields. With that purpose, transmembrane potential will be targeted and linked to the E-field at that level. This paper is three-folded: (1) the electric interactions between ambient ELF fields and the body are studied both qualitatively and quantitatively. Different sources of internal E-field are analysed and classified according to their potential risk; (2) the hypothesis of contact current is detailed; (3) key actions to undertake are highlighted. Based on the current state of the art and some authors' own developments, this paper proposes simple low cost enhancements of private electrical installations in order to annihilate the major source of potential effects of ELF. (authors)
Full Text Available In the last approximately 15 years, mainly in the last decade, Romania made substantial efforts to establish the institutions fighting THB according with the EU’s Directive 38 /2011’s requirements and the recommendation assumed by the International Treaties signed and ratified in this area. The plethora of institutions were founded, but they are not functioning yet as a system because of the absence of the independent assessing institution. That is why, it must be, immediately, created. Beside, the institutional system needs, as a unavoidable complement the launching of Cultural Strategy in tabooing for good, the THB in Romania.
Nørskov, Marco; Platz, Anemone
Japan has for decades been a first-mover and pacemaker with respect to the development of humanoid and android robots . In this conceptual paper, we aim to demonstrate how certain android robotic projects can be embedded and interpreted within a Japanese notion of nature, where the artificial...... is not opposed to nature and where conventionalized idealizations in general are cherished over original state of the latter . Furthermore, we will discuss how android robots epitomize challenges to the macro and micro levels of society.  J. Robertson, Robo Sapiens Japanicus: Robots, Gender, Family...
Blashenkov, N. M.; Sheshenya, E. S.; Solov'ev, S. M.; Sachenko, V. D.; Gall, L. N.; Zarutskii, I. V.; Gall, N. R.
A specialized isotope mass spectrometer for noninvasive diagnostics of Helicobacter pylori infection in human beings based on the carbon-13 isotope breath test has been designed and constructed. Important stages of the work included (i) calculating a low-aberration mass analyzer, (ii) manufacturing and testing special gas inlet system, and (iii) creating a small-size collector of ions. The proposed instrument ensures 13C/12C isotopic ratio measurement to within 1.7‰ (pro mille) accuracy, which corresponds to requirements for a diagnostic tool. Preliminary medical testing showed that the mass spectrometer is applicable to practical diagnostics. The instrument is also capable of measuring isotopic ratios of other light elements, including N, O, B (for BF2+ ions), Ar, Cl, and S.
The emerging manifesto, center of the essay collection this commentary is part of, points out that primatology is a primate's science and field of endeavor. It is about primates, and constructed and carried out by primates. But the relationships between different primates involved in primatology cannot be described merely as scientific, zoological, or conservatory. A main point emerging from this perspective is that the relationships amongst primates (as scientists and as subjects) are affected by primatologists' experiences outside of academic science and within the cultural schema that we acquire as members of human societies. My contribution focuses on the primatologists and their sometimes discussed, but too often ignored, cultural and ethnic contexts as influences on how they study, think about, and interact with other primates. In our views and bonds with other primates, do national, class, and ethnic factors count? 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Mao, Shitong; Wang, Hao; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Sun, Mingui
There are many tubular or rod-shaped organs and tissues within the human body. A miniature medical implant that wraps around such a biological structure can monitor or modulate its function. In order to provide the wrap-around implant with power, a solenoidal coil coupled wirelessly with a planar coil outside the human body can be used. Unfortunately, there is a serious practical problem that this configuration cannot be realized easily because the implantable solenoidal coil cannot be positioned around the tubular biological structure unless either the structure or the coil is cut and reconnected, which is impermissible in most cases. In addition, when a planner exterior coil is used for wireless power transfer and communication, its maximum magnetic coupling with the implanted solenoidal coil is achieved when the tubular structure is perpendicular to the surface of the body. However, in human anatomy, most tubular/rod structures are oriented horizontally. In order to solve these problems, we present a new flexible coil for the class of wrapped-around implantable devices. Our multilayer coil has specially designed windings in cross patterns. The new coil can be made conveniently in high precision at low cost on a flat substrate using the same technology for making the flexible multilayer printed circuit boards along with miniature sensors and electronic circuits. This allows the implant to be made in a flat form and then wrapped around the biostructure during surgery. We present the design of this new coil, perform theoretical analysis with respect to its wireless power transfer efficiency, discuss the effects of coil parameters, and conduct experiments using constructed miniature prototypes. Our results confirm the validity of the new coil.
Full Text Available There are many tubular or rod-shaped organs and tissues within the human body. A miniature medical implant that wraps around such a biological structure can monitor or modulate its function. In order to provide the wrap-around implant with power, a solenoidal coil coupled wirelessly with a planar coil outside the human body can be used. Unfortunately, there is a serious practical problem that this configuration cannot be realized easily because the implantable solenoidal coil cannot be positioned around the tubular biological structure unless either the structure or the coil is cut and reconnected, which is impermissible in most cases. In addition, when a planner exterior coil is used for wireless power transfer and communication, its maximum magnetic coupling with the implanted solenoidal coil is achieved when the tubular structure is perpendicular to the surface of the body. However, in human anatomy, most tubular/rod structures are oriented horizontally. In order to solve these problems, we present a new flexible coil for the class of wrapped-around implantable devices. Our multilayer coil has specially designed windings in cross patterns. The new coil can be made conveniently in high precision at low cost on a flat substrate using the same technology for making the flexible multilayer printed circuit boards along with miniature sensors and electronic circuits. This allows the implant to be made in a flat form and then wrapped around the biostructure during surgery. We present the design of this new coil, perform theoretical analysis with respect to its wireless power transfer efficiency, discuss the effects of coil parameters, and conduct experiments using constructed miniature prototypes. Our results confirm the validity of the new coil.
Ho, Lin; Hsu, Shan-Hui
3D bioprinting is a technique which enables the direct printing of biodegradable materials with cells into 3D tissue. So far there is no cell reprogramming in situ performed with the 3D bioprinting process. Forkhead box D3 (FoxD3) is a transcription factor and neural crest marker, which was reported to reprogram human fibroblasts into neural crest stem-like cells. In this study, we synthesized a new biodegradable thermo-responsive waterborne polyurethane (PU) gel as a bioink. FoxD3 plasmids and human fibroblasts were co-extruded with the PU hydrogel through the syringe needle tip for cell reprogramming. The rheological properties of the PU hydrogel including the modulus, gelation time, and shear thinning were optimized for the transfection effect of FoxD3 in situ. The corresponding shear rate and shear stress were examined. Results showed that human fibroblasts could be reprogrammed into neural crest stem-like cells with high cell viability during the extrusion process under an average shear stress ∼190 Pa. We further translated the method to the extrusion-based 3D bioprinting, and demonstrated that human fibroblasts co-printed with FoxD3 in the thermo-responsive PU hydrogel could be reprogrammed and differentiated into a neural-tissue like construct at 14 days after induction. The neural-like tissue construct produced by 3D bioprinting from human fibroblasts may be applied to personalized drug screening or neuroregeneration. There is no study so far on cell reprogramming in situ with 3D bioprinting. In this manuscript, a new thermoresponsive polyurethane bioink was developed and employed to deliver FoxD3 plasmid into human fibroblasts by the extrusion-based bioprinting. When the polyurethane gel was extruded through the syringe tip, the shear stress generated may have caused the transient membrane permeability for transfection. The shear stress was optimized for transfection in situ by 3D bioprinting. We demonstrated that human fibroblasts could be
Korkina, Liudmila; Kostyuk, Vladimir; Guerra, Liliana
Natural and synthetic biohydrogels are of great interest for the development of innovative medicinal and cosmetic products feasible for the treatment of numerous skin diseases and age-related changes in skin structure and function. Here, the characteristics of bio-resorbable hydrogels as scaffolds for the in vitro re-construction of temporary skin substitutes or full skin equivalents for further transplantation are reviewed. Another fast developing area of regenerative medicine is the in situ regeneration of human skin. The approach is mainly applicable to activate and facilitate the skin regeneration process and angiogenesis in chronic wounds with impaired healing. In this case, extracellular matrix resembling polymers are used to stimulate cell growth, adhesion, and movement. Better results could be achieved by activation of biocompatible hydrogels either with proteins (growth factors, adhesion molecules or/and cytokines) or with allogenic skin cells producing and releasing these molecules. Hydrogels are widely applied as carriers of low molecular weight substances with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-ageing, and wound healing action. Incorporation of these substances into hydrogels enhances their penetration through the skin barrier and prevents their destruction by oxidation. Potential roles of hydrogel-based products for modern dermatology and cosmetology are also discussed.
Zhi Ning; Zadori, Zoltan; Brown, Kevin E.; Tijssen, Peter
Human parvovirus B19 has a nonenveloped, icosahedral capsid packaging a linear single-stranded DNA genome of 5.6 kb with long inverted terminal repeats (ITR) at both the 5' and 3' end. Previous attempts to construct a full-length B19 clone were unsuccessful due to deletions in the ITR sequences. We cloned the complete parvovirus B19 genome with intact ITRs from an aplastic crisis patient. Sequence analysis of the complete viral genome indicated that both 5' and 3' ITRs have two sequence configurations and several base changes within the ITRs compared to previous published sequences. After transfection of the plasmid into permissive cells, spliced and non-spliced viral transcripts and viral capsid proteins could be detected. Southern blot analysis of the DNA purified from the plasmid-transfected cells confirmed parvovirus B19 DNA replication. Production of infectious virus by the B19 plasmid was shown by inoculation of cell lysate derived from transfected cells into fresh cells. Together, these results indicate the first successful production of an infectious clone for parvovirus B19 virus
Víctor Alfonzo Zertuche Cobos
Full Text Available The present article constitutes a critical reflection on human rights from the social-legal field in Mexico. Its purpose is to provide a discussion on a current legal and institutional reality, that is, the right to education in human rights based on one of the most important constitutional reforms in recent years in the field of human rights: the reform of June 2011. This reform, by the article 1° and 3° of the Constitution, introduced a public policy (proposed to the National Development Plan 2013-2018, along with the National Human Rights Program 2014-2018 within the federal public administration whose object is to implement the teaching of human rights at the national level. In this proposal, we observe two effects, one positive and one negative, inscribed only in the institutional or official dimension of the Mexican State, from which is derived a third positive effect for the social or local sphere, that is to say, for the space where the popular sectors or cultural minorities live. Therefore, it is in this social or local sphere where the third positive effect of the national public policy would take place to rethink the counter-hegemonic and alternative use of the right to education in human rights, from where would be possible the social-local construction or reconstruction of human rights that the present and future society requires with some urgency.
Full Text Available The process of implementing information technology (IT often fails to bring the intended result because the human dimension is not given adequate consideration. Yet despite some evidence of failure, little has been written on the nature of human performance, compared to abundant resources about technical and procedural aspects, as it applies to the ideals of the IT philosophy. To combat peopleâs deficiencies, this paper focuses mainly on the question why people resist IT. It explores sources of human resistance to the use of IT. A survey is the conducted to personnel working for construction companies to examine the resistance sources. The result reveals personal money, habit, and threat to information security as most dominant sources for such resistance, instead of fear of employment instability as many previous researches have discussed. The paper discusses the resistances and suggests possible solutions to deal with them.
Numano, Masayoshi; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Fukuto, Junji; Mitomo, Nobuo; Miyazaki, Keiko; Hirao, Yoshihiro; Ando, Hirotomo
In an atomic power plant, it is necessary to provide sufficient informations concerning the quantity of state in the plant to the operators. However, an atomic power plant is apt to have a black box in its operation because of the automatized systems to avoid human errors. Thus, the informations of plant are needed to be provided in fitting forms for human cognitive functions. Here, an investigation was made focusing on the feedback of operation results and the presentation of the plant states in the PWR plant model. In addition, exchange and sharing of informations as well as role assignment in the operational support among groups were investigated using duty officers on bridge of a modern coastwise tanker as the subjects. To prevent an error manipulation during intelligent works in plant operation, a model room for virtual reality experiment was constructed. Then, an input system for sensory feedback and its plant model were proposed to examine the validity of the feedback inputs. (M.N.)
Full Text Available Background and objective Currently, only a limited numbers of tumor markers for non small lung cancer (NSCLC diagnosis, new biomarker, such as serum autoantibody may improve the early detection of lung cancer. Our objective is construction human lung squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma T7 phage display cDNA library from the tissues of NSCLC patients. Methods mRNA was isolated from a pool of total RNA extract from NSCLC tissues obtained from 5 adenocarcinomas and 5 squamous carcinomas, and then mRNA was reverse transcribed into double stranded cDNA. After digestion, the cDNA was inserted into T7Select 10-3 vector. The phage display cDNA library was constructed by package reaction in vitro and plate proliferation. Plaque assay and PCR were used to evaluate the library.Results Two T7 phage display cDNA library were established. Plaque assay show the titer of lung squamas carcinoma library was 1.8×106 pfu, and the adenocarcinoma library was 5×106 pfu. The phage titer of the amplified library were 3.2×1010 pfu/mL and 2.5×1010 pfu/mL. PCR amplification of random plaque show insert ratio were 100% (24/24 in adenocarcinoma library and 95.8% in human lung squamas carcinoma library (23/24. Insert range from 300 bp to 1 500 bp. Conclusion Two phage display cDNA library from NSCLC were constructed.
Malykhina Oksana M.
Full Text Available The article focuses on a necessity to develop system motivation of human capital of construction enterprises. The author gives her own vision of this process on the basis of the system situational approach. The article identifies main requirements, which are made stronger with the necessity of establishment of the system motivation. It generalises the aggregate of components of internal and external environments, which form the structure, requirements to functioning and directions of managerial impact on the genesis of this process, which would facilitate achievement of long-term goals of construction enterprises on the basis of the innovation model of development. Efficiency of functioning of the system motivation of human capital of construction enterprises would depend on accounting in the process of its formation and development of such basic properties as: target orientation, synergetic integrity, availability of the internal organisational structure, ability to restore and resistance to influence of external environment factors, flexibility and dynamism and ecologo-socio-economic efficiency.
Xu, Bin; Song, Zhan; Fan, Tingjun
Tissue-engineered human anterior hemi-cornea (TE-aHC) is a promising equivalent for treating anterior lamellar keratopathy to surmount the severe shortage of donated corneas. This study was intended to construct a functional TE-aHC with nontransfected human corneal stromal (ntHCS) and epithelial (ntHCEP) cells using acellular porcine corneal stromata (aPCS) as a carrier scaffold, and evaluate its biological functions in a dog model. To construct a TE-aHC, ntHCS cells were injected into an aPCS scaffold and cultured for 3 days; then, ntHCEP cells were inoculated onto the Bowman's membrane of the scaffold and cultured for 5 days under air-liquid interface condition. After its morphology and histological structure were characterized, the constructed TE-aHC was transplanted into dog eyes via lamellar keratoplasty. The corneal transparency, thickness, intraocular pressure, epithelial integrity, and corneal regeneration were monitored in vivo, and the histological structure and histochemical property were examined ex vivo 360 days after surgery, respectively. The results showed that the constructed TE-aHC was highly transparent and composed of a corneal epithelium of 7-8 layer ntHCEP cells and a corneal stroma of regularly aligned collagen fibers and well-preserved glycosaminoglycans with sparsely distributed ntHCS cells, mimicking a normal anterior hemi-cornea (aHC). Moreover, both ntHCEP and ntHCS cells maintained positive expression of their marker and functional proteins. After transplantation into dog eyes, the constructed TE-aHC acted naturally in terms of morphology, structure and inherent property, and functioned well in maintaining corneal clarity, thickness, normal histological structure, and composition in dog models by reconstructing a normal aHC, which could be used as a promising aHC equivalent in corneal regenerative medicine and aHC disorder therapy. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Heinz, Andrea; Schräder, Christoph U; Baud, Stéphanie
This study aimed to characterize the structures of two elastin-like constructs, one composed of a cross-linked elastin-like polypeptide and the other one of cross-linked tropoelastin, and native aortic elastin. The structures of the insoluble materials and human aortic elastin were investigated...... quantification revealed that the cross-linking degree of the two in vitro cross-linked materials was significantly lower than that of native elastin. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed, based on molecular species identified in the samples, to follow the formation of elastin cross-links. The results...... provide evidence for the significance of the GVGTP hinge region of domain 23 for the formation of elastin cross-links. Overall, this work provides important insight into structural similarities and differences between elastin-like constructs and native elastin. Furthermore, it represents a step toward...
Teodosio, Sheila Saint-Clair; Padilha, Maria Itayra
to analyze the factors that influenced the choice for nursing made by graduates from the first class of the Undergraduate Nursing and Obstetrics Course of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte in the 1970s and to understand the senses and meanings of being a nurse when choosing this profession. a qualitative socio-historical study was performed, using oral history to collect data. the analysis generated the following categories: "To be a nurse: a professional choice" and "The ideal of being a nurse: senses and meanings". The senses of "being a nurse" are associated with graduates' perspective of this profession and the meanings included the traditional conceptions that have historically affected it. professional choice was influenced by family and work expectations and the nursing course had an effect on the construction of nurses' professional identity.
Games, tradition and 'Being Human' in Ayi Kwei Armah's "The Healers" ... critique in order to question our assumptions about human activities such as the Olympic Games and general health practices. Armah ... AJOL African Journals Online.
This study examined the relationship among human relations in the workplace, job involvement, affective commitment and continuance commitment with occupational and organizational commitment, and well-being. Questionnaires were completed by 855 female nurses who worked in four public hospitals (mean age = 32.6 years). The results of factor analysis showed that each component of the vocational constructs was distinguishable from the others. Path analysis showed that human relations in the workplace directly influenced job involvement and affective commitment both to the occupation and to the organization. Job involvement in turn directly influenced affective commitment and continuance commitment to the occupation. Job involvement also influenced affective commitment to the organization directly, and indirectly through affective commitment to the occupation. Finally, it was found that human relations in the workplace and affective commitment to the occupation positively influenced well-being; continuance commitment to the occupation was a negative influence. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Conclusions: This study was based on a recently developed technology for mAb expression in mammalian cells. The obtained constructs could be successfully used for biosimilar recombinant mAb production in CHO DG44 dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR gene deficient cell line in the suspension culture medium.
Hinaut, Xavier; Petit, Maxime; Pointeau, Gregoire; Dominey, Peter Ford
One of the principal functions of human language is to allow people to coordinate joint action. This includes the description of events, requests for action, and their organization in time. A crucial component of language acquisition is learning the grammatical structures that allow the expression of such complex meaning related to physical events. The current research investigates the learning of grammatical constructions and their temporal organization in the context of human-robot physical interaction with the embodied sensorimotor humanoid platform, the iCub. We demonstrate three noteworthy phenomena. First, a recurrent network model is used in conjunction with this robotic platform to learn the mappings between grammatical forms and predicate-argument representations of meanings related to events, and the robot's execution of these events in time. Second, this learning mechanism functions in the inverse sense, i.e., in a language production mode, where rather than executing commanded actions, the robot will describe the results of human generated actions. Finally, we collect data from naïve subjects who interact with the robot via spoken language, and demonstrate significant learning and generalization results. This allows us to conclude that such a neural language learning system not only helps to characterize and understand some aspects of human language acquisition, but also that it can be useful in adaptive human-robot interaction.
Wong-McSweeney, D., E-mail: D.B.C.WongMcSweeney@salford.ac.uk [Acoustics Research Centre, University of Salford, Salford M5 4TW (United Kingdom); Woodcock, J.S.; Peris, E.; Waddington, D.C.; Moorhouse, A.T. [Acoustics Research Centre, University of Salford, Salford M5 4TW (United Kingdom); Redel-Macías, M.D. [Dep. Rural Engineering Campus de Rabanales, University of Córdoba, Córdoba (Spain)
The aim of this paper is to investigate the use of different self-reported measures for assessing the human response to environmental vibration from the construction of an urban LRT (Light Rapid Transit) system. The human response to environmental stressors such as vibration and noise is often expressed in terms of exposure–response relationships that describe annoyance as a function of the magnitude of the vibration. These relationships are often the basis of noise and vibration policy and the setting of limit values. This paper examines measures other than annoyance by expressing exposure–response relationships for vibration in terms of self-reported concern about property damage and acceptability. The exposure–response relationships for concern about property damage and for acceptability are then compared with those for annoyance. It is shown that concern about property damage occurs at vibration levels well below those where there is any risk of damage. Earlier research indicated that concern for damage is an important moderator of the annoyance induced. Acceptability, on the other hand, might be influenced by both annoyance and concern, as well as by other considerations. It is concluded that exposure–response relationships expressing acceptability as a function of vibration exposure could usefully complement existing relationships for annoyance in future policy decisions regarding environmental vibration. The results presented in this paper are derived from data collected through a socio-vibration survey (N = 321) conducted for the construction of an urban LRT in the United Kingdom. - Highlights: • The human response to construction vibration is assessed in residential environments. • Exposure–response relationships are generated based on survey and semi-empirical vibration estimation. • Annoyance, concern and acceptability are compared as response measures. • Concern and acceptability are viable measures complementing annoyance.
Lindeman, Marjaana; Blomqvist, Sandra; Takada, Mikito
We developed a new Spirituality Scale and tested the argument that the defining attribute of spirituality is belief in supernatural spirits. Study 1 (N = 1931) showed that religiosity and beliefs pertinent to supernatural spirits predicted most of the variation in spirituality. Study 2 (N = 848) showed that the stronger belief in supernatural spirits, the more the person experienced subjective spirituality; that belief in supernatural spirits had higher predictive value of spirituality than religiosity, paranormal beliefs, or values; and that most of the relationship between religiosity and spirituality could be explained through belief in supernatural spirits. Study 3 (N = 972) showed that mental or physical health, social relationships, or satisfaction in marriage or work were not associated with spirituality. In turn, finding life purposeful and inner peace in dealing with spiritual experiences correlated with spirituality. The results highlight the importance of differentiating spirituality from other psychological constructs.
Gallagher, Cathal T; McDonald, Lisa J; McCormack, Niamh P
Small-scale research projects involving human subjects have been identified as being effective in developing critical appraisal skills in undergraduate students. In deciding whether to grant ethical approval to such projects, university research ethics committees must weigh the benefits of the research against the risk of harm or discomfort to the participants. As the learning objectives associated with student research can be met without the need for human subjects, the benefit associated with training new healthcare professionals cannot, in itself, justify such risks. The outputs of research must be shared with the wider scientific community if it is to influence future practice. Our survey of 19 UK universities indicates that undergraduate dissertations associated with the disciplines of medicine, dentistry and pharmacy are not routinely retained in their library catalogues, thus closing a major avenue to the dissemination of their findings. If such research is unlikely to be published in a peer-reviewed journal, presented at a conference, or otherwise made available to other researchers, then the risks of harm, discomfort or inconvenience to participants are unlikely to be offset by societal benefits. Ethics committees should be satisfied that undergraduate research will be funnelled into further research that is likely to inform clinical practice before granting ethical approval.
A sustainable world is one in which human needs are met equitably and without sacrificing the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Human well-being is described by four primary elements—basic human needs, economic needs, environmental needs, and subjective well-bein...
Jacobs, G. M.
Humane education has existed since at least the 18th century (Unti & DeRosa, 2003). This brief chapter begins with a brief definition of humane education and examples of how it can be incorporated in linguistics, cross cultural studies and foreign language education. Next, the chapter discusses why humane education constitutes an important…
Wang, Da-Shang; Zheng, Hua; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun
Sustainable ecosystem services supply is the basis of regional sustainable development, and human beings can satisfy and improve their well-being through ecosystem services consumption. To understand the relationships between ecosystem services supply and consumption and human well-being is of vital importance for coordinating the relationships between the conservation of ecosystem services and the improvement of human well-being. This paper summarized the diversity, complexity, and regionality of ecosystem services supply, the diversity and indispensability of ecosystem services consumption, and the multi-dimension, regionality, and various evaluation indices of human well-being, analyzed the uncertainty and multi-scale correlations between ecosystem services supply and consumption, and elaborated the feedback and asynchronous relationships between ecosystem services and human well-being. Some further research directions for the relationships between ecosystem services supply and consumption and human well-being were recommended.
Saeed Hakami; Salim Almarmary
The countries of the Gulf region have the capacity to rapidly expand their economic growth and gross domestic product (GDP). Also, one may observe that their growth rate is very high. To match this, they need a mix of energy sources for this economic growth. Nuclear power plants can have a significant role as a source of energy in the Gulf countries. Although, some of the Gulf countries signed contracts to construct nuclear power plants, they still require high a level of education as well as sufficient and adequate human resources in order to solve complex issues which may happen at nuclear power plants. The objective of this paper is to identify the complex issues that may arise at a nuclear site. Then the paper goes on to discuss how to evaluate these issues. Finally, the paper studies how to manage and control such complex issues in the work place. The advantage of highly educated people as well as sufficient and adequate human resource can increasingly protect and save human health and the natural environment from issues relating to the use of nuclear energy. There are vast theories, strategies and tools that have discussed in regards to human resources management in the nuclear industries. However, this paper chiefly provides a new risk management methodology. This methodology helps to highlight the risk factors and their consequences at nuclear sites. This paper is intended to decrease risks; to protect human health in the work place at nuclear power plants and save the environment within and beyond national borders and for future generations. It aims to increase safety from the use of nuclear energy, particularly in the Gulf countries.(Author)
Bonadio, I C
This paper reports a qualitative study conducted in an anthropological perspective using the ethnografic research methodology. It had has the objective of knowing and understanding the needs, antenatal care values and beliefs of pregnant women in the context of Prenatal Service of a Philanthropic Institution. The central theme "be treated as a Human Being", identified from the analysis of the cultural themes, revealed that, in the women experience, the most significant element is represented either by the effective interaction or by the establishment on bond of trust between them and nurse.
Purpose We introduce the Pemberton Happiness Index (PHI), a new integrative measure of well-being in seven languages, detailing the validation process and presenting psychometric data. The scale includes eleven items related to different domains of remembered well-being (general, hedonic, eudaimonic, and social well-being) and ten items related to experienced well-being (i.e., positive and negative emotional events that possibly happened the day before); the sum of these items produces a combined well-being index. Methods A distinctive characteristic of this study is that to construct the scale, an initial pool of items, covering the remembered and experienced well-being domains, were subjected to a complete selection and validation process. These items were based on widely used scales (e.g., PANAS, Satisfaction With Life Scale, Subjective Happiness Scale, and Psychological Well-Being Scales). Both the initial items and reference scales were translated into seven languages and completed via Internet by participants (N = 4,052) aged 16 to 60 years from nine countries (Germany, India, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, and USA). Results Results from this initial validation study provided very good support for the psychometric properties of the PHI (i.e., internal consistency, a single-factor structure, and convergent and incremental validity). Conclusions Given the PHI’s good psychometric properties, this simple and integrative index could be used as an instrument to monitor changes in well-being. We discuss the utility of this integrative index to explore well-being in individuals and communities. PMID:23607679
Boivin, Nicole L; Zeder, Melinda A; Fuller, Dorian Q; Crowther, Alison; Larson, Greger; Erlandson, Jon M; Denham, Tim; Petraglia, Michael D
The exhibition of increasingly intensive and complex niche construction behaviors through time is a key feature of human evolution, culminating in the advanced capacity for ecosystem engineering exhibited by Homo sapiens A crucial outcome of such behaviors has been the dramatic reshaping of the global biosphere, a transformation whose early origins are increasingly apparent from cumulative archaeological and paleoecological datasets. Such data suggest that, by the Late Pleistocene, humans had begun to engage in activities that have led to alterations in the distributions of a vast array of species across most, if not all, taxonomic groups. Changes to biodiversity have included extinctions, extirpations, and shifts in species composition, diversity, and community structure. We outline key examples of these changes, highlighting findings from the study of new datasets, like ancient DNA (aDNA), stable isotopes, and microfossils, as well as the application of new statistical and computational methods to datasets that have accumulated significantly in recent decades. We focus on four major phases that witnessed broad anthropogenic alterations to biodiversity-the Late Pleistocene global human expansion, the Neolithic spread of agriculture, the era of island colonization, and the emergence of early urbanized societies and commercial networks. Archaeological evidence documents millennia of anthropogenic transformations that have created novel ecosystems around the world. This record has implications for ecological and evolutionary research, conservation strategies, and the maintenance of ecosystem services, pointing to a significant need for broader cross-disciplinary engagement between archaeology and the biological and environmental sciences.
Commentary is provided on the transition mankind has made from a maintained population growth rate of 2% to adaptation to a more civilized age. When the agricultural age began 100,000 years ago, man was still tribal, and it may well be that scientists are correct in postulating that adaptation is slow. Homo sapiens are still tribal or tried to family or kin groups, rather than to the nations state. These ties to family and tribe may contribute to present day "ethnic cleansing" and the illusion of the notion of a family of all peoples. In the past, families had to be large in order to sustain life; there was still a high death rate which slowed population growth. Population reached 2 billion in 1930 after a million years of growth. Mankind's tinkering with nature produced science and technology, which eliminated the natural balance of mortality. The consequence was a doubling of population in 47 years between 1930 to 1977 to 4 billion people. BY 1987, in just 10 years, another billion was added. Homo sapiens must not act responsible and influence the birth side by practicing "contraception control." Unfortunately, the force of habit has obliterated the reasons for large families, and humans have "unwittingly defied procreation from being merely a means to the status of an end." There is nothing in the Bible that forbids contraception or mentions multiplying in an irresponsible way. Neither this vast increase in population, which presently grows at 95 million per year, nor scientific advancement has eliminated mortality or disease. Million suffer from malnutrition and starvation, and the distribution of resources has been unequal and moves in the direction of resource depletion and environmental degradation. The formula for living must change; families need to plan for few children. Fighting to kill as a means of population control is unacceptable. Human beings possess the intelligence to preserve individual and social human life in a responsible way.
Li, Qin; Wang, Pan; Chen, Rui; Li, Wei; Wu, Yi-Jun
Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) are widely used in agriculture and industry and there is increased concern about their toxicological effects in the environment. Bioremediation can offer an efficient and cost-effective option for the removal of OPs. Herein, we describe the construction of a genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) that can degrade OPs and be directly detected and monitored in the environment using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fusion strategy. The coding regions of EGFP, a reporter protein that can fluoresce by itself, and organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH), which has a broad substrate specificity and is able to hydrolyse a number of organophosphorus pesticides, were cloned into the expression vector pET-28b. The fusion protein of EGFP-OPH was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) and the protein expression reached the highest level at 11 h after isopropyl beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside induction. The fluorescence of the GEM was detected by fluorescence spectrophotometry and microscopy, and its ability to degrade OPs was determined by OPH activity assay. Those GEM that express the fusion protein (EGFP and OPH) exhibited strong fluorescence intensity and also potent hydrolase activity, which could be used to degrade organophosphorus pesticide residues in the environment and can also be directly monitored by fluorescence.
José G. Dórea
Health Organization recommends six months of exclusive breastfeeding. Cinar et al.  recognized that human milk provides all of the vitamins and essential minerals and trace elements (micronutrients that are required for the normal development of infants as well as many brain-protective substances. They do not describe the exposures associated with formula-feeding in the regions under study and so the reader has no basis for understanding whether infant exposures to metals would be higher or lower based on the choice of formula over breastfeeding. Further, there is no evidence that formula feeding would attenuate any effects that may occur from fetal exposures . Scientists conducting biomonitoring research using human milk have an obligation to understand the sensitivity of this issue and the impact their information and/or message may have on health professionals and breastfeeding mothers. Indeed, Geraghty et al.  highlighted the potential harm from poor reporting methods in breast milk monitoring of environmental chemicals; American women responded that they would immediately wean if told that phthalates were in their milk. It is incumbent on us to strive to contextualize human milk biomonitoring data, constructing a message that puts into perspective both risks of environmental hazards and benefits of breastfeeding. Formula-feeding should never be implied (implicitly or explicitly as a means to attenuate maternal-infant exposure to environmental chemicals, especially without data to support such a message (5. The otherwise interesting paper of Cinar et al.  gives the false impression that milk of Turkish mothers is unsafe and that if the infant is not breastfed, chemical exposures will not occur.
Liu, Yuan F; Messinger, Kelton; Inman, Jared C
To our knowledge, yield strength testing in human nasal septal cartilage has not been reported to date. An understanding of the basic mechanics of the nasal septum may help surgeons decide how much of an L-strut to preserve and how much grafting is needed. To determine the factors correlated with yield strength of the cartilaginous nasal septum and to explore the association between L-strut width and thickness in determining yield strength. In an anatomy laboratory, yield strength of rectangular pieces of fresh cadaver nasal septal cartilage was measured, and regression was performed to identify the factors correlated with yield strength. To measure yield strength in L-shaped models, 4 bonded paper L-struts models were constructed for every possible combination of the width and thickness, for a total of 240 models. Mathematical modeling using the resultant data with trend lines and surface fitting was performed to quantify the associations among L-strut width, thickness, and yield strength. The study dates were November 1, 2015, to April 1, 2016. The factors correlated with nasal cartilage yield strength and the associations among L-strut width, thickness, and yield strength in L-shaped models. Among 95 cartilage pieces from 12 human cadavers (mean [SD] age, 67.7 [12.6] years) and 240 constructed L-strut models, L-strut thickness was the only factor correlated with nasal septal cartilage yield strength (coefficient for thickness, 5.54; 95% CI, 4.08-7.00; P cadaver nasal septal cartilage, L-strut thickness was significantly associated with yield strength. In a bonded paper L-strut model, L-strut thickness had a more important role in determining yield strength than L-strut width. Surgeons should consider the thickness of potential L-struts when determining the amount of cartilaginous septum to harvest and graft. NA.
Kesebir, Selin; Graham, Jesse; Oishi, Shigehiro
Kenrick et al. (2010, this issue) make an important contribution by presenting a theory of human needs within an evolutionary framework. In our opinion, however, this framework bypasses the human uniqueness that Maslow intended to capture in his theory. We comment on the unique power of culture in shaping human motivation at the phylogenetic, ontogenetic, and proximate levels. We note that culture-gene coevolution may be a more promising lead to a theory of human motivation than a mammalcentric evolutionary perspective. © The Author(s) 2010.
Borenstein, Jason; Arkin, Ron
Robots are becoming an increasingly pervasive feature of our personal lives. As a result, there is growing importance placed on examining what constitutes appropriate behavior when they interact with human beings. In this paper, we discuss whether companion robots should be permitted to "nudge" their human users in the direction of being "more ethical". More specifically, we use Rawlsian principles of justice to illustrate how robots might nurture "socially just" tendencies in their human counterparts. Designing technological artifacts in such a way to influence human behavior is already well-established but merely because the practice is commonplace does not necessarily resolve the ethical issues associated with its implementation.
