WorldWideScience

Sample records for human behavior models

  1. Mathematical models of human behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Anders Edsberg

    data set, along with work on other behavioral data. The overall goal is to contribute to a quantitative understanding of human behavior using big data and mathematical models. Central to the thesis is the determination of the predictability of different human activities. Upper limits are derived......, thereby implying that interactions between spreading processes are driving forces of attention dynamics. Overall, the thesis contributes to a quantitative understanding of a wide range of different human behaviors by applying mathematical modeling to behavioral data. There can be no doubt......During the last 15 years there has been an explosion in human behavioral data caused by the emergence of cheap electronics and online platforms. This has spawned a whole new research field called computational social science, which has a quantitative approach to the study of human behavior. Most...

  2. Mathematical models of human behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Anders Edsberg

    During the last 15 years there has been an explosion in human behavioral data caused by the emergence of cheap electronics and online platforms. This has spawned a whole new research field called computational social science, which has a quantitative approach to the study of human behavior. Most...... studies have considered data sets with just one behavioral variable such as email communication. The Social Fabric interdisciplinary research project is an attempt to collect a more complete data set on human behavior by providing 1000 smartphones with pre-installed data collection software to students...... data set, along with work on other behavioral data. The overall goal is to contribute to a quantitative understanding of human behavior using big data and mathematical models. Central to the thesis is the determination of the predictability of different human activities. Upper limits are derived...

  3. On our best behavior: optimality models in human behavioral ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Catherine

    2009-06-01

    This paper discusses problems associated with the use of optimality models in human behavioral ecology. Optimality models are used in both human and non-human animal behavioral ecology to test hypotheses about the conditions generating and maintaining behavioral strategies in populations via natural selection. The way optimality models are currently used in behavioral ecology faces significant problems, which are exacerbated by employing the so-called 'phenotypic gambit': that is, the bet that the psychological and inheritance mechanisms responsible for behavioral strategies will be straightforward. I argue that each of several different possible ways we might interpret how optimality models are being used for humans face similar and additional problems. I suggest some ways in which human behavioral ecologists might adjust how they employ optimality models; in particular, I urge the abandonment of the phenotypic gambit in the human case.

  4. Behavior genetic modeling of human fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodgers, J L; Kohler, H P; Kyvik, K O

    2001-01-01

    Try) and number of children (NumCh). Behavior genetic models were fitted using structural equation modeling and DF analysis. A consistent medium-level additive genetic influence was found for NumCh, equal across genders; a stronger genetic influence was identified for FirstTry, greater for females than for males......Behavior genetic designs and analysis can be used to address issues of central importance to demography. We use this methodology to document genetic influence on human fertility. Our data come from Danish twin pairs born from 1953 to 1959, measured on age at first attempt to get pregnant (First...

  5. Behavior genetic modeling of human fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodgers, J L; Kohler, H P; Kyvik, K O;

    2001-01-01

    Try) and number of children (NumCh). Behavior genetic models were fitted using structural equation modeling and DF analysis. A consistent medium-level additive genetic influence was found for NumCh, equal across genders; a stronger genetic influence was identified for FirstTry, greater for females than for males...

  6. Modeling Human Behavior to Anticipate Insider Attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Hohimer, Ryan E.

    2011-06-09

    The insider threat ranks among the most pressing cybersecurity challenges that threaten government and industry information infrastructures. To date, no systematic methods have been developed that provide a complete and effective approach to prevent data leakage, espionage and sabotage. Current practice is forensic in nature, relegating to the analyst the bulk of the responsibility to monitor, analyze, and correlate an overwhelming amount of data. We describe a predictive modeling framework that integrates a diverse set of data sources from the cyber domain as well as inferred psychological/motivational factors that may underlie malicious insider exploits. This comprehensive threat assessment approach provides automated support for the detection of high-risk behavioral “triggers” to help focus the analyst’s attention and inform the analysis. Designed to be domain independent, the system may be applied to many different threat and warning analysis/sensemaking problems.

  7. Modeling Human Behavior to Anticipate Insider Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan E Hohimer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The insider threat ranks among the most pressing cyber-security challenges that threaten government and industry information infrastructures. To date, no systematic methods have been developed that provide a complete and effective approach to prevent data leakage, espionage, and sabotage. Current practice is forensic in nature, relegating to the analyst the bulk of the responsibility to monitor, analyze, and correlate an overwhelming amount of data. We describe a predictive modeling framework that integrates a diverse set of data sources from the cyber domain, as well as inferred psychological/motivational factors that may underlie malicious insider exploits. This comprehensive threat assessment approach provides automated support for the detection of high-risk behavioral "triggers" to help focus the analyst's attention and inform the analysis. Designed to be domain-independent, the system may be applied to many different threat and warning analysis/sense-making problems.

  8. Modeling for the Dynamics of Human Innovative Behaviors

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Ying-Ting; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2013-01-01

    How to promote the innovative activities is an important problem for modern society. In this paper, combining with the evolutionary games and information spreading, we propose a lattice model to investigate dynamics of human innovative behaviors based on benefit-driven assumption. Simulations show several properties in agreement with peoples' daily cognition on innovative behaviors, such as slow diffusion of innovative behaviors, gathering of innovative strategy on "innovative centers", and quasi-localized dynamics. Furthermore, our model also emerges rich non-Poisson properties in the temporal-spacial patterns of the innovative status, including the scaling law in the interval time of innovation releases and the bimodal distributions on the spreading range of innovations, which would be universal in human innovative behaviors. Our model provide a basic framework on the study of the issue relevant to the evolution of human innovative behaviors and the promotion measurement of innovative activities.

  9. Modeling and simulating human teamwork behaviors using intelligent agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaocong; Yen, John

    2004-12-01

    Among researchers in multi-agent systems there has been growing interest in using intelligent agents to model and simulate human teamwork behaviors. Teamwork modeling is important for training humans in gaining collaborative skills, for supporting humans in making critical decisions by proactively gathering, fusing, and sharing information, and for building coherent teams with both humans and agents working effectively on intelligence-intensive problems. Teamwork modeling is also challenging because the research has spanned diverse disciplines from business management to cognitive science, human discourse, and distributed artificial intelligence. This article presents an extensive, but not exhaustive, list of work in the field, where the taxonomy is organized along two main dimensions: team social structure and social behaviors. Along the dimension of social structure, we consider agent-only teams and mixed human-agent teams. Along the dimension of social behaviors, we consider collaborative behaviors, communicative behaviors, helping behaviors, and the underpinning of effective teamwork-shared mental models. The contribution of this article is that it presents an organizational framework for analyzing a variety of teamwork simulation systems and for further studying simulated teamwork behaviors.

  10. Detection of Unusual Human Activities Based on Behavior Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Hiraishi, Kunihiko; Kobayashi, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    A type of services that require human physical actions and intelligent decision making exists in various real fields, such as nursing in hospitals and caregiving in nursing homes. In this paper, we propose new formalism for modeling human behavior in such services. Behavior models are estimated from event-logs, and can be used for analysis of human activities. We show two analysis methods: one is to detect unusual human activities that appear in event-logs, and the other is to find staffs tha...

  11. A Culture-Behavior-Brain Loop Model of Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shihui; Ma, Yina

    2015-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that cultural influences on brain activity are associated with multiple cognitive and affective processes. These findings prompt an integrative framework to account for dynamic interactions between culture, behavior, and the brain. We put forward a culture-behavior-brain (CBB) loop model of human development that proposes that culture shapes the brain by contextualizing behavior, and the brain fits and modifies culture via behavioral influences. Genes provide a fundamental basis for, and interact with, the CBB loop at both individual and population levels. The CBB loop model advances our understanding of the dynamic relationships between culture, behavior, and the brain, which are crucial for human phylogeny and ontogeny. Future brain changes due to cultural influences are discussed based on the CBB loop model.

  12. Sensitivity analysis techniques for models of human behavior.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bier, Asmeret Brooke

    2010-09-01

    Human and social modeling has emerged as an important research area at Sandia National Laboratories due to its potential to improve national defense-related decision-making in the presence of uncertainty. To learn about which sensitivity analysis techniques are most suitable for models of human behavior, different promising methods were applied to an example model, tested, and compared. The example model simulates cognitive, behavioral, and social processes and interactions, and involves substantial nonlinearity, uncertainty, and variability. Results showed that some sensitivity analysis methods create similar results, and can thus be considered redundant. However, other methods, such as global methods that consider interactions between inputs, can generate insight not gained from traditional methods.

  13. Mitigating Insider Threat Using Human Behavior Influence Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Change in Score Versus Time for Both Employees (over 3 years).......................94 45. Distribution of Sensitivity Tests Performed ...Human Behavior Human Behavior is defined as a “collection of activities performed by human beings and influenced by culture, attitudes, emotions...values, ethics, authority, rapport, hypnosis , persuasion, and/or coercion.” [6] The theory behind human behavior is humans react to “definite objective

  14. Animal models for human behavioral deficiencies during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, J

    1992-01-01

    Often considered to be a subdiscipline of neurotoxicology, experimental behavioral teratology has difficulties to be acknowledged by its own right. Results obtained in the laboratory concerning purely behavioral effects induced by low level prenatal exposure to substances are often doubted to contain any relevance with respect to humans. This doubt is based on many debates going on in the numerous extrapolation steps between observed effects on animal behavior and human psychopathology. Taking the inverse path, extrapolation from a typical human behavioral syndrome (minimal brain dysfunction) to observations which can be made on laboratory animals, the following main debates are discussed: the psychology debate (behaviorism--perceptionism--cognitivism); the psychopathology debate (hyperactivity--attention deficit--tactile-kinesthetic perception deficiency--sensory integration deficits); the relevance debate (behavior is reprogrammable software--behavioral deficits may reflect undetectable hardware defects); the interpretation debate (behavioral teratogenicity is chemical imprinting--behavioral disturbances due to chemicals reflect neurotoxicity); the intelligence debate (IQ decrements--attention deficits); the developmental delay debate (the relevance of a delay in the behavioral development); the sensitivity debate (behavior is the most sensitive measure in toxicology--the brain redundancy and plasticity compensates subtle deficiencies); the statistics debate (gather as many behavioral variables as possible--stay simple and measure only one aspect of behavior); the regulation debate (behavioral teratology should be regulated in detail--tests should not be prescribed). It is attempted to find rational solutions for these debates which menace to jeopardize the very existence of behavioral teratology.

  15. Modeling human behavior in economics and social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolfin, M; Leonida, L; Outada, N

    2017-06-29

    The complex interactions between human behaviors and social economic sciences is critically analyzed in this paper in view of possible applications of mathematical modeling as an attainable interdisciplinary approach to understand and simulate the aforementioned dynamics. The quest is developed along three steps: Firstly an overall analysis of social and economic sciences indicates the main requirements that a contribution of mathematical modeling should bring to these sciences; subsequently the focus moves to an overview of mathematical tools and to the selection of those which appear, according to the authors bias, appropriate to the modeling; finally, a survey of applications is presented looking ahead to research perspectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Predictive models of procedural human supervisory control behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussemart, Yves

    Human supervisory control systems are characterized by the computer-mediated nature of the interactions between one or more operators and a given task. Nuclear power plants, air traffic management and unmanned vehicles operations are examples of such systems. In this context, the role of the operators is typically highly proceduralized due to the time and mission-critical nature of the tasks. Therefore, the ability to continuously monitor operator behavior so as to detect and predict anomalous situations is a critical safeguard for proper system operation. In particular, such models can help support the decision J]l8king process of a supervisor of a team of operators by providing alerts when likely anomalous behaviors are detected By exploiting the operator behavioral patterns which are typically reinforced through standard operating procedures, this thesis proposes a methodology that uses statistical learning techniques in order to detect and predict anomalous operator conditions. More specifically, the proposed methodology relies on hidden Markov models (HMMs) and hidden semi-Markov models (HSMMs) to generate predictive models of unmanned vehicle systems operators. Through the exploration of the resulting HMMs in two distinct single operator scenarios, the methodology presented in this thesis is validated and shown to provide models capable of reliably predicting operator behavior. In addition, the use of HSMMs on the same data scenarios provides the temporal component of the predictions missing from the HMMs. The final step of this work is to examine how the proposed methodology scales to more complex scenarios involving teams of operators. Adopting a holistic team modeling approach, both HMMs and HSMMs are learned based on two team-based data sets. The results show that the HSMMs can provide valuable timing information in the single operator case, whereas HMMs tend to be more robust to increased team complexity. In addition, this thesis discusses the

  17. Human turnover dynamics during sleep: Statistical behavior and its modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Okuma, Yasuyuki; Utsumi, Hiroya; Terashi, Hiroo; Mitoma, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    Turnover is a typical intermittent body movement while asleep. Exploring its behavior may provide insights into the mechanisms and management of sleep. However, little is understood about the dynamic nature of turnover in healthy humans and how it can be modified in disease. Here we present a detailed analysis of turnover signals that are collected by accelerometry from healthy elderly subjects and age-matched patients with neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease. In healthy subjects, the time intervals between consecutive turnover events exhibit a well-separated bimodal distribution with one mode at ⩽10 s and the other at ⩾100 s, whereas such bimodality tends to disappear in neurodegenerative patients. The discovery of bimodality and fine temporal structures (⩽10 s) is a contribution that is not revealed by conventional sleep recordings with less time resolution (≈30 s). Moreover, we estimate the scaling exponent of the interval fluctuations, which also shows a clear difference between healthy subjects and patients. We incorporate these experimental results into a computational model of human decision making. A decision is to be made at each simulation step between two choices: to keep on sleeping or to make a turnover, the selection of which is determined dynamically by comparing a pair of random numbers assigned to each choice. This decision is weighted by a single parameter that reflects the depth of sleep. The resulting simulated behavior accurately replicates many aspects of observed turnover patterns, including the appearance or disappearance of bimodality and leads to several predictions, suggesting that the depth parameter may be useful as a quantitative measure for differentiating between normal and pathological sleep. These findings have significant clinical implications and may pave the way for the development of practical sleep assessment technologies.

  18. Human turnover dynamics during sleep: statistical behavior and its modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Okuma, Yasuyuki; Utsumi, Hiroya; Terashi, Hiroo; Mitoma, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    Turnover is a typical intermittent body movement while asleep. Exploring its behavior may provide insights into the mechanisms and management of sleep. However, little is understood about the dynamic nature of turnover in healthy humans and how it can be modified in disease. Here we present a detailed analysis of turnover signals that are collected by accelerometry from healthy elderly subjects and age-matched patients with neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease. In healthy subjects, the time intervals between consecutive turnover events exhibit a well-separated bimodal distribution with one mode at ⩽10 s and the other at ⩾100 s, whereas such bimodality tends to disappear in neurodegenerative patients. The discovery of bimodality and fine temporal structures (⩽10 s) is a contribution that is not revealed by conventional sleep recordings with less time resolution (≈30 s). Moreover, we estimate the scaling exponent of the interval fluctuations, which also shows a clear difference between healthy subjects and patients. We incorporate these experimental results into a computational model of human decision making. A decision is to be made at each simulation step between two choices: to keep on sleeping or to make a turnover, the selection of which is determined dynamically by comparing a pair of random numbers assigned to each choice. This decision is weighted by a single parameter that reflects the depth of sleep. The resulting simulated behavior accurately replicates many aspects of observed turnover patterns, including the appearance or disappearance of bimodality and leads to several predictions, suggesting that the depth parameter may be useful as a quantitative measure for differentiating between normal and pathological sleep. These findings have significant clinical implications and may pave the way for the development of practical sleep assessment technologies.

  19. Human Behavior Model Based Control Program for ACC Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Pozna

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Present work is a part of the ACC autonomous car project. This paper will focuson the control program architecture. To design this architecture we will start from thehuman driver behavior model. Using this model we have constructed a three level controlprogram. Preliminary results are presented.

  20. A Social Episode Model of Human Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Robert G.; Freeman, William M.

    1976-01-01

    A social episode model of sexual behavior is proposed with emphasis placed on arousal as a crucial variable. This model argues against a disease or deficiency concept of homosexuality. The authors hold a therapist should adequately respond to a valid sexual orientation request. (Author)

  1. Modeling of Human Criminal Behavior using Probabilistic Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Pillai, Ramesh Kumar Gopala

    2010-01-01

    Currently, criminals profile (CP) is obtained from investigators or forensic psychologists interpretation, linking crime scene characteristics and an offenders behavior to his or her characteristics and psychological profile. This paper seeks an efficient and systematic discovery of nonobvious and valuable patterns between variables from a large database of solved cases via a probabilistic network (PN) modeling approach. The PN structure can be used to extract behavioral patterns and to gain insight into what factors influence these behaviors. Thus, when a new case is being investigated and the profile variables are unknown because the offender has yet to be identified, the observed crime scene variables are used to infer the unknown variables based on their connections in the structure and the corresponding numerical (probabilistic) weights. The objective is to produce a more systematic and empirical approach to profiling, and to use the resulting PN model as a decision tool.

  2. Modeling human decision making behavior in supervisory control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulga, M. K.; Sheridan, T. B.

    1977-01-01

    An optimal decision control model was developed, which is based primarily on a dynamic programming algorithm which looks at all the available task possibilities, charts an optimal trajectory, and commits itself to do the first step (i.e., follow the optimal trajectory during the next time period), and then iterates the calculation. A Bayesian estimator was included which estimates the tasks which might occur in the immediate future and provides this information to the dynamic programming routine. Preliminary trials comparing the human subject's performance to that of the optimal model show a great similarity, but indicate that the human skips certain movements which require quick change in strategy.

  3. Modeling Humans as Reinforcement Learners: How to Predict Human Behavior in Multi-Stage Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ritchie; Wolpert, David H.; Backhaus, Scott; Bent, Russell; Bono, James; Tracey, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel framework for modeling interacting humans in a multi-stage game environment by combining concepts from game theory and reinforcement learning. The proposed model has the following desirable characteristics: (1) Bounded rational players, (2) strategic (i.e., players account for one anothers reward functions), and (3) is computationally feasible even on moderately large real-world systems. To do this we extend level-K reasoning to policy space to, for the first time, be able to handle multiple time steps. This allows us to decompose the problem into a series of smaller ones where we can apply standard reinforcement learning algorithms. We investigate these ideas in a cyber-battle scenario over a smart power grid and discuss the relationship between the behavior predicted by our model and what one might expect of real human defenders and attackers.

  4. A Human Motor Behavior Model for Direct Pointing at a Distance

    OpenAIRE

    Kopper, Regis; Bowman,Doug A.; Silva, Mara G.

    2008-01-01

    Models of human motor behavior are well known as an aid in the design of user interfaces (UIs). Most current models apply primarily to desktop interaction, but with the development of non-desktop UIs, new types of motor behaviors need to be modeled. Direct Pointing at a Distance is such a motor behavior. A model of direct pointing at a distance would be particularly useful in the comparison of different interaction techniques, because the performance of such techniques is highly dependent on ...

  5. Social interactions model and adaptability of human behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun eZhao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Human social networks evolve on the fast timescale of face-to face interactions and of interactions mediated by technology such as a telephone calls or video conferences. The resulting networks have a strong dynamical component that changes significantly the properties of dynamical processes. In this paper we study a general model of pairwise human social interaction intended to model both face-to face interactions and mobile phone communication. We study the distribution of durations of social interactions in whitin the model. This distribution in one limit is a power law, for other values of the parameters of the model this distribution is given by a Weibull function. Therefore the model can be used to model both face-to-face interactions data, where the distribution of duration has been shown to be fat-tailed, and mobile phone communication data where the distribution of duration is given by a Weibull distribution.The highly adaptable social interaction model propose in this paper has a very simple algorithmic implementation and can be used to simulate dynamical processes occurring in dynamical social interaction networks.

  6. Using Task Analytic Models and Phenotypes of Erroneous Human Behavior to Discover System Failures Using Model Checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Matthew L; Bass, Ellen J

    2010-09-01

    Breakdowns in complex systems often occur as a result of system elements interacting in ways unanticipated by analysts or designers. In systems with human operators, human-automation interaction associated with both normative and erroneous human behavior can contribute to such failures. This paper presents a method for automatically generating task analytic models encompassing both erroneous and normative human behavior from normative task models. The resulting model can be integrated into a formal system model so that system safety properties can be formally verified with a model checker. This allows analysts to prove that a human automation-interactive system (as represented by the model) will or will not satisfy safety properties with both normative and generated erroneous human behavior. This method is illustrated with a case study: the operation of a radiation therapy machine. In this example, a problem resulting from a generated erroneous human action is discovered. Future extensions of our method are discussed.

  7. Model of Competencies for Decomposition of Human Behavior: Application to Control System of Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Vicente Berna-Martinez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Humans and machines have shared the same physical space for many years. To share the same space, we want the robots to behave like human beings. This will facilitate their social integration, their interaction with humans and create an intelligent behavior. To achieve this goal, we need to understand how human behavior is generated, analyze tasks running our nerves and how they relate to them. Then and only then can we implement these mechanisms in robotic beings. In this study, we propose a model of competencies based on human neuroregulator system for analysis and decomposition of behavior into functional modules. Using this model allow separate and locate the tasks to be implemented in a robot that displays human-like behavior. As an example, we show the application of model to the autonomous movement behavior on unfamiliar environments and its implementation in various simulated and real robots with different physical configurations and physical devices of different nature. The main result of this study has been to build a model of competencies that is being used to build robotic systems capable of displaying behaviors similar to humans and consider the specific characteristics of robots.

  8. Modeling the tensile behavior of human Achilles tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, G; Shaw, K M

    1997-01-01

    Uniaxial quasi-static tensile stress, sigma versus strain, epsilon, data were obtained from 29 cadaveric Achilles tendons (donor ages: 36 to 100 years), at a strain rate of either 10 or 100%/s. These results were then used in modeling the elastic component of the tensile deformational behavior of this tissue. Two approaches were taken. In the first, it was shown that the following constitutive relation provided an excellent fit to the elastic section of the sigma-epsilon curve, sigma = C epsilon exp[D epsilon + F epsilon 2], with C, D and F being material constants, whose values for the present dataset were found to be C = 2.00 +/- 0.99, D = 0.089 +/- 0.087 and F = -0.0047 +/- 0.0095. The values of these coefficients were not statistically significantly affected by either donor age or test strain rate. In the second approach, the value of the modulus of elasticity of a filamentary polymer matrix composite material was computed as a function of various combinations of values of the modulus of elasticity of the fiber, the modulus of elasticity of the matrix, and angle of orientation of the principal material axes with respect to the reference coordinate axes (theta) for a fiber volume fraction of 0.6 and a material Poisson's ratio of 0.4. By comparing these results with the experimentally-obtained values of the tangent modulus of elasticity of the tendons (defined as the slope of the linear section of the post-toe zone in the sigma-epsilon plot), and assuming that the tendon may be idealized as a filamentary polymer matrix composite material, the suggestion is made that the winding angle of the fibers (collagen fibrils) in the tendon (taken to be equal to theta) is about 6 degrees.

  9. Coupling infectious diseases, human preventive behavior, and networks--a conceptual framework for epidemic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Liang; Yang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Human-disease interactions involve the transmission of infectious diseases among individuals and the practice of preventive behavior by individuals. Both infectious diseases and preventive behavior diffuse simultaneously through human networks and interact with one another, but few existing models have coupled them together. This article proposes a conceptual framework to fill this knowledge gap and illustrates the model establishment. The conceptual model consists of two networks and two diffusion processes. The two networks include: an infection network that transmits diseases and a communication network that channels inter-personal influence regarding preventive behavior. Both networks are composed of same individuals but different types of interactions. This article further introduces modeling approaches to formulize such a framework, including the individual-based modeling approach, network theory, disease transmission models and behavioral models. An illustrative model was implemented to simulate a coupled-diffusion process during an influenza epidemic. The simulation outcomes suggest that the transmission probability of a disease and the structure of infection network have profound effects on the dynamics of coupled-diffusion. The results imply that current models may underestimate disease transmissibility parameters, because human preventive behavior has not been considered. This issue calls for a new interdisciplinary study that incorporates theories from epidemiology, social science, behavioral science, and health psychology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychopharmacology of male rat sexual behavior: modeling human sexual dysfunctions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier, B.; Chan, J.S.; Pattij, T.; Jong, T.R. de; Oosting, R.S.; Veening, J.G.; Waldinger, M.D.

    2006-01-01

    Most of our current understanding of the neurobiology, neuroanatomy and psychopharmacology of sexual behavior and ejaculatory function has been derived from preclinical studies in the rat. When a large population of male rats is tested on sexual activity during a number of successive tests, over tim

  11. Natural Disasters and Human Behavior: Explanation, Research and Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Christopher

    1979-01-01

    A survey of published research determined that individual and group reactions to natural disasters differ greatly and depend partially on the predisaster personality. Four models are examined to explain individual and group reactions to natural disasters. A conglomerate model and a possible structure to future disaster research are offered.…

  12. Applications of agent-based simulation for human socio-cultural behavior modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Karwowski, Waldemar; Ahram, Tareq Z

    2012-01-01

    Agent-based modeling and simulation (ABMS) has gained wide attention over the past few years. ABMS is a powerful simulation modeling technique that has a number of applications, including applications to real-world business problems [1]. This modeling technique has been used by scientists to analyze complex system-level behavior by simulating the system from the bottom up. The major application of ABMS includes social, political, biology, and economic sciences. This paper provides an overview of ABMS applications with the emphasis on modeling human socio-cultural behavior (HSCB).

  13. Performance Simulation and Analysis for LTE System Using Human Behavior Queue Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Tsang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the nature of traffic has been a key concern of the researchers particularly over the last two decades and it has been noticed through extensive high quality studies that traffic found in different kinds of IP/wireless IP networks is human operators . Despite the recent findings of real time human behavior in measured traffic from data networks, much of the current understanding of IP traffic modeling is still based on simplistic probability distributed traffic. Unlike most existing studies that areprimarily based on simplistic probabilistic model and traditional scheduling algorithms, this research presents an analytical performance model for real time human behavior queue systems with intelligent task management traffic input scheduled by anovel and promising scheduling mechanism for 4G -LTE system. Our proposed model is substantiated on human behavior queuing system that considers real time of traffic exhibiting homogeneous tasks characteristics. We analyze the model on the basis of newly proposed scheduling scheme for 4G - LTE system. We present closed form expressions of expected response times for real time traffic classes. We develop a discrete event simulator to understand the behavior of real time of arriving tasks traffic under this newly proposed scheduling mechanism for 4G - LTE system . The results indicate that our proposed scheduling algorithm provides preferential treatment to real -time applications such as voice and video but not to that extent that data applications are starving for bandwidth and outperforms all other scheduling schemes that are available in the market.

  14. International Space Station Human Behavior and Performance Competency Model: Volume II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lacey

    2008-01-01

    This document further defines the behavioral markers identified in the document "Human Behavior and Performance Competency Model" Vol. I. The Human Behavior and Performance (HBP) competencies were recommended as requirements to participate in international long duration missions, and form the basis for determining the HBP training curriculum for long duration crewmembers. This document provides details, examples, knowledge areas, and affective skills to support the use of the HBP competencies in training and evaluation. This document lists examples and details specific to HBP competencies required of astronauts/cosmonauts who participate in ISS expedition and other international long-duration missions. Please note that this model does not encompass all competencies required. While technical competencies are critical for crewmembers, they are beyond the scope of this document. Additionally, the competencies in this model (and subsequent objectives) are not intended to limit the internal activities or training programs of any international partner.

  15. Data-Driven Modeling of Target Human Behavior in Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-12

    Military Operations Elizabeth Mezzacappa, Ph.D. Gordon Cooke, MEME Gladstone Reid, MSBMS Robert DeMarco, MSBMS Charles Sheridan BA John...stress, and human behavior modeling and simulation issues. GORDON COOKE, MEME , is a Principal Investigator at the TBRL. He was also a Chief

  16. Using ontologies to model human navigation behavior in information networks: A study based on Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprecht, Daniel; Strohmaier, Markus; Helic, Denis; Nyulas, Csongor; Tudorache, Tania; Noy, Natalya F; Musen, Mark A

    The need to examine the behavior of different user groups is a fundamental requirement when building information systems. In this paper, we present Ontology-based Decentralized Search (OBDS), a novel method to model the navigation behavior of users equipped with different types of background knowledge. Ontology-based Decentralized Search combines decentralized search, an established method for navigation in social networks, and ontologies to model navigation behavior in information networks. The method uses ontologies as an explicit representation of background knowledge to inform the navigation process and guide it towards navigation targets. By using different ontologies, users equipped with different types of background knowledge can be represented. We demonstrate our method using four biomedical ontologies and their associated Wikipedia articles. We compare our simulation results with base line approaches and with results obtained from a user study. We find that our method produces click paths that have properties similar to those originating from human navigators. The results suggest that our method can be used to model human navigation behavior in systems that are based on information networks, such as Wikipedia. This paper makes the following contributions: (i) To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to demonstrate the utility of ontologies in modeling human navigation and (ii) it yields new insights and understanding about the mechanisms of human navigation in information networks.

  17. A theoretical model to address organizational human conflict and disruptive behavior in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Llewellyn E

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes a theoretical model for leaders to use to address organizational human conflict and disruptive behavior in health care organizations. Leadership is needed to improve interpersonal relationships within the workforce. A workforce with a culture of internal conflict will be unable to achieve its full potential to delivery quality patient care.

  18. Toward an animal model for antisocial behavior : parallels between mice and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluyter, F; Arseneault, L; Moffitt, TE; Veenema, AH; de Boer, S; Koolhaas, JM

    The goal of this article is to examine whether mouse lines genetically selected for short and long attack latencies are good animal models for antisocial behavior in humans. To this end, we compared male Short and Long Attack Latency mice (SAL and LAL, respectively) with the extremes of the Dunedin

  19. Toward an animal model for antisocial behavior : parallels between mice and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluyter, F; Arseneault, L; Moffitt, TE; Veenema, AH; de Boer, S; Koolhaas, JM

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this article is to examine whether mouse lines genetically selected for short and long attack latencies are good animal models for antisocial behavior in humans. To this end, we compared male Short and Long Attack Latency mice (SAL and LAL, respectively) with the extremes of the Dunedin

  20. Generation of human/rat xenograft animal model for the study of human donor stem cell behaviors in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Sun; Dong Xiao; Xing-Hua Pan; Ruo-Shuang Zhang; Guang-Hui Cui; Xi-Gu Chen

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To accurately and realistically elucidate human stem cell behaviors In vivo and the fundamental mechanisms controlling human stem cell fates in vivo, which is urgently required in regenerative medicine and treatments for some human diseases, a surrogate human-rat chimera model was developed.METHODS: Human-rat chimeras were achieved by in utero transplanting low-density mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood into the fetal rats at 9-11 d of gestation, and subsequently, a variety of methods, including flow cytometry, PCR as well as immunohistochemical assay, were used to test the human donor contribution in the recipients.RESULTS: Of 29 live-born recipients, 19 had the presence of human CD45+ cells in peripheral blood (PB) detected by flow cytometry, while PCR analysis on genomic DNA from 11 different adult tissues showed that 14 selected from flow cytometry-positive 19 animals possessed of donor-derived human cell engraftment in multiple tissues (i.e. liver, spleen, thymus, heart, kidney, blood, lung, muscle, gut and skin) examined at the time of tissue collection, as confirmed by detecting human β2-microglobulin expression using immunohistochemistry.In this xenogeneic system, the engrafted donor-derived human cells persisted in multiple tissues for at least 6 mo after birth. Moreover, transplanted human donor cells underwent site-specific differentiation into CK18-positive human cells in chimeric liver and CD45-positive human cells in chimeric spleen and thymus of recipients.CONCLUSION: Taken together, these findings suggest that we successfully developed human-rat chimeras, in which xenogeneic human cells exist up to 6 mo later. This humanized small animal model, which offers an in vivo environment more closely resembling to the situations in human, provides an invaluable and effective approach for in vivo investigating human stem cell behaviors, and further in vivo examining fundamental mechanisms controlling human stem cell fates in the future

  1. Minimizing Human Risk: Human Performance Models in the Space Human Factors and Habitability and Behavioral Health and Performance Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Brian F.

    2016-01-01

    Human space exploration has never been more exciting than it is today. Human presence to outer worlds is becoming a reality as humans are leveraging much of our prior knowledge to the new mission of going to Mars. Exploring the solar system at greater distances from Earth than ever before will possess some unique challenges, which can be overcome thanks to the advances in modeling and simulation technologies. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is at the forefront of exploring our solar system. NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) focuses on discovering the best methods and technologies that support safe and productive human space travel in the extreme and harsh space environment. HRP uses various methods and approaches to answer questions about the impact of long duration missions on the human in space including: gravity's impact on the human body, isolation and confinement on the human, hostile environments impact on the human, space radiation, and how the distance is likely to impact the human. Predictive models are included in the HRP research portfolio as these models provide valuable insights into human-system operations. This paper will provide an overview of NASA's HRP and will present a number of projects that have used modeling and simulation to provide insights into human-system issues (e.g. automation, habitat design, schedules) in anticipation of space exploration.

  2. Multiple Human Tracking in Complex Situation by Data Assimilation with Pedestrian Behavior Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, W.; Fuse, T.

    2012-07-01

    A new method of multiple human tracking is proposed. The key concept is that to assume a tracking process as a data assimilation process. Despite the importance of understanding pedestrian behavior in public space with regard to achieving more sophisticated space design and flow control, automatic human tracking in complex situation is still challenging when people move close to each other or are occluded by others. For this difficulty, we stochastically combine existing tracking method by image processing with simulation models of walking behavior. We describe a system in a form of general state space model and define the components of the model according to the review on related works. Then we apply the proposed method to the data acquired at the ticket gate of the railway station. We show the high performance of the method, as well as compare the result with other model to present the advantage of integrating the behavior model to the tracking method. We also show the method's ability to acquire passenger flow information such as ticket gate choice and OD data automatically from the tracking result.

  3. Humanism vs. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Madeline

    1977-01-01

    Author argues that humanism and behaviorism are not necessarily exclusive of one another, and that principles of behaviorism, when thoughtfully applied, can lead to the achievement of humanistic goals. (RW)

  4. Bridging Humanism and Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lily

    1980-01-01

    Humanistic behaviorism may provide the necessary bridge between behaviorism and humanism. Perhaps the most humanistic approach to teaching is to learn how certain changes will help students and how these changes can be accomplished. (Author/MLF)

  5. International Space Station Human Behavior and Performance Competency Model: Volume I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lacey

    2008-01-01

    This document defines Human Behavior and Performance (HBP) competencies that are recommended to be included as requirements to participate in international long duration missions. They were developed in response to the Multilateral Crew Operations Panel (MMOP) request to develop HBP training requirements for the International Space Station (ISS). The competency model presented here was developed by the ITCB HBPT WG and forms the basis for determining the HBP training curriculum for long duration crewmembers. This document lists specific HBP competencies and behaviors required of astronauts/cosmonauts who participate in ISS expedition and other international longduration missions. Please note that this model does not encompass all competencies required. For example, outside the scope of this document are cognitive skills and abilities, including but not limited to concentration, memorization, perception, imagination, and thinking. It is assumed that these skills, which are crucial in terms of human behavior and performance, are considered during selection phase since such professionally significant qualities of the operator should be taken into consideration in order to ensure sufficient baseline levels that can be further improved during general astronaut training. Also, technical competencies, even though critical for crewmembers, are beyond the scope of this document. It should also be noted that the competencies in this model (and subsequent objectives) are not intended to limit the internal activities or training programs of any international partner.

  6. Modeling activity-dependent plasticity in BCM spiking neural networks with application to human behavior recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yan; Jin, Yaochu; Yin, Jun

    2011-12-01

    Spiking neural networks (SNNs) are considered to be computationally more powerful than conventional NNs. However, the capability of SNNs in solving complex real-world problems remains to be demonstrated. In this paper, we propose a substantial extension of the Bienenstock, Cooper, and Munro (BCM) SNN model, in which the plasticity parameters are regulated by a gene regulatory network (GRN). Meanwhile, the dynamics of the GRN is dependent on the activation levels of the BCM neurons. We term the whole model "GRN-BCM." To demonstrate its computational power, we first compare the GRN-BCM with a standard BCM, a hidden Markov model, and a reservoir computing model on a complex time series classification problem. Simulation results indicate that the GRN-BCM significantly outperforms the compared models. The GRN-BCM is then applied to two widely used datasets for human behavior recognition. Comparative results on the two datasets suggest that the GRN-BCM is very promising for human behavior recognition, although the current experiments are still limited to the scenarios in which only one object is moving in the considered video sequences.

  7. Behavior of human serum albumin on strong cation exchange resins: II. model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitl, Agnes; Butté, Alessandro; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2010-08-20

    Experiments with human serum albumin on a strong cation exchange resin exhibit a peculiar elution pattern: the protein elutes with two peaks in a modifier gradient. This behavior is modeled with a general rate model, where the two elution peaks are modeled with two binding conformations, one of which is at equilibrium conditions, while for the other, the adsorption process is rate limited. Isocratic experiments under nonadsorbing conditions were used to characterize the mass transfer process. The isotherm of both adsorption conformations as well as the kinetic of adsorption and desorption for the second conformation are functions of the modifier concentration. They are evaluated with linear modifier gradient experiments and step experiments with various adsorption times. All experimental features are well reproduced by the proposed modified general rate model.

  8. Information spreading on mobile communication networks: A new model that incorporates human behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fei; Li, Sai-Ping; Liu, Chuang

    2017-03-01

    Recently, there is a growing interest in the modeling and simulation based on real social networks among researchers in multi-disciplines. Using an empirical social network constructed from the calling records of a Chinese mobile service provider, we here propose a new model to simulate the information spreading process. This model takes into account two important ingredients that exist in real human behaviors: information prevalence and preferential spreading. The fraction of informed nodes when the system reaches an asymptotically stable state is primarily determined by information prevalence, and the heterogeneity of link weights would slow down the information diffusion. Moreover, the sizes of blind clusters which consist of connected uninformed nodes show a power-law distribution, and these uninformed nodes correspond to a particular portion of nodes which are located at special positions in the network, namely at the edges of large clusters or inside the clusters connected through weak links. Since the simulations are performed on a real world network, the results should be useful in the understanding of the influences of social network structures and human behaviors on information propagation.

  9. The SAM framework: modeling the effects of management factors on human behavior in risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D M; Paté-Cornell, M E

    1996-08-01

    Complex engineered systems, such as nuclear reactors and chemical plants, have the potential for catastrophic failure with disastrous consequences. In recent years, human and management factors have been recognized as frequent root causes of major failures in such systems. However, classical probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) techniques do not account for the underlying causes of these errors because they focus on the physical system and do not explicitly address the link between components' performance and organizational factors. This paper describes a general approach for addressing the human and management causes of system failure, called the SAM (System-Action-Management) framework. Beginning with a quantitative risk model of the physical system, SAM expands the scope of analysis to incorporate first the decisions and actions of individuals that affect the physical system. SAM then links management factors (incentives, training, policies and procedures, selection criteria, etc.) to those decisions and actions. The focus of this paper is on four quantitative models of action that describe this last relationship. These models address the formation of intentions for action and their execution as a function of the organizational environment. Intention formation is described by three alternative models: a rational model, a bounded rationality model, and a rule-based model. The execution of intentions is then modeled separately. These four models are designed to assess the probabilities of individual actions from the perspective of management, thus reflecting the uncertainties inherent to human behavior. The SAM framework is illustrated for a hypothetical case of hazardous materials transportation. This framework can be used as a tool to increase the safety and reliability of complex technical systems by modifying the organization, rather than, or in addition to, re-designing the physical system.

  10. Experimental characterization and constitutive modeling of the mechanical behavior of the human trachea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, O; del Palomar, A Pérez; López-Villalobos, J L; Ginel, A; Doblaré, M

    2010-01-01

    Cartilage and smooth muscle constitute the main structural components of the human central airways, their mechanical properties affect the flow in the trachea and contribute to the biological function of the respiratory system. The aim of this work is to find out the mechanical passive response of the principal constituents of the human trachea under static tensile conditions and to propose constitutive models to describe their behavior. Histological analyses to characterize the tissues and mechanical tests have been made on three human trachea specimens obtained from autopsies. Uniaxial tensile tests on cartilaginous rings and smooth muscle were performed. Tracheal cartilage was considered an elastic material and its Young's modulus and Poisson's coefficient were determined fitting the experimental curves using a Neo-Hookean model. The smooth muscle was proved to behave as a reinforced hyperelastic material with two families of collagen fibers, and its non-linearity was investigated using the Holzapfel strain-energy density function for two families of fibers to fit the experimental data obtained from longitudinal and transversal cuts. For cartilage, fitting the experimental curves to an elastic model, a Young's modulus of 3.33 MPa and nu=0.49 were obtained. For smooth muscle, several parameters of the Holzapfel function were found out (C(10)=0.877 kPa, k(1)=0.154 kPa, k(2)=34.157, k(3)=0.347 kPa and k(4)=13.889) and demonstrated that the tracheal muscle was stiffer in the longitudinal direction. The better understanding of how these tissues mechanically behave is essential for a correct modeling of the human trachea, a better simulation of its response under different loading conditions, and the development of strategies for the design of new endotracheal prostheses. (c) 2009 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Method and Process for the Creation of Modeling and Simulation Tools for Human Crowd Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-23

    measurements under controlled conditions. These methods and measures include motion capture of subjects in a laboratory environment to derive coefficients for...Experimentation, Empirical Data, Behavioral Models, Target Behavioral Response Laboratory, Crowds, Predictive Crowd Modeling, Motion Capture 16...MRAD – Handheld stand-off NLW operated by Control Force • Simulated Projectile Weapon • Simulated Handheld Directed Energy NLW (VDE) – Simulated

  12. The phase behavior study of human antibody solution using multi-scale modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gang; Wang, Ying; Lomakin, Aleksey; Benedek, George B.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Xu, Limei; Buldyrev, Sergey V.

    2016-11-01

    Phase transformation in antibody solutions is of growing interest in both academia and the pharmaceutical industry. Recent experimental studies have shown that, as in near-spherical proteins, antibodies can undergo a liquid-liquid phase separation under conditions metastable with respect to crystallization. However, the phase diagram of the Y-shaped antibodies exhibits unique features that differ substantially from those of spherical proteins. Specifically, antibody solutions have an exceptionally low critical volume fraction (CVF) and a broader and more asymmetric liquid-liquid coexistence curve than those of spherical proteins. Using molecular dynamics simulation on a series of trimetric Y-shaped coarse-grained models, we investigate the phase behavior of antibody solutions and compare the results with the experimental phase diagram of human immunoglobulin G (IgG), one of the most common Y-shape typical of antibody molecules. With the fitted size of spheres, our simulation reproduces both the low CVF and the asymmetric shape of the experimental coexistence curve of IgG antibodies. The broadness of the coexistence curve can be attributed to the anisotropic nature of the inter-protein interaction. In addition, the repulsion between the inner parts of the spherical domains of IgG dramatically expands the coexistence region in the scaled phase diagram, while the hinge length has only a minor effect on the CVF and the overall shape of the coexistence curve. We thus propose a seven-site model with empirical parameters characterizing the exclusion volume and the hinge length of the IgG molecules, which provides a base for simulation studies of the phase behavior of IgG antibodies.

  13. Superstitious behavior in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, K

    1987-05-01

    Twenty undergraduate students were exposed to single response-independent schedules of reinforcer presentation, fixed-time or variable-time, each with values of 30 and 60 s. The reinforcer was a point on a counter accompanied by a red lamp and a brief buzzer. Three color signals were presented, without consistent relation to reinforcer or to the subjects' behavior. Three large levers were available, but the subjects were not asked to perform any particular behavior. Three of the 20 subjects developed persistent superstitious behavior. One engaged in a pattern of lever-pulling responses that consisted of long pulls after a few short pulls; the second touched many things in the experimental booth; the third showed biased responding called sensory superstition. However, most subjects did not show consistent superstitious behavior. Reinforcers can operate effectively on human behavior even in the absence of a response-reinforcer contingency and can, in some cases, shape stable superstitious patterns. However, superstitious behavior is not a consistent outcome of exposure of human subjects to response-independent reinforcer deliveries.

  14. The development of human behavior analysis techniques - A study on knowledge representation methods for operator cognitive model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Young Tack [Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    The main objective of this project is modeling of human operator in a main control room of Nuclear Power Plant. For this purpose, we carried out research on knowledge representation and inference method based on Rasmussen`s decision ladder structure. And we have developed SACOM(Simulation= Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model) using G2 shell on Sun workstations. SACOM consists of Operator Model, Interaction Analyzer, Situation Generator. Cognitive model aims to build a more detailed model of human operators in an effective way. SACOM is designed to model knowledge-based behavior of human operators more easily. The followings are main research topics carried out this year. First, in order to model knowledge-based behavior of human operators, more detailed scenarios are constructed. And, knowledge representation and inference methods are developed to support the scenarios. Second, meta knowledge structures are studied to support human operators 4 types of diagnoses. This work includes a study on meta and scheduler knowledge structures for generate-and-test, topographic, decision tree and case-based approaches. Third, domain knowledge structure are improved to support meta knowledge. Especially, domain knowledge structures are developed to model topographic diagnosis model. Fourth, more applicable interaction analyzer and situation generator are designed and implemented. The new version is implemented in G2 on Sun workstations. 35 refs., 49 figs. (author)

  15. Decision making models and human factors: TOPSIS and Ergonomic Behaviors (TOPSIS-EB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An effective safety management requires attention to human factors as well as system compo-nents which make risky or safe situations at technical components. This study evaluates and ana-lyze ergonomic behaviors in order to select the best work shift group in an Iranian process in-dustry, in 2010.The methodology was based on the Ergonomic Behavior Sampling (EBS, and TOPSIS method. After specifying the unergonomic behaviors and with reference to the results of a pilot study, a sample of 1755 was determined, with a sampling accuracy of 5% and confi-dence level of 95%. However, in order to gain more confidence, 2631 observations were collect-ed. The results indicate that 43.6% of workers’ behaviors were unergonomic. The most frequent unergonomic behavior was amusing of legs while load lifting with 83.01% of total unergonomic behaviors observations. Using TOPSIS method, the most effective shift group and the least at-tractive alternatives for intervention were selected in this company. Findings declare high number of unergonomic behaviors. Catastrophic consequences of accidents in petrochemical industry ne-cessitate attention to workers’ ergonomic behaviors in the workplace and promotion of them.

  16. Human performance cognitive-behavioral modeling: a benefit for occupational safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Brian F.

    2002-01-01

    Human Performance Modeling (HPM) is a computer-aided job analysis software methodology used to generate predictions of complex human-automation integration and system flow patterns with the goal of improving operator and system safety. The use of HPM tools has recently been increasing due to reductions in computational cost, augmentations in the tools' fidelity, and usefulness in the generated output. An examination of an Air Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (Air MIDAS) model evaluating complex human-automation integration currently underway at NASA Ames Research Center will highlight the importance to occupational safety of considering both cognitive and physical aspects of performance when researching human error.

  17. Behavioral externalities in natural resource production possibility frontiers: integrating biology and economics to model human-wildlife interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, N H

    2003-09-01

    Production possibility modeling has been applied to a variety of wildlife management issues. Although it has seen only limited employment in modeling human-wildlife output decisions, it can be expected that the theory's use in this area will increase as human interactions with and impacts on wildlife become more frequent. At present, most models applying production possibility theory to wildlife production can be characterized in that wildlife output quantities are determined by physically quantifiable functions representing rivalrous resources. When the theory is applied to human-wildlife interactions, it may not be sufficient to model the production tradeoffs using only physical constraints. As wildlife are known to respond to human presence, it could be expected that human activity may appear in wildlife production functions as an externality. Behavioral externalities are revealed by an output's response to the presence of another output and can result in a loss of concavity of the production possibilities frontier. Ignoring the potential of a behavioral externality can result in an unexpected and inefficient output allocation that may compromise a wildlife population's well-being. Behavioral externalities can be included in PPF models in a number of ways, including the use of data or cumulative effects modeling. While identifying that behavioral externalities exist and incorporating them into a model is important, correctly interpreting their implications will be critical to improve the efficiency of natural resource management. Behavioral externalities may cause a loss of concavity anywhere along a PPF that may compel managerial decisions that are inconsistent with multiple use doctrines. Convex PPFs may result when wildlife species are extremely sensitive to any level of human activity. It may be possible to improve the PPF's concavity by reducing the strength of the behavioral effect. Any change in the PPF that increases the convexity of the production set

  18. Cognitive Model of Trust Dynamics Predicts Human Behavior within and between Two Games of Strategic Interaction with Computerized Confederate Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Michael G; Juvina, Ion; Gluck, Kevin A

    2016-01-01

    When playing games of strategic interaction, such as iterated Prisoner's Dilemma and iterated Chicken Game, people exhibit specific within-game learning (e.g., learning a game's optimal outcome) as well as transfer of learning between games (e.g., a game's optimal outcome occurring at a higher proportion when played after another game). The reciprocal trust players develop during the first game is thought to mediate transfer of learning effects. Recently, a computational cognitive model using a novel trust mechanism has been shown to account for human behavior in both games, including the transfer between games. We present the results of a study in which we evaluate the model's a priori predictions of human learning and transfer in 16 different conditions. The model's predictive validity is compared against five model variants that lacked a trust mechanism. The results suggest that a trust mechanism is necessary to explain human behavior across multiple conditions, even when a human plays against a non-human agent. The addition of a trust mechanism to the other learning mechanisms within the cognitive architecture, such as sequence learning, instance-based learning, and utility learning, leads to better prediction of the empirical data. It is argued that computational cognitive modeling is a useful tool for studying trust development, calibration, and repair.

  19. A Model for the Transfer of Perceptual-Motor Skill Learning in Human Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosalie, Simon M.; Muller, Sean

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary model that outlines the mechanisms underlying the transfer of perceptual-motor skill learning in sport and everyday tasks. Perceptual-motor behavior is motivated by performance demands and evolves over time to increase the probability of success through adaptation. Performance demands at the time of an event…

  20. Predicting human papillomavirus vaccine uptake in young adult women: comparing the health belief model and theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerend, Mary A; Shepherd, Janet E

    2012-10-01

    Although theories of health behavior have guided thousands of studies, relatively few studies have compared these theories against one another. The purpose of the current study was to compare two classic theories of health behavior-the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)-in their prediction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. After watching a gain-framed, loss-framed, or control video, women (N = 739) ages 18-26 completed a survey assessing HBM and TPB constructs. HPV vaccine uptake was assessed 10 months later. Although the message framing intervention had no effect on vaccine uptake, support was observed for both the TPB and HBM. Nevertheless, the TPB consistently outperformed the HBM. Key predictors of uptake included subjective norms, self-efficacy, and vaccine cost. Despite the observed advantage of the TPB, findings revealed considerable overlap between the two theories and highlighted the importance of proximal versus distal predictors of health behavior.

  1. Cognitive/emotional models for human behavior representation in 3D avatar simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, James K.

    2004-08-01

    Simplified models of human cognition and emotional response are presented which are based on models of auditory/ visual polymodal fusion. At the core of these models is a computational model of Area 37 of the temporal cortex which is based on new isocortex models presented recently by Grossberg. These models are trained using carefully chosen auditory (musical sequences), visual (paintings) and higher level abstract (meta level) data obtained from studies of how optimization strategies are chosen in response to outside managerial inputs. The software modules developed are then used as inputs to character generation codes in standard 3D virtual world simulations. The auditory and visual training data also enable the development of simple music and painting composition generators which significantly enhance one's ability to validate the cognitive model. The cognitive models are handled as interacting software agents implemented as CORBA objects to allow the use of multiple language coding choices (C++, Java, Python etc) and efficient use of legacy code.

  2. Cognitive model of trust dynamics predicts human behavior within and between two games of strategic interaction with computerized confederate agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gordon Collins

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available When playing games of strategic interaction, such as iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma and iterated Chicken Game, people exhibit specific within-game learning (e.g., learning a game’s optimal outcome as well as transfer of learning between games (e.g., a game’s optimal outcome occurring at a higher proportion when played after another game. The reciprocal trust players develop during the first game is thought to mediate transfer of learning effects. Recently, a computational cognitive model using a novel trust mechanism has been shown to account for human behavior in both games, including the transfer between games. We present the results of a study in which we evaluate the model’s a priori predictions of human learning and transfer in 16 different conditions. The model’s predictive validity is compared against five model variants that lacked a trust mechanism. The results suggest that a trust mechanism is necessary to explain human behavior across multiple conditions, even when a human plays against a non-human agent. The addition of a trust mechanism to the other learning mechanisms within the cognitive architecture, such as sequence learning, instance-based learning, and utility learning, leads to better prediction of the empirical data. It is argued that computational cognitive modeling is a useful tool for studying trust development, calibration, and repair.

  3. Influence of human behavior on cholera dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xueying; Gao, Daozhou; Wang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to studying the impact of human behavior on cholera infection. We start with a cholera ordinary differential equation (ODE) model that incorporates human behavior via modeling disease prevalence dependent contact rates for direct and indirect transmissions and infectious host shedding. Local and global dynamics of the model are analyzed with respect to the basic reproduction number. We then extend the ODE model to a reaction-convection-diffusion partial differential equa...

  4. [Terrorism and human behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, S J

    2017-06-09

    Theories of religion are essential for understanding current trends in terrorist activities. The aim of this work is to clarify religion's role in facilitating terror and outline in parallel with recent theoretical developments on terrorism and human behaviour. Several databases were used such as PubCentral, Scopus, Medline and Science Direct. The search terms "terrorism", "social psychology", "religion", "evolution", and "cognition" were used to identify relevant studies in the databases. This work examines, in a multidimensional way, how terrorists employ these features of religion to achieve their goals. In the same way, it describes how terrorists use rituals to conditionally associate emotions with sanctified symbols that are emotionally evocative and motivationally powerful, fostering group solidarity, trust, and cooperation. Religious beliefs, including promised rewards in the afterlife, further serve to facilitate cooperation by altering the perceived payoffs of costly actions, including suicide bombing. The adolescent pattern of brain development is unique, and young adulthood presents an ideal developmental stage to attract recruits and enlist them in high-risk behaviors. This work offers insights, based on this translational analysis, concerning the links between religion, terrorism and human behavior. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. A model for the compressible, viscoelastic behavior of human amnion addressing tissue variability through a single parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri, Arabella; Ehret, Alexander E; De Focatiis, Davide S A; Mazza, Edoardo

    2016-08-01

    A viscoelastic, compressible model is proposed to rationalize the recently reported response of human amnion in multiaxial relaxation and creep experiments. The theory includes two viscoelastic contributions responsible for the short- and long-term time-dependent response of the material. These two contributions can be related to physical processes: water flow through the tissue and dissipative characteristics of the collagen fibers, respectively. An accurate agreement of the model with the mean tension and kinematic response of amnion in uniaxial relaxation tests was achieved. By variation of a single linear factor that accounts for the variability among tissue samples, the model provides very sound predictions not only of the uniaxial relaxation but also of the uniaxial creep and strip-biaxial relaxation behavior of individual samples. This suggests that a wide range of viscoelastic behaviors due to patient-specific variations in tissue composition can be represented by the model without the need of recalibration and parameter identification.

  6. Irrational Human Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Şener

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Neo Classical economists used to posit that, since consumers are rational, they make decisions to maximize their pleasure (utility. Opposing to Neo Classical understanding, Behavioral Economists argue that, consumers are infect not rational, but prone to all sort of biases and habits that pull them being rational. For instance, there are too many irrational choices made by the Turkish consumers like; expensive wedding parties given by low income families; although riding bicycle is healthy and cheap, but people buy expensive cars; it is cheaper staying at a hotel or a timeshare, however people buy expensive summer houses, where they stayed only few weeks a year. These type of irrational behaviors adversely affect the decisions on savings, investments and economic growth. On the consumers irrationality, Tversky and Daniel Kahneman, winner of the 2002 Nobel Prize in Economics, wrote Prospect Theory. They developed a cognitive psychological model to explain divergences from neoclassical economics. They claimed that people take decisions under psychological, social, emotional and economic factors that affect market prices and resource allocation. In order to explain the irrational behaviors of Turkish consumers, I utilized some concepts such as conspicuous consumption (or keeping up with Johns, Veblen Effect, Bandwagon Effect, bounded rationality, 20 to 80 Law and ethical considerations developed by Behavioral Economists and Heterodox Economics. Thus, I came to conclusion that why the free market economic understanding fails in Turkey by giving some examples and economic reasons stated in the last section of this paper.

  7. NASA's Use of Human Behavior Models for Concept Development and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Brian F.

    2012-01-01

    Overview of NASA's use of computational approaches and methods to support research goals, of human performance models, with a focus on examples of the methods used in Code TH and TI at NASA Ames, followed by an in depth review of MIDAS' current FAA work.

  8. Visualization and Rule Validation in Human-Behavior Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Lisa Jean; McKenzie, Frederic D.; Nguyen, Quynh-Anh H.

    2008-01-01

    Human behavior representation (HBR) models simulate human behaviors and responses. The Joint Crowd Federate [TM] cognitive model developed by the Virginia Modeling, Analysis, and Simulation Center (VMASC) and licensed by WernerAnderson, Inc., models the cognitive behavior of crowds to provide credible crowd behavior in support of military…

  9. A model of two-way selection system for human behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhou

    Full Text Available Two-way selection is a common phenomenon in nature and society. It appears in the processes like choosing a mate between men and women, making contracts between job hunters and recruiters, and trading between buyers and sellers. In this paper, we propose a model of two-way selection system, and present its analytical solution for the expectation of successful matching total and the regular pattern that the matching rate trends toward an inverse proportion to either the ratio between the two sides or the ratio of the state total to the smaller group's people number. The proposed model is verified by empirical data of the matchmaking fairs. Results indicate that the model well predicts this typical real-world two-way selection behavior to the bounded error extent, thus it is helpful for understanding the dynamics mechanism of the real-world two-way selection system.

  10. RFID-Based Human Behavior Modeling and Anomaly Detection for Elderly Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Huang Hsu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at building an intelligent system that can detect abnormal behavior for the elderly at home. Active RFID tags can be deployed at home to help collect daily movement data of the elderly who carries an RFID reader. When the reader detects the signals from the tags, RSSI values that represent signal strength are obtained. The RSSI values are reversely related to the distance between the tags and the reader and they are recorded following the movement of the user. The movement patterns, not the exact locations, of the user are the major concern. With the movement data (RSSI values, the clustering technique is then used to build a personalized model of normal behavior. After the model is built, any incoming datum outside the model can be viewed as abnormal and an alarm can be raised by the system. In this paper, we present the system architecture for RFID data collection and preprocessing, clustering for anomaly detection, and experimental results. The results show that this novel approach is promising.

  11. Behavioral modeling of human choices reveals dissociable effects of physical effort and temporal delay on reward devaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Flügge, Miriam C; Kennerley, Steven W; Saraiva, Ana C; Penny, Will D; Bestmann, Sven

    2015-03-01

    There has been considerable interest from the fields of biology, economics, psychology, and ecology about how decision costs decrease the value of rewarding outcomes. For example, formal descriptions of how reward value changes with increasing temporal delays allow for quantifying individual decision preferences, as in animal species populating different habitats, or normal and clinical human populations. Strikingly, it remains largely unclear how humans evaluate rewards when these are tied to energetic costs, despite the surge of interest in the neural basis of effort-guided decision-making and the prevalence of disorders showing a diminished willingness to exert effort (e.g., depression). One common assumption is that effort discounts reward in a similar way to delay. Here we challenge this assumption by formally comparing competing hypotheses about effort and delay discounting. We used a design specifically optimized to compare discounting behavior for both effort and delay over a wide range of decision costs (Experiment 1). We then additionally characterized the profile of effort discounting free of model assumptions (Experiment 2). Contrary to previous reports, in both experiments effort costs devalued reward in a manner opposite to delay, with small devaluations for lower efforts, and progressively larger devaluations for higher effort-levels (concave shape). Bayesian model comparison confirmed that delay-choices were best predicted by a hyperbolic model, with the largest reward devaluations occurring at shorter delays. In contrast, an altogether different relationship was observed for effort-choices, which were best described by a model of inverse sigmoidal shape that is initially concave. Our results provide a novel characterization of human effort discounting behavior and its first dissociation from delay discounting. This enables accurate modelling of cost-benefit decisions, a prerequisite for the investigation of the neural underpinnings of effort

  12. Diversity in human behavioral ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Raymond

    2014-12-01

    As befitting an evolutionary approach to the study of human behavior, the papers in this special issue of Human Nature cover a diversity of topics in modern and traditional societies. They include the goals of hunting in foraging societies, social bias, cooperative breeding, the impact of war on women, leadership, and social mobility. In combination these contributions demonstrate the utility of selectionist's thinking on a wide variety of topics. While many of the contributions employ standard evolutionary biological approaches such as kin selection, cooperative breeding and the Trivers-Willard model, others examine important human issues such as the problems of trust, the cost of war to women, the characteristics of leaders, and what might be called honest or rule-bound fights. One striking feature of many of the contributions is a novel reexamination of traditional research questions from an evolutionary perspective.

  13. Influence of human behavior on cholera dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueying; Gao, Daozhou; Wang, Jin

    2015-09-01

    This paper is devoted to studying the impact of human behavior on cholera infection. We start with a cholera ordinary differential equation (ODE) model that incorporates human behavior via modeling disease prevalence dependent contact rates for direct and indirect transmissions and infectious host shedding. Local and global dynamics of the model are analyzed with respect to the basic reproduction number. We then extend the ODE model to a reaction-convection-diffusion partial differential equation (PDE) model that accounts for the movement of both human hosts and bacteria. Particularly, we investigate the cholera spreading speed by analyzing the traveling wave solutions of the PDE model, and disease threshold dynamics by numerically evaluating the basic reproduction number of the PDE model. Our results show that human behavior can reduce (a) the endemic and epidemic levels, (b) cholera spreading speeds and (c) the risk of infection (characterized by the basic reproduction number). Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A simple artificial life model explains irrational behavior in human decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Feher da Silva

    Full Text Available Although praised for their rationality, humans often make poor decisions, even in simple situations. In the repeated binary choice experiment, an individual has to choose repeatedly between the same two alternatives, where a reward is assigned to one of them with fixed probability. The optimal strategy is to perseverate with choosing the alternative with the best expected return. Whereas many species perseverate, humans tend to match the frequencies of their choices to the frequencies of the alternatives, a sub-optimal strategy known as probability matching. Our goal was to find the primary cognitive constraints under which a set of simple evolutionary rules can lead to such contrasting behaviors. We simulated the evolution of artificial populations, wherein the fitness of each animat (artificial animal depended on its ability to predict the next element of a sequence made up of a repeating binary string of varying size. When the string was short relative to the animats' neural capacity, they could learn it and correctly predict the next element of the sequence. When it was long, they could not learn it, turning to the next best option: to perseverate. Animats from the last generation then performed the task of predicting the next element of a non-periodical binary sequence. We found that, whereas animats with smaller neural capacity kept perseverating with the best alternative as before, animats with larger neural capacity, which had previously been able to learn the pattern of repeating strings, adopted probability matching, being outperformed by the perseverating animats. Our results demonstrate how the ability to make predictions in an environment endowed with regular patterns may lead to probability matching under less structured conditions. They point to probability matching as a likely by-product of adaptive cognitive strategies that were crucial in human evolution, but may lead to sub-optimal performances in other environments.

  15. NPS Initiatives in Human Social Culture Behavior (HSCB) Modeling FY 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    theory of planned behavior being utilized in the current PAKAF...on the theory of planned behavior for behaviors related to satisfying basic needs. Utility-based Learning Agents Helmund Province Deliverables and...implementation of the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Narrative Paradigm to provide a computational representation compatible with the CG

  16. Modeling strategic behavior in human-automation interaction - Why an 'aid' can (and should) go unused

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirlik, Alex

    1993-01-01

    Task-offload aids (e.g., an autopilot, an 'intelligent' assistant) can be selectively engaged by the human operator to dynamically delegate tasks to automation. Introducing such aids eliminates some task demands but creates new ones associated with programming, engaging, and disengaging the aiding device via an interface. The burdens associated with managing automation can sometimes outweigh the potential benefits of automation to improved system performance. Aid design parameters and features of the overall multitask context combine to determine whether or not a task-offload aid will effectively support the operator. A modeling and sensitivity analysis approach is presented that identifies effective strategies for human-automation interaction as a function of three task-context parameters and three aid design parameters. The analysis and modeling approaches provide resources for predicting how a well-adapted operator will use a given task-offload aid, and for specifying aid design features that ensure that automation will provide effective operator support in a multitask environment.

  17. A Novel PSO Model Based on Simulating Human Social Communication Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmin Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the complicated multimodal problems, this paper presents a variant of particle swarm optimizer (PSO based on the simulation of the human social communication behavior (HSCPSO. In HSCPSO, each particle initially joins a default number of social circles (SC that consist of some particles, and its learning exemplars include three parts, namely, its own best experience, the experience of the best performing particle in all SCs, and the experiences of the particles of all SCs it is a member of. The learning strategy takes full advantage of the excellent information of each particle to improve the diversity of the swarm to discourage premature convergence. To weight the effects of the particles on the SCs, the worst performing particles will join more SCs to learn from other particles and the best performing particles will leave SCs to reduce their strong influence on other members. Additionally, to insure the effectiveness of solving multimodal problems, the novel parallel hybrid mutation is proposed to improve the particle’s ability to escape from the local optima. Experiments were conducted on a set of classical benchmark functions, and the results demonstrate the good performance of HSCPSO in escaping from the local optima and solving the complex multimodal problems compared with the other PSO variants.

  18. Adaptive intermittent control: A computational model explaining motor intermittency observed in human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Tanaka, Masato; Inoue, Yasuyuki

    2015-07-01

    It is a fundamental question how our brain performs a given motor task in a real-time fashion with the slow sensorimotor system. Computational theory proposed an influential idea of feed-forward control, but it has mainly treated the case that the movement is ballistic (such as reaching) because the motor commands should be calculated in advance of movement execution. As a possible mechanism for operating feed-forward control in continuous motor tasks (such as target tracking), we propose a control model called "adaptive intermittent control" or "segmented control," that brain adaptively divides the continuous time axis into discrete segments and executes feed-forward control in each segment. The idea of intermittent control has been proposed in the fields of control theory, biological modeling and nonlinear dynamical system. Compared with these previous models, the key of the proposed model is that the system speculatively determines the segmentation based on the future prediction and its uncertainty. The result of computer simulation showed that the proposed model realized faithful visuo-manual tracking with realistic sensorimotor delays and with less computational costs (i.e., with fewer number of segments). Furthermore, it replicated "motor intermittency", that is, intermittent discontinuities commonly observed in human movement trajectories. We discuss that the temporally segmented control is an inevitable strategy for brain which has to achieve a given task with small computational (or cognitive) cost, using a slow control system in an uncertain variable environment, and the motor intermittency is the side-effect of this strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Does the macaque monkey provide a good model for studying human executive control? A comparative behavioral study of task switching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Caselli

    Full Text Available The ability to swiftly and smoothly switch from one task set to another is central to intelligent behavior, because it allows an organism to flexibly adapt to ever changing environmental conditions and internal needs. For this reason, researchers interested in executive control processes have often relied on task-switching paradigms as powerful tools to uncover the underlying cognitive and brain architecture. In order to gather fundamental information at the single-cell level, it would be greatly helpful to demonstrate that non-human primates, especially the macaque monkey, share with us similar behavioral manifestations of task-switching and therefore, in all likelihood, similar underlying brain mechanisms. Unfortunately, prior attempts have provided negative results (e.g., Stoet & Snyder, 2003b, in that it was reported that macaques do not show the typical signature of task-switching operations at the behavioral level, represented by switch costs. If confirmed, this would indicate that the macaque cannot be used as a model approach to explore human executive control mechanisms by means of task-switching paradigms. We have therefore decided to re-explore this issue, by conducting a comparative experiment on a group of human participants and two macaque monkeys, whereby we measured and compared performance costs linked to task switching and resistance to interference across the two species. Contrary to what previously reported, we found that both species display robust task switching costs, thus supporting the claim that macaque monkeys provide an exquisitely suitable model to study the brain mechanisms responsible for maintaining and switching task sets.

  20. Does the macaque monkey provide a good model for studying human executive control? A comparative behavioral study of task switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Luana; Chelazzi, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    The ability to swiftly and smoothly switch from one task set to another is central to intelligent behavior, because it allows an organism to flexibly adapt to ever changing environmental conditions and internal needs. For this reason, researchers interested in executive control processes have often relied on task-switching paradigms as powerful tools to uncover the underlying cognitive and brain architecture. In order to gather fundamental information at the single-cell level, it would be greatly helpful to demonstrate that non-human primates, especially the macaque monkey, share with us similar behavioral manifestations of task-switching and therefore, in all likelihood, similar underlying brain mechanisms. Unfortunately, prior attempts have provided negative results (e.g., Stoet & Snyder, 2003b), in that it was reported that macaques do not show the typical signature of task-switching operations at the behavioral level, represented by switch costs. If confirmed, this would indicate that the macaque cannot be used as a model approach to explore human executive control mechanisms by means of task-switching paradigms. We have therefore decided to re-explore this issue, by conducting a comparative experiment on a group of human participants and two macaque monkeys, whereby we measured and compared performance costs linked to task switching and resistance to interference across the two species. Contrary to what previously reported, we found that both species display robust task switching costs, thus supporting the claim that macaque monkeys provide an exquisitely suitable model to study the brain mechanisms responsible for maintaining and switching task sets.

  1. Analyzing and modeling heterogeneous behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhiting; Wu, Xiaoqing; He, Dongyue; Zhu, Qiang; Ni, Jixiang

    2016-05-01

    Recently, it was pointed out that the non-Poisson statistics with heavy tail existed in many scenarios of human behaviors. But most of these studies claimed that power-law characterized diverse aspects of human mobility patterns. In this paper, we suggest that human behavior may not be driven by identical mechanisms and can be modeled as a Semi-Markov Modulated Process. To verify our suggestion and model, we analyzed a total of 1,619,934 records of library visitations (including undergraduate and graduate students). It is found that the distribution of visitation intervals is well fitted with three sections of lines instead of the traditional power law distribution in log-log scale. The results confirm that some human behaviors cannot be simply expressed as power law or any other simple functions. At the same time, we divided the data into groups and extracted period bursty events. Through careful analysis in different groups, we drew a conclusion that aggregate behavior might be composed of heterogeneous behaviors, and even the behaviors of the same type tended to be different in different period. The aggregate behavior is supposed to be formed by "heterogeneous groups". We performed a series of experiments. Simulation results showed that we just needed to set up two states Semi-Markov Modulated Process to construct proper representation of heterogeneous behavior.

  2. Simulating human behavior for national security human interactions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Michael Lewis; Hart, Dereck H.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Glickman, Matthew R.; Wolfenbarger, Paul R.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

    2007-01-01

    This 3-year research and development effort focused on what we believe is a significant technical gap in existing modeling and simulation capabilities: the representation of plausible human cognition and behaviors within a dynamic, simulated environment. Specifically, the intent of the ''Simulating Human Behavior for National Security Human Interactions'' project was to demonstrate initial simulated human modeling capability that realistically represents intra- and inter-group interaction behaviors between simulated humans and human-controlled avatars as they respond to their environment. Significant process was made towards simulating human behaviors through the development of a framework that produces realistic characteristics and movement. The simulated humans were created from models designed to be psychologically plausible by being based on robust psychological research and theory. Progress was also made towards enhancing Sandia National Laboratories existing cognitive models to support culturally plausible behaviors that are important in representing group interactions. These models were implemented in the modular, interoperable, and commercially supported Umbra{reg_sign} simulation framework.

  3. Human Social Culture Behavior Modeling Program Newsletter. Volume 1. Issue 1, Spring 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-30

    the social psychol- ogy of consumer behavior . A key theory in this space is the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), which hypothesizes the re...useful in predicting a range of consumer behavior , including the effectiveness of anti-smoking cam- paigns and weight loss programs—each of which...Priester, J.R. (2002). The social psychology of consumer behavior . Buckingham, UK: Open University Press. Ajzen, I. & Fishbein, M. (1980

  4. Model of reticuloendothelial iron metabolism in humans: Abnormal behavior in idiopathic hemochromatosis and in inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillet, G.; Beguin, Y.; Baldelli, L. (Univ. of Liege (Belgium))

    1989-08-01

    Iron transport in the reticuloendothelial (RE) system plays a central role in iron metabolism, but its regulation has not been characterized physiologically in vivo in humans. In particular, why serum iron is elevated and RE cells are much less iron-loaded than parenchymal cells in idiopathic hemochromatosis is not known. The processing of erythrocyte iron by the RE system was studied after intravenous (IV) injection of 59Fe heat-damaged RBCs (HDRBCs) and 55Fe transferrin in normal subjects and in patients with iron deficiency, idiopathic hemochromatosis, inflammation, marrow aplasia, or hyperplastic erythropoiesis. Early release of 59Fe by the RE system was calculated from the plasma iron turnover and the 59Fe plasma reappearance curve. Late release was calculated from the ratio of 59Fe/55Fe RBC utilization in 2 weeks. The partitioning of iron between the early (release from heme catabolism) and late (release from RE stores) phases depended on the size of RE iron stores, as illustrated by the inverse relationship observed between early release and plasma ferritin (P less than .001). There was a strong correlation between early release and the rate of change of serum iron levels during the first three hours in normal subjects (r = .85, P less than .001). Inflammation produced a blockade of the early release phase, whereas in idiopathic hemochromatosis early release was considerably increased as compared with subjects with similar iron stores. Based on these results, we describe a model of RE iron metabolism in humans. We conclude that the RE system appears to determine the diurnal fluctuations in serum iron levels through variations in the immediate output of heme iron. In idiopathic hemochromatosis, a defect of the RE cell in withholding iron freed from hemoglobin could be responsible for the high serum iron levels and low RE iron stores.

  5. Dual learning processes underlying human decision-making in reversal learning tasks: Functional significance and evidence from the model fit to human behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu eBai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans are capable of correcting their actions based on actions performed in the past, and this ability enables them to adapt to a changing environment. The computational field of reinforcement learning (RL has provided a powerful explanation for understanding such processes. Recently, the dual learning system, modeled as a hybrid model that incorporates value update based on reward-prediction error and learning rate modulation based on the surprise signal, has gained attention as a model for explaining various neural signals. However, the functional significance of the hybrid model has not been established. In the present study, we used computer simulation in a reversal learning task to address functional significance. The hybrid model was found to perform better than the standard RL model in a large parameter setting. These results suggest that the hybrid model is more robust against mistuning of parameters compared to the standard RL model when decision makers continue to learn stimulus-reward contingencies, which make an abrupt changes. The parameter fitting results also indicated that the hybrid model fit better than the standard RL model for more than 50% of the participants, which suggests that the hybrid model has more explanatory power for the behavioral data than the standard RL model.

  6. Behavioral Signal Processing: Deriving Human Behavioral Informatics From Speech and Language: Computational techniques are presented to analyze and model expressed and perceived human behavior-variedly characterized as typical, atypical, distressed, and disordered-from speech and language cues and their applications in health, commerce, education, and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Shrikanth; Georgiou, Panayiotis G

    2013-02-01

    The expression and experience of human behavior are complex and multimodal and characterized by individual and contextual heterogeneity and variability. Speech and spoken language communication cues offer an important means for measuring and modeling human behavior. Observational research and practice across a variety of domains from commerce to healthcare rely on speech- and language-based informatics for crucial assessment and diagnostic information and for planning and tracking response to an intervention. In this paper, we describe some of the opportunities as well as emerging methodologies and applications of human behavioral signal processing (BSP) technology and algorithms for quantitatively understanding and modeling typical, atypical, and distressed human behavior with a specific focus on speech- and language-based communicative, affective, and social behavior. We describe the three important BSP components of acquiring behavioral data in an ecologically valid manner across laboratory to real-world settings, extracting and analyzing behavioral cues from measured data, and developing models offering predictive and decision-making support. We highlight both the foundational speech and language processing building blocks as well as the novel processing and modeling opportunities. Using examples drawn from specific real-world applications ranging from literacy assessment and autism diagnostics to psychotherapy for addiction and marital well being, we illustrate behavioral informatics applications of these signal processing techniques that contribute to quantifying higher level, often subjectively described, human behavior in a domain-sensitive fashion.

  7. Predicting human papillomavirus vaccine uptake in young adult women: Comparing the Health Belief Model and Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerend, Mary A.; Shepherd, Janet E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although theories of health behavior have guided thousands of studies, relatively few studies have compared these theories against one another. Purpose The purpose of the current study was to compare two classic theories of health behavior—the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)—in their prediction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Methods After watching a gain-framed, loss-framed, or control video, women (N=739) ages 18–26 completed a survey assessing HBM and TPB constructs. HPV vaccine uptake was assessed ten months later. Results Although the message framing intervention had no effect on vaccine uptake, support was observed for both the TPB and HBM. Nevertheless, the TPB consistently outperformed the HBM. Key predictors of uptake included subjective norms, self-efficacy, and vaccine cost. Conclusions Despite the observed advantage of the TPB, findings revealed considerable overlap between the two theories and highlighted the importance of proximal versus distal predictors of health behavior. PMID:22547155

  8. Mathematical Capture of Human Crowd Behavioral Data for Computational Model Building, Verification, and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    the Technical Director of the TBRL. He is a Certified Lean/ Six Sigma Black belt with a focus on Design of Experiments and Statistical Analysis of Test Results. ...ROBERT DEMARCO, MSBME, is a Project Lead Engineer and Certified LabVIEW Associate Developer. CHARLES SHERIDAN, BA, is a Human Research

  9. Towards a human eye behavior model by applying Data Mining Techniques on Gaze Information from IEC

    CERN Document Server

    Pallez, Denis; Baccino, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we firstly present what is Interactive Evolutionary Computation (IEC) and rapidly how we have combined this artificial intelligence technique with an eye-tracker for visual optimization. Next, in order to correctly parameterize our application, we present results from applying data mining techniques on gaze information coming from experiments conducted on about 80 human individuals.

  10. Varied behavioral responses induced by morphine in the tree shrew: a possible model for human opiate addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fang; Duan, Ying; Jin, Shubo; Sui, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Tree shrews represent a suitable animal model to study the pathogenesis of human diseases as they are phylogenetically close to primates and have a well-developed central nervous system that possesses many homologies with primates. Therefore, in our study, we investigated whether tree shrews can be used to explore the addictive behaviors induced by morphine. Firstly, to investigate the psychoactive effect of morphine on tree shrews' behavior, the number of jumping and shuttling, which represent the vertical and horizontal locomotor activity respectively, was examined following the injection of different dosage of morphine. Our results showed intramuscular (IM) injection of morphine (5 or 10 mg/kg) significantly increased the locomotor activity of tree shrews 30-60 min post-injection. Then, using the conditioned place preference/aversion (CPP/CPA) paradigm, we found morphine-conditioned tree shrews exhibited place preference in the morphine-paired chamber on the test day. In addition, naloxone-precipitated withdrawal induced place aversion in the chronic morphine-dependent tree shrews. We evaluated the craving for morphine drinking by assessing the break point that reflects the maximum effort animals will expend to get the drug. Our data showed the break point was significantly increased when compared to the baseline on the 1st, 7th and 14th day after the abstinence. Moreover, in the intravenous morphine self-administration experiment, tree shrews conditioned with morphine responded on the active lever significantly more frequently than on the inactive lever after training. These results suggest that tree shrew may be a potential candidate for study the addictive behaviors and the underling neurological mechanisms.

  11. Varied behavioral responses induced by morphine in the tree shrew: a possible model for human opiate addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang eShen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tree shrews represent a suitable animal model to study the pathogenesis of human diseases as they are phylogenetically close to primates and have a well-developed central nervous system that possesses many homologies with primates. Therefore, in our study, we investigated whether tree shrews can be used to explore the addictive behaviors induced by morphine. Firstly, to investigate the psychoactive effect of morphine on tree shrews’ behavior, the number of jumping and shuttling, which represent the vertical and horizontal locomotor activity respectively, was examined following the injection of different dosage of morphine. Our results showed intramuscular (IM injection of morphine (5 or 10 mg/kg significantly increased the locomotor activity of tree shrews 30-60 min post-injection. Then, using the conditioned place preference/aversion (CPP/CPA paradigm, we found morphine-conditioned tree shrews exhibited place preference in the morphine-paired chamber on the test day. In addition, naloxone-precipitated withdrawal induced place aversion in the chronic morphine-dependent tree shrews. We evaluated the craving for morphine drinking by assessing the break point that reflects the maximum effort animals will expend to get the drug. Our data showed the break point was significantly increased when compared to the baseline on the 1st, 7th and 14th day after the abstinence. Moreover, in the intravenous morphine self-administration experiment, tree shrews conditioned with morphine responded on the active lever significantly more frequently than on the inactive lever after training. These results suggest that tree shrew may be a potential candidate for study the addictive behaviors and the underling neurological mechanisms.

  12. Examining Human Behavior in Video Games: The Development of a Computational Model to Measure Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Richard; Annetta, Leonard; Hoston, Douglas; Shapiro, Marina; Matthews, Benjamin

    2017-04-11

    Video games with violent content have raised considerable concern in popular media and within academia. Recently, there has been considerable attention regarding the claim of the relationship between aggression and video game play. The authors of this study propose the use of a new class of tools developed via computational models to allow examination of the question; is there is a relationship between violent video games and aggression. The purpose of this study is to computationally model and compare the General Aggression Model with the Diathesis Mode of Aggression related to the play of violent content in video games. A secondary purpose is to provide a method of measuring and examining individual aggression arising from video game play. Total participants examined for this study are N=1065. This study occurs in three phases. Phase 1 is the development and quantification of the profile combination of traits via latent class profile analysis. Phase 2 is the training of the artificial neural network. Phase 3 is the comparison of each model as a computational model with and without the presence of video game violence. Results suggest that a combination of environmental factors and genetic predispositions trigger aggression related to video games.

  13. An Insight into the Behavior, Course and Kinetics of Acute Infection of Toxoplasma gondii Human RH Strain in Experimentally Infected Murine Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Sudan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii, an apicomplexan parasite, is capable of infecting a broad range of intermediate warm-blooded hosts including humans. The parasite seems to be capable of altering the natural behavior of the host to favor its transmission in the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the course, alterations in behavior along with normal kinetics of the abnormally induced experimental acute toxoplasmosis in murine models.Ten Swiss albino mice were intraperitoneally inoculated with 100 virulent RH strain tachyzoites and finally, the alterations in behavior were described and compared with other known alterations in humans and animals.The behavior and the other symptoms of the acute toxoplasmosis were recorded. Such mice showed typical symptoms like normal coat, severe ascites with pendulous abdomen and tachypnoea exhibited by resting fore legs either on walls of the cage, or nozzle of water bottle or other resting mice and yielded a creamy colored cloudy natured peritoneal fluid on aspiration.Finally the alterations in behavior were described and compared with other known alterations in humans and animals. The study has generated some important data related to possible causes of behavioral alterations and generation of suitable strategies for control of these alterations in behavior vis-à-vis better understanding of the effect of acute infection of parasite on normal behavior of infected intermediate host.

  14. An Animal Model for Collective Behavior in Humans: The Impact of Manipulated Trust and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    agricultural and urban environments (Charter et al. 2007, 2009). Thirty-eight male and 25 female voles were obtained from breeding colonies at the I. Meier...predation risk. Anim Behav 77:101–107 Charter M, Izhaki I, Shapira L, Leshem Y (2007) Diets of urban breeding barn owls (Tyto alba) in Tel Aviv, Israel...obtained from chicken -hatcheries. We used live owls since our previous studies with models or owl calls as threat had revealed that these stimuli are not

  15. The Reinforcement of Ableism: Normality, the Medical Model of Disability, and Humanism in Applied Behavior Analysis and ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyman, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The field of educating individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder has ever been rife with controversy regarding issues ranging from etiology and causation to effective intervention and education options. One such basis for controversy has been between humanism, and humanistic philosophical concepts, and its fundamental differences with behaviorism,…

  16. The Reinforcement of Ableism: Normality, the Medical Model of Disability, and Humanism in Applied Behavior Analysis and ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyman, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The field of educating individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder has ever been rife with controversy regarding issues ranging from etiology and causation to effective intervention and education options. One such basis for controversy has been between humanism, and humanistic philosophical concepts, and its fundamental differences with behaviorism,…

  17. Behavioral Modeling of Memcapacitor

    OpenAIRE

    D. Biolek; Z. Biolek; V. Biolkova

    2011-01-01

    Two behavioral models of memcapacitor are developed and implemented in SPICE-compatible simulators. Both models are related to the charge-controlled memcapacitor, the capacitance of which is controlled by the amount of electric charge conveyed through it. The first model starts from the state description of memcapacitor whereas the second one uses the memcapacitor constitutive relation as the only input data. Results of transient analyses clearly show the basic fingerprints of the memcapacitor.

  18. Behavioral Modeling of Memcapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Biolek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Two behavioral models of memcapacitor are developed and implemented in SPICE-compatible simulators. Both models are related to the charge-controlled memcapacitor, the capacitance of which is controlled by the amount of electric charge conveyed through it. The first model starts from the state description of memcapacitor whereas the second one uses the memcapacitor constitutive relation as the only input data. Results of transient analyses clearly show the basic fingerprints of the memcapacitor.

  19. Behavioral characterization of cereblon forebrain-specific conditional null mice: a model for human non-syndromic intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajadhyaksha, Anjali M; Ra, Stephen; Kishinevsky, Sarah; Lee, Anni S; Romanienko, Peter; DuBoff, Mariel; Yang, Chingwen; Zupan, Bojana; Byrne, Maureen; Daruwalla, Zeeba R; Mark, Willie; Kosofsky, Barry E; Toth, Miklos; Higgins, Joseph J

    2012-01-15

    A nonsense mutation in the human cereblon gene (CRBN) causes a mild type of autosomal recessive non-syndromic intellectual disability (ID). Animal studies show that crbn is a cytosolic protein with abundant expression in the hippocampus (HPC) and neocortex (CTX). Its diverse functions include the developmental regulation of ion channels at the neuronal synapse, the mediation of developmental programs by ubiquitination, and a target for herpes simplex type I virus in HPC neurons. To test the hypothesis that anomalous CRBN expression leads to HPC-mediated memory and learning deficits, we generated germ-line crbn knock-out mice (crbn(-/-)). We also inactivated crbn in forebrain neurons in conditional knock-out mice in which crbn exons 3 and 4 are deleted by cre recombinase under the direction of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha promoter (CamKII(cre/+), crbn(-/-)). crbn mRNA levels were negligible in the HPC, CTX, and cerebellum (CRBM) of the crbn(-/-) mice. In contrast, crbn mRNA levels were reduced 3- to 4-fold in the HPC, CTX but not in the CRBM in CamKII(cre/+), crbn(-/-) mice as compared to wild type (CamKII(cre/+), crbn(+/+)). Contextual fear conditioning showed a significant decrease in the percentage of freezing time in CamKII(cre/+), crbn(-/-) and crbn(-/-) mice while motor function, exploratory motivation, and anxiety-related behaviors were normal. These findings suggest that CamKII(cre/+), crbn(-/-) mice exhibit selective HPC-dependent deficits in associative learning and supports the use of these mice as in vivo models to study the functional consequences of CRBN aberrations on memory and learning in humans.