Full Text Available Phytoviruses are highly prevalent in plants worldwide, including vegetables and fruits. Humans, and more generally animals, are exposed daily to these viruses, among which several are extremely stable. It is currently accepted that a strict separation exists between plant and vertebrate viruses regarding their host range and pathogenicity, and plant viruses are believed to infect only plants. Accordingly, plant viruses are not considered to present potential pathogenicity to humans and other vertebrates. Notwithstanding these beliefs, there are many examples where phytoviruses circulate and propagate in insect vectors. Several issues are raised here that question if plant viruses might further cross the kingdom barrier to cause diseases in humans. Indeed, there is close relatedness between some plant and animal viruses, and almost identical gene repertoires. Moreover, plant viruses can be detected in non-human mammals and humans samples, and there are evidence of immune responses to plant viruses in invertebrates, non-human vertebrates and humans, and of the entry of plant viruses or their genomes into non-human mammal cells and bodies after experimental exposure. Overall, the question raised here is unresolved, and several data prompt the additional extensive study of the interactions between phytoviruses and non-human mammals and humans, and the potential of these viruses to cause diseases in humans.
Tabacchi, Marco Elio; Termini, Settimo
Biophysics, just by looking at its name, indicates an interdisciplinary scientific activity, although the notion of interdisciplinarity, as such, seems to be not widely or specifically discussed by biophysicists. The same seems to have happened as well in the early stages of the development of cybernetics, notably in Norbert Wiener's writings. This situation seems to contrast with what has happened in subsequent developments of cybernetics ideas, notably in general system theory and cognitive sciences. After a few general reflections on the notion of interdisciplinarity, its sophisticated variants and the path leading to the birth of cognitive science, we shall refer to Wiener's thought to extracts aspects and indications that could be useful today, also for what concerns the social responsibility of scientists, which could be seen as stemming from a very general form of interdisciplinarity. After a few general reflections on the notion of interdisciplinarity, its sophisticated variants and the path leading to the birth of cognitive science, we shall refer to Wiener's thought to extracts aspects and indications that could be useful today, also for what concerns the social responsibility of scientists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Llamas, César; González, Manuel A; Hernández, Carmen; Vegas, Jesús
Nearly every practical improvement in modeling human motion is well founded in a properly designed collection of data or datasets. These datasets must be made publicly available for the community could validate and accept them. It is reasonable to concede that a collective, guided enterprise could serve to devise solid and substantial datasets, as a result of a collaborative effort, in the same sense as the open software community does. In this way datasets could be complemented, extended and expanded in size with, for example, more individuals, samples and human actions. For this to be possible some commitments must be made by the collaborators, being one of them sharing the same data acquisition platform. In this paper, we offer an affordable open source hardware and software platform based on inertial wearable sensors in a way that several groups could cooperate in the construction of datasets through common software suitable for collaboration. Some experimental results about the throughput of the overall system are reported showing the feasibility of acquiring data from up to 6 sensors with a sampling frequency no less than 118Hz. Also, a proof-of-concept dataset is provided comprising sampled data from 12 subjects suitable for gait analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wu, Y; Wen, F; Gouk, S S; Lee, E H; Kuleshova, L
The development of vitrification strategy for cell-biomaterial constructs, particularly biologically inspired nanoscale materials and hydrogels mimicking the in vivo environment is an active area. A cryopreservation strategy mimicking the in vivo environment for cell-hydrogel constructs may enhance cell proliferation and biological function. To demonstrate the efficacy of vitrification as a platform technology involving tissue engineering and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Microcarriers made from alginate coated with chitosan and collagen are used. Conventional freezing and vitrification were compared. The vitrification strategy includes 10 min step-wise exposure to a vitrification solution (40% v/v EG, 0.6M sucrose) and immersion into liquid nitrogen. Confocal imaging of live/dead staining of hMSCs cultured on the surface of microcarriers demonstrated that vitrified cells had excellent appearance and prolonged spindle shape morphology. The proliferation ability of post-vitrified cells arbitrated to protein Ki-67 gene expression was not significantly different in comparison to untreated control, while that of post-freezing cells was almost lost. The ability of hMSCs cultured on the surface of microcarriers to proliferate has been not affected by vitrification and it was significantly better after vitrification than after conventional freezing during continuous culture. Collagen II related mRNA expression by 4 weeks post-vitrification and post-freezing showed that ability to differentiate into cartilage was sustained during vitrification and reduced during conventional freezing. No significant difference was found between control and vitrification groups only. Vitrification strategy coupled with advances in hMSC-expansion platform that completely preserves the ability of stem cells to proliferate and subsequently differentiate allows not only to reach a critical cell number, but also demonstrate prospects for effective utilization and transportation of cells
This dissertation discusses how the importance of river flow-sustained ecosystems for local communities can be quantified for the purpose of balancing water supply and demand in Integrated Water Resources Management. Due to the development of water resources, for example through the construction of
Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) proposes to construct and operate a new laboratory for consolidation of current and future activities of the Human Genome Center (HGC). This document addresses the potential direct, indirect, and cumulative environmental and human-health effects from the proposed facility construction and operation. This document was prepared in accordance the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (United States Codes 42 USC 4321-4347) (NEPA) and the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Final Rule for NEPA Implementing Procedures [Code of Federal Regulations 10CFR 1021].
Paul van Trigt
Full Text Available This editorial presents the theme and approach of the themed issue “Humanity as a Contested Concept: Relations between Disability and ‘Being Human’”. The way in which the concept of humanity is or must be related to disability is critically investigated from different disciplinary perspectives in the themed issue, which is, moreover, situated in the field of disability studies and related to discussions about posthumanism. The argument is made that humanity is a concept that needs to be constantly reflected upon from a disability studies perspective. Finally, the contributions of the themed issue are briefly outlined.
Hales, Anne; Clarke, Anthony
This article contributes a Canadian perspective to a growing body of international research investigating teacher education, specifically as a category of academic work exemplified in employment advertisements. By investigating how Canadian employment advertisements in teacher education are constructed as mediating artefacts in the relationship…
Kernan, Margaret; Devine, Dympna
This study is based on a study of the experience of the outdoors in early childhood education and care settings in Ireland. Central to the analyses are the inter-linkages drawn between constructions of a "good" childhood, and children's "need" for outdoor play, as well as the contradictions which arise around competing…
..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Construction § 1000.242 What provisions relating to a... specific provisions of the Office of Federal Procurement and Policy Act and Federal Acquisition Regulations...
Both human research and animal research operate within established standards and procedures. Although the human research environment has been criticized for its sometimes inefficient and imperfect process, reported abuses of human subjects in research served as the impetus for the establishment of the Nuremberg Code, Declaration of Helsinki, and the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research and the resulting Belmont Report. No similar, comprehensive and principled effort has addressed the use of animals in research. Although published policies regarding animal research provide relevant regulatory guidance, these policies have not emerged from the process of specifying consistent and reasoned ethical principles. The lack of a fundamental effort to explore the ethical issues and principles regarding the use of animals in research has led to unclear and disparate policies. Recent studies have increased our understanding of animal cognition and emotion, suggesting that animals' potential for experiencing a wide variety of harms, such as pain and fear, is greater than has been previously appreciated. Furthermore, relationships between methods of captivity and certain laboratory procedures and the resulting adverse physical, social and psychological effects have been established. In light of this information, current protections may need to be reconsidered and modified. This paper explores the historical convergence and divergence in the creation of human and animal research guidelines, as well as opportunities to align ethical frameworks with new scientific discoveries. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Barros, Edaiane Joana Lima; Santos, Silvana Sidney Costa; Lunardi, Valéria Lerch; Lunardi Filho, Wilson Danilo
This is discussion about the relationship between elderly human beings with ostomy and their environments care, under the perspective of Complexity Edgar Morin. An axis holds the reflection: environments of care for elderly humans with ostomy. In this sense, we present three types of environment that surround the context of elderly humans with ostomy: home environment, group environment and hospital environment. This brings, as a social contribution, a new look about resizing caring of elderly humans with ostomy in their environment. It is considered that the environment hosting this human being contains a diversity of feelings, emotions, experiences; it binds multiple meanings, from the Complexity perspective, about the relationship between the environment and the caring process.
Pedro C Marijuán
Full Text Available Exploring the pertinence of a "sociotype" construct, established along the conceptual chain genotype-phenotype-sociotype, is the essential purpose of the present paper. Further, by following the sociotype's conceptual guidelines, a new psychometric indicator has been developed in order to gauge the level of social interaction around each individual-the sociotype questionnaire (SOCQ. A first version of this questionnaire has been elaborated by gathering data about the different classes of social bonds (family, friends, acquaintances, and work/study colleagues in general population and about the dynamic update of these bonds via face-to-face conversation and other modes of interaction. A specific fieldwork was undertaken, involving 1,075 participants, all of them Spanish adults (with diverse social and regional backgrounds. The data obtained were analyzed by means of the correlational method with an analytical cross-sectional design: the number of factors and the consistency and reliability of the resulting scales were evaluated and correlated. The new sociotype indicator resulting from that fieldwork, in spite of its limitations, seems to be valid and reliable, as well as closely associated with widely used metrics of loneliness and psychological distress. It is interesting that the construct noticeably varies throughout the life course and circumstances of individuals, based on their gender and age, and adjusting to the different situations of social networking. This is the first study, to the best of our knowledge, which has tried to reach both a theoretical and an operational formulation of the sociotype construct, by establishing an ad hoc psychometric questionnaire. We think that the information provided by this operational definition opens a new direction of work that could be useful to guide the development and evaluation of programs aimed at improving and strengthening social networking in people at risk, especially for the elderly.
Full Text Available Almost every day, and quite often, we hear about how important the data, the informationor the knowledge at work is. The saying "The one who has information, also has control” is morecurrent than ever; it provides reliability, it awakens passion and determines you to store everything.We almost become machines, systems of these universal keys represented by knowledge. We tend toappreciate this ambulant knowledge, these bearers of knowledge and we lose sight of the essence - thehuman being. But isn’t he, the human being, who brought us to this moment? Isn’t it that all hisneeds, which became more and more refined, stricter, and more precise that caused thistransformation? We believe that this may continue,at least in accounting, far beyond the momentwhen the great economists labelled the human beingas a factor of production that advances towardsthe human being who brings performance then towardsthe possible ... human being as an asset,equity, debt. Perhaps, as in the case of great denials which have become truths, if not absolute, at leastthere will come a day when we are able to compressthe time ... the space ...., a day when we have thenecessary instruments to trade equity, assets and human liabilities... But until then, with yourpermission, we will deal with the human factor thatbrings performance, which is, we will be presentboth in reality and especially in thought, having the cliché of the transcendality of the human beingtowards new horizons of knowledge.
This article is a selective review of quantitative research, historical and prospective, that is needed to inform sustainable development policy. I start with a simple framework to highlight how demography and productivity shape human well-being. I use that to discuss three sets of issues and corresponding challenges to modeling: first, population prehistory and early human development and their implications for the future; second, the multiple distinct dimensions of human and environmental well-being and the meaning of sustainability; and, third, inequality as a phenomenon triggered by development and models to examine changing inequality and its consequences. I conclude with a few words about other important factors: political, institutional, and cultural.
Baranov A. O.
Full Text Available The accumulation of human capital is an important factor of economic growth. It seems to be useful to include «human capital» as a factor of a macroeconomic model, as it helps to take into account the quality differentiation of the workforce. Most of the models usually distinguish labor force by the levels of education, while some of the factors remain unaccounted. Among them are health status and culture development level, which influence productivity level as well as gross product reproduction. Inclusion of the human capital block to the interindustry model can help to make it more reliable for economic development forecasting. The article presents a mathematical description of the extended dynamic input-output model (DIOM with a human capital block. The extended DIOM is based on the Input-Output Model from The KAMIN system (the System of Integrated Analyses of Interindustrial Information developed at the Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering of the Siberian Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the Russian Federation and at the Novosibirsk State University. The extended input-output model can be used to analyze and forecast development of Russian economy.
B. Gyawali; R. Fraser; J. Schelhas; Y. Wang; W. Tadesse; J. Bukenya
The west-central region of Alabama is rich in natural resources.Â Yet changes in land use seem unrelated to improvements in human well-being.Â Satellite imagery and U.S. census data for 1980 and 2000 were analyzed to test whether changes in land cover were related to changes in a human well-being index-of income, employment and education at the Cenus Block Group (CBG)...
Pascalev, Assya; Van Assche, Kristof; S?ndor, Judit; Codreanu, Natalia; Naqvi, Anwar; Gunnarson, Martin; Frunza, Mihaela; Yankov, Jordan
Abstract This report presents a comprehensive set of recommendations for protection of human beings who are trafficked for the purpose of organ removal or are targeted for such trafficking. Developed by an interdisciplinary group of international experts under the auspices of the project Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal (also known as the HOTT project), these recommendations are grounded in the view that an individual who parts with an organ for money within an ill...
Gu, Qi; Tomaskovic-Crook, Eva; Wallace, Gordon G; Crook, Jeremy M
The ability to create 3D tissues from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is poised to revolutionize stem cell research and regenerative medicine, including individualized, patient-specific stem cell-based treatments. There are, however, few examples of tissue engineering using iPSCs. Their culture and differentiation is predominantly planar for monolayer cell support or induction of self-organizing embryoids (EBs) and organoids. Bioprinting iPSCs with advanced biomaterials promises to augment efforts to develop 3D tissues, ideally comprising direct-write printing of cells for encapsulation, proliferation, and differentiation. Here, such a method, employing a clinically amenable polysaccharide-based bioink, is described as the first example of bioprinting human iPSCs for in situ expansion and sequential differentiation. Specifically, we have extrusion printed the bioink including iPSCs, alginate (Al; 5% weight/volume [w/v]), carboxymethyl-chitosan (5% w/v), and agarose (Ag; 1.5% w/v), crosslinked the bioink in calcium chloride for a stable and porous construct, proliferated the iPSCs within the construct and differentiated the same iPSCs into either EBs comprising cells of three germ lineages-endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm, or more homogeneous neural tissues containing functional migrating neurons and neuroglia. This defined, scalable, and versatile platform is envisaged being useful in iPSC research and translation for pharmaceuticals development and regenerative medicine. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Kateb, Babak; Chiu, Katherine; Black, Keith L; Yamamoto, Vicky; Khalsa, Bhavraj; Ljubimova, Julia Y; Ding, Hui; Patil, Rameshwar; Portilla-Arias, Jose Antonio; Modo, Mike; Moore, David F; Farahani, Keyvan; Okun, Michael S; Prakash, Neal; Neman, Josh; Ahdoot, Daniel; Grundfest, Warren; Nikzad, Shouleh; Heiss, John D
Nanotechnology is the design and assembly of submicroscopic devices called nanoparticles, which are 1-100 nm in diameter. Nanomedicine is the application of nanotechnology for the diagnosis and treatment of human disease. Disease-specific receptors on the surface of cells provide useful targets for nanoparticles. Because nanoparticles can be engineered from components that (1) recognize disease at the cellular level, (2) are visible on imaging studies, and (3) deliver therapeutic compounds, nanotechnology is well suited for the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of diseases. Nanotechnology will enable earlier detection and treatment of diseases that are best treated in their initial stages, such as cancer. Advances in nanotechnology will also spur the discovery of new methods for delivery of therapeutic compounds, including genes and proteins, to diseased tissue. A myriad of nanostructured drugs with effective site-targeting can be developed by combining a diverse selection of targeting, diagnostic, and therapeutic components. Incorporating immune target specificity with nanostructures introduces a new type of treatment modality, nano-immunochemotherapy, for patients with cancer. In this review, we will discuss the development and potential applications of nanoscale platforms in medical diagnosis and treatment. To impact the care of patients with neurological diseases, advances in nanotechnology will require accelerated translation to the fields of brain mapping, CNS imaging, and nanoneurosurgery. Advances in nanoplatform, nano-imaging, and nano-drug delivery will drive the future development of nanomedicine, personalized medicine, and targeted therapy. We believe that the formation of a science, technology, medicine law-healthcare policy (STML) hub/center, which encourages collaboration among universities, medical centers, US government, industry, patient advocacy groups, charitable foundations, and philanthropists, could significantly facilitate such
Full Text Available Allegedly, Heidegger never quite finished Being and Time: his initial intention had consisted in the determination of the meaning of Being as such, apart from Dasein’s own existentiality. Afterwards, however, and despite the growing public excitement revolving around the published unfinished version of his project, his preoccupations, thematic conceptuality and very language, apparently started to shift away towards a strange and unfamiliar stance which he would never leave. Quite surely, his Nazi flirtation and subsequent withdrawal did not help in bringing clarity over this. On the other hand, this was not necessarily unexpected (although not necessarily to be expected, as well. What I mean to say is that for someone reading Being and time in spirit and not in law, the possibility of such a substantive rethought of his initial scheme is present throughout the work. One’s changing one’s mind with respect to oneself is, after all, one of the basic possibilities conveyed by Dasein’s achieved resoluteness [Entschlossenheit]. Furthermore, despite his apparent reorientation, I think we can speak of some sort of attitudinal unity between Heidegger’s initial and later work, conceptually mediated by the relationship between Dasein’s Being-unto-death [Sein-zum-Tode] and the so called concealedness [Verborgenheit] of Being.. That is precisely what I aim to lay bare through this conceptual reconstruction of some of his later works: (i On the Essence of Truth (1930 and (ii Letter on Humanism (1946. Basically, I will try to show that if in Being and Time he tried to come to Being from Dasein, in his later work he tries to get to Da-sein from Being, fact which unsurprisingly brought along some reconsiderations but that, broadly speaking, essentially amounts to what he set out to do in his initial ontological project. Surprisingly, the most concrete instance of this pendulation between Dasein and Being is to be found, at least to my knowledge, in
Dikina, Anna D; Strobel, Hannah A; Lai, Bradley P; Rolle, Marsha W; Alsberg, Eben
There is a critical need to engineer a neotrachea because currently there are no long-term treatments for tracheal stenoses affecting large portions of the airway. In this work, a modular tracheal tissue replacement strategy was developed. High-cell density, scaffold-free human mesenchymal stem cell-derived cartilaginous rings and tubes were successfully generated through employment of custom designed culture wells and a ring-to-tube assembly system. Furthermore, incorporation of transforming growth factor-β1-delivering gelatin microspheres into the engineered tissues enhanced chondrogenesis with regard to tissue size and matrix production and distribution in the ring- and tube-shaped constructs, as well as luminal rigidity of the tubes. Importantly, all engineered tissues had similar or improved biomechanical properties compared to rat tracheas, which suggests they could be transplanted into a small animal model for airway defects. The modular, bottom up approach used to grow stem cell-based cartilaginous tubes in this report is a promising platform to engineer complex organs (e.g., trachea), with control over tissue size and geometry, and has the potential to be used to generate autologous tissue implants for human clinical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A complete theory of cognitive architecture (i.e., the basic processes and modes of composition that together constitute cognitive behaviour must explain the systematicity property--why our cognitive capacities are organized into particular groups of capacities, rather than some other, arbitrary collection. The classical account supposes: (1 syntactically compositional representations; and (2 processes that are sensitive to--compatible with--their structure. Classical compositionality, however, does not explain why these two components must be compatible; they are only compatible by the ad hoc assumption (convention of employing the same mode of (concatenative compositionality (e.g., prefix/postfix, where a relation symbol is always prepended/appended to the symbols for the related entities. Architectures employing mixed modes do not support systematicity. Recently, we proposed an alternative explanation without ad hoc assumptions, using category theory. Here, we extend our explanation to domains that are quasi-systematic (e.g., aspects of most languages, where the domain includes some but not all possible combinations of constituents. The central category-theoretic construct is an adjunction involving pullbacks, where the primary focus is on the relationship between processes modelled as functors, rather than the representations. A functor is a structure-preserving map (or construction, for our purposes. An adjunction guarantees that the only pairings of functors are the systematic ones. Thus, (quasi-systematicity is a necessary consequence of a categorial cognitive architecture whose basic processes are functors that participate in adjunctions.
Phillips, Steven; Wilson, William H
A complete theory of cognitive architecture (i.e., the basic processes and modes of composition that together constitute cognitive behaviour) must explain the systematicity property--why our cognitive capacities are organized into particular groups of capacities, rather than some other, arbitrary collection. The classical account supposes: (1) syntactically compositional representations; and (2) processes that are sensitive to--compatible with--their structure. Classical compositionality, however, does not explain why these two components must be compatible; they are only compatible by the ad hoc assumption (convention) of employing the same mode of (concatenative) compositionality (e.g., prefix/postfix, where a relation symbol is always prepended/appended to the symbols for the related entities). Architectures employing mixed modes do not support systematicity. Recently, we proposed an alternative explanation without ad hoc assumptions, using category theory. Here, we extend our explanation to domains that are quasi-systematic (e.g., aspects of most languages), where the domain includes some but not all possible combinations of constituents. The central category-theoretic construct is an adjunction involving pullbacks, where the primary focus is on the relationship between processes modelled as functors, rather than the representations. A functor is a structure-preserving map (or construction, for our purposes). An adjunction guarantees that the only pairings of functors are the systematic ones. Thus, (quasi-)systematicity is a necessary consequence of a categorial cognitive architecture whose basic processes are functors that participate in adjunctions.
Zhang, Menghuan; Li, Hong; He, Ying; Sun, Han; Xia, Li; Wang, Lishun; Sun, Bo; Ma, Liangxiao; Zhang, Guoqing; Li, Jing; Li, Yixue; Xie, Lu
Protein phosphorylation is the most abundant reversible covalent modification. Human protein kinases participate in almost all biological pathways, and approximately half of the kinases are associated with disease. PhoSigNet was designed to store and display human phosphorylation-mediated signal transduction networks, with additional information related to cancer. It contains 11 976 experimentally validated directed edges and 216 871 phosphorylation sites. Moreover, 3491 differentially expressed proteins in human cancer from dbDEPC, 18 907 human cancer variation sites from CanProVar, and 388 hyperphosphorylation sites from PhosphoSitePlus were collected as annotation information. Compared with other phosphorylation-related databases, PhoSigNet not only takes the kinase-substrate regulatory relationship pairs into account, but also extends regulatory relationships up- and downstream (e.g., from ligand to receptor, from G protein to kinase, and from transcription factor to targets). Furthermore, PhoSigNet allows the user to investigate the impact of phosphorylation modifications on cancer. By using one set of in-house time series phosphoproteomics data, the reconstruction of a conditional and dynamic phosphorylation-mediated signaling network was exemplified. We expect PhoSigNet to be a useful database and analysis platform benefiting both proteomics and cancer studies.
Oliveira Sampa, M.H. de; Vinhas, L.A.
Process of baron electrophoresis depositon on large areas of aluminum substrates was developed with the aim of using them in the construction of neutron detectors. After definition and optimization of the boron electrophoresis parameters, depositions of 10 B on aluminium cylinders were performed and used as electrodes in gamma compensated and non-compensated ionization chambers and in proportional detectors. Prototypers of ionization chambers were designed, built and assembled at the Departinent for Engineering and Industry Application (TE) of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), and submited for characterization tests at IEA-R1 reactor. They fully met the technical specifications of the projects. (author) [pt
Behnam Manesh, Shima; Omani Samani, Reza; Behnam Manesh, Shayan
One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human's body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal) and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action). The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal's organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven.
Ahmad, Sohail; Mathai, Manu V.; Parayil, Govindan
According to the 2011 Census of India, over 31% of India's 1.2 billion people lived in nearly 8000 towns and cities; the remaining 830 million people lived in over 638,000 villages. About 55% of rural households and 93% of urban households had access to electricity. The 2005 Indian Human Development Survey showed that on average, electricity availability (hours of supply per day) in rural and urban households were 14 and 19 h, respectively (Desai et al., 2007). Using nationally representative data from Indian Human Development Survey, this study estimated the impact of electricity access and availability on two attributes of human well-being, viz. education and health attainment. It found a significant positive relationship between electricity availability and well-being in rural and urban households. Electricity accessibility, revealed a significant positive relationship only for rural households. The paper concludes with implications for electricity policy and infrastructure choices. - Graphical abstract: Impact of electricity security on the attributes of human well-being. - Highlights: • Nexus between well-being, and electricity access and availability is quantified. • Electricity access is positively associated with well-being in rural but not urban. • Electricity availability negatively associates with morbidity and absenteeism. • Electricity security as human well-being enabler seeks nuanced policy attention. • Decentralized rapidly deployable modular technologies and microgrids are advocated
Attempt on construction of human friendly man-machine interface. Study and apply about human communication; Human friendly na man machine interface kochiku no kokoromi. Ningen no communication no kento to sono oyo
Tatsuno, J. [Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo (Japan); Kokubo, Y.; Matsumura, I.; Kobayashi, H. [Hosei University, Tokyo (Japan)
This paper describes an attempt on a construction way of human friendly man-machine interface. At first, we do a simple experiment to find out the characteristic of human verbal communication. From the experimental results, we get some rules in case in human verbal communication. We construct the man-machine interface which is based on these rules. Through teaching process, we examine our verbal communication interface comparing with conventional interfaces. From this comparison, we recognize that the verbal communication interface is valid to construct the user-friendly man-machine interface. 12 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.
Dixit, Manish K; Culp, Charles H; Fernandez-Solis, Jose L
Buildings alone consume approximately 40% of the annual global energy and contribute indirectly to the increasing concentration of atmospheric carbon. The total life cycle energy use of a building is composed of embodied and operating energy. Embodied energy includes all energy required to manufacture and transport building materials, and construct, maintain, and demolish a building. For a systemic energy and carbon assessment of buildings, it is critical to use a whole life cycle approach, which takes into account the embodied as well as operating energy. Whereas the calculation of a building's operating energy is straightforward, there is a lack of a complete embodied energy calculation method. Although an input-output-based (IO-based) hybrid method could provide a complete and consistent embodied energy calculation, there are unresolved issues, such as an overdependence on price data and exclusion of the energy of human labor and capital inputs. This paper proposes a method for calculating and integrating the energy of labor and capital input into an IO-based hybrid method. The results demonstrate that the IO-based hybrid method can provide relatively complete results. Also, to avoid errors, the total amount of human and capital energy should not be excluded from the calculation.
Long, Ren; Wang, Wei-ping; Xiong, Ping
To probe the correlation between the postmortem interval (PMI) and the DNA degradation of costicartilage and dental pulp cells in human being after death, and to seek a new method for estimating PMI. The image cytometry was used to measure the DNA degradation under different ambient temperatures (30-35 degrees C, 15-20 degrees C) in 0-15 days after death. The average DNA content of two kinds of tissue was degradated with the prolongation of PMI. But there was a plateau period of 0-4 days for dental pulp cells of human being in 15-20 degrees C. There was a high negative correlativity PPMI. PMI could be estimated accurately according to the DNA degradation of costicartilage and dental pulp cells in human being after death.
Ryff, Carol D
This essay examines core contributions of a model of psychological well-being that has had widespread scientific impact. It drew on distant formulations to identify new dimensions and measures for assessing what it means to be well. Key themes among the more than 750 studies using the model are sketched, followed by reflections about why there has been so much interest in this eudaimonic approach to well-being. A final section looks to the future, proposing new directions to illuminate the forces that work against the realization of human potential as well as those that nurture human flourishing and self-realization.
Milner-Gulland, E J; McGregor, J A; Agarwala, M; Atkinson, G; Bevan, P; Clements, T; Daw, T; Homewood, K; Kumpel, N; Lewis, J; Mourato, S; Palmer Fry, B; Redshaw, M; Rowcliffe, J M; Suon, S; Wallace, G; Washington, H; Wilkie, D
Conservationists are increasingly engaging with the concept of human well-being to improve the design and evaluation of their interventions. Since the convening of the influential Sarkozy Commission in 2009, development researchers have been refining conceptualizations and frameworks to understand and measure human well-being and are starting to converge on a common understanding of how best to do this. In conservation, the term human well-being is in widespread use, but there is a need for guidance on operationalizing it to measure the impacts of conservation interventions on people. We present a framework for understanding human well-being, which could be particularly useful in conservation. The framework includes 3 conditions; meeting needs, pursuing goals, and experiencing a satisfactory quality of life. We outline some of the complexities involved in evaluating the well-being effects of conservation interventions, with the understanding that well-being varies between people and over time and with the priorities of the evaluator. Key challenges for research into the well-being impacts of conservation interventions include the need to build up a collection of case studies so as to draw out generalizable lessons; harness the potential of modern technology to support well-being research; and contextualize evaluations of conservation impacts on well-being spatially and temporally within the wider landscape of social change. Pathways through the smog of confusion around the term well-being exist, and existing frameworks such as the Well-being in Developing Countries approach can help conservationists negotiate the challenges of operationalizing the concept. Conservationists have the opportunity to benefit from the recent flurry of research in the development field so as to carry out more nuanced and locally relevant evaluations of the effects of their interventions on human well-being. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc
Full Text Available MicroRNAs have been long considered synthesized endogenously until very recent discoveries showing that human can absorb dietary microRNAs from animal and plant origins while the mechanism remains unknown. Compelling evidences of microRNAs from rice, milk, and honeysuckle transported to human blood and tissues have created a high volume of interests in the fundamental questions that which and how exogenous microRNAs can be transferred into human circulation and possibly exert functions in humans. Here we present an integrated genomics and computational analysis to study the potential deciding features of transportable microRNAs. Specifically, we analyzed all publicly available microRNAs, a total of 34,612 from 194 species, with 1,102 features derived from the microRNA sequence and structure. Through in-depth bioinformatics analysis, 8 groups of discriminative features have been used to characterize human circulating microRNAs and infer the likelihood that a microRNA will get transferred into human circulation. For example, 345 dietary microRNAs have been predicted as highly transportable candidates where 117 of them have identical sequences with their homologs in human and 73 are known to be associated with exosomes. Through a milk feeding experiment, we have validated 9 cow-milk microRNAs in human plasma using microRNA-sequencing analysis, including the top ranked microRNAs such as bta-miR-487b, miR-181b, and miR-421. The implications in health-related processes have been illustrated in the functional analysis. This work demonstrates the data-driven computational analysis is highly promising to study novel molecular characteristics of transportable microRNAs while bypassing the complex mechanistic details.
Shu, Jiang; Chiang, Kevin; Zempleni, Janos; Cui, Juan
MicroRNAs have been long considered synthesized endogenously until very recent discoveries showing that human can absorb dietary microRNAs from animal and plant origins while the mechanism remains unknown. Compelling evidences of microRNAs from rice, milk, and honeysuckle transported to human blood and tissues have created a high volume of interests in the fundamental questions that which and how exogenous microRNAs can be transferred into human circulation and possibly exert functions in humans. Here we present an integrated genomics and computational analysis to study the potential deciding features of transportable microRNAs. Specifically, we analyzed all publicly available microRNAs, a total of 34,612 from 194 species, with 1,102 features derived from the microRNA sequence and structure. Through in-depth bioinformatics analysis, 8 groups of discriminative features have been used to characterize human circulating microRNAs and infer the likelihood that a microRNA will get transferred into human circulation. For example, 345 dietary microRNAs have been predicted as highly transportable candidates where 117 of them have identical sequences with their homologs in human and 73 are known to be associated with exosomes. Through a milk feeding experiment, we have validated 9 cow-milk microRNAs in human plasma using microRNA-sequencing analysis, including the top ranked microRNAs such as bta-miR-487b, miR-181b, and miR-421. The implications in health-related processes have been illustrated in the functional analysis. This work demonstrates the data-driven computational analysis is highly promising to study novel molecular characteristics of transportable microRNAs while bypassing the complex mechanistic details. PMID:26528912
Kalshoven, K.; Boon, C.T.
In this multi-source study, we examined the link between ethical leadership, human resource management (HRM), employee well-being, and helping. Based on the Conservation of Resources Theory, we proposed a mediated moderation model linking ethical leadership to helping, which includes well-being as
Agrawal, Parinita; Pramanik, Krishna; Biswas, Amit; Ku Patra, Ranjan
Cartilage construct generation includes a scaffold with appropriate composition to mimic matrix of the damaged tissue on which the stem cells grow and differentiate. In this study, umbilical cord blood (UCB) derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were seeded on freeze dried porous silk-fibroin (SF)/chitosan (CS) scaffolds. Influence of static and dynamic (spinner flask bioreactor) culture conditions on the developing cartilage construct were studied by in-vitro characterization for viability, proliferation, distribution, and chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs over the scaffold. Constructs developed in spinner flask consisted of 62% live cells, and exhibited 543% more cell density at the core than constructs cultured in static system. Quantification of DNA and glycosaminoglycans accumulation after 21 days showed the progression of chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs was higher in dynamic culture compared to static one. In constructs generated under dynamic condition, histology staining for proteoglycan matrix, and fluorescence staining for collagen-II and aggrecan showed positive correlation between early and late stage chondrogenic markers, which was further confirmed by quantitative PCR analysis, showing low collagen-I expression and highly expressed Sox9, collagen-II and aggrecan. The present study demonstrated that construct generated by combining 3D SF/CS scaffold with UCB-hMSCs under dynamic condition using spinner flask bioreactor can be used for cartilage tissue regeneration for future medical treatments. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 397-407, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pascalev, Assya; Van Assche, Kristof; Sándor, Judit; Codreanu, Natalia; Naqvi, Anwar; Gunnarson, Martin; Frunza, Mihaela; Yankov, Jordan
This report presents a comprehensive set of recommendations for protection of human beings who are trafficked for the purpose of organ removal or are targeted for such trafficking. Developed by an interdisciplinary group of international experts under the auspices of the project Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal (also known as the HOTT project), these recommendations are grounded in the view that an individual who parts with an organ for money within an illegal scheme is ipso facto a victim and that the crime of trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal (THBOR) intersects with the crime of trafficking in organs. Consequently, the protection of victims should be a priority for all actors involved in antitrafficking activities: those combating organ-related crimes, such as health organizations and survivor support services, and those combating trafficking in human beings, such as the criminal justice sectors. Taking into account the special characteristics of THBOR, the authors identify 5 key stakeholders in the protection of human beings trafficked for organ removal or targeted for such trafficking: states, law enforcement agencies and judiciary, nongovernmental organizations working in the areas of human rights and antitrafficking, transplant centers and health professionals involved in transplant medicine, and oversight bodies. For each stakeholder, the authors identify key areas of concern and concrete measures to identify and protect the victims of THBOR. The aim of the recommendations is to contribute to the development of a nonlegislative response to THBOR, to promote the exchange of knowledge and best practices in the area of victim protection, and to facilitate the development of a policy-driven action plan for the protection of THBOR victims in the European Union and worldwide.
Behnam Manesh, Shima; Omani Samani, Reza; Behnam Manesh, Shayan
One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human’s body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal) and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action). The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal’s organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven. PMID:25383334
Full Text Available The author is analyzing trafficking in human beings as a specific form of women's (illegal migration. The author is presenting detailed analysis of the international standards and recent activities of different international organizations (UN, Council of Europe, European Community, OSCE, concerning prevention of trafficking in human beings, regulation of foreign migrants' status and protection of victims of trafficking. Starting from the analysis of international documents and national legislations dealing with migration and prostitution, the author is proposing changes of existing domestic laws concerning movement and residence of foreigners. The aim of such changes is to harmonize our legislation with international standards and obligations accepted by signing the Palermo Convention.
McGarvey, K A; Lee, J M; Boughner, D R
We have examined the tensile viscoelastic properties of fresh and glycerol-preserved human dura mater, and correlated the results with structural information from the scanning electron microscope. The interwoven laminar structure of dura produces rather high flexural stiffness, while the crossed-fibrillar laminae produce planar mechanical isotropy. Glycerol storage shifts the stress-strain curve to lower strain, reduces stress relaxation and creep, and lowers the ultimate tensile strength and strain at fracture. These changes may be due to glyceraldehyde crosslinking, or to increased interfibrillar friction. The latter hypothesis suggests that glycerol storage may reduce the fatigue lifetime of the tissue.