  20. 情感影响下的人类认知行为建模研究概述%Research on Human Cognitive Behavior Modeling Under Influence of Emotion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡记文; 尹全军; 陈伟; 查亚兵

    2012-01-01

    Emotion has important influence on human cognitive behavior.The integration of emotion into the modeling process could significantly enhance the authenticity and adaptability of cognitive behavior models.Firstly,the development of theoretical research on emotion's influence to human cognitive behavior was divided into three phases,and the representative theories in each phase were expatiated.Secondly,the fundamental ideas and methods in modeling cognitive behavior under the influence of emotion were introduced.In addition,a few typical emotional behavior models were proposed.The merits and drawbacks of these methods and models were analyzed.At last,according to the state of art of emotional behavior modeling,the accurate representation and modeling of human emotion,the multi-level interaction model of emotion and behavior,the general component based framework for modeling emotional behavior were pointed out as three main research directions which should be pay more attention to in next phase.An instructive framework for modeling emotional behavior based on component was proposed.%情感对人类认知行为具有重要影响作用,在认知行为建模过程中加入情感因素可以显著提高认知行为模型的真实性和适应性。首先将情感对认知行为影响作用的理论研究发展脉络划分为三个阶段,对各阶段代表性理论成果进行了阐述;其次,研究了情感影响下的认知行为模型的基本建模思想和方法,给出了若干典型的情感行为模型,并对各种方法和模型的优缺点进行了分析;最后,根据情感行为建模研究的现状,指出个体情感的精确描述与建模、多层次的情感-认知交互模型和组件化的通用情感行为建模框架是下一步需要着重研究的三个方向,并且给出了指导性的组件化的情感行为建模框架。

  1. BEHAVIORAL MODELS OF PSYCHOSISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parle Milind

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Existing research into schizophrenia has remained highly fragmented, much like the clinical presentation of the disease itself. Differing theories as to the cause and progression of schizophrenia, as well as the heterogeneity of clinical symptoms, have made it difficult to develop a coherent framework suitable for animal modeling. However, a few animal models have been developed to explore various causative theories and to test specific mechanistic hypotheses. Historically, these models have been based on the manipulation of neurotransmitter systems believed to be involved in schizophrenia. In recent years, the emphasis has shifted to targeting relevant brain regions in an attempt to explore potential etiologic hypotheses. In the present review article, we have described in detail various behavioral models available in literature for screening of antipsychotic agents. In the next article, we propose to focus on chemical induced psychosis (Pharmacological models. We have highlighted the principle, end point, brief procedures, merits and demerit of all the behavioral models in the foregoing pages Emphasis is placed on the critical evaluation of currently available models because these models help to shape the direction of future research.

  2. Human Behavior Cognition Using Smartphone Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyrki Kaistinen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on sensing context, modeling human behavior and developing a new architecture for a cognitive phone platform. We combine the latest positioning technologies and phone sensors to capture human movements in natural environments and use the movements to study human behavior. Contexts in this research are abstracted as a Context Pyramid which includes six levels: Raw Sensor Data, Physical Parameter, Features/Patterns, Simple Contextual Descriptors, Activity-Level Descriptors, and Rich Context. To achieve implementation of the Context Pyramid on a cognitive phone, three key technologies are utilized: ubiquitous positioning, motion recognition, and human behavior modeling. Preliminary tests indicate that we have successfully achieved the Activity-Level Descriptors level with our LoMoCo (Location-Motion-Context model. Location accuracy of the proposed solution is up to 1.9 meters in corridor environments and 3.5 meters in open spaces. Test results also indicate that the motion states are recognized with an accuracy rate up to 92.9% using a Least Square-Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM classifier.

  3. Bridging the Gap between Physiology and Behavior: Evidence from the sSoTS Model of Human Visual Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavritsaki, Eirini; Heinke, Dietmar; Allen, Harriet; Deco, Gustavo; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2011-01-01

    We present the case for a role of biologically plausible neural network modeling in bridging the gap between physiology and behavior. We argue that spiking-level networks can allow "vertical" translation between physiological properties of neural systems and emergent "whole-system" performance--enabling psychological results to be simulated from…

  4. Attitudes, Learning and Human-Computer Interaction: An Application of the Fishbein and Ajzen Model of Attitude-Behavior Consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

    The Fishbein and Ajzen model of attitude-behavior consistency was applied to 56 undergraduates learning to use a microcomputer. Two levels of context for this act were compared: the students' beliefs about themselves, and their beliefs about people in general. The results indicated that students' beliefs were good predictors of their behavioral…

  5. Nonlinear dynamics in human behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huys, Raoul [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 13 - Marseille (France); Marseille Univ. (France). Movement Science Inst.; Jirsa, Viktor K. (eds.) [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 13 - Marseille (France); Marseille Univ. (France). Movement Science Inst.; Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States). Center for Complex Systems and Brain Sciences

    2010-07-01

    Humans engage in a seemingly endless variety of different behaviors, of which some are found across species, while others are conceived of as typically human. Most generally, behavior comes about through the interplay of various constraints - informational, mechanical, neural, metabolic, and so on - operating at multiple scales in space and time. Over the years, consensus has grown in the research community that, rather than investigating behavior only from bottom up, it may be also well understood in terms of concepts and laws on the phenomenological level. Such top down approach is rooted in theories of synergetics and self-organization using tools from nonlinear dynamics. The present compendium brings together scientists from all over the world that have contributed to the development of their respective fields departing from this background. It provides an introduction to deterministic as well as stochastic dynamical systems and contains applications to motor control and coordination, visual perception and illusion, as well as auditory perception in the context of speech and music. (orig.)

  6. Compliant bipedal model with the center of pressure excursion associated with oscillatory behavior of the center of mass reproduces the human gait dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chang Keun; Park, Sukyung

    2014-01-03

    Although the compliant bipedal model could reproduce qualitative ground reaction force (GRF) of human walking, the model with a fixed pivot showed overestimations in stance leg rotation and the ratio of horizontal to vertical GRF. The human walking data showed a continuous forward progression of the center of pressure (CoP) during the stance phase and the suspension of the CoP near the forefoot before the onset of step transition. To better describe human gait dynamics with a minimal expense of model complexity, we proposed a compliant bipedal model with the accelerated pivot which associated the CoP excursion with the oscillatory behavior of the center of mass (CoM) with the existing simulation parameter and leg stiffness. Owing to the pivot acceleration defined to emulate human CoP profile, the arrival of the CoP at the limit of the stance foot over the single stance duration initiated the step-to-step transition. The proposed model showed an improved match of walking data. As the forward motion of CoM during single stance was partly accounted by forward pivot translation, the previously overestimated rotation of the stance leg was reduced and the corresponding horizontal GRF became closer to human data. The walking solutions of the model ranged over higher speed ranges (~1.7 m/s) than those of the fixed pivoted compliant bipedal model (~1.5m/s) and exhibited other gait parameters, such as touchdown angle, step length and step frequency, comparable to the experimental observations. The good matches between the model and experimental GRF data imply that the continuous pivot acceleration associated with CoM oscillatory behavior could serve as a useful framework of bipedal model.

  7. Cognitive Modeling of Social Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Damer. Bruce; Brodsky, Boris

    2004-01-01

    The driving theme of cognitive modeling for many decades has been that knowledge affects how and which goals are accomplished by an intelligent being (Newell 1991). But when one examines groups of people living and working together, one is forced to recognize that whose knowledge is called into play, at a particular time and location, directly affects what the group accomplishes. Indeed, constraints on participation, including roles, procedures, and norms, affect whether an individual is able to act at all (Lave & Wenger 1991; Jordan 1992; Scribner & Sachs 1991). To understand both individual cognition and collective activity, perhaps the greatest opportunity today is to integrate the cognitive modeling approach (which stresses how beliefs are formed and drive behavior) with social studies (which stress how relationships and informal practices drive behavior). The crucial insight is that norms are conceptualized in the individual &nd as ways of carrying out activities (Clancey 1997a, 2002b). This requires for the psychologist a shift from only modeling goals and tasks - why people do what they do - to modeling behavioral patterns-what people do-as they are engaged in purposeful activities. Instead of a model that exclusively deduces actions from goals, behaviors are also, if not primarily, driven by broader patterns of chronological and located activities (akin to scripts). This analysis is particular inspired by activity theory (Leont ev 1979). While acknowledging that knowledge (relating goals and operations) is fundamental for intelligent behavior, activity theory claims that a broader driver is the person s motives and conceptualization of activities. Such understanding of human interaction is normative (i.e., viewed with respect to social standards), affecting how knowledge is called into play and applied in practice. Put another way, how problems are discovered and framed, what methods are chosen, and indeed who even cares or has the authority to act, are all

  8. Modeling of US Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Seroprevalence by Age and Sexual Behavior Indicates an Increasing Trend of HPV Infection Following the Sexual Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryser, Marc D; Rositch, Anne; Gravitt, Patti E

    2017-09-01

    The United States has experienced an increase in the incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers that are not screen-detectable. It has been hypothesized, but not directly demonstrated, that this is due to increasing HPV prevalence in the unvaccinated population. Female self-reported numbers of lifetime sex partners and HPV serology from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to develop mathematical models of sexual partner acquisition and antibody dynamics. Modeled trends in sexual behaviors were compared to incidence data for cervical adenocarcinoma, oropharyngeal cancer, and anal cancer. The age-specific HPV seroprevalence data were best explained by a partner acquisition model that explicitly accounted for cohort-dependent changes in sexual behavior. Estimates of the mean time to loss of natural antibodies varied by model, ranging from 49 to 145 years. Inferred trends in sexual behavior over the past decades paralleled the increasing incidence of HPV-related cancers in the United States. The findings suggest that lower HPV seroprevalence in older US women primarily reflects cohort-specific differences in sexual behaviors, and is only marginally attributable to immune waning with age. Our results emphasize the importance of continuing surveillance of sexual behaviors, alongside vaccine status, to predict future disease burden.

  9. Megascale processes: Natural disasters and human behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, S.W.; Barton, P.; Chesworth, W.; Palmer, A.R.; Reitan, P.; Zen, E.-A.

    2009-01-01

    Megascale geologic processes, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, floods, and meteoritic impacts have occurred intermittently throughout geologic time, and perhaps on several planets. Unlike other catastrophes discussed in this volume, a unique process is unfolding on Earth, one in which humans may be the driving agent of megadisasters. Although local effects on population clusters may have been catastrophic in the past, human societies have never been interconnected globally at the scale that currently exists. We review some megascale processes and their effects in the past, and compare present conditions and possible outcomes. We then propose that human behavior itself is having effects on the planet that are comparable to, or greater than, these natural disasters. Yet, unlike geologic processes, human behavior is potentially under our control. Because the effects of our behavior threaten the stability, or perhaps even existence, of a civilized society, we call for the creation of a body to institute coherent global, credible, scientifi cally based action that is sensitive to political, economic, religious, and cultural values. The goal would be to institute aggressive monitoring, identify and understand trends, predict their consequences, and suggest and evaluate alternative actions to attempt to rescue ourselves and our ecosystems from catastrophe. We provide a template modeled after several existing national and international bodies. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  10. Scalability of human models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodarius, C.; Rooij, L. van; Lange, R. de

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to create a scalable human occupant model that allows adaptation of human models with respect to size, weight and several mechanical parameters. Therefore, for the first time two scalable facet human models were developed in MADYMO. First, a scalable human male was

  11. Human Rights and Behavior Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Philip

    1974-01-01

    Criticisms of behavior modification, which charge that it violates ethical and legal principles, are discussed and reasons are presented to explain behavior modification's susceptibility to attack. (GW)

  12. Human behavior in online social systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, A.

    2009-06-01

    We present and study data concerning human behavior in four online social systems: (i) an Internet community of friends of over 107 people, (ii) a music community website with over 106 users, (iii) a gamers’ community server with over 5 × 106 users and (iv) a booklovers’ website with over 2.5 × 105 users. The purpose of those systems is different; however, their properties are very similar. We have found that the distribution of human activity (e.g., the sum of books read or songs played) has the form of a power law. Moreover, the relationship between human activity and time has a power-law form, too. We present a simple interest-driven model of the evolution of such systems which explains the emergence of two scaling regimes.

  13. Human behavior representation of military teamwork

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Michael W.

    2006-01-01

    This work presents a conceptual structure for the behaviors of artificial intelligence agents, with emphasis on creating teamwork through individual behaviors. The goal is to set up a framework which enables teams of simulation agents to behave more realistically. Better team behavior can lend a higher fidelity of human behavior representation in a simulation, as well as provide opportunities to experiment with the factors that create teamwork. The framework divides agent behaviors into three...

  14. Behaviorally Modeling Games of Strategy Using Descriptive Q-learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    REPORT Behaviorally Modeling Games of Strategy Using Descriptive Q-learning 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Modeling human decision making... Games of Strategy Using Descriptive Q-learning Report Title ABSTRACT Modeling human decision making in strategic problem domains is challenging with...an unknown automated opponent. Behaviorally Modeling Games of Strategy Using Descriptive Q-learning Roi Ceren Department of Computer Science

  15. Clinical science and human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaud, J J

    2001-09-01

    The debate between mentalism/cognitivism and behaviorism is analyzed, and it is concluded that behaviorism is the philosophy more closely associated with psychology as a behavioral science, the cognitive approach being more closely aligned with biological science. Specific objections to mentalistic interpretations of behavioral phenomena are detailed, and examples from clinical psychology are used to show the importance of behavioral approaches in applied domains. It is argued that the relation between behavior theory and clinical psychology is critical to the continued advancement of applied psychology. Behavior analysis is offered as a direct, applied extension of behavior theory as well as a highly practical and effective approach for understanding, explaining, and modifying the factors that contribute to and maintain maladaptive behaviors.

  16. 一种虚拟人作业行为的自主优化模型%Automatic Optimization Model for Virtual Human's Working Behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王朝晖; 陈恳; 朱心雄

    2012-01-01

    Simulation of humanoid adaptive behaviors is a prerequisite of ergonomic evaluation. To overcome the shortages of existing technologies, an autonomic optimization model of virtual human's working behaviors is presented based on multi-agent cooperative games. In this model, the humanoid adaptive behaviors in working environment is defined as multi-objective optimization problem, and the definitions of mannequin workspace and behavior elements are proposed for discretization of human behaviors. A simulation algorithm based on fuzzy multi-objective games theory is presented to solve this model. With fuzzy multi-objective Nash negotiation theory, a grads-up method is adopted to search the Pareto optimizing solutions of human's working posture. Case studies show that the human's comfortable working posture can be derived by the new strategy even in cases with only insufficient data and better adaptability of the method in engineering domain can be reached.%人体自适应行为仿真是实现人机工程学评估的前提条件.针对已有技术存在的不足,提出了一种基于多Agent合作式博弈的虚拟人作业行为自主优化模型.该模型将工作环境中人体自适应行为定义为一个多目标优化问题,提出了人体工作状态空间和人体行为元素的概念,以实现人体行为的离散化设计了人体行为仿真算法以求解上述模型.算法采用梯度上升的策略来搜索满足模糊多目标Nash谈判条件的人体作业姿态的Pareto最优解.仿真实验表明,该方法可以在缺少相关数据的情况下推导出舒适的人体工作姿态,在工程领域中表现出较好的适用性.

  17. Mimesis: Linking Postmodern Theory to Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybicz, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    This article elaborates mimesis as a theory of causality used to explain human behavior. Drawing parallels to social constructionism's critique of positivism and naturalism, mimesis is offered as a theory of causality explaining human behavior that contests the current dominance of Newton's theory of causality as cause and effect. The contestation…

  18. Ecological Environment in Terms of Human Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaogang; CHEN; Dehu; ZHOU; Hui; LIN

    2013-01-01

    In terms of human behavior,company and government policy,it is proposed that the ecological behavior of human being is the basis of influence on the ecological environment construction in Poyang Lake and measures to ensure the sustainable development of ecological environment in Poyang Lake.

  19. Human Behavior from a Chronobiological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Carol Noll

    1980-01-01

    The rhythmic patterning of man's biochemical, physiological, and psychological behavior and the temporal relationships among various functions are the province of chronobiology. Citing animal and human studies, the author documents the progress of this new science and poses complex questions that it may answer about human behavior. (Editor/SJL)

  20. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: Humanism in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Larry K.

    1996-01-01

    Claims that humanism, in both concept and philosophy, is encased in a literature that is predominantly abstract, making humanism difficult to translate into tangible day-to-day action. Argues that rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), however, provides a detailed method for translating humanist concepts into humanist behavior. (RJM)

  1. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: Humanism in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Larry K.

    1996-01-01

    Claims that humanism, in both concept and philosophy, is encased in a literature that is predominantly abstract, making humanism difficult to translate into tangible day-to-day action. Argues that rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), however, provides a detailed method for translating humanist concepts into humanist behavior. (RJM)

  2. Behavioral animal models of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hua-Cheng; Cao, Xiong; Das, Manas; Zhu, Xin-Hong; Gao, Tian-Ming

    2010-08-01

    Depression is a chronic, recurring and potentially life-threatening illness that affects up to 20% of the population across the world. Despite its prevalence and considerable impact on human, little is known about its pathogenesis. One of the major reasons is the restricted availability of validated animal models due to the absence of consensus on the pathology and etiology of depression. Besides, some core symptoms such as depressed mood, feeling of worthlessness, and recurring thoughts of death or suicide, are impossible to be modeled on laboratory animals. Currently, the criteria for identifying animal models of depression rely on either of the 2 principles: actions of known antidepressants and responses to stress. This review mainly focuses on the most widely used animal models of depression, including learned helplessness, chronic mild stress, and social defeat paradigms. Also, the behavioral tests for screening antidepressants, such as forced swimming test and tail suspension test, are also discussed. The advantages and major drawbacks of each model are evaluated. In prospective, new techniques that will be beneficial for developing novel animal models or detecting depression are discussed.

  3. Behavioral Signal Processing: Deriving Human Behavioral Informatics From Speech and Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Shrikanth; Georgiou, Panayiotis G.

    2013-01-01

    The expression and experience of human behavior are complex and multimodal and characterized by individual and contextual heterogeneity and variability. Speech and spoken language communication cues offer an important means for measuring and modeling human behavior. Observational research and practice across a variety of domains from commerce to healthcare rely on speech- and language-based informatics for crucial assessment and diagnostic information and for planning and tracking response to an intervention. In this paper, we describe some of the opportunities as well as emerging methodologies and applications of human behavioral signal processing (BSP) technology and algorithms for quantitatively understanding and modeling typical, atypical, and distressed human behavior with a specific focus on speech- and language-based communicative, affective, and social behavior. We describe the three important BSP components of acquiring behavioral data in an ecologically valid manner across laboratory to real-world settings, extracting and analyzing behavioral cues from measured data, and developing models offering predictive and decision-making support. We highlight both the foundational speech and language processing building blocks as well as the novel processing and modeling opportunities. Using examples drawn from specific real-world applications ranging from literacy assessment and autism diagnostics to psychotherapy for addiction and marital well being, we illustrate behavioral informatics applications of these signal processing techniques that contribute to quantifying higher level, often subjectively described, human behavior in a domain-sensitive fashion. PMID:24039277

  4. Merging Empiricism and Humanism: Role of Social Validity in the School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Michelle; Heath, Melissa Allen; Miramontes, Nancy Y.

    2013-01-01

    Criteria for evaluating behavior support programs are changing. Consumer-based educational and behavioral programs, such as School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS), are particularly influenced by consumer opinion. Unfortunately, the need for and use of social validity measures have not received adequate attention in the empirical literature…

  5. Merging Empiricism and Humanism: Role of Social Validity in the School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Michelle; Heath, Melissa Allen; Miramontes, Nancy Y.

    2013-01-01

    Criteria for evaluating behavior support programs are changing. Consumer-based educational and behavioral programs, such as School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS), are particularly influenced by consumer opinion. Unfortunately, the need for and use of social validity measures have not received adequate attention in the empirical literature…

  6. Behavior and Design Intent Based Product Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Horváth

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A knowledge based modeling of mechanical products is presented for industrial CAD/CAM systems. An active model is proposed that comprise knowledge from modeling procedures, generic part models and engineers. Present day models of mechanical systems do not contain data about the background of human decisions. This situation motivated the authors at their investigations on exchange design intent information between engineers. Their concept was extending of product models to be capable of description of design intent information. Several human-computer and human-human communication issues were considered. The complex communication problem has been divided into four sub-problems, namely communication of human intent source with the computer system, representation of human intent, exchange of intent data between modeling procedures and communication of the represented intent with humans. Paper discusses the scenario of intelligent modeling based engineering. Then key concepts for the application of computational intelligence in computer model based engineering systems are detailed including knowledge driven models as well as areas of their application. Next, behavior based models with intelligent content involving specifications and knowledge for the design processes are emphasized and an active part modeling is proposed and possibilities for its application are outlined. Finally, design intent supported intelligent modeling is discussed.

  7. High Performance Human Resource Practices, Identification with Organizational Values and Goals, and Service-Oriented Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Review of Literature and Proposed Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasurdin Aizzat Mohd.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing competition within the hospitality industry has recognized the importance of service quality as a key business differentiation strategy. Proactive involvement of employees is a vital component of the service delivery, which in turn, enhances customer satisfaction and loyalty. Hence, hospitality organizations, particularly hotels, need to encourage their employees to perform voluntary behaviors that go “beyond their call of duty”. These behaviors are referred to as service-oriented organizational citizenship behaviors (hereafter labeled as SO-OCBs. A review of the literature indicates that an organization’s human resource management (henceforth labeled as HRM practices are instrumental in establishing the tone of the employee-employer relationship, which subsequently affects employees’ display of discretionary functional service-related behaviors. Specifically, high-performance HRM practices can nurture a relational employment relationship, leading to internalization of organizational values and goals. This, in turn, would induce employees to engage in greater SO-OCBs. However, conceptual and empirical work explaining the mechanism by which high-performance HRM practices relate to SO-OCBs remains scarce. Therefore, this paper aims to construct a model linking a set of high-performance HRM practices (selective hiring, communication, appraisal, and reward and SO-OCBs. Identification with organizational values and goals is posited as a mediator in the proposed relationship. A discussion of the literature to support the proposed framework is furnished.

  8. Applying incentive sensitization models to behavioral addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Fjorback, Lone; Møller, Arne

    2014-01-01

    The incentive sensitization theory is a promising model for understanding the mechanisms underlying drug addiction, and has received support in animal and human studies. So far the theory has not been applied to the case of behavioral addictions like Gambling Disorder, despite sharing clinical...... symptoms and underlying neurobiology. We examine the relevance of this theory for Gambling Disorder and point to predictions for future studies. The theory promises a significant contribution to the understanding of behavioral addiction and opens new avenues for treatment....

  9. Applying incentive sensitization models to behavioral addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Fjorback, Lone; Møller, Arne

    2014-01-01

    The incentive sensitization theory is a promising model for understanding the mechanisms underlying drug addiction, and has received support in animal and human studies. So far the theory has not been applied to the case of behavioral addictions like Gambling Disorder, despite sharing clinical...

  10. Recognition of 48 Human Behaviors from Video

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouts, G.J.; Bouma, H.; Hollander, R.J.M. den; Broek, S.P. van den; Schutte, K.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a system that recognizes 48 human behaviors from video. The essential elements are (i) inference of the actors in the scene, (ii) assessment of event-related properties of actors and between actors, (iii) exploiting the event properties to recognize the behaviors. The performance o

  11. Scaling behavior of online human activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Cai, Shi-Min; Huang, Junming; Fu, Yan; Zhou, Tao

    2012-11-01

    The rapid development of the Internet technology enables humans to explore the web and record the traces of online activities. From the analysis of these large-scale data sets (i.e., traces), we can get insights about the dynamic behavior of human activity. In this letter, the scaling behavior and complexity of human activity in the e-commerce, such as music, books, and movies rating, are comprehensively investigated by using the detrended fluctuation analysis technique and the multiscale entropy method. Firstly, the interevent time series of rating behaviors of these three types of media show similar scaling properties with exponents ranging from 0.53 to 0.58, which implies that the collective behaviors of rating media follow a process embodying self-similarity and long-range correlation. Meanwhile, by dividing the users into three groups based on their activities (i.e., rating per unit time), we find that the scaling exponents of the interevent time series in the three groups are different. Hence, these results suggest that a stronger long-range correlations exist in these collective behaviors. Furthermore, their information complexities vary in the three groups. To explain the differences of the collective behaviors restricted to the three groups, we study the dynamic behavior of human activity at the individual level, and find that the dynamic behaviors of a few users have extremely small scaling exponents associated with long-range anticorrelations. By comparing the interevent time distributions of four representative users, we can find that the bimodal distributions may bring forth the extraordinary scaling behaviors. These results of the analysis of the online human activity in the e-commerce may not only provide insight into its dynamic behaviors but may also be applied to acquire potential economic interest.

  12. Gas Turbine Engine Behavioral Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Richard T; DeCarlo, Raymond A.; Pekarek, Steve; Doktorcik, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops and validates a power flow behavioral model of a gas tur- bine engine with a gas generator and free power turbine. “Simple” mathematical expressions to describe the engine’s power flow are derived from an understand- ing of basic thermodynamic and mechanical interactions taking place within the engine. The engine behavioral model presented is suitable for developing a supervisory level controller of an electrical power system that contains the en- gine connected to a gener...

  13. Behavior models for software architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Auguston, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Monterey Phoenix (MP) is an approach to formal software system architecture specification based on behavior models. Architecture modeling focuses not only on the activities and interactions within the system, but also on the interactions between the system and its environment, providing an abstraction for interaction specification. The behavior of the system is defined as a set...

  14. Viscoelastic behavior of discrete human collagen fibrils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, René; Hassenkam, Tue; Hansen, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Whole tendon and fibril bundles display viscoelastic behavior, but to the best of our knowledge this property has not been directly measured in single human tendon fibrils. In the present work an atomic force microscopy (AFM) approach was used for tensile testing of two human patellar tendon fibr...

  15. Human chromosomes: Structure, behavior, and effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Therman, E.; Susman, M.

    1993-12-31

    The book `Human Chromosomes: Structure, Behavior, and Effects` covers the most important topics regarding human chromosomes and current research in cytogenetics. Attention is given both to structure and function of autosomes and sex chromosomes, as well as definitions and causes of chromosomal aberrations. This often involves discussion about various aspects of the cell cycle (both mitosis and meiosis). Methods and techniques involved in researching and mapping human chromosomes are also discussed.

  16. PSA-NCAM(+) neural precursor cells from human embryonic stem cells promote neural tissue integrity and behavioral performance in a rat stroke model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han-Soo; Choi, Seong-Mi; Yang, Wonsuk; Kim, Dae-Sung; Lee, Dongjin R; Cho, Sung-Rae; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2014-12-01

    Recently, cell-based therapy has been highlighted as an alternative to treating ischemic brain damage in stroke patients. The present study addresses the therapeutic potential of polysialic acid-neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM)-positive neural precursor cells (NPC(PSA-NCAM+)) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in a rat stroke model with permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. Data showed that rats transplanted with NPC(PSA-NCAM+) are superior to those treated with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in behavioral performance throughout time points. In order to investigate its underlying events, immunohistochemical analysis was performed on rat ischemic brains treated with PBS, MSCs, and NPC(PSA-NCAM+). Unlike MSCs, NPC(PSA-NCAM+) demonstrated a potent immunoreactivity against human specific nuclei, doublecortin, and Tuj1 at day 26 post-transplantation, implying their survival, differentiation, and integration in the host brain. Significantly, NPC(PSA-NCAM+) evidently lowered the positivity of microglial ED-1 and astrocytic GFAP, suggesting a suppression of adverse glial activation in the host brain. In addition, NPC(PSA-NCAM+) elevated α-SMA(+) immunoreactivity and the expression of angiopoietin-1 indicating angiogenic stimulation in the host brain. Taken together, the current data demonstrate that transplanted NPC(PSA-NCAM+) preserve brain tissue with reduced infarct size and improve behavioral performance through actions encompassing anti-reactive glial activation and pro-angiogenic activity in a rat stroke model. In conclusion, the present findings support the potentiality of NPC(PSA-NCAM+) as the promising source in the development of cell-based therapy for neurological diseases including ischemic stroke.

  17. Fractal Analysis on Human Behaviors Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Chao; Zha, Yi-Long

    2010-01-01

    The study of human dynamics has attracted much interest from many fields recently. In this paper, the fractal characteristic of human behaviors is investigated from the perspective of time series constructed with the amount of library loans. The Hurst exponents and length of non-periodic cycles calculated through Rescaled Range Analysis indicate that the time series of human behaviors is fractal with long-range correlation. Then the time series are converted to complex networks by visibility graph algorithm. The topological properties of the networks, such as scale-free property, small-world effect and hierarchical structure imply that close relationships exist between the amounts of repetitious actions performed by people during certain periods of time, especially for some important days. Finally, the networks obtained are verified to be not fractal and self-similar using box-counting method. Our work implies the intrinsic regularity shown in human collective repetitious behaviors.

  18. Cognitive Empathy and Emotional Empathy in Human Behavior and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam

    2006-01-01

    This article presents 7 simple models of the relationship between cognitive empathy (mental perspective taking) and emotional empathy (the vicarious sharing of emotion). I consider behavioral outcomes of the models, arguing that, during human evolution, natural selection may have acted on variation in the relationship between cognitive empathy and…

  19. Cognitive Empathy and Emotional Empathy in Human Behavior and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam

    2006-01-01

    This article presents 7 simple models of the relationship between cognitive empathy (mental perspective taking) and emotional empathy (the vicarious sharing of emotion). I consider behavioral outcomes of the models, arguing that, during human evolution, natural selection may have acted on variation in the relationship between cognitive empathy and…

  20. Human-Like Behavior Generation Based on Head-Arms Model for Robot Tracking External Targets and Body Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijun; Beck, Aryel; Magnenat-Thalmann, Nadia

    2015-08-01

    Facing and pointing toward moving targets is a usual and natural behavior in daily life. Social robots should be able to display such coordinated behaviors in order to interact naturally with people. For instance, a robot should be able to point and look at specific objects. This is why, a scheme to generate coordinated head-arm motion for a humanoid robot with two degrees-of-freedom for the head and seven for each arm is proposed in this paper. Specifically, a virtual plane approach is employed to generate the analytical solution of the head motion. A quadratic program (QP)-based method is exploited to formulate the coordinated dual-arm motion. To obtain the optimal solution, a simplified recurrent neural network is used to solve the QP problem. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is demonstrated using both computer simulation and physical experiments.

  1. Does the Macaque Monkey Provide a Good Model for Studying Human Executive Control? A Comparative Behavioral Study of Task Switching

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The ability to swiftly and smoothly switch from one task set to another is central to intelligent behavior, because it allows an organism to flexibly adapt to ever changing environmental conditions and internal needs. For this reason, researchers interested in executive control processes have often relied on task-switching paradigms as powerful tools to uncover the underlying cognitive and brain architecture. In order to gather fundamental information at the single-cell level, it would be gre...

  2. An Uneasy Look at Behavior Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Scott B.; Reich, Leah R.

    1984-01-01

    Key points in a typical behavior modeling instructional sequence are given. Some problems of behavior modeling are analyzed and solutions are offered. Article is ended with a discussion of some design limitations built into behavior modeling. (JB)

  3. Does Mother Know Best? An Actor-Partner Model of College-Age Women's Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Janice L.; Kam, Jennifer A.; Katz, Mira L.; Roberto, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the associations of perceived threat, perceived efficacy, and parent-child communication with the extent to which college-age women received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Daughters and their mothers completed a survey about the HPV vaccine (N = 182 dyads). The results showed that mothers' perceived self-efficacy to…

  4. ANIMAL BEHAVIORAL MODELS OF TINNITUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chao; WANG Qiuju; SUN Wei

    2014-01-01

    The pathophysiology of tinnitus is poorly understood and treatments are often unsuccessful. A number of animal models have been developed in order to gain a better understanding of tinnitus. A great deal has been learned from these models re-garding the electrophysiological and neuroanatomical correlates of tinnitus following exposure to noise or ototoxic drugs. Re-liable behavioral data is important for determining whether such electrophysiological or neuroanatomical changes are indeed related to tinnitus. Of the many documented tinnitus animal behavioral paradigms, the acoustic startle reflex had been pro-posed as a simple method to identify the presence or absence of tinnitus. Several behavioral models based on conditioned re-sponse suppression paradigms have also been developed. In addition to determining the presence or absence of tinnitus, some of the behavioral paradigms have provided signs of the onset, frequency, and intensity of tinnitus in animals. Although none of these behavioral models have been proved to be a perfect model, these studies provide useful information on understanding the neural mechanisms underlying tinnitus.

  5. Behavioral Entropy in Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Department 2 Erwin R. Boer Consulting Brigham Young University San Diego, CA, USA Provo, UT, USA ABSTRACT The ability to quickly and accurately measure...AND ADDRESS(ES) Brigham Young University,Computer Science Department,33361 Talmage Building,Provo,UT,84602 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER...in- teraction. To paraphrase Wiener, people work to re- duce entropy so skilled behavior minimizes entropy. This manifests itself in human behavior

  6. Spatio-Temporal Behavior Analysis and Pheromone-Based Fusion Model for Big Trace Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luliang Tang; Qianqian Zou; Xia Zhang; Chang Ren; Qingquan Li

    2017-01-01

    ..., and overlooking the influence of previous activities on future behaviors. We propose a Pheromone-based Fusion Model, viewing human behaviors as similar to insect foraging behaviors to model spatio-temporal recreational activity patterns, on and offline...

  7. Behavior modeling through CHAOS for simulation of dismounted soldier operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubink, E.; Aldershoff, F.; Lotens, W.A.; Woering, A.

    2003-01-01

    One of the major challenges in human behavior modeling for military applications is dealing with all factors that can influence behavior and performance. In a military context, behavior and performance are influenced by the task at hand, the internal (cognitive and physiological) and external

  8. Analogue Behavioral Modeling of GTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Azzouz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An analog behavioral model of high power gate turn-off thyristor (GTO is developed in this paper. The fundamental methodology for the modeling of this power electronic circuit is based on the use of the realistic diode consideration of non-linear junctions. This modeling technique enables to perform different simulations taking into account the turn-on and turn-off transient behaviors in real-time. The equivalent circuits were simulated with analog software developed in our laboratory. It was shown that the tested simple and compact model allows the generation of accurate physical characteristics of power thyristors under dynamic conditions. The model understudy was validated with analog simulations based on operational amplifier devices.

  9. The Use of Machine Aids in Dynamic Multi-Task Environments: A Comparison of an Optimal Model to Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    advantage . Unproductive machines, however, were used far more frequently than indicated by the optimal model. Increasing the cost of using machines was...found to have a greater inhibiting effect on their use than did de-creasing machine productivity. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAQE(Vhm’ Date Bnb .,e@V...and the method used to deal with it. The cognitive interface is like the storm front between a warm air mass and a cold air mass. Both are described as

  10. Collective learning dynamics in behavioral crowds. Comment on "Human behaviours in evacuation crowd dynamics: From modeling to "big data" toward crisis management" by Nicola Bellomo et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burini, D.

    2016-09-01

    A recent literature on crowd dynamics [9,10] has enlightened that the management of crisis situations needs models able to depict social behaviors and, in particular, the spread of emotional feelings such as stress by panic situation.

  11. Modeling of Agent Behavior Using Behavioral Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpanskykh, A.; Treur, J.

    2006-01-01

    The behavioral dynamics of a cognitive agent can be considered both from an external and an internal perspective. From the external perspective, behavior is described by specifying (temporal) correlations between input and output states of the agent. From the internal perspective the agent’s dynamic

  12. An opinion-driven behavioral dynamics model for addictive behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas W.; Finley, Patrick D.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Ambrose, Bridget K.; Brodsky, Nancy S.; Brown, Theresa J.; Husten, Corinne; Glass, Robert J.

    2015-04-01

    We present a model of behavioral dynamics that combines a social network-based opinion dynamics model with behavioral mapping. The behavioral component is discrete and history-dependent to represent situations in which an individual's behavior is initially driven by opinion and later constrained by physiological or psychological conditions that serve to maintain the behavior. Individuals are modeled as nodes in a social network connected by directed edges. Parameter sweeps illustrate model behavior and the effects of individual parameters and parameter interactions on model results. Mapping a continuous opinion variable into a discrete behavioral space induces clustering on directed networks. Clusters provide targets of opportunity for influencing the network state; however, the smaller the network the greater the stochasticity and potential variability in outcomes. This has implications both for behaviors that are influenced by close relationships verses those influenced by societal norms and for the effectiveness of strategies for influencing those behaviors.

  13. Computational human body models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Happee, R.; Dommelen, J.A.W. van

    2005-01-01

    Computational human body models are widely used for automotive crashsafety research and design and as such have significantly contributed to a reduction of traffic injuries and fatalities. Currently crash simulations are mainly performed using models based on crash-dummies. However crash dummies dif

  14. Computational human body models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Happee, R.; Dommelen, J.A.W. van

    2005-01-01

    Computational human body models are widely used for automotive crashsafety research and design and as such have significantly contributed to a reduction of traffic injuries and fatalities. Currently crash simulations are mainly performed using models based on crash-dummies. However crash dummies

  15. An Agent-Based Modeling Approach to Integrate Tsunami Science, Human Behavior, and Unplanned Network Disruptions for Nearfield Tsunami Evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, D. T.; Wang, H.; Cramer, L.; Mostafizi, A.; Park, H.

    2016-12-01

    For the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) and other extreme near-field tsunami hazards, coastal residents and tourist must evacuate within 15 to 30 minutes immediately following intense ground-shaking and will be confronted with an array of choices: Should I evacuate on foot or by car? Alone, or find friends and family first? Head for high ground far away, or seek shelter a nearby building? How will the roads and bridges be affected by the preceding earthquake? In this project, we integrate the disciplines of tsunami inundation science, sociology, and civil engineering to investigate how decision-making by individual evacuees with respect to milling time, mode choice, and destination affects their life safety. We use an Agent-Based Model (ABM) to create credible scenarios for near-field tsunami evacuation. The ABM integrates (1) the time-dependent tsunami inundation computed separately using NOAA's ComMIT/MOST model, (2) population layers to account for variations in population density of residents and tourist, (3) evacuation route network including roads, bridges and foot paths for multi-modal transportation, and (4) evacuation destinations for horizontal and vertical evacuation. For this project, we apply the ABM at two locations: the city Seaside, OR, and South Beach State Park in Newport, OR. In the Seaside scenario, we show how unplanned network disruption - e.g. the partial or total failure of bridges due to the preceding earthquake - will affect life safety and show how the ABM can be used to provide retrofit strategies. For South Beach, we show how alternative routing can have a substantial impact on life safety. The ABM shows results that are initially counterintuitive. For the Seaside example, resource allocation for bridge retrofit favors investments in nodes and links not necessarily in close proximity to population centers. For the South Beach example, the routes which provide for the lowest risk (maximum life safety) are not always those with the

  16. Behavior Modeling -- Foundations and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes revised selected papers from the six International Workshops on Behavior Modelling - Foundations and Applications, BM-FA, which took place annually between 2009 and 2014. The 9 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from a total of 58 papers...

  17. Interactive human behavior analysis in open or public spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hung, H.; Odobez, J.M.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    In the past years, efforts in surveillance and open space analysis have focused on traditional computer vision problems like scene modeling or object detection and tracking. Research on human behavior recognition have tended to work on predefined simple activities such as running, jumping or left lu

  18. Flexible Bayesian Human Fecundity Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungduk; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Buck Louis, Germaine M; Pyper, Cecilia

    2012-12-01

    Human fecundity is an issue of considerable interest for both epidemiological and clinical audiences, and is dependent upon a couple's biologic capacity for reproduction coupled with behaviors that place a couple at risk for pregnancy. Bayesian hierarchical models have been proposed to better model the conception probabilities by accounting for the acts of intercourse around the day of ovulation, i.e., during the fertile window. These models can be viewed in the framework of a generalized nonlinear model with an exponential link. However, a fixed choice of link function may not always provide the best fit, leading to potentially biased estimates for probability of conception. Motivated by this, we propose a general class of models for fecundity by relaxing the choice of the link function under the generalized nonlinear model framework. We use a sample from the Oxford Conception Study (OCS) to illustrate the utility and fit of this general class of models for estimating human conception. Our findings reinforce the need for attention to be paid to the choice of link function in modeling conception, as it may bias the estimation of conception probabilities. Various properties of the proposed models are examined and a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling algorithm was developed for implementing the Bayesian computations. The deviance information criterion measure and logarithm of pseudo marginal likelihood are used for guiding the choice of links. The supplemental material section contains technical details of the proof of the theorem stated in the paper, and contains further simulation results and analysis.

  19. Scaling behavior of online human activity

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Huang, Junming; Fu, Yan; Zhou, Tao; 10.1209/0295-5075/100/48004

    2013-01-01

    The rapid development of Internet technology enables human explore the web and record the traces of online activities. From the analysis of these large-scale data sets (i.e. traces), we can get insights about dynamic behavior of human activity. In this letter, the scaling behavior and complexity of human activity in the e-commerce, such as music, book, and movie rating, are comprehensively investigated by using detrended fluctuation analysis technique and multiscale entropy method. Firstly, the interevent time series of rating behaviors of these three type medias show the similar scaling property with exponents ranging from 0.53 to 0.58, which implies that the collective behaviors of rating media follow a process embodying self-similarity and long-range correlation. Meanwhile, by dividing the users into three groups based their activities (i.e., rating per unit time), we find that the scaling exponents of interevent time series in three groups are different. Hence, these results suggest the stronger long-rang...

  20. Human migraine models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    2001-01-01

    The need for experimental models is obvious. In animal models it is possible to study vascular responses, neurogenic inflammation, c-fos expression etc. However, the pathophysiology of migraine remains unsolved, why results from animal studies not directly can be related to the migraine attack......, which is a human experience. A set-up for investigations of experimental headache and migraine in humans, has been evaluated and headache mechanisms explored by using nitroglycerin and other headache-inducing agents. Nitric oxide (NO) or other parts of the NO activated cascade seems to be responsible...

  1. Human-Computer Interactions and Decision Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    software interfaces. The major components of the reseach program included the Diaiogue Management System. (DMS) operating environment, the role of...specification; and new methods for modeling, designing, and developing human-computer interfaces based on syntactic and semantic specification. The DMS...achieving communication is language. Accordingly, the transaction model employs a linguistic model consisting of parts that relate computer responses

  2. Some theoretical aspects of human categorization behavior: similarity and generalization

    OpenAIRE

    Jäkel, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Explanations of human categorization behavior often invoke similarity. Stimuli that are similar to each other are grouped together whereas stimuli that are very different are kept separate. Despite serious problems in defining similarity, both conceptually and experimentally, this is the prevailing view of categorization in prototype models (Posner & Keele, 1968; Reed, 1972) and exemplar models (Medin & Schaffer, 1978; Nosofsky, 1986). This is also the prevailing approach in machine learning ...

  3. Human Factors Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Jack is an advanced human factors software package that provides a three dimensional model for predicting how a human will interact with a given system or environment. It can be used for a broad range of computer-aided design applications. Jack was developed by the computer Graphics Research Laboratory of the University of Pennsylvania with assistance from NASA's Johnson Space Center, Ames Research Center and the Army. It is the University's first commercial product. Jack is still used for academic purposes at the University of Pennsylvania. Commercial rights were given to Transom Technologies, Inc.

  4. Choice, Communication, and Conflict. A System's Approach to the Study of Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackoff, Russell L.

    This book presents a teleological analysis of the concepts of human behavior. Through distinctions and definitions, a model or system is developed, upon which all aspects of behavior are interrelated. The model of choice or purposeful state is discussed with its underlying concepts. Human communication and feeling, and cooperation and conflict…

  5. The relations between neuroscience and human behavioral science.

    OpenAIRE

    Strumwasser, F.

    1994-01-01

    Neuroscience seeks to understand how the human brain, perhaps the most complex electrochemical machine in the universe, works, in terms of molecules, membranes, cells and cell assemblies, development, plasticity, learning, memory, cognition, and behavior. The human behavioral sciences, in particular psychiatry and clinical psychology, deal with disorders of human behavior and mentation. The gap between neuroscience and the human behavioral sciences is still large. However, some major advances...

  6. Interior Design Research: A Human Ecosystem Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Denise A.

    1992-01-01

    The interior ecosystems model illustrates effects on the human organism of the interaction of the natural, behavioral, and built environment. Examples of interior lighting and household energy consumption show the model's flexibility for organizing study variables in interior design research. (SK)

  7. Interior Design Research: A Human Ecosystem Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Denise A.

    1992-01-01

    The interior ecosystems model illustrates effects on the human organism of the interaction of the natural, behavioral, and built environment. Examples of interior lighting and household energy consumption show the model's flexibility for organizing study variables in interior design research. (SK)

  8. Sympathetic nervous system behavior in human obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Kevin P; Orr, Jeb S

    2009-02-01

    The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) plays an essential role in the regulation of metabolic and cardiovascular homeostasis. Low SNS activity has been suggested to be a risk factor for weight gain and obesity development. In contrast, SNS activation is characteristic of a number of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases that occur more frequently in obese individuals. Until recently, the relation between obesity and SNS behavior has been controversial because previous approaches for assessing SNS activity in humans have produced inconsistent findings. Beginning in the early 1990s, many studies using state of the art neurochemical and neurophysiological techniques have provided important insight. The purpose of the present review is to provide an overview of our current understanding of the region specific alterations in SNS behavior in human obesity. We will discuss findings from our own laboratory which implicate visceral fat as an important depot linking obesity with skeletal muscle SNS activation. The influence of weight change on SNS behavior and the potential mechanisms and consequences of region specific SNS activation in obesity will also be considered.

  9. Analysis and modeling of parking behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes the spatial structure of parking behavior and establishes a basic parking behavior model to represent the parking problem in downtown, and establishes a parking pricing model to analyze the parking equilibrium with a positive parking fee and uses a paired combinatorial logit model to analyze the effect of trip integrative cost on parking behavior and concludes from empirical results that the parking behavior model performs well.

  10. Human Papillomavirus Vaccination at a Time of Changing Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baussano, Iacopo; Lazzarato, Fulvio; Brisson, Marc; Franceschi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence varies widely worldwide. We used a transmission model to show links between age-specific sexual patterns and HPV vaccination effectiveness. We considered rural India and the United States as examples of 2 heterosexual populations with traditional age-specific sexual behavior and gender-similar age-specific sexual behavior, respectively. We simulated these populations by using age-specific rates of sexual activity and age differences between sexual partners and found that transitions from traditional to gender-similar sexual behavior in women sexual behavior and that increased risk for HPV infection attributable to transition is preventable by early vaccination. Our study highlights the importance of using time-limited opportunities to introduce HPV vaccination in traditional populations before changes in age-specific sexual patterns occur.

  11. Novelty, Stress, and Biological Roots in Human Market Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Sarapultsev

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Although studies examining the biological roots of human behavior have been conducted since the seminal work Kahneman and Tversky, crises and panics have not disappeared. The frequent occurrence of various types of crises has led some economists to the conviction that financial markets occasionally praise irrational judgments and that market crashes cannot be avoided a priori (Sornette 2009; Smith 2004. From a biological point of view, human behaviors are essentially the same during crises accompanied by stock market crashes and during bubble growth when share prices exceed historic highs. During those periods, most market participants see something new for themselves, and this inevitably induces a stress response in them with accompanying changes in their endocrine profiles and motivations. The result is quantitative and qualitative changes in behavior (Zhukov 2007. An underestimation of the role of novelty as a stressor is the primary shortcoming of current approaches for market research. When developing a mathematical market model, it is necessary to account for the biologically determined diphasisms of human behavior in everyday low-stress conditions and in response to stressors. This is the only type of approach that will enable forecasts of market dynamics and investor behaviors under normal conditions as well as during bubbles and panics.

  12. Novelty, stress, and biological roots in human market behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarapultsev, Alexey; Sarapultsev, Petr

    2014-03-01

    Although studies examining the biological roots of human behavior have been conducted since the seminal work Kahneman and Tversky, crises and panics have not disappeared. The frequent occurrence of various types of crises has led some economists to the conviction that financial markets occasionally praise irrational judgments and that market crashes cannot be avoided a priori (Sornette 2009; Smith 2004). From a biological point of view, human behaviors are essentially the same during crises accompanied by stock market crashes and during bubble growth when share prices exceed historic highs. During those periods, most market participants see something new for themselves, and this inevitably induces a stress response in them with accompanying changes in their endocrine profiles and motivations. The result is quantitative and qualitative changes in behavior (Zhukov 2007). An underestimation of the role of novelty as a stressor is the primary shortcoming of current approaches for market research. When developing a mathematical market model, it is necessary to account for the biologically determined diphasisms of human behavior in everyday low-stress conditions and in response to stressors. This is the only type of approach that will enable forecasts of market dynamics and investor behaviors under normal conditions as well as during bubbles and panics.

  13. Discrimination of complex human behavior by pigeons (Columba livia and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A J Qadri

    Full Text Available The cognitive and neural mechanisms for recognizing and categorizing behavior are not well understood in non-human animals. In the current experiments, pigeons and humans learned to categorize two non-repeating, complex human behaviors ("martial arts" vs. "Indian dance". Using multiple video exemplars of a digital human model, pigeons discriminated these behaviors in a go/no-go task and humans in a choice task. Experiment 1 found that pigeons already experienced with discriminating the locomotive actions of digital animals acquired the discrimination more rapidly when action information was available than when only pose information was available. Experiments 2 and 3 found this same dynamic superiority effect with naïve pigeons and human participants. Both species used the same combination of immediately available static pose information and more slowly perceived dynamic action cues to discriminate the behavioral categories. Theories based on generalized visual mechanisms, as opposed to embodied, species-specific action networks, offer a parsimonious account of how these different animals recognize behavior across and within species.

  14. Shopping Behavior Recognition using a Language Modeling Analogy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M.C.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.; Wiggers, P.; Shan, C.

    2012-01-01

    Automatic understanding and recognition of human shopping behavior has many potential applications, attracting an increasing interest inthe market- ing domain. The reliability and performance of the automatic recognition system is highly in uenced by the adopted theoretical model of behavior. In thi

  15. Finite element modeling of the human pelvis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, B.

    1995-11-01

    A finite element model of the human pelvis was created using a commercial wire frame image as a template. To test the final mesh, the model`s mechanical behavior was analyzed through finite element analysis and the results were displayed graphically as stress concentrations. In the future, this grid of the pelvis will be integrated with a full leg model and used in side-impact car collision simulations.

  16. Modeling software behavior a craftsman's approach

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgensen, Paul C

    2009-01-01

    A common problem with most texts on requirements specifications is that they emphasize structural models to the near exclusion of behavioral models-focusing on what the software is, rather than what it does. If they do cover behavioral models, the coverage is brief and usually focused on a single model. Modeling Software Behavior: A Craftsman's Approach provides detailed treatment of various models of software behavior that support early analysis, comprehension, and model-based testing. Based on the popular and continually evolving course on requirements specification models taught by the auth

  17. Animal Models of Compulsive Eating Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Di Segni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders are multifactorial conditions that can involve a combination of genetic, metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Studies in humans and laboratory animals show that eating can also be regulated by factors unrelated to metabolic control. Several studies suggest a link between stress, access to highly palatable food, and eating disorders. Eating “comfort foods” in response to a negative emotional state, for example, suggests that some individuals overeat to self-medicate. Clinical data suggest that some individuals may develop addiction-like behaviors from consuming palatable foods. Based on this observation, “food addiction” has emerged as an area of intense scientific research. A growing body of evidence suggests that some aspects of food addiction, such as compulsive eating behavior, can be modeled in animals. Moreover, several areas of the brain, including various neurotransmitter systems, are involved in the reinforcement effects of both food and drugs, suggesting that natural and pharmacological stimuli activate similar neural systems. In addition, several recent studies have identified a putative connection between neural circuits activated in the seeking and intake of both palatable food and drugs. The development of well-characterized animal models will increase our understanding of the etiological factors of food addiction and will help identify the neural substrates involved in eating disorders such as compulsive overeating. Such models will facilitate the development and validation of targeted pharmacological therapies.

  18. Understanding the heavy-tailed dynamics in human behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Gordon J.; Jones, Tim

    2015-06-01

    The recent availability of electronic data sets containing large volumes of communication data has made it possible to study human behavior on a larger scale than ever before. From this, it has been discovered that across a diverse range of data sets, the interevent times between consecutive communication events obey heavy-tailed power law dynamics. Explaining this has proved controversial, and two distinct hypotheses have emerged. The first holds that these power laws are fundamental, and arise from the mechanisms such as priority queuing that humans use to schedule tasks. The second holds that they are statistical artifacts which only occur in aggregated data when features such as circadian rhythms and burstiness are ignored. We use a large social media data set to test these hypotheses, and find that although models that incorporate circadian rhythms and burstiness do explain part of the observed heavy tails, there is residual unexplained heavy-tail behavior which suggests a more fundamental cause. Based on this, we develop a quantitative model of human behavior which improves on existing approaches and gives insight into the mechanisms underlying human interactions.

  19. Mathematical model of uptake and metabolism of arsenic(III in human hepatocytes - Incorporation of cellular antioxidant response and threshold-dependent behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isukapalli Sastry S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arsenic is an environmental pollutant, potent human toxicant, and oxidative stress agent with a multiplicity of health effects associated with both acute and chronic exposures. A semi-mechanistic cellular-level toxicokinetic (TK model was developed in order to describe the uptake, biotransformation and clearance of arsenical species in human hepatocytes. Notable features of this model are the incorporation of arsenic-glutathione complex formation and a "switch-like" formulation to describe the antioxidant response of hepatocytes to arsenic exposure. Results The cellular-level TK model applies mass action kinetics in order to predict the concentrations of trivalent and pentavalent arsenicals in hepatocytes. The model simulates uptake of arsenite (iAsIII via aquaporin isozymes 9 (AQP9s, glutathione (GSH conjugation, methylation by arsenic methyltransferase (AS3MT, efflux through multidrug resistant proteins (MRPs and the induced antioxidant response via thioredoxin reductase (TR activity. The model was parameterized by optimization of model estimates for arsenite (iAsIII, monomethylated (MMA and dimethylated (DMA arsenicals concentrations with time-course experimental data in human hepatocytes for a time span of 48 hours, and dose-response data at 24 hours for a range of arsenite concentrations from 0.1 to 10 μM. Global sensitivity analysis of the model showed that at low doses the transport parameters had a dominant role, whereas at higher doses the biotransformation parameters were the most significant. A parametric comparison of the TK model with an analogous model developed for rat hepatocytes from the literature demonstrated that the biotransformation of arsenite (e.g. GSH conjugation has a large role in explaining the variation in methylation between rats and humans. Conclusions The cellular-level TK model captures the temporal modes of arsenical accumulation in human hepatocytes. It highlighted the key biological

  20. Motivational Interviewing: A Theoretical Framework for the Study of Human Behavior and the Social Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine van Wormer

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a critical analysis of motivational interviewing stages of change model. Although rarely included in textbooks on human behavior and the social environment, this model has much to teach us about that aspect of human behavior most germane to social work practice—personal motivation for change of behaviors that are dysfunctional. The basic concepts that underlie motivational interviewing are derived from empirically-based principles from the science of social psychology. T...

  1. Nonlinear System Identification and Behavioral Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Huq, Kazi Mohammed Saidul; Kabir, A F M Sultanul

    2010-01-01

    The problem of determining a mathematical model for an unknown system by observing its input-output data pair is generally referred to as system identification. A behavioral model reproduces the required behavior of the original analyzed system, such as there is a one-to-one correspondence between the behavior of the original system and the simulated system. This paper presents nonlinear system identification and behavioral modeling using a work assignment.

  2. Following Human Footsteps: Proposal of a Decision Theory Based on Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Faisal

    2011-01-01

    Human behavior is a complex nature which depends on circumstances and decisions varying from time to time as well as place to place. The way a decision is made either directly or indirectly related to the availability of the options. These options though appear at random nature, have a solid directional way for decision making. In this paper, a decision theory is proposed which is based on human behavior. The theory is structured with model sets that will show the all possible combinations for making a decision, A virtual and simulated environment is considered to show the results of the proposed decision theory

  3. Optimizing the phenotyping of rodent ASD models: enrichment analysis of mouse and human neurobiological phenotypes associated with high-risk autism genes identifies morphological, electrophysiological, neurological, and behavioral features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buxbaum Joseph D

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is interest in defining mouse neurobiological phenotypes useful for studying autism spectrum disorders (ASD in both forward and reverse genetic approaches. A recurrent focus has been on high-order behavioral analyses, including learning and memory paradigms and social paradigms. However, well-studied mouse models, including for example Fmr1 knockout mice, do not show dramatic deficits in such high-order phenotypes, raising a question as to what constitutes useful phenotypes in ASD models. Methods To address this, we made use of a list of 112 disease genes etiologically involved in ASD to survey, on a large scale and with unbiased methods as well as expert review, phenotypes associated with a targeted disruption of these genes in mice, using the Mammalian Phenotype Ontology database. In addition, we compared the results with similar analyses for human phenotypes. Findings We observed four classes of neurobiological phenotypes associated with disruption of a large proportion of ASD genes, including: (1 Changes in brain and neuronal morphology; (2 electrophysiological changes; (3 neurological changes; and (4 higher-order behavioral changes. Alterations in brain and neuronal morphology represent quantitative measures that can be more widely adopted in models of ASD to understand cellular and network changes. Interestingly, the electrophysiological changes differed across different genes, indicating that excitation/inhibition imbalance hypotheses for ASD would either have to be so non-specific as to be not falsifiable, or, if specific, would not be supported by the data. Finally, it was significant that in analyses of both mouse and human databases, many of the behavioral alterations were neurological changes, encompassing sensory alterations, motor abnormalities, and seizures, as opposed to higher-order behavioral changes in learning and memory and social behavior paradigms. Conclusions The results indicated that mutations

  4. Accommodating complexity and human behaviors in decision analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Siirola, John Daniel; Schoenwald, David Alan; Strip, David R.; Hirsch, Gary B.; Bastian, Mark S.; Braithwaite, Karl R.; Homer, Jack [Homer Consulting

    2007-11-01

    This is the final report for a LDRD effort to address human behavior in decision support systems. One sister LDRD effort reports the extension of this work to include actual human choices and additional simulation analyses. Another provides the background for this effort and the programmatic directions for future work. This specific effort considered the feasibility of five aspects of model development required for analysis viability. To avoid the use of classified information, healthcare decisions and the system embedding them became the illustrative example for assessment.

  5. Anomalous human behavior detection: an adaptive approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Coen; Halma, Arvid; Schutte, Klamer

    2013-05-01

    Detection of anomalies (outliers or abnormal instances) is an important element in a range of applications such as fault, fraud, suspicious behavior detection and knowledge discovery. In this article we propose a new method for anomaly detection and performed tested its ability to detect anomalous behavior in videos from DARPA's Mind's Eye program, containing a variety of human activities. In this semi-unsupervised task a set of normal instances is provided for training, after which unknown abnormal behavior has to be detected in a test set. The features extracted from the video data have high dimensionality, are sparse and inhomogeneously distributed in the feature space making it a challenging task. Given these characteristics a distance-based method is preferred, but choosing a threshold to classify instances as (ab)normal is non-trivial. Our novel aproach, the Adaptive Outlier Distance (AOD) is able to detect outliers in these conditions based on local distance ratios. The underlying assumption is that the local maximum distance between labeled examples is a good indicator of the variation in that neighborhood, and therefore a local threshold will result in more robust outlier detection. We compare our method to existing state-of-art methods such as the Local Outlier Factor (LOF) and the Local Distance-based Outlier Factor (LDOF). The results of the experiments show that our novel approach improves the quality of the anomaly detection.

  6. Modeling lahar behavior and hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manville, Vernon; Major, Jon J.; Fagents, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Lahars are highly mobile mixtures of water and sediment of volcanic origin that are capable of traveling tens to > 100 km at speeds exceeding tens of km hr-1. Such flows are among the most serious ground-based hazards at many volcanoes because of their sudden onset, rapid advance rates, long runout distances, high energy, ability to transport large volumes of material, and tendency to flow along existing river channels where populations and infrastructure are commonly concentrated. They can grow in volume and peak discharge through erosion and incorporation of external sediment and/or water, inundate broad areas, and leave deposits many meters thick. Furthermore, lahars can recur for many years to decades after an initial volcanic eruption, as fresh pyroclastic material is eroded and redeposited during rainfall events, resulting in a spatially and temporally evolving hazard. Improving understanding of the behavior of these complex, gravitationally driven, multi-phase flows is key to mitigating the threat to communities at lahar-prone volcanoes. However, their complexity and evolving nature pose significant challenges to developing the models of flow behavior required for delineating their hazards and hazard zones.

  7. Ontology-based Deep Learning for Human Behavior Prediction with Explanations in Health Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Nhathai; Dou, Dejing; Wang, Hao; Kil, David; Piniewski, Brigitte

    2017-04-01

    Human behavior modeling is a key component in application domains such as healthcare and social behavior research. In addition to accurate prediction, having the capacity to understand the roles of human behavior determinants and to provide explanations for the predicted behaviors is also important. Having this capacity increases trust in the systems and the likelihood that the systems actually will be adopted, thus driving engagement and loyalty. However, most prediction models do not provide explanations for the behaviors they predict. In this paper, we study the research problem, human behavior prediction with explanations, for healthcare intervention systems in health social networks. We propose an ontology-based deep learning model (ORBM(+)) for human behavior prediction over undirected and nodes-attributed graphs. We first propose a bottom-up algorithm to learn the user representation from health ontologies. Then the user representation is utilized to incorporate self-motivation, social influences, and environmental events together in a human behavior prediction model, which extends a well-known deep learning method, the Restricted Boltzmann Machine. ORBM(+) not only predicts human behaviors accurately, but also, it generates explanations for each predicted behavior. Experiments conducted on both real and synthetic health social networks have shown the tremendous effectiveness of our approach compared with conventional methods.

  8. Human behavioral assessments in current research of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Tetsuya; Fang, Huan; Sugiyama, Kenji; Nozaki, Takao; Kobayashi, Susumu; Hong, Zhen; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Mori, Norio; Yang, Yilin; Hua, Fei; Ding, Guanghong; Wen, Guoqiang; Namba, Hiroki; Xia, Ying

    2016-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is traditionally classified as a movement disorder because patients mainly complain about motor symptoms. Recently, non-motor symptoms of PD have been recognized by clinicians and scientists as early signs of PD, and they are detrimental factors in the quality of life in advanced PD patients. It is crucial to comprehensively understand the essence of behavioral assessments, from the simplest measurement of certain symptoms to complex neuropsychological tasks. We have recently reviewed behavioral assessments in PD research with animal models (Asakawa et al., 2016). As a companion volume, this article will systematically review the behavioral assessments of motor and non-motor PD symptoms of human patients in current research. The major aims of this article are: (1) promoting a comparative understanding of various behavioral assessments in terms of the principle and measuring indexes; (2) addressing the major strengths and weaknesses of these behavioral assessments for a better selection of tasks/tests in order to avoid biased conclusions due to inappropriate assessments; and (3) presenting new concepts regarding the development of wearable devices and mobile internet in future assessments. In conclusion we emphasize the importance of improving the assessments for non-motor symptoms because of their complex and unique mechanisms in human PD brains.

  9. A Comprehensive Model of Customers’ Complaint Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mousavi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to determine the factors influencing the complaint behavior of service customers and suggested a model that gives a dynamic view of customer’s complaint behavior. The conceptual model supported by study and research done in the context of complaint behavior analysis. In addition, numerous science researches in different industries (services and products supported the model. Research findings show that the complaint behavior of customers is a very complex behavior of customer dissatisfaction. Many factors determine the type and severity of complaints and these factors can be classified into four factors such as personal (individual factors, service factors, situational factors and macro element. Different Kinds of people’s coping strategies is an effective factor in the selection of complaint behavior type. Analyzing and identifying different factors that cause the complaint behavior is important for different types of services. This model is a comprehensive one in complaint behavior that identifies important factors.

  10. Developing 'integrative' zebrafish models of behavioral and metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Michael; Yang, Ester; Neelkantan, Nikhil; Mikhaylova, Alina; Arnold, Raymond; Poudel, Manoj K; Stewart, Adam Michael; Kalueff, Allan V

    2013-11-01

    Recently, the pathophysiological overlap between metabolic and mental disorders has received increased recognition. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly becoming a popular model organism for translational biomedical research due to their genetic tractability, low cost, quick reproductive cycle, and ease of behavioral, pharmacological or genetic manipulation. High homology to mammalian physiology and the availability of well-developed assays also make the zebrafish an attractive organism for studying human disorders. Zebrafish neurobehavioral and endocrine phenotypes show promise for the use of zebrafish in studies of stress, obesity and related behavioral and metabolic disorders. Here, we discuss the parallels between zebrafish and other model species in stress and obesity physiology, as well as outline the available zebrafish models of weight gain, metabolic deficits, feeding, stress, anxiety and related behavioral disorders. Overall, zebrafish demonstrate a strong potential for modeling human behavioral and metabolic disorders, and their comorbidity.

  11. Understanding the Heavy Tailed Dynamics in Human Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Gordon J

    2015-01-01

    The recent availability of electronic datasets containing large volumes of communication data has made it possible to study human behavior on a larger scale than ever before. From this, it has been discovered that across a diverse range of data sets, the inter-event times between consecutive communication events obey heavy tailed power law dynamics. Explaining this has proved controversial, and two distinct hypotheses have emerged. The first holds that these power laws are fundamental, and arise from the mechanisms such as priority queuing that humans use to schedule tasks. The second holds that they are a statistical artifact which only occur in aggregated data when features such as circadian rhythms and burstiness are ignored. We use a large social media data set to test these hypotheses, and find that although models that incorporate circadian rhythms and burstiness do explain part of the observed heavy tails, there is residual unexplained heavy tail behavior which suggests a more fundamental cause. Based ...

  12. Research and realization of human behavior model of computer generated force used fro self-propelled anti-aircraft artillery%自行高炮CGF人类行为模型研究与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏; 彭珲; 薛芳侠; 许一男

    2013-01-01

    针对当前CGF行为建模时存在的决策过程过于呆板和教条化、仿真实体逼真度存在缺陷、同一仿真实体建立不同决策模型时采用的方法过于单一等问题,对行为建模技术进行了研究,建立了自行高炮CGF的战术规则库,重点研究如何应用基于规则的专家系统对自行高炮CGF人类行为模型进行开发,最后基于此方法对车长的行为模型进行了设计实现.该方法避免了对复杂的乘员决策行为进行分析和建模的过程,实时性好,对今后相关的研究工作具有较好的参考价值.%Aiming at the problems of too stiff and dogmatic situations in the decision making process of computer generated force (CGF) behavioral modeling, short-comings of the entity model fidelity, and too single method adopted when the different decision-making models are built for a same fidelity simulation entity, the behavior modeling technology was researched, and the tactical studies rules of CGF was created for self-propelled anti-aircraft artillery. The important study is how to use the expert system based on the rules to develop a human behavior model for CGF. At last, the captain behavior model was designed and achieved with this method. The method avoids the complicated occupant behavior analysis and modeling process and has has a good reference value for the future related research.

  13. Automated regional behavioral analysis for human brain images

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lancaster, Jack L; Laird, Angela R; Eickhoff, Simon B; Martinez, Michael J; Fox, P Mickle; Fox, Peter T

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral categories of functional imaging experiments along with standardized brain coordinates of associated activations were used to develop a method to automate regional behavioral analysis of human brain images...

  14. Simulating human behavior for understanding and managing environmental resource use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Wander; Mosler, Hans Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Computer simulation allows for the experimental study of dynamic interactions between human behavior and complex environmental systems. Behavioral determinants and processes as identified in social-scientific theory may be formalized in simulated agents to obtain a better understanding of

  15. The development of human behavior analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Jae Chang

    1997-07-01

    In this project, which is to study on man-machine interaction in Korean nuclear power plants, we developed SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model), a tool for the assessment of task performance in the control rooms using software simulation, and also develop human error analysis and application techniques. SACOM was developed to assess operator`s physical workload, workload in information navigation at VDU workstations, and cognitive workload in procedural tasks. We developed trip analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis and a classification system. We analyzed a total of 277 trips occurred from 1978 to 1994 to produce trip summary information, and for 79 cases induced by human errors time-lined man-machine interactions. The INSTEC, a database system of our analysis results, was developed. The MARSTEC, a multimedia authoring and representation system for trip information, was also developed, and techniques for human error detection in human factors experiments were established. (author). 121 refs., 38 tabs., 52 figs.

  16. Animal models of suicide-trait-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkesman, Oz; Pine, Daniel S; Tragon, Tyson; Austin, Daniel R; Henter, Ioline D; Chen, Guang; Manji, Husseini K

    2009-04-01

    Although antidepressants are moderately effective in treating major depressive disorder (MDD), concerns have arisen that selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are associated with suicidal thinking and behavior, especially in children, adolescents and young adults. Almost no experimental research in model systems has considered the mechanisms by which SSRIs might be associated with this potential side effect in some susceptible individuals. Suicide is a complex behavior and impossible to fully reproduce in an animal model. However, by investigating traits that show strong cross-species parallels in addition to associations with suicide in humans, animal models might elucidate the mechanisms by which SSRIs are associated with suicidal thinking and behavior. Traits linked with suicide in humans that can be successfully modeled in rodents include aggression, impulsivity, irritability and hopelessness/helplessness. Modeling these relevant traits in animals can help to clarify the impact of SSRIs on these traits, suggesting avenues for reducing suicide risk in this vulnerable population.

  17. Research Models in Developmental Behavioral Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Kim N.; Pearson, Douglas T.

    Developmental models currently used by child behavioral toxicologists and teratologists are inadequate to address current issues in these fields. Both child behavioral teratology and toxicology scientifically study the impact of exposure to toxic agents on behavior development: teratology focuses on prenatal exposure and postnatal behavior…

  18. Human behavior recognition using a context-free grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosani, Andrea; Conci, Nicola; De Natale, Francesco G. B.

    2014-05-01

    Automatic recognition of human activities and behaviors is still a challenging problem for many reasons, including limited accuracy of the data acquired by sensing devices, high variability of human behaviors, and gap between visual appearance and scene semantics. Symbolic approaches can significantly simplify the analysis and turn raw data into chains of meaningful patterns. This allows getting rid of most of the clutter produced by low-level processing operations, embedding significant contextual information into the data, as well as using simple syntactic approaches to perform the matching between incoming sequences and models. We propose a symbolic approach to learn and detect complex activities through the sequences of atomic actions. Compared to previous methods based on context-free grammars, we introduce several important novelties, such as the capability to learn actions based on both positive and negative samples, the possibility of efficiently retraining the system in the presence of misclassified or unrecognized events, and the use of a parsing procedure that allows correct detection of the activities also when they are concatenated and/or nested one with each other. An experimental validation on three datasets with different characteristics demonstrates the robustness of the approach in classifying complex human behaviors.

  19. Arginine vasopressin and oxytocin modulate human social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebstein, Richard P; Israel, Salomon; Lerer, Elad; Uzefovsky, Florina; Shalev, Idan; Gritsenko, Inga; Riebold, Mathias; Salomon, Shahaf; Yirmiya, Nurit

    2009-06-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that two nonapeptides, arginine vasopressin and oxytocin, shape human social behavior in both nonclinical and clinical subjects. Evidence is discussed that in autism spectrum disorders genetic polymorphisms in the vasopressin-oxytocin pathway, notably the arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a), the oxytocin receptor (OXTR), neurophysin I and II, and CD38 (recently shown to be critical for social behavior by mediating oxytocin secretion) contribute to deficits in socialization skills in this group of patients. We also present first evidence that CD38 expression in lymphoblastoid cells derived from subjects diagnosed with autism is correlated with social skill phenotype inventoried by the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales. Additionally, we discuss molecular genetic evidence that in nonclinical subjects both AVPR1a and OXTR genes contribute to prosocial or altruistic behavior inventoried by two experimental paradigms, the dictator game and social values orientation. The role of the AVPR1a is also analyzed in prepulse inhibition. Prepulse inhibition of the startle response to auditory stimuli is a largely autonomic response that resonates with social cognition in both animal models and humans. First results are presented showing that intranasal administration of arginine vasopressin increases salivary cortisol levels in the Trier Social Stress test. To summarize, accumulating studies employing a broad array of cutting-edge tools in psychology, neuroeconomics, molecular genetics, pharmacology, electrophysiology, and brain imaging are beginning to elaborate the intriguing role of oxytocin and arginine vasopressin in human social behavior. We expect that future studies will continue this advance and deepen our understanding of these complex events.

  20. Human Wagering Behavior Depends on Opponents' Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlicht, Erik J.; Shimojo, Shinsuke; Camerer, Colin F.; Battaglia, Peter; Nakayama, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Research in competitive games has exclusively focused on how opponent models are developed through previous outcomes and how peoples' decisions relate to normative predictions. Little is known about how rapid impressions of opponents operate and influence behavior in competitive economic situations, although such subjective impressions have been shown to influence cooperative decision-making. This study investigates whether an opponent's face influences players' wagering decisions in a zero-sum game with hidden information. Participants made risky choices in a simplified poker task while being presented opponents whose faces differentially correlated with subjective impressions of trust. Surprisingly, we find that threatening face information has little influence on wagering behavior, but faces relaying positive emotional characteristics impact peoples' decisions. Thus, people took significantly longer and made more mistakes against emotionally positive opponents. Differences in reaction times and percent correct were greatest around the optimal decision boundary, indicating that face information is predominantly used when making decisions during medium-value gambles. Mistakes against emotionally positive opponents resulted from increased folding rates, suggesting that participants may have believed that these opponents were betting with hands of greater value than other opponents. According to these results, the best “poker face” for bluffing may not be a neutral face, but rather a face that contains emotional correlates of trustworthiness. Moreover, it suggests that rapid impressions of an opponent play an important role in competitive games, especially when people have little or no experience with an opponent. PMID:20657772

  1. Functional Behavioral Assessment: A School Based Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, Jennifer M.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Borrero, John C.

    2002-01-01

    This article begins by discussing requirements for functional behavioral assessment under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and then describes a comprehensive model for the application of behavior analysis in the schools. The model includes descriptive assessment, functional analysis, and intervention and involves the participation…

  2. Modeling Architectural Patterns' Behavior Using Architectural Primitives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamal, Ahmad Waqas; Avgeriou, Paris; Morrison, R; Balasubramaniam, D; Falkner, K

    2008-01-01

    Architectural patterns have an impact on both the structure and the behavior of a system at the architecture design level. However, it is challenging to model patterns' behavior in a systematic way because modeling languages do not provide the appropriate abstractions and because each pattern

  3. Modeling Architectural Patterns’ Behavior Using Architectural Primitives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waqas Kamal, Ahmad; Avgeriou, Paris

    2008-01-01

    Architectural patterns have an impact on both the structure and the behavior of a system at the architecture design level. However, it is challenging to model patterns’ behavior in a systematic way because modeling languages do not provide the appropriate abstractions and because each pattern

  4. Modeling human color categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Th.E.; Kisters, P.M.F.

    2008-01-01

    A unique color space segmentation method is introduced. It is founded on features of human cognition, where 11 color categories are used in processing color. In two experiments, human subjects were asked to categorize color stimuli into these 11 color categories, which resulted in markers for a Colo

  5. Modeling human color categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Th.E.; Kisters, P.M.F.

    A unique color space segmentation method is introduced. It is founded on features of human cognition, where 11 color categories are used in processing color. In two experiments, human subjects were asked to categorize color stimuli into these 11 color categories, which resulted in markers for a

  6. Multiaxial behavior of foams - Experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheo, Laurent; Guérard, Sandra; Rio, Gérard; Donnard, Adrien; Viot, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Cellular materials are strongly related to pressure level inside the material. It is therefore important to use experiments which can highlight (i) the pressure-volume behavior, (ii) the shear-shape behavior for different pressure level. Authors propose to use hydrostatic compressive, shear and combined pressure-shear tests to determine cellular materials behavior. Finite Element Modeling must take into account these behavior specificities. Authors chose to use a behavior law with a Hyperelastic, a Viscous and a Hysteretic contributions. Specific developments has been performed on the Hyperelastic one by separating the spherical and the deviatoric part to take into account volume change and shape change characteristics of cellular materials.

  7. Integrated Environmental Modelling: human decisions, human challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Environmental Modelling (IEM) is an invaluable tool for understanding the complex, dynamic ecosystems that house our natural resources and control our environments. Human behaviour affects the ways in which the science of IEM is assembled and used for meaningful societal applications. In particular, human biases and heuristics reflect adaptation and experiential learning to issues with frequent, sharply distinguished, feedbacks. Unfortunately, human behaviour is not adapted to the more diffusely experienced problems that IEM typically seeks to address. Twelve biases are identified that affect IEM (and science in general). These biases are supported by personal observations and by the findings of behavioural scientists. A process for critical analysis is proposed that addresses some human challenges of IEM and solicits explicit description of (1) represented processes and information, (2) unrepresented processes and information, and (3) accounting for, and cognizance of, potential human biases. Several other suggestions are also made that generally complement maintaining attitudes of watchful humility, open-mindedness, honesty and transparent accountability. These suggestions include (1) creating a new area of study in the behavioural biogeosciences, (2) using structured processes for engaging the modelling and stakeholder communities in IEM, and (3) using ‘red teams’ to increase resilience of IEM constructs and use.

  8. Organization customer behavior: Elected models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maričić Branko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper is dealing with business-to-business marketing issues with particular attention to some of models oriented to explain differences relative to FMCG marketing. Author describe the core principles of selected models including their basic features. In this paper some of models are in focus - Window and Webster-Window model as well as Sheets model, Nielsen model and Multivariation tools.

  9. Flexible Human Behavior Analysis Framework for Video Surveillance Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilun Lao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a flexible framework for semantic analysis of human motion from surveillance video. Successful trajectory estimation and human-body modeling facilitate the semantic analysis of human activities in video sequences. Although human motion is widely investigated, we have extended such research in three aspects. By adding a second camera, not only more reliable behavior analysis is possible, but it also enables to map the ongoing scene events onto a 3D setting to facilitate further semantic analysis. The second contribution is the introduction of a 3D reconstruction scheme for scene understanding. Thirdly, we perform a fast scheme to detect different body parts and generate a fitting skeleton model, without using the explicit assumption of upright body posture. The extension of multiple-view fusion improves the event-based semantic analysis by 15%–30%. Our proposed framework proves its effectiveness as it achieves a near real-time performance (13–15 frames/second and 6–8 frames/second for monocular and two-view video sequences.

  10. Micromechanical Behavior and Modelling of Granular Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    elasticity, hypoelasticity , plasticity and viscoplasticity. Despite the large number of models , there is no consensus yet within the research community on...Classification) (U) Micromechanical Behavior and Modelling of Granular MOWo I... 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Emmanuel Petrakis and Ricardo Dobry 13a. TYPE OF...Institute (RPI) on the behavior and modelling of granular media is summarized. The final objective is to develol a constitutive law for granular soil

  11. Modeling admissible behavior using event signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon, Luz; Jafari, Mohsen A; Hanisch, Hans-Michael; Zhao, Peng

    2004-06-01

    We describe here how to obtain a model for the admissible behavior of a discrete event system that is represented by a safe Petri net (PN) model. The transitions of this PN model may be controllable or uncontrollable. Also given is a sequential specification which is modeled with a special state machine. Then, using the condition and event arcs of net condition/event systems, a combined model of plant and specification is obtained. We use only the structure of this combined model to develop a method which gives the admissible behavior of the system. Thus, we avoid the complexity of a complete state enumeration.

  12. Evolutionary perspectives on emotions and their link to intentions, dispositions and behavior. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildgruber, Dirk; Kreifelts, Benjamin

    2015-06-01

    Koelsch and coworkers present a sophisticated neuroanatomical model of emotions comprising four affect-systems and four output-systems, each bound to a specific brain area [1]. Moreover, they suggest the emergence of distinct components of subjective feelings or "emotion percepts" due to integration of the activation across these subsystems. Incorporating numerous neurobiological, psychological and philosophical findings on human emotions, the model reflects an extensive interdisciplinary approach. Considering an evolutionary perspective, however, we would like to address some issues concerning emotions and their link to intentions, dispositions and behavior that are not fully covered by the Quartet Model. Charles Darwin pointed out that individuals that are better adapted to their environment have increased chances of survival and reproduction. Therefore, natural selection leads to a rising prevalence of properties offering a survival benefit across generations [2]. To better understand the biological functions of emotions we propose to ask the question: How do emotions provide a benefit for survival and reproduction?

  13. Integrative approaches utilizing oxytocin to enhance prosocial behavior: from animal and human social behavior to autistic social dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasue, Hidenori; Yee, Jason R; Hurlemann, René; Rilling, James K; Chen, Frances S; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Tost, Heike

    2012-10-10

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is as high as 1 in 100 individuals and is a heavy burden to society. Thus, identifying causes and treatments is imperative. Here, we briefly review the topics covered in our 2012 Society for Neuroscience Mini-Symposium entitled "Integrative Approaches Using Oxytocin to Enhance Prosocial Behavior: From Animal and Human Social Behavior to ASD's Social Dysfunction." This work is not meant to be a comprehensive review of oxytocin and prosocial behavior. Instead, we wish to share the newest findings on the effects of oxytocin on social behavior, the brain, and the social dysfunction of ASD at the molecular, genetic, systemic, and behavior levels, in varied subjects ranging from animal models to humans suffering from autism for the purpose of promoting further study for developing the clinical use of oxytocin in treating ASD.

  14. Academic and Behavioral Planning Through an Alternative Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Nancy E.; Dworkin, Yehoash S.

    1978-01-01

    Suggests an alternative universe in which failure is identified as a systems concern, instead of a human breakdown. The model presents successful behavior in terms of growth in process efficiency, rather than the +/- (right/wrong) matrix associated with achievement orientation. (Editor)

  15. The importance of accurately modelling human interactions. Comment on "Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review" by Z. Wang et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Dora P.; Molina, Chai; Earn, David J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Human behaviour and disease dynamics can greatly influence each other. In particular, people often engage in self-protective behaviours that affect epidemic patterns (e.g., vaccination, use of barrier precautions, isolation, etc.). Self-protective measures usually have a mitigating effect on an epidemic [16], but can in principle have negative impacts at the population level [12,15,18]. The structure of underlying social and biological contact networks can significantly influence the specific ways in which population-level effects are manifested. Using a different contact network in a disease dynamics model-keeping all else equal-can yield very different epidemic patterns. For example, it has been shown that when individuals imitate their neighbours' vaccination decisions with some probability, this can lead to herd immunity in some networks [9], yet for other networks it can preserve clusters of susceptible individuals that can drive further outbreaks of infectious disease [12].

  16. Structure and mechanical behavior of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Yang, Wen; Wang, Bin; Meyers, Marc André

    2017-04-01

    The understanding of the mechanical behavior of hair under various conditions broadens our knowledge in biological materials science and contributes to the cosmetic industry. The hierarchical organization of hair is studied from the intermediate filament to the structural levels. The effects of strain rate, relative humidity, and temperature are evaluated. Hair exhibits a high tensile strength, 150-270MPa, which is significantly dependent on strain rate and humidity. The strain-rate sensitivity, approximately 0.06-0.1, is comparable to that of other keratinous materials and common synthetic polymers. The structures of the internal cortex and surface cuticle are affected by the large tensile extension. One distinguishing feature, the unwinding of the α-helix and the possible transformation to β-sheet structure of keratin under tension, which affects the ductility of hair, is analytically evaluated and incorporated into a constitutive equation. A good agreement with the experimental results is obtained. This model elucidates the tensile response of the α-keratin fibers. The contributions of elastic and plastic strains on reloading are evaluated and correlated to structural changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Micromechanical modeling of rate-dependent behavior of Connective tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, A; Ahmadian, M T; Firozbakhsh, K; Aghdam, M M

    2017-03-07

    In this paper, a constitutive and micromechanical model for prediction of rate-dependent behavior of connective tissues (CTs) is presented. Connective tissues are considered as nonlinear viscoelastic material. The rate-dependent behavior of CTs is incorporated into model using the well-known quasi-linear viscoelasticity (QLV) theory. A planar wavy representative volume element (RVE) is considered based on the tissue microstructure histological evidences. The presented model parameters are identified based on the available experiments in the literature. The presented constitutive model introduced to ABAQUS by means of UMAT subroutine. Results show that, monotonic uniaxial test predictions of the presented model at different strain rates for rat tail tendon (RTT) and human patellar tendon (HPT) are in good agreement with experimental data. Results of incremental stress-relaxation test are also presented to investigate both instantaneous and viscoelastic behavior of connective tissues.

  18. Modeling bursts and heavy tails in human dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Vazquez, A.; Oliveira, J. Gama; Dezso, Z.; Goh, K. -I.; Kondor, I.; Barabasi, A. -L.

    2005-01-01

    Current models of human dynamics, used from risk assessment to communications, assume that human actions are randomly distributed in time and thus well approximated by Poisson processes. We provide direct evidence that for five human activity patterns the timing of individual human actions follow non-Poisson statistics, characterized by bursts of rapidly occurring events separated by long periods of inactivity. We show that the bursty nature of human behavior is a consequence of a decision ba...

  19. Human Behavioral Contributions to Climate Change: Psychological and Contextual Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swim, Janet K.; Clayton, Susan; Howard, George S.

    2011-01-01

    We are facing rapid changes in the global climate, and these changes are attributable to human behavior. Humans produce this global impact through our use of natural resources, multiplied by the vast increase in population seen in the past 50 to 100 years. Our goal in this article is to examine the underlying psychosocial causes of human impact,…

  20. Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with human directed social behavior in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Anna; Bence, Melinda; Lakatos, Gabriella; Pergel, Enikő; Turcsán, Borbála; Pluijmakers, Jolanda; Vas, Judit; Elek, Zsuzsanna; Brúder, Ildikó; Földi, Levente; Sasvári-Székely, Mária; Miklósi, Adám; Rónai, Zsolt; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2014-01-01

    The oxytocin system has a crucial role in human sociality; several results prove that polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor gene are related to complex social behaviors in humans. Dogs' parallel evolution with humans and their adaptation to the human environment has made them a useful species to model human social interactions. Previous research indicates that dogs are eligible models for behavioral genetic research, as well. Based on these previous findings, our research investigated associations between human directed social behaviors and two newly described (-212AG, 19131AG) and one known (rs8679684) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory regions (5' and 3' UTR) of the oxytocin receptor gene in German Shepherd (N = 104) and Border Collie (N = 103) dogs. Dogs' behavior traits have been estimated in a newly developed test series consisting of five episodes: Greeting by a stranger, Separation from the owner, Problem solving, Threatening approach, Hiding of the owner. Buccal samples were collected and DNA was isolated using standard protocols. SNPs in the 3' and 5' UTR regions were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction based techniques followed by subsequent electrophoresis analysis. The gene-behavior association analysis suggests that oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms have an impact in both breeds on (i) proximity seeking towards an unfamiliar person, as well as their owner, and on (ii) how friendly dogs behave towards strangers, although the mediating molecular regulatory mechanisms are yet unknown. Based on these results, we conclude that similarly to humans, the social behavior of dogs towards humans is influenced by the oxytocin system.

  1. Middle Egypt in prehistory: A search for the origins of modern human behavior and human dispersal

    OpenAIRE

    Olszewski, D.; McPherron, S.; Dibble, H.; Soressi, M.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the evolution of human behavior and dispersal in Egypt. Examination on the genetic relationship of groups of people living in the area; Importance of the study of stone artifacts the explain the origins of human behavior; Assumption on the routes taken by humans to disperse in the area.

  2. Measuring and modeling behavioral decision dynamics in collective evacuation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean M Carlson

    Full Text Available Identifying and quantifying factors influencing human decision making remains an outstanding challenge, impacting the performance and predictability of social and technological systems. In many cases, system failures are traced to human factors including congestion, overload, miscommunication, and delays. Here we report results of a behavioral network science experiment, targeting decision making in a natural disaster. In a controlled laboratory setting, our results quantify several key factors influencing individual evacuation decision making in a controlled laboratory setting. The experiment includes tensions between broadcast and peer-to-peer information, and contrasts the effects of temporal urgency associated with the imminence of the disaster and the effects of limited shelter capacity for evacuees. Based on empirical measurements of the cumulative rate of evacuations as a function of the instantaneous disaster likelihood, we develop a quantitative model for decision making that captures remarkably well the main features of observed collective behavior across many different scenarios. Moreover, this model captures the sensitivity of individual- and population-level decision behaviors to external pressures, and systematic deviations from the model provide meaningful estimates of variability in the collective response. Identification of robust methods for quantifying human decisions in the face of risk has implications for policy in disasters and other threat scenarios, specifically the development and testing of robust strategies for training and control of evacuations that account for human behavior and network topologies.

  3. Cultivating Curiosity: Integrating Hybrid Teaching in Courses in Human Behavior in the Social Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Keyes, Elizabeth; Schneider, Dana A.