White, Matthew D; Bosio, Catharine M; Duplantis, Barry N; Nano, Francis E
Many of the live human and animal vaccines that are currently in use are attenuated by virtue of their temperature-sensitive (TS) replication. These vaccines are able to function because they can take advantage of sites in mammalian bodies that are cooler than the core temperature, where TS vaccines fail to replicate. In this article, we discuss the distribution of temperature in the human body, and relate how the temperature differential can be exploited for designing and using TS vaccines. We also examine how one of the coolest organs of the body, the skin, contains antigen-processing cells that can be targeted to provoke the desired immune response from a TS vaccine. We describe traditional approaches to making TS vaccines, and highlight new information and technologies that are being used to create a new generation of engineered TS vaccines. We pay particular attention to the recently described technology of substituting essential genes from Arctic bacteria for their homologues in mammalian pathogens as a way of creating TS vaccines.
Soul caregivers often hesitate to be vulnerable in their pastoral practices. Jesus, however, embraced his vulnerabilities as a human to redeem humanity even though he was the Son of God. This paper first explores the dynamics of shame and power that make soul caregivers reluctant to accept their vulnerabilities and then describes the contributions of sharing caregiver's vulnerabilities in a soul care practice. This article argues that being vulnerable allows a soul caregiver to imitate Jesus by sharing in the client's common humanity, initiating an authentic relationship between the client and the soul caregiver; it is also a practice of humility, inviting God's cure in soul care. This study proposes the necessity of embracing vulnerability in soul care ministry, instead of hiding it.
Sun, Mingwei; Zheng, Beiwen; Gao, George F; Zhu, Baoli
Throughout human history, pandemic bacterial diseases such as the plague and tuberculosis have posed an enormous threat to human beings. The discovery of antibiotics has provided us with powerful arsenal for the defense against bacterial infections. However, bacteria are acquiring more and more resistance genes to shield off antibiotics through mutation and horizontal gene transfer. Therefore, novel antibiotics must be produced and the arms race between bacterial pathogens and antibiotics is becoming increasingly intense. Recently, researchers have found that plasmids carrying a new metallo-beta-lactamase gene, blaNDM-1, and many other antibiotics resistance genes can easily spread through bacterial populations and confer recipient stains resistance to nearly all of the current antibiotics. It is a threat to the human health and a great challenge for our medical science, which we are facing. We need to find new ways to fight and win this arms racing.
Full Text Available Research in positive psychology aims to find and develop diverse ways to improve human well-being and the psychophysical functioning (Fredrickson, 2008; Seligman, 2002; Sheldon & Lyubomirsky, 2006. As an example, the studies regard such concepts as positive emotions, character strengths or meaning in life. One of the most frequently studied constructs is also gratitude, that is regarded as the appreciation of all what is meaningful, as well as valuable, to oneself (Sansone & Sansone, 2010. Also, the social aspect of being grateful, and the effects of gratitude on one’s health and physical functioning, are frequently emphasized (McCullough, Kimeldorf & Cohen, 2008; Fox, Kaplan, Damasio and Damasio 2015; Algoe, Haidt & Gable, 2008. Among great amount of work about general gratitude already, there is still little research about gratitude contemplation, one of the exercises that enable a person experiencing gratitude in form of meditation. In this article, first I explain the meaning of the gratitude construct and its impact on peoples psychophysical state in general. Then, I analyze one of the newest gratitude activity, that is gratitude contemplation, its definition, the way of use and the results of recent empirical studies worldwide. Finally, I critically discuss the findings and conclude with future steps for further research on gratitude contemplation. I believe that the results and analysis presented in the article create a base for further research in the area of positive psychology.
Mutter, John C.
Poverty is not solely a social or political matter, nor is it caused simply by population pressures as Thomas Malthus postulated in 1798. A new understanding of poverty is emerging in which natural and environmental drivers, together with social, political, and demographic causes, underpin livelihoods. The Earth sciences, therefore, play a critical role in identifying the deep causes of human suffering and in identifying solutions. The State of the Planet: Why Are So Many So Poor? For far too many, the state of human well-being is bleak. Around one in six human beings-1 billion people-live in extreme poverty, struggling to survive on less than $1 a day; another one sixth of humanity ekes out existence on $2 per day (U.N. Development Programme (UNDP) Human Development Report, 2004; http://hdr.undp.org/2004/). The extreme poor lack all normal attributes of a decent, dignified life: adequate food, housing, sanitation, health care, education, and employment. Some 800 million people lack sufficient nourishment almost every day. It stunts their mental and physical development and shortens their lives, making them susceptible to common illnesses that attack their hunger-weakened bodies. Poor nutrition in mothers and infants is the leading cause of reduced disability-adjusted life years in poor countries [ Economist, 2004].
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) announced its plans to lift its moratorium on funding research that involves injecting human embryonic stem cells into animal embryos, which would allow for the creation of part-human and part-animal organisms known as chimeras. The NIH allowed only one month to receive public comments in the midst of a presidential election campaign. Lifting the moratorium means that, for the first time, the federal government will begin spending taxpayer dollars on the creation and manipulation of new organisms that would blur the line between humans and animals. Interestingly, this government effort is creating an uncommon coalition between pro-life groups and animal rights activists that oppose this medical research on ethical grounds; the former seeking to ensure the welfare of human embryos and the latter seeking to protect the well-being of animals. Unlike the issue of abortion, this research is complex. Yet, it is important that the pro-life laity and clergy be adequately informed on some of the basic science and ethics that surround this research. To fully understand why this research is unethical and why the NIH is pursuing this particular research, it is important to understand the ethical tenets governing human-subject research and why secular scientists are pursuing this scientific field.
Dennis, J U
I have attempted to show that the differential qualities of animals and human beings indeed to have bearing on moral rules and the derivation of rights, including rights established on the basis of reason and utilitarianism. Special rights for members of our species are not simply a consequence of human domination and self-interest. I also have tried to show that rights arise from values and that the qualities we value most highly often are the ones that distinguish human beings from other species. I maintain that giving more value to human lives over animal lives achieves reflective balance with the commonsense notions that most of us have developed. Because utilitarianism, contractualism, and the classical philosophical methods of Kant and Aristotle all may allow favoring human interests over animal interests, it seems reasonable to suspect that animal rights activists embrace narrow, extremist views. There are many uniquely human experiences to which we ascribe high value-deep interpersonal relationships, achieving a life's goal, enjoying a complex cultural event such as a play or an opera, or authoring a manuscript. Therefore, it would seem improper that social and ethical considerations regarding animals be centered entirely on the notion of a biological continuum, because there are many kinds of human experience-moral, religious, aesthetic, and otherwise-that appear to be outside the realm of biology. Knowledge about the biology of animals is helpful for making moral decisions about our obligations to them. Why, then, is there a substantial population of animal rights activists in Europe, the United States, and throughout the world, who would not agree with my conclusions? Certain habitual ways of thinking may encourage anthropomorphism and equating animal interests with human interests. Certain metaphysical beliefs, such as a belief in reincarnation, also might favor animal rights. It also is possible that a number of people are being deceived and misled by
Moreno, Manuel; Alvarez, Marta G.; Duffo, Gustavo S.
This study presents an evaluation of the reinforcing steel bars (rebars) corrosion behavior embedded in high performance concrete's prepared with three different cement types (normal Portland, Sulfate resistant and with furnace slag). The results of the study will provide the basis to select the materials used for constructing the mid activity radioactive disposals containers. The effect of aggressive ions such as chlorides and sulfates, as well as concrete carbonation, on the rebar corrosion process is evaluated using concrete specimens containing rebar segments. The electrochemical parameters that characterize the rebar corrosion process (corrosion potential (E corr ), polarization resistance (Rp) and electrical resistivity of concrete (ρ)) where periodically monitored after a conditioning period of 100 days. The results show that under all exposure conditions evaluated the rebar segments in contact with the three concrete mixes achieve a passive state of corrosion. Due to the continuos curing process of concrete the values of ρ present an increasing trend within time, even in the specimens exposed to the immersed conditions. (author)
Anugrah, I. R.; Mudzakir, A.; Sumarna, O.
Teaching materials used in Indonesia generally just emphasize remembering skill so that the students’ science literacy is low. Innovation is needed to transform traditional teaching materials so that it can stimulate students’ science literacy, one of which is by context-based approach. This study focused on the construction of context-based module for high school using Organic Light-Emitting Diode (OLED) topics. OLED was chosen because it is an up-to-date topic and relevant to real life. This study used Model of Educational Reconstruction (MER) to reconstruct science content structure about OLED through combining scientist’s perspectives with student’s preconceptions and national curriculum. Literature review of OLED includes its definition, components, characteristics and working principle. Student’s preconceptions about OLED are obtained through interviews. The result shows that student’s preconceptions have not been fully similar with the scientist’s perspective. One of the reasons is that some of the related Chemistry concepts are too complicated. Through curriculum analysis, Chemistry about OLED that are appropriate for high school are Bohr’s atomic theory, redox and organic chemistry including polymers and aromatics. The OLED context and its Chemistry concept were developed into context-based module by adapting science literacy-based learning. This module is expected to increase students’ science literacy performance.
Turner, R.; Huemann, M.; Keegan, A.
As part of a wider study into human resource management (HRM) practices in project-oriented organizations, we investigated the issue of employee well-being. Project-oriented organizations adopt temporary work processes to deliver products and services to clients. This creates a dynamic work environment, where additional pressures can be imposed on the employee from fluctuating work-loads, uncertain requirements, and multiple role demands. These pressures can create issues for employee well-be...
Campforts, Benjamin; Govers, Gerard; Vanacker, Veerle; De Vente, Joris; Boix-Fayos, Carolina; Minella, Jean; Baken, Stijn; Smolders, Erik
The use of meteoric 10Be as a tool to understand long term landscape behavior is becoming increasingly popular. Due its high residence time, meteoric 10Be allows in principle to investigate in situ erosion rates over time scales exceeding the period studied with classical approaches such as 137Cs. The use of meteoric 10Be strongly contributes to the traditional interpretation of sedimentary archives which cannot be unequivocally coupled to sediment production and could provide biased information over longer time scales (Sadler, 1981). So far, meteoric 10Be has successfully been used in geochemical fingerprinting of sediments, to date soil profiles, to assess soil residence times and to quantify downslope soil fluxes using accumulated 10Be inventories along a hill slope. However, less attention is given to the potential use of the tracer to directly asses human induced changes in soil fluxes through deforestation, cultivation and reforestation. A good understanding of the processes governing the distribution of meteoric 10Be both within the soil profile and at landscape scale is essential before meteoric 10Be can be successfully applied to assess human impact. We developed a spatially explicit 2D-model (Be2D) in order to gain insight in meteoric 10Be movement along a hillslope that is subject to human disturbance. Be2D integrates both horizontal soil fluxes and vertical meteoric 10Be movement throughout the soil prolife. Horizontal soil fluxes are predicted using (i) well studied geomorphical laws for natural erosion and soil formation as well as (ii) human accelerated water and tillage erosion. Vertical movement of meteoric 10Be throughout the soil profile is implemented by inserting depth dependent retardation calculated using experimentally determined partition coefficients (Kd). The model was applied to different environments such as (i) the Belgian loess belt, characterized by aeolian deposits enriched in inherited meteoric 10Be, (ii) highly degraded and stony
Cavaney, D M; Rakoczy, P E; Constable, I J
To study genes expressed by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells during phagocytosis and digestion of rod outer segments (ROS), a complementary (c)DNA library was produced using an in-vitro model. The cDNA library can be used to study molecular changes which contribute to the development of diseases due to a failure in outer segment phagocytosis and digestion by RPE cells. Here we demonstrate a way to study genes and their functions using a molecular biological approach and describing the first step involved in this process, the construction of a cDNA library. Human RPE cells obtained from the eyes of a seven-year-old donor were cultured and challenged with bovine ROS. The culture was harvested and total RNA was extracted. Complementary DNA was transcribed from the messenger (m)RNA and was directionally cloned into the LambdaGEM-4 bacteriophage vector successfully. Some clones were picked and the DNA extracted, to determine the size of the inserts as a measure of the quality of the library. Molecular biology and cell culture are important tools to be used in eye research, especially in areas where tissue is limiting and animal models are not available. We now have a ROS challenged RPE cDNA library which will be used to identify genes responsible for degrading phagocytosed debris within the retinal pigment epithelium.
Turner, R.; Huemann, M.; Keegan, A.
As part of a wider study into human resource management (HRM) practices in project-oriented organizations, we investigated the issue of employee well-being. Project-oriented organizations adopt temporary work processes to deliver products and services to clients. This creates a dynamic work
Teaching AP Human Geography to freshmen seems like a daunting task and while there are many arguments both for and against offering the course to freshmen, for many teachers it is reality. In this article, the author offers nine tips to help high school freshmen be successful in the course and on the AP exam.
van der Wilt, H.
Trafficking in human beings is often qualified as a modern form of slavery, with the obvious intention to stress the seriousness of the crime and to bring it within the jurisdictional scope of the International Criminal Court. This article critically assesses this position. The author argues that,
Gramenitskiĭ, P V; Fetisov, I N
Exposure of a dark adapted human eye to weak proton beams of different energy for which the yield of Cerenkov radiation varies by approximately 50 times, the other characteristics being virtually the same, showed that this radiation was mainly responsible for visual sensation.
Finlayson, M.; Cruz, R.D.; Davidson, N.; Alder, J.; Cork, S.; Groot, de R.S.; Lévêque, C.; Milton, G.R.; Peterson, G.; Pritchard, D.; Ratner, B.D.; Reid, W.V.; Revenga, C.; Rivera, M.; Schutyser, F.; Siebentritt, M.; Stuip, M.; Tharme, R.; Butchard, S.; Dieme-Amting, E.; Gitay, H.; Raaymakers, S.; Taylor, D.
The Wetlands and Water synthesis was designed for the Ramsar Convention to meet the need for information about the consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being and sought to strengthen the link between scientific knowledge and decision-making for the conservation and wise use of wetlands.
Jul 17, 1971 ... An Unusual Case of Human Rabies Thought to be of Chiropteran Origin*. C. D. MEREDITH ... referred to hospital with a diagnosis of rabies. The same afternoon the patient was admitted to the ... Histopathologic studies were carried out on the following portions of the central nervous system-ganglion of the.
Stewart, Kristian; Gachago, Daniela
This article reports the findings of a collaborative digital storytelling project titled "Being Human Today," a multimodal curricular initiative that was implemented simultaneously in both a South African and an American university classroom in 2015. By facilitating dialogue and the sharing of digital stories by means of a closed…
Respect is a fundamental aspect of how human beings relate to each other and, arguably, is a significant factor in the relationship between student and teacher. For incarcerated adults, the relationships they foster with their teachers (and by extension the respect or disrespect cultivated within it) often have a considerable impact on their…
The present brochure of the Professional Association for Fine Mechanics and Electrical Engineering gives a selective account on the effects of electromagnetic fields on human beings. The second part deals with regulations for safety and health protection at working places exposed to electromagnetic fields. (VHE) [de
Liba Pejchar; Sarah E. Reed; Patrick Bixler; Lindsay Ex; Miranda H. Mockrin
Residential development is a leading driver of land-use change, with important implications for biodiversity, ecosystem processes, and human well-being. We reviewed over 500 published scientific articles on the biophysical, economic, and social effects of residential development and open space in the US. We concluded that current knowledge of the effects of this type...
Singer, R.S.; Finch, R.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were first identified in the 1940s, but while new antibiotics were being discovered at a steady rate, the consequences of this phenomenon were slow to be appreciated. Today, the excessive use of antibiotics compounded by the paucity of new agents on the market has...... meant the problem of antibiotic resistance is fast escalating into a global health crisis. There is no doubt that misuse of these drugs in human beings has contributed to the increasing rates of resistance, but recently the use of antibiotics in food animals and its consequent effect on resistance....... There is a growing concern over the transmission of resistant bacteria via the food chain. Many questions will be difficult to resolve, such as how do you distinguish the fraction of resistance in human beings that originated from animals? If we wait to see evidence that a significant amount of antibiotic resistance...
Mar 29, 2010 ... Construction of the lentiviral expression vector. Both self-inactivating (SIN) ..... activated partial thromboplastin time. Figure 4. Expression of ... 1 entry to an endocytic pathway and suppresses both the requirement for Nef and ...
Ghosal, Sunetro; Skogen, Ketil; Krishnan, Siddhartha
- People’s reactions to large carnivores take many forms, ranging from support and coexistence to resistance and conflict. While these reactions are the outcome of many different factors, in this paper we specifically explore the link between social constructions of landscapes and divergent responses to large carnivore presence. We compare case studies from four different landscapes shared by people and large carnivores, in India and Norway. We use social construction of landsc...
Thomas, J.M.; Eberhardt, L.L.
A method has been devised to extrapolate biological equilibrium levels between animal species and subsequently to humans. Our initial premise was based on the observation that radionuclide retention is normally a function of metabolism so that direct or indirect measures could be described by a power law based on body weights of test animal species. However, we found that such interspecies comparisons ought to be based on the coefficient of the power equation rather than on the exponential parameter. The method is illustrated using retention data obtained from five non-ruminant species (including humans) that were fed radionuclides with different properties. It appears that biological equilibrium level for radionuclides in man can be estimated using data from mice, rats, and dogs. The need to extrapolate low-dose effects data obtained from small animals (usually rodents) to humans is not unique to radiation dosimetry or radiation protection problems. Therefore, some quantitative problems connected with estimating low-dose effects from other disciplines have been reviewed, both because of the concern about effects induced by the radionuclide moiety of a radiopharmaceutical and those of the nonradioactive component. The possibility of extrapolating low-dose effects calculated from animal studies to human is discussed
Thomas, J.M.; Eberhardt, L.L.
We have devised a method to extrapolate biological equilibrium levels between animal species and subsequently to humans. Our initial premise was based on the observation that radionuclide retention is normally a function of metabolism so that direct or indirect measures could be described by a power law based on body weights of test animal species. However, we found that such interspecies comparisons ought to be based on the coefficient of the power equation rather than on the exponential parameter. The method is illustrated using retention data obtained from five non-ruminant species (including humans) that were fed radionuclides with different properties. It appears that biological equilibrium level for radionuclides in man can be estimated using data from mice, rats and dogs. The need to extrapolate low-dose effects data obtained from small animals (usually rodents) to humans is not unique to radiation dosimetry or radiation protection problems. Therefore, researchers have reviewed some quantitative problems connected with estimating low-dose effects from other disciplines, both because of the concern about effects induced by the radionuclide moiety of a radiopharmaceutical and those of the nonradioactive component. The possibility of extrapolating low-dose effects calculated from animal studies to humans is discussed
Poeschl, Sandra; Doering, Nicola
Virtual training applications with high levels of immersion or fidelity (for example for social phobia treatment) produce high levels of presence and therefore belong to the most successful Virtual Reality developments. Whereas display and interaction fidelity (as sub-dimensions of immersion) and their influence on presence are well researched, realism of the displayed simulation depends on the specific application and is therefore difficult to measure. We propose to measure simulation realism by using a self-report questionnaire. The German VR Simulation Realism Scale for VR training applications was developed based on a translation of scene realism items from the Witmer-Singer-Presence Questionnaire. Items for realism of virtual humans (for example for social phobia training applications) were supplemented. A sample of N = 151 students rated simulation realism of a Fear of Public Speaking application. Four factors were derived by item- and principle component analysis (Varimax rotation), representing Scene Realism, Audience Behavior, Audience Appearance and Sound Realism. The scale developed can be used as a starting point for future research and measurement of simulation realism for applications including virtual humans.
Tani, Keiji; Yokokawa, Mitsuo
In 1997, a project was started to promote the foreseeing study on the changes in global environment by Science and Technology Agency and three studies; a basic process study, observations and computer simulation have started by the project. This report outlines the development of e arth simulator , an ultra high-speed computer as a part of the project. Global warming due to human activities has been progressing on the earth. It is assumed that the mean temperature increase and sea level rising would reach 2degC and 50 cm, respectively before 2100 if the present environmental states still continue in future. There are two inevitable problems in the global environment simulation on global scale; mesh size of simulator and errors in observation data as the initial values for simulation. To accurately simulate the behaviors of thundercloud several kilometers in size, which is closely related to weather disaster, it is necessary to raise the analytic resolution by decreasing the mesh size from 20-30 km to about 1 km, resulting in several hundred times increase of the number of mesh. When compared with CRAY C90, which is the representative computer in the climate and weather field, it is thought necessary to increase the capacities of memory and calculation speed by more than one thousand times. Therefore, it seems necessary to construct a new computer including a parallel type calculator because a computer of effective speed, 5TFLOPS can not be constructed with a single processor. (M.N.)
Wang, Jianping; Liu, Dejie; Liang, Xiaohong; Gao, Lifen; Yue, Xuetian; Yang, Yang; Ma, Chunhong; Liu, Jun
The zinc-fingers and homeoboxes protein 1 (ZHX1) consists of 873 amino acid residues, is localized in the cell nucleus and appears to act as a transcriptional repressor. Previous studies have shown that ZHX1 interacts with nuclear factor Y subunit α (NF-YA), DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) 3B and ZHX2, all of which are involved in tumorigenesis. However, the exact role of ZHX1 in tumorigenesis remains unknown. The aim of the current study was to construct a recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmid containing the human ZHX1 (hZHX1) gene and to investigate the biological activities of ZHX1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT‑PCR) was used to amplify the N- and C-terminal fragments (ZHX1‑N and ZHX1‑C, respectively) of the hZHX1 gene. The two PCR fragments were cloned into the pEASY-T1 vector and subcloned into the pcDNA3 plasmid to generate a recombinant pcDNA3‑ZHX1 plasmid. Following identification by enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing, the recombinant pcDNA3‑ZHX1 plasmid was transfected into SMMC-7721 cells. The level of ZHX1 expression was detected by RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Cell growth curve assays were used to evaluate the effect of ZHX1 on cell proliferation. Moreover, the differential expression of ZHX1 between cancer and adjacent cirrhotic liver tissue was investigated by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing confirmed the successful construction of the recombinant plasmid, pcDNA3‑ZHX1. qPCR and western blot analysis demonstrated that ZHX1 was efficiently expressed in SMMC-7721 cells and overexpression of ZHX1 may inhibit the proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells. In addition, reduced ZHX1 expression is widespread among cancer tissues from HCC patients. In conclusion, a recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmid, pcDNA3‑ZHX1, was successfully constructed. In addition, the current results indicate that a low expression of ZHX1 may be responsible for hepatocarcinogenesis.
Reperant, L A; Brown, I H; Haenen, O L; de Jong, M D; Osterhaus, A D M E; Papa, A; Rimstad, E; Valarcher, J-F; Kuiken, T
Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viruses and viruses of food production animals, and prioritized these viruses in terms of human health and economic importance. In total, 138 virus species reportedly capable of infecting companion animals were of concern for human and food production animal health: 59 of these viruses were infectious for human beings, 135 were infectious for food production mammals and birds, and 22 were infectious for food production fishes. Viruses of highest concern for human health included hantaviruses, Tahyna virus, rabies virus, West Nile virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, Aichi virus, European bat lyssavirus, hepatitis E virus, cowpox virus, G5 rotavirus, influenza A virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production mammals and birds included bluetongue virus, African swine fever virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, lumpy skin disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus, porcine circovirus, classical swine fever virus, equine herpesvirus 9, peste des petits ruminants virus and equine infectious anaemia virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production fishes included cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus), viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Of particular concern as sources of zoonotic or food production animal viruses were domestic carnivores, rodents and food production animals kept as companion animals. The current list of viruses provides an objective
Singer, R.S.; Finch, R.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar
meant the problem of antibiotic resistance is fast escalating into a global health crisis. There is no doubt that misuse of these drugs in human beings has contributed to the increasing rates of resistance, but recently the use of antibiotics in food animals and its consequent effect on resistance...... levels in people has also come under scrutiny. Antimicrobials are used therapeutically and prophylactically in animals. More controversially, antimicrobials are also used as growth promoters to improve the ability of the animal to convert feed into body mass. Some argue that the impact of use....... There is a growing concern over the transmission of resistant bacteria via the food chain. Many questions will be difficult to resolve, such as how do you distinguish the fraction of resistance in human beings that originated from animals? If we wait to see evidence that a significant amount of antibiotic resistance...
Ginés Marco Perles
Regarding this failure to take such life processes into account, and given its propensity for generalization, science stood out among these spheres as placing an excessive weight on positivist values that by their very nature disregarded anything that could not be classified as such. This approach was in stark contrast with the open tradition upheld by Miguel de Unamuno that would be eagerly taken up by Spanish philosophy in the twentieth century. From the perspective of that philosophy it is, therefore, worth asking whether all of those aspects and elements (not only those that form part of any given human life but also those belonging to the other two main spheres of culture – art and morality – displaced by scientism because they were not positive or verifiable through experiment, because they did not lend themselves to being understood using a rationalist or logical/scientific reasoning were not also human. Was their rejection justified?
Full Text Available In the animal world, various kinds of collective motions have been found and proven to be efficient ways of carrying out some activities such as searching for food and avoiding predators. Many scholars research the interactions of collective behaviors of human beings according to the rules of collective behaviors of animals. Based on the Lennard-Jones potential function and a self-organization process, our paper proposes a topological communication model to simulate the collective behaviors of human beings. In the results of simulations, we find various types of collective behavior and fission behavior and discover the threshold for the emergence of collective behavior, which is the range five to seven for the number of topology K. According to the analysis of network properties of the model, the in-degree of individuals is always equal to the number of topology. In the stable state, the out-degrees of individuals distribute around the value of the number of topology K, except that the out-degree of a single individual is approximately double the out-degrees of the other individuals. In addition, under different initial conditions, some features of different kinds of networks emerge from the model. We also find the leader and herd mentality effects in the characteristics of the behaviors of human beings in our model. Thus, this work could be used to discover how to promote the emergence of beneficial group behaviors and prevent the emergence of harmful behaviors.
Spiritual well-being has been found to be a strong individual predictor of overall nursing home satisfaction and a fundamental dimension of global as well as health-related quality-in-life among nursing home patients. Therefore, access to a valid and reliable measure of spiritual well-being among nursing home patients is highly warranted. The aim of this study was to investigate the dimensionality, reliability and construct validity of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Spiritual Wellbeing scale in a cognitively intact nursing home population. A cross-sectional design was applied, selecting two counties in central Norway from which 20 municipalities representing 44 different nursing homes took part in this study. Long-term care was defined as 24-hour care with duration of 6 months or longer. Participants were 202 cognitively intact long-term nursing home patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Approval by all regulatory institutions dealing with research issues in Norway and the Management Unit at the 44 nursing homes was obtained. Explorative and confirmative factor analyses as well as correlation with selected construct were used. Though three items loaded very low (λ = 0.22, 0.26, 0.32) indicating low reliability, the three-factor model for the FACIT-Sp spiritual well-being scale provided an acceptable fit (χ(2) = 101.15 (df = 50), p-value <0.001, RMSEA = 0.075 p = 0.030, NFI = 0.90, GFI = 0.91, AGFI = 0.85) for older nursing home patients, demonstrating acceptable measurement reliability. Construct validity was supported by significant correlations in the hypothesised direction with the selected constructs. The three-factor model is an improvement over the original two-factor construct, based on these nursing home data. The measure yielded significantly factor loadings, good composite reliability and construct validity. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Full Text Available Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS is an emerging technique for the rapid and high-throughput identification of microorganisms. There remains a dearth of studies in which a large number of pathogenic microorganisms from a particular country or region are utilized for systematic analyses. In this study, peptide mass reference spectra (PMRS were constructed and evaluated from numerous human pathogens (a total of 1019 strains from 94 species, including enteric (46 species, respiratory (21 species, zoonotic (17 species, and nosocomial pathogens (10 species, using a MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper system (MBS. The PMRS for 380 strains of 52 species were new contributions to the original reference database (ORD. Compared with the ORD, the new reference database (NRD allowed for 28.2% (from 71.5% to 99.7% and 42.3% (from 51.3% to 93.6% improvements in identification at the genus and species levels, respectively. Misidentification rates were 91.7% and 57.1% lower with the NRD than with the ORD for genus and species identification, respectively. Eight genera and 25 species were misidentified. For genera and species that are challenging to accurately identify, identification results must be manually determined and adjusted in accordance with the database parameters. Through augmentation, the MBS demonstrated a high identification accuracy and specificity for human pathogenic microorganisms. This study sought to provide theoretical guidance for using PMRS databases in various fields, such as clinical diagnosis and treatment, disease control, quality assurance, and food safety inspection.
Garcia, J.F.; Ebbe, S.N.; Hollander, L.; Cutting, H.O.; Miller, M.E.; Cronkite, E.P.
Techniques are described in detail for the RIA of human Ep in unextracted plasma or serum. With 100 μl of sample, the assay is sensitive at an Ep concentration of approximately 4 mU/ml, and when required, the sensitivity can be increased to 0.4 mU/ml, a range considerably less than the concentration observed in normal human beings. This is approximately 100 times more sensitive than existing in vivo bioassays for this hormone. Studies concerned with the validation of the Ep RIA show a high degree of correlation with the polycythemic mouse bioassay. Dilutions of a variety of human serum samples show a parallel relationship with the standard reference preparation for Ep. Validation of the RIA is further confirmed by observations of appropriate increases or decreases of circulating Ep levels in physiological and clinical conditions known to be associated with stimulation or suppression of Ep secretion. Significantly different mean serum concentrations of 17.2 mU/ml for normal male subjects and 18.8 mU/ml for normal female subjects were observed. Mean plasma Ep concentrations in patients with polycythemia vera are significantly decreased, and those of patients with secondary polycythemia are significantly increased as compared to plasma levels in normal subjects. These results demonstrate an initial practical value of the Ep RA in the hematology clinic, which will most certainly be expanded with its more extensive use
Carpenter, Adam J; Porter, Andrew C G
DNA Topoisomerase IIalpha (topoIIalpha) is a DNA decatenating enzyme, abundant constituent of mammalian mitotic chromosomes, and target of numerous antitumor drugs, but its exact role in chromosome structure and dynamics is unclear. In a powerful new approach to this important problem, with significant advantages over the use of topoII inhibitors or RNA interference, we have generated and characterized a human cell line (HTETOP) in which >99.5% topoIIalpha expression can be silenced in all cells by the addition of tetracycline. TopoIIalpha-depleted HTETOP cells enter mitosis and undergo chromosome condensation, albeit with delayed kinetics, but normal anaphases and cytokineses are completely prevented, and all cells die, some becoming polyploid in the process. Cells can be rescued by expression of topoIIalpha fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP), even when certain phosphorylation sites have been mutated, but not when the catalytic residue Y805 is mutated. Thus, in addition to validating GFP-tagged topoIIalpha as an indicator for endogenous topoIIalpha dynamics, our analyses provide new evidence that topoIIalpha plays a largely redundant role in chromosome condensation, but an essential catalytic role in chromosome segregation that cannot be complemented by topoIIbeta and does not require phosphorylation at serine residues 1106, 1247, 1354, or 1393.
Panagopoulos, Thomas; González Duque, José Antonio; Bostenaru Dan, Maria
The cities of today present requirements that are dissimilar to those of the past. There are cities where the industrial and service sectors are in decline, and there are other cities that are just beginning their journey into the technological and industrial sectors. In general, the political and social realms have been restructured in terms of economics, which has resulted in an entirely different shape to the primitive structures of civilization. As people begin to understand the dynamic nature of landscapes, they stop seeing landscapes as a static scene. Sustainable cities must be simultaneously economically viable, socially just, politically well managed and ecologically sustainable to maximize human comfort. The present research suggests a multi-disciplinary approach for attaining a holistic understanding of urban environmental quality and human well-being in relation to sustainable urban development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Second International conference concerning the problems of electromagnetic protection of the human being, fundamental and applied studies, normalization of the EMP: philosophy, criteria and harmonization which took place in Moscow in September 1999 is reported. The topics of reports covered both the mechanism of biological action of electromagnetic fields and aspects of impact of electromagnetic fields from various household appliances on the health of practically all modern people (television, radio, energetic, communication). The plenary section on evaluation of hazards of the mobile communication electromagnetic fields and the round table meeting dealing with evaluation of hazards of electromagnetic fields of the cellular communication base stations were conducted in the course of the conference. The plenary meetings were devoted to harmonization of the electromagnetic protection standards of Russia and western countries. The above conference constitutes one of the stages of the WHO international program concerning electromagnetic fields and the human being [ru
Cristina Monereo Atienza
Full Text Available This paper confronts the advantagesand disadvantages of Nussbaum´s theory inseeking equality for women. Nussbaum under-stands that people in general and women in par-ticular have a number of common capabilitiesbecause they are ends in themselves. You cannot treat another person as a mere object, andthis deserves a cross-cultural consensus on whatis the human being. The universal concept ofthe subject that she offers, based on a minimumcommon to all, open to dialogue and politicalconsensus, is very interesting. However, we cannot forget other approaches like the discourse ofrights.
Jendritzky, Gerd; Tinz, Birger
Background: The close relationship between human health, performance, well-being and the thermal environment is obvious. Nevertheless, most studies of climate and climate change impacts show amazing shortcomings in the assessment of the environment. Populations living in different climates have different susceptibilities, due to socio-economic reasons, and different customary behavioural adaptations. The global distribution of risks of hazardous thermal exposure has not been analysed before. ...
CAMARGO MAGALHÃES, Beatriz
Belgian anti-THB policy is often pointed as exemplary given its broad definition of the crime of trafficking for labour exploitation, as being the work or service carried out in conditions contrary to human dignity, in which the coercion element is not compulsory. However, hardly any policy initiatives in Belgium tackle specifically demand-side aspects in labour exploitation and THB in the domestic work sector. Recent policy changes in the domain of domestic work at diplomatic households and ...
Camacho Mejia, Monica Judith
This thesis analyses the development of REDD+ in Costa Rica. It sets out to analyse what the obligations of Costa Rica are under International Human Rights Law with regard to Indigenous Peoples at the moment of implementing REDD+; what laws should be changed before implementing REDD+ whether Costa Rica wants to fulfil its international obligations towards Indigenous Peoples; what impact the Payment for Environmental Services programme has had on Indigenous Peoples; and how the Costa Rican gov...
Toffano, Damiano Maria
Master's thesis in Migration and intercultural relations Migration is a very diversified topic, where both positive and negative sides merge together providing aspects of complexity and a state of uncertainty that have repercussions on related arguments such as the case concerning Trafficking in Human Beings (THB). The huge amount of actors involved within the trafficking networks, the complex cases it generates and the particular characteristics of this crime, including ...
Ravens-Sieberer, U.; Erhart, M.; Rajmil, L.; Herdman, M.; Auquier, P.; Bruil, J.; Power, M.; Duer, W.; Abel, T.; Czemy, L.; Mazur, J.; Czimbalmos, A.; Tountas, Y.; Hagquist, C.; Kilroe, J.