    2013-01-01

    This study illustrates an experience of implementing a hybrid model for teaching human behavior in the social environment in an urban university setting. Developing a hybrid model in a BSW program arose out of a desire to reach students in a different way. Designed to promote curiosity and active learning, this particular hybrid model has students…

  4. Frank A. Beach award. Homologies of animal and human sexual behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaus, J G

    1996-09-01

    Theoretical models of animal and human sexual behavior have evolved from two very different literatures, yet they contain many common behavioral components that may reflect the action of similar neuroendocrine and neurochemical systems. The study of animal sexual behavior has been largely concerned with mechanisms that underlie the pattern of consummatory behaviors observed during copulation, behaviors that tend to be highly stereotyped, sexually differentiated, and species-specific. There are important species differences in the behavioral topography, endocrine control, and neural substrates of consummatory behaviors, which tend to be extreme when comparing animals and humans. Although this has led to an increased interest in comparative animal behavior, it has also helped to foster a general perception that animals and humans are fundamentally different. In contrast to consummatory behaviors, appetitive behaviors (which serve to bring animals and humans into contact with sexual incentives) are more flexible, less sexually differentiated, and less species-specific and span a variety of situations other than sexual interactions. Appetitive behaviors are thus viewed as "sexually specific" when they are displayed under sexual circumstances and reinforced by sexual incentives. Interestingly, an appetitive/consummatory dichotomy has emerged in the human literature which distinguishes measures of sexual desire or arousal from "performance" measures of masturbation or copulation. In fact, sexual desire, which reflects fantasy and behavioral excitement, has been further differentiated from sexual arousal, which reflects genital blood flow. The present analysis attempts to pull together these seemingly disparate literatures into a coherent theoretical framework that emphasizes similarities and differences in the structure of sexual behavior across rats and humans.

  5. Behavioral impairments in animal models for zinc deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eHagmeyer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from teratogenic and pathological effects of zinc deficiency such as the occurrence of skin lesions, anorexia, growth retardation, depressed wound healing, altered immune function, impaired night vision, and alterations in taste and smell acuity, characteristic behavioral changes in animal models and human patients suffering from zinc deficiency have been observed. Given that it is estimated that about 17% of the worldwide population are at risk for zinc deficiency and that zinc deficiency is associated with a variety of brain disorders and disease states in humans, it is of major interest to investigate, how these behavioral changes will affect the individual and a putative course of a disease. Thus, here, we provide a state of the art overview about the behavioral phenotypes observed in various models of zinc deficiency, among them environmentally produced zinc deficient animals as well as animal models based on a genetic alteration of a particular zinc homeostasis gene. Finally, we compare the behavioral phenotypes to the human condition of mild to severe zinc deficiency and provide a model, how zinc deficiency that is associated with many neurodegenerative and neuropsychological disorders might modify the disease pathologies.

  6. Kansei Behavior of Robots Following Instruction of Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Shibata

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When coexisting with humans and support them, robots need to be instructed to move by humans without burden, and the motion should not to instigate anxiety but to be accepted to human psychology. To realize Kansei behavior of robots following instruction of human, the concept of “Kansei transfer function”, which can add softness and smoothness to robots, is explained, and the effectiveness of its applications to humanrobot interfaces is confirmed from psychological aspects.

  7. Scale dependent behavioral responses to human development by a large predator, the puma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmers, Christopher C; Wang, Yiwei; Nickel, Barry; Houghtaling, Paul; Shakeri, Yasaman; Allen, Maximilian L; Kermish-Wells, Joe; Yovovich, Veronica; Williams, Terrie

    2013-01-01

    The spatial scale at which organisms respond to human activity can affect both ecological function and conservation planning. Yet little is known regarding the spatial scale at which distinct behaviors related to reproduction and survival are impacted by human interference. Here we provide a novel approach to estimating the spatial scale at which a top predator, the puma (Puma concolor), responds to human development when it is moving, feeding, communicating, and denning. We find that reproductive behaviors (communication and denning) require at least a 4× larger buffer from human development than non-reproductive behaviors (movement and feeding). In addition, pumas give a wider berth to types of human development that provide a more consistent source of human interference (neighborhoods) than they do to those in which human presence is more intermittent (arterial roads with speeds >35 mph). Neighborhoods were a deterrent to pumas regardless of behavior, while arterial roads only deterred pumas when they were communicating and denning. Female pumas were less deterred by human development than males, but they showed larger variation in their responses overall. Our behaviorally explicit approach to modeling animal response to human activity can be used as a novel tool to assess habitat quality, identify wildlife corridors, and mitigate human-wildlife conflict.

  8. The PeerBehavior Model based on Continuous Behavioral Observation P2P Network Neighbors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwen Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Honor-based trust mechanism is an important means to evaluate the behavior of the P2P network node, and it is used to ensure the health of the P2P network application. Trust mechanisms need to evaluate a node to other node local trust value and local trust value because they do not consider the policy node and human evaluation error of two important factors. The calculation is difficult to accurately reflect the characteristics of the nodes of the network. Evaluation models of the behavior of a P2P network neighbor. The PeerBehavior model has used a deterministic finite state machine (DFA depicts the continuous behavior of the neighbor state changes cause a negative evaluation of any continuous behavior by focusing neighbors almost died, both able to more accurately discover policies node in the network, but also be able to tolerate a certain degree of human evaluation error simulation experiment showed that this model was significantly improve the accuracy of the local trust value, and reducing the estimation error of the global trust value, was significantly superior to the calculation method of the current value of the other local trust

  9. Informal Institutions and the "Weaknesses" of Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Volkswirtschaftslehre ’ i LDepartment of Economics Discussion Paper No. January 2005 34 Informal Institutions and the "Weaknesses" of Human Behavior Markus G6bel...Diskussionspapiere der Faichergruppe Volkswirtschaftslehre "* Grbel, Markus & Tobias Thomas, Informal Institutions and the "Weaknesses" of Human Behavior, No... Volkswirtschaftslehre "* Braiuninger, Michael, Social Capital and Regional Mobility, Nr. 4/2002. "* Schdfer, Wolf, EU-Erweiterung: Anmerkungen zum Balassa

  10. Simulating human behavior for understanding and managing environmental resource use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Wander; Mosler, Hans Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Computer simulation allows for the experimental study of dynamic interactions between human behavior and complex environmental systems. Behavioral determinants and processes as identified in social-scientific theory may be formalized in simulated agents to obtain a better understanding of man-enviro

  11. Facing History and Ourselves: Holocaust and Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Margot Stern; Parsons, William S.

    This unit for junior and senior high school students presents techniques and materials for studying about the holocaust of World War II. Emphasis in the guide is on human behavior and the role of the individual within society. Among the guide's 18 objectives are for students to examine society's influence on individual behavior, place Hitler's…

  12. Numerical Analysis of Three-Dimensional Cervical Behaviors in Posterior-Oblique Car Collisions Using 3-D Human Whole Body Finite Element Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yu-Bong; Jung, Duk-Young; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Yoshino, Nobuyuki; Tsutsumi, Sadami; Ikeuchi, Ken

    Whiplash injuries are most common disorders in rear-end car accidents, while the injury mechanism is yet unknown. Many numerical and experimental approaches have conducted to investigate the cervical behaviors with solely two-dimensional analyses in the sagittal plane. In real accidents, however, as impacts may affect several directions, the cervical behaviors should be evaluated three-dimensionally. Therefore, we evaluated the cervical behaviors under assumption of the posterior-oblique impacts depending on the impact angles with 3-D FE analysis. In addition, we analyzed the stresses occurred in the facet joints considering the relationship with a whiplash disorders. The cervical behaviors showed complex motion combined with axial torsion and lateral bending. The bending angle peaked in the impact at the angle of 15°, and the peak compressive and shear stress on the facet cartilage at C6-C7 increased by 11% and 14%. In the impact at the angle of 30°, the torsion angle peaked at C2-C3, the peak shear stress in the facet cartilage increased by 27%. It showed that the torsion and lateral bending affected the cervical behaviors, and caused the increase of peak stresses on the soft tissues. It is assumed as one of important causes of whiplash injury.

  13. A natural human hand model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nierop, O.A.; Van der Helm, A.; Overbeeke, K.J.; Djajadiningrat, T.J.P.

    2007-01-01

    We present a skeletal linked model of the human hand that has natural motion. We show how this can be achieved by introducing a new biology-based joint axis that simulates natural joint motion and a set of constraints that reduce an estimated 150 possible motions to twelve. The model is based on obs

  14. Modeling cell behavior: moving beyond intuition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Jolicoeur

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the launching of this new journal, we propose a forum to the community of researchers interested and involved in, or even simply questioning the why, what, how, and when of modeling cell or cell culture behavior. To start the discussion, we review some of the usual questions we are routinely asked on the pertinence of modeling cell behavior, and on who might benefit from conducting such work. To draw a global portrait, throughout this text we refer the reader to handbooks introducing the basics of modeling a biosystem, as well as to selected works that can help visualize the broad fields of applications.

  15. Critical behavior of a dynamical percolation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Mei-Ling; XU Ming-Mei; LIU Zheng-You; LIU Lian-Shou

    2009-01-01

    The critical behavior of the dynamical percolation model, which realizes the molecular-aggregation conception and describes the crossover between the hadronic phase and the partonic phase, is studied in detail. The critical percolation distance for this model is obtained by using the probability P∞ of the appearance of an infinite cluster. Utilizing the finite-size scaling method the critical exponents γ/v and T are extracted from the distribution of the average cluster size and cluster number density. The influences of two model related factors, I.e. The maximum bond number and the definition of the infinite cluster, on the critical behavior are found to be small.

  16. Models of iodine behavior in reactor containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Kress, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Models are developed for many phenomena of interest concerning iodine behavior in reactor containments during severe accidents. Processes include speciation in both gas and liquid phases, reactions with surfaces, airborne aerosols, and other materials, and gas-liquid interface behavior. Although some models are largely empirical formulations, every effort has been made to construct mechanistic and rigorous descriptions of relevant chemical processes. All are based on actual experimental data generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) or elsewhere, and, hence, considerable data evaluation and parameter estimation are contained in this study. No application or encoding is attempted, but each model is stated in terms of rate processes, with the intention of allowing mechanistic simulation. Taken together, this collection of models represents a best estimate iodine behavior and transport in reactor accidents.

  17. Machine Learning Approaches for Modeling Spammer Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Md Saiful; Islam, Md Rafiqul

    2010-01-01

    Spam is commonly known as unsolicited or unwanted email messages in the Internet causing potential threat to Internet Security. Users spend a valuable amount of time deleting spam emails. More importantly, ever increasing spam emails occupy server storage space and consume network bandwidth. Keyword-based spam email filtering strategies will eventually be less successful to model spammer behavior as the spammer constantly changes their tricks to circumvent these filters. The evasive tactics that the spammer uses are patterns and these patterns can be modeled to combat spam. This paper investigates the possibilities of modeling spammer behavioral patterns by well-known classification algorithms such as Na\\"ive Bayesian classifier (Na\\"ive Bayes), Decision Tree Induction (DTI) and Support Vector Machines (SVMs). Preliminary experimental results demonstrate a promising detection rate of around 92%, which is considerably an enhancement of performance compared to similar spammer behavior modeling research.

  18. Modeling behavioral considerations related to information security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Moyano, I. J.; Conrad, S. H.; Andersen, D. F. (Decision and Information Sciences); (SNL); (Univ. at Albany)

    2011-01-01

    The authors present experimental and simulation results of an outcome-based learning model for the identification of threats to security systems. This model integrates judgment, decision-making, and learning theories to provide a unified framework for the behavioral study of upcoming threats.

  19. Concept-Oriented Modeling of Dynamic Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breedveld, P.C.; Borutzky, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    This chapter introduces the reader to the concept-oriented approach to modeling that clearly separates ideal concepts from the physical components of a system when modeling its dynamic behavior for a specific problem context. This is done from a port-based point of view for which the domain-independ

  20. Viscoelastic behavior of discrete human collagen fibrils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    on the strain. The slope of the viscous response showed a strain rate dependence corresponding to a power function of powers 0.242 and 0.168 for the two patellar tendon fibrils, respectively. In conclusion, the present work provides direct evidence of viscoelastic behavior at the single fibril level, which has...

  1. Anomalous human behavior detection: An Adaptive approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, C. van; Halma, A.; Schutte, K.

    2013-01-01

    Detection of anomalies (outliers or abnormal instances) is an important element in a range of applications such as fault, fraud, suspicious behavior detection and knowledge discovery. In this article we propose a new method for anomaly detection and performed tested its ability to detect anomalous

  2. Anomalous human behavior detection: An Adaptive approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, C. van; Halma, A.; Schutte, K.

    2013-01-01

    Detection of anomalies (outliers or abnormal instances) is an important element in a range of applications such as fault, fraud, suspicious behavior detection and knowledge discovery. In this article we propose a new method for anomaly detection and performed tested its ability to detect anomalous b

  3. A Formal Investigation of the Organization of Guidance Behavior: Implications for Humans and Autonomous Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaodan

    Guidance behavior generated either by artificial agents or humans has been actively studied in the fields of both robotics and cognitive science. The goals of these two fields are different. The former is the automatic generation of appropriate or even optimal behavior, while the latter is the understanding of the underlying mechanism. Their challenges, though, are closely related, the most important one being the lack of a unified, formal and grounded framework where the guidance behavior can be modeled and studied. This dissertation presents such a framework. In this framework, guidance behavior is analyzed as the closed-loop dynamics of the whole agent-environment system. The resulting dynamics give rise to interaction patterns. The central points of this dissertation are that: first of all, these patterns, which can be explained in terms of symmetries that are inherent to the guidance behavior, provide building blocks for the organization of behavior; second, the existence of these patterns and humans' organization of their guidance behavior based on these patterns are the reasons that humans can generate successful behavior in spite of all the complexities involved in the planning and control. This dissertation first gives an overview of the challenges existing in both scientific endeavors, such as human and animal spatial behavior study, and engineering endeavors, such as autonomous guidance system design. It then lays out the foundation for our formal framework, which states that guidance behavior should be interpreted as the collection of the closed-loop dynamics resulting from the agent's interaction with the environment. The following, illustrated by examples of three different UAVs, shows that the study of the closed-loop dynamics should not be done without the consideration of vehicle dynamics, as is the common practice in some of the studies in both autonomous guidance and human behavior analysis. The framework, the core concepts of which are

  4. Oxytocin receptor genetic variation promotes human trust behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eKrueger

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Given that human trust behavior is heritable and intranasal administration of oxytocin enhances trust, the oxytocin receptor (OXTR gene is an excellent candidate to investigate genetic contributions to individual variations in trust behavior. Although a single-nucleotide polymorphism involving an adenine (A/ guanine (G transition (rs53576 has been associated with socio-emotional phenotypes, its link to trust behavior is unclear. We combined genotyping of healthy male students with the administration of a trust game experiment. Our results show that a naturally occurring genetic variation (rs53576 in the OXTR gene is reliably associated with trust behavior rather than a general increase in trustworthy or risk behaviors. Individuals homozygous for the G allele (GG showed higher trust behavior than individuals with A allele carriers (AA/AG. Although the molecular functionality of this polymorphism is still unknown, future research should clarify how the OXTR gene interacts with other genes and the environment in promoting socio-emotional behaviors.

  5. Organizational buying behavior: An integrated model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Beba

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizational buying behavior is decision making process by which formal organizations establish the need for purchased products and services, and identify, evaluate, and choose among alternative brands and suppliers. Understanding the buying decision processes is essential to developing the marketing programs of companies that sell to organizations, or to 'industrial customers'. In business (industrial marketing, exchange relationships between the organizational selling center and the organizational buying center are crucial. Integrative model of organizational buying behavior offers a systematic framework in analyzing the complementary factors and what effect they have on the behavior of those involved in making buying decisions.

  6. Human behavior in Prisoner's Dilemma experiments suppresses network reciprocity

    CERN Document Server

    Gracia-Lazaro, Carlos; Sanchez, Angel; Moreno, Yamir

    2012-01-01

    During the last few years, much research has been devoted to strategic interactions on complex networks. In this context, the Prisoner's Dilemma has become a paradigmatic model, and it has been established that imitative evolutionary dynamics lead to very different outcomes depending on the details of the network. We here report that when one takes into account the real behavior of people observed in the experiments, both at the mean-field level and on utterly different networks the observed level of cooperation is the same. We thus show that when human subjects interact in an heterogeneous mix including cooperators, defectors and moody conditional cooperators, the structure of the population does not promote or inhibit cooperation with respect to a well mixed population.

  7. Human behavior in Prisoner's Dilemma experiments suppresses network reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Cuesta, José A; Sánchez, Angel; Moreno, Yamir

    2012-01-01

    During the last few years, much research has been devoted to strategic interactions on complex networks. In this context, the Prisoner's Dilemma has become a paradigmatic model, and it has been established that imitative evolutionary dynamics lead to very different outcomes depending on the details of the network. We here report that when one takes into account the real behavior of people observed in the experiments, both at the mean-field level and on utterly different networks, the observed level of cooperation is the same. We thus show that when human subjects interact in a heterogeneous mix including cooperators, defectors and moody conditional cooperators, the structure of the population does not promote or inhibit cooperation with respect to a well mixed population.

  8. Which activation function of cooperation describes human behavior?

    CERN Document Server

    Jarynowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Properties of cooperation's probability function in Prisoner`s Dilemma have impact on evolution of game. Basic model defines that probability of cooperation depends linearly, both on the player's altruism and the co-player's reputation. I propose modification of activation function to smooth one (hyperbolic tangent with scaling parameter a, which corresponds to its shape) and observe three phases for different range of a. (1) For small a, strategies seem to randomly change in time and situation of mixed choices (one cooperates and second defects) dominate. (2) For medium a, players choose only one strategy for given period of time (the common state can switch to opposite one with some probability). (3) For large a, mixed strategy (once defect, once cooperate) is coexisting with common strategies and no change is allowed. I believe that proposed function characterizes better socio-economical phenomena and especially phase 1 and 2 contain most of human behavior.

  9. NON-BEHAVIORAL MODELS OF PSYCHOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parle Milind

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Animal models have become indispensible tools for discovering new medicines and in the analysis of multitude of causes, bio-markers and pathophysiological changes, which bring about symptoms characteristics of a specific disorder. One of the biggest challenges in discovering medicines for psychosis is to find an appropriate animal model of this illness possessing fair face validity, construct validity, and predictive validity. We had explained in detail behavioral models of psychosis in our previous article. In the present review article, the authors have described various non-behavioral models such as pharmacological models (administering specific chemicals, genetic models (through genetic manipulation, lesion models (lesion of selected brain parts and neuro-developmental models employed for screening anti-psychotic agents. All these animal models imitate schizophrenic defects in some manner. Traditionally, pharmacological models (drug/chemical-induced psychosis were the most widely used. These models involve the manipulation of dopaminergic, glutamatergic, serotonergic, or GABA-ergic systems. In Lesion models, selected area of an animal's brain is damaged, to induce psychosis-like symptoms. Genetic factors also play a prominent role in many psychiatric disorders and numerous putative candidate genes have been identified. Neurodevelopmental models are based on the fact that schizophrenia can be caused due to prenatal exposure to certain viruses. The animals usually employed for the development of these models include rats, mice, and primates. The specific animal models developed within these frameworks are described in this review article.

  10. Explaining clinical behaviors using multiple theoretical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, Martin P; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; MacLennan, Graeme; Bonetti, Debbie; Glidewell, Liz; Pitts, Nigel B; Steen, Nick; Thomas, Ruth; Walker, Anne; Johnston, Marie

    2012-10-17

    In the field of implementation research, there is an increased interest in use of theory when designing implementation research studies involving behavior change. In 2003, we initiated a series of five studies to establish a scientific rationale for interventions to translate research findings into clinical practice by exploring the performance of a number of different, commonly used, overlapping behavioral theories and models. We reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of the methods, the performance of the theories, and consider where these methods sit alongside the range of methods for studying healthcare professional behavior change. These were five studies of the theory-based cognitions and clinical behaviors (taking dental radiographs, performing dental restorations, placing fissure sealants, managing upper respiratory tract infections without prescribing antibiotics, managing low back pain without ordering lumbar spine x-rays) of random samples of primary care dentists and physicians. Measures were derived for the explanatory theoretical constructs in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), and Illness Representations specified by the Common Sense Self Regulation Model (CSSRM). We constructed self-report measures of two constructs from Learning Theory (LT), a measure of Implementation Intentions (II), and the Precaution Adoption Process. We collected data on theory-based cognitions (explanatory measures) and two interim outcome measures (stated behavioral intention and simulated behavior) by postal questionnaire survey during the 12-month period to which objective measures of behavior (collected from routine administrative sources) were related. Planned analyses explored the predictive value of theories in explaining variance in intention, behavioral simulation and behavior. Response rates across the five surveys ranged from 21% to 48%; we achieved the target sample size for three of the five surveys. For the predictor variables

  11. Explaining clinical behaviors using multiple theoretical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eccles Martin P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the field of implementation research, there is an increased interest in use of theory when designing implementation research studies involving behavior change. In 2003, we initiated a series of five studies to establish a scientific rationale for interventions to translate research findings into clinical practice by exploring the performance of a number of different, commonly used, overlapping behavioral theories and models. We reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of the methods, the performance of the theories, and consider where these methods sit alongside the range of methods for studying healthcare professional behavior change. Methods These were five studies of the theory-based cognitions and clinical behaviors (taking dental radiographs, performing dental restorations, placing fissure sealants, managing upper respiratory tract infections without prescribing antibiotics, managing low back pain without ordering lumbar spine x-rays of random samples of primary care dentists and physicians. Measures were derived for the explanatory theoretical constructs in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT, and Illness Representations specified by the Common Sense Self Regulation Model (CSSRM. We constructed self-report measures of two constructs from Learning Theory (LT, a measure of Implementation Intentions (II, and the Precaution Adoption Process. We collected data on theory-based cognitions (explanatory measures and two interim outcome measures (stated behavioral intention and simulated behavior by postal questionnaire survey during the 12-month period to which objective measures of behavior (collected from routine administrative sources were related. Planned analyses explored the predictive value of theories in explaining variance in intention, behavioral simulation and behavior. Results Response rates across the five surveys ranged from 21% to 48%; we achieved the target sample size for three of

  12. Modeling aggressive driver behavior at unsignalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysi, Isam A; Abbany, Ali S

    2007-07-01

    The processing of vehicles at unsignalized intersections is a complex and highly interactive process, whereby each driver makes individual decisions about when, where, and how to complete the required maneuver, subject to his perceptions of distances, velocities, and own car's performance. Typically, the performance of priority-unsignalized intersections has been modeled with probabilistic approaches that consider the distribution of gaps in the major-traffic stream and their acceptance by the drivers of minor street vehicles based on the driver's "critical gap". This paper investigates the aggressive behavior of minor street vehicles at intersections that are priority-unsignalized but operate with little respect of control measures. The objective is to formulate a behavioral model that predicts the probability that a driver performs an aggressive maneuver as a function of a set of driver and traffic attributes. Parameters that were tested and modeled include driver characteristics (gender and age), car characteristics (performance and model year), and traffic attributes (number of rejected gaps, total waiting time at head of queue, and major-traffic speed). Binary probit models are developed and tested, based on a collected data set from an unsignalized intersection in the city of Beirut, to determine which of the studied variables are statistically significant in determining the aggressiveness of a specific driver. Primary conclusions reveal that age, car performance, and average speed on the major road are the major determinants of aggressive behavior. Another striking conclusion is that the total waiting time of the driver while waiting for an acceptable gap is of little significance in incurring the "forcing" behavior. The obtained model is incorporated in a simple simulation framework that reflects driver behavior and traffic stream interactions in estimating delay and conflict measures at unsignalized intersections. The simulation results were then compared

  13. 基于主题隐马尔科夫模型的人体异常行为识别%Human Abnormal Behavior Recognition Based on Topic Hidden Markov Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱旭东; 刘志镜

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed to address the problem of modeling human behavior patterns captured in surveillance videos for the application of online normal behavior recognition and anomaly detection. From the perspective of cognitive psychology,a novel method was developed for automatic behavior modeling and online anomaly detection without the need for manual labeling of the training data set The work has been done with the hierarchical structure,following the routine of "Video Representation-Semantic Behavior (Topic) Model-Behavior Classification": 1) A compact and effective behavior representation method is developed based on spatial-temporal interest point detection. 2) The natural grouping of behavior patterns is determined through a novel clustering algorithm, topic hidden Markov model (THMM) built upon the existing hidden Markov model (HMM) and latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), which overcomes the current limitations in accuracy, robustness,and computational efficiency. The new model is a four-level hierarchical Bayesian model, in which each video is modeled as a Markov chain of behavior patterns where each behavior pattern is a distribution over some segments of the video. Each of these segments in the video can be modeled as a mixture of actions where each action is a distribution over spatial-temporal words. 3) An online anomaly measure is introduced to detect abnormal behavior, whereas normal behavior is recognized by runtime accumulative visual evidence using likelihood ratio test (LRT) method. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our approach using noisy and sparse data sets collected from a real surveillance scenario.%针对基于监控视频的人体异常行为识别问题,提出了基于主题隐马尔科夫模型的人体异常行为识别方法,即通过无任何人工标注的视频训练集自动学习人体行为模型,并能够应用学到的人体行为模型实时检测异常行为和识别正常行为.这一方法主

  14. Behavioral modeling of Digitally Adjustable Current Amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Josef Polak; Lukas Langhammer; Jan Jerabek

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the digitally adjustable current amplifier (DACA) and its analog behavioral model (ABM), which is suitable for both ideal and advanced analyses of the function block using DACA as active element. There are four levels of this model, each being suitable for simulation of a certain degree of electronic circuits design (e.g. filters, oscillators, generators). Each model is presented through a schematic wiring in the simulation program OrCAD, including a description of equat...

  15. The multifactorial nature of human homosexual behavior: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barona, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Homosexual behavior has been analyzed as an evolutionary paradox in the biological context. In this review, we will try to compile the main genetic, epigenetic, hormonal, neurological and immune explanations of homosexuality, as well as the ultimate evolutionary causes of this complex behavior in the human being, incorporating information from studies in other animal species. All these factors determine the homosexual behavior, acting most of the times, simultaneously. Hereditary and non hereditary factors determine homosexual behavior, explaining its persistence despite its apparent disadvantages in relation to reproductive fitness.

  16. Bayesian network model of crowd emotion and negative behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nurulhuda; Ghani, Noraida Abdul; Hatta, Zulkarnain Ahmad; Hashim, Intan Hashimah Mohd; Sulong, Jasni; Mahudin, Nor Diana Mohd; Rahman, Shukran Abd; Saad, Zarina Mat

    2014-12-01

    The effects of overcrowding have become a major concern for event organizers. One aspect of this concern has been the idea that overcrowding can enhance the occurrence of serious incidents during events. As one of the largest Muslim religious gathering attended by pilgrims from all over the world, Hajj has become extremely overcrowded with many incidents being reported. The purpose of this study is to analyze the nature of human emotion and negative behavior resulting from overcrowding during Hajj events from data gathered in Malaysian Hajj Experience Survey in 2013. The sample comprised of 147 Malaysian pilgrims (70 males and 77 females). Utilizing a probabilistic model called Bayesian network, this paper models the dependence structure between different emotions and negative behaviors of pilgrims in the crowd. The model included the following variables of emotion: negative, negative comfortable, positive, positive comfortable and positive spiritual and variables of negative behaviors; aggressive and hazardous acts. The study demonstrated that emotions of negative, negative comfortable, positive spiritual and positive emotion have a direct influence on aggressive behavior whereas emotion of negative comfortable, positive spiritual and positive have a direct influence on hazardous acts behavior. The sensitivity analysis showed that a low level of negative and negative comfortable emotions leads to a lower level of aggressive and hazardous behavior. Findings of the study can be further improved to identify the exact cause and risk factors of crowd-related incidents in preventing crowd disasters during the mass gathering events.

  17. Animal models of behavioral dysfunctions: basic concepts and classifications, and an evaluation strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staay, van der F.J.

    2006-01-01

    In behavioral neurosciences, such as neurobiology and biopsychology, animal models make it possible to investigate brain-behavior relations, with the aim of gaining insight into normal and abnormal human behavior and its underlying neuronal and neuroendocrinological processes. Different types of ani

  18. Animal models of behavioral dysfunctions: basic concepts and classifications, and an evaluation strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staay, van der F.J.

    2006-01-01

    In behavioral neurosciences, such as neurobiology and biopsychology, animal models make it possible to investigate brain-behavior relations, with the aim of gaining insight into normal and abnormal human behavior and its underlying neuronal and neuroendocrinological processes. Different types of

  19. [Advances in the experimental analysis of behavior: issues of choice behavior, comparative cognition, and human language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, T; Yamamoto, J; Jitsumori, M

    1994-12-01

    As the opportunity to contact with related areas has increased, the study of of the experimental analysis of behavior has experienced revolutionary changes. Some of the most active and important areas-studies of choice, comparative cognition, and human language--are reviewed to acquaint readers. Studies of CHOICE have linked to the molar theories of behavioral economics and behavioral ecology, which promoted research of choice by animals under uncertainty conditions. Further approach has been made to integrate the molar and molecular analyses on the basis of the ideas of behavior dynamics. COMPARATIVE COGNITION is a part of a larger field including cognitive science, behavioral neuroscience, and biological science. Recent developments, aided with a comparative perspective, made significant contributions to our understanding of the phylogeny and ontogeny of cognition. Advances in analysis of human behavior provided tools to study behavioral aspects of semantics, syntax, and pragmatics of HUMAN LANGUAGE. Using the paradigm of stimulus equivalence, the emergence of stimulus relations, stimulus-stimulus networks, hierarchical structure of verbal behavior, and other language-related behaviors have been investigated.

  20. Modeling aspects of human memory for scientific study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudell, Thomas P. (University of New Mexico); Watson, Patrick (University of Illinois - Champaign-Urbana Beckman Institute); McDaniel, Mark A. (Washington University); Eichenbaum, Howard B. (Boston University); Cohen, Neal J. (University of Illinois - Champaign-Urbana Beckman Institute); Vineyard, Craig Michael; Taylor, Shawn Ellis; Bernard, Michael Lewis; Morrow, James Dan; Verzi, Stephen J.

    2009-10-01

    Working with leading experts in the field of cognitive neuroscience and computational intelligence, SNL has developed a computational architecture that represents neurocognitive mechanisms associated with how humans remember experiences in their past. The architecture represents how knowledge is organized and updated through information from individual experiences (episodes) via the cortical-hippocampal declarative memory system. We compared the simulated behavioral characteristics with those of humans measured under well established experimental standards, controlling for unmodeled aspects of human processing, such as perception. We used this knowledge to create robust simulations of & human memory behaviors that should help move the scientific community closer to understanding how humans remember information. These behaviors were experimentally validated against actual human subjects, which was published. An important outcome of the validation process will be the joining of specific experimental testing procedures from the field of neuroscience with computational representations from the field of cognitive modeling and simulation.

  1. Using GOMS and Bayesian plan recognition to develop recognition models of operator behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaientz, Jack D.; DeKoven, Elyon; Piegdon, Nicholas; Wood, Scott D.; Huber, Marcus J.

    2006-05-01

    Trends in combat technology research point to an increasing role for uninhabited vehicles in modern warfare tactics. To support increased span of control over these vehicles human responsibilities need to be transformed from tedious, error-prone and cognition intensive operations into tasks that are more supervisory and manageable, even under intensely stressful conditions. The goal is to move away from only supporting human command of low-level system functions to intention-level human-system dialogue about the operator's tasks and situation. A critical element of this process is developing the means to identify when human operators need automated assistance and to identify what assistance they need. Toward this goal, we are developing an unmanned vehicle operator task recognition system that combines work in human behavior modeling and Bayesian plan recognition. Traditionally, human behavior models have been considered generative, meaning they describe all possible valid behaviors. Basing behavior recognition on models designed for behavior generation can offers advantages in improved model fidelity and reuse. It is not clear, however, how to reconcile the structural differences between behavior recognition and behavior modeling approaches. Our current work demonstrates that by pairing a cognitive psychology derived human behavior modeling approach, GOMS, with a Bayesian plan recognition engine, ASPRN, we can translate a behavior generation model into a recognition model. We will discuss the implications for using human performance models in this manner as well as suggest how this kind of modeling may be used to support the real-time control of multiple, uninhabited battlefield vehicles and other semi-autonomous systems.

  2. Behavioral effects in room evacuation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossetti, V.; Bouzat, S.; Kuperman, M. N.

    2017-08-01

    In this work we study a model for the evacuation of pedestrians from an enclosure considering a continuous space substrate and discrete time. We analyze the influence of behavioral features that affect the use of the empty space, that can be linked to the attitudes or characters of the pedestrians. We study how the interaction of different behavioral profiles affects the needed time to evacuate completely a room and the occurrence of clogging. We find that neither fully egotistic nor fully cooperative attitudes are optimal from the point of view of the crowd. In contrast, intermediate behaviors provide lower evacuation times. This leads us to identify some phenomena closely analogous to the faster-is-slower effect. The proposed model allows for distinguishing between the role of the attitudes in the search for empty space and the attitudes in the conflicts.

  3. Knowledge Map: Mathematical Model and Dynamic Behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Zhuge; Xiang-Feng Luo

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge representation and reasoning is a key issue of the Knowledge Grid. This paper proposes a Knowledge Map (KM) model for representing and reasoning causal knowledge as an overlay in the Knowledge Grid. It extends Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) to represent and reason not only simple cause-effect relations, but also time-delay causal relations, conditional probabilistic causal relations and sequential relations. The mathematical model and dynamic behaviors of KM are presented. Experiments show that, under certain conditions, the dynamic behaviors of KM can translate between different states. Knowing this condition, experts can control or modify the constructed KM while its dynamic behaviors do not accord with their expectation. Simulations and applications show that KM is more powerful and natural than FCM in emulating real world.

  4. Error Resilient Video Compression Using Behavior Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacco R. Taal

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless and Internet video applications are inherently subjected to bit errors and packet errors, respectively. This is especially so if constraints on the end-to-end compression and transmission latencies are imposed. Therefore, it is necessary to develop methods to optimize the video compression parameters and the rate allocation of these applications that take into account residual channel bit errors. In this paper, we study the behavior of a predictive (interframe video encoder and model the encoders behavior using only the statistics of the original input data and of the underlying channel prone to bit errors. The resulting data-driven behavior models are then used to carry out group-of-pictures partitioning and to control the rate of the video encoder in such a way that the overall quality of the decoded video with compression and channel errors is optimized.

  5. The Impact of Human Resource Practices and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors on Firm Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Babaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The examination of organizational citizenship behaviors as the mediating variable through which human resource practices affect firm performance is still scarce. Approach: This study examined the mediation effects of organizational citizenship behaviors on the relationships between selected human resource practices and firm performance. The human resource practices studied were reward and performance appraisal practices and firm performance was studied in terms of quality of services. Data were collected from a sample of 179 branches of two banks in Tehran, Iran. The participants in this study included 176 managerial employees, 352 non-managerial employees and 871 customers. To achieve these objectives a mediation model was tested using structural equation modeling procedure to examine if the hypothesized model fit the data. Results: The results showed that organizational citizenship behaviors fully mediated the relationships between reward practices and quality of services and partially mediated the relationships between performance appraisal practices and quality of services. Conclusion/Recommendations: The findings of this study suggest that human resource practices play a critical role in enhancing employees organizational citizenship behaviors and firm performance. Organizational citizenship behaviors mediate the effects of reward and performance appraisal practices on service quality. To improve service quality, employers should improve reward and performance appraisal practices since these practices have an impact on employees organizational citizenship behaviors which in turn would affect service quality.

  6. The Shigella human challenge model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, C K; Thura, N; Ranallo, R T; Riddle, M S

    2013-02-01

    Shigella is an important bacterial cause of infectious diarrhoea globally. The Shigella human challenge model has been used since 1946 for a variety of objectives including understanding disease pathogenesis, human immune responses and allowing for an early assessment of vaccine efficacy. A systematic review of the literature regarding experimental shigellosis in human subjects was conducted. Summative estimates were calculated by strain and dose. While a total of 19 studies evaluating nine strains at doses ranging from 10 to 1 × 1010 colony-forming units were identified, most studies utilized the S. sonnei strain 53G and the S. flexneri strain 2457T. Inoculum solution and pre-inoculation buffering has varied over time although diarrhoea attack rates do not appear to increase above 75-80%, and dysentery rates remain fairly constant, highlighting the need for additional dose-ranging studies. Expansion of the model to include additional strains from different serotypes will elucidate serotype and strain-specific outcome variability.

  7. Assessment of Glial Scar, Tissue Sparing, Behavioral Recovery and Axonal Regeneration following Acute Transplantation of Genetically Modified Human Umbilical Cord Blood Cells in a Rat Model of Spinal Cord Contusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana O Mukhamedshina

    Full Text Available This study investigated the potential for protective effects of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (UCB-MCs genetically modified with the VEGF and GNDF genes on contusion spinal cord injury (SCI in rats. An adenoviral vector was constructed for targeted delivery of VEGF and GDNF to UCB-MCs. Using a rat contusion SCI model we examined the efficacy of the construct on tissue sparing, glial scar severity, the extent of axonal regeneration, recovery of motor function, and analyzed the expression of the recombinant genes VEGF and GNDF in vitro and in vivo.Transplantation of UCB-MCs transduced with adenoviral vectors expressing VEGF and GDNF at the site of SCI induced tissue sparing, behavioral recovery and axonal regeneration comparing to the other constructs tested. The adenovirus encoding VEGF and GDNF for transduction of UCB-MCs was shown to be an effective and stable vehicle for these cells in vivo following the transplantation into the contused spinal cord.Our results show that a gene delivery using UCB-MCs-expressing VEGF and GNDF genes improved both structural and functional parameters after SCI. Further histological and behavioral studies, especially at later time points, in animals with SCI after transplantation of genetically modified UCB-MCs (overexpressing VEGF and GDNF genes will provide additional insight into therapeutic potential of such cells.

  8. Automated regional behavioral analysis for human brain images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Jack L; Laird, Angela R; Eickhoff, Simon B; Martinez, Michael J; Fox, P Mickle; Fox, Peter T

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral categories of functional imaging experiments along with standardized brain coordinates of associated activations were used to develop a method to automate regional behavioral analysis of human brain images. Behavioral and coordinate data were taken from the BrainMap database (http://www.brainmap.org/), which documents over 20 years of published functional brain imaging studies. A brain region of interest (ROI) for behavioral analysis can be defined in functional images, anatomical images or brain atlases, if images are spatially normalized to MNI or Talairach standards. Results of behavioral analysis are presented for each of BrainMap's 51 behavioral sub-domains spanning five behavioral domains (Action, Cognition, Emotion, Interoception, and Perception). For each behavioral sub-domain the fraction of coordinates falling within the ROI was computed and compared with the fraction expected if coordinates for the behavior were not clustered, i.e., uniformly distributed. When the difference between these fractions is large behavioral association is indicated. A z-score ≥ 3.0 was used to designate statistically significant behavioral association. The left-right symmetry of ~100K activation foci was evaluated by hemisphere, lobe, and by behavioral sub-domain. Results highlighted the classic left-side dominance for language while asymmetry for most sub-domains (~75%) was not statistically significant. Use scenarios were presented for anatomical ROIs from the Harvard-Oxford cortical (HOC) brain atlas, functional ROIs from statistical parametric maps in a TMS-PET study, a task-based fMRI study, and ROIs from the ten "major representative" functional networks in a previously published resting state fMRI study. Statistically significant behavioral findings for these use scenarios were consistent with published behaviors for associated anatomical and functional regions.

  9. Hysteretic behavior modeling of elastoplastic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šumarac Dragoslav

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the Preisach model of hysteresis is applied to model cyclic behavior of elasto-plastic material. Rate of loading and viscous effects will not be considered. The problem of axial loading of rectangular cross section and cyclic bending of rectangular tube (box will be studied in details. Hysteretic stress-strain loop for prescribed history of stress change is plotted for material modeled by series connection of three unite element. Also moment-curvature hysteretic loop is obtained for a prescribed curvature change of rectangular tube (box. One chapter of the paper is devoted to results obtained by FEM using Finite Element Code ABAQUS. All obtained results clearly show advantages of the Preisach model for describing cyclic behavior of elasto-plastic material.

  10. Modeling landowner behavior regarding forest certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Mercker; Donald G. Hodges

    2008-01-01

    Nonindustrial private forest owners in western Tennessee were surveyed to assess their awareness, acceptance, and perceived benefits of forest certification. More than 80 percent of the landowners indicated a willingness to consider certification for their lands. A model was created to explain landowner behavior regarding their willingness to consider certification....

  11. MODELING OPERANT BEHAVIOR IN THE PARKINSONIAN RAT

    OpenAIRE

    Avila, Irene; Reilly, Mark P; Sanabria, Federico; Posadas-Sánchez, Diana; Chavez, Claudia L.; Banerjee, Nikhil; Killeen, Peter; Castañeda, Edward

    2008-01-01

    Mathematical principles of reinforcement (MPR; Killeen, 1994) is a quantitative model of operant behavior that contains 3 parameters representing motor capacity (δ), motivation (a), and short term memory (λ). The present study applied MPR to characterize the effects of bilateral infusions of 6-OHDA into the substantia nigra pars compacta in the rat, a model of Parkinson’s disease. Rats were trained to lever press under a 5-component fixed ratio (5, 15, 30, 60, and 100) schedule of food reinfo...

  12. Group choice: the ideal free distribution of human social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, J R; Baum, W M

    2001-07-01

    Group choice refers to the distribution of group members between two choice alternatives over time. The ideal free distribution (IFD), an optimal foraging model from behavioral ecology, predicts that the ratio of foragers at two resource sites should equal the ratio of obtained resources, a prediction that is formally analogous to the matching law of individual choice, except that group choice is a social phenomenon. Two experiments investigated the usefulness of IFD analyses of human group choice and individual-based explanations that might account for the group-level events. Instead of nonhuman animals foraging at two sites for resources, a group of humans chose blue and red cards to receive points that could earn cash prizes. The groups chose blue and red cards in ratios in positive relation to the ratios of points associated with the cards. When group choice ratios and point ratios were plotted on logarithmic coordinates and fitted with regression lines, the slopes (i.e., sensitivity measures) approached 1.0 but tended to fall short of it (i.e., undermatching), with little bias and little unaccounted for variance. These experiments demonstrate that an IFD analysis of group choice is possible and useful, and suggest that group choice may be explained by the individual members' tendency to optimize reinforcement.

  13. Timing of Multimodal Robot Behaviors during Human-Robot Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Christian; Fischer, Kerstin; Suvei, Stefan-Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we address issues of timing between robot behaviors in multimodal human-robot interaction. In particular, we study what effects sequential order and simultaneity of robot arm and body movement and verbal behavior have on the fluency of interactions. In a study with the Care...... output plays a special role because participants carry their expectations from human verbal interaction into the interactions with robots.......-O-bot, a large service robot, in a medical measurement scenario, we compare the timing of the robot's behaviors in three between-subject conditions. The results show that the relative timing of robot behaviors has significant effects on the number of problems participants encounter, and that the robot's verbal...

  14. L\\'evy flights in human behavior and cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Baronchelli, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    L\\'evy flights represent the best strategy to randomly search for a target in an unknown environment, and have been widely observed in many animal species. Here, we inspect and discuss recent results concerning human behavior and cognition. Different studies have shown that human mobility can be described in terms of L\\'evy flights, while fresh evidence indicates that the same pattern accounts for human mental searches in online gambling sites. Thus, L\\'evy flights emerge as a unifying concept with broad cross-disciplinary implications. We argue that the ubiquity of such a pattern, both in behavior and cognition, suggests that the brain regions responsible for this behavior are likely to be evolutionarily old (i.e. no frontal cortex is involved), and that fMRI techniques might help to confirm this hypothesis.

  15. Talking with a Virtual Human: Controlling the Human Experience and Behavior in a Virtual Conversation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, C.

    2014-01-01

    Virtual humans are often designed to replace real humans in virtual reality applications for e.g., psychotherapy, education and entertainment. In general, applications with virtual humans are created for modifying a person's knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, emotions or behaviors. Reaching these intend

  16. State dissociation, human behavior, and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahowald, Mark W; Cramer Bornemann, Michel A; Schenck, Carlos H

    2011-01-01

    Sleep is clearly not only a whole-brain or global phenomenon, but can also be a local phenomenon. This accounts for the fact that the primary states of being (wakefulness, NREM sleep, and REM sleep) are not necessarily mutually exclusive, and components of these states may appear in various combinations, with fascinating clinical consequences. Examples include: sleep inertia, narcolepsy, sleep paralysis, lucid dreaming, REM sleep behavior disorder, sleepwalking, sleep terrors, out-of-body experiences, and reports of alien abduction. The incomplete declaration of state likewise has implications for consciousness - which also has fluid boundaries. Fluctuations in the degree of consciousness are likely explained by abnormalities of a "spatial and temporal binding rhythm" which normally results in a unified conscious experience. Dysfunctional binding may play a role in anesthetic states, autism, schizophrenia, and neurodegenerative disorders. Further study of the broad spectrum of dissociated states of sleep and wakefulness that are closely linked with states of consciousness and unconsciousness by basic neuroscientists, clinicians, and members of the legal profession will provide scientific, clinical and therapeutic insights, with forensic implications.

  17. Combined Hand Gesture — Speech Model for Human Action Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Tzong Cheng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a dynamic hand gesture detection technology to effectively detect dynamic hand gesture areas, and a hand gesture recognition technology to improve the dynamic hand gesture recognition rate. Meanwhile, the corresponding relationship between state sequences in hand gesture and speech models is considered by integrating speech recognition technology with a multimodal model, thus improving the accuracy of human behavior recognition. The experimental results proved that the proposed method can effectively improve human behavior recognition accuracy and the feasibility of system applications. Experimental results verified that the multimodal gesture-speech model provided superior accuracy when compared to the single modal versions.

  18. Combined hand gesture--speech model for human action recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheng-Tzong; Hsu, Chih-Wei; Li, Jian-Pan

    2013-12-12

    This study proposes a dynamic hand gesture detection technology to effectively detect dynamic hand gesture areas, and a hand gesture recognition technology to improve the dynamic hand gesture recognition rate. Meanwhile, the corresponding relationship between state sequences in hand gesture and speech models is considered by integrating speech recognition technology with a multimodal model, thus improving the accuracy of human behavior recognition. The experimental results proved that the proposed method can effectively improve human behavior recognition accuracy and the feasibility of system applications. Experimental results verified that the multimodal gesture-speech model provided superior accuracy when compared to the single modal versions.

  19. Social performance cues induce behavioral flexibility in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf eToelch

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral flexibility allows individuals to react to environmental changes, but changing established behavior carries costs, with unknown benefits. Individuals may thus modify their behavioral flexibility according to the prevailing circumstances. Social information provided by the performance level of others provides one possible cue to assess the potential benefits of changing behavior, since out-performance in similar circumstances indicates that novel behaviors (innovations are potentially useful. We demonstrate that social performance cues, in the form of previous players’ scores in a problem-solving computer game, influence behavioral flexibility. Participants viewed only performance indicators, not the innovative behavior of others. While performance cues (high, low, or no scores had little effect on innovation discovery rates, participants that viewed high scores increased their utilization of innovations, allowing them to exploit the virtual environment more effectively than players viewing low or no scores. Perceived conspecific performance can thus shape human decisions to adopt novel traits, even when the traits employed cannot be copied. This simple mechanism, social performance feedback, could be a driver of both the facultative adoption of innovations and cumulative cultural evolution, processes critical to human success.

  20. Collective unconscious: how gut microbes shape human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinan, Timothy G; Stilling, Roman M; Stanton, Catherine; Cryan, John F

    2015-04-01

    The human gut harbors a dynamic and complex microbial ecosystem, consisting of approximately 1 kg of bacteria in the average adult, approximately the weight of the human brain. The evolutionary formation of a complex gut microbiota in mammals has played an important role in enabling brain development and perhaps sophisticated social interaction. Genes within the human gut microbiota, termed the microbiome, significantly outnumber human genes in the body, and are capable of producing a myriad of neuroactive compounds. Gut microbes are part of the unconscious system regulating behavior. Recent investigations indicate that these microbes majorly impact on cognitive function and fundamental behavior patterns, such as social interaction and stress management. In the absence of microbes, underlying neurochemistry is profoundly altered. Studies of gut microbes may play an important role in advancing understanding of disorders of cognitive functioning and social interaction, such as autism.

  1. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN TERMS OF BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Mazanowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Behaviourists believe human capital is seen as the potential in people. They believe that the human resource in the organization are intangible assets embodied in the employees, not the people themselves. Behavioral economics emphasizes that people aren’t owned by the company, only their abilities and skills made available to the employer on the basis of certain legal relations which holds it to manage these assets in a rational way. Recognition of behavioral economics also highlights the aspects of development and human capital perspective, which appear in the may resource Staff in the future. These may be limited to: raise, awareness of capacity, internal aspirations, motives. Human capital management is nothing but a recognition of the relevant characteristics of the potential held within the company Staff and correct its use. As a consequence, it can bring tangible benefits to the organization.

  2. "Anatomical simulation" of the biomechanical behavior of the human mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kober, Cornelia; Hellmich, Christian; Stübinger, Stefan; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian; Sader, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The load-carrying behavior of the human mandible can be described using finite element simulation, enabling investigations about physiological and pathological skeletal adaption. "Anatomical simulation" implies a stepwise approximation towards the anatomical reality. The project is structured in three steps. In Step 1, the preprocessing, the simulation model is provided. Step 2 is the numerical computation. Step 3 is dedicated to the interpretation of the results. The requirements of the preprocessing are: a) realization of the organ's individual anatomy, namely its outer shape; b) the tissue's elastic properties, thus its inner consistency; and c) the organ's mechanical loads. For physiological mandibular loading, these are due to muscles, temporomandibular joints, and tooth forces. Meanwhile, the reconstruction of the macroscopic anatomy from computed tomography data is standard. The periodontal ligament is inserted ex post using an approach developed by the authors. The bone is modeled anisotropically and inhomogeneously. By the visualization of the individual fiber course, the muscular force vectors are realized. The mandibular condyle is freely mobile in a kind of simplified joint capsule. For the realization of bite forces, several approaches are available. An extendible software tool is provided, enabling the user - by variable input of muscle and bite forces - to examine the individual patient's biomechanics, eg, the influence of the periodontal ligament, the condition of the temporomandibular joints, atrophic processes, or the biomechanical situation of dental implants. By stepwise approximation towards the anatomical reality, the mandibular simulation will be advanced to a valuable tool for diagnosis and prognosis.

  3. Linear and nonlinear behavior of human and artificial lip reeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Murray; Richards, Orlando

    2003-10-01

    In a musical instrument of the lip reed aerophone class, the flow of air from the player's lungs into the resonating air column is modulated by the periodic opening and closing of the pressure-controlled valve formed by the player's lips. The nature of the operation of this valve has been the subject of considerable study in recent years. Since the pressure-flow relationship is strongly nonlinear, the behavior of the coupled system of lips and air column can only be modeled using the methods of nonlinear dynamics. Extensive studies of artificial lip reeds, in which the lips are simulated by water-filled latex tubes, have shown them to be capable of reproducing musically important features of human playing, including the lipping of notes both below and above an acoustic resonance of the air column. Measurements of the linear response of artificial reeds have guided the development of more realistic models of the lip reed, while studies of both real and artificial lips using a high-speed digital camera have shed fresh light on the nature of the lip motion at the large amplitudes typical of loud playing. [Work supported by EPSRC.

  4. Avian Models for Human Cognitive Neuroscience: A Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Nicola S; Emery, Nathan J

    2015-06-17

    Research on avian cognitive neuroscience over the past two decades has revealed the avian brain to be a better model for understanding human cognition than previously thought, despite differences in the neuroarchitecture of avian and mammalian brains. The brain, behavior, and cognition of songbirds have provided an excellent model of human cognition in one domain, namely learning human language and the production of speech. There are other important behavioral candidates of avian cognition, however, notably the capacity of corvids to remember the past and plan for the future, as well as their ability to think about another's perspective, and physical reasoning. We review this work and assess the evidence that the corvid brain can support such a cognitive architecture. We propose potential applications of these behavioral paradigms for cognitive neuroscience, including recent work on single-cell recordings and neuroimaging in corvids. Finally, we discuss their impact on understanding human developmental cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with human directed social behavior in dogs (Canis familiaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kis

    Full Text Available The oxytocin system has a crucial role in human sociality; several results prove that polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor gene are related to complex social behaviors in humans. Dogs' parallel evolution with humans and their adaptation to the human environment has made them a useful species to model human social interactions. Previous research indicates that dogs are eligible models for behavioral genetic research, as well. Based on these previous findings, our research investigated associations between human directed social behaviors and two newly described (-212AG, 19131AG and one known (rs8679684 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the regulatory regions (5' and 3' UTR of the oxytocin receptor gene in German Shepherd (N = 104 and Border Collie (N = 103 dogs. Dogs' behavior traits have been estimated in a newly developed test series consisting of five episodes: Greeting by a stranger, Separation from the owner, Problem solving, Threatening approach, Hiding of the owner. Buccal samples were collected and DNA was isolated using standard protocols. SNPs in the 3' and 5' UTR regions were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction based techniques followed by subsequent electrophoresis analysis. The gene-behavior association analysis suggests that oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms have an impact in both breeds on (i proximity seeking towards an unfamiliar person, as well as their owner, and on (ii how friendly dogs behave towards strangers, although the mediating molecular regulatory mechanisms are yet unknown. Based on these results, we conclude that similarly to humans, the social behavior of dogs towards humans is influenced by the oxytocin system.

  6. Behavioral modeling of Digitally Adjustable Current Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Polak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the digitally adjustable current amplifier (DACA and its analog behavioral model (ABM, which is suitable for both ideal and advanced analyses of the function block using DACA as active element. There are four levels of this model, each being suitable for simulation of a certain degree of electronic circuits design (e.g. filters, oscillators, generators. Each model is presented through a schematic wiring in the simulation program OrCAD, including a description of equations representing specific functions in the given level of the simulation model. The design of individual levels is always verified using PSpice simulations. The ABM model has been developed based on practically measured values of a number of DACA amplifier samples. The simulation results for proposed levels of the ABM model are shown and compared with the results of the real easurements of the active element DACA.

  7. Measuring and Modeling Behavioral Decision Dynamics in Collective Evacuation

    CERN Document Server

    Carlson, Jean M; Stromberg, Sean P; Bassett, Danielle S; Craparo, Emily M; Gutierrez-Villarreal, Francisco; Otani, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Identifying and quantifying factors influencing human decision making remains an outstanding challenge, impacting the performance and predictability of social and technological systems. In many cases, system failures are traced to human factors including congestion, overload, miscommunication, and delays. Here we report results of a behavioral network science experiment, targeting decision making in a natural disaster. In each scenario, individuals are faced with a forced "go" versus "no go" evacuation decision, based on information available on competing broadcast and peer-to-peer sources. In this controlled setting, all actions and observations are recorded prior to the decision, enabling development of a quantitative decision making model that accounts for the disaster likelihood, severity, and temporal urgency, as well as competition between networked individuals for limited emergency resources. Individual differences in behavior within this social setting are correlated with individual differences in inh...

  8. The Various Roles of Animal Models in Understanding Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Gilbert; Lickliter, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors take a very conservative view of the contribution of animal models to an understanding of human development. We do not think that homologies can be readily documented with even our most closely related relatives' behavior and psychological functioning. The major contribution of animal models is their provision of food…

  9. Aids to determining fuel models for estimating fire behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hal E. Anderson

    1982-01-01

    Presents photographs of wildland vegetation appropriate for the 13 fuel models used in mathematical models of fire behavior. Fuel model descriptions include fire behavior associated with each fuel and its physical characteristics. A similarity chart cross-references the 13 fire behavior fuel models to the 20 fuel models used in the National Fire Danger Rating System....

  10. Modeling of Human Joint Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    Radial Lateral " epicondyle Olecranon Radius Ulna Figure 3. Lateral aspect of the right elbow joint. -17- Annular Ligament This strong band encircles... elbow joint, knee joint, human joints, shoulder joint, ankle joint, joint models, hip joint, ligaments. 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side If...ligaments. -A rather extended discussion of the articulations and anatomical descriptions of the elbow , shoulder, hip, knee and ankle joints are

  11. Behavioral modeling and analysis of galvanic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lei

    2000-10-01

    A new hybrid modeling approach was developed for galvanic devices including batteries and fuel cells. The new approach reduces the complexity of the First Principles method and adds a physical basis to the empirical methods. The resulting general model includes all the processes that affect the terminal behavior of the galvanic devices. The first step of the new model development was to build a physics-based structure or framework that reflects the important physiochemical processes and mechanisms of a galvanic device. Thermodynamics, electrode kinetics, mass transport and electrode interfacial structure of an electrochemical cell were considered and included in the model. Each process of the cell is represented by a clearly-defined and familiar electrical component, resulting in an equivalent circuit model for the galvanic device. The second step was to develop a parameter identification procedure that correlates the device response data to the parameters of the components in the model. This procedure eliminates the need for hard-to-find data on the electrochemical properties of the cell and specific device design parameters. Thus, the model is chemistry and structure independent. Implementation issues of the new modeling approach were presented. The validity of the new model over a wide range of operating conditions was verified with experimental data from actual devices. The new model was used in studying the characteristics of galvanic devices. Both the steady-state and dynamic behavior of batteries and fuel cells was studied using the impedance analysis techniques. The results were used to explain some experimental results of galvanic devices such as charging and pulsed discharge. The knowledge gained from the device analysis was also used in devising new solutions to application problems such as determining the state of charge of a battery or the maximum power output of a fuel cell. With the new model, a system can be designed that utilizes a galvanic device

  12. Driver Behavior Modeling: Developments and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najah AbuAli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The advances in wireless communication schemes, mobile cloud and fog computing, and context-aware services boost a growing interest in the design, development, and deployment of driver behavior models for emerging applications. Despite the progressive advancements in various aspects of driver behavior modeling (DBM, only limited work can be found that reviews the growing body of literature, which only targets a subset of DBM processes. Thus a more general review of the diverse aspects of DBM, with an emphasis on the most recent developments, is needed. In this paper, we provide an overview of advances of in-vehicle and smartphone sensing capabilities and communication and recent applications and services of DBM and emphasize research challenges and key future directions.

  13. Complex Behaviors of a Simple Traffic Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xing-Ru

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a modified traffic model in which a single car moves through a sequence of traffic lights controlled by a step function instead of a sine function. In contrast to the previous work [Phys. Rev. E 70 (2004)016107], we have investigated in detail the dependence of the behavior on four parameters, ω, α, η, and a1, and given three kinds of bifurcation diagrams, which show three kinds of complex behaviors. We have found that in this model there are chaotic and complex periodic motions, as well as special singularities. We have also analyzed the characteristic of the complex period motion and the essential feature of the singularity.

  14. The interaction between ICT and human activity-travel behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwan, M.P.; Dijst, M.J.; Schwanen, T.

    2007-01-01

    The interaction between information and communication technologies (ICT) and human activity-travel behavior has been an important theme in transportation research in recent years. Researchers have recognized that an increase in the use of ICT may lead to changes in the location, timing and duration

  15. Measuring Human Movement Patterns and Behaviors in Public Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Zebitz; Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.;

    In order to assess human movement patterns and behaviors in public spaces we present a method using thermal cameras and Computer Vision (CV) technology, combined with the analytical virtues of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), to track people in urban streets and plazas. The method enables...

  16. Industrial Buying Behavior Related to Human Resource Consulting Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Hollensen, Svend; Kahle, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to extend the understanding of the industrial buying process in connection with purchasing professional business (B2B) services, specifically human resource (HR) consulting services. Early B2B buying-behavior literature strongly emphasizes the rational aspects...

  17. Industrial Buying Behavior Related to Human Resource Consulting Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Hollensen, Svend; Kahle, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to extend the understanding of the industrial buying process in connection with purchasing professional business (B2B) services, specifically human resource (HR) consulting services. Early B2B buying-behavior literature strongly emphasizes the rational aspects...

  18. Counseling Children and Adolescents: Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and Humanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Describes specific parallels between rational emotive behavior therapy and humanism. Places specific emphasis on the application of these principles with children and adolescents. Concepts are illustrated with case studies and a description of the similarities between rational emotive and humanistic, or affective, education. Highlights emotional…

  19. The interaction between ICT and human activity-travel behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwan, M.P.; Dijst, M.J.; Schwanen, T.

    2007-01-01

    The interaction between information and communication technologies (ICT) and human activity-travel behavior has been an important theme in transportation research in recent years. Researchers have recognized that an increase in the use of ICT may lead to changes in the location, timing and duration

  20. Common Fallacies About Heredity, Environment, and Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasi, Anne

    Much of our thinking about contemporary social problems reflects tacit presuppositions regarding the operation of heredity and environment in human behavior. These beliefs have important implications for practical decisions. Advances in genetics, psychology, anthropology, and other disciplines have contributed much to a clarification of the…

  1. Counseling Children and Adolescents: Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and Humanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Describes specific parallels between rational emotive behavior therapy and humanism. Places specific emphasis on the application of these principles with children and adolescents. Concepts are illustrated with case studies and a description of the similarities between rational emotive and humanistic, or affective, education. Highlights emotional…

  2. An ecologically relevant guinea pig model of fetal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, S A; Lucas, D; Kleven, G A

    2015-04-15

    The laboratory guinea pig, Cavia porcellus, shares with humans many similarities during pregnancy and prenatal development, including precocial offspring and social dependence. These similarities suggest the guinea pig as a promising model of fetal behavioral development as well. Using innovative methods of behavioral acclimation, fetal offspring of female IAF hairless guinea pigs time mated to NIH multicolored Hartley males were observed longitudinally without restraint using noninvasive ultrasound at weekly intervals across the 10 week gestation. To ensure that the ultrasound procedure did not cause significant stress, salivary cortisol was collected both before and after each observation. Measures of fetal spontaneous movement and behavioral state were quantified from video recordings from week 3 through the last week before birth. Results from prenatal quantification of Interlimb Movement Synchrony and state organization reveal guinea pig fetal development to be strikingly similar to that previously reported for other rodents and preterm human infants. Salivary cortisol readings taken before and after sonography did not differ at any observation time point. These results suggest this model holds translational promise for studying the prenatal mechanisms of neurobehavioral development, including those that may result from adverse events. Because the guinea pig is a highly social mammal with a wide range of socially oriented vocalizations, this model may also have utility for studying the prenatal origins and trajectories of developmental disabilities with social-emotional components, such as autism.

  3. Model "Big Five" personality and criminal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Teruel, David; Profesor, Departamento de Psicología-Área de Psicología Social, Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias de la Educación, España.; Robles-Bello, Mª Auxiliadora; Profesor, Departamento de Psicología-Área de Psicología Social, Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias de la Educación, España.

    2013-01-01

    It reflect on the theoretical issues that currently versa Personality Psychology in general and antisocial or criminal behavior in particular. It discusses how the model can be used personality "Big Five" applied to the field of crime, and shows the variables that the literature presented as more predictive, through one of the most widely used assessment instruments at present. It currently advises finding, meeting points between the various existing theories, for that personality does not be...

  4. Human Behavior Recognition Using Foot Pressure Sensing Shoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Chika; Ozaki, Kenji; Ezoe, Ryosuke; Hosaka, Hiroshi; Yamato, Hiroyuki

    To recognize human behavior in unlimited environments, sensing shoes for measuring foot pressure distribution were developed. Seven pressure sensors were installed on an insole, and a measurement module was embedded in the shoe. An analysis for discriminating the user's movements from the foot pressure distribution was examined, considering the movements, walking, running, standing, sitting, going upstairs and downstairs, and cycling. These seven actions were discriminated using feature quantities such as the average, standard deviation, maximum, and difference deviation extracted from the data of three sensors by discriminant analysis. The evaluation results showed highly accurate behavior recognition based on foot pressure at some points. In addition, by canonical discriminant analysis, six discriminant functions which classify the seven actions with an accuracy of 100% were derived by using feature quantities extracted from five sensors. The results confirmed that discriminant analysis can be used for automatically recognizing human behaviors based on foot pressure data.

  5. Genetical Genomics of Behavior: A Novel Chicken Genomic Model for Anxiety Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, Martin; Williams, Michael J; Jensen, Per; Wright, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    The identification of genetic variants responsible for behavioral variation is an enduring goal in biology, with wide-scale ramifications, ranging from medical research to evolutionary theory on personality syndromes. Here, we use for the first time a large-scale genetical genomics analysis in the brains of chickens to identify genes affecting anxiety as measured by an open field test. We combine quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis in 572 individuals and expression QTL (eQTL) analysis in 129 individuals from an advanced intercross between domestic chickens and Red Junglefowl. We identify 10 putative quantitative trait genes affecting anxiety behavior. These genes were tested for an association in the mouse Heterogeneous Stock anxiety (open field) data set and human GWAS data sets for bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia. Although comparisons between species are complex, associations were observed for four of the candidate genes in mice and three of the candidate genes in humans. Using a multimodel approach we have therefore identified a number of putative quantitative trait genes affecting anxiety behavior, principally in chickens but also with some potentially translational effects as well. This study demonstrates that chickens are an excellent model organism for the genetic dissection of behavior.

  6. Simulating irrational human behavior to prevent resource depletion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sircova

    Full Text Available In a situation with a limited common resource, cooperation between individuals sharing the resource is essential. However, people often act upon self-interest in irrational ways that threaten the long-term survival of the whole group. A lack of sustainable or environmentally responsible behavior is often observed. In this study, we examine how the maximization of benefits principle works in a wider social interactive context of personality preferences in order to gain a more realistic insight into the evolution of cooperation. We used time perspective (TP, a concept reflecting individual differences in orientation towards past, present, or future, and relevant for making sustainable choices. We developed a personality-driven agent-based model that explores the role of personality in the outcomes of social dilemmas and includes multiple facets of diversity: (1 The agents have different behavior strategies: individual differences derived by applying cluster analysis to survey data from 22 countries (N = 10,940 and resulting in 7 cross-cultural profiles of TP; (2 The non-uniform distribution of the types of agents across countries; (3 The diverse interactions between the agents; and (4 diverse responses to those interactions in a well-mixed population. As one of the results, we introduced an index of overall cooperation for each of the 22 countries, which was validated against cultural, economic, and sustainability indicators (HDI, dimensions of national culture, and Environment Performance Index. It was associated with higher human development, higher individualism, lower power distance, and better environmental performance. The findings illustrate how individual differences in TP can be simulated to predict the ways people in different countries solve the personal vs. common gain dilemma in the global limited-resource situation. This interdisciplinary approach to social simulation can be adopted to explain the possible causes of global

  7. Behavioral Reference Model for Pervasive Healthcare Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasbi, Arezoo; Adabi, Sahar; Rezaee, Ali

    2016-12-01

    The emergence of mobile healthcare systems is an important outcome of application of pervasive computing concepts for medical care purposes. These systems provide the facilities and infrastructure required for automatic and ubiquitous sharing of medical information. Healthcare systems have a dynamic structure and configuration, therefore having an architecture is essential for future development of these systems. The need for increased response rate, problem limited storage, accelerated processing and etc. the tendency toward creating a new generation of healthcare system architecture highlight the need for further focus on cloud-based solutions for transfer data and data processing challenges. Integrity and reliability of healthcare systems are of critical importance, as even the slightest error may put the patients' lives in danger; therefore acquiring a behavioral model for these systems and developing the tools required to model their behaviors are of significant importance. The high-level designs may contain some flaws, therefor the system must be fully examined for different scenarios and conditions. This paper presents a software architecture for development of healthcare systems based on pervasive computing concepts, and then models the behavior of described system. A set of solutions are then proposed to improve the design's qualitative characteristics including, availability, interoperability and performance.

  8. Life-Cycle Labor Supply with Human Capital: Econometric and Behavioral Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Michael P. Keane

    2015-01-01

    I examine the econometric and behavioral implications of including human capital in the life-cycle labor supply model. With human capital, the wage no longer equals the opportunity cost of time – which is, instead, the wage plus returns to work experience. This has a number of important implications, of which I highlight four: First, labor supply elasticities become functions of both preference and wage process parameters. Thus, one cannot estimate elasticities without also specifying and est...

  9. Detecting Underlying Stance Adopted When Human Construe Behavior of Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Kazunori; Ono, Kouhei; Ito, Akira

    Whether or not humans can construe the behaviors of entities depends on their psychological stance. The philosopher Dennett proposed human cognitive strategies (three stances) in which humans construe the behavior of other animated objects, including other humans, artifacts, and physical phenomena:‘intentional’, ‘design’ and ‘physical’ stances. Detecting the psychological stance taken toward entities is difficult, because such mental state attribution is a subjective cognitive process and hard to measure. In the present study, we proposed a novel method for detecting underlying stance adopted when human construe behavior of entities. In our method the subject was asked to select the most suitable action sequence shown in three movies each of which representing Dennett’s three stances. To valid our method we have conducted an experiment in which the subjects were presented thirty short videos and asked to compare them to the three movies. The result indicated that the subjects did not focused on prior knowledge about the entity but could focused on motion characteristics per se, owing to simple and typical motion of an abstract shaped object.

  10. Generalized behavioral framework for choice models of social influence: Behavioral and data concerns in travel behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maness, M.; Cirillo, C.; Dugundji, E.R.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, transportation has begun a shift from an individual focus to a social focus. Accordingly, discrete choice models have begun to integrate social context into its framework. Social influence, the process of having one’s behavior be affected by others, has been one approach t

  11. Alterations in choice behavior by manipulations of world model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C. S.; Benson, C.; Kersten, D.; Schrater, P.

    2010-01-01

    How to compute initially unknown reward values makes up one of the key problems in reinforcement learning theory, with two basic approaches being used. Model-free algorithms rely on the accumulation of substantial amounts of experience to compute the value of actions, whereas in model-based learning, the agent seeks to learn the generative process for outcomes from which the value of actions can be predicted. Here we show that (i) “probability matching”—a consistent example of suboptimal choice behavior seen in humans—occurs in an optimal Bayesian model-based learner using a max decision rule that is initialized with ecologically plausible, but incorrect beliefs about the generative process for outcomes and (ii) human behavior can be strongly and predictably altered by the presence of cues suggestive of various generative processes, despite statistically identical outcome generation. These results suggest human decision making is rational and model based and not consistent with model-free learning. PMID:20805507

  12. Aspects of elephant behavior, ecology, and interactions with humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Caitlin Elizabeth

    This dissertation is comprised of two chapters relating to the acoustic behavior of elephants, their surrounding ecology and interactions with humans. The first chapter investigates the seismic aspects of Asian elephant (Elephus maximus) acoustic communication. The second chapter is comprised of a synthesis of two separate studies conducted on the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) in Namibia, both in Etosha National Park and the Caprivi region. The two studies were combined and published in Biological Conservation as one large study on aspects of the economic and social impacts of elephant/human conflict and experiments conducted to reduce conflict. In chapter one, seismic and acoustic data were recorded simultaneously from Asian elephants during periods of vocalizations and locomotion. Acoustic and seismic signals from rumbles were highly correlated at near and far distances and were in phase near the elephant and were out of phase at an increased distance from the elephant. Data analyses indicated that elephant generated signals associated with rumbles and "foot stomps" propagated at different velocities in the two media, the acoustic signals traveling at 309 m/s and the seismic signals at 248--264 m/s. Both types of signals had predominant frequencies in the range of 20 Hz. Seismic signal amplitudes considerably above background noise were recorded at 40 m from the generating elephants for both the rumble and the stomp. Seismic propagation models suggest that seismic waveforms from vocalizations are potentially detectable by instruments at distances of up to 16 km, and up to 32 km for locomotion generated signals. Thus, if detectable by elephants, these seismic signals could be useful for long distance communication. In chapter two, the economic impact of elephants, Loxodonta africana , and predators, particularly lions, Panthera leo, on rural agriculturists in the Kwando region of the East Caprivi, Namibia was assessed from the years 1991 to 1995. Elephants

  13. Characteristics of Behavior of Robots with Emotion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shigehiko; Nozawa, Akio; Ide, Hideto

    Cooperated multi robots system has much dominance in comparison with single robot system. It is able to adapt to various circumstances and has a flexibility for variation of tasks. However it has still problems to control each robot, though methods for control multi robots system have been studied. Recently, the robots have been coming into real scene. And emotion and sensitivity of the robots have been widely studied. In this study, human emotion model based on psychological interaction was adapt to multi robots system to achieve methods for organization of multi robots. The characteristics of behavior of multi robots system achieved through computer simulation were analyzed. As a result, very complexed and interesting behavior was emerged even though it has rather simple configuration. And it has flexiblity in various circumstances. Additional experiment with actual robots will be conducted based on the emotion model.

  14. Behavior computing modeling, analysis, mining and decision

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Includes six case studies on behavior applications Presents new techniques for capturing behavior characteristics in social media First dedicated source of references for the theory and applications of behavior informatics and behavior computing

  15. Zebra fish: an uncharted behavior genetic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlai, Robert

    2003-09-01

    The zebra fish has been a preferred subject of genetic analysis. It produces a large number of offspring that can be kept in small aquaria, it can be easily mutagenized using chemical mutagens (e.g., ethyl nitrosourea [ENU]), and high-resolution genetic maps exist that aid identification of novel genes. Libraries containing large numbers of mutant fish have been generated, and the genetic mechanisms of the development of zebra fish, whose embryo is transparent, have been extensively studied. Given the extensive homology of its genome with that of other vertebrate species including our own and given the available genetic tools, zebra fish has become a popular model organism. Despite this popularity, however, surprisingly little is known about its behavior. It is argued that behavioral analysis is a powerful tool with which the function of the brain may be studied, and the zebra fish will represent an excellent subject of such analysis. The present paper is a proof of concept study that uses pharmacological manipulation (exposure to alcohol) to show that the zebra fish is amenable to the behavioral genetic analysis of aggression and thus may allow us to reveal molecular mechanisms of this behavioral phenomenon relevant to vertebrates.

  16. Agent-based modeling of sustainable behaviors

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Maroño, Noelia; Fontenla-Romero, Oscar; Polhill, J; Craig, Tony; Bajo, Javier; Corchado, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Using the O.D.D. (Overview, Design concepts, Detail) protocol, this title explores the role of agent-based modeling in predicting the feasibility of various approaches to sustainability. The chapters incorporated in this volume consist of real case studies to illustrate the utility of agent-based modeling and complexity theory in discovering a path to more efficient and sustainable lifestyles. The topics covered within include: households' attitudes toward recycling, designing decision trees for representing sustainable behaviors, negotiation-based parking allocation, auction-based traffic signal control, and others. This selection of papers will be of interest to social scientists who wish to learn more about agent-based modeling as well as experts in the field of agent-based modeling.

  17. Mob control models of threshold collective behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Breer, Vladimir V; Rogatkin, Andrey D

    2017-01-01

    This book presents mathematical models of mob control with threshold (conformity) collective decision-making of the agents. Based on the results of analysis of the interconnection between the micro- and macromodels of active network structures, it considers the static (deterministic, stochastic and game-theoretic) and dynamic (discrete- and continuous-time) models of mob control, and highlights models of informational confrontation. Many of the results are applicable not only to mob control problems, but also to control problems arising in social groups, online social networks, etc. Aimed at researchers and practitioners, it is also a valuable resource for undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as doctoral candidates specializing in the field of collective behavior modeling.

  18. A transport model for prediction of wildfire behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linn, R.R.

    1997-07-01

    Wildfires are a threat to human life and property, yet they are an unavoidable part of nature. In the past people have tried to predict wildfire behavior through the use of point functional models but have been unsuccessful at adequately predicting the gross behavior of the broad spectrum of fires that occur in nature. The majority of previous models do not have self-determining propagation rates. The author uses a transport approach to represent this complicated problem and produce a model that utilizes a self-determining propagation rate. The transport approach allows one to represent a large number of environments including transition regions such as those with nonhomogeneous vegetation and terrain. Some of the most difficult features to treat are the imperfectly known boundary conditions and the fine scale structure that is unresolvable, such as the specific location of the fuel or the precise incoming winds. The author accounts for the microscopic details of a fire with macroscopic resolution by dividing quantities into mean and fluctuating parts similar to what is done in traditional turbulence modelling. The author develops a complicated model that includes the transport of multiple gas species, such as oxygen and volatile hydrocarbons, and tracks the depletion of various fuels and other stationary solids and liquids. From this model the author also forms a simplified local burning model with which he performs a number of simulations for the purpose of demonstrating the properties of a self-determining transport-based wildfire model.

  19. Human Thermal Model Evaluation Using the JSC Human Thermal Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant; Makinen, Janice; Cognata, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Human thermal modeling has considerable long term utility to human space flight. Such models provide a tool to predict crew survivability in support of vehicle design and to evaluate crew response in untested space environments. It is to the benefit of any such model not only to collect relevant experimental data to correlate it against, but also to maintain an experimental standard or benchmark for future development in a readily and rapidly searchable and software accessible format. The Human thermal database project is intended to do just so; to collect relevant data from literature and experimentation and to store the data in a database structure for immediate and future use as a benchmark to judge human thermal models against, in identifying model strengths and weakness, to support model development and improve correlation, and to statistically quantify a model s predictive quality. The human thermal database developed at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is intended to evaluate a set of widely used human thermal models. This set includes the Wissler human thermal model, a model that has been widely used to predict the human thermoregulatory response to a variety of cold and hot environments. These models are statistically compared to the current database, which contains experiments of human subjects primarily in air from a literature survey ranging between 1953 and 2004 and from a suited experiment recently performed by the authors, for a quantitative study of relative strength and predictive quality of the models.

  20. Hydrologic predictions in a changing environment: behavioral modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Schaefli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Most hydrological models are valid at most only in a few places and cannot be reasonably transferred to other places or to far distant time periods. Transfer in space is difficult because the models are conditioned on past observations at particular places to define parameter values and unobservable processes that are needed to fully characterize the structure and functioning of the landscape. Transfer in time has to deal with the likely temporal changes to both parameters and processes under future changed conditions. This remains an important obstacle to addressing some of the most urgent prediction questions in hydrology, such as prediction in ungauged basins and prediction under global change. In this paper, we propose a new approach to catchment hydrological modeling, based on universal principles that do not change in time and that remain valid across many places. The key to this framework, which we call behavioral modeling, is to assume that these universal and time-invariant organizing principles can be used to identify the most appropriate model structure (including parameter values and responses for a given ecosystem at a given moment in time. The organizing principles may be derived from fundamental physical or biological laws, or from empirical laws that have been demonstrated to be time-invariant and to hold at many places and scales. Much fundamental research remains to be undertaken to help discover these organizing principles on the basis of exploration of observed patterns of landscape structure and hydrological behavior and their interpretation as legacy effects of past co-evolution of climate, soils, topography, vegetation and humans. Our hope is that the new behavioral modeling framework will be a step forward towards a new vision for hydrology where models are capable of more confidently predicting the behavior of catchments beyond what has been observed or experienced before.

  1. HESS Opinions: Hydrologic predictions in a changing environment: behavioral modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Schymanski

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Most hydrological models are valid at most only in a few places and cannot be reasonably transferred to other places or to far distant time periods. Transfer in space is difficult because the models are conditioned on past observations at particular places to define parameter values and unobservable processes that are needed to fully characterize the structure and functioning of the landscape. Transfer in time has to deal with the likely temporal changes to both parameters and processes under future changed conditions. This remains an important obstacle to addressing some of the most urgent prediction questions in hydrology, such as prediction in ungauged basins and prediction under global change. In this paper, we propose a new approach to catchment hydrological modeling, based on universal principles that do not change in time and that remain valid across many places. The key to this framework, which we call behavioral modeling, is to assume that there are universal and time-invariant organizing principles that can be used to identify the most appropriate model structure (including parameter values and responses for a given ecosystem at a given moment in time. These organizing principles may be derived from fundamental physical or biological laws, or from empirical laws that have been demonstrated to be time-invariant and to hold at many places and scales. Much fundamental research remains to be undertaken to help discover these organizing principles on the basis of exploration of observed patterns of landscape structure and hydrological behavior and their interpretation as legacy effects of past co-evolution of climate, soils, topography, vegetation and humans. Our hope is that the new behavioral modeling framework will be a step forward towards a new vision for hydrology where models are capable of more confidently predicting the behavior of catchments beyond what has been observed or experienced before.

  2. Intelligent systems approach for automated identification of individual control behavior of a human operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaychik, Kirill B.

    Acceptable results have been obtained using conventional techniques to model the generic human operator's control behavior. However, little research has been done in an attempt to identify an individual based on his/her control behavior. The main hypothesis investigated in this dissertation is that different operators exhibit different control behavior when performing a given control task. Furthermore, inter-person differences are manifested in the amplitude and frequency content of the non-linear component of the control behavior. Two enhancements to the existing models of the human operator, which allow personalization of the modeled control behavior, are presented in this dissertation. One of the proposed enhancements accounts for the "testing" control signals, which are introduced by an operator for more accurate control of the system and/or to adjust his/her control strategy. Such enhancement uses the Artificial Neural Network (ANN), which can be fine-tuned to model the "testing" control behavior of a given individual. The other model enhancement took the form of an equiripple filter (EF), which conditions the power spectrum of the control signal before it is passed through the plant dynamics block. The filter design technique uses Parks-McClellan algorithm, which allows parameterization of the desired levels of power at certain frequencies. A novel automated parameter identification technique (APID) was developed to facilitate the identification process of the parameters of the selected models of the human operator. APID utilizes a Genetic Algorithm (GA) based optimization engine called the Bit-climbing Algorithm (BCA). Proposed model enhancements were validated using the experimental data obtained at three different sources: the Manual Control Laboratory software experiments, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle simulation, and NASA Langley Research Center Visual Motion Simulator studies. Validation analysis involves comparison of the actual and simulated control

  3. A novel polar-based human face recognition computational model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zana

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by a recently proposed biologically inspired face recognition approach, we investigated the relation between human behavior and a computational model based on Fourier-Bessel (FB spatial patterns. We measured human recognition performance of FB filtered face images using an 8-alternative forced-choice method. Test stimuli were generated by converting the images from the spatial to the FB domain, filtering the resulting coefficients with a band-pass filter, and finally taking the inverse FB transformation of the filtered coefficients. The performance of the computational models was tested using a simulation of the psychophysical experiment. In the FB model, face images were first filtered by simulated V1- type neurons and later analyzed globally for their content of FB components. In general, there was a higher human contrast sensitivity to radially than to angularly filtered images, but both functions peaked at the 11.3-16 frequency interval. The FB-based model presented similar behavior with regard to peak position and relative sensitivity, but had a wider frequency band width and a narrower response range. The response pattern of two alternative models, based on local FB analysis and on raw luminance, strongly diverged from the human behavior patterns. These results suggest that human performance can be constrained by the type of information conveyed by polar patterns, and consequently that humans might use FB-like spatial patterns in face processing.

  4. Modeling Forces on the Human Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagonis, Vasilis; Drake, Russel; Morgan, Michael; Peters, Todd; Riddle, Chris; Rollins, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Presents five models of the human body as a mechanical system which can be used in introductory physics courses: human arms as levers, humans falling from small heights, a model of the human back, collisions during football, and the rotating gymnast. Gives ideas for discussions and activities, including Interactive Physics (TM) simulations. (WRM)

  5. An empirical behavioral model of price formation

    CERN Document Server

    Mike, S

    2005-01-01

    Although behavioral economics has demonstrated that there are many situations where rational choice is a poor empirical model, it has so far failed to provide quantitative models of economic problems such as price formation. We make a step in this direction by developing empirical models that capture behavioral regularities in trading order placement and cancellation using data from the London Stock Exchange. For order placement we show that the probability of placing an order at a given price is well approximated by a Student distribution with less than two degrees of freedom, centered on the best quoted price. This result is surprising because it implies that trading order placement is symmetric, independent of the bid-ask spread, and the same for buying and selling. We also develop a crude but simple cancellation model that depends on the position of an order relative to the best price and the imbalance between buying and selling orders in the limit order book. These results are combined to construct a sto...

  6. Attentional Resource Allocation and Cultural Modulation in a Computational Model of Ritualized Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielbo, Kristoffer Laigaard; Sørensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    ritualized behaviors are perceptually similar across a range of behavioral domains, symbolically mediated experience-dependent information (so-called cultural priors) modulate perception such that communal ceremonies appear coherent and culturally meaningful, while compulsive behaviors remain incoherent and......How do cultural and religious rituals influence human perception and cognition, and what separates the highly patterned behaviors of communal ceremonies from perceptually similar precautionary and compulsive behaviors? These are some of the questions that recent theoretical models and empirical......, in some cases, pathological. In this study, we extend a qualitative model of human action perception and understanding to include ritualized behavior. Based on previous experimental and computational studies, the model was simulated using instrumental and ritualized representations of realistic motor...

  7. Attentional Resource Allocation and Cultural Modulation in a Computational Model of Ritualized Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielbo, Kristoffer Laigaard; Sørensen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    ritualized behaviors are perceptually similar across a range of behavioral domains, symbolically mediated experience-dependent information (so-called cultural priors) modulate perception such that communal ceremonies appear coherent and culturally meaningful, while compulsive behaviors remain incoherent and......How do cultural and religious rituals influence human perception and cognition, and what separates the highly patterned behaviors of communal ceremonies from perceptually similar precautionary and compulsive behaviors? These are some of the questions that recent theoretical models and empirical......, in some cases, pathological. In this study, we extend a qualitative model of human action perception and understanding to include ritualized behavior. Based on previous experimental and computational studies, the model was simulated using instrumental and ritualized representations of realistic motor...

  8. Edwin Grant Dexter: an early researcher in human behavioral biometeorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alan E.

    2015-06-01

    Edwin Grant Dexter (1868-1938) was one of the first researchers to study empirically the effects of specific weather conditions on human behavior. Dexter (1904) published his findings in a book, Weather influences. The author's purposes in this article were to (1) describe briefly Dexter's professional life and examine the historical contexts and motivations that led Dexter to conduct some of the first empirical behavioral biometeorological studies of the time, (2) describe the methods Dexter used to examine weather-behavior relationships and briefly characterize the results that he reported in Weather influences, and (3) provide a historical analysis of Dexter's work and assess its significance for human behavioral biometeorology. Dexter's Weather influences, while demonstrating an exemplary approach to weather, health, and behavior relationships, came at the end of a long era of such studies, as health, social, and meteorological sciences were turning to different paradigms to advance their fields. For these reasons, Dexter's approach and contributions may not have been fully recognized at the time and are, consequently, worthy of consideration by contemporary biometeorologists.

  9. VOTERS DECIDE. CLASSICAL MODELS OF ELECTORAL BEHAVIOR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin SASU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The decision to vote and choosing among the candidates is a extremely important one with repercussions on everyday life by determining, in global mode, its quality for the whole society. Therefore the whole process by which the voter decide becomes a central concern. In this paper we intend to locate the determinants of the vote decision in the electoral behavior classical theoretical models developed over time. After doing synthesis of classical schools of thought on electoral behavior we conclude that it has been made a journey through the mind, soul and cheek, as follows: the mind as reason in theory developed by Downs, soul as preferably for an actor in Campbell's theory, etc. and cheek as an expression of the impossibility of detachment from social groups to which we belong in Lazarsfeld's theory.

  10. The Humanism of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and Other Cognitive Behavior Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Albert

    1996-01-01

    Describes aspects of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT). REBT shows how people can both create and uncreate many of their emotional disturbances. It is a theory of personality which avoids devotion to any kind of magic and supernaturalism and emphasizes unconditional self-acceptance, antiabsolutism, uncertainty, and human fallibility. (RJM)

  11. The Humanism of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and Other Cognitive Behavior Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Albert

    1996-01-01

    Describes aspects of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT). REBT shows how people can both create and uncreate many of their emotional disturbances. It is a theory of personality which avoids devotion to any kind of magic and supernaturalism and emphasizes unconditional self-acceptance, antiabsolutism, uncertainty, and human fallibility. (RJM)

  12. Chaos in human behavior: the case of work motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, José; Arrieta, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    This study considers the complex dynamics of work motivation. Forty-eight employees completed a work-motivation diary several times per day over a period of four weeks. The obtained time series were analysed using different methodologies derived from chaos theory (i.e. recurrence plots, Lyapunov exponents, correlation dimension and surrogate data). Results showed chaotic dynamics in 75% of cases. The findings confirm the universality of chaotic behavior within human behavior, challenge some of the underlying assumptions on which work motivation theories are based, and suggest that chaos theory may offer useful and relevant information on how this process is managed within organizations.