Background: To assess the criterion and construct validity of the KIDSCREEN-10 well-being and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) score, a short version of the KIDSCREEN-52 and KIDSCREEN-27 instruments. Methods: The child self-report and parent report versions of the KIDSCREEN-10 were tested in a
Soreq, H.; Ben-Aziz, R.; Prody, C.A.; Seidman, S.; Gnatt, A.; Neville, L.; Lieman-Hurwitz, J.; Lev-Lehman, E.; Ginzberg, D.; Lapidot-Lifson, Y.; Zakut, H.
To study the primary structure of human acetylcholinesterase and its gene expression and amplification, cDNA libraries from human tissues expressing oocyte-translatable AcChoEase mRNA were constructed and screened with labeled oligodeoxynucleotide probes. Several cDNA clones were isolated that encoded a polypeptide with ≥50% identically aligned amino acids to Torpedo AcChoEase and human butyrylcholinesterase. However, these cDNA clones were all truncated within a 300-nucleotide-long G + C-rich region with a predicted pattern of secondary structure having a high Gibbs free energy downstream from the expected 5' end of the coding region. Screening of a genomic DNA library revealed the missing 5' domain. When ligated to the cDNA and constructed into a transcription vector, this sequence encoded a synthetic mRNA translated in microinjected oocytes into catalytically active AcChoEase with marked preference for acetylthiocholine over butyrylthiocholine as a substrate, susceptibility to inhibition by the AcChoEase inhibitor BW284C51, and resistance to the AcChoEase inhibitor tetraisopropylpyrophosphoramide. Blot hybridization of genomic DNA from different individuals carrying amplified AcChoEase genes revealed variable intensities and restriction patterns with probes from the regions upstream and downstream from the predicted G + C-rich structure. Thus, the human AcChoEase gene includes a putative G + C-rich attenuator domain and is subject to structural alterations in cases of AcChoEase gene amplification
Hindin, Michelle J; Bloem, Paul; Ferguson, Jane
World Health Organization recommends that girls, ages 9-13 years, get the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine. Global Alliance for Vaccines Initiative, which provides low-cost vaccine to eligible countries, requires that an additional intervention to be offered alongside the vaccine. We systematically searched and assessed the published literature in lower- and middle-income countries to identify effective interventions. We conducted systematic searches of four databases: PubMed, EMBASE, Global Index Medicus Regional Databases, and Cochrane Reviews for effective adolescent health interventions that could be delivered with the HPV vaccine in the following areas: (1) iron and folic acid supplementation (iron alone or with folic acid); (2) voucher delivery and cash transfer programs; (3) hand washing and soap provision; (4) vision screening; (5) promotion of physical activity/exercise; (6) menstrual hygiene education; (7) sexual and reproductive health education; (8) human immunodeficiency virus prevention activities; and (9) condom promotion, condom use skill building, and demonstration. We found limited evidence of consistent positive impact. Iron supplementation reduced iron-deficiency anemia and raised serum ferritin levels. Promotion of physical activity lowered blood pressure and reduced weight gain. Sexual and reproductive health and human immunodeficiency virus interventions improved adolescent communication with adults but did not influence behavioral outcomes. Countries should consider locally relevant and proven interventions to be offered alongside the HPV vaccine. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lebovitz, Chandra B; Bortnik, Svetlana B; Gorski, Sharon M
Macroautophagy (or autophagy) is a catabolic cellular process that is both homeostatic and stress adaptive. Normal cells rely on basal levels of autophagy to maintain cellular integrity (via turnover of long-lived proteins and damaged organelles) and increased levels of autophagy to buoy cell survival during various metabolic stresses (via nutrient and energy provision through lysosomal degradation of cytoplasmic components). Autophagy can function in both tumor suppression and tumor progression, and is under investigation in clinical trials as a novel target for anticancer therapy. However, its role in cancer pathogenesis has yet to be fully explored. In particular, it remains unknown whether in vitro observations will be applicable to human cancer patients. Another outstanding question is whether there exists tumor-specific selection for alterations in autophagy function. In this review, we survey reported mutations in autophagy genes and key autophagy regulators identified in human tumor samples and summarize the literature regarding expression levels of autophagy genes and proteins in various cancer tissues. Although it is too early to draw inferences from this collection of in vivo studies of autophagy-related alterations in human cancers, their results highlight the challenges that must be overcome before we can accurately assess the scope of autophagy's predicted role in tumorigenesis.
Wang, C. Y.; Ho, C. C.; Chang, L. C.
There are no large hydraulic structures in Qishan River cause the less human interference than other major river in Taiwan. However, the aquatic habitats still suffer disturbance from the discharge changes greatly between wet and drought season, and Jiaxian Weir and Yuemei Weir draw surplus water from Qishan River to Nanhua Reservoir and Agongdian Reservoir respectively. The weir operation rule doesn't clear define how much environmental flow should be preserved for maintaining downstream ecological environment. Hence, the study proposes a process for evaluating environmental flow under considering impact on human well-being and ecosystems sustainability. Empirical formula, hydrological, hydraulic and habitat methodologies were used to propose the environmental flow alternatives. Next, water allocation model and Habitat model were used to analysis the impact of environment flow alternatives on human well-being and ecosystems sustainability. The results show the suggested environmental flow in Qishan River is estimated by MAF10%. The environmental flow is between 8.03 10.83 cms during wet season and is between 1.07 1.44cms during wet season. The simulation results also provide the evidence from diverse aspect to help different authorities realized what they get and lose. The information can advance to reach a consensus during negotiations with different authorities and help decision maker make decisions.
Descotes, Jacques; Testud, Francois
The concept of toxicovigilance encompasses the active detection, validation and follow-up of clinical adverse events related to toxic exposures in human beings. Poison centers are key players in this function as poisoning statistics are essential to define the cause, incidence and severity of poisonings occurring in the general population. In addition, the systematic search for unexpected shifts in the recorded causes of poisonings, e.g., following the introduction of a new product, or change in the formulation or recommended use of an old product, allows for a rapid detection of potential adverse health consequences and the implementation of preventive or corrective measures. However, toxicovigilance is genuinely a medical and not only a statistical approach of human toxicity issues. In contrast to epidemiology, toxicovigilance is based on the in-depth medical assessment of acute or chronic intoxications on an individual basis, which requires detailed information that poison centers can rarely obtain via emergency telephone calls and that epidemiologists cannot collect or process. Validation of this medical information must primarily be based on toxicological expertise to help identify causal links between otherwise unexplained pathological conditions and documented toxic exposures. Thus, toxicovigilance can contribute to hazard identification and risk assessment by providing medically validated data which are often overlooked in the process of risk assessment. So far, very few structured toxicovigilance systems have been set up and hopefully national and international initiatives will bridge this gap in our knowledge of the toxicity of many chemicals and commercial products in human beings
Descotes, Jacques; Testud, François
The concept of toxicovigilance encompasses the active detection, validation and follow-up of clinical adverse events related to toxic exposures in human beings. Poison centers are key players in this function as poisoning statistics are essential to define the cause, incidence and severity of poisonings occurring in the general population. In addition, the systematic search for unexpected shifts in the recorded causes of poisonings, e.g., following the introduction of a new product, or change in the formulation or recommended use of an old product, allows for a rapid detection of potential adverse health consequences and the implementation of preventive or corrective measures. However, toxicovigilance is genuinely a medical and not only a statistical approach of human toxicity issues. In contrast to epidemiology, toxicovigilance is based on the in-depth medical assessment of acute or chronic intoxications on an individual basis, which requires detailed information that poison centers can rarely obtain via emergency telephone calls and that epidemiologists cannot collect or process. Validation of this medical information must primarily be based on toxicological expertise to help identify causal links between otherwise unexplained pathological conditions and documented toxic exposures. Thus, toxicovigilance can contribute to hazard identification and risk assessment by providing medically validated data which are often overlooked in the process of risk assessment. So far, very few structured toxicovigilance systems have been set up and hopefully national and international initiatives will bridge this gap in our knowledge of the toxicity of many chemicals and commercial products in human beings.
Tritto, J.; North, M.-O.; Laverdure, A.M.; Surbeck, J.
Temperature and environmental effects, particularly endocrine disrupters and EMF radiations, are actively investigated in human and non-human reproduction experimental models. Sensitivity and specificity of the different cell types of the testes seminiferous tubules in animals and in human are evaluated, showing a specific responsiveness of spermatogonia (SPG) and resting pachytene spermatocytes (SPC). At 32 o C the 24 h short-term cultures of biopsies of normal human testis show an expected low occurrence of apoptotic SPG (1 %) that increases to 3,4 % in peer samples exposed to VDT for the same period, with the appearance of apoptotic SPC (4,6 %). In samples from a thermically-impaired testis of the same subject the apoptotic occurrence of SPG is 2,6 % with 15,4 % for SPC after 24 h cultures. After 24 h exposure to VDT the apoptotic score is 7,6 % for SPG and 18,5 % for SPC in thermically impaired peer samples. With EMF-bioshields the apoptotic score for SPG is 0,8 % in normal 2,2 % for SPG and 13,8 % for SPC in T-impaired peer-samples. NMRS of the cultures fluids show a proportional production of lactate, corresponding to the different degrees of histopathological impairment of the samples. IVOS (Integrated Visual Optic System) analysis of sperm samples from thermically-impaired, not-repaired and repaired testes exposed to VDT shows sensible variations on straightness (STR), linearity (LIN) and lateral head displacement (LHD) parameters. To evaluate the thermic and non-thermic potential bioeffects of VDT on human spermatogenesis the specificity, the sensitivity and the reproducibility of the biological models on one side and the specificity of the methodologies on the other side must be provided. (author)
Pellicer, Eugenio; Teixeira, José C; Moura, Helder P; Catalá, Joaquín
The management of construction projects is a wide ranging and challenging discipline in an increasingly international industry, facing continual challenges and demands for improvements in safety, in quality and cost control, and in the avoidance of contractual disputes. Construction Management grew out of a Leonardo da Vinci project to develop a series of Common Learning Outcomes for European Managers in Construction. Financed by the European Union, the project aimed to develop a library of basic materials for developing construction management skills for use in a pan-European context. Focused exclusively on the management of the construction phase of a building project from the contractor's point of view, Construction Management covers the complete range of topics of which mastery is required by the construction management professional for the effective delivery of new construction projects. With the continued internationalisation of the construction industry, Construction Management will be required rea...
Wen, Xiaobo; Cao, Dianjun; Jones, Ronald W; Li, Jianping; Szu, Shousun; Hoshino, Yasutaka
Two currently licensed live oral rotavirus vaccines (Rotarix® and RotaTeq®) are highly efficacious against severe rotavirus diarrhea. However, the efficacy of such vaccines in selected low-income African and Asian countries is much lower than that in middle or high-income countries. Additionally, these two vaccines have recently been associated with rare case of intussusception in vaccinated infants. We developed a novel recombinant subunit parenteral rotavirus vaccine which may be more effective in low-income countries and also avert the potential problem of intussusception. Truncated recombinant VP8* (ΔVP8*) protein of human rotavirus strain Wa P, DS-1 P or 1076 P expressed in Escherichia coli was highly soluble and was generated in high yield. Guinea pigs hyperimmunized intramuscularly with each of the ΔVP8* proteins (i.e., P, P or P) developed high levels of homotypic as well as variable levels of heterotypic neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, the selected ΔVP8* proteins when administered to mice at a clinically relevant dosage, route and schedule, elicited high levels of serum anti-VP8* IgG and/or neutralizing antibodies. Our data indicated that the ΔVP8* proteins may be a plausible additional candidate as new parenteral rotavirus vaccines. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Tim M. Daw
Full Text Available Although ecosystem services are increasingly recognized as benefits people obtain from nature, we still have a poor understanding of how they actually enhance multidimensional human well-being, and how well-being is affected by ecosystem change. We develop a concept of "ecosystem service elasticity" (ES elasticity that describes the sensitivity of human well-being to changes in ecosystems. ES Elasticity is a result of complex social and ecological dynamics and is context dependent, individually variable, and likely to demonstrate nonlinear dynamics such as thresholds and hysteresis. We present a conceptual framework that unpacks the chain of causality from ecosystem stocks through flows, goods, value, and shares to contribute to the well-being of different people. This framework builds on previous conceptualizations, but places multidimensional well-being of different people as the final element. This ultimately disaggregated approach emphasizes how different people access benefits and how benefits match their needs or aspirations. Applying this framework to case studies of individual coastal ecosystem services in East Africa illustrates a wide range of social and ecological factors that can affect ES elasticity. For example, food web and habitat dynamics affect the sensitivity of different fisheries ecosystem services to ecological change. Meanwhile high cultural significance, or lack of alternatives enhance ES elasticity, while social mechanisms that prevent access can reduce elasticity. Mapping out how chains are interlinked illustrates how different types of value and the well-being of different people are linked to each other and to common ecological stocks. We suggest that examining chains for individual ecosystem services can suggest potential interventions aimed at poverty alleviation and sustainable ecosystems while mapping out of interlinkages between chains can help to identify possible ecosystem service trade-offs and winners and
Gabriel, S.; Koch, T.
Power and heat generation based on biomass gasification is of great importance due to its beneficial environmental effects and good economy. This report concerns a preliminary project on feasibility and problems of implementing a dual-purpose power plant, supplying both power and district heating to several schools, swimming pools and other public facilities at Glamsbjerg (Funen). The plant is to be based on thermal gasification (pyrolysis) of straw and use of the gas in a diesel engine. The diesels operate the power generator, and their waste heat should be utilized in the local district heating network. In order to establish a stable and flexible straw supply to the plant an evaluation of resources in the area has been carried out. Apart from straw-derived fuel the plant is planned to use natural gas for start and maintenance of the process. The prices of the combined plant and of the fuel processing are estimated in the report. (EG)
This lecture discusses concepts of learning and education that have been expressed in terms of the viewpoint of natural science, and proposes a new way of studying learning and education based on functional brain imaging such as fMRI, MEG, and OT (Optical Topography). From a biological viewpoint, they are related to brain development because the brain is an adaptable information processor that is open to environmental stimuli. Stimuli cause new neuronal connections to form, which allow better adaptation to the environment. Thus, education should be designed to guide and inspire the construction of the basic architecture for information processing in the brain by preparing and controlling the input stimuli given to the learners. Education is the process in which learning is guided to provide an optimal environment. This new approach to study of learning and education is called brain science and education.'' (S. Ohno)
Jeanguenat, Amy M; Dror, Itiel E
Over the past decade, there has been a growing openness about the importance of human factors in forensic work. However, most of it focused on cognitive bias, and neglected issues of workplace wellness and stress. Forensic scientists work in a dynamic environment that includes common workplace pressures such as workload volume, tight deadlines, lack of advancement, number of working hours, low salary, technology distractions, and fluctuating priorities. However, in addition, forensic scientists also encounter a number of industry-specific pressures, such as technique criticism, repeated exposure to crime scenes or horrific case details, access to funding, working in an adversarial legal system, and zero tolerance for "errors". Thus, stress is an important human factor to mitigate for overall error management, productivity and decision quality (not to mention the well-being of the examiners themselves). Techniques such as mindfulness can become powerful tools to enhance work and decision quality. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Riley-Powell, Amy R; Lee, Gwenyth O; Naik, Nehal S; Jensen, Kelly E; O'Neal, Christina; Salmón-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Hartinger, Stella M; Bausch, Daniel G; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A
The interoceanic highway (IOH) in Madre de Dios, Peru has driven dramatic change in the Peruvian Amazon basin. We conducted a mixed methods study to examine the impact of these changes on the subjective well-being (SWB) of four communities on the IOH. Themes that emerged qualitatively included changing health threats, environmental degradation, and the impact of increased migration. To achieve a higher level of SWB, respondents emphasized the need for higher incomes, opportunities to learn new skills, and a better education for their children. Potential threats to SWB included marital problems and poorer health. Quantitative analyses suggested that social support and a sense of security impacted reported SWB scores based on life satisfaction, and the impact of income on life satisfaction was mediated by food security. Although long-term residents felt that specific determinants of SWB had both increased (food variety, transport and access to work) and decreased (access to natural resources and hunting), the majority reported that their lives had improved overall. Health had been affected by the IOH in both negative ways (increased dengue and road accidents) and positive ways (improved access to health services). Our results suggest that the rapidly-changing communities near the IOH link well-being to health, income, community, and the environment.
Amy R. Riley-Powell
Full Text Available The interoceanic highway (IOH in Madre de Dios, Peru has driven dramatic change in the Peruvian Amazon basin. We conducted a mixed methods study to examine the impact of these changes on the subjective well-being (SWB of four communities on the IOH. Themes that emerged qualitatively included changing health threats, environmental degradation, and the impact of increased migration. To achieve a higher level of SWB, respondents emphasized the need for higher incomes, opportunities to learn new skills, and a better education for their children. Potential threats to SWB included marital problems and poorer health. Quantitative analyses suggested that social support and a sense of security impacted reported SWB scores based on life satisfaction, and the impact of income on life satisfaction was mediated by food security. Although long-term residents felt that specific determinants of SWB had both increased (food variety, transport and access to work and decreased (access to natural resources and hunting, the majority reported that their lives had improved overall. Health had been affected by the IOH in both negative ways (increased dengue and road accidents and positive ways (improved access to health services. Our results suggest that the rapidly-changing communities near the IOH link well-being to health, income, community, and the environment.
Would a "medicalization" of love be a "good" or "bad" form of medicalization? In discussing this question, Earp, Sandberg, and Savulescu primarily focus on the potential positive and negative consequences of turning love into a medical issue. But it can also be asked whether there is something intrinsically regrettable about medicalizing love. It is argued here that the medicalization of love can be seen as an "evaluative category mistake": it treats a core human value (love) as if it were mainly a means to other ends (viz. physical health and hedonic well-being). It is also argued that Earp et al's closing argument (that a scientific perspective on love actually adds more value to love) can be seen as involving another evaluative category mistake: it treats an object of desire and practical interest (namely, love) as if it mainly were an object of scientific contemplation and theoretical interest. It is concluded that, to relate love to health and well-being in a more satisfying way, we should construe the latter two in broader ways, whereby love is itself a component or element of human flourishing.
Shi, Peng; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Yafeng; Chen, Liding
The construction of large-scale infrastructures such as nature gas/oil pipelines involves extensive disturbance to regional ecosystems. Few studies have documented the soil degradation and heavy metal contamination caused by pipeline construction. In this study, chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) levels were evaluated using Index of Geo-accumulation (Igeo) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (RI) values, and human health risk assessments were used to elucidate the level and spatial variation of heavy metal pollution risks. The results showed that the impact zone of pipeline installation on soil heavy metal contamination was restricted to pipeline right-of-way (RoW), which had higher Igeo of Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb than that of 20 m and 50 m. RI showed a declining tendency in different zones as follows: trench > working zone > piling area > 20 m > 50 m. Pipeline RoW resulted in higher human health risks than that of 20 m and 50 m, and children were more susceptible to non-carcinogenic hazard risk. Cluster analysis showed that Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd had similar sources, drawing attention to the anthropogenic activity. The findings in this study should help better understand the type, degree, scope and sources of heavy metal pollution from pipeline construction to reduce pollutant emissions, and are helpful in providing a scientific basis for future risk management.
Mai, Ronald; Hagedorn, Manolo Gunnar; Gelinsky, Michael; Werner, Carsten; Turhani, Dritan; Späth, Heike; Gedrange, Tomas; Lauer, Günter
The aim of this study was to evaluate the ectopic bone formation using tissue engineered cell-seeded constructs with two different scaffolds and primary human maxillary osteoblasts in nude rats over an implantation period of up to 96 days. Collagen I-coated Poly(3)hydroxybutyrate (PHB) embroidery and hydroxyapatite (HAP) collagen tapes were seeded with primary human maxillary osteoblasts (hOB) and implanted into athymic rnu/run rats. A total of 72 implants were placed into the back muscles of 18 rats. 24, 48 and 96 days after implantation, histological and histomorphometric analyses were made. The osteoblastic character of the cells was confirmed by immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR for osteocalcin. Histological analysis demonstrated that all cell-seeded constructs induced ectopic bone formation after 24, 48 and 96 days of implantation. There was more mineralized tissue in PHB constructs than in HAP-collagen tapes (at day 24; p embroidery or HAP-collagen tapes can induce ectopic bone formation. However, the amount of bone formed decreased with increasing length of implantation.
Full Text Available The construction of large-scale infrastructures such as nature gas/oil pipelines involves extensive disturbance to regional ecosystems. Few studies have documented the soil degradation and heavy metal contamination caused by pipeline construction. In this study, chromium (Cr, cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn levels were evaluated using Index of Geo-accumulation (Igeo and Potential Ecological Risk Index (RI values, and human health risk assessments were used to elucidate the level and spatial variation of heavy metal pollution risks. The results showed that the impact zone of pipeline installation on soil heavy metal contamination was restricted to pipeline right-of-way (RoW, which had higher Igeo of Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb than that of 20 m and 50 m. RI showed a declining tendency in different zones as follows: trench > working zone > piling area > 20 m > 50 m. Pipeline RoW resulted in higher human health risks than that of 20 m and 50 m, and children were more susceptible to non-carcinogenic hazard risk. Cluster analysis showed that Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd had similar sources, drawing attention to the anthropogenic activity. The findings in this study should help better understand the type, degree, scope and sources of heavy metal pollution from pipeline construction to reduce pollutant emissions, and are helpful in providing a scientific basis for future risk management.
Peon A, R.
A regulated direct current feeding source was designed for the Nuclear Energy National Institute Electronics Labortory, with the following characteristics: a) voltage input 105-130V a.c. 50-60 Hz; b) voltage output 0.40 V d.c.; c) output current 0-2 Amp d.c.; d) load regulation 0.001%; e) line regulation 0.001%; f) ripple and noise 200 μ Vpp; g) temperature interval 3-60 0 C; h) stability 0.5%; i) output impedance as voltage source 0.01 ohms; j) transient response 50 μ seg. Besides of operating normally, that is as voltage source or current-source through the front controls, the source can be used and interconnected with one or other compatible sources (autoseries, autoparallel and programmed reference). The source will cost 70,000 pesos approximately. (author)
Central to the attempt to develop a biosemiotics has been the discussion of what it means to be scientific. In Marcello Barbieri's latest argument for leaving Peircean biosemiotics and creating an alternative code-biology the definition of what it means to be scientific plays a major role. For Barbieri "scientific knowledge is obtained by building machine-like models of what we observe in nature". Barbieri interestingly claims that - in combination with the empirical and experimental basis - mechanism is virtually equivalent to the scientific method. The consequences of this statement seem to be that the optimal type of knowledge science can produce about living system is to model them as machines. But the explicit goal of a Peircean semiotically based biosemiotics is (also) to model living systems as cognitive and communicative systems working on the basis of meaning and signification. These two concepts are not part of the mechanistic models of natural science today, not even of cognitive science. Barbieri tries to solve this problem by introducing a new concept of biological meaning that is separate from the Peircean biosemiotics and then add Peirce's semiotics on top. This article argues why this view is inconsistent on the grounds that Peirce's semiotic paradigm only gives meaning in its pragmaticist conception of a fallibilist view of science, which again is intrinsic connected to its non-mechanistic metaphysics of Tychism, Synechism and Agapism. The core of the biosemiotic enterprise is to establish another type of trans- and interdisciplinary wissenschaft than the received view of "science". Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
This study has demonstrated that freedom of thought arises from the creation of human being, and human being must save themselves from the natural, economic, historical and biological conditions in order to maintain their free thoughts.
Warwick, C.; Terras, M.; Huntington, P.; Pappa, N.; Galina, I.
This paper describes the results of research carried out during the LAIRAH (Log analysis of Internet Resources in the Arts and Humanities) project (http://www.ucl.ac.uk/slais/circah/lairah/) which is based at UCL’s School of Library Archive and Information Studies. It was a fifteen month study (reporting in October 2006) to discover what influences the long-term sustainability and use of digital resources in the humanities through the analysis and evaluation of real-time use. At Digital Human...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ganoderma lucidum has been widely used as a herbal medicine for promoting health and longevity in China and other Asian countries. Polysaccharide extracts from Ganoderma lucidum have been reported to exhibit immuno-modulating and anti-tumor activities. In previous studies, F3, the active component of the polysaccharide extract, was found to activate various cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α. This gave rise to our investigation on how F3 stimulates immuno-modulating or anti-tumor effects in human leukemia THP-1 cells. Results Here, we integrated time-course DNA microarray analysis, quantitative PCR assays, and bioinformatics methods to study the F3-induced effects in THP-1 cells. Significantly disturbed pathways induced by F3 were identified with statistical analysis on microarray data. The apoptosis induction through the DR3 and DR4/5 death receptors was found to be one of the most significant pathways and play a key role in THP-1 cells after F3 treatment. Based on time-course gene expression measurements of the identified pathway, we reconstructed a plausible regulatory network of the involved genes using reverse-engineering computational approach. Conclusion Our results showed that F3 may induce death receptor ligands to initiate signaling via receptor oligomerization, recruitment of specialized adaptor proteins and activation of caspase cascades.
Cheng, Kun-Chieh; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Chen, Jenn-Han; Hsu, Jia-Wei; Cheng, Hsu-Chieh; Ou, Chern-Han; Yang, Wen-Bin; Chen, Shui-Tein; Wong, Chi-Huey; Juan, Hsueh-Fen
Ganoderma lucidum has been widely used as a herbal medicine for promoting health and longevity in China and other Asian countries. Polysaccharide extracts from Ganoderma lucidum have been reported to exhibit immuno-modulating and anti-tumor activities. In previous studies, F3, the active component of the polysaccharide extract, was found to activate various cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-alpha. This gave rise to our investigation on how F3 stimulates immuno-modulating or anti-tumor effects in human leukemia THP-1 cells. Here, we integrated time-course DNA microarray analysis, quantitative PCR assays, and bioinformatics methods to study the F3-induced effects in THP-1 cells. Significantly disturbed pathways induced by F3 were identified with statistical analysis on microarray data. The apoptosis induction through the DR3 and DR4/5 death receptors was found to be one of the most significant pathways and play a key role in THP-1 cells after F3 treatment. Based on time-course gene expression measurements of the identified pathway, we reconstructed a plausible regulatory network of the involved genes using reverse-engineering computational approach. Our results showed that F3 may induce death receptor ligands to initiate signaling via receptor oligomerization, recruitment of specialized adaptor proteins and activation of caspase cascades.
Carmen Cantillo Valero
Full Text Available One of the main ways of controlling power is to prohibit access to speech. Indoctrination through silence places women in a lower stratum in the digital narrative of animation film and, therefore, in society. This article reflects —from a qualitative perspective— on various aspects of Disney princesses' children's cinematography: the images of their characters, their representations, their speeches and their silences are analyzed with the intention of denaturing this type of fictions, since education, participation, transgression, perverse reading and the alternative view are the basis for recovering the freedom to create stories and identities. We start from making visible the mechanisms of audiovisual creation and the ways of suggesting to the public that they are essential elements to avoid manipulation and we conclude with the need to provide literacy in the media from schools so that the Digital Humanities can be built with such solid pillars as equality, critical thinking and humanist values, with which to give coherence to our existence.
Law, especially from the international human rights regime, is a direct reference on which minority groups rely when it comes to ‘non-discrimination’. Drawing upon LGBT rights in Taiwan, as well as Hong Kong and Singapore, this article – through an application of K.H. Chen’s (2010) Asia as Method – critically reviews how global LGBT politics interact with local societies influenced by Confucianism. Along a perpetual competition between the universalism and cultural relativism of human rights,...
Huebner, Felix; Jung, Jennifer Jana; Schultmann, Frank
Worldwide, nuclear fission is used to produce electricity. On the one hand, the low emission of CO_2 is often mentioned as an advantage of this technology. On the other hand, warnings about the dangers of nuclear fission are mentioned. Consequently, an overview about the dangers of ionizing radiation to human beings as well as animals and the environment is important. However, the focus will be on possible health effects for humans with regards to nuclear power plants. In nuclear power plants, both natural types of radiation and artificially produced radiation occur. During normal operation, it is possible that small quantities of this ionizing radiation are released to the environment. In case of nuclear disasters or faults during decommissioning and dismantling processes the consequences of thereby emitted quantities can be even more severe. Reference nuclides vary by reactor type, operating stage and respective incident. At the beginning, different types of radiation and their characteristics and effects on the affected organism are explained. Sensitive organs are emphasized in this context. The individual risk is determined by numerous factors and therefore cannot be predicted. Based on scientific studies and medical publications the hazards of ionizing radiation are compiled. Effects of high exposure of ionizing radiation are well-investigated. Scientists are still divided over the connection between several diseases and the exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation. For this reason, the positions of different international organizations are critically contrasted in this study.
Laurberg, Peter Thaysen; Weinreich, Ulla M Øller
A 19-year-old woman with a history of juvenile laryngeal papillomatosis (JLP), treated since childhood with multiple resections, was admitted with symptoms of pneumonia. A chest X-ray and CAT-scan revealed multiple lung cysts and a bronchoalveolar lavage detected human papilloma virus 11. The patient responded well to antibiotics. A body plethysmography showed small lung volumes and low diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide, but normal volume diffusion capacity divided by alveolar volume. Pulmonary cystic disease should be considered when patients with JLP have symptoms of pneumonia.
Parlesak, Alexandr; Billinger, MH; Schäfer, C.
Intravenous infusion of fructose has been shown to enhance reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reoxidation and, thereby, to enhance the metabolism of ethanol. In the current study, the effect of fructose infusion on first-pass metabolism of ethanol was studied in human volunteers....... A significantly higher first-pass metabolism of ethanol was obtained after administration of fructose in comparison with findings for control experiments with an equimolar dose of glucose. Because fructose is metabolized predominantly in the liver and can be presumed to have virtually no effects in the stomach...
Fausto dos Santos Amaral Filho
Full Text Available This paper, fundamentally through the analysis and interpretation of Resolutions that have historically been regulating ethical issues that involve scientific research (CNS Resolutions N. 196/96, N. 466/2012, N. 510/2016, seeks to show the inadequacy of such Resolutions for Human and Social Sciences research. In addition, this text wants to point to the political dispute imposed by the area of biomedical sciences that apparently seems to be little concerned with ethical issues per se and seeks, first and foremost, to maintain its power.
Hjøllund, Niels-Peder Osmundsen; Jørgensen, Tobias Heiberg
In Denmark, in Scandinavia and in all of Europe there is a lot of talk about the skills of the future. But if we want our students to aim for and gain a different learning outcome, we must set new and different standards for the way we teach – and start to walk the talk. The focus of the presenta...... CLD and we must take the next step, where we stop thinking about skills and competencies and start thinking and acting on the fundamental existential implication of the 21st century. What we need now is not more 21st century skills, but 21st century human beings....
Full Text Available Here, we aimed to investigate osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs in three-dimensional (3D bioprinted tissue constructs in vitro and in vivo. A 3D Bio-plotter dispensing system was used for building 3D constructs. Cell viability was determined using live/dead cell staining. After 7 and 14 days of culture, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR was performed to analyze the expression of osteogenesis-related genes (RUNX2, OSX, and OCN. Western blotting for RUNX2 and immunofluorescent staining for OCN and RUNX2 were also performed. At 8 weeks after surgery, osteoids secreted by osteogenically differentiated cells were assessed by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E staining, Masson trichrome staining, and OCN immunohistochemical staining. Results from live/dead cell staining showed that most of the cells remained alive, with a cell viability of 89%, on day 1 after printing. In vitro osteogenic induction of the 3D construct showed that the expression levels of RUNX2, OSX, and OCN were significantly increased on days 7 and 14 after printing in cells cultured in osteogenic medium (OM compared with that in normal proliferation medium (PM. Fluorescence microscopy and western blotting showed that the expression of osteogenesis-related proteins was significantly higher in cells cultured in OM than in cells cultured in PM. In vivo studies demonstrated obvious bone matrix formation in the 3D bioprinted constructs. These results indicated that 3D bioprinted constructs consisting of hASCs had the ability to promote mineralized matrix formation and that hASCs could be used in 3D bioprinted constructs for the repair of large bone tissue defects.
Gascon, Mireia; Zijlema, Wilma; Vert, Cristina; White, Mathew P; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J
A growing number of quantitative studies have investigated the potential benefits of outdoor blue spaces (lakes, rivers, sea, etc) and human health, but there is not yet a systematic review synthesizing this evidence. To systematically review the current quantitative evidence on human health and well-being benefits of outdoor blue spaces. Following PRISMA guidelines for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analysis, observational and experimental quantitative studies focusing on both residential and non-residential outdoor blue space exposure were searched using specific keywords. In total 35 studies were included in the current systematic review, most of them being classified as of "good quality" (N=22). The balance of evidence suggested a positive association between greater exposure to outdoor blue spaces and both benefits to mental health and well-being (N=12 studies) and levels of physical activity (N=13 studies). The evidence of an association between outdoor blue space exposure and general health (N=6 studies), obesity (N=8 studies) and cardiovascular (N=4 studies) and related outcomes was less consistent. Although encouraging, there remains relatively few studies and a large degree of heterogeneity in terms of study design, exposure metrics and outcome measures, making synthesis difficult. Further research is needed using longitudinal research and natural experiments, preferably across a broader range of countries, to better understand the causal associations between blue spaces, health and wellbeing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available We have entered the 21st century that is popularly known as the era of the development of modern science and technology. Philosophy provides naming for contemporary era as postmodern era. But do we suddenly come to this day and age? No! Because humans are homo viator, persona that does pilgrimage in history, space and time. Philosophy has expanded periodically in the long course of history. Since the days of classical antiquity, philosophy comes with a patterned metaphysical paradigm. This paradigm survives very long in the stage history of philosophy as maintained by many philosophers who hold fast to the philosophical-epistemic claim that philosophy should be (das sollen metaphysical. Classical Greek philosopher, Aristotle was a philosopher who claims metaphysics as the initial philosophy. Then, Immanuel Kant, Hegel, Heidegger, Marx even Habermas offer appropriate shades of metaphysical philosophy versus spirit of the age. Modern philosophers offer a new paradigm in the way of doing philosophy. The new spirit of modern philosophers declared as if giving criticism on traditional western metaphysics (since Aristotle that are considered irrelevant. This paper intends to show the argument between traditional metaphysical and modern philosophers who criticize metaphysics. The author will make a philosophical synthesis to obtain enlightenment to the position of human beings in the space of time. Using the method of Hegelian dialectic (thesis-antiteses-synthesis, this topic will be developed and assessed in accordance with the interests of this paper.
Adenitire, John Olusegun
It is argued that the current policy of the British Medical Association (BMA) on conscientious objection is not aligned with recent human rights developments. These grant a right to conscientious objection to doctors in many more circumstances than the very few recognised by the BMA. However, this wide-ranging right may be overridden if the refusal to accommodate the conscientious objection is proportionate. It is shown that it is very likely that it is lawful to refuse to accommodate conscientious objections that would result in discrimination of protected groups. It is still uncertain, however, in what particular circumstances the objection may be lawfully refused, if it poses risks to the health and safety of patients. The BMA's policy has not caught up with these human rights developments and ought to be changed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Lee, Nam-Kyung; Bidlingmaier, Scott; Su, Yang; Liu, Bin
Monoclonal antibodies and antibody-derived therapeutics have emerged as a rapidly growing class of biological drugs for the treatment of cancer, autoimmunity, infection, and neurological diseases. To support the development of human antibodies, various display techniques based on antibody gene repertoires have been constructed over the last two decades. In particular, scFv-antibody phage display has been extensively utilized to select lead antibodies against a variety of target antigens. To construct a scFv phage display that enables efficient antibody discovery, and optimization, it is desirable to develop a system that allows modular assembly of highly diverse variable heavy chain and light chain (Vκ and Vλ) repertoires. Here, we describe modular construction of large non-immune human antibody phage-display libraries built on variable gene cassettes from heavy chain and light chain repertoires (Vκ- and Vλ-light can be made into independent cassettes). We describe utility of such libraries in antibody discovery and optimization through chain shuffling.