  13. Behavioral responses associated with a human-mediated predator shelter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Shannon

    Full Text Available Human activities in protected areas can affect wildlife populations in a similar manner to predation risk, causing increases in movement and vigilance, shifts in habitat use and changes in group size. Nevertheless, recent evidence indicates that in certain situations ungulate species may actually utilize areas associated with higher levels of human presence as a potential refuge from disturbance-sensitive predators. We now use four-years of behavioral activity budget data collected from pronghorn (Antilocapra americana and elk (Cervus elephus in Grand Teton National Park, USA to test whether predictable patterns of human presence can provide a shelter from predatory risk. Daily behavioral scans were conducted along two parallel sections of road that differed in traffic volume--with the main Teton Park Road experiencing vehicle use that was approximately thirty-fold greater than the River Road. At the busier Teton Park Road, both species of ungulate engaged in higher levels of feeding (27% increase in the proportion of pronghorn feeding and 21% increase for elk, lower levels of alert behavior (18% decrease for pronghorn and 9% decrease for elk and formed smaller groups. These responses are commonly associated with reduced predatory threat. Pronghorn also exhibited a 30% increase in the proportion of individuals moving at the River Road as would be expected under greater exposure to predation risk. Our findings concur with the 'predator shelter hypothesis', suggesting that ungulates in GTNP use human presence as a potential refuge from predation risk, adjusting their behavior accordingly. Human activity has the potential to alter predator-prey interactions and drive trophic-mediated effects that could ultimately impact ecosystem function and biodiversity.

  14. Delayed Random Walks: Modeling Human Posture Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Toru

    1998-03-01

    We consider a phenomenological description of a noisy trajectory which appears on a stabiliogram platform during human postural sway. We hypothesize that this trajectory arises due to a mixture of uncontrollable noise and a corrective delayed feedback to an upright position. Based on this hypothesis, we model the process with a biased random walk whose transition probability depends on its position at a fixed time delay in the past, which we call a delayed random walk. We first introduce a very simple model (T. Ohira and J. G. Milton, Phys.Rev.E. 52), 3277, (1995), which can nevertheless capture the rough qualitative features of the two--point mean square displacement of experimental data with reasonable estimation of delay time. Then, we discuss two approaches toward better capturing and understanding of the experimental data. The first approach is an extension of the model to include a spatial displacement threshold from the upright position below which no or only weak corrective feedback motion takes place. This can be incorporated into an extended delayed random walk model. Numerical simulations show that this extended model can better capture the three scaling region which appears in the two--point mean square displacement. The other approach studied the autocorrelation function of the experimental data, which shows oscillatory behavior. We recently investigated a delayed random walk model whose autocorrelation function has analytically tractable oscillatory behavior (T. Ohira, Phys.Rev.E. 55), R1255, (1997). We discuss how this analytical understanding and its application to delay estimation (T. Ohira and R. Sawatari, Phys.Rev.E. 55), R2077, (1997) could possibly be used to further understand the postural sway data.

  15. Cyberpsychology: a human-interaction perspective based on cognitive modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Bruno; West, Robert L

    2003-10-01

    This paper argues for the relevance of cognitive modeling and cognitive architectures to cyberpsychology. From a human-computer interaction point of view, cognitive modeling can have benefits both for theory and model building, and for the design and evaluation of sociotechnical systems usability. Cognitive modeling research applied to human-computer interaction has two complimentary objectives: (1) to develop theories and computational models of human interactive behavior with information and collaborative technologies, and (2) to use the computational models as building blocks for the design, implementation, and evaluation of interactive technologies. From the perspective of building theories and models, cognitive modeling offers the possibility to anchor cyberpsychology theories and models into cognitive architectures. From the perspective of the design and evaluation of socio-technical systems, cognitive models can provide the basis for simulated users, which can play an important role in usability testing. As an example of application of cognitive modeling to technology design, the paper presents a simulation of interactive behavior with five different adaptive menu algorithms: random, fixed, stacked, frequency based, and activation based. Results of the simulation indicate that fixed menu positions seem to offer the best support for classification like tasks such as filing e-mails. This research is part of the Human-Computer Interaction, and the Broadband Visual Communication research programs at the National Research Council of Canada, in collaboration with the Carleton Cognitive Modeling Lab at Carleton University.

  16. The quantitative modelling of human spatial habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, James A.

    1988-01-01

    A theoretical model for evaluating human spatial habitability (HuSH) in the proposed U.S. Space Station is developed. Optimizing the fitness of the space station environment for human occupancy will help reduce environmental stress due to long-term isolation and confinement in its small habitable volume. The development of tools that operationalize the behavioral bases of spatial volume for visual kinesthetic, and social logic considerations is suggested. This report further calls for systematic scientific investigations of how much real and how much perceived volume people need in order to function normally and with minimal stress in space-based settings. The theoretical model presented in this report can be applied to any size or shape interior, at any scale of consideration, for the Space Station as a whole to an individual enclosure or work station. Using as a point of departure the Isovist model developed by Dr. Michael Benedikt of the U. of Texas, the report suggests that spatial habitability can become as amenable to careful assessment as engineering and life support concerns.

  17. Modeling Human Behavior at a Large Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    whole, Jeffrey Bigham, Lenhart Schubert, Vincent Silenzio, and Daniel Štefankovič: thank you for your guid- ance. This research was partly funded by...community- based health reporting. PLoS medicine, 7(12):e1000376, 2010. N. Friedman, L. Getoor, D. Koller, and A. Pfeffer . Learning probabilistic relational...for systems evaluation. a survey, 2009. 171 Mor Naaman, Jeffrey Boase, and Chih-Hui Lai. Is it really about me?: message content in social awareness

  18. The animal and human neuroendocrinology of social cognition, motivation and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Cade; Singer, Tania

    2012-04-15

    Extensive animal and recent human research have helped inform neuroendocrinological models of social cognition, motivation and behavior. In this review, we first summarize important findings regarding oxytocin, arginine vasopressin and testosterone in the domains of affiliation, social cognition, aggression and stress/anxiety. We then suggest ways in which human research can continue to profit from animal research, particularly by exploring the interactive nature of neuromodulatory effects at neurochemical, organismic and contextual levels. We further propose methods inspired by the animal literature for the ecologically valid assessment of affiliative behavior in humans. We conclude with suggestions for how human research could advance by directly assessing specific social cognitive and motivational mechanisms as intermediate variables. We advocate a more comprehensive look at the distinct networks identified by social neuroscience and the importance of a motivational state, in addition to approach and avoidance, associated with quiescence and homeostatic regulation.

  19. Molecular Modeling of Solid Fluid Phase Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter A. Monson

    2007-12-20

    This report gives a summary of the achievements under DOE contract No. DOE/ER/14150 during the period September 1, 1990 to December 31, 2007. This project was concerned with the molecular modeling of solid-fluid equilibrium. The focus was on understanding how solid-fluid and solid-solid phase behavior are related to molecular structure, and the research program made a seminal contribution in this area. The project led to 34 journal articles, including a comprehensive review article published in Advances in Chemical Physics. The DOE funding supported the work of 5 Ph.D. students, 2 M.S. students and 5 postdoctoral researchers.

  20. Behavioral and Statistical Models of Educational Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Breen, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the question of how students and their families make educational decisions. We describe three types of behavioral model that might underlie decision-making, and we show that they have consequences for what decisions are made. Our study, thus, has policy implications if we...... wish to encourage students and their families to make better educational choices. We also establish the conditions under which empirical analysis can distinguish between the three sorts of decision-making, and we illustrate our arguments using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study....

  1. Modeling creep behavior of fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. L.; Sun, C. T.

    1988-01-01

    A micromechanical model for the creep behavior of fiber composites is developed based on a typical cell consisting of a fiber and the surrounding matrix. The fiber is assumed to be linearly elastic and the matrix nonlinearly viscous. The creep strain rate in the matrix is assumed to be a function of stress. The nominal stress-strain relations are derived in the form of differential equations which are solved numerically for off-axis specimens under uniaxial loading. A potential function and the associated effective stress and effective creep strain rates are introduced to simplify the orthotropic relations.

  2. Behavioral and Statistical Models of Educational Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Breen, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how students and their families make educational decisions. We describe three types of behavioral model that might underlie decision-making and we show that they have consequences for what decisions are made. Our study thus has policy implications if we wish...... to encourage students and their families to make better educational choices. We also establish the conditions under which empirical analysis can distinguish between the three sorts of decision-making and we illustrate our arguments using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study....

  3. Learning dynamics explains human behavior in Prisoner's Dilemma on networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cimini, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative behavior lies at the very basis of human societies, yet its evolutionary origin remains a key unsolved puzzle. Whereas reciprocity or conditional cooperation is one of the most prominent mechanisms proposed to explain the emergence of cooperation in social dilemmas, recent experimental findings on networked Prisoner's Dilemma games suggest that conditional cooperation also depends on the previous action of the player---namely on the `mood' in which the player currently is. Roughly, a majority of people behaves as conditional cooperators if they cooperated in the past, while they ignore the context and free-ride with high probability if they did not. However, the ultimate origin of this behavior represents a conundrum itself. Here we aim specifically at providing an evolutionary explanation of moody conditional cooperation. To this end, we perform an extensive analysis of different evolutionary dynamics for players' behavioral traits---ranging from standard processes used in game theory based on pa...

  4. Reassembling the Social Environment: A Network Approack to Human Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

    2007-01-01

    This paper critically examines the influence of the structural elements of human behavior that are often neglected in social work literature (Robbins et al., 1998). It incorporates a new multi-theoretical framework that critically examines the significance of a network approach in analyzing social, ideological, and economic structures and their influence on individual actors. This paper discusses two interrelated theories: social network theory and social capital theory, and critiques their r...

  5. Health, Human Capital, and Behavior Change: Essays in Development Microeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk, Angeli Elise

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation combines three empirical studies of household behaviors as they relate to investment in health and human capital in developing countries. The first explores how changes in children's nutrition in Uganda correspond to composition of a household's income. The second studies measurement activities in a cookstove intervention in Darfur, Sudan, with insights into what may be missed in traditional evaluation approaches as well as how technology adoption may benefit from an uninten...

  6. Modeling Driver Behavior near Intersections in Hidden Markov Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; He, Qinglian; Zhou, Hang; Guan, Yunlin; Dai, Wei

    2016-12-21

    Intersections are one of the major locations where safety is a big concern to drivers. Inappropriate driver behaviors in response to frequent changes when approaching intersections often lead to intersection-related crashes or collisions. Thus to better understand driver behaviors at intersections, especially in the dilemma zone, a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is utilized in this study. With the discrete data processing, the observed dynamic data of vehicles are used for the inference of the Hidden Markov Model. The Baum-Welch (B-W) estimation algorithm is applied to calculate the vehicle state transition probability matrix and the observation probability matrix. When combined with the Forward algorithm, the most likely state of the driver can be obtained. Thus the model can be used to measure the stability and risk of driver behavior. It is found that drivers' behaviors in the dilemma zone are of lower stability and higher risk compared with those in other regions around intersections. In addition to the B-W estimation algorithm, the Viterbi Algorithm is utilized to predict the potential dangers of vehicles. The results can be applied to driving assistance systems to warn drivers to avoid possible accidents.

  7. Human handling promotes compliant behavior in adult laboratory rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swennes, Alton G; Alworth, Leanne C; Harvey, Stephen B; Jones, Carolyn A; King, Christopher S; Crowell-Davis, Sharon L

    2011-01-01

    Routine laboratory procedures can be stressful for laboratory animals. We wanted to determine whether human handling of adult rabbits could induce a degree of habituation, reducing stress and facilitating research-related manipulation. To this end, adult New Zealand white rabbits were handled either frequently or minimally. After being handled over 3 wk, these rabbits were evaluated by novel personnel and compared with minimally handled controls. Evaluators subjectively scored the rabbits for their relative compliance or resistance to being scruffed and removed from their cages, being transported to a treatment room, and their behavior at all stages of the exercise. Upon evaluation, handled rabbits scored significantly more compliant than nontreated controls. During evaluation, behaviors that the rabbits displayed when they were approached in their cages and while being handled outside their cages were recorded and compared between study groups. Handled rabbits displayed behavior consistent with a reduction in human-directed fear. This study illustrates the potential for handling to improve compliance in laboratory procedures and reduce fear-related behavior in laboratory rabbits. Such handling could be used to improve rabbit welfare through the reduction of stress and exposure to novel stimuli.

  8. Modelling the scaling properties of human mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chaoming; Koren, Tal; Wang, Pu; Barabási, Albert-László

    2010-10-01

    Individual human trajectories are characterized by fat-tailed distributions of jump sizes and waiting times, suggesting the relevance of continuous-time random-walk (CTRW) models for human mobility. However, human traces are barely random. Given the importance of human mobility, from epidemic modelling to traffic prediction and urban planning, we need quantitative models that can account for the statistical characteristics of individual human trajectories. Here we use empirical data on human mobility, captured by mobile-phone traces, to show that the predictions of the CTRW models are in systematic conflict with the empirical results. We introduce two principles that govern human trajectories, allowing us to build a statistically self-consistent microscopic model for individual human mobility. The model accounts for the empirically observed scaling laws, but also allows us to analytically predict most of the pertinent scaling exponents.

  9. Training together: how another human's presence affects behavior during virtual human-based team training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Robb

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite research showing that team training can lead to strong improvements in team performance, logistical difficulties can prevent team training programs from being adopted on a large scale. A proposed solution to these difficulties is the use of virtual humans to replace missing teammates. Existing research evaluating the use of virtual humans for team training has been conducted in settings involving a single human trainee. However, in the real world multiple human trainees would most likely train together. In this paper, we explore how the presence of a second human trainee can alter behavior during a medical team training program. Ninety-two nurses and surgical technicians participated in a medical training exercise, where they worked with a virtual surgeon and virtual anesthesiologist to prepare a simulated patient for surgery. The agency of the nurse and the surgical technician were varied between three conditions: human nurses and surgical technicians working together; human nurses working with a virtual surgical technician; and human surgical technicians working with a virtual nurse. Variations in agency did not produce statistically significant differences in the training outcomes, but several notable differences were observed in other aspects of the team's behavior. Specifically, when working with a virtual nurse, human surgical technicians were more likely to assist with speaking up about patient safety issues that were outside of their normal responsibilities; human trainees spent less time searching for a missing item when working with a virtual partner, likely because the virtual partner was physically unable to move throughout the room and assist with the searching process; and more breaks in presence were observed when two human teammates were present. These results show that some behaviors may be influenced by the presence of multiple human trainees, though these behaviors may not impinge on core training goals. When

  10. Neuronal mechanisms and circuits underlying repetitive behaviors in mouse models of autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyopil; Lim, Chae-Seok; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2016-01-20

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by three central behavioral symptoms: impaired social interaction, impaired social communication, and restricted and repetitive behaviors. However, the symptoms are heterogeneous among patients and a number of ASD mouse models have been generated containing mutations that mimic the mutations found in human patients with ASD. Each mouse model was found to display a unique set of repetitive behaviors. In this review, we summarize the repetitive behaviors of the ASD mouse models and variations found in their neural mechanisms including molecular and electrophysiological features. We also propose potential neuronal mechanisms underlying these repetitive behaviors, focusing on the role of the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic circuits and brain regions associated with both social and repetitive behaviors. Further understanding of molecular and circuitry mechanisms of the repetitive behaviors associated with ASD is necessary to aid the development of effective treatments for these disorders.

  11. The human factor: behavioral and neural correlates of humanized perception in moral decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Majdandžić

    Full Text Available The extent to which people regard others as full-blown individuals with mental states ("humanization" seems crucial for their prosocial motivation towards them. Previous research has shown that decisions about moral dilemmas in which one person can be sacrificed to save multiple others do not consistently follow utilitarian principles. We hypothesized that this behavior can be explained by the potential victim's perceived humanness and an ensuing increase in vicarious emotions and emotional conflict during decision making. Using fMRI, we assessed neural activity underlying moral decisions that affected fictitious persons that had or had not been experimentally humanized. In implicit priming trials, participants either engaged in mentalizing about these persons (Humanized condition or not (Neutral condition. In subsequent moral dilemmas, participants had to decide about sacrificing these persons' lives in order to save the lives of numerous others. Humanized persons were sacrificed less often, and the activation pattern during decisions about them indicated increased negative affect, emotional conflict, vicarious emotions, and behavioral control (pgACC/mOFC, anterior insula/IFG, aMCC and precuneus/PCC. Besides, we found enhanced effective connectivity between aMCC and anterior insula, which suggests increased emotion regulation during decisions affecting humanized victims. These findings highlight the importance of others' perceived humanness for prosocial behavior - with aversive affect and other-related concern when imagining harming more "human-like" persons acting against purely utilitarian decisions.

  12. Dynamical Integration of Language and Behavior in a Recurrent Neural Network for Human-Robot Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Tatsuro; Murata, Shingo; Arie, Hiroaki; Ogata, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    To work cooperatively with humans by using language, robots must not only acquire a mapping between language and their behavior but also autonomously utilize the mapping in appropriate contexts of interactive tasks online. To this end, we propose a novel learning method linking language to robot behavior by means of a recurrent neural network. In this method, the network learns from correct examples of the imposed task that are given not as explicitly separated sets of language and behavior but as sequential data constructed from the actual temporal flow of the task. By doing this, the internal dynamics of the network models both language-behavior relationships and the temporal patterns of interaction. Here, "internal dynamics" refers to the time development of the system defined on the fixed-dimensional space of the internal states of the context layer. Thus, in the execution phase, by constantly representing where in the interaction context it is as its current state, the network autonomously switches between recognition and generation phases without any explicit signs and utilizes the acquired mapping in appropriate contexts. To evaluate our method, we conducted an experiment in which a robot generates appropriate behavior responding to a human's linguistic instruction. After learning, the network actually formed the attractor structure representing both language-behavior relationships and the task's temporal pattern in its internal dynamics. In the dynamics, language-behavior mapping was achieved by the branching structure. Repetition of human's instruction and robot's behavioral response was represented as the cyclic structure, and besides, waiting to a subsequent instruction was represented as the fixed-point attractor. Thanks to this structure, the robot was able to interact online with a human concerning the given task by autonomously switching phases.

  13. Dynamical Integration of Language and Behavior in a Recurrent Neural Network for Human--Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuro Yamada

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To work cooperatively with humans by using language, robots must not only acquire a mapping between language and their behavior but also autonomously utilize the mapping in appropriate contexts of interactive tasks online. To this end, we propose a novel learning method linking language to robot behavior by means of a recurrent neural network. In this method, the network learns from correct examples of the imposed task that are given not as explicitly separated sets of language and behavior but as sequential data constructed from the actual temporal flow of the task. By doing this, the internal dynamics of the network models both language--behavior relationships and the temporal patterns of interaction. Here, ``internal dynamics'' refers to the time development of the system defined on the fixed-dimensional space of the internal states of the context layer. Thus, in the execution phase, by constantly representing where in the interaction context it is as its current state, the network autonomously switches between recognition and generation phases without any explicit signs and utilizes the acquired mapping in appropriate contexts. To evaluate our method, we conducted an experiment in which a robot generates appropriate behavior responding to a human's linguistic instruction. After learning, the network actually formed the attractor structure representing both language--behavior relationships and the task's temporal pattern in its internal dynamics. In the dynamics, language--behavior mapping was achieved by the branching structure. Repetition of human's instruction and robot's behavioral response was represented as the cyclic structure, and besides, waiting to a subsequent instruction was represented as the fixed-point attractor. Thanks to this structure, the robot was able to interact online with a human concerning the given task by autonomously switching phases.

  14. Behavioral optimization models for multicriteria portfolio selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehlawat Mukesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, behavioral construct of suitability is used to develop a multicriteria decision making framework for portfolio selection. To achieve this purpose, we rely on multiple methodologies. Analytical hierarchy process technique is used to model the suitability considerations with a view to obtaining the suitability performance score in respect of each asset. A fuzzy multiple criteria decision making method is used to obtain the financial quality score of each asset based upon investor's rating on the financial criteria. Two optimization models are developed for optimal asset allocation considering simultaneously financial and suitability criteria. An empirical study is conducted on randomly selected assets from National Stock Exchange, Mumbai, India to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  15. User behavioral model in hypertext environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskvin, Oleksii M.; Sailarbek, Saltanat; Gromaszek, Konrad

    2015-12-01

    There is an important role of the users that are traversing Internet resources and their activities which, according to the practice, aren't usually considered by the Internet resource owners so to adjust and optimize hypertext structure. Optimal hypertext structure allows users to locate pages of interest, which are the goals of the informational search, in a faster way. Paper presents a model that conducts user auditory behavior analysis in order to figure out their goals in particular hypertext segment and allows finding out optimal routes for reaching those goals in terms of the routes length and informational value. Potential application of the proposed model is mostly the systems that evaluate hypertext networks and optimize their referential structure for faster information retrieval.

  16. Modeling Human Visual Perception for Target Detection in Military Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Human Visual Perception, Visual Attention, Eye Movements, Eye Tracking , Human Behavior Modeling, Target Detection, Visual Search, Semantic Relevance...pertaining my eye - tracking experiment, and also for understand- ing that I considered their eye-tracker to be mine, Tim Chung for the excellent...is through the target, and top-down processing is solely engaged through pre-specifying the target features. Eye - tracking data captured in previous

  17. Deriving Framework Usages Based on Behavioral Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenmyo, Teruyoshi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Saeki, Motoshi

    One of the critical issue in framework-based software development is a huge introduction cost caused by technical gap between developers and users of frameworks. This paper proposes a technique for deriving framework usages to implement a given requirements specification. By using the derived usages, the users can use the frameworks without understanding the framework in detail. Requirements specifications which describe definite behavioral requirements cannot be related to frameworks in as-is since the frameworks do not have definite control structure so that the users can customize them to suit given requirements specifications. To cope with this issue, a new technique based on satisfiability problems (SAT) is employed to derive the control structures of the framework model. In the proposed technique, requirements specifications and frameworks are modeled based on Labeled Transition Systems (LTSs) with branch conditions represented by predicates. Truth assignments of the branch conditions in the framework models are not given initially for representing the customizable control structure. The derivation of truth assignments of the branch conditions is regarded as the SAT by assuming relations between termination states of the requirements specification model and ones of the framework model. This derivation technique is incorporated into a technique we have proposed previously for relating actions of requirements specifications to ones of frameworks. Furthermore, this paper discuss a case study of typical use cases in e-commerce systems.

  18. Computational Modeling of Uncertainty Avoidance in Consumer Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozmand, O.; Ghasem-Aghaee, N.; Nematbakhsh, M.A.; Baraani, A.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Human purchasing behavior is affected by many influential factors. Culture at macro-level and personality at micro-level influence consumer purchasing behavior. People of different cultures tend to accept the values of their own group and consequently have different purchasing behavior. Also, people

  19. Computational Modeling of Uncertainty Avoidance in Consumer Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozmand, O.; Ghasem-Aghaee, N.; Nematbakhsh, M.A.; Baraani, A.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Human purchasing behavior is affected by many influential factors. Culture at macro-level and personality at micro-level influence consumer purchasing behavior. People of different cultures tend to accept the values of their own group and consequently have different purchasing behavior. Also, people

  20. Models of Pilot Behavior and Their Use to Evaluate the State of Pilot Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirgl, Miroslav; Jalovecky, Rudolf; Bradac, Zdenek

    2016-07-01

    This article discusses the possibilities of obtaining new information related to human behavior, namely the changes or progressive development of pilots' abilities during training. The main assumption is that a pilot's ability can be evaluated based on a corresponding behavioral model whose parameters are estimated using mathematical identification procedures. The mean values of the identified parameters are obtained via statistical methods. These parameters are then monitored and their changes evaluated. In this context, the paper introduces and examines relevant mathematical models of human (pilot) behavior, the pilot-aircraft interaction, and an example of the mathematical analysis.

  1. Discriminating Drivers through Human Factor and Behavioral Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Seok Oh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Since Greenwood and Woods' (1919 study in tendency of accident, many researchers have insisted that various human factors (sensation seeking, anger, anxiety are highly correlated with reckless driving and traffic accidents. Oh and Lee (2011 designed the Driving Behavior Determinants Questionnaire, a psychological tool to predict danger level of drivers and discriminate them into three groups (normal, unintentionally reckless, and intentionally reckless by their characteristics, attitude, and expected reckless behavior level. This tool's overall accuracy of discrimination was 70%. This study aimed to prove that the discrimination reflects the behavioral difference of drivers. Twenty-four young drivers were requested to react to the visual stimuli (tests for subjective speed sense, simple visual reaction time, and left turning at own risk. The results showed no differences in subjective speed sense among the driver groups, which means drivers' excessive speeding behaviors occur due to intention based on personality and attitude, not because of sensory disorders. In addition, there were no differences in simple reaction time among driver groups. However, the results of the ‘Left turning at drivers’ own risk task” revealed significant group differences. All reckless drivers showed a greater degree of dangerous left turning behaviors than the normal group did.

  2. Process mining for individualized behavior modeling using wireless tracking in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Llatas, Carlos; Benedi, José-Miguel; García-Gómez, Juan M; Traver, Vicente

    2013-11-11

    The analysis of human behavior patterns is increasingly used for several research fields. The individualized modeling of behavior using classical techniques requires too much time and resources to be effective. A possible solution would be the use of pattern recognition techniques to automatically infer models to allow experts to understand individual behavior. However, traditional pattern recognition algorithms infer models that are not readily understood by human experts. This limits the capacity to benefit from the inferred models. Process mining technologies can infer models as workflows, specifically designed to be understood by experts, enabling them to detect specific behavior patterns in users. In this paper, the eMotiva process mining algorithms are presented. These algorithms filter, infer and visualize workflows. The workflows are inferred from the samples produced by an indoor location system that stores the location of a resident in a nursing home. The visualization tool is able to compare and highlight behavior patterns in order to facilitate expert understanding of human behavior. This tool was tested with nine real users that were monitored for a 25-week period. The results achieved suggest that the behavior of users is continuously evolving and changing and that this change can be measured, allowing for behavioral change detection.

  3. A Model of Resurgence Based on Behavioral Momentum Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Shahan, Timothy A; Sweeney, Mary M.

    2011-01-01

    Resurgence is the reappearance of an extinguished behavior when an alternative behavior reinforced during extinction is subsequently placed on extinction. Resurgence is of particular interest because it may be a source of relapse to problem behavior following treatments involving alternative reinforcement. In this article we develop a quantitative model of resurgence based on the augmented model of extinction provided by behavioral momentum theory. The model suggests that alternative reinforc...

  4. Streamlined Modeling for Characterizing Spacecraft Anomalous Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klem, B.; Swann, D.

    2011-09-01

    Anomalous behavior of on-orbit spacecraft can often be detected using passive, remote sensors which measure electro-optical signatures that vary in time and spectral content. Analysts responsible for assessing spacecraft operational status and detecting detrimental anomalies using non-resolved imaging sensors are often presented with various sensing and identification issues. Modeling and measuring spacecraft self emission and reflected radiant intensity when the radiation patterns exhibit a time varying reflective glint superimposed on an underlying diffuse signal contribute to assessment of spacecraft behavior in two ways: (1) providing information on body component orientation and attitude; and, (2) detecting changes in surface material properties due to the space environment. Simple convex and cube-shaped spacecraft, designed to operate without protruding solar panel appendages, may require an enhanced level of preflight characterization to support interpretation of the various physical effects observed during on-orbit monitoring. This paper describes selected portions of the signature database generated using streamlined signature modeling and simulations of basic geometry shapes apparent to non-imaging sensors. With this database, summarization of key observable features for such shapes as spheres, cylinders, flat plates, cones, and cubes in specific spectral bands that include the visible, mid wave, and long wave infrared provide the analyst with input to the decision process algorithms contained in the overall sensing and identification architectures. The models typically utilize baseline materials such as Kapton, paints, aluminum surface end plates, and radiators, along with solar cell representations covering the cylindrical and side portions of the spacecraft. Multiple space and ground-based sensors are assumed to be located at key locations to describe the comprehensive multi-viewing aspect scenarios that can result in significant specular reflection

  5. Human Performance Modeling for Dynamic Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Laboratory; Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Laboratory; Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-08-01

    Part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Light Water Reac- tor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Charac- terization (RISMC) Pathway develops approaches to estimating and managing safety margins. RISMC simulations pair deterministic plant physics models with probabilistic risk models. As human interactions are an essential element of plant risk, it is necessary to integrate human actions into the RISMC risk framework. In this paper, we review simulation based and non simulation based human reliability analysis (HRA) methods. This paper summarizes the founda- tional information needed to develop a feasible approach to modeling human in- teractions in RISMC simulations.

  6. Human motion behavior while interacting with an industrial robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortot, Dino; Ding, Hao; Antonopolous, Alexandros; Bengler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Human workers and industrial robots both have specific strengths within industrial production. Advantageously they complement each other perfectly, which leads to the development of human-robot interaction (HRI) applications. Bringing humans and robots together in the same workspace may lead to potential collisions. The avoidance of such is a central safety requirement. It can be realized with sundry sensor systems, all of them decelerating the robot when the distance to the human decreases alarmingly and applying the emergency stop, when the distance becomes too small. As a consequence, the efficiency of the overall systems suffers, because the robot has high idle times. Optimized path planning algorithms have to be developed to avoid that. The following study investigates human motion behavior in the proximity of an industrial robot. Three different kinds of encounters between the two entities under three robot speed levels are prompted. A motion tracking system is used to capture the motions. Results show, that humans keep an average distance of about 0,5m to the robot, when the encounter occurs. Approximation of the workbenches is influenced by the robot in ten of 15 cases. Furthermore, an increase of participants' walking velocity with higher robot velocities is observed.

  7. Human adaptive behavior in common pool resource systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Brandt

    Full Text Available Overexploitation of common-pool resources, resulting from uncooperative harvest behavior, is a major problem in many social-ecological systems. Feedbacks between user behavior and resource productivity induce non-linear dynamics in the harvest and the resource stock that complicate the understanding and the prediction of the co-evolutionary system. With an adaptive model constrained by data from a behavioral economic experiment, we show that users' expectations of future pay-offs vary as a result of the previous harvest experience, the time-horizon, and the ability to communicate. In our model, harvest behavior is a trait that adjusts to continuously changing potential returns according to a trade-off between the users' current harvest and the discounted future productivity of the resource. Given a maximum discount factor, which quantifies the users' perception of future pay-offs, the temporal dynamics of harvest behavior and ecological resource can be predicted. Our results reveal a non-linear relation between the previous harvest and current discount rates, which is most sensitive around a reference harvest level. While higher than expected returns resulting from cooperative harvesting in the past increase the importance of future resource productivity and foster sustainability, harvests below the reference level lead to a downward spiral of increasing overexploitation and disappointing returns.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF 2D HUMAN BODY MODELING USING THINNING ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Srinivasan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the behavior and activities of people in Video surveillance has gained more applications in Computer vision. This paper proposes a new approach to model the human body in 2D view for the activity analysis using Thinning algorithm. The first step of this work is Background subtraction which is achieved by the frame differencing algorithm. Thinning algorithm has been used to find the skeleton of the human body. After thinning, the thirteen feature points like terminating points, intersecting points, shoulder, elbow, and knee points have been extracted. Here, this research work attempts to represent the body model in three different ways such as Stick figure model, Patch model and Rectangle body model. The activities of humans have been analyzed with the help of 2D model for the pre-defined poses from the monocular video data. Finally, the time consumption and efficiency of our proposed algorithm have been evaluated.

  9. A Model of Genetic Variation in Human Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Fowler, James H; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2008-01-01

    Social networks influence the evolution of cooperation and they exhibit strikingly systematic patterns across a wide range of human contexts. Both of these facts suggest that variation in the topological attributes of human social networks might have a genetic basis. While genetic variation accounts for a significant portion of the variation in many complex social behaviors, the heritability of egocentric social network attributes is unknown. Here we show that three of these attributes (in-degree, transitivity, and centrality) are heritable. We then develop a "mirror network" method to test extant network models and show that none accounts for observed genetic variation in human social networks. We propose an alternative "attract and introduce" model that generates significant heritability as well as other important network features, and we show that this model with two simple forms of heterogeneity is well suited to the modeling of real social networks in humans. These results suggest that natural selection ...

  10. Swarming behavior of simple model squirmers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thutupalli, Shashi; Seemann, Ralf; Herminghaus, Stephan, E-mail: shashi.thutupalli@ds.mpg.de, E-mail: stephan.herminghaus@ds.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, Bunsenstrasse 10, 37073 Goettingen (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    We have studied experimentally the collective behavior of self-propelling liquid droplets, which closely mimic the locomotion of some protozoal organisms, the so-called squirmers. For the sake of simplicity, we concentrate on quasi-two-dimensional (2D) settings, although our swimmers provide a fully 3D propulsion scheme. At an areal density of 0.46, we find strong polar correlation of the locomotion velocities of neighboring droplets, which decays over less than one droplet diameter. When the areal density is increased to 0.78, distinct peaks show up in the angular correlation function, which point to the formation of ordered rafts. This shows that pronounced textures, beyond what has been seen in simulations so far, may show up in crowds of simple model squirmers, despite the simplicity of their (purely physical) mutual interaction.

  11. Humanized in vivo Model for Autoimmune Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-07-1-0121 TITLE: Humanized in vivo Model for Autoimmune Diabetes PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Gerald T Nepom, M.D., Ph.D...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Humanized in vivo Model for Autoimmune Diabetes Sb. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-07-1-0121 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT...therapies. This research study entails using humanized mice manifesting type 1 diabetes (T1 D)-associated human HLA molecules to address the fate and

  12. A Financial Data Mining Model for Extracting Customer Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark K.Y. Mak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Facing the problem of variation and chaotic behavior of customers, the lack of sufficient information is a challenge to many business organizations. Human analysts lacking an understanding of the hidden patterns in business data, thus, can miss corporate business opportunities. In order to embrace all business opportunities, enhance the competitiveness, discovery of hidden knowledge, unexpected patterns and useful rules from large databases have provided a feasible solution for several decades. While there is a wide range of financial analysis products existing in the financial market, how to customize the investment portfolio for the customer is still a challenge to many financial institutions. This paper aims at developing an intelligent Financial Data Mining Model (FDMM for extracting customer behavior in the financial industry, so as to increase the availability of decision support data and hence increase customer satisfaction. The proposed financial model first clusters the customers into several sectors, and then finds the correlation among these sectors. It is noted that better customer segmentation can increase the ability to identify targeted customers, therefore extracting useful rules for specific clusters can provide an insight into customers' buying behavior and marketing implications. To validate the feasibility of the proposed model, a simple dataset is collected from a financial company in Hong Kong. The simulation experiments show that the proposed method not only can improve the workflow of a financial company, but also deepen understanding of investment behavior. Thus, a corporation is able to customize the most suitable products and services for customers on the basis of the rules extracted.

  13. Value-directed human behavior analysis from video using partially observable Markov decision processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoey, Jesse; Little, James J

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents a method for learning decision theoretic models of human behaviors from video data. Our system learns relationships between the movements of a person, the context in which they are acting, and a utility function. This learning makes explicit that the meaning of a behavior to an observer is contained in its relationship to actions and outcomes. An agent wishing to capitalize on these relationships must learn to distinguish the behaviors according to how they help the agent to maximize utility. The model we use is a partially observable Markov decision process, or POMDP. The video observations are integrated into the POMDP using a dynamic Bayesian network that creates spatial and temporal abstractions amenable to decision making at the high level. The parameters of the model are learned from training data using an a posteriori constrained optimization technique based on the expectation-maximization algorithm. The system automatically discovers classes of behaviors and determines which are important for choosing actions that optimize over the utility of possible outcomes. This type of learning obviates the need for labeled data from expert knowledge about which behaviors are significant and removes bias about what behaviors may be useful to recognize in a particular situation. We show results in three interactions: a single player imitation game, a gestural robotic control problem, and a card game played by two people.

  14. Intranasal administration of oxytocin increases human aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ne'eman, R; Perach-Barzilay, N; Fischer-Shofty, M; Atias, A; Shamay-Tsoory, S G

    2016-04-01

    Considering its role in prosocial behaviors, oxytocin (OT) has been suggested to diminish levels of aggression. Nevertheless, recent findings indicate that oxytocin may have a broader influence on increasing the salience of social stimuli and may therefore, under certain circumstances, increase antisocial behaviors such as aggression. This controversy led to the following speculations: If indeed oxytocin promotes primarily prosocial behavior, administration of OT is expected to diminish levels of aggression. However, if oxytocin mainly acts to increase the salience of social stimuli, it is expected to elevate levels of aggression following provocation. In order to test this assumption we used the Social Orientation Paradigm (SOP), a monetary game played against a fictitious partner that allows measuring three types of responses in the context of provocation: an aggressive response - reducing a point from the fictitious partner, an individualistic response - adding a point to oneself, and a collaborative response - adding half a point to the partner and half a point to oneself. In the current double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject study design, 45 participants completed the SOP task following the administration of oxytocin or placebo. The results indicated that among subjects naïve to the procedure oxytocin increased aggressive responses in comparison with placebo. These results support the saliency hypothesis of oxytocin and suggest that oxytocin plays a complex role in the modulation of human behavior.

  15. Rheology of human blood plasma: Viscoelastic versus Newtonian behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Brust, M; Pan, L; Garcia, M; Arratia, P E; Wagner, C; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.078305

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the rheological characteristics of human blood plasma in shear and elongational flows. While we can confirm a Newtonian behavior in shear flow within experimental resolution, we find a viscoelastic behavior of blood plasma in the pure extensional flow of a capillary break-up rheometer. The influence of the viscoelasticity of blood plasma on capillary blood flow is tested in a microfluidic device with a contraction-expansion geometry. Differential pressure measurements revealed that the plasma has a pronounced flow resistance compared to that of pure water. Supplementary measurements indicate that the viscoelasticity of the plasma might even lead to viscoelastic instabilities under certain conditions. Our findings show that the viscoelastic properties of plasma should not be ignored in future studies on blood flow.

  16. Endocrinology of human female sexuality, mating, and reproductive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta-Mena, Natalie V; Puts, David A

    2016-11-17

    Hormones orchestrate and coordinate human female sexual development, sexuality, and reproduction in relation to three types of phenotypic changes: life history transitions such as puberty and childbirth, responses to contextual factors such as caloric intake and stress, and cyclical patterns such as the ovulatory cycle. Here, we review the endocrinology underlying women's reproductive phenotypes, including sexual orientation and gender identity, mate preferences, competition for mates, sex drive, and maternal behavior. We highlight distinctive aspects of women's sexuality such as the possession of sexual ornaments, relatively cryptic fertile windows, extended sexual behavior across the ovulatory cycle, and a period of midlife reproductive senescence-and we focus on how hormonal mechanisms were shaped by selection to produce adaptive outcomes. We conclude with suggestions for future research to elucidate how hormonal mechanisms subserve women's reproductive phenotypes.

  17. Human behavior research and the design of sustainable transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James J.

    2011-09-01

    Transport currently represents approximately 19% of the global energy demand and accounts for about 23% of the global carbon dioxide emissions (IEA 2009). As the demand for mobility is expected to continue to increase in the coming decades, the stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels will require the evolution of transport, along with power generation, building design and manufacturing. The continued development of these sectors will need to include changes in energy sources, energy delivery, materials, infrastructure and human behavior. Pathways to reducing carbon from the transport sector have unique challenges and opportunities that are inherent to the human choices and behavioral patterns that mold the transportation systems and the associated energy needs. Technology, government investment, and regulatory policies have a significant impact on the formulation of transportation infrastructure; however, the role of human behavior and public acceptance on the efficiency and effectiveness of transport systems should not be underestimated. Although developed, rapidly developing, and underdeveloped nations face different challenges in the establishment of transport infrastructure that can meet transport needs while achieving sustainable carbon dioxide emissions, the constraints that establish the domain of possibilities are closely related for all nations. These constraints include capital investment, fuel supplies, power systems, and human behavior. Throughout the world, there are considerable efforts directed at advancing and optimizing the financing of sustainable infrastructures, the production of low carbon fuels, and the production of advanced power systems, but the foundational work on methods to understand human preferences and behavior within the context of transport and the valuation of reductions in carbon dioxide emissions is greatly lagging behind. These methods and the associated understanding of human behavior and the willingness to pay for

  18. Understanding the behavior of floodplains as human-water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Baldassarre, G.; Brandimarte, L.

    2012-12-01

    Floodplains are among the most valuable ecosystems for supporting biodiversity and providing services to the environment. Moreover, they are home of approximately one-sixth of the world population as they offer favorable conditions for economic development. As a result, flood disasters currently affect more than 100 million people a year. Sadly, flood losses and fatalities are expected to increase further in many countries because of population growth as well as changes in land use and climate. Given the relevance of floodplain systems, a number of social scientists have examined how the frequency and severity of flooding often determine whether human development in floodplains is desirable or not. Meanwhile, many earth scientists have investigated the impact of human activities (e.g. land-use changes, urbanization, river training) on the frequency and magnitude of floods. In fact, as human activities change the frequency of flooding, the frequency of flooding affects human developments in floodplain areas. Yet, these dynamic interactions between floods and societies and the associated feedback mechanisms remain largely unexplored and poorly understood. As a result, we typically consider humans as external forcing (or boundary condition) without representing the feedback loops and our prediction of future trajectories are therefore extremely limited. This presentation shows a first attempt to understand the behavior of floodplains as coupled human-water systems. In particular, we analyzed a number of long time series of hydrological and population data in the Po River Basin (Italy) to explore the feedback mechanisms, reciprocal effects, surprises, and threshold mechanisms, taking place in floodplain systems. The outcomes of the study enable a better understanding of how the occurrences of floods shape human developments while, at the same time, human activities shape the magnitude and frequency of floods. The presentation also discusses the opportunities offered by

  19. Transtheoretical Model of Health Behavior Change Applied to Voice Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Studies of patient adherence to health behavior programs, such as physical exercise, smoking cessation, and diet, have resulted in the formulation and validation of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of behavior change. Although widely accepted as a guide for the development of health behavior interventions, this model has not been applied to vocal rehabilitation. Because resolution of vocal difficulties frequently depends on a patient’s ability to make changes in vocal and health behaviors, th...

  20. Collective Decision Dynamics in Group Evacuation: Modeling Tradeoffs and Optimal Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Schlesinger, Kimberly J; Ali, Imtiaz; Carlson, Jean M

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying uncertainties in collective human behavior and decision making is crucial for ensuring public health and safety, enabling effective disaster response, informing the design of transportation and communication networks, and guiding the development of new technologies. However, modeling and predicting such behavior is notoriously difficult, due to the influence of a variety of complex factors such as the availability and uncertainty of information, the interaction and influence of social groups and networks, the degree of risk or time pressure involved in a situation, and differences in individual personalities and preferences. Here, we develop a stochastic model of human decision making to describe the empirical behavior of subjects in a controlled experiment simulating a natural disaster scenario. We compare the observed behavior to that of statistically optimal Bayesian decision makers, quantifying the extent to which human decisions are optimal and identifying the conditions in which sub-optimal ...

  1. Neuronal mechanisms and circuits underlying repetitive behaviors in mouse models of autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyopil; Lim, Chae-Seok; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by three central behavioral symptoms: impaired social interaction, impaired social communication, and restricted and repetitive behaviors. However, the symptoms are heterogeneous among patients and a number of ASD mouse models have been generated containing mutations that mimic the mutations found in human patients with ASD. Each mouse model was found to display a unique set of repetitive b...