Portaluppi, Francesco; Smolensky, Michael H; Touitou, Yvan
This article updates the ethical standards and methods for the conduct of high-quality animal and human biological rhythm research, which should be especially useful for new investigators of the rhythms of life. The editors of Chronobiology International adhere to and endorse the Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines of the Committee On Publication Ethics (COPE), which encourages communication of such updates at regular intervals in the journal. The journal accepts papers representing original work, no part of which was previously submitted for publication elsewhere, except as brief abstracts, as well as in-depth reviews. The majority of research papers published in Chronobiology International entails animal and human investigations. The editors and readers of the journal expect authors of submitted manuscripts to have made an important contribution to the research of biological rhythms and related phenomena using ethical methods/procedures and unbiased, accurate, and honest reporting of findings. Authors of scientific papers are required to declare all potential conflicts of interest. The journal and its editors endorse compliance of investigators to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council, relating to the conduct of ethical research on laboratory and other animals, and the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association, relating to the conduct of ethical research on human beings. The peer review of manuscripts by Chronobiology International thus includes judgment as to whether or not the protocols and methods conform to ethical standards. Authors are expected to show mastery of the basic methods and procedures of biological rhythm research and proper statistical assessment of data, including the appropriate application of time series data analyses, as briefly reviewed in this article. The journal editors strive to consistently achieve
M?ller, Thomas; Amoroso, Matteo; H?gg, Daniel; Brantsing, Camilla; Rotter, Nicole; Apelgren, Peter; Lindahl, Anders; K?lby, Lars; Gatenholm, Paul
Background: The three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology allows creation of 3D constructs in a layer-by-layer fashion utilizing biologically relevant materials such as biopolymers and cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of 3D bioprinting in a clinically relevant setting to evaluate the potential of this technique for in vivo chondrogenesis. Methods: Thirty-six nude mice (Balb-C, female) received a 5- ? 5- ? 1-mm piece of bioprinted cell-laden nanofibrillated cellulose/...
Tan Gao; Wang Huaqiao; Chen Yu; Yuan Qing; Li Gang; Zhu Peiping; Zhang Xiaodan; Zhong Xiufeng; Tang Jintian
Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) with edge enhancement is suitable for the observation of weakly absorbing objects. The potential ability of the DEI was explored for displaying the microanatomy and pathology of human eyeball in this work. The images of surgical specimens from malignant intraocular tumor of hospitalized patients were taken using the hard X-rays from the topography station of Beamline 4W1A at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). The obtained radiographic images were analyzed in correlation with those of pathology. The results show that the anatomic and pathologic details of intraocular tumors in human beings can be observed clearly by DEI for the first time, with good visualization of the microscopic details of eyeball ring such as sclera, choroid and other details of intraocular organelles. And the best resolution of DEI images reaches up to the magnitude of several tens of μm. The results suggest that it is capable of exhibiting clearly the details of intraocular tumor using DEI method. (authors)
Full Text Available The recently endorsed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs agenda unanimously agrees on the need to focus on inclusive development, the importance of eradicating extreme poverty and managing often complex human well-being impacts of rapid urban growth. Sustainable and inclusive urbanisation will accelerate progress towards the SDGs and contribute to eradicating extreme poverty. In tropical delta regions, such as the Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna delta region, urban growth and resulting intra-urban inequalities are accelerated by the impact of environmental and climate change. In this context, the present study uses the 2010 Household Income and Expenditure Survey to analyse the extent of wealth-based inequalities in human well-being in the urban delta region and the determinants of selected welfare measures. The results suggest that the extent of intra-urban inequalities is greatest in educational attainment and access to postnatal healthcare and relatively low in the occurrence of gastric disease. The paper concludes by providing policy recommendations to reduce increasing wealth inequalities in urban areas, thus contributing to sustainable development of the region.
В. О. Сліпенчук
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of the process of legal education of the individual, the impact on the formation of legal consciousness. Analyzed understanding of the educational process and its possibilities in the concept of philosophy of education S.I. Hessen. Defined the main directions of education legal human in Ukrainian society.
Huls, GA; Heijnen, IAFM; Cuomo, ME; Koningsberger, JC; Boel, E; de Vries, ARV; Loyson, SAJ; Helfrich, W; Henegouwen, GPV; van Meijer, M; de Kruif, J; Logtenberg, T
A single-chain Fv antibody fragment specific for the tumor-associated Ep-CAM molecule was isolated from a semisynthetic phage display library and converted into an intact, fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody (huMab), The purified huMab had an affinity of 5 nM and effectively mediated tumor cell
DeLong, John P; Burger, Oskar; Hamilton, Marcus J
Influential demographic projections suggest that the global human population will stabilize at about 9-10 billion people by mid-century. These projections rest on two fundamental assumptions. The first is that the energy needed to fuel development and the associated decline in fertility will keep pace with energy demand far into the future. The second is that the demographic transition is irreversible such that once countries start down the path to lower fertility they cannot reverse to higher fertility. Both of these assumptions are problematic and may have an effect on population projections. Here we examine these assumptions explicitly. Specifically, given the theoretical and empirical relation between energy-use and population growth rates, we ask how the availability of energy is likely to affect population growth through 2050. Using a cross-country data set, we show that human population growth rates are negatively related to per-capita energy consumption, with zero growth occurring at ∼13 kW, suggesting that the global human population will stop growing only if individuals have access to this amount of power. Further, we find that current projected future energy supply rates are far below the supply needed to fuel a global demographic transition to zero growth, suggesting that the predicted leveling-off of the global population by mid-century is unlikely to occur, in the absence of a transition to an alternative energy source. Direct consideration of the energetic constraints underlying the demographic transition results in a qualitatively different population projection than produced when the energetic constraints are ignored. We suggest that energetic constraints be incorporated into future population projections.
John P DeLong
Full Text Available Influential demographic projections suggest that the global human population will stabilize at about 9-10 billion people by mid-century. These projections rest on two fundamental assumptions. The first is that the energy needed to fuel development and the associated decline in fertility will keep pace with energy demand far into the future. The second is that the demographic transition is irreversible such that once countries start down the path to lower fertility they cannot reverse to higher fertility. Both of these assumptions are problematic and may have an effect on population projections. Here we examine these assumptions explicitly. Specifically, given the theoretical and empirical relation between energy-use and population growth rates, we ask how the availability of energy is likely to affect population growth through 2050. Using a cross-country data set, we show that human population growth rates are negatively related to per-capita energy consumption, with zero growth occurring at ∼13 kW, suggesting that the global human population will stop growing only if individuals have access to this amount of power. Further, we find that current projected future energy supply rates are far below the supply needed to fuel a global demographic transition to zero growth, suggesting that the predicted leveling-off of the global population by mid-century is unlikely to occur, in the absence of a transition to an alternative energy source. Direct consideration of the energetic constraints underlying the demographic transition results in a qualitatively different population projection than produced when the energetic constraints are ignored. We suggest that energetic constraints be incorporated into future population projections.
Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M
Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker for stress-induced changes in the body that reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Though several experiments have been conducted to determine the validity of this salivary component as a reliable stress marker in human subjects, the effect of stress induced changes on sAA level in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip. Differences in sAA level based on sex of different age groups under stress have also been studied. A total of 112 subjects consisting of both the male and female subjects, divided into two groups on basis of age were viewed a video clip of corneal transplant surgery as stressor. Activity of sAA from saliva samples of the stressed subjects were measured and compared with the activity of the samples collected from the subjects before viewing the clip. The age ranges of subjects were 18-25 and 40-60 years. The sAA level increased significantly in both the groups after viewing the stressful video. The increase was more pronounced in the younger subjects. The level of sAA was comparatively more in males than females in the respective groups. No significant change in sAA activity was observed after viewing the soothed video clip. Significant increase of sAA level in response to psychological stress suggests that it might act as a reliable sympathetic activity biochemical marker in different stages of human beings.
Fan, Yong; Li, Rong; Huang, Jin; Yu, Yang; Qiao, Jie
Human embryonic stem cells have shown tremendous potential in regenerative medicine, and the recent progress in haploid embryonic stem cells provides new insights for future applications of embryonic stem cells. Disruption of normal fertilized embryos remains controversial; thus, the development of a new source for human embryonic stem cells is important for their usefulness. Here, we investigated the feasibility of haploid and diploid embryo reconstruction and embryonic stem cell derivation using microsurgically repaired tripronuclear human zygotes. Diploid and haploid zygotes were successfully reconstructed, but a large proportion of them still had a tripolar spindle assembly. The reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage, although the loss of chromosomes was observed in these zygotes. Finally, triploid and diploid human embryonic stem cells were derived from tripronuclear and reconstructed zygotes (from which only one pronucleus was removed), but haploid human embryonic stem cells were not successfully derived from the reconstructed zygotes when two pronuclei were removed. Both triploid and diploid human embryonic stem cells showed the general characteristics of human embryonic stem cells. These results indicate that the lower embryo quality resulting from abnormal spindle assembly contributed to the failure of the haploid embryonic stem cell derivation. However, the successful derivation of diploid embryonic stem cells demonstrated that microsurgical tripronuclear zygotes are an alternative source of human embryonic stem cells. In the future, improving spindle assembly will facilitate the application of triploid zygotes to the field of haploid embryonic stem cells. PMID:23255130
Nerlich, B.; Hellsten, I.R.
Four years after the completion of the Human Genome Project, the US National Institutes for Health launched the Human Microbiome Project on 19 December 2007. Using metaphor analysis, this article investigates reporting in English-language newspapers on advances in microbiomics from 2003 onwards,
Kim, Keun-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Han, Byung Woo; Myung, Pyung-Keun; Hong, Hyo Jeong
We previously constructed a humanized antibody, HuS10, by grafting the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of a parental murine monoclonal antibody into the homologous human antibody sequences. This process is termed CDR grafting. Some residues that were thought to affect the CDR loops and stabilize the structure of the variable regions were retained in the framework region. HuS10 exhibited in vivo virus-neutralizing activity, but its murine content had the potential to elicit immune responses in patients. In this study, to minimize the immunogenic potential of HuS10, we replaced 17 mouse residues in HuS10 with the comparable human residues using specificity-determining residue (SDR)-grafting and de-immunization methods. The resultant humanized antibody, HzS-III, had the same affinity and epitope specificity as HuS10 and had reduced immunogenic potential, as assessed by T-cell epitope analysis. Thus, SDR grafting in combination with de-immunization may be a useful strategy for minimizing the immunogenicity of humanized antibodies. In addition, HzS-III may be a good candidate for immunoprophylaxis of HBV infection. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
de Greeff, Joachim; Belpaeme, Tony
Social learning is a powerful method for cultural propagation of knowledge and skills relying on a complex interplay of learning strategies, social ecology and the human propensity for both learning and tutoring. Social learning has the potential to be an equally potent learning strategy for artificial systems and robots in specific. However, given the complexity and unstructured nature of social learning, implementing social machine learning proves to be a challenging problem. We study one particular aspect of social machine learning: that of offering social cues during the learning interaction. Specifically, we study whether people are sensitive to social cues offered by a learning robot, in a similar way to children’s social bids for tutoring. We use a child-like social robot and a task in which the robot has to learn the meaning of words. For this a simple turn-based interaction is used, based on language games. Two conditions are tested: one in which the robot uses social means to invite a human teacher to provide information based on what the robot requires to fill gaps in its knowledge (i.e. expression of a learning preference); the other in which the robot does not provide social cues to communicate a learning preference. We observe that conveying a learning preference through the use of social cues results in better and faster learning by the robot. People also seem to form a “mental model” of the robot, tailoring the tutoring to the robot’s performance as opposed to using simply random teaching. In addition, the social learning shows a clear gender effect with female participants being responsive to the robot’s bids, while male teachers appear to be less receptive. This work shows how additional social cues in social machine learning can result in people offering better quality learning input to artificial systems, resulting in improved learning performance. PMID:26422143
de Greeff, Joachim; Belpaeme, Tony
Social learning is a powerful method for cultural propagation of knowledge and skills relying on a complex interplay of learning strategies, social ecology and the human propensity for both learning and tutoring. Social learning has the potential to be an equally potent learning strategy for artificial systems and robots in specific. However, given the complexity and unstructured nature of social learning, implementing social machine learning proves to be a challenging problem. We study one particular aspect of social machine learning: that of offering social cues during the learning interaction. Specifically, we study whether people are sensitive to social cues offered by a learning robot, in a similar way to children's social bids for tutoring. We use a child-like social robot and a task in which the robot has to learn the meaning of words. For this a simple turn-based interaction is used, based on language games. Two conditions are tested: one in which the robot uses social means to invite a human teacher to provide information based on what the robot requires to fill gaps in its knowledge (i.e. expression of a learning preference); the other in which the robot does not provide social cues to communicate a learning preference. We observe that conveying a learning preference through the use of social cues results in better and faster learning by the robot. People also seem to form a "mental model" of the robot, tailoring the tutoring to the robot's performance as opposed to using simply random teaching. In addition, the social learning shows a clear gender effect with female participants being responsive to the robot's bids, while male teachers appear to be less receptive. This work shows how additional social cues in social machine learning can result in people offering better quality learning input to artificial systems, resulting in improved learning performance.
Joachim de Greeff
Full Text Available Social learning is a powerful method for cultural propagation of knowledge and skills relying on a complex interplay of learning strategies, social ecology and the human propensity for both learning and tutoring. Social learning has the potential to be an equally potent learning strategy for artificial systems and robots in specific. However, given the complexity and unstructured nature of social learning, implementing social machine learning proves to be a challenging problem. We study one particular aspect of social machine learning: that of offering social cues during the learning interaction. Specifically, we study whether people are sensitive to social cues offered by a learning robot, in a similar way to children's social bids for tutoring. We use a child-like social robot and a task in which the robot has to learn the meaning of words. For this a simple turn-based interaction is used, based on language games. Two conditions are tested: one in which the robot uses social means to invite a human teacher to provide information based on what the robot requires to fill gaps in its knowledge (i.e. expression of a learning preference; the other in which the robot does not provide social cues to communicate a learning preference. We observe that conveying a learning preference through the use of social cues results in better and faster learning by the robot. People also seem to form a "mental model" of the robot, tailoring the tutoring to the robot's performance as opposed to using simply random teaching. In addition, the social learning shows a clear gender effect with female participants being responsive to the robot's bids, while male teachers appear to be less receptive. This work shows how additional social cues in social machine learning can result in people offering better quality learning input to artificial systems, resulting in improved learning performance.
Jendritzky, Gerd; Tinz, Birger
The close relationship between human health, performance, well-being and the thermal environment is obvious. Nevertheless, most studies of climate and climate change impacts show amazing shortcomings in the assessment of the environment. Populations living in different climates have different susceptibilities, due to socio-economic reasons, and different customary behavioural adaptations. The global distribution of risks of hazardous thermal exposure has not been analysed before. To produce maps of the baseline and future bioclimate that allows a direct comparison of the differences in the vulnerability of populations to thermal stress across the world. The required climatological data fields are obtained from climate simulations with the global General Circulation Model ECHAM4 in T106-resolution. For the thermo-physiologically relevant assessment of these climate data a complete heat budget model of the human being, the 'Perceived Temperature' procedure has been applied which already comprises adaptation by clothing to a certain degree. Short-term physiological acclimatisation is considered via Health Related Assessment of the Thermal Environment. The global maps 1971-1980 (control run, assumed as baseline climate) show a pattern of thermal stress intensities as frequencies of heat. The heat load for people living in warm-humid climates is the highest. Climate change will lead to clear differences in health-related thermal stress between baseline climate and the future bioclimate 2041-2050 based on the 'business-as-usual' greenhouse gas scenario IS92a. The majority of the world's population will be faced with more frequent and more intense heat strain in spite of an assumed level of acclimatisation. Further adaptation measures are crucial in order to reduce the vulnerability of the populations. This bioclimatology analysis provides a tool for various questions in climate and climate change impact research. Considerations of regional or local scale require climate
Beatriz de Lima Fernandes Gottardo
Full Text Available In this article, we address the question basic education as a right of every human being. To do this, we will use empirical data as well as literature review in the national and international levels. First, the article is talking about an ideal model of quality basic education for all, making general contours of the world stage, to specifically enter the state of education in Brazil. We discuss the text a study of the various existing regulatory provisions in Brazil that deal with the need to ensure quality basic education in an inclusive way that meets the different needs of students in different regions of our country, and thus try to find solutions to the problems we face when trying to bring quality education to all. Finally, we will address issues related to guaranteeing the right to education at the international level, pointing out the legal provisions that guarantee this right and approach the principle of human dignity as a means for the realization of this right.
Dietze, Pia; Knowles, Eric D
We theorize that people's social class affects their appraisals of others' motivational relevance-the degree to which others are seen as potentially rewarding, threatening, or otherwise worth attending to. Supporting this account, three studies indicate that social classes differ in the amount of attention their members direct toward other human beings. In Study 1, wearable technology was used to film the visual fields of pedestrians on city streets; higher-class participants looked less at other people than did lower-class participants. In Studies 2a and 2b, participants' eye movements were tracked while they viewed street scenes; higher class was associated with reduced attention to people in the images. In Study 3, a change-detection procedure assessed the degree to which human faces spontaneously attract visual attention; faces proved less effective at drawing the attention of high-class than low-class participants, which implies that class affects spontaneous relevance appraisals. The measurement and conceptualization of social class are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.
Canellas, C.O.; Arguelles, M.G.; Mitta, A.E.A.
It was studied the influence of chemical structures and molecular weight in the distribution of several iminodiacetic acid N-derivatives and to determine the potential use of these radiopharmaceuticals in humans. The study was performed with the following derivatives: N-(2,6 dimetyphenylcarbamoylmethy) iminodiacetic acid, N(2.6 dietylphenyl-carbamoylmethy) iminodiacetic acid, N-(2,6 diisopropylphenylcarbamoylmethy) iminodiacetic acid and the previously unknown N-derivative N-(2,6 diisopropyl, phenylcarbamoylethyl) iminodiacetic aced. These were sinthesized by a modified procedure by MITTA et al. and controlled by NMR, mass spectrometry, elemental composition and also toxicity pirogens, lethal dose and the chelate's radiochemical dose were determined. Liver gallbladder, intestinal and renal kinetics were studied in mice. In order to evaluate the metabolic pathways of the radiopharmaceuticals, the content of gallbladder and the urine were reinjected. Plasma kinetics and the plasmatic half life was determined by extracorporeal circulation in Wistar rats. For the use in human beings, test were carried out in different branches of nuclear medicine, in normal volunteers and carriers of different pathologic disorders. The patients were divided into four groups: acute and chronic cholecystitis, cirrhosis and jaundice. It was obtained the liver/heart activity ratio and estimated the appearance times of the intrahepatic ducts, gallbladder, duodenum and renal persistence. (M.E.L.) [es
Oliveira Sampa, M.H. de.
The development in the country of autonomous nuclear technology made it necessary to construct radiation detectors to substitute the imported ones among others the boron lined neutron detectors. For this reason was developed the process of boron electrophoresis deposition on aluminium substrate of large area for use in the construction of these neutron detectors. After the definition and optimization of the parameters involved in the process, depositions of 10 B were made on cylinders to be used after wards as electrodes in gamma compensated and non-compensated ionization chambers and in proportional detectors. Prototype of ionization were designed, builted and mounted in the department of Application for Engineering and Industry (TE) of Nuclear Energy Research Institute (IPEN) belonging to the National Atomic Energy Comission (CNEN). Submited to caracterization tests at IPEN's IEA-RL reactor, they satisfied fully the technical especifications of the project. (author) [pt
Dal Poz Mario R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Human resources are an essential element of a health system's inputs, and yet there is a huge disparity among countries in how human resource policies and strategies are developed and implemented. The analysis of the impacts of services on population health and well-being attracts more interest than analysis of the situation of the workforce in this area. This article presents an international comparison of the health workforce in terms of skill mix, sociodemographics and other labour force characteristics, in order to establish an evidence base for monitoring and evaluation of human resources for health. Methods Profiles of the health workforce are drawn for 18 countries with developed market and transitional economies, using data from labour force and income surveys compiled by the Luxembourg Income Study between 1989 and 1997. Further descriptive analyses of the health workforce are conducted for selected countries for which more detailed occupational information was available. Results Considerable cross-national variations were observed in terms of the share of the health workforce in the total labour market, with little discernible pattern by geographical region or type of economy. Increases in the share were found among most countries for which time-trend data were available. Large gender imbalances were often seen in terms of occupational distribution and earnings. In some cases, health professionals, especially physicians, were overrepresented among the foreign-born compared to the total labour force. Conclusions While differences across countries in the profile of the health workforce can be linked to the history and role of the health sector, at the same time some common patterns emerge, notably a growing trend of health occupations in the labour market. The evidence also suggests that gender inequity in the workforce remains an important shortcoming of many health systems. Certain unexpected patterns of
Luck, Gary W; Davidson, Penny; Boxall, Dianne; Smallbone, Lisa
By 2050, 70% of the world's population will live in urban areas. In many cases urbanization reduces the richness and abundance of native species. Living in highly modified environments with fewer opportunities to interact directly with a diversity of native species may adversely affect residents' personal well-being and emotional connection to nature. We assessed the personal well-being, neighborhood well-being (a measure of a person's satisfaction with their neighborhood), and level of connection to nature of over 1000 residents in 36 residential neighborhoods in southeastern Australia. We modeled these response variables as a function of natural features of each neighborhood (e.g., species richness and abundance of birds, density of plants, and amount of vegetation cover) and demographic characteristics of surveyed residents. Vegetation cover had the strongest positive relations with personal well-being, whereas residents' level of connection to nature was weakly related to variation in species richness and abundance of birds and density of plants. Demographic characteristics such as age and level of activity explained the greatest proportion of variance in well-being and connection to nature. Nevertheless, when controlling for variation in demographic characteristics (examples were provided above), neighborhood well-being was positively related to a range of natural features, including species richness and abundance of birds, and vegetation cover. Demographic characteristics and how well-being was quantified strongly influenced our results, and we suggest demography and metrics of well-being must be considered when attempting to determine relations between the urban environment and human well-being. © 2011 Society for Conservation Biology.
Rodríguez-Laureano, Lucelenie; Işık, Mehtap; Chodera, John; Seeliger, Markus; Jeans, Chris; Gradia, Scott; Hanson, Sonya; Parton, Daniel; Albanese, Steven; Levinson, Nicholas; Behr, Julie
Kinases play a critical role in many cellular signaling pathways and are dysregulated in a number of diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurodegeneration. Since the FDA approval of imatinib in 2001, therapeutics targeting kinases now account for roughly 50% of current cancer drug discovery efforts. The ability to explore human kinase biochemistry, biophysics, and structural biology in the laboratory is essential to making rapid progress in understanding kinase regulation, designing selec...
Resources and Performance. Action Group 19. Representation of Human Behavior. Lanchester , F. W. (1916). Aircraft in warfare . The dawn of the fourth...Operations and non-kinetic warfare . The second keynote presentation, by Mr. Mike Greenley, CAE Inc. provided an industry perspective, noting the need for...concentrated on tactical-conventional warfare and the emergence of world-wide “irregular warfare ” and “small wars” drive the present and future need
Jerome E. Tanner
Full Text Available Acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection in immunosuppressed transplant patients can give rise to a malignant B-cell proliferation known as post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD. The EBV major virion surface glycoprotein (gp350 is a principal target of naturally occurring neutralizing antibodies and is viewed as the best target to prevent acute infection and PTLD in at-risk transplant recipients. We have constructed a humanized (hu version of the murine anti-gp350 neutralizing monoclonal antibody 72a1. The hu72a1 IgG1 antibody displayed no significant anti-mouse activity, recognized both gp350 and its splice variant gp220 as well as a gp350 peptide that was shown to constitute the principal EBV gp350 neutralizing epitope when tested in immunoassays. Hu72a1 antibody blocked in vitro EBV infection of B cells at a level which equaled that of a mouse-human chimeric 72a1 antibody construct. This work provides a further structural and immunological understanding of the 72a1 antibody interaction with EBV gp350, and constitutes a launch point for future anti-EBV therapeutic antibodies designed to block EBV infection and prevent PTLD while eliminating the deleterious antigenic murine features of the original 72a1 antibody.
Woodhouse, Emily; Homewood, Katherine M; Beauchamp, Emilie; Clements, Tom; McCabe, J Terrence; Wilkie, David; Milner-Gulland, E J
Measures of socio-economic impacts of conservation interventions have largely been restricted to externally defined indicators focused on income, which do not reflect people's priorities. Using a holistic, locally grounded conceptualization of human well-being instead provides a way to understand the multi-faceted impacts of conservation on aspects of people's lives that they value. Conservationists are engaging with well-being for both pragmatic and ethical reasons, yet current guidance on how to operationalize the concept is limited. We present nine guiding principles based around a well-being framework incorporating material, relational and subjective components, and focused on gaining knowledge needed for decision-making. The principles relate to four key components of an impact evaluation: (i) defining well-being indicators, giving primacy to the perceptions of those most impacted by interventions through qualitative research, and considering subjective well-being, which can affect engagement with conservation; (ii) attributing impacts to interventions through quasi-experimental designs, or alternative methods such as theory-based, case study and participatory approaches, depending on the setting and evidence required; (iii) understanding the processes of change including evidence of causal linkages, and consideration of trajectories of change and institutional processes; and (iv) data collection with methods selected and applied with sensitivity to research context, consideration of heterogeneity of impacts along relevant societal divisions, and conducted by evaluators with local expertise and independence from the intervention. © 2015 The Authors.
Milner-Gulland, EJ; Mcgregor, JA; Agarwala, M; Atkinson, G; Bevan, P; Clements, T; Daw, T; Homewood, K; Kumpel, N; Lewis, J; Mourato, S; Palmer Fry, B; Redshaw, M; Rowcliffe, JM; Suon, S; Wallace, G; Washington, H; Wilkie, D
Conservationists are increasingly engaging with the concept of human well-being to improve the design and evaluation of their interventions. Since the convening of the influential Sarkozy Commission in 2009, development researchers have been refining conceptualizations and frameworks to understand and measure human well-being and are starting to converge on a common understanding of how best to do this. In conservation, the term human well-being is in widespread use, but there is a need for guidance on operationalizing it to measure the impacts of conservation interventions on people. We present a framework for understanding human well-being, which could be particularly useful in conservation. The framework includes 3 conditions; meeting needs, pursuing goals, and experiencing a satisfactory quality of life. We outline some of the complexities involved in evaluating the well-being effects of conservation interventions, with the understanding that well-being varies between people and over time and with the priorities of the evaluator. Key challenges for research into the well-being impacts of conservation interventions include the need to build up a collection of case studies so as to draw out generalizable lessons; harness the potential of modern technology to support well-being research; and contextualize evaluations of conservation impacts on well-being spatially and temporally within the wider landscape of social change. Pathways through the smog of confusion around the term well-being exist, and existing frameworks such as the Well-being in Developing Countries approach can help conservationists negotiate the challenges of operationalizing the concept. Conservationists have the opportunity to benefit from the recent flurry of research in the development field so as to carry out more nuanced and locally relevant evaluations of the effects of their interventions on human well-being. Consideración del Impacto de la Conservación sobre el Bienestar Humano Resumen
Lo, Yan Lam; Leung, Yan Wing; Chow, Joseph
In 2009, Liberal Studies, which can be used as a platform for human rights education, was newly introduced as a compulsory subject for the senior secondary students in Hong Kong. As teacher's attitudes impact students' learning largely, a survey was conducted in 2010 to measure Liberal Studies teachers' attitudes towards human rights. This article…
Hurle, Belen; Citrin, Toby; Jenkins, Jean F; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Lamb, Neil; Roseman, Jo Ellen; Bonham, Vence L
Genomic discoveries will increasingly advance the science of medicine. Limited genomic literacy may adversely impact the public's understanding and use of the power of genetics and genomics in health care and public health. In November 2011, a meeting was held by the National Human Genome Research Institute to examine the challenge of achieving genomic literacy for the general public, from kindergarten to grade 12 to adult education. The role of the media in disseminating scientific messages and in perpetuating or reducing misconceptions was also discussed. Workshop participants agreed that genomic literacy will be achieved only through active engagement between genomics experts and the varied constituencies that comprise the public. This report summarizes the background, content, and outcomes from this meeting, including recommendations for a research agenda to inform decisions about how to advance genomic literacy in our society.
Raymond, Christopher; Gulsrud, Natalie Marie; Rodela, Romina
On the 25thJanuary, 25 researchers, social entrepreneurs and policy makers attended a MOVIUM and SLU Urban Futures funded workshop on “Rethinking urban nature to promote human well-being and livelihoods”. The objectives of the workshop wereto identify and discuss integrated digital, social...... of urbannature in Malmö. Each group was asked to present their presentation to the wider group, what inspired them the most from the workshop activity and how their understanding of integrated solutions in urban nature changed over the day.This report presents a summary of each group’screations and findings...... and nature solutions for the use, management and governance of urban nature in the City of Malmö;and to provide a platform for knowledge sharing and networking between researchers and practitioners.Multiple enlightening presentations on how to plan, design and manage urban nature were provided by the cities...
Evans, R G
The ideal of patient centred medicine remains only partially realised. Within modern Western society, the highly individualistic culture and religious decline linked with medicine's reluctance to relinquish an outmoded form of scientific rationalism can act as reductive influences, stifling conceptual development. Some examples of the recent literature on communication skills in medicine are analysed to discern the underlying philosophy. A rationalist stance invites an examination of the possible nature of rationality. Another example accepts the need to accommodate the emotional and the unconscious. Issues of human suffering with an inherent spiritual dimension seem to remain excluded. The need to move beyond a duality of reason and emotion to embrace the existential and spiritual is suggested as a theoretical prerequisite for developing a more inclusive concept of patient centred medicine, which only then may be realised. Some brief examples are considered of the sort of notions and types of discourse that might effectively inform "teaching" of communication skills.
Cichon, Morgan J; Riedl, Ken M; Schwartz, Steven J
Juices from the traditional red tomato and a unique tangerine tomato variety are being investigated as health promoting foods in human clinical trials. However, it is unknown how the tangerine and red tomato juices differ in biologically relevant phytochemicals beyond carotenoids. Here liquid-chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry metabolomics was used to evaluate broadly the similarities and differences in carotenoids and other phytochemicals between red and tangerine tomato juices intended for clinical interventions. This untargeted approach was successful in the rapid detection and extensive characterization of phytochemicals belonging to various compound classes. The tomato juices were found to differ significantly in a number of phytochemicals, including carotenoids, chlorophylls, neutral lipids, and cinnamic acid derivatives. The largest differences were in carotenoids, including lycopene, phytoene, phytofluene, neurosporene, and ζ-carotene. Smaller, but significant, differences were observed in polar phytochemicals, such as chlorogenic acid, hydroxyferulic acid, phloretin-di-C-glycoside, and isopropylmalic acid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Soundararajan, C; Nagarajan, K; Arul Prakash, M
Thirteen human beings were infested with ticks at Sandynallah and Gudalur of the Nilgiris district and Mottur Suruvakkam of Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu from January 2016 to December 2016. The collected ticks were identified as Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides , Otobius megnini and Hyalomma isaaci. The tick infestation was observed more on the persons working with animals (sheep and goats) than those working in tea estate. The person infested with R. haemaphysaloides revealed erythematous papule (2 mm size) and inflammatory lesion up to 16 days whereas, the people infested with H. isaaci showed continuous itching and irritation for > 6 months and wound formation (0.5 cm) at the biting site. The people infested with O. megnini showed irritation, vomiting sensation and fever.
Gelashvili, D B
The author considers the application of natural toxins as arrow poison by Homo sapiens from ancient time till today for hunting and ethnic wars on the example of natives of Asia, Africa, South America and Oceania. Geographic isolation was important determining the spectrum of natural toxin sources and the methods of their application. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of arrow poisons effects are considered in biogeographical context: aconitin and strychnin in Asia, diamphotoxin in Africa, indole alcaloids of plants and steroid alcaloids of amphibian in Central and South America, palytoxin in Oceania islands. High efficiency and selective effect of natural toxins allow to use them as molecular markers in current studies of functional membrane architecture and cellular structures. Great differences in pace of civilization development leads to the co-existence at the beginning of the XXI century ethnic groups that use natural toxins as arrow poison and human beings that use the same toxins in fundamental and applied investigations within international scientific society.
Rasolofoson, Ranaivo Andriarilala; Ferraro, Paul J.; Ruta, Giovanni
Community Forest Management (CFM) devolves forest management to local communities to achieve conservation and human well-being goals. Yet, the evidence for CFM's impacts is mixed and difficult to interpret because of inadequate attention to rival explanations for the observed empirical patterns....... In a national-scale analysis in Madagascar that carefully considers these rival explanations, we estimate CFM impacts on household living standards, as measured by per capita consumption expenditures. The estimated impact is positive, but small and not statistically different from zero. However, we can...... statistically reject substantial negative impacts (which others have suggested may exist). The estimated impacts vary conditional on household education and proximity to forests: they are more positive and statistically significant for households closer to forest and with more education. To help improve CFM...
Full Text Available β-cell replacement by allogeneic islet transplantation is a promising approach for patients with type 1 diabetes, but the shortage of organ donors requires new sources of β cells. Islet regeneration in vivo and generation of β-cells ex vivo followed by transplantation represent attractive therapeutic alternatives to restore the β-cell mass. In this paper, we discuss different postnatal cell types that have been envisaged as potential sources for future β-cell replacement therapy. The ultimate goal being translation to the clinic, a particular attention is given to the discrepancies between findings from studies performed in rodents (both ex vivo on primary cells and in vivo on animal models, when compared with clinical data and studies performed on human cells.
Ecosystems provide services to humans that support our well-being. Well-being is not only our health but also our quality of life. We rely upon the services provided by nature to help maintain good health and a high quality of life, including clean water, clean air, food and recr...
Middendorf, Jill M; Griffin, Darvin J; Shortkroff, Sonya; Dugopolski, Caroline; Kennedy, Stephen; Siemiatkoski, Joseph; Cohen, Itai; Bonassar, Lawrence J
Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (ACI) is a widely recognized method for the repair of focal cartilage defects. Despite the accepted use, problems with this technique still exist, including graft hypertrophy, damage to surrounding tissue by sutures, uneven cell distribution, and delamination. Modified ACI techniques overcome these challenges by seeding autologous chondrocytes onto a 3D scaffold and securing the graft into the defect. Many studies on these tissue engineered grafts have identified the compressive properties, but few have examined frictional and shear properties as suggested by FDA guidance. This study is the first to perform three mechanical tests (compressive, frictional, and shear) on human tissue engineered cartilage. The objective was to understand the complex mechanical behavior, function, and changes that occur with time in these constructs grown in vitro using compression, friction, and shear tests. Safranin-O histology and a DMMB assay both revealed increased sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content in the scaffolds with increased maturity. Similarly, immunohistochemistry revealed increased lubricin localization on the construct surface. Confined compression and friction tests both revealed improved properties with increased construct maturity. Compressive properties correlated with the sGAG content, while improved friction coefficients were attributed to increased lubricin localization on the construct surfaces. In contrast, shear properties did not improve with increased culture time. This study suggests the various mechanical and biological properties of tissue engineered cartilage improve at different rates, indicating thorough mechanical evaluation of tissue engineered cartilage is critical to understanding the performance of repaired cartilage. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2298-2306, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kilpatrick, A Marm; Salkeld, Daniel J; Titcomb, Georgia; Hahn, Micah B
The Earth's ecosystems have been altered by anthropogenic processes, including land use, harvesting populations, species introductions and climate change. These anthropogenic processes greatly alter plant and animal communities, thereby changing transmission of the zoonotic pathogens they carry. Biodiversity conservation may be a potential win-win strategy for maintaining ecosystem health and protecting public health, yet the causal evidence to support this strategy is limited. Evaluating conservation as a viable public health intervention requires answering four questions: (i) Is there a general and causal relationship between biodiversity and pathogen transmission, and if so, which direction is it in? (ii) Does increased pathogen diversity with increased host biodiversity result in an increase in total disease burden? (iii) Do the net benefits of biodiversity conservation to human well-being outweigh the benefits that biodiversity-degrading activities, such as agriculture and resource utilization, provide? (iv) Are biodiversity conservation interventions cost-effective when compared to other options employed in standard public health approaches? Here, we summarize current knowledge on biodiversity-zoonotic disease relationships and outline a research plan to address the gaps in our understanding for each of these four questions. Developing practical and self-sustaining biodiversity conservation interventions will require significant investment in disease ecology research to determine when and where they will be effective.This article is part of the themed issue 'Conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease: scientific evidence and policy implications'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Singh, Ajai R; Singh, Shakuntala A
The problems of the haves differ substantially from those of the have-nots. Individuals in developing societies have to fight mainly against infectious and communicable diseases, while in the developed world the battles are mainly against lifestyle diseases. Yet, at a very fundamental level, the problems are the same-the fight is against distress, disability, and premature death; against human exploitation and for human development and self-actualisation; against the callousness to critical concerns in regimes and scientific power centres.While there has been great progress in the treatment of individual diseases, human pathology continues to increase. Sicknesses are not decreasing in number, they are only changing in type.The primary diseases of poverty like TB, malaria, and HIV/AIDS-and the often co-morbid and ubiquitous malnutrition-take their toll on helpless populations in developing countries. Poverty is not just income deprivation but capability deprivation and optimism deprivation as well.While life expectancy may have increased in the haves, and infant and maternal mortality reduced, these gains have not necessarily ensured that well-being results. There are ever-multiplying numbers of individuals whose well-being is compromised due to lifestyle diseases. These diseases are the result of faulty lifestyles and the consequent crippling stress. But it serves no one's purpose to understand them as such. So, the prescription pad continues to prevail over lifestyle-change counselling or research.The struggle to achieve well-being and positive health, to ensure longevity, to combat lifestyle stress and professional burnout, and to reduce psychosomatic ailments continues unabated, with hardly an end in sight.WE THUS REALISE THAT MORBIDITY, DISABILITY, AND DEATH ASSAIL ALL THREE SOCIETIES: the ones with infectious diseases, the ones with diseases of poverty, and the ones with lifestyle diseases. If it is bacteria in their various forms that are the culprit in
Steklov, A. F.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Dashkiev, G. N.; Zhilyaev, B. E.
For the planetary protection of the planet Earth, we propose to create, deploy and constantly upgrade the "Single Churyumov Network" as a multi-level system of continuous monitoring of near and distant volumes around the Earth. This is necessary to identify and explore potentially dangerous objects that intruding in our atmosphere. To solve the problem of global planetary protection, it is necessary to involve enormous forces and means. According to the definition, terraformation is a change in the cosmic body that will bring the atmosphere, temperature and environmental conditions into a state that is necessary for the life of terrestrial animals, plants and people. Therefore, before sending people, for example, to Mars for a permanent settlement, it is necessary first of all there to create a huge complex of preparatory work with the aim, if not completely transform this planet, at least, to organize there the simplest housing for future settlers. At Venus, you can create settlements in "flying" cities with flotilla peculiar "airships" in the upper atmosphere. Terraformation of Mercury can be carried out at latitudes from 70 deg. to the poles, making it suitable localities for human habitation. They should be located below the surface of the planet at a depth of 3-30 m in a zone of comfortable and constant temperatures of about +20° Ð¡. And start terraforming - preferably from the Moon. Such residential complexes should be designed taking into account the need to deploy systems of early detection and counteract the global danger to the Earth by asteroid and comet invasions. That is, the areas of Venus, Mars, Mercury and the Earth - should be equipped with special orbital stations. At these stations, nuclear missile systems for early warning and combating global threats from invasion of asteroids and comets - should be deployed.
Rutherford, Bret R.; Hellerstein, David J.
Objective: To determine the degree to which the medical humanities have been integrated into the fields of internal medicine and psychiatry, the authors assessed the presence of medical humanities articles in selected psychiatry and internal medicine journals from 1950 to 2000. Methods: The journals searched were the three highest-ranking…
Yang Yanming; Jia Xiaojing; Qu Yaqin; Li Yanbo
Objective: To construct secreting type human TRAIL (shTRAIL) gene vector pcDNA3.1-HRE/Egr1-shTRAIL mediated by hypoxia/radiation double sensitive promoter, and observe the effect of hypoxia and radiation on shTRAIL. Methods: HRE upper and lower strands were gotten by chemical synthesis, double strands HRE was gotten by PCR; pMD19T-Egr1 was digested by Sac I and Hind III, then Egr1 was obtained, pshuttle-shTRAIL was digested by Kpn I and BamH I, then shTRAIL was obtained; HRE/Egr1 double sensitive promoter mediated shTRAIL expression vector pcDNA3.1-HRE/Egr1-shTRAIL was constructed by gene recombination technique, it was identified correctly by enzyme digestion, PCR and sequencing. A549 cells were divided into normal, hypoxia (0.1%), irradiation (6 Gy) and hypoxia + irradiation groups. Results: After enzyme digestion by BamH I and Sma I, the fragments which lengths were 1284 bp and 4 998 bp, 2 292 bp and 3 990 bp were obtained; the vector was amplified by PCR with Egr1 and shTRAIL primer, the products which lengthens were 469 bp and 820 bp were obtained; pcDNA3.1-HRE/Egr1-shTRAIL was sequenced, the result was same to designed, this demonstrated that the construction was right. The vectors were transfected into A549 cells of adenocarcinoma of lung, the expression levels of shTRAIL mRNA and protein were increased after treated with hypoxia and radiation, it had statistically significant differences compared with normal group (P<0.05), and when they were combinated, the effect was more obvious. Conclusion: Secreting type human TRAIL gene vector pcDNA3.1-HRE/Egr1-shTRAIL mediated by hypoxia/radiation double sensitive promoter is constructed successfully, and hypoxia and radiation could increase the expression of TRAIL, and they have synergetic effect. (authors)
Naeem, Shahid; Chazdon, Robin; Duffy, J Emmett; Prager, Case; Worm, Boris
As society strives to transition towards more sustainable development pathways, it is important to properly conceptualize the link between biodiversity (i.e. genes, traits, species and other dimensions) and human well-being (HWB; i.e. health, wealth, security and other dimensions). Here, we explore how published conceptual frameworks consider the extent to which the biodiversity-HWB links are being integrated into public discourse and scientific research and the implications of our findings for sustainable development. We find that our understanding has gradually evolved from seeing the value of biodiversity as an external commodity that may influence HWB to biodiversity as fundamental to HWB. Analysis of the literature trends indicates increasing engagement with the terms biodiversity, HWB and sustainable development in the public, science and policy spheres, but largely as independent rather than linked terms. We suggest that a consensus framework for sustainable development should include biodiversity explicitly as a suite of internal variables that both influence and are influenced by HWB. Doing so will enhance clarity and help shape coherent research and policy priorities. We further suggest that the absence of this link in development can inadvertently lead to a ratcheting down of biodiversity by otherwise well-meaning policies. Such biotic impoverishment could lock HWB at minimum levels or lead to its decline and halt or reverse progress in achieving sustainable development. © 2016 The Authors.
Chazdon, Robin; Duffy, J. Emmett; Prager, Case; Worm, Boris
As society strives to transition towards more sustainable development pathways, it is important to properly conceptualize the link between biodiversity (i.e. genes, traits, species and other dimensions) and human well-being (HWB; i.e. health, wealth, security and other dimensions). Here, we explore how published conceptual frameworks consider the extent to which the biodiversity–HWB links are being integrated into public discourse and scientific research and the implications of our findings for sustainable development. We find that our understanding has gradually evolved from seeing the value of biodiversity as an external commodity that may influence HWB to biodiversity as fundamental to HWB. Analysis of the literature trends indicates increasing engagement with the terms biodiversity, HWB and sustainable development in the public, science and policy spheres, but largely as independent rather than linked terms. We suggest that a consensus framework for sustainable development should include biodiversity explicitly as a suite of internal variables that both influence and are influenced by HWB. Doing so will enhance clarity and help shape coherent research and policy priorities. We further suggest that the absence of this link in development can inadvertently lead to a ratcheting down of biodiversity by otherwise well-meaning policies. Such biotic impoverishment could lock HWB at minimum levels or lead to its decline and halt or reverse progress in achieving sustainable development. PMID:27928039
Christ, A.; Samaras, T.; Neufeld, E.; Klingenboeck, A.; Kuster, N.
This study analyzes the exposure of the human torso to electromagnetic fields caused by wireless body-mounted or hand-held devices. Because of the frequency and distance ranges from 30-5800 MHz and 10 to 200 mm, respectively, both near-field and far-field effects are considered. A generic body model and simulations of anatomical models are used to evaluate the worst case tissue composition with respect to the absorption of electromagnetic energy. Both standing wave effects and enhanced coupling of reactive near-field components can lead to a specific absorption rate (SAR) increase in comparison to homogeneous tissue. In addition, the exposure and temperature increase of different inner organs is assessed. With respect to compliance testing, the observed SAR enhancement may require the introduction of a multiplication factor for the spatial peak SAR measured in the liquid-filled phantom in order to obtain a conservative exposure assessment. The observed tissue heating at the body surface under adiabatic conditions can be significant, whereas the temperature increase in the inner organs turned out to be negligible for the cases investigated. (authors)
Iriki, Atsushi; Taoka, Miki
Hominin evolution has involved a continuous process of addition of new kinds of cognitive capacity, including those relating to manufacture and use of tools and to the establishment of linguistic faculties. The dramatic expansion of the brain that accompanied additions of new functional areas would have supported such continuous evolution. Extended brain functions would have driven rapid and drastic changes in the hominin ecological niche, which in turn demanded further brain resources to adapt to it. In this way, humans have constructed a novel niche in each of the ecological, cognitive and neural domains, whose interactions accelerated their individual evolution through a process of triadic niche construction. Human higher cognitive activity can therefore be viewed holistically as one component in a terrestrial ecosystem. The brain's functional characteristics seem to play a key role in this triadic interaction. We advance a speculative argument about the origins of its neurobiological mechanisms, as an extension (with wider scope) of the evolutionary principles of adaptive function in the animal nervous system. The brain mechanisms that subserve tool use may bridge the gap between gesture and language--the site of such integration seems to be the parietal and extending opercular cortices.
Garcia, Alexis; Adedoyin, Gloria; Heitman, Joseph; Lee, Soo Chan
Mucor circinelloides is a human pathogen, biofuel producer, and model system that belongs to a basal fungal lineage; however, the genetics of this fungus are limited. In contrast to ascomycetes and basidiomycetes, basal fungal lineages have been understudied. This may be caused by a lack of attention given to these fungi, as well as limited tools for genetic analysis. Nonetheless, the importance of these fungi as pathogens and model systems has increased. M. circinelloides is one of a few genetically tractable organisms in the basal fungi, but it is far from a robust genetic system when compared to model fungi in the subkingdom Dikarya. One problem is the organism is resistant to drugs utilized to select for dominant markers in other fungal transformation systems. Thus, we developed a blaster recyclable marker system by using the pyrG gene (encoding an orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase, ortholog of URA3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ). A 237-bp fragment downstream of the pyrG gene was tandemly incorporated into the upstream region of the gene, resulting in construction of a pyrG-dpl237 marker. To test the functionality of the pyrG-dpl237 marker, we disrupted the carRP gene that is involved in carotenoid synthesis in pyrG - mutant background. The resulting carRP :: pyrG-dpl237 mutants exhibit a white colony phenotype due to lack of carotene, whereas wild type displays yellowish colonies. The pyrG marker was then successfully excised, generating carRP-dpl237 on 5-FOA medium. The mutants became auxotrophic and required uridine for growth. We then disrupted the calcineurin B regulatory subunit cnbR gene in the carRP :: dpl237 strain, generating mutants with the alleles carRP :: dpl237 and cnbR :: pyrG These results demonstrate that the recyclable marker system is fully functional, and therefore the pyrG-dpl237 marker can be used for sequential gene deletions in M. circinelloides . Copyright © 2017 Garcia et al.
Full Text Available Mucor circinelloides is a human pathogen, biofuel producer, and model system that belongs to a basal fungal lineage; however, the genetics of this fungus are limited. In contrast to ascomycetes and basidiomycetes, basal fungal lineages have been understudied. This may be caused by a lack of attention given to these fungi, as well as limited tools for genetic analysis. Nonetheless, the importance of these fungi as pathogens and model systems has increased. M. circinelloides is one of a few genetically tractable organisms in the basal fungi, but it is far from a robust genetic system when compared to model fungi in the subkingdom Dikarya. One problem is the organism is resistant to drugs utilized to select for dominant markers in other fungal transformation systems. Thus, we developed a blaster recyclable marker system by using the pyrG gene (encoding an orotidine-5′-phosphate decarboxylase, ortholog of URA3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A 237-bp fragment downstream of the pyrG gene was tandemly incorporated into the upstream region of the gene, resulting in construction of a pyrG-dpl237 marker. To test the functionality of the pyrG-dpl237 marker, we disrupted the carRP gene that is involved in carotenoid synthesis in pyrG− mutant background. The resulting carRP::pyrG-dpl237 mutants exhibit a white colony phenotype due to lack of carotene, whereas wild type displays yellowish colonies. The pyrG marker was then successfully excised, generating carRP-dpl237 on 5-FOA medium. The mutants became auxotrophic and required uridine for growth. We then disrupted the calcineurin B regulatory subunit cnbR gene in the carRP::dpl237 strain, generating mutants with the alleles carRP::dpl237 and cnbR::pyrG. These results demonstrate that the recyclable marker system is fully functional, and therefore the pyrG-dpl237 marker can be used for sequential gene deletions in M. circinelloides.
To be efficient, any action undertaken in view of mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions requires that the reduction of CO 2 emissions not be confused with energy savings. Indeed, there is strict correlation between the two only if the energy savings achieved lead to fossil fuel savings. If a drastic reduction of greenhouse gas emissions were not mandatory, the conversion of our energy production and use would be less pressing, the known fossil fuel reserves being sufficient to supply humanity for at least one and a half centuries. Keeping these consideration in mind, under the control of its Scientific Council and with the help of partner organizations, STC has elaborated a set of proposals to reduce the economic activity's carbon content without affecting in any fundamental way the life style of the populations concerned while leaving room for economic growth in developing countries. In this sense, the ''Negatep'' scenario put forward by STC is fundamentally different from the ''Negawatt'' type scenarios. The options we recommend are ranked according to their economic efficiency. The index that is conventionally used to compare conceivable solutions is known as the ''cost of carbon avoided'' for a given action. It consists in estimating the additional cost of the action considered in relation to the amount of carbon whose release to the atmosphere is avoided thanks to the action. The index is measured in Euros per metric ton of carbon avoided. Summary of the actions and recommendations put forward by ''Save the Climate'' for energy production and energy efficiency are argued in further detail in this document. (A.L.B.)
Arbilly, Michal; Lotem, Arnon
Anthropomorphism, the attribution of human cognitive processes and emotional states to animals, is commonly viewed as non-scientific and potentially misleading. This is mainly because apparent similarity to humans can usually be explained by alternative, simpler mechanisms in animals, and because there is no explanatory power in analogies to human phenomena when these phenomena are not well understood. Yet, because it is also difficult to preclude real similarity and continuity in the evolution of humans' and animals' cognitive abilities, it may not be productive to completely ignore our understanding of human behaviour when thinking about animals. Here we propose that in applying a functional approach to the evolution of cognitive mechanisms, human cognition may be used to broaden our theoretical thinking and to generate testable hypotheses. Our goal is not to 'elevate' animals, but rather to find the minimal set of mechanistic principles that may explain 'advanced' cognitive abilities in humans, and consider under what conditions these mechanisms were likely to enhance fitness and to evolve in animals. We illustrate this approach, from relatively simple emotional states, to more advanced mechanisms, involved in planning and decision-making, episodic memory, metacognition, theory of mind, and consciousness. © 2017 The Author(s).
Hernandez, D.A.; Larsen, K.; Fertel, D.
The primary purpose of this project is to refocus the current national health care debate. It is the first attempt to provide scientists, health care providers, health care policy makers, politicians, health care payers and public health advocates with a method to improve health care and cut costs through decision-making strategies based primarily on medical standards and secondarily on fiscal considerations. The method for decision-making described in this paper proves more cost-effective and medically sound than current practices. Illness Specific Diagnostic (ISD) tables are introduced as a method to reduce inappropriate use of ionizing radiation in medicine. The use of ISD tables destroys the myth of a single medical standard of care and focuses on the diagnostician as the individual most capable of diagnosing disease(s) in human beings. Additionally, ionizing radiation has been used routinely under the guise that the resulting benefits outweigh the risks involved in a procedure. This dubious tradition is questioned in this document. Attention is drawn to the inappropriate amount of radiation patients receive when ionizing diagnostic tests are performed with marginal or no diagnostic benefit. The results of a pilot study are presented that explicate the reduction of needless radiation to patients and associated reduction of costs that becomes possible in the presence of appropriate scientific medical standards. Ultimately, quality medicine is indeed the most cost-effective medicine possible. The current practice by which the United States Congress issues laws aimed at dictating quality medicine is both desperate and dangerous. Politicians and legislators would be wise to focus their efforts on methodologies that establish standards of care in a scientific manner that does not interfere with medical practice. ISD technology is precisely such a scientific method. It establishes the standard of medical care at the facility from which the ISD tables are generated
Adjaye, James; Daniels, Rob; Monk, Marilyn
Purpose:The construction and application of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based cDNA libraries from unfertilized human oocytes and single preimplantation-stage embryos are described. The purpose of these studies is to provide a readily available resource for the study of gene expression during human preimplantation development.
Antoaneta-Laura (MIREA SAVA
Full Text Available This article presents the evolution of the concept of human dignity in conventions, treaties and other international documents, starting from the 13th century, when we meet different references to the human rights in the English Charter from 1215 –Magna Charta, and continuing with the American Declaration of Independence from 1776, the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen from 1789 etc. In present times, the most important and relevant documents are The Charter of the United Nations, signed at San Francisco, California, on the 26th of June 1945, The European Convention of Human Rights, signed at Rome, on the 5th of November 1950, the United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, adopted in 1963, The Charter of Paris, called “For a new Europe” – 1989, The Inter-American Convention on Human Rights, signed at San José, in Costa Rica, on the 22nd of November 1969, The African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, adopted during the Conference for Organisation of African Unity (OAU, on the 27th of June 1981, The Asian Human Rights Charter, elaborated by the Asian Human Rights Commission and proclaimed on the 17th of May 1998 etc.
Palanza, Paola; Parmigiani, Stefano
Based on our teaching experience in medicine and psychology degree programs, we examine different aspects of human evolution that can help students to understand how the human body and mind work and why they are vulnerable to certain diseases. Three main issues are discussed: 1) the necessity to consider not only the mechanisms, i.e. the "proximate causations", implicated in biological processes but also why these mechanisms have evolved, i.e. the "ultimate causations" or "adaptive significance", to understand the functioning and malfunctioning of human body and mind; 2) examples of how human vulnerabilities to disease are caused by phylogenetic constraints, evolutionary tradeoffs reflecting the combined actions of natural and sexual selection, and/or mismatch between past and present environment (i.e., evolution of the eye, teeth and diets, erect posture and their consequences); 3) human pair-bonding and parent-offspring relationships as the result of socio-sexual selection and evolutionary compromises between cooperation and conflict. These psychobiological mechanisms are interwoven with our brain developmental plasticity and the effects of culture in shaping our behavior and mind, and allow a better understanding of functional (normal) and dysfunctional (pathological) behaviors. Thus, because the study of human evolution offers a powerful framework for clinical practice and research, the curriculum studiorum of medical and psychology students should include evolutionary biology and human phylogeny.
Full Text Available Barley grass powder is the best functional food that provides nutrition and eliminates toxins from cells in human beings; however, its functional ingredients have played an important role as health benefit. In order to better cognize the preventive and therapeutic role of barley grass for chronic diseases, we carried out the systematic strategies for functional ingredients of barley grass, based on the comprehensive databases, especially the PubMed, Baidu, ISI Web of Science, and CNKI, between 2008 and 2017. Barley grass is rich in functional ingredients, such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, flavonoids, saponarin, lutonarin, superoxide dismutase (SOD, K, Ca, Se, tryptophan, chlorophyll, vitamins (A, B1, C, and E, dietary fiber, polysaccharide, alkaloid, metallothioneins, and polyphenols. Barley grass promotes sleep; has antidiabetic effect; regulates blood pressure; enhances immunity; protects liver; has anti-acne/detoxifying and antidepressant effects; improves gastrointestinal function; has anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and antigout effects; reduces hyperuricemia; prevents hypoxia, cardiovascular diseases, fatigue, and constipation; alleviates atopic dermatitis; is a calcium supplement; improves cognition; and so on. These results support that barley grass may be one of the best functional foods for preventive chronic diseases and the best raw material of modern diet structure in promoting the development of large health industry and further reveal that GABA, flavonoids, SOD, K-Ca, vitamins, and tryptophan mechanism of barley grass have preventive and therapeutic role for chronic diseases. This paper can be used as a scientific evidence for developing functional foods and novel drugs for barley grass for preventive chronic diseases.
Boudreau, J Donald; Fuks, Abraham
The personhood of the physician is a crucial element in accomplishing the goals of medicine. We review claims made on behalf of the humanities in guiding professional identity formation. We explore the dichotomy that has evolved, since the Renaissance, between the humanities and the natural sciences. The result of this evolution is an historic misconstrual, preoccupying educators and diverting them from the moral development of physicians. We propose a curricular framework based on the recovery of Aristotelian concepts that bridge identity and activity. The humanities and the natural sciences, jointly and severally, can fulfill developmental, characterological and instrumental purposes.
Heyden, E L; Wimalawansa, S J
Pregnancy places exceptional demands on vitamin D and calcium availability; thus, their deficiencies during pregnancy threaten the woman and her fetus. Globally, vitamin D and other micronutrient deficiencies are common during pregnancy, especially in developing countries where pregnant women have less access to nutritional supplements. Vitamin D deficiency has been reported to be as high as 40% among pregnant women. As a pregnancy progresses, the requirements for vitamin D increase and thus, can worsen preexisting hypovitaminosis D. Consequently, hypovitaminosis D is increasingly associated with a higher incidence of fetal miscarriage, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, bacterial vaginosis, and impaired fetal and childhood growth and development. This review explores the recent advances in the understanding of vitamin D and the pivotal role it plays in human reproduction, with an emphasis on pregnancy and its outcomes. Given the seriousness of the issue, there is a pressing need for clinicians to become aware of the risks associated with not identifying and correcting vitamin D deficiency. Identifying and correcting vitamin D deficiency, including safe exposure to sunlight, is particularly relevant for those who seek assistance with fertility issues or prenatal counseling, and those in the beginning of their pregnancy. The data point to a significant protective effects of vitamin D during pregnancy when the 25(OH)D serum level exceeds 30 ng/mL before pregnancy and during the first trimester and, sufficient levels are maintained throughout the pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Patterson, James C. II
The capacity to look inside the living human brain and image its function has been present since the early 1980s. There are some clinicians who use functional brain imaging for diagnostic or prognostic purposes, but much of the work done still relates to research evaluation of brain function. There is a striking dichotomy in the use of functional brain imaging between these two fields. Clinical evaluation of a brain PET or SPECT scan is subjective; that is, a Nuclear Medicine physician examines the brain image, and states whether the brain image looks normal or abnormal. On the other hand, modern research evaluation of functional brain images is almost always objective. Brain images are processed and analyzed with advanced software tools, and a mathematical result that relates to regional changes in brain activity is provided. The potential for this research methodology to provide a more accurate and reliable answer to clinical questions about brain function and pathology are immense, but there are still obstacles to overcome. Foremost in this regard is the use of a standardized normal control database for comparison of patient scan data. The tools and methods used in objective analysis of functional imaging data, as well as potential clinical applications will be the focus of my presentation
Gillan, D. J.; Holden, K.; Adam, S.; Rudisill, M.; Magee, L.
The paper challenges the notion that any Fitts' Law model can be applied generally to human-computer interaction, and proposes instead that applying Fitts' Law requires knowledge of the users' sequence of movements, direction of movement, and typical movement amplitudes as well as target sizes. Two experiments examined a text selection task with sequences of controlled movements (point-click and point-drag). For the point-click sequence, a Fitts' Law model that used the diagonal across the text object in the direction of pointing (rather than the horizontal extent of the text object) as the target size provided the best fit for the pointing time data, whereas for the point-drag sequence, a Fitts' Law model that used the vertical size of the text object as the target size gave the best fit. Dragging times were fitted well by Fitts' Law models that used either the vertical or horizontal size of the terminal character in the text object. Additional results of note were that pointing in the point-click sequence was consistently faster than in the point-drag sequence, and that pointing in either sequence was consistently faster than dragging. The discussion centres around the need to define task characteristics before applying Fitts' Law to an interface design or analysis, analyses of pointing and of dragging, and implications for interface design.
N. A. Matvieieva
Full Text Available The aim of our work was to obtain Althaea officinalis L. «hairy» root culture with human interferon α2b gene (ifn-α2b, to measure fructans content and antiviral activity of extracts from the transgenic roots. Transformation of leaf and root explants was carried out by means of Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation. Antiviral activity was measured by the reduction in cytopathic effect of vesicular stomatitis virus (Indiana strain in bovine kidney cells line MDBK. Transformation frequency was 100% for leaf and root explants. RT-PCR confirmed ifn- α2b gene transcription. The clones of transgenic roots differed in mass increasing from 0, 036 ± 0,008 up to 0,371 ± 0,019 g in 30 days cultivation and in fructan synthesis from 67,2± 4,47 up to 154,6 ± 6,62 mg/g roots dry weight. Extracts from «hairy»roots culture were characterized by high antiviral activity against vesicular stomatitis virus — up to 26 000 IU/ g of roots fresh weight. In some cases the genetic transformation shown to lead increasing the growth rate and increasing the level of fructan synthesis in transgenic A. officinalis roots. Extracts from cultivated in vitro marshmallow transgenic roots were characterized by high level of antiviral activity against vesicular stomatitis virus. Thus, there were obtained transgenic A. officinalis roots, characterized by high growth rate, significant accumulation of fructans and high antiviral activity.
Hu, Yongfei; Gao, George F; Zhu, Baoli
The antibiotic resistance is natural in bacteria and predates the human use of antibiotics. Numerous antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have been discovered to confer resistance to a wide range of antibiotics. The ARGs in natural environments are highly integrated and tightly regulated in specific bacterial metabolic networks. However, the antibiotic selection pressure conferred by the use of antibiotics in both human medicine and agriculture practice leads to a significant increase of antibiotic resistance and a steady accumulation of ARGs in bacteria. In this review, we summarized, with an emphasis on an ecological point of view, the important research progress regarding the collective ARGs (antibiotic resistome) in bacterial communities of natural environments, human and animals, i.e., in the one health settings.We propose that the resistance gene flow in nature is "from the natural environments" and "to the natural environments"; human and animals, as intermediate recipients and disseminators, contribute greatly to such a resistance gene "circulation."
Frischholz, Hans; Pearson, C
A 500 kW cw klystron operating at 400 MHz was developed and constructed jointly by CERN and SLAC for use as a high-power source at CERN for testing LHC/RF components such as circulators, RF absorbers and superconducting cavities with their input couplers. The design is a modification of the 353 MHz SLAC PEP-I klystron. More than 80% of the original PEP-I tube parts could thus be incorporated in the LHC test klystron which resulted in lower engineering costs as well as reduced development and construction time. The physical length between cathode plane and upper pole plate was kept unchanged so that a PEP-I tube focusing solenoid, available at CERN, could be re-used. With the aid of the klystron simulation codes JPNDISK and CONDOR, the design of the LHC tube was accomplished, which resulted in a tube with noticeably higher efficiency than its predecessor, the PEP-I klystron. The integrated cavities were redesigned using SUPERFISH and the output coupling circuit, which also required redesigning, was done with t...
Danner, Simon M.; Hofstoetter, Ursula S.; Ladenbauer, Josef; Rattay, Frank; Minassian, Karen
Stimulation of different spinal cord segments in humans is a widely developed clinical practice for modification of pain, altered sensation and movement. The human lumbar cord has become a target for modification of motor control by epidural and more recently by transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation. Posterior columns of the lumbar spinal cord represent a vertical system of axons and when activated can add other inputs to the motor control of the spinal cord than stimulated posterior roots. ...
Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.
The problems of the haves differ substantially from those of the have-nots. Individuals in developing societies have to fight mainly against infectious and communicable diseases, while in the developed world the battles are mainly against lifestyle diseases. Yet, at a very fundamental level, the problems are the same-the fight is against distress, disability, and premature death; against human exploitation and for human development and self-actualisation; against the callousness to critical c...
Antoaneta-Laura (MIREA) SAVA
This article presents the evolution of the concept of human dignity in conventions, treaties and other international documents, starting from the 13th century, when we meet different references to the human rights in the English Charter from 1215 –Magna Charta, and continuing with the American Declaration of Independence from 1776, the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen from 1789 etc. In present times, the most important and relevant documents are The Charter of the ...
Ferreira, Aloisio Cordilha
The increasing release of fission products from nuclear weapon tests in the environment has been rising the levels of radioactive contamination of food chains caused by the fall-out of these elements. In cases of accidental exposure, human subjects could be submitted to an internal contamination, which is likely to include several radionuclides. Special concern must be given, however, to the radioactive isotopes of strontium, cesium and iodine, along with the highly radio toxic transuranium elements like cerium. It was found that sodium alginate, a polyelectrolyte commonly used in food industry and obtained from brown algae (Phaeophyceae), provides the selective suppression of absorption of radioactive strontium presented in the ingested food material with no disturbance of the electrolyte balance nor undesirable side effects, even for a long term treatment. Moreover, these patterns were maintained when alginate was associated to other decontamination additives, specially those related to the other radioisotopes mentioned above, as, in this case, losses in the effectiveness, mutual interference or adverse health effects were not detected. These conclusions ground the discussion about the present trend in the usual choice of EDTA/DTPA complex therapy rather than of alginate therapy for medical assistance of radiocontaminated patients, although they corroborate the efficiency and usefulness of alginate salts in situations related to extensive intakes of strontium radioisotopes alone or associated to other fission products. The purpose of the present work is to make a general review of the alginate therapy as well as to discuss its present and future therapeutic importance from the scientific and institutional points of view. (author)
Escalera-Zamudio, Marina; Greenwood, Alex D
Retroviruses, as part of their replication cycle, become integrated into the genome of their host. When this occurs in the germline the integrated proviruses can become an endogenous retrovirus (ERV) which may eventually become fixed in the population. ERVs are present in the genomes of all vertebrates including humans, where more than 50 groups of human endogenous retrovirus (HERVs) have been described within the last 30 years. Despite state-of-the-art genomic tools available for retroviral discovery and the large number of retroviral sequences described to date, there are still gaps in understanding retroviral macroevolutionary patterns and host-retrovirus interactions and a lack of a coherent systematic classification particularly for HERVs. Here, we discuss the current knowledge on ERV (and HERV) classification, distribution and origins focusing on the role of cross-species transmission in retroviral diversity. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Leonhardt, Bethany L; Hamm, Jay A; Fogley, Rebecca L; Buck, Kelly D; Roe, David; Lysaker, Paul H
Psychiatry and related mental health fields, in particular psychotherapy, have a long history of close ties with the humanities. That bond has weakened, however, over the last few decades as medicalized views of mental health and treatment have emerged. In this paper, we explore the potential of the reintroduction of the humanities, specifically novels and related literary genre, into the supervision of student clinicians working with clients who have psychosis. We believe that incorporation of novels and related literary genre into supervision can lead to unique and deepened understanding of the experience of psychosis, and can create an opportunity for a working therapeutic alliance. The potential mechanisms that create these unique opportunities to understand psychopathology are explored, and considerations for the implications for treatment, training, and future research are presented.
Liu, Fang; Li, Li; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Qi
This research was to construct the lentiviral expression vector for anti- p185(erbB2) mouse/human chimeric antibody and to determine the expression of the chimeric antibody gene in 293T cells transfected with this vector. The genes (vL and vH) coding light and heavy chain of variable regions of anti-p185(erbB2) mAb and the constant regions of human IgG1 (kappa and gamma1) were cloned with PCR method. The target genes were assembled by three-primers PCR method to obtain the chimeric light chain (L) and the chimeric heavy chain (H). Both chains inserted into the down stream and upper stream of IRES gene of the plasmid pVAX1/IRES respectively. We digested the plasmid pVAX1/ H-IRES-L with endoenzyme and subcloned H-IRES-L into the lentiviral vector pWPI. The enzyme digestion and sequence analysis showed that the lentiviral expression vector pWPI/H-IRES-L was constructed correctly. Then, it was transfected into 293T cells and after 48h, GFP protein expression in 293T cells were detected by fluorescent microscope and the chimeric antibody expression was detected by RT-PCR and direct ELISA. The results showed that after 293T cells were transfected with recombination plasmid, both light and heavy chains of the chimeric antibody genes could express together. The chimeric antibody expressed could bind to p185(erbB2) specifically. This research may lay a sound foundation for further study of anti-p185(erbB2) engineered antibody.
This thesis analyses the concept of the 'human being' (ningen) in the philosophies of the two modern Japanese intellectuals Miki Kiyoshi and Watsuji Tetsuro. I demonstrate that their philosophical systems, based on the idea that the creation of a new Japanese human being should have coincided with
... Comment Request: Request for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line To Be Approved for Use in NIH Funded Research... Embryonic Stem Cell Line to be Approved for Use in NIH Funded Research. OMB No. 0925-0601-- Expiration Date... and Use of Information Collection: The form is used by applicants to request that human embryonic stem...
Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The Psychological General Well Being Index (PGWBI is a widely used scale across many conditions. Over time issues have been raised about the dimensional structure of the scale, and it has not yet been subjected to scrutiny by modern Psychometric approaches. The current study thus evaluates the PGWBI with Rasch- and factor analysis. Methods Consecutive patients recruited to a tertiary stress clinic were administered the PGBWI as part of routine clinical assessment at baseline and three months. Data from the scale was subjected to Factor Analyses and to Rasch analysis. In both cases adjustments for local independence violations were allowed. Results 179 patients were recruited, with a mean age of 43 years, and of whom 70% were female. An initial Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA with baseline data failed, but the modification indices also indicated considerable levels of local dependency requiring errors to be correlated. An EFA highlighted positive and negative effect domains. Rasch analysis confirmed that fit of data to the model was influenced by local dependency, and that in practice if the items from the six underlying domains were treated as six ‘super’ items, the scale was shown to measure one dominant construct of well being. An interval scale transformation was therefore possible. A significant improvement in well-being was observed over a three month period. Conclusion The PGWBI scale has satisfactory internal construct validity when tested with modern psychometric techniques, using data obtained from patients treated for stress-related exhaustion. The instrument has qualities that make it suitable also for monitoring well-being during interventions for stress-related exhaustion/clinical burnout.
Novaes, Maria Rita Garbi; Guilhem, Dirce; Barragan, Elena; Mennin, Stewart
The Brazilian national curriculum guidelines for undergraduate medicine courses inspired and influenced the groundwork for knowledge acquisition, skills development and the perception of ethical values in the context of professional conduct. The evaluation of ethics education in research involving human beings in undergraduate medicine curriculum in Brazil, both in courses with active learning processes and in those with traditional lecture learning methodologies. Curricula and teaching projects of 175 Brazilian medical schools were analyzed using a retrospective historical and descriptive exploratory cohort study. Thirty one medical schools were excluded from the study because of incomplete information or a refusal to participate. Active research for information from institutional sites and documents was guided by terms based on 69 DeCS/MeSH descriptors. Curriculum information was correlated with educational models of learning such as active learning methodologies, tutorial discussions with integrated curriculum into core modules, and traditional lecture learning methodologies for large classes organized by disciplines and reviewed by occurrence frequency of ethical themes and average hourly load per semester. Ninety-five medical schools used traditional learning methodologies. The ten most frequent ethical themes were: 1--ethics in research (26); 2--ethical procedures and advanced technology (46); 3--ethic-professional conduct (413). Over 80% of schools using active learning methodologies had between 50 and 100 hours of scheduled curriculum time devoted to ethical themes whereas more than 60% of traditional learning methodology schools devoted less than 50 hours in curriculum time to ethical themes. The data indicates that medical schools that employ more active learning methodologies provide more attention and time to ethical themes than schools with traditional discipline-based methodologies. Given the importance of ethical issues in contemporary medical
Ern, Stephania Irmgard Elena; Trombino, Luca; Cattaneo, Cristina
The number of death cases of forensic interest grows up every year. When decomposed or skeletal remains come out from the soil, the bones become of anthropological competence and the scene of crime become of soil specialists competence. The present study concerns real cases of buried/hidden remains in clandestine graves which have been studied in order to prove the permanence in soil even if the soil particles have been washed away or the body is no more buried. One hypothesis has been taken in account, related to the evidences of vivianite crystallization on the bones. The vivianite is an iron hydrate phosphate (Fe3(PO4)2·8(H2O)) that usually forms in anoxic, reducing and rich in organic matter conditions. In these conditions the iron in the soil is in reduced form (Fe2+) and associates with the phosphorous, present in the environment, as attested in archaeological contexts. Going back to the cases of buried/hidden remains, it is possible to state that the soil can be source of iron, while the bones can supply phosphorous and the decomposition process induces the anoxic/reducing conditions in the burial area. In this light, the presence of vivianite crystallizations on the bones could be a method to discriminate burial (i.e. permanence in soil) even if the remains are found in a different context than a clandestine grave. Analyses have been performed using petrographic microscope and scanning electron microscope microanalysis (SEM-EDS) on bones, and point out the presence of vivianite crystallizations on the bones. This evidence, thanks to the significance of vivianite in the archaeological context, can be regarded as a marker of the permanence of the human remains into the soil, like a ‘buried evidence' testimonial; on the contrary the absence of vivianite is not indicative of a ‘non buried status'. Further studies and new experiments are in progress in order to clarify the pathways of vivianite crystallization on different skeletal districts, in different
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equipment construction. 211.65 Section 211.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... construction. (a) Equipment shall be constructed so that surfaces that contact components, in-process materials...
Li, Rita Yi Man
A close-to-ideal blend of suburb and city, speedy construction of towers of Babylon, the sparkling proportion of glass and steel buildings’ facade at night showcase the wisdom of humans. They also witness the footsteps, sweats and tears of architects and engineers. Unfortunately, these signatures of human civilizations are swathed in towering figures of construction accidents. Fretting about these on sites, different countries adopt different measures on sites. This book firstly sketches the construction accidents on sites, followed by a review on safety measures in some of the developing countries such as Bermuda, Egypt, Kuwait and China; as well as developed countries, for example, the United States, France and Singapore. It also highlights the enormous compensation costs with the courts’ experiences in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong.
Munir, Samir; Koch, Thomas Gadegaard; Foldager, Casper Bindzus
Cartilage is an avascular tissue incapable of regeneration. Current treatment modalities for joint cartilage injuries are inefficient in regenerating hyaline cartilage and often leads to the formation of fibrocartilage with undesirable mechanical properties. There is an increasing interest...... in investigating alternative treatments such as tissue engineering, which combines stem cells with scaffolds to produce cartilage in vitro for subsequent transplant. Previous studies have shown that chondrogenesis of induced stem cells is influenced by various growth factors, oxygen tensions and mechanical...... this novel SGS-PCL scaffold supports the chondrogenic differentiation of MLPCs will be interesting to evaluate since this scaffold possesses mechanical properties absent from other “soft” scaffolds currently being investigated for cartilage regeneration and implantation....
Fey, S. J.; Wrzesinski, Krzysztof
that a precise dose can be provided in a manner similar to in vivo studies. This avoided correction of the actual dose given based on a protein determination after treatment (when some cells may have lysed). Conversion of published in vitro LC50 data (mM) for six common drugs (acetaminophen, amiodarone...... different from 2D cultures and are more representative of the liver in vivo....
Fey, Stephen J.; Wrzesinski, Krzysztof
Numerous publications have documented that the immortal cells grown in three-dimensional (3D) cultures possess physiological behavior, which is more reminiscent of their parental organ than when the same cells are cultivated using classical two-dimensional (2D) culture techniques. The goal of this study was to investigate whether this observation could be extended to the determination of LD50 values and whether 3D data could be correlated to in vivo observations. We developed a noninvasive means to estimate the amount of protein present in a 3D spheroid from it is planar area (± 21%) so that a precise dose can be provided in a manner similar to in vivo studies. This avoided correction of the actual dose given based on a protein determination after treatment (when some cells may have lysed). Conversion of published in vitro LC50 data (mM) for six common drugs (acetaminophen, amiodarone, diclofenac, metformin, phenformin, and valproic acid) to LD50 data (mg compound/mg cellular protein) showed that the variation in LD50 values was generally less than that suggested by the original LC50 data. Toxicological analysis of these six compounds in 3D spheroid culture (either published or presented here) demonstrated similar LD50 values. Although in vitro 2D HepG2 data showed a poor correlation, the primary hepatocyte and 3D spheroid data resulted in a much higher degree of correlation with in vivo lethal blood plasma levels. These results corroborate that 3D hepatocyte cultures are significantly different from 2D cultures and are more representative of the liver in vivo. PMID:22454432
Steinfurth, Elisa C. K.; Kanen, Jonathan W.; Raio, Candace M.; Clem, Roger L.; Huganir, Richard L.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.
Extinction training during reconsolidation has been shown to persistently diminish conditioned fear responses across species. We investigated in humans if older fear memories can benefit similarly. Using a Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm we compared standard extinction and extinction after memory reactivation 1 d or 7 d following acquisition.…
Reperant, L. A.; Brown, I. H.; Haenen, O. L.; de Jong, M. D.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Papa, A.; Rimstad, E.; Valarcher, J.-F.; Kuiken, T.
Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known
Haber, Marc; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Xue, Yali; Tyler-Smith, Chris
Ancient DNA research is revealing a human history far more complex than that inferred from parsimonious models based on modern DNA. Here, we review some of the key events in the peopling of the world in the light of the findings of work on ancient DNA.
Edwards, Erica; McArthur, Sherell A.; Russell-Owens, LaToya
This work argues for an approach to research and education practices that considers the historically deficit-based research practices and views on Black girls and develops humanizing research methods that consider the multiple oppressions that act as barriers for this group. Research must acknowledge the precarious position of Black girls in order…
L.A. Reperant (Leslie); I.H. Brown (Ian); Haenen, O.L.; M.D. de Jong (Menno); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A. Papa (Anna); Rimstad, E.; Valarcher, J.-F.; T. Kuiken (Thijs)
textabstractCompanion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society,
Leemans, R.; Groot, de R.S.
The 245-page report lays out the approaches, assumptions, processes, and parameters scientists are using in the study. It offers decision-makers a mechanism to identify options that can better achieve core human development and sustainability goals and better understand the trade-offs in decisions
Li, Pengdong; Liu, Feilin; Wu, Chunling; Jiang, Wenyue; Zhao, Guifang; Liu, Li; Bai, Tingting; Wang, Li; Jiang, Yixu; Guo, Lili; Qi, Xiaojuan; Kou, Junna; Fan, Ruirui; Hao, Deshun; Lan, Shaowei; Li, Yulin; Liu, Jin Yu
The use of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in cell therapies has increased the demand for strategies that allow efficient cell scale-up. Preliminary data on the three-dimensional (3D) spinner culture describing the potential use of microcarriers for hMSCs culture scale-up have been reported. We exploited a rich source of autologous stem cells (human hair follicle) and demonstrated the robust in vitro long-term expansion of human hair follicle-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hHF-MSCs) by using CultiSpher(®)-G microcarriers. We analyzed the feasibility of 3D culture by using hHF-MSCs/CultiSpher(®)-G microcarrier constructs for its potential applicability in regenerative medicine by comparatively analyzing the performance of hHF-MSCs adhered to the CultiSpher(®)-G microspheres in 3D spinner culture and those grown on the gelatin-coated plastic dishes (2D culture), using various assays. We showed that the hHF-MSCs seeded at various densities quickly adhered to and proliferated well on the microspheres, thus generating at least hundreds of millions of hHF-MSCs on 1 g of CultiSpher(®)-G within 12 days. This resulted in a cumulative cell expansion of greater than 26-fold. Notably, the maximum and average proliferation rates in 3D culture were significantly greater than that of the 2D culture. However, the hHF-MSCs from both the cultures retained surface marker and nestin expression, proliferation capacity and differentiation potentials toward adipocytes, osteoblasts and smooth muscle cells and showed no significant differences as evidenced by Edu incorporation, cell cycle, colony formation, apoptosis, biochemical quantification and qPCR assays.
Lee, Kiwon; Liu, Yin; Mo, Jun Qin; Zhang, Jinsong; Dong, Zhongyun; Lu, Shan
Our previous study revealed that Vav3 oncogene is overexpressed in human prostate cancer, activates androgen receptor, and stimulates growth in prostate cancer cells. The current study is to determine a potential role of Vav3 oncogene in human breast cancer and impact on estrogen receptor a (ERα)-mediated signaling axis. Immunohistochemistry analysis was performed in 43 breast cancer specimens and western blot analysis was used for human breast cancer cell lines to determine the expression level of Vav3 protein. The impact of Vav3 on breast cancer cell growth was determined by siRNA knockdown of Vav3 expression. The role of Vav3 in ERα activation was examined in luciferase reporter assays. Deletion mutation analysis of Vav3 protein was performed to localize the functional domain involved in ERα activation. Finally, the interaction of Vav3 and ERα was assessed by GST pull-down analysis. We found that Vav3 was overexpressed in 81% of human breast cancer specimens, particularly in poorly differentiated lesions. Vav3 activated ERα partially via PI3K-Akt signaling and stimulated growth of breast cancer cells. Vav3 also potentiated EGF activity for cell growth and ERα activation in breast cancer cells. More interestingly, we found that Vav3 complexed with ERα. Consistent with its function for AR, the DH domain of Vav3 was essential for ERα activation. Vav3 oncogene is overexpressed in human breast cancer. Vav3 complexes with ERα and enhances ERα activity. These findings suggest that Vav3 overexpression may aberrantly enhance ERα-mediated signaling axis and play a role in breast cancer development and/or progression
In this article I discuss the philosophy of John MacMurray, and in particular, his little-examined writings on discipline and emotion education. It is argued that discipline is a vital element in the emotion education MacMurray thought central to learning to be human, because for him it takes concerted effort to overcome the human tendency toward…
Reeskens, T.; Vandecasteele, Leen
While economic downturns have adverse effects on young people's life chances, empirical studies examining whether and to what extent human values, social attitudes and well-being indicators respond to sudden economic shocks are scarce. To assess the claim that human values are less affected by
Full Text Available Collecting evidences about organized crime act of sexual exploitation in human begins often is very difficult because of high level of organization, secrecy ant precaution taken during committing prostitution, pornography, sex tourism and human trafficking. On the other side, high illegal profit enable criminals to engage "expensive" and experienced lawyers, whose often make values and reliability of collected evidences questionable, appealing to irregularities during police collecting procedure. Among traditional criminalities methods and proofing activities, in the study, modern tendencies in special investigative measures and techniques are considered. After that, there is pointing at specificity, meaning and value of material tracks and objects, which are essential for proofing crime act or perpetrator’s guiltiness. On the end, there is pointing at importance of victims’ cooperation in collecting evidences about their sexual exploitation.
Shoshani, Michael; Shoshani, Batya
The authors discuss the relation between perverse psychic formations and the ability to develop a mind of one's own. The authors characterize the formation of perversity in terms of failure to develop the key capacities of thinking, mourning, and loving. These failures result in the abolishment of thinking and the repudiation of separateness and lead to the creation of different kinds of twisted coalitions, which shape the transference-counter-transference matrix. Persons with perverse psychic organizations have difficulties developing their own minds due to their refusal to acknowledge human limitations and their inability to accept the fundamental differences of human existence: self-other, child-adult, male-female. These characterizations are illustrated by clinical material, including a detailed analytic session, demonstrating the perverse aggresivization and sexualization of the analytic relationship. The role of the analyst is to detoxify the violence and destruction and to translate the language of perversion into the language of love.
Hütter, Eveline; Skovbro, Mette; Lener, Barbara
According to the free radical theory of aging, reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as a driving force of the aging process, and it is generally believed that mitochondrial dysfunction is a major source of increased oxidative stress in tissues with high content of mitochondria, such as muscle or brain....... However, recent experiments in mouse models of premature aging have questioned the role of mitochondrial ROS production in premature aging. To address the role of mitochondrial impairment and ROS production for aging in human muscles, we have analyzed mitochondrial properties in muscle fibres isolated...... from the vastus lateralis of young and elderly donors. Mitochondrial respiratory functions were addressed by high-resolution respirometry, and ROS production was analyzed by in situ staining with the redox-sensitive dye dihydroethidium. We found that aged human skeletal muscles contain fully functional...
We have entered the 21st century that is popularly known as the era of the development of modern science and technology. Philosophy provides naming for contemporary era as postmodern era. But do we suddenly come to this day and age? No! Because humans are homo viator, persona that does pilgrimage in history, space and time. Philosophy has expanded periodically in the long course of history. Since the days of classical antiquity, philosophy comes with a patterned metaphysical paradigm. T...
1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) was found in 1983 to cause a syndrome virtually identical to Parkinson's Disease in humans and other primates. The symptoms, as in idiopathic Parkinson's syndrome, are due to destruction of dopaminergic neurons in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra resulting in depletion of dopamine in the basal ganglia. The mechanism of toxicity was investigated with a dopamine containing cell line, PC12, a MPTP resistant variant (MPTP r ), and synaptosomes from the striate cortex of mice, rats, guinea pigs and a monkey. The mechanism of acute effects was studied with membrane preparations from human and rat striate cortex. MPTP displaced [ 3 H]haloperidol from binding sites in human and rat striate cortex, but could not displace [ 3 H]flupenthixol, suggesting that MPTP is a D2 receptor ligand of equivalent potency in both species. MPTP was a competitive inhibitor of uptake of [ 3 H]dopamine in PC12 but did not accumulate in PC12 or in synaptosomes of rat, guinea pig, mouse or monkey striate cortex. 100 uM MPTP depleted catecholamine levels in PC12 cells by about 50%, without killing
Bishop, Rosie R.; Church, Mike J.; Rowley-Conwy, Peter A.
Over the past few decades the potential role of Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in actively constructing their own niches, through the management of wild plants, has frequently been discussed. It is probable that Mesolithic hunter-gatherers systematically exploited specific woodland resources for food and fuel and influenced the 'natural' abundance or distribution of particular species within Mesolithic environments. Though there has been considerable discussion of the pollen evidence for potential small-scale human-woodland manipulation in Mesolithic Scotland, the archaeobotanical evidence for anthropogenic firewood and food selection has not been discussed in this context. This paper assesses the evidence for the active role of Mesolithic hunter-gatherer communities in systematically exploiting and managing woodlands for food and fuel in Scotland. While taphonomic factors may have impacted on the frequency of specific species in archaeobotanical assemblages, it is suggested that hunter-gatherers in Mesolithic Scotland were systematically using woodland plants, and in particular hazel and oak, for food and fuel. It is argued that the pollen evidence for woodland management is equivocal, but hints at the role of hunter-gatherers in shaping the structure of their environments, through the maintenance or creation of woodland clearings for settlement or as part of vegetation management strategies. It is proposed that Mesolithic hunter-gatherers may have actively contributed to niche construction and that the systematic use of hazel and oak as a fuel may reflect the deliberate pruning of hazel trees to increase nut-yields and the inadvertent - or perhaps deliberate - coppicing of hazel and oak during greenwood collection.
Mincheva, M; Sandhowe-Klaverkamp, R; Wistuba, J; Redmann, K; Stukenborg, J-B; Kliesch, S; Schlatt, S
Can enzymatically dispersed testicular cells from adult men reassemble into seminiferous cord-like structures in vitro? Adult human testicular somatic cells reassembled into testicular cord-like structures via dynamic interactions of Sertoli and peritubular cells. In vitro approaches using dispersed single cell suspensions of human testes to generate seminiferous tubule structures and to initiate their functionality have as yet shown only limited success. Testes from 15 adult gender dysphoria patients (mean ± standard deviation age 35 ± 9.3 years) showing spermatogonial arrest became available for this study after sex-reassignment surgery. In vitro primary testicular somatic cell cultures were generated to explore the self-organizing ability of testicular somatic cells to form testis cords over a 2-week period. Morphological phenotype, protein marker expression and temporal dynamics of cell reassembly were analyzed. Cell suspensions obtained by two-step enzymatic digestion were plated onto glass coverslips in 24-well plates. To obtain adherent somatic cells, the supernatant was discarded on Day 2. The culture of the attached cell population was continued. Reassembly into cord-like structures was analyzed daily by microscopic observations. Endpoints were qualitative changes in morphology. Cell types were characterized by phase-contrast microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Dynamics of cord formation were recorded by time-lapse microscopy. Primary adult human testicular cells underwent sequential morphological changes including compaction and reaggregation resulting in round or elongated cord-like structures. Time-lapse video recordings within the first 4 days of culture revealed highly dynamic processes of migration and coalescence of reaggregated cells. The cellular movements were mediated by peritubular cells. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that both SRY-related high mobility box 9-positive Sertoli and α-smooth muscle actin-positive peritubular myoid cells
Martha J Harding
Full Text Available Widely accessible small animal models suitable for the study of hepatitis C virus (HCV in vivo are lacking, primarily because rodent hepatocytes cannot be productively infected and because human hepatocytes are not easily engrafted in immunodeficient mice.We report here on a novel approach for human hepatocyte engraftment that involves subcutaneous implantation of primary human fetal hepatoblasts (HFH within a vascularized rat collagen type I/human fibronectin (rCI/hFN gel containing Bcl-2-transduced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (Bcl-2-HUVEC in severe combined immunodeficient X beige (SCID/bg mice. Maturing hepatic epithelial cells in HFH/Bcl-2-HUVEC co-implants displayed endocytotic activity at the basolateral surface, canalicular microvilli and apical tight junctions between adjacent cells assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Some primary HFH, but not Huh-7.5 hepatoma cells, appeared to differentiate towards a cholangiocyte lineage within the gels, based on histological appearance and cytokeratin 7 (CK7 mRNA and protein expression. Levels of human albumin and hepatic nuclear factor 4alpha (HNF4alpha mRNA expression in gel implants and plasma human albumin levels in mice engrafted with HFH and Bcl-2-HUVEC were somewhat enhanced by including murine liver-like basement membrane (mLBM components and/or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF-HUVEC within the gel matrix. Following ex vivo viral adsorption, both HFH/Bcl-2-HUVEC and Huh-7.5/Bcl-2-HUVEC co-implants sustained HCV Jc1 infection for at least 2 weeks in vivo, based on qRT-PCR and immunoelectron microscopic (IEM analyses of gel tissue.The system described here thus provides the basis for a simple and robust small animal model of HFH engraftment that is applicable to the study of HCV infections in vivo.
Full Text Available Human settlements are social-economic-natural complex ecosystems centered on human activities and the most prominent site for the contradictions between humans and the environment. Taking Hongcun, a UNESCO World Heritage site in China, as an example, this paper analyzes the methods and effect of coupling man and nature in Hongcun, summarizes the ecological wisdom of dealing with the relationship between human and nature, and uses this wisdom to shed light on the planning, construction, and management of contemporary urban and rural settlements. Firstly, the study introduces the Human-Natural Intergraded Ecological Planning (HNIEP model’s hypothesis, explaining its foundation and potential principles or approaches. Secondly, using the case study of Hongcun to explain, support, and validate the HNIEP model and its framework, the study found that the unique planning and construction of Hongcun has greatly promoted ecosystem services, such as local microclimate regulation, rainwater runoff regulation, water conservation, landscape aesthetic, and engagement with nature. Thirdly, Hongcun reflects the concept of harmonious coexistence between human and nature, the wisdom of rational use of ecosystem structures, processes and functions, and the wisdom of coupling human activities with the living environment and natural ecosystem. Finally, the paper summarizes the enlightenment brought by both the HNIEP model and Hongcun wisdom to contemporary urban-rural planning and construction management.
Rumiantsev, G I; Kutsenko, G I; Polesskiĭ, V A
Sanitary legislation plays an important role in supervisory activities ensuring the protection of consumers' rights and human well-being. The paper considers the basic laws and standard acts allowing for legal regulation in this sphere of activities.
The most publicly justifiable application of human cloning, if there is one at all, is to provide self-compatible cells or tissues for medical use, especially transplantation. Some have argued that this raises no new ethical issues above those raised by any form of embryo experimentation. I argue that this research is less morally problematic than other embryo research. Indeed, it is not merely morally permissible but morally required that we employ cloning to produce embryos or fetuses for the sake of providing cells, tissues or even organs for therapy, followed by abortion of the embryo or fetus. PMID:10226910
Togzhan Yezlankyzy; Shokan Niazbekov
Abortion is one of the most controversial and talked problem of our time. It is discussed in classrooms, work places and even on the internet. The definition of abortion is the termination of a pregnancy after, accompanied by, resulting in, or closely followed by the death of the embryo or fetus as the spontaneous expulsion of a human fetus during the first 12 weeks of gestation. Kazakhstan’s health organization records 300 thousand abortions every year. Abortion problem is unlikely to care a...
Lugosi, Charles I
The Fourteenth Amendment was intended to protect people from discrimination and harm from other people. Racism is not the only thing people need protection from. As a constitutional principle, the Fourteenth Amendment is not confined to its historical origin and purpose, but is available now to protect all human beings, including all unborn human beings. The Supreme Court can define "person" to include all human beings, born and unborn. It simply chooses not to do so. Science, history and tradition establish that unborn humans are, from the time of conception, both persons and human beings, thus strongly supporting an interpretation that the unborn meet the definition of "person" under the Fourteenth Amendment. The legal test used to extend constitutional personhood to corporations, which are artificial "persons" under the law, is more than met by the unborn, demonstrating that the unborn deserve the status of constitutional personhood. There can be no "rule of law" if the Constitution continues to be interpreted to perpetuate a discriminatory legal system of separate and unequal for unborn human beings. Relying on the reasoning of the Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education, the Supreme Court may overrule Roe v. Wade solely on the grounds of equal protection. Such a result would not return the matter of abortion to the states. The Fourteenth Amendment, properly interpreted, would thereafter prohibit abortion in every state.
Ligotke, M.W.; Dennis, G.W.; Bushaw, L.L.
Wind tunnel tests were performed of three fugitive dust control agents derived from potato and sugar beet products. These materials are being considered for use as dust suppressants to reduce the potential for transport of radioactive materials by wind from radioactive waste construction and remediation sites. Soil and dust control agent type, solution concentrations, application quantities, aging (or drying) conditions, surface disturbance, and wind and saltating sand eolian erosive stresses were selected and controlled to simulate application and exposure of excavated soil surfaces in the field. A description of the tests, results, conclusions, and recommendations are presented in this report. The results of this study indicate that all three dust control agents can protect exposed soil surfaces from extreme eolian stresses. It is also clear that the interaction and performance of each agent with various soil types may differ dramatically. Thus, soils similar to that received from ML should be best protected by high concentration (∼2.5%) solutions of potato starch at low water application levels (∼1 to 2 L/m 2 ). Because the effectiveness of PS on this soil type is degraded after a moderate amount of simulated rainfall, other options or additives should be considered if surfaces are to be protected for long intervals or during periods of intermittent rainfall and hot, windy conditions. On the other hand, XDCA should be considered when excavating sandy soils. It should be noted, however, that because the Hanford soil test results are based on a small number of tests, it would be prudent to perform additional tests prior to selecting a fugitive dust control agent for use at the Hanford Site. While fermented potato waste was not the best fixative used on either soil, it did perform reasonably well on both soil types (better than XDCA on Idaho soil and better than PS on Hanford soil)
Karlsen, Lise Storm
“What lies at the heart of human being?” That is the central theme of this paper. An investigation into human being can be approached in many ways. Mine is different than for instance psychology, anthropology, social science and biology. It is more in the direction of the metaphorically use of the expression “at the heart”: Having “her heart in it” (being committed, motivated, truly interested): Being a leader “with heart” (being generous, emphatic, accepting): A “heartfelt truth” (an intuiti...
Danner, Simon M; Hofstoetter, Ursula S; Ladenbauer, Josef; Rattay, Frank; Minassian, Karen
Stimulation of different spinal cord segments in humans is a widely developed clinical practice for modification of pain, altered sensation, and movement. The human lumbar cord has become a target for modification of motor control by epidural and, more recently, by transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation. Posterior columns of the lumbar spinal cord represent a vertical system of axons and when activated can add other inputs to the motor control of the spinal cord than stimulated posterior roots. We used a detailed three-dimensional volume conductor model of the torso and the McIntyre-Richard-Grill axon model to calculate the thresholds of axons within the posterior columns in response to transcutaneous lumbar spinal cord stimulation. Superficially located large-diameter posterior column fibers with multiple collaterals have a threshold of 45.4 V, three times higher than posterior root fibers (14.1 V). With the stimulation strength needed to activate posterior column axons, posterior root fibers of large and small diameters as well as anterior root fibers are coactivated. The reported results inform on these threshold differences, when stimulation is applied to the posterior structures of the lumbar cord at intensities above the threshold of large-diameter posterior root fibers. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Batool, F.; Iqbal, S.; Tariq, M. I.; Akbar, J.; Noreen, S.; Danish, M.; Chan, K. W.
Exposure of heavy metals to humans is higher today than ever before in modern history due to continuously increasing industrialization around the globe. Industrial wastes are rich in heavy metals and these wastes are discharged near agricultural fields or mixed with soil, from where these metals are taken up by the crops and are finally transported to humans. Due to this increasing threat of heavy metals contamination in food, it is necessary to analyze the food before consumption. Content of selected metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) in cow milk is determined in this study. To investigate the possible pathways of these metals to reach in milk; fodder supplied to these cows was analyzed besides analysis of soil samples on which this fodder was grown. Pearson correlation among metal contents in soil-forage and forage-milk was also determined to check the route of transfer of these metals from soil to forage and from forage to milk. It was found that a strong correlation (p < 0.5) exists for Cr, Cd, Cu and Zn. This shows that these metals are mainly transferred through soil. However, a weak correlation was found for Pb, which shows that Pb is introduced into forage through some other source (automobile exhaust etc.). A comparison of present study is also done with previously reported work from other countries on metal contents in milk and findings of both the studies were in good agreement mutually. (author)
Diaz Pauli, Beatriz; Sih, Andrew
Change in behaviour is usually the first response to human-induced environmental change and key for determining whether a species adapts to environmental change or becomes maladapted. Thus, understanding the behavioural response to human-induced changes is crucial in the interplay between ecology, evolution, conservation and management. Yet the behavioural response to fishing activities has been largely ignored. We review studies contrasting how fish behaviour affects catch by passive (e.g., long lines, angling) versus active gears (e.g., trawls, seines). We show that fishing not only targets certain behaviours, but it leads to a multitrait response including behavioural, physiological and life-history traits with population, community and ecosystem consequences. Fisheries-driven change (plastic or evolutionary) of fish behaviour and its correlated traits could impact fish populations well beyond their survival per se , affecting predation risk, foraging behaviour, dispersal, parental care, etc., and hence numerous ecological issues including population dynamics and trophic cascades . In particular, we discuss implications of behavioural responses to fishing for fisheries management and population resilience. More research on these topics, however, is needed to draw general conclusions, and we suggest fruitful directions for future studies.
Xiong Zonglong; Yang Kuntao; Ding Wenxiu; Zhang Nanyangsheng; Zheng Wenheng
The indoor detection of the human body's thermal trace plays an important role in the fields of infrared detecting, scouting, infrared camouflage, and infrared rescuing and tracking. Currently, quantitative description and analysis for this technology are lacking due to the absence of human infrared radiation analysis. To solve this problem, we study the heating and cooling process by observing body contact and removal on an object, respectively. Through finite-element simulation and carefully designed experiments, an analytical model of the infrared trace of body contact is developed based on infrared physics and heat transfer theory. Using this model, the impact of body temperature on material thermal parameters is investigated. The sensitivity of material thermal parameters, the thermal distribution, and the changes of the thermograph's contrast are then found and analyzed. Excellent matching results achieved between the simulation and the experiments demonstrate the strong impact of temperature on material thermal parameters. Conclusively, the new model, simulation, and experimental results are beneficial to the future development and implementation of infrared trace technology.
Xiong Zonglong; Yang Kuntao; Ding Wenxiu; Zhang Nanyangsheng; Zheng Wenheng
The indoor detection of the human body's thermal trace plays an important role in the fields of infrared detecting, scouting, infrared camouflage, and infrared rescuing and tracking. Currently, quantitative description and analysis for this technology are lacking due to the absence of human infrared radiation analysis. To solve this problem, we study the heating and cooling process by observing body contact and removal on an object, respectively. Through finite-element simulation and carefully designed experiments, an analytical model of the infrared trace of body contact is developed based on infrared physics and heat transfer theory. Using this model, the impact of body temperature on material thermal parameters is investigated. The sensitivity of material thermal parameters, the thermal distribution, and the changes of the thermograph's contrast are then found and analyzed. Excellent matching results achieved between the simulation and the experiments demonstrate the strong impact of temperature on material thermal parameters. Conclusively, the new model, simulation, and experimental results are beneficial to the future development and implementation of infrared trace technology.
Allison L Mayberry
Full Text Available High densities of wild African savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana combined with widespread human land-use have increased human-elephant conflict in northern Botswana. Visible impacts (e.g. crop/property damage, injury/fatality of elephants on human well-being are well documented in scholarly literature while hidden impacts (e.g. emotional stress, restricted mobility are less so. This research uses qualitative methods to explore human experiences with elephants and perceived impacts of elephants on human well-being. Findings reveal participants are concerned about food insecurity and associated visible impacts of elephant crop raids. Findings also reveal participants are concerned about reduced safety and restricted mobility as hidden impacts threatening livelihoods and everyday life. Both visible and hidden impacts of elephants contribute to people's negative feelings towards elephants, as does the broader political context. This research emphasises the importance of investigating both visible and hidden impacts of elephants on human well-being to foster holistic understanding of human-elephant conflict scenarios and to inform future mitigation strategies.
Full Text Available One of the most serious threats to the European Union is the organised crime. The EU is continuously adapting its response in order to best respond to the situation. Among different types of organised crime, human beings trafficking is one of the most seriously crimes worldwide, representing also a gross violation of human rights. Very often behind the human beings trafficking is the organised crime because is one of the most profitable criminal activities in the world. The numbers are very scary because it is estimated that the trafficked people to or within the EU are reaching several hundred thousands a year. The present study is intending to discover how the European Union intends to fight against the human beings trafficking, since there is a need to have a coherent action at the European level because of the criminals can easily operate across border.
Elize S. van Eeden
Full Text Available For at least the past 180 years the Merafong Municipal region in the Gauteng Province of South Africa, (of which the Wonderfontein Catchment forms a part has strongly relied on the primary sector for its economic existence and development. In the process some human actions, also related to serious water contamination/pollution, have resulted in phases of constructions1 as well as economic and health destructions. Differences over whose environment and whose nature it is spontaneously developed, with sometimes less friendly outcomes. The ‘end result’ up to 2006 is a complicated scenario experience, similar to that of many other regions or local areas, but also very unique and somewhat frightening. The long term focus of this article is to exchange knowledge2 on the region with the objective to contribute towards creating a sustainable nvironment by ensuring closer co-operation between the various economic active cultures operating or functioning in the Merafong municipal region. In this article four aspects are covered.
Kim, Kwangwoo; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Bae, Sang-Cheol
Genetic variations of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus are strongly associated with disease susceptibility and prognosis for many diseases, including many autoimmune diseases. In this study, we developed a Korean HLA reference panel for imputing classical alleles and amino acid residues of several HLA genes. An HLA reference panel has potential for use in identifying and fine-mapping disease associations with the MHC locus in East Asian populations, including Koreans. A total of 413 unrelated Korean subjects were analyzed for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the MHC locus and six HLA genes, including HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DPB1, and -DQB1. The HLA reference panel was constructed by phasing the 5,858 MHC SNPs, 233 classical HLA alleles, and 1,387 amino acid residue markers from 1,025 amino acid positions as binary variables. The imputation accuracy of the HLA reference panel was assessed by measuring concordance rates between imputed and genotyped alleles of the HLA genes from a subset of the study subjects and East Asian HapMap individuals. Average concordance rates were 95.6% and 91.1% at 2-digit and 4-digit allele resolutions, respectively. The imputation accuracy was minimally affected by SNP density of a test dataset for imputation. In conclusion, the Korean HLA reference panel we developed was highly suitable for imputing HLA alleles and amino acids from MHC SNPs in East Asians, including Koreans.
Full Text Available Genetic variations of human leukocyte antigen (HLA genes within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC locus are strongly associated with disease susceptibility and prognosis for many diseases, including many autoimmune diseases. In this study, we developed a Korean HLA reference panel for imputing classical alleles and amino acid residues of several HLA genes. An HLA reference panel has potential for use in identifying and fine-mapping disease associations with the MHC locus in East Asian populations, including Koreans. A total of 413 unrelated Korean subjects were analyzed for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at the MHC locus and six HLA genes, including HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DPB1, and -DQB1. The HLA reference panel was constructed by phasing the 5,858 MHC SNPs, 233 classical HLA alleles, and 1,387 amino acid residue markers from 1,025 amino acid positions as binary variables. The imputation accuracy of the HLA reference panel was assessed by measuring concordance rates between imputed and genotyped alleles of the HLA genes from a subset of the study subjects and East Asian HapMap individuals. Average concordance rates were 95.6% and 91.1% at 2-digit and 4-digit allele resolutions, respectively. The imputation accuracy was minimally affected by SNP density of a test dataset for imputation. In conclusion, the Korean HLA reference panel we developed was highly suitable for imputing HLA alleles and amino acids from MHC SNPs in East Asians, including Koreans.
Escherichia coli alpha hemolysin (AH) evoked a luminol-amplified chemiluminescence (CL) response from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). Analysis of kinetic parameters of the PMN CL response to AH established similarities with that of PMN to the calcium ionophore A23187. PMN CL responses to both AH and A23187 were equally decreased by preincubating PMN with A63612, a hidroxamic acid derivative and lipooxigenase inhibitor, showing that the CL response to both hemolysin and ionophore share a common mechanism, probably activation of leukotriene synthesis, due to calcium entry into the cells brought about by AH and A23187. In addition, the CL response of PMN to AH was lowered by the hydroxyl radical scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide, further suggesting arachidonate metabolism is involved in CL response. (Author) [es
Our limited knowledge and understanding of the behavior of the naturally occurring radionuclides in the environment, food and man have relied heavily on the skills of radiochemists. The purpose of this document is to lend an appreciation of the role of the radiochemist in programs designed to establish the concentration of uranium, thorium, radium and 210 Pb in a variety of sample matrices. Part I discusses the purposes and strategies for collection of environmental and human tissue samples, chemical and measurement methods, quality assurance and reporting of results. Part II summarizes our present knowledge on the concentrations of Uranium and Thorium Series radionuclides in the environment, diet and man. (author). 183 refs., 11 tabs., 6 figs
Absinta, Martina; Ha, Seung-Kwon; Nair, Govind; Sati, Pascal; Luciano, Nicholas J; Palisoc, Maryknoll; Louveau, Antoine; Zaghloul, Kareem A; Pittaluga, Stefania; Kipnis, Jonathan; Reich, Daniel S
Here, we report the existence of meningeal lymphatic vessels in human and nonhuman primates (common marmoset monkeys) and the feasibility of noninvasively imaging and mapping them in vivo with high-resolution, clinical MRI. On T2-FLAIR and T1-weighted black-blood imaging, lymphatic vessels enhance with gadobutrol, a gadolinium-based contrast agent with high propensity to extravasate across a permeable capillary endothelial barrier, but not with gadofosveset, a blood-pool contrast agent. The topography of these vessels, running alongside dural venous sinuses, recapitulates the meningeal lymphatic system of rodents. In primates, meningeal lymphatics display a typical panel of lymphatic endothelial markers by immunohistochemistry. This discovery holds promise for better understanding the normal physiology of lymphatic drainage from the central nervous system and potential aberrations in neurological diseases.
Freund, Paul A.
If the aim of new research is to improve the genetic inheritance of future generations, then decisions regarding who should decide what research should be done needs to be established. Positive and negative eugenics need to be considered thoroughly. (PS)
Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Freitas, Dayvison Francis Saraiva; Valle, Antônio Carlos Francesconi do; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria
Sporotrichosis is a subacute to chronic infection caused by members of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. Itraconazole is the first choice antifungal drug for treating this infection, with terbinafine and potassium iodide as alternatives and amphotericin B used in cases of severe infections. Correlation of antifungal susceptibility data with the clinical outcome of the patients is scarce. The aim of this study was to correlate clinical and mycological data in patients with refractory sporotrichosis. In this work, antifungal susceptibilities, determined according to the reference M38-A2 CLSI protocol, of 25 Sporothrix strains, isolated from seven human cases of sporotrichosis with adversities in the treatment, are presented. Tested drugs included itraconazole, ketoconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, terbinafine, and amphotericin B. Fungi were identified using the T3B PCR fingerprinting. This method identified all strains as Sporothrix brasiliensis and also demonstrated a high degree of similarity between the strains. In general, voriconazole was ineffective against all strains, and elevated minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were observed for amphotericin B. High itraconazole and terbinafine MICs were not observed in S. brasiliensis isolates from patients of this study. Moreover, a significant increase in itraconazole and terbinafine MIC values from strains isolated from the same patient in different periods was not observed. The results suggest that the antifungal susceptibility to terbinafine and itraconazole determined by the reference method does not play an important role in therapeutic failure of sporotrichosis and that acquisition of resistance during prolonged antifungal treatment is not likely to occur in S. brasiliensis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Teramoto, Daisuke; Ushioda, Yuichi; Sasaki, Ayaka; Sakurai Yuki; Nagahama, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Manami; Sugimori, Hiroyuki; Sakata, Motomichi
Various custom-made phantoms designed to optimize magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences have been created and subsequently reported in Japanese Society of Radiological Technology (JSRT). However, custom-made phantoms that correctly match the T 1 -value and T 2 -values of human brain tissue (gray matter and white matter) cannot be made easily or quickly. The aim of this project was to search for alternative materials, such as fruits and vegetables, for optimizing MRI sequences. The following eight fruits and vegetables were investigated: apple, tomato, melon, apple mango (Mangifera indica), banana, avocado, peach, and eggplant. Their potential was studied for use in modeling phantoms of normal human brain tissues. MRI (T 1 - and T 2 -weighted sequences) was performed on the human brain and the fruits and vegetables using various concentrations of contrast medium (gadolinium) in the same size tubes as the custom-made phantom. The authors compared the signal intensity (SI) in human brain tissue (gray matter and white matter) with that of the fruits and the custom-made phantom. The T 1 and T 2 values were measured for banana tissue and compared with those for human brain tissue in the literature. Our results indicated that banana tissue is similar to human brain tissue (both gray matter and white matter). Banana tissue can thus be employed as an alternative phantom for the human brain for the purpose of MRI. (author)
Ajay Vir Singh
Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP has emerged as a major health problem for domestic livestock and human beings. Reduced per animal productivity of domestic livestock seriously impacts the economics of dairy farming globally. High to very high bioload of MAP in domestic livestock and also in the human population has been reported from north India. Presence of live MAP bacilli in commercial supplies of raw and pasteurized milk and milk products indicates its public health significance. MAP is not inactivated during pasteurization, therefore, entering into human food chain daily. Recovery of MAP from patients with inflammatory bowel disease or Crohn's disease and animal healthcare workers suffering with chronic gastrointestinal problems indicate a close association of MAP with a number of chronic and other diseases affecting human health. Higher bioload of MAP in the animals increases the risk of exposure to the human population with MAP. This review summarizes the current status of MAP infection in animals as well as in human beings and also highlights the prospects of effective management and control of disease in animals to reduce the risk of exposure to human population.
Full Text Available This paper will focus on the issue of whether it is plausible to think about a human right to be assisted in dying. The right to be assisted in dying cannot be considered just a right of non-interference. It is better understood as a claim right because it demands assistance and positive actions. I will argue that the principles of individual autonomy and Kant’s notion of dignity taken independently cannot be considered plausible justification for the human right to be assisted in dying. Griffin’s personhood account points out that principles of liberty, minimum provision and autonomy must be taken together to justify human rights. Based on his theory, I will argue that a person with a terminal disease who was aware of her imminent death or who suffered from an intractable, incurable, irreversible disease may waive the right to life and choose death. Therefore, the right to life would not restrict the human right to be assisted in dying and a state that allowed the practice of assisted dying would not be disrespecting the human right to life. This article will defend that the personhood account is able to protect vulnerable people from making decisions under pressure and avoid the slippery slope objection.
Alberti, M.; Graumlich, L. J.; Frumkin, H.; Friedman, D.
A sustainable human future requires both healthy ecosystems and communities in which people thrive, with opportunities for health, well-being, happiness, economic prosperity, and equity. To make progress towards this goal, two largely disparate communities of scholars and practitioners must come together: sustainability science needs to be integrated with the sciences of human health and well-being. The opportunity for such integration is particularly ripe for urbanizing regions which not only dominate energy and resource use but also increasingly represent the human habitat. We present a conceptual framework that integrates sustainability science with the sciences of human health and well-being to explicitly articulate testable hypotheses on the relationships between humans and their habitat. We are interested in human behaviors and metrics of health and well-being in relationship to the characteristics of the built environment at various scales from buildings to metro regions. Focusing on the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW) as a testbed, we are building on our current empirical studies on urban sprawl and ecosystem function including biodiversity, air quality, hydrological, biogeochemical, and human health to develop formal hypotheses on how alternative urban design and development patterns may influence health outcomes and well-being. The PNW is an ideal setting for this work because of the connected metropolitan areas within a region characterized by a spectacular diversity of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and deeply held cultural and political aspirations towards sustainability. The framework also highlights opportunities for translation of knowledge to practice in the design and planning of built environments. For example, understanding these associations is critical to assessing tradeoffs in design and planning strategies and exploring potential synergies that optimize both sustainability and human well-being. In complex systems such as cities, managers
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS was developed to meet demand for instruments to measure mental well-being. It comprises 14 positively phrased Likert-style items and fulfils classic criteria for scale development. We report here the internal construct validity of WEMWBS from the perspective of the Rasch measurement model. Methods The model was applied to data collected from 779 respondents in Wave 12 (Autumn 2006 of the Scottish Health Education Population Survey. Respondents were aged 16–74 (average 41.9 yrs. Results Initial fit to model expectations was poor. The items 'I've been feeling good about myself', 'I've been interested in new things' and 'I've been feeling cheerful' all showed significant misfit to model expectations, and were deleted. This led to a marginal improvement in fit to the model. After further analysis, more items were deleted and a strict unidimensional seven item scale (the Short Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (SWEMWBS was resolved. Many items deleted because of misfit with model expectations showed considerable bias for gender. Two retained items also demonstrated bias for gender but, at the scale level, cancelled out. One further retained item 'I've been feeling optimistic about the future' showed bias for age. The correlation between the 14 item and 7 item versions was 0.954. Given fit to the Rasch model, and strict unidimensionality, SWEMWBS provides an interval scale estimate of mental well-being. Conclusion A short 7 item version of WEMWBS was found to satisfy the strict unidimensionality expectations of the Rasch model, and be largely free of bias. This scale, SWEMWBS, provides a raw score-interval scale transformation for use in parametric procedures. In terms of face validity, SWEMWBS presents a more restricted view of mental well-being than the 14 item WEMWBS, with most items representing aspects of psychological and eudemonic well-being, and few covering
The aim of this paper is to illuminate the situation of women working in hierarchical organizations--patriarchal systems where male values and characteristics are normative--especially when the majority of employees in the organization are female. Do organizations where women make up the majority of the work force offer specific opportunities for women? How does the predominance of women affect the social construction of gender and leader identity? These questions are examined from a feminist perspective. Two concepts, gender system and the logic of personal relationships, provide the point of departure. Empirical support is drawn from studies, primarily of health care institutions, one of them an ongoing study by the author. The conclusion is that the hierarchical system seems to be self-generating among both women and men. A more flexible and anti-authoritarian work organization gives greater opportunities for women to develop in their work and to accept leading positions. The benefits of certain female characteristics, summarized in the concept of responsible rationality, in organizational life are discussed.
Lim, Jezamine; Razi, Zainul Rashid Mohamad; Law, Jiaxian; Nawi, Azmawati Mohammed; Idrus, Ruszymah Binti Haji; Ng, Min Hwei
Human Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hWJMSCs) are possibly the most suitable allogeneic cell source for stromal cell therapy and tissue engineering applications because of their hypo-immunogenic and non-tumorigenic properties, easy availability and minimal ethical concerns. Furthermore, hWJMSCs possess unique properties of both adult mesenchymal stromal cells and embryonic stromal cells. The human umbilical cord (UC) is approximately 50-60 cm long and the existing studies in the literature have not provided information on which segment of the UC was studied. In this study, hWJMSCs derived from three anatomical segments of the UC are compared. Three segments of the whole UC, each 3 cm in length, were identified anatomically as the maternal, middle and fetal segments. The hWJMSCs from the different segments were analyzed via trypan blue exclusion assay to determine the growth kinetics and cell viability, flow cytometry for immunophenotyping and immunofluorescence and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for expression of stromal cell transcriptional factors. Furthermore, the trilineage differentiation potential (osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic) of these cells was also assessed. hWJMSCs isolated from the maternal and fetal segments displayed greater viability and possessed a significantly higher proliferation rate compared with cells from the middle segment. Immunophenotyping revealed that hWJMSCs derived from all three segments expressed the MSC markers CD105, CD73, CD90, CD44, CD13 and CD29, as well as HLA-ABC and HLA-DR, but were negative for hematopoietic markers CD14, CD34 and CD45. Analysis of the embryonic markers showed that all three segments expressed Nanog and Oct 3/4, but only the maternal and fetal segments expressed SSEA 4 and TRA-160. Cells from all three segments were able to differentiate into chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic lineages with the middle segments showing much lower differentiation
Ducassou, Lionel; Dhers, Laura; Jonasson, Gabriella; Pietrancosta, Nicolas; Boucher, Jean-Luc; Mansuy, Daniel; André, François
Human cytochrome P450 2U1 (CYP2U1) is an orphan CYP that exhibits several distinctive characteristics among the 57 human CYPs with a highly conserved sequence in almost all living organisms. We compared its protein sequence with those of the 57 human CYPs and constructed a 3D structure of a full-length CYP2U1 model bound to a POPC membrane. We also performed docking experiments of arachidonic acid (AA) and N-arachidonoylserotonin (AS) in this model. The protein sequence of CYP2U1 displayed two unique characteristics when compared to those of the human CYPs, the presence of a longer N-terminal region upstream of the putative trans-membrane helix (TMH) containing 8 proline residues, and of an insert of about 20 amino acids containing 5 arginine residues between helices A' and A. Its N-terminal part upstream of TMH involved an additional short terminal helix, in a manner similar to what was reported in the crystal structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CYP51. Our model also showed a specific interaction between the charged residues of insert AA' and phosphate groups of lipid polar heads, suggesting a possible role of this insert in substrate recruitment. Docking of AA and AS in this model showed these substrates in channel 2ac, with the terminal alkyl chain of AA or the indole ring of AS close to the heme, in agreement with the reported CYP2U1-catalyzed AA and AS hydroxylation regioselectivities. This model should be useful to find new endogenous or exogenous CYP2U1 substrates and to interpret the regioselectivity of their hydroxylation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.
Kluiving, Sjoerd; Hamel, Arthur
This research is based on a review of published examples of geoarchaeological and landscape archaeological research throughout Europe. Through environmental reconstruction we relatively date the starting points where humans a) are altering their own selective environment as an inceptive change, b) respond to a (deteriorated) selective environment in a counteractive change. It is stated that geoarchaeology and landscape archaeology make a valuable contribution to NCT studies in considering landscape gradients as focal lines. NCT phase transitions from inceptive to counteractive changes are proposed as useful alternative in the debate about the onset of the Anthropocene. While searching for a relevant approach to define this period where humans are driving the Earth, we discuss the pitfalls of the dialectic Nature/Culture and social/environmental divides and finally we prefer to approach the issue from the complex system perspective which does not opposes 'humans' with 'the rest'. In complex systems, such as Earth system, linear cause consequence relations do not exist. Therefore the response of the system is not always related in time, space or proportions with the causes. On this basis, we present an alternative definition of the Anthropocene based on the causes of the changes instead of their effects. These causes are to be found in the change in human behaviour. The Niche Construction Theory conciliates the causes and the complex system approach previous remarks: that the effects are not easily correlated with the causes of changes. This is the point of view adopted by Zeder and Smith (2013) who argue that the onset of the Anthropocene is the start of Neolithic revolution, matching the lower boundary of the Holocene. Zeder M. A. and Smith B.D. (2013). The onset of the Anthropocene. Anthropocene, 4:8-13.
The article discusses one of the most dangerous and serious, in the social-humanitarian respect, challenges of the current stage in world globalization-trafficking in human beings, especially in women and children, which has become an international problem in recent years. The article takes a look at the special features of the human trafficking problem in post-Soviet states, primarily in the Central Caucasian countries, caused by the powerful migration flows generated by the collapse of the ...
Full Text Available The liver carries out a range of functions essential for bodily homeostasis. The impairment of liver functions has serious implications and is responsible for high rates of patient morbidity and mortality. Presently, liver transplantation remains the only effective treatment, but donor availability is a major limitation. Therefore, artificial and bioartificial liver devices have been developed to bridge patients to liver transplantation. Existing support devices improve hepatic encephalopathy to a certain extent; however their usage is associated with side effects. The major hindrance in the development of bioartificial liver devices and cellular therapies is the limited availability of human hepatocytes. Moreover, primary hepatocytes are difficult to maintain and lose hepatic identity and function over time even with sophisticated tissue culture media. To overcome this limitation, renewable cell sources are being explored. Human embryonic stem cells are one such cellular resource and have been shown to generate a reliable and reproducible supply of human hepatic endoderm. Therefore, the use of human embryonic stem cell-derived hepatic endoderm in combination with tissue engineering has the potential to pave the way for the development of novel bioartificial liver devices and predictive drug toxicity assays.
Sarid, J.; Halazonetis, T.D.; Murphy, W.; Leder, P.
The myc family of oncogenes contains coding sequences that have been preserved in different species for over 400 million years. This conservation (which implies functional selection) is broadly represented throughout the C-terminal portion of the human c-myc protein but is largely restricted to three cluster of amino acid sequences in the N-terminal region. The authors have examined the role that the latter three regions of the c-myc protein might play in the transforming function of the c-myc gene. Several mutations, deletions and frameshifts, were introduced into the c-myc gene, and these mutant genes were tested for their ability to collaborate with the EJ-ras oncogene to transform rat embryo fibroblasts. Complete elimination of the first two N-terminal conserved segments abolished transforming activity. In contrast, genes altered in a portion of the second or the entire third conserved segment retained their transforming activity. Thus, the latter two segments are not required for the transformation process, suggesting that they serve another function related only to the normal expression of the c-myc gene
Magne, Fabien; O'Ryan, Miguel L; Vidal, Roberto; Farfan, Mauricio
The gut microbiome is critical for human health, and its alteration is associated with intestinal, autoimmune and metabolic diseases. Numerous studies have focused on prevention or treatment of dysbiotic microbiome to reduce the risk or effect of these diseases. A key issue is to define the microbiome associated with the state of good health. The purpose of this review is to describe factors influencing the gut microbiome with special emphasis on contributions from Latin America. In addition, we will highlight opportunities for future studies on gut microbiome in Latin America. A relevant factor influencing gut microbiome composition is geographical location associated with specific genetic, dietary and lifestyle factors. Geographical specificities suggest that a universal 'healthy microbiome' is unlikely. Several research programs, mostly from Europe and North America, are extensively sequencing gut microbiome of healthy people, whereas data from Latin America remain scarce yet slowly increasing. Few studies have shown difference in the composition of gut microbiome between their local populations with that of other industrialized countries (North American populations). Latin America is composed of countries with a myriad of lifestyles, traditions, genetic backgrounds and socioeconomic conditions, which may determine differences in gut microbiome of individuals from different countries. This represents an opportunity to better understand the relationship between these factors and gut microbiome.
Naseer, M.M.; Nawaz, R.; Shafique, M.; Rehman, R.
Urinary excretion of free mefenamic acid was investigated in 16 healthy human volunteers, eight males and eight females, following the oral administration of 500 mg tablet of mefenamic acid. Urine samples were collected at pre-determined schedule and drug concentration was determined by spectrophotometric method. The total recovery of free mefenamic acid was 1.526 +- 0.128 and 1.193 +- 0.112% in male and female volunteers respectively. The average +- S.E values for diuresis, pH and rate of excretion of mefenamic acid was 0.0160 +- 0.004 mL/min./kg of body weight, 6.22 +- 0.167, 0.077 +- 0.016 micro g min/sup -1/kg/sup -1/in male while 0.0084 +- 0.0023mL min/sup -1/kg-1 of body weight, 6.35 +- 0.164, 0.054 +- 0.008 micro g min/sup -1/kg/sup -1/respectively in female volunteers. The results obtained are different from the earlier studies due to variability in dose, gender variation, fluctuation in urine pH, environmental conditions and nutritional ingredients. (author)
Strick, M.A.; Van Soolingen, Jantine
People sometimes say they are ‘moved’ or ‘touched’ by something. Although the experience is familiar to most, systematic research on being moved has just begun. The current research aims to advance our understanding of the prototypical elicitors of being moved. We tested the hypothesis that being
Oyarzún G, Manuel; Pinto C, María Eugenia; Raineri B, Gina G; Amigo, Hugo; Cifuentes O, Lucía; González, María Julieta; Horwitz, Nina; Marshall F, Claudia; Orellana V, Gricel
The welfare of research participants must be guaranteed by international ethical standards. This article communicates the procedures of the Research Ethics Committee of the School of Medicine, University of Chile (CEISH). The new Chilean legislation on research in human beings is also discussed. Law 20.120: "On scientific research in human beings, its genome and forbidding human cloning" establishes the ethical principles that must be accomplished in every research involving human beings. Article 28 of the Law 20.584 "Regulation of the rights and duties of health care users", forbids the participation of handicapped people who cannot express their will in scientific research. Article 13 states that people not related directly with patient care cannot have access to his clinical records (with the exception of people with notarial authorization by the patient). CEISH proposes that, in case of people with intellectual deficiency, the decision to approve a scientific research should be analyzed on an individual basis. If the person is capable of expressing his or her will or has stated his or her consent beforehand, the research can be authorized. If the person cannot express his or her will, the scientific research cannot take place. In prospective studies, a consent from the patient and an authorization of the health authority should be required to access clinical records. In retrospective studies, consent should be obtained from the patient when personal information is going to be used. If the information is nameless, the consent can be disregarded.
Kulleperuma, Kethika; Smith, Susan M E; Morgan, Deri; Musset, Boris; Holyoake, John; Chakrabarti, Nilmadhab; Cherny, Vladimir V; DeCoursey, Thomas E; Pomès, Régis
The topological similarity of voltage-gated proton channels (H(V)1s) to the voltage-sensing domain (VSD) of other voltage-gated ion channels raises the central question of whether H(V)1s have a similar structure. We present the construction and validation of a homology model of the human H(V)1 (hH(V)1). Multiple structural alignment was used to construct structural models of the open (proton-conducting) state of hH(V)1 by exploiting the homology of hH(V)1 with VSDs of K(+) and Na(+) channels of known three-dimensional structure. The comparative assessment of structural stability of the homology models and their VSD templates was performed using massively repeated molecular dynamics simulations in which the proteins were allowed to relax from their initial conformation in an explicit membrane mimetic. The analysis of structural deviations from the initial conformation based on up to 125 repeats of 100-ns simulations for each system reveals structural features consistently retained in the homology models and leads to a consensus structural model for hH(V)1 in which well-defined external and internal salt-bridge networks stabilize the open state. The structural and electrostatic properties of this open-state model are compatible with proton translocation and offer an explanation for the reversal of charge selectivity in neutral mutants of Asp(112). Furthermore, these structural properties are consistent with experimental accessibility data, providing a valuable basis for further structural and functional studies of hH(V)1. Each Arg residue in the S4 helix of hH(V)1 was replaced by His to test accessibility using Zn(2+) as a probe. The two outermost Arg residues in S4 were accessible to external solution, whereas the innermost one was accessible only to the internal solution. Both modeling and experimental data indicate that in the open state, Arg(211), the third Arg residue in the S4 helix in hH(V)1, remains accessible to the internal solution and is located near the
Maier Christina J
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gram-negative bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn is the leading intracellular human pathogen responsible for respiratory infections such as pneumonia and bronchitis. Basic and applied research in pathogen biology, especially the elaboration of new mechanism-based anti-pathogen strategies, target discovery and drug development, rely heavily on the availability of the entire set of pathogen open reading frames, the ORFeome. The ORFeome of Cpn will enable genome- and proteome-wide systematic analysis of Cpn, which will improve our understanding of the molecular networks and mechanisms underlying and governing its pathogenesis. Results Here we report the construction of a comprehensive gene collection covering 98.5% of the 1052 predicted and verified ORFs of Cpn (Chlamydia pneumoniae strain CWL029 in Gateway® ‘entry’ vectors. Based on genomic DNA isolated from the vascular chlamydial strain CV-6, we constructed an ORFeome library that contains 869 unique Gateway® entry clones (83% coverage and an additional 168 PCR-verified ‘pooled’ entry clones, reaching an overall coverage of ~98.5% of the predicted CWL029 ORFs. The high quality of the ORFeome library was verified by PCR-gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing, and its functionality was demonstrated by expressing panels of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli and by genome-wide protein interaction analysis for a test set of three Cpn virulence factors in a yeast 2-hybrid system. The ORFeome is available in different configurations of resource stocks, PCR-products, purified plasmid DNA, and living cultures of E. coli harboring the desired entry clone or pooled entry clones. All resources are available in 96-well microtiterplates. Conclusion This first ORFeome library for Cpn provides an essential new tool for this important pathogen. The high coverage of entry clones will enable a systems biology approach for Cpn or host–pathogen analysis. The high yield of
Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu; Chen, Wen-Chi
No formal epidemiological research based on systematic analysis has focused on the relationship between herpes zoster and immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Taiwan. Our aim was to explore whether herpes zoster is an early manifestation of undiagnosed human HIV infection in Taiwan. This was a retrospective cohort study using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. A total of 35,892 individuals aged ≤ 84 years with newly diagnosed herpes zoster from 1998 to 2010 were assigned to the herpes zoster group, whereas 143,568 sex-matched and age-matched, randomly selected individuals without herpes zoster served as the non-herpes zoster group. The incidence of HIV diagnosis at the end of 2011 was estimated in both groups. The multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) for risk of HIV diagnosis associated with herpes zoster and other comorbidities including drug dependence and venereal diseases. The overall incidence of HIV diagnosis was 4.19-fold greater in the herpes zoster group than that in the non-herpes zoster group (3.33 per 10,000 person-years vs. 0.80 per 10,000 person-years, 95% CI 4.04-4.35). The multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis revealed that the adjusted hazard ratio of HIV diagnosis was 4.37 (95% CI 3.10-6.15) for individuals with herpes zoster and without comorbidities, as compared with individuals without herpes zoster and without comorbidities. Herpes zoster is associated with HIV diagnosis. Patients who have risk behaviors of HIV infection should receive regular surveillance for undiagnosed HIV infection when they present with herpes zoster. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Would a "medicalization" of love be a "good" or "bad" form of medicalization? In discussing this question, Earp, Sandberg, and Savulescu primarily focus on the potential positive and negative consequences of turning love into a medical issue. But it can also be asked whether there is something
Klopfleisch, Robert; Lenze, Dido; Hummel, Michael; Gruber, Achim D
Similar to human breast cancer mammary tumors of the female dog are commonly associated with a fatal outcome due to the development of distant metastases. However, the molecular defects leading to metastasis are largely unknown and the value of canine mammary carcinoma as a model for human breast cancer is unclear. In this study, we analyzed the gene expression signatures associated with mammary tumor metastasis and asked for parallels with the human equivalent. Messenger RNA expression profiles of twenty-seven lymph node metastasis positive or negative canine mammary carcinomas were established by microarray analysis. Differentially expressed genes were functionally characterized and associated with molecular pathways. The findings were also correlated with published data on human breast cancer. Metastatic canine mammary carcinomas had 1,011 significantly differentially expressed genes when compared to non-metastatic carcinomas. Metastatic carcinomas had a significant up-regulation of genes associated with cell cycle regulation, matrix modulation, protein folding and proteasomal degradation whereas cell differentiation genes, growth factor pathway genes and regulators of actin organization were significantly down-regulated. Interestingly, 265 of the 1,011 differentially expressed canine genes are also related to human breast cancer and, vice versa, parts of a human prognostic gene signature were identified in the expression profiles of the metastatic canine tumors. Metastatic canine mammary carcinomas can be discriminated from non-metastatic carcinomas by their gene expression profiles. More than one third of the differentially expressed genes are also described of relevance for human breast cancer. Many of the differentially expressed genes are linked to functions and pathways which appear to be relevant for the induction and maintenance of metastatic progression and may represent new therapeutic targets. Furthermore, dogs are in some aspects suitable as a
Cruz, R E; Macedo, A M; Barnabé, C; Freitas, J M; Chiari, E; Veloso, V M; Carneiro, C M; Bahia, M T; Tafuri, Washington L; Lana, M
We describe here an extension of a previous genetic characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi strains (Be-62 and Be-78) isolated from the patient Berenice, the first human case of Chagas disease [Chagas, C., 1909. Nova Tripanomíase humana. Estudos sobre morfologia e o ciclo evolutivo do Schizotrypanum cruzi, n. gen., n. sp., agente etiolójico da nova entidade morbida do homem. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 1, 159-218]. We wanted to verify the composition of T. cruzi populations originated from these two isolates. In the present work, 22 enzymatic loci (MLEE), nine RAPD primers and 7 microsatellite loci were analyzed. Clones from both strains were also characterized to verify whether these strains are mono or polyclonal. Be-62 and Be-78 strains were different in 3 out of 22 enzymatic systems, in 3 out of 9 RAPD primers tested and in all microsatellite loci investigated. However, our data suggests that both strains are phylogenetically closely related, belonging to genetic group 32 from Tibayrenc and Ayala [Tibayrenc, M., Ayala, F.J., 1988. Isoenzime variability in Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas' disease: genetical, taxonomical, and epidemiological significance. Evolution 42, 277-292], equivalent to zymodeme 2 and T. cruzi II major lineage which, in Brazil, comprises parasites from the domestic cycle of the disease. Microsatellite analyses showed differences between the parental strains but suggested that both populations are monoclonal since each strain and their respective clones showed the same amplification products.
Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina; Papaioannou, Virginia E
Cloning is commonly perceived as a means of generating genetically identical individuals, but it can also be used to obtain genetically matched embryo-derived stem cells, which could potentially be used in the treatment of patients. A recent report offers the first 'proof of principle' of such cloning for therapeutic purposes, referred to as nuclear transplantation to produce stem cells for autologous transplantation. PMID:12186652
The U.S. Human Well-being Index (HWBI) is a composite measure that incorporates economic, environmental, and societal well-being elements through the eight domains of connection to nature, cultural fulfillment, education, health, leisure time, living standards, safety and securit...
Pinto, Laura Elizabeth; Foulkes, Donna
This study draws on Martha Nussbaum's (2000) account of the nature of human well-being in order to explore the role of animals in formal education settings. Nussbaum's capabilities approach identifies the ability "to have concern for and live with other animals, plants and the environment" (p. 80) as a necessary component for well-being.…
Luiz Henrique de Araújo Dutra
Full Text Available In this paper, I try to argue that both science, as a specific kind of knowledge, and human knowledge in general are activities of constructing models. In the first part, I present my conception according to which scientific models are abstract entities, and that scientific theories may be interpreted as classes of models as abstract replicas of real settings, in which certain laws apply. In the second part, I try to extend that same conception to ordinary human knowledge, particularly to the case of the cognitive activity of classifying objects of experience.Neste artigo, vamos procurar argumentar que tanto a ciência, enquanto um tipo específico de conhecimento, quanto o conhecimento humano em geral são atividades de construção de modelos. Na primeira parte, apresentamos nossa concepção segundo a qual os modelos científicos são entidades abstratas, e as teorias científicas podem ser interpretadas como classes de modelos enquanto réplicas abstratas de situações reais, nas quais valem determinadas leis. Na segunda parte, procuramos estender essa mesma concepção ao conhecimento humano ordinário, em particular, ao caso da atividade cognitiva de classificar os objetos da experiência.
Ibrahim, W. H. W.; Marinie, E.; Yunus, J.; Asra, N.; Sukor, K. Mohd
This study aims to investigate the variation of air pollutants associated with the quarry activities prior to classified distance from quarry site. Air pollutants were monitored with the use of instruments which are Rae System Multirae Lite Pumped (PGM-6208) to measure indoor air quality while TSI 8533 Dusttrack Drx Desktop Aerosol Monitor to measure outdoor air quality. Sampling will be replicated two times. The locations of quarry are at Bandar Saujana Putra and Taman Kajang Perdana 2, Selangor. The objectives of this study are to investigate the impact of quarry mining by preparing the suitable Indoor Air Quality Index and to prepare preventive measure for residential that caused from quarry mining activities. Both Qualitative and Quantitative approaches will be implemented in this study, which employed case study and interview survey. Both quarries identified previously will be the main case study. The Respondent’s interviews are from Local Authority and Quarry Management Staff while questionnaire surveys from selected residences. Measurement method will be used to measure the Particle Matter (PM2.5) for indoor and outdoor in selected resident’s area. However, this paper is primed to discuss the method used in this study. It is not only presents the beneficial information for future research on methodologies employed but also it is anticipated the benefit to environment which can increased residents’ well-being in the vicinity of quarry sites.
Many contemporary philosophers tell us that we are essentially purposeful, independent, willing, and acting beings. The self is presented as a citadel defending itself against external, alien influences. Alternatively, some argue that we are the sum of a determined body and a free will. Are we
Hales, Simon; Corvalan, Carlos; McMichael, Anthony (Tony) J
... 36 4 What actions are required to address the health consequences of ecosystem change? 4.1 Reducing vulnerability 4.2 The Millennium Development Goals 38 38 39 5 How can priorities be established for actions to address the health consequences of ecosystem change? 5.1 What considerations are important when setting priorities and what...
Arendt, Johan Frederik Berg; Quadros, Edward V.; Christensen, Anna Lisa
Background: Recently, the cell-surface receptor involved in the internalisation of the cobalamin(vitamin B12, Cbl) transporting protein, transcobalamin(TC), was described, and was found to be CD320(1). So far, it remains unsolved whether CD320 is present in a soluble form (sCD320) in serum. Our aim...
Deffuant, G.; Alvarez, I.; Barreteau, O.; Vries, de B.; Edmonds, B.; Gilbert, N.; Gotts, N.; Jabot, F.; Janssen, S.J.C.; Hilden, M.; Kolditz, O.; Murray-Rust, D.; Rouge, C.; Smits, P.
This position paper proposes a vision for the research activity about sustainability in global environmental change (GEC) taking place in the FuturICT flagship project. This activity will be organised in an "Exploratory", gathering a core network of European scientists from ICT, social simulation,