  2. Human Behavior & Low Energy Architecture: Linking Environmental Adaptation, Personal Comfort, & Energy Use in the Built Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Jared

    Truly sustainable buildings serve to enrich the daily sensory experience of their human inhabitants while consuming the least amount of energy possible; yet, building occupants and their environmentally adaptive behaviors remain a poorly characterized variable in even the most "green" building design and operation approaches. This deficiency has been linked to gaps between predicted and actual energy use, as well as to eventual problems with occupant discomfort, productivity losses, and health issues. Going forward, better tools are needed for considering the human-building interaction as a key part of energy efficiency strategies that promote good Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) in buildings. This dissertation presents the development and implementation of a Human and Building Interaction Toolkit (HABIT), a framework for the integrated simulation of office occupants' thermally adaptive behaviors, IEQ, and building energy use as part of sustainable building design and operation. Development of HABIT begins with an effort to devise more reliable methods for predicting individual occupants' thermal comfort, considered the driving force behind the behaviors of focus for this project. A long-term field study of thermal comfort and behavior is then presented, and the data it generates are used to develop and validate an agent-based behavior simulation model. Key aspects of the agent-based behavior model are described, and its predictive abilities are shown to compare favorably to those of multiple other behavior modeling options. Finally, the agent-based behavior model is linked with whole building energy simulation in EnergyPlus, forming the full HABIT program. The program is used to evaluate the energy and IEQ impacts of several occupant behavior scenarios in the simulation of a case study office building for the Philadelphia climate. Results indicate that more efficient local heating/cooling options may be paired with wider set point ranges to yield up to 24

  3. Effect of cholesterol and triglycerides levels on the rheological behavior of human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Leonardo; Calderas, Fausto; Sanchez-Olivares, Guadalupe; Medina-Torres, Luis; Sanchez-Solis, Antonio; Manero, Octavio

    2015-02-01

    Important public health problems worldwide such as obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and coronary diseases are quite common. These problems arise from numerous factors, such as hyper-caloric diets, sedentary habits and other epigenetic factors. With respect to Mexico, the population reference values of total cholesterol in plasma are around 200 mg/dL. However, a large proportion has higher levels than this reference value. In this work, we analyze the rheological properties of human blood obtained from 20 donors, as a function of cholesterol and triglyceride levels, upon a protocol previously approved by the health authorities. Samples with high and low cholesterol and triglyceride levels were selected and analyzed by simple-continuous and linear-oscillatory shear flow. Rheometric properties were measured and related to the structure and composition of human blood. In addition, rheometric data were modeled by using several constitutive equations: Bautista-Manero-Puig (BMP) and the multimodal Maxwell equations to predict the flow behavior of human blood. Finally, a comparison was made among various models, namely, the BMP, Carreau and Quemada equations for simple shear rate flow. An important relationship was found between cholesterol, triglycerides and the structure of human blood. Results show that blood with high cholesterol levels (400 mg/dL) has flow properties fully different (higher viscosity and a more pseudo-plastic behavior) than blood with lower levels of cholesterol (tendency to Newtonian behavior or viscosity plateau at low shear rates).

  4. Model-free execution monitoring in behavior-based robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Ola; Karlsson, Lars; Saffiotti, Alessandro

    2007-08-01

    In the near future, autonomous mobile robots are expected to help humans by performing service tasks in many different areas, including personal assistance, transportation, cleaning, mining, or agriculture. In order to manage these tasks in a changing and partially unpredictable environment without the aid of humans, the robot must have the ability to plan its actions and to execute them robustly and safely. The robot must also have the ability to detect when the execution does not proceed as planned and to correctly identify the causes of the failure. An execution monitoring system allows the robot to detect and classify these failures. Most current approaches to execution monitoring in robotics are based on the idea of predicting the outcomes of the robot's actions by using some sort of predictive model and comparing the predicted outcomes with the observed ones. In contrary, this paper explores the use of model-free approaches to execution monitoring, that is, approaches that do not use predictive models. In this paper, we show that pattern recognition techniques can be applied to realize model-free execution monitoring by classifying observed behavioral patterns into normal or faulty execution. We investigate the use of several such techniques and verify their utility in a number of experiments involving the navigation of a mobile robot in indoor environments.

  5. Assessment of Human Bio-Behavior During Gait Process Using LifeMOD Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Rogozea

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a set of observations concerning the
    analysis and assessment of human bio-behavior during gait process. In the first part of the paper the fundamental and theoretical considerations of the gait process are approached and aspects connected to malfunctions are expressed. In the second part of the paper we present the modeling methodology using
    the LifeMOD software, while in the third part the results and conclusions are presented.

  6. Human mammary microenvironment better regulates the biology of human breast cancer in humanized mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ming-Jie; Wang, Jue; Xu, Lu; Zha, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Yi; Ling, Li-Jun; Wang, Shui

    2015-02-01

    During the past decades, many efforts have been made in mimicking the clinical progress of human cancer in mouse models. Previously, we developed a human breast tissue-derived (HB) mouse model. Theoretically, it may mimic the interactions between "species-specific" mammary microenvironment of human origin and human breast cancer cells. However, detailed evidences are absent. The present study (in vivo, cellular, and molecular experiments) was designed to explore the regulatory role of human mammary microenvironment in the progress of human breast cancer cells. Subcutaneous (SUB), mammary fat pad (MFP), and HB mouse models were developed for in vivo comparisons. Then, the orthotopic tumor masses from three different mouse models were collected for primary culture. Finally, the biology of primary cultured human breast cancer cells was compared by cellular and molecular experiments. Results of in vivo mouse models indicated that human breast cancer cells grew better in human mammary microenvironment. Cellular and molecular experiments confirmed that primary cultured human breast cancer cells from HB mouse model showed a better proliferative and anti-apoptotic biology than those from SUB to MFP mouse models. Meanwhile, primary cultured human breast cancer cells from HB mouse model also obtained the migratory and invasive biology for "species-specific" tissue metastasis to human tissues. Comprehensive analyses suggest that "species-specific" mammary microenvironment of human origin better regulates the biology of human breast cancer cells in our humanized mouse model of breast cancer, which is more consistent with the clinical progress of human breast cancer.

  7. The pain of pain: challenges of animal behavior models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, James E

    2015-04-15

    Berend Olivier has had a long-standing interest in the utility of animal models for a wide variety of therapeutic indications. His work has spanned multiple types of models, blending ethological, or species typical and naturalistic behaviors, along with methodologies based on learned behavior. He has consistently done so, from an analytical as well as predictive perspective, and has made multiple contributions while working in both the pharmaceutical industry and within an academic institution. Although focused primarily on psychiatric disorders, Berend has conducted research in the area of pain in humans and in animals, demonstrating an expansive appreciation for the breadth, scope and significance of the science and applications of the discipline of pharmacology to these diverse areas. This review focuses on the use of animal models in pain research from the perspective of the long-standing deficiencies in the development of therapeutics in this area and from a preclinical perspective where the translational weaknesses have been quite problematic. The challenges confronting animal models of pain, however, are not unique to this area of research, as they cut across several therapeutic areas. Despite the deficiencies, failures and concerns, existing animal models of pain continue to be of widespread use and are essential to progress in pain research as well as in other areas. Although not focusing on specific animal models of pain, this paper seeks to examine general issues facing the use of these models. It does so by exploring alternative approaches which capture recent developments, which build upon principles and concepts we have learned from Berend's contributions, and which provide the prospect of helping to address the absence of novel therapeutics in this area.

  8. A computational model that predicts behavioral sensitivity to intracortical microstimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungshin; Callier, Thierri; Bensmaia, Sliman J.

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) is a powerful tool to investigate the neural mechanisms of perception and can be used to restore sensation for patients who have lost it. While sensitivity to ICMS has previously been characterized, no systematic framework has been developed to summarize the detectability of individual ICMS pulse trains or the discriminability of pairs of pulse trains. Approach. We develop a simple simulation that describes the responses of a population of neurons to a train of electrical pulses delivered through a microelectrode. We then perform an ideal observer analysis on the simulated population responses to predict the behavioral performance of non-human primates in ICMS detection and discrimination tasks. Main results. Our computational model can predict behavioral performance across a wide range of stimulation conditions with high accuracy (R 2 = 0.97) and generalizes to novel ICMS pulse trains that were not used to fit its parameters. Furthermore, the model provides a theoretical basis for the finding that amplitude discrimination based on ICMS violates Weber’s law. Significance. The model can be used to characterize the sensitivity to ICMS across the range of perceptible and safe stimulation regimes. As such, it will be a useful tool for both neuroscience and neuroprosthetics.

  9. Health behavior models for informing digital technology interventions for individuals with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslund, John A; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Kim, Sunny Jung; McHugo, Gregory J; Unützer, Jürgen; Bartels, Stephen J; Marsch, Lisa A

    2017-09-01

    Theoretical models offer valuable insights for designing effective and sustainable behavioral health interventions, yet the application of theory for informing digital technology interventions for people with mental illness has received limited attention. We offer a perspective on the importance of applying behavior theories and models to developing digital technology interventions for addressing mental and physical health concerns among people with mental illness. In this commentary, we summarize prominent theories of human behavior, highlight key theoretical constructs, and identify opportunities to inform digital health interventions for people with mental illness. We consider limitations with existing theories and models, and examine recent theoretical advances that can specifically guide development of digital technology interventions. Established behavioral frameworks including health belief model, theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, and social cognitive theory consist of important and overlapping constructs that can inform digital health interventions for people with mental illness. As digital technologies continue to evolve and enable longitudinal data collection, real-time behavior monitoring, and adaptive features tailored to users' changing needs over time, there are new opportunities to broaden our understanding of health behaviors and mechanisms of behavior change. Recent advances include dynamic models of behavior, persuasive system design, the behavioral intervention technology model, and behavioral models for just-in-time adaptive interventions. Behavior theories offer advantages for guiding use of digital technologies. Future researchers must explore how theoretical models can effectively advance efforts to develop, evaluate, and disseminate digital health interventions targeting individuals with mental illness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Computer simulation modeling of abnormal behavior: a program approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, K D; Freese, M R; Rowe, P B

    1984-07-01

    A need for modeling abnormal behavior on a comprehensive, systematic basis exists. Computer modeling and simulation tools offer especially good opportunities to establish such a program of studies. Issues concern deciding which modeling tools to use, how to relate models to behavioral data, what level of modeling to employ, and how to articulate theory to facilitate such modeling. Four levels or types of modeling, two qualitative and two quantitative, are identified. Their properties are examined and interrelated to include illustrative applications to the study of abnormal behavior, with an emphasis on schizophrenia.

  11. Cognitive-Operative Model of Intelligent Learning Systems Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureano-Cruces, Ana Lilia; Ramirez-Rodriguez, Javier; Mora-Torres, Martha; de Arriaga, Fernando; Escarela-Perez, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    In this paper behavior during the teaching-learning process is modeled by means of a fuzzy cognitive map. The elements used to model such behavior are part of a generic didactic model, which emphasizes the use of cognitive and operative strategies as part of the student-tutor interaction. Examples of possible initial scenarios for the…

  12. Scanpath Based N-Gram Models for Predicting Reading Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishra, Abhijit; Bhattacharyya, Pushpak; Carl, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Predicting reading behavior is a difficult task. Reading behavior depends on various linguistic factors (e.g. sentence length, structural complexity etc.) and other factors (e.g individual's reading style, age etc.). Ideally, a reading model should be similar to a language model where the model i...

  13. Cognitive-Operative Model of Intelligent Learning Systems Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureano-Cruces, Ana Lilia; Ramirez-Rodriguez, Javier; Mora-Torres, Martha; de Arriaga, Fernando; Escarela-Perez, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    In this paper behavior during the teaching-learning process is modeled by means of a fuzzy cognitive map. The elements used to model such behavior are part of a generic didactic model, which emphasizes the use of cognitive and operative strategies as part of the student-tutor interaction. Examples of possible initial scenarios for the…

  14. The Scent of Blood: A Driver of Human Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, James K; Dietrich, Daniel R; Elbert, Thomas; Pause, Bettina M; Kübler, Lisa; Weierstall, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The scent of blood is potentially one of the most fundamental and survival-relevant olfactory cues in humans. This experiment tests the first human parameters of perceptual threshold and emotional ratings in men and women of an artificially simulated smell of fresh blood in contact with the skin. We hypothesize that this scent of blood, with its association with injury, danger, death, and nutrition will be a critical cue activating fundamental motivational systems relating to either predatory approach behavior or prey-like withdrawal behavior, or both. The results show that perceptual thresholds are unimodally distributed for both sexes, with women being more sensitive. Furthermore, both women and men's emotional responses to simulated blood scent divide strongly into positive and negative valence ratings, with negative ratings in women having a strong arousal component. For women, this split is related to the phase of their menstrual cycle and oral contraception (OC). Future research will investigate whether this split in both genders is context-dependent or trait-like.

  15. Understanding and Predicting Human Behavior for Social Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, Jose; Magedanz, Thomas

    Over the last years, with the rapid advance in technology, it is becoming increasingly feasible for people to take advantage of the devices and services in the surrounding environment to remain "connected" and continuously enjoy the activity they are engaged in, be it sports, entertainment, or work. Such a ubiquitous computing environment will allow everyone permanent access to the Internet anytime, anywhere and anyhow [1]. Nevertheless, despite the evolution of services, social aspects remain in the roots of every human behavior and activities. Great examples of such phenomena are online social networks, which engage users in a way never seen before in the online world. At the same time, being aware and communicating context is a key part of human interaction and is a particularly powerful concept when applied to a community of users where services can be made more personalized and useful. Altogether, harvesting context to reason and learn about user behavior will further enhance the future multimedia vision where services can be composed and customized according to user context. Moreover, it will help us to understand users in a better way.

  16. Thermomechanical behavior of human carotid arteries in the passive state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinea, G V; Atienza, J M; Elices, M; Aragoncillo, P; Hayashi, K

    2005-06-01

    Localized heating or cooling is expanding the clinical procedures used to treat cardiovascular diseases. Advantageous implementation and development of these methods are linked indissolubly to a deeper understanding of the arterial response to combined mechanical and thermal loads. Despite this, the basic thermomechanical behavior of human blood vessels still remains largely unknown, primarily due to the lack of appropriate experimental data. In this work, the influence of temperature on the passive behavior of human carotid arteries was studied in vitro by means of inflation tests. Eleven carotid segments were tested in the range 0-200 mmHg at four different temperatures of 17, 27, 37, and 42 degrees C. The results show that the combined change of temperature and stress has a dramatic effect on the dilatation coefficient of the arterial wall, which is shifted from negative to positive depending on the stress state, whereas the structural stiffness of the arterial wall does not change appreciably in the range of temperatures tested.

  17. Social Media Research, Human Behavior, and Sustainable Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A bibliometric analysis was conducted to review social media research from different perspectives during the period of 2008–2014 based on the Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index database. Using a collection of 10,042 articles related to social media, the bibliometric analysis revealed some interesting patterns and trend of the scientific outputs, major journals, subject categories, spatial distribution, international collaboration, and temporal evolution in keywords usage in social media studies. The research on social media has been characterized by rapid growth and dynamic collaboration, with a rising number of publications and citation. Communication, Sociology, Public, Environment & Occupational Health, Business, and Multidisciplinary Psychology were the five most common categories. Computers in Human Behavior was the journal with the most social media publications, and Computers & Education ranked first according to the average citations. The two most productive countries were the U.S. and UK, delivering about half of the publications. The proportion of China’s internationally collaborative publications was the highest. The University of Wisconsin, the University of Michigan, and Harvard University were three most productive institutions. Several keywords, such as “Facebook”, “Twitter”, “communication”, “Social Networking Sites”, “China”, “climate change”, “big data” and “social support” increasingly gained the popularity during the study period, indicating the research trends on human behavior and sustainability.

  18. Integrated Human Futures Modeling in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aamir, Munaf Syed [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bernard, Michael Lewis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beyeler, Walter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fellner, Karen Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hayden, Nancy Kay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jeffers, Robert Fredric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silver, Emily [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Villa, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vugrin, Eric D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engelke, Peter [Atlantic Council, Washington, D.C. (United States); Burrow, Mat [Atlantic Council, Washington, D.C. (United States); Keith, Bruce [United States Military Academy, West Point, NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Human Futures Project provides a set of analytical and quantitative modeling and simulation tools that help explore the links among human social, economic, and ecological conditions, human resilience, conflict, and peace, and allows users to simulate tradeoffs and consequences associated with different future development and mitigation scenarios. In the current study, we integrate five distinct modeling platforms to simulate the potential risk of social unrest in Egypt resulting from the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile in Ethiopia. The five platforms simulate hydrology, agriculture, economy, human ecology, and human psychology/behavior, and show how impacts derived from development initiatives in one sector (e.g., hydrology) might ripple through to affect other sectors and how development and security concerns may be triggered across the region. This approach evaluates potential consequences, intended and unintended, associated with strategic policy actions that span the development-security nexus at the national, regional, and international levels. Model results are not intended to provide explicit predictions, but rather to provide system-level insight for policy makers into the dynamics among these interacting sectors, and to demonstrate an approach to evaluating short- and long-term policy trade-offs across different policy domains and stakeholders. The GERD project is critical to government-planned development efforts in Ethiopia but is expected to reduce downstream freshwater availability in the Nile Basin, fueling fears of negative social and economic impacts that could threaten stability and security in Egypt. We tested these hypotheses and came to the following preliminary conclusions. First, the GERD will have an important short-term impact on water availability, food production, and hydropower production in Egypt, depending on the short- term reservoir fill rate. Second, the GERD will have a very small impact on

  19. Genetically Modified Pig Models for Human Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nana Fan; Liangxue Lai

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified animal models are important for understanding the pathogenesis of human disease and developing therapeutic strategies.Although genetically modified mice have been widely used to model human diseases,some of these mouse models do not replicate important disease symptoms or pathology.Pigs are more similar to humans than mice in anatomy,physiology,and genome.Thus,pigs are considered to be better animal models to mimic some human diseases.This review describes genetically modified pigs that have been used to model various diseases including neurological,cardiovascular,and diabetic disorders.We also discuss the development in gene modification technology that can facilitate the generation of transgenic pig models for human diseases.

  20. Modelling human decision-making in coupled human and natural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feola, G.

    2012-12-01

    A solid understanding of human decision-making is essential to analyze the complexity of coupled human and natural systems (CHANS) and inform policies to promote resilience in the face of environmental change. Human decisions drive and/or mediate the interactions and feedbacks, and contribute to the heterogeneity and non-linearity that characterize CHANS. However, human decision-making is usually over-simplistically modeled, whereby human agents are represented deterministically either as dumb or clairvoyant decision-makers. Decision-making models fall short in the integration of both environmental and human behavioral drivers, and concerning the latter, tend to focus on only one category, e.g. economic, cultural, or psychological. Furthermore, these models render a linear decision-making process and therefore fail to account for the recursive co-evolutionary dynamics in CHANS. As a result, these models constitute only a weak basis for policy-making. There is therefore scope and an urgent need for better approaches to human decision-making, to produce the knowledge that can inform vulnerability reduction policies in the face of environmental change. This presentation synthesizes the current state-of-the-art of modelling human decision-making in CHANS, with particular reference to agricultural systems, and delineates how the above mentioned shortcomings can be overcome. Through examples from research on pesticide use and adaptation to climate change, both based on the integrative agent-centered framework (Feola and Binder, 2010), the approach for an improved understanding of human agents in CHANS are illustrated. This entails: integrative approach, focus on behavioral dynamics more than states, feedbacks between individual and system levels, and openness to heterogeneity.

  1. EXTRACTING HUMAN BEHAVIORAL PATTERNS BY MINING GEO-SOCIAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Forghani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility of positioning technologies such as GPS offer the opportunity to store one’s travel experience and publish it on the web. Using this feature in web-based social networks and considering location information shared by users as a bridge connecting the users’ network to location information layer leads to the formation of Geo-Social Networks. The availability of large amounts of geographical and social data on these networks provides rich sources of information that can be utilized for studying human behavior through data analysis in a spatial-temporal-social context. This paper attempts to investigate the behavior of around 1150 users of Foursquare network by making use of their check-ins. The authors analyzed the metadata associated with the whereabouts of the users, with an emphasis on the type of places, to uncover patterns across different temporal and geographical scales for venue category usage. The authors found five groups of meaningful patterns that can explore region characteristics and recognize a number of major crowd behaviors that recur over time and space.

  2. Designing of a Personality Based Emotional Decision Model for Generating Various Emotional Behavior of Social Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Seok Ahn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available All humans feel emotions, but individuals express their emotions differently because each has a different personality. We design an emotional decision model that focuses on the personality of individuals. The personality-based emotional decision model is designed with four linear dynamics, viz. reactive dynamic system, internal dynamic system, emotional dynamic system, and behavior dynamic system. Each dynamic system calculates the output values that reflect the personality, by being used as system matrices, input matrices, and output matrices. These responses are reflected in the final emotional behavior through a behavior dynamic system as with humans. The final emotional behavior includes multiple emotional values, and a social robot shows various emotional expressions. We perform some experiments using the cyber robot system, to verify the efficiency of the personality-based emotional decision model that generates various emotions according to the personality.

  3. Analyzing, Modeling, and Simulation for Human Dynamics in Social Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the human behavior in the top-one social network system in China (Sina Microblog system. By analyzing real-life data at a large scale, we find that the message releasing interval (intermessage time obeys power law distribution both at individual level and at group level. Statistical analysis also reveals that human behavior in social network is mainly driven by four basic elements: social pressure, social identity, social participation, and social relation between individuals. Empirical results present the four elements' impact on the human behavior and the relation between these elements. To further understand the mechanism of such dynamic phenomena, a hybrid human dynamic model which combines “interest” of individual and “interaction” among people is introduced, incorporating the four elements simultaneously. To provide a solid evaluation, we simulate both two-agent and multiagent interactions with real-life social network topology. We achieve the consistent results between empirical studies and the simulations. The model can provide a good understanding of human dynamics in social network.

  4. 3-D Human Modeling and Animation

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Peter

    2012-01-01

    3-D Human Modeling and Animation Third Edition All the tools and techniques you need to bring human figures to 3-D life Thanks to today's remarkable technology, artists can create and animate realistic, three-dimensional human figures that were not possible just a few years ago. This easy-to-follow book guides you through all the necessary steps to adapt your own artistic skill in figure drawing, painting, and sculpture to this exciting digital canvas. 3-D Human Modeling and Animation, Third Edition starts you off with simple modeling, then prepares you for more advanced techniques for crea

  5. Human hand modelling: kinematics, dynamics, applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gustus, A.; Stillfried, G.; Visser, J.; Jörntell, H.; Van der Smagt, P.

    2012-01-01

    An overview of mathematical modelling of the human hand is given. We consider hand models from a specific background: rather than studying hands for surgical or similar goals, we target at providing a set of tools with which human grasping and manipulation capabilities can be studied, and hand funct

  6. The perivascular phenotype and behaviors of dedifferentiated cells derived from human mature adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ning; Kou, Liang; Lu, Xiao-Wen; Sugawara, Atsunori; Shimizu, Yutaka; Wu, Min-Ke; Du, Li; Wang, Hang; Sato, Soh; Shen, Jie-Fei

    2015-02-13

    Derived from mature adipocytes, dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells represent a special group of multipotent cells. However, their phenotype and cellular nature remain unclear. Our study found that human DFAT cells adopted perivascular characteristics and behaviors. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescent staining revealed that human DFAT cells positively expressed markers highly related to perivascular cell lineages, such as CD140b, NG2 and desmin, but were negative for common endothelial markers, including CD31, CD34, and CD309. Furthermore, DFAT cells displayed vascular network formation ability in Matrigel, and they noticeably promoted and stabilized the vessel structures formed by human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. These results provide novel evidence on the pericyte nature of human DFAT cells, further supporting the recent model for the perivascular origin of adult stem cells, in which tissue-specific progenitor cells in mesenchymal tissues associate with blood vessels, exhibiting perivascular characteristics and functions.

  7. Decision making in the transtheoretical model of behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, James O

    2008-01-01

    Decision making is an integral part of the transtheoretical model of behavior change. Stage of change represents a temporal dimension for behavior change and has been the key dimension for integrating principles and processes of change from across leading theories of psychotherapy and behavior change. The decision-making variables representing the pros and cons of changing have been found to have systematic relationships across the stages of change for 50 health-related behaviors. Implications of these patterns of relationships are discussed in the context of helping patients make more effective decisions to decrease health risk behaviors and increase health-enhancing behaviors.

  8. A computational model of the human hand 93-ERI-053

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollerbach, K.; Axelrod, T.

    1996-03-01

    The objectives of the Computational Hand Modeling project were to prove the feasibility of the Laboratory`s NIKE3D finite element code to orthopaedic problems. Because of the great complexity of anatomical structures and the nonlinearity of their behavior, we have focused on a subset of joints of the hand and lower extremity and have developed algorithms to model their behavior. The algorithms developed here solve fundamental problems in computational biomechanics and can be expanded to describe any other joints of the human body. This kind of computational modeling has never successfully been attempted before, due in part to a lack of biomaterials data and a lack of computational resources. With the computational resources available at the National Laboratories and the collaborative relationships we have established with experimental and other modeling laboratories, we have been in a position to pursue our innovative approach to biomechanical and orthopedic modeling.

  9. Evolutionary models of human personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haysom, H.J.; Verweij, C.J.H.; Zietsch, B.P.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral genetic studies have shown that around a third to a half of the between-individual variation in personality traits can be accounted for by genetic differences between individuals. There is rapidly growing interest in understanding the evolutionary basis of this genetic variation. In this

  10. Mechanisms of social avoidance learning can explain the emergence of adaptive and arbitrary behavioral traditions in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Björn; Olsson, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Many nonhuman animals preferentially copy the actions of others when the environment contains predation risk or other types of danger. In humans, the role of social learning in avoidance of danger is still unknown, despite the fundamental importance of social learning for complex social behaviors. Critically, many social behaviors, such as cooperation and adherence to religious taboos, are maintained by threat of punishment. However, the psychological mechanisms allowing threat of punishment to generate such behaviors, even when actual punishment is rare or absent, are largely unknown. To address this, we used both computer simulations and behavioral experiments. First, we constructed a model where simulated agents interacted under threat of punishment and showed that mechanisms' (a) tendency to copy the actions of others through social learning, together with (b) the rewarding properties of avoiding a threatening punishment, could explain the emergence, maintenance, and transmission of large-scale behavioral traditions, both when punishment is common and when it is rare or nonexistent. To provide empirical support for our model, including the 2 mechanisms, we conducted 4 experiments, showing that humans, if threatened with punishment, are exceptionally prone to copy and transmit the behavior observed in others. Our results show that humans, similar to many nonhuman animals, use social learning if the environment is perceived as dangerous. We provide a novel psychological and computational basis for a range of human behaviors characterized by the threat of punishment, such as the adherence to cultural norms and religious taboos.

  11. Human Behavioral Pharmacology, Past, Present, and Future: Symposium Presented at the 50th Annual Meeting of the Behavioral Pharmacology Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Sandra D.; Bickel, Warren K.; Yi, Richard; de Wit, Harriet; Higgins, Stephen T.; Wenger, Galen R.; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    A symposium held at the 50th annual meeting of the Behavioral Pharmacology Society in May 2007 reviewed progress in the human behavioral pharmacology of drug abuse. Studies on drug self-administration in humans are reviewed that assessed reinforcing and subjective effects of drugs of abuse. The close parallels observed between studies in humans and laboratory animals using similar behavioral techniques have broadened our understanding of the complex nature of the pharmacological and behavioral factors controlling drug self-administration. The symposium also addressed the role that individual differences, such as gender, personality, and genotype play in determining the extent of self-administration of illicit drugs in human populations. Knowledge of how these factors influence human drug self-administration has helped validate similar differences observed in laboratory animals. In recognition that drug self-administration is but one of many choices available in the lives of humans, the symposium addressed the ways in which choice behavior can be studied in humans. These choice studies in human drug abusers have opened up new and exciting avenues of research in laboratory animals. Finally, the symposium reviewed behavioral pharmacology studies conducted in drug abuse treatment settings and the therapeutic benefits that have emerged from these studies. PMID:20664330

  12. Hidden Markov Models for Human Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldi, Pierre; Brunak, Søren; Chauvin, Yves

    1997-01-01

    We analyse the sequential structure of human genomic DNA by hidden Markov models. We apply models of widely different design: conventional left-right constructs and models with a built-in periodic architecture. The models are trained on segments of DNA sequences extracted such that they cover...

  13. Modeling the Impact of Motivation, Personality, and Emotion on Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lynn C.; Read, Stephen J.; Zachary, Wayne; Rosoff, Andrew

    Models seeking to predict human social behavior must contend with multiple sources of individual and group variability that underlie social behavior. One set of interrelated factors that strongly contribute to that variability - motivations, personality, and emotions - has been only minimally incorporated in previous computational models of social behavior. The Personality, Affect, Culture (PAC) framework is a theory-based computational model that addresses this gap. PAC is used to simulate social agents whose social behavior varies according to their personalities and emotions, which, in turn, vary according to their motivations and underlying motive control parameters. Examples involving disease spread and counter-insurgency operations show how PAC can be used to study behavioral variability in different social contexts.

  14. Kinects and Human Kinetics: A New Approach for Studying Crowd Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Seer, Stefan; Ratti, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Modeling crowd behavior relies on accurate data of pedestrian movements at a high level of detail. Imaging sensors such as cameras provide a good basis for capturing such detailed pedestrian motion data. However, currently available computer vision technologies, when applied to conventional video footage, still cannot automatically unveil accurate motions of groups of people or crowds from the image sequences. We present a novel data collection approach for studying crowd behavior which uses the increasingly popular low-cost sensor Microsoft Kinect. The Kinect captures both standard camera data and a three-dimensional depth map. Our human detection and tracking algorithm is based on agglomerative clustering of depth data captured from an elevated view - in contrast to the lateral view used for gesture recognition in Kinect gaming applications. Our approach transforms local Kinect 3D data to a common world coordinate system in order to stitch together human trajectories from multiple Kinects, which allows for ...

  15. Evolution of life history and behavior in Hominidae: towards phylogenetic reconstruction of the chimpanzee-human last common ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Pavel; Zrzavý, Jan

    2013-10-01

    The origin of the fundamental behavioral differences between humans and our closest living relatives is one of the central issues of evolutionary anthropology. The prominent, chimpanzee-based referential model of early hominin behavior has recently been challenged on the basis of broad multispecies comparisons and newly discovered fossil evidence. Here, we argue that while behavioral data on extant great apes are extremely relevant for reconstruction of ancestral behaviors, these behaviors should be reconstructed trait by trait using formal phylogenetic methods. Using the widely accepted hominoid phylogenetic tree, we perform a series of character optimization analyses using 65 selected life-history and behavioral characters for all extant hominid species. This analysis allows us to reconstruct the character states of the last common ancestors of Hominoidea, Hominidae, and the chimpanzee-human last common ancestor. Our analyses demonstrate that many fundamental behavioral and life-history attributes of hominids (including humans) are evidently ancient and likely inherited from the common ancestor of all hominids. However, numerous behaviors present in extant great apes represent their own terminal autapomorphies (both uniquely derived and homoplastic). Any evolutionary model that uses a single extant species to explain behavioral evolution of early hominins is therefore of limited use. In contrast, phylogenetic reconstruction of ancestral states is able to provide a detailed suite of behavioral, ecological and life-history characters for each hypothetical ancestor. The living great apes therefore play an important role for the confident identification of the traits found in the chimpanzee-human last common ancestor, some of which are likely to represent behaviors of the fossil hominins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Standard fire behavior fuel models: a comprehensive set for use with Rothermel's surface fire spread model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe H. Scott; Robert E. Burgan

    2005-01-01

    This report describes a new set of standard fire behavior fuel models for use with Rothermel's surface fire spread model and the relationship of the new set to the original set of 13 fire behavior fuel models. To assist with transition to using the new fuel models, a fuel model selection guide, fuel model crosswalk, and set of fuel model photos are provided.

  17. Lumped parametric model of the human ear for sound transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bin; Gan, Rong Z

    2004-09-01

    A lumped parametric model of the human auditoria peripherals consisting of six masses suspended with six springs and ten dashpots was proposed. This model will provide the quantitative basis for the construction of a physical model of the human middle ear. The lumped model parameters were first identified using published anatomical data, and then determined through a parameter optimization process. The transfer function of the middle ear obtained from human temporal bone experiments with laser Doppler interferometers was used for creating the target function during the optimization process. It was found that, among 14 spring and dashpot parameters, there were five parameters which had pronounced effects on the dynamic behaviors of the model. The detailed discussion on the sensitivity of those parameters was provided with appropriate applications for sound transmission in the ear. We expect that the methods for characterizing the lumped model of the human ear and the model parameters will be useful for theoretical modeling of the ear function and construction of the ear physical model.

  18. Analogue Behavioral Modeling of Switched-Current Building Block Circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Xuan; WANG Wei; SHI Jianlei; TANG Pushan; D.ZHOU

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes a behavioral modeling technique for the second-generation switched-current building block circuits. The proposed models are capable of capturing the non-ideal behavior of switched-current circuits, which includes the charge injection effects and device mismatch effects. As a result, system performance degradations due to the building block imperfections can be detected at the early design stage by fast behavioral simulations. To evaluate the accuracy of the proposed models, we developed a time-domain behavioral simulator. Experimental results have shown that compared with SPICE, the behavioral modeling error is less than 2.15%, while behavioral simulation speed up is 4 orders in time-domain.

  19. Modeling shape-memory behavior of dielectric elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rui

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we present a constitutive model to couple the shape memory and dielectric behaviors of polymers. The model adopted multiple relaxation processes and temperature-dependent relaxation time to describe the glass transition behaviors. The model was applied to simulate the thermal-mechanical-electrical behaviors of the dielectric elastomer VHB 4905. We investigated the influence of deformation temperature, voltage rate, relaxation time on the electromechanical and shape-memory behavior of dielectric elastomers. This work provides a method for combining the shape-memory properties and electroactive polymers, which can expand the applications of these soft active materials.

  20. Modeling human dynamics of face-to-face interaction networks

    CERN Document Server

    Starnini, Michele; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo

    2013-01-01

    Face-to-face interaction networks describe social interactions in human gatherings, and are the substrate for processes such as epidemic spreading and gossip propagation. The bursty nature of human behavior characterizes many aspects of empirical data, such as the distribution of conversation lengths, of conversations per person, or of inter-conversation times. Despite several recent attempts, a general theoretical understanding of the global picture emerging from data is still lacking. Here we present a simple model that reproduces quantitatively most of the relevant features of empirical face-to-face interaction networks. The model describes agents which perform a random walk in a two dimensional space and are characterized by an attractiveness whose effect is to slow down the motion of people around them. The proposed framework sheds light on the dynamics of human interactions and can improve the modeling of dynamical processes taking place on the ensuing dynamical social networks.

  1. Behavioral modelling and predistortion of wideband wireless transmitters

    CERN Document Server

    Ghannouchi, Fadhel M; Helaoui, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Covers theoretical and practical aspects related to the behavioral modelling and predistortion of wireless transmitters and power amplifiers. It includes simulation software that enables the users to apply the theory presented in the book. In the first section, the reader is given the general background of nonlinear dynamic systems along with their behavioral modelling from all its aspects. In the second part, a comprehensive compilation of behavioral models formulations and structures is provided including memory polynomial based models, box oriented models such as Hammerstein-based and Wiene

  2. Modeling and Recognizing Driver Behavior Based on Driving Data: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenshuo Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, modeling and recognizing driver behavior have become crucial to understanding intelligence transport systems, human-vehicle systems, and intelligent vehicle systems. A wide range of both mathematical identification methods and modeling methods of driver behavior are presented from the control point of view in this paper based on the driving data, such as the brake/throttle pedal position and the steering wheel angle, among others. Subsequently, the driver’s characteristics derived from the driver model are embedded into the advanced driver assistance systems, and the evaluation and verification of vehicle systems based on the driver model are described.

  3. Critical behavior in a stochastic model of vector mediated epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfinito, E.; Beccaria, M.; Macorini, G.

    2016-06-01

    The extreme vulnerability of humans to new and old pathogens is constantly highlighted by unbound outbreaks of epidemics. This vulnerability is both direct, producing illness in humans (dengue, malaria), and also indirect, affecting its supplies (bird and swine flu, Pierce disease, and olive quick decline syndrome). In most cases, the pathogens responsible for an illness spread through vectors. In general, disease evolution may be an uncontrollable propagation or a transient outbreak with limited diffusion. This depends on the physiological parameters of hosts and vectors (susceptibility to the illness, virulence, chronicity of the disease, lifetime of the vectors, etc.). In this perspective and with these motivations, we analyzed a stochastic lattice model able to capture the critical behavior of such epidemics over a limited time horizon and with a finite amount of resources. The model exhibits a critical line of transition that separates spreading and non-spreading phases. The critical line is studied with new analytical methods and direct simulations. Critical exponents are found to be the same as those of dynamical percolation.

  4. Human Behavior Classification Using Multi-Class Relevance Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogameena, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In computer vision and robotics, one of the typical tasks is to identify specific objects in an image and to determine each object’s position and orientation relative to coordinate system. This study presented a Multi-class Relevance Vector machine (RVM classification algorithm which classifies different human poses from a single stationary camera for video surveillance applications. Approach: First the foreground blobs and their edges are obtained. Then the relevance vector machine classification scheme classified the normal and abnormal behavior. Results: The performance proposed by our method was compared with Support Vector Machine (SVM and multi-class support vector machine. Experimental results showed the effectiveness of the method. Conclusion: It is evident that RVM has good accuracy and lesser computational than SVM.

  5. Human Centered Hardware Modeling and Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolian Damon; Lawrence, Brad; Stelges, Katrine; Henderson, Gena

    2013-01-01

    In order to collaborate engineering designs among NASA Centers and customers, to in clude hardware and human activities from multiple remote locations, live human-centered modeling and collaboration across several sites has been successfully facilitated by Kennedy Space Center. The focus of this paper includes innovative a pproaches to engineering design analyses and training, along with research being conducted to apply new technologies for tracking, immersing, and evaluating humans as well as rocket, vehic le, component, or faci lity hardware utilizing high resolution cameras, motion tracking, ergonomic analysis, biomedical monitoring, wor k instruction integration, head-mounted displays, and other innovative human-system integration modeling, simulation, and collaboration applications.

  6. Human Exposure Modeling - Databases to Support Exposure Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human exposure modeling relates pollutant concentrations in the larger environmental media to pollutant concentrations in the immediate exposure media. The models described here are available on other EPA websites.

  7. Genomic imprinting and human psychology: cognition, behavior and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goos, Lisa M; Ragsdale, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    Imprinted genes expressed in the brain are numerous and it has become clear that they play an important role in nervous system development and function. The significant influence of genomic imprinting during development sets the stage for structural and physiological variations affecting psychological function and behaviour, as well as other physiological systems mediating health and well-being. However, our understanding of the role of imprinted genes in behaviour lags far behind our understanding of their roles in perinatal growth and development. Knowledge of genomic imprinting remains limited among behavioral scientists and clinicians and research regarding the influence of imprinted genes on normal cognitive processes and the most common forms of neuropathology has been limited to date. In this chapter, we will explore how knowledge of genomic imprinting can be used to inform our study of normal human cognitive and behavioral processes as well as their disruption. Behavioural analyses of rare imprinted disorders, such as Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes, provide insight regarding the phenotypic impact of imprinted genes in the brain, and can be used to guide the study of normal behaviour as well as more common but etiologically complex disorders such as ADHD and autism. Furthermore, hypotheses regarding the evolutionary development of imprinted genes can be used to derive predictions about their role in normal behavioural variation, such as that observed in food-related and social interactions.

  8. AUTHENTICITY OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR IN FREUD AND HEIDEGGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONUŢ ŞTEFAN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The research theme is the question of the authenticity of human behavior examined from two perspectives: the psychoanalytical one, developed by Sigmund Freud, and the one of philosophy of being embodied by Martin Heidegger. As concerns the Freudian psychoanalysis, I am primarily interested in the conflict among: self, ego, and superego. Because of the requisitions of the supergo, the subject mostly behaves according to the censorships imposed by this psychic instance. The self, dominated by sexuality and aggressiveness, exhibits the pulsional tendency to manifest itself in the conscious behavior of the individual. As regards the Heideggerian endeavor, I am interested in distinguishing between the authentic and non-authentic existences. In Heidegger’s vision, the nonauthentic existence manifests when we are living together with the others in society. This is the horizon of the impersonal “as it is done”, the Heideggerian das Man, which may be understood by the three dimensions: curiosity, ambiguity, and chatter. The authentic existence manifests when the individuals live on their own, in privacy, and acknowledge the fact that their existence develops over a strictly determined time period, the imminent confrontation with their own death coming closer and closer.

  9. Modeling behavior: the quest to link mechanisms to function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, C; Dubnau, J

    2003-02-01

    T. Dobzhansky (1973) has been credited with saying: 'nothing in biology makes sense, except in the light of evolution'. The evolutionary conservation of gene function, as well as remarkable conservation of elemental behavioral mechanisms, guarantees that much of what we learn in one organism will inform our understanding of behavior in all animals, including humans. This insight has permitted behavior-geneticists to choose organisms based on experimental tractability for a given scientific question. IBANGS as a society has clearly embraced this Dobzhanskian worldview. As a result, the intellectual synergy of cross-species behavior-genetic analysis was palpable at the IBANGS meeting in Tours, France.

  10. Tissue-engineered models of human tumors for cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasante, Aranzazu; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Drug toxicity often goes undetected until clinical trials, which are the most costly and dangerous phase of drug development. Both the cultures of human cells and animal studies have limitations that cannot be overcome by incremental improvements in drug-testing protocols. A new generation of bioengineered tumors is now emerging in response to these limitations, with potential to transform drug screening by providing predictive models of tumors within their tissue context, for studies of drug safety and efficacy. An area that could greatly benefit from these models is cancer research. Areas covered In this review, the authors first describe the engineered tumor systems, using Ewing's sarcoma as an example of human tumor that cannot be predictably studied in cell culture and animal models. Then, they discuss the importance of the tissue context for cancer progression and outline the biomimetic principles for engineering human tumors. Finally, they discuss the utility of bioengineered tumor models for cancer research and address the challenges in modeling human tumors for use in drug discovery and testing. Expert opinion While tissue models are just emerging as a new tool for cancer drug discovery, they are already demonstrating potential for recapitulating, in vitro, the native behavior of human tumors. Still, numerous challenges need to be addressed before we can have platforms with a predictive power appropriate for the pharmaceutical industry. Some of the key needs include the incorporation of the vascular compartment, immune system components, and mechanical signals that regulate tumor development and function. PMID:25662589

  11. Dual Extended Kalman Filter for the Identification of Time-Varying Human Manual Control Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovici, Alexandru; Zaal, Peter M. T.; Pool, Daan M.

    2017-01-01

    A Dual Extended Kalman Filter was implemented for the identification of time-varying human manual control behavior. Two filters that run concurrently were used, a state filter that estimates the equalization dynamics, and a parameter filter that estimates the neuromuscular parameters and time delay. Time-varying parameters were modeled as a random walk. The filter successfully estimated time-varying human control behavior in both simulated and experimental data. Simple guidelines are proposed for the tuning of the process and measurement covariance matrices and the initial parameter estimates. The tuning was performed on simulation data, and when applied on experimental data, only an increase in measurement process noise power was required in order for the filter to converge and estimate all parameters. A sensitivity analysis to initial parameter estimates showed that the filter is more sensitive to poor initial choices of neuromuscular parameters than equalization parameters, and bad choices for initial parameters can result in divergence, slow convergence, or parameter estimates that do not have a real physical interpretation. The promising results when applied to experimental data, together with its simple tuning and low dimension of the state-space, make the use of the Dual Extended Kalman Filter a viable option for identifying time-varying human control parameters in manual tracking tasks, which could be used in real-time human state monitoring and adaptive human-vehicle haptic interfaces.

  12. Human Operator Control Strategy Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    fashion. HOPE reflects the two-store theory of memory current in the psycho- logical literature ( Atkinson & Shiffrin , 1968; Broadbent, 1971). Two...uncertainty. In P.M.A. Rabbit & S. Dornic (Eds.), Attention and performance V. New York: Academic Press, 1975. Atkinson , R. C., & Shiffrin , R. M. Human...48 2. The Perception Process ... ............... 50 3. The Command Memory and Command Selection Process

  13. Social performance cues induce behavioral flexibility in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toelch, U.; Bruce, M.J.; Meeus, M.T.H.; Reader, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility allows individuals to react to environmental changes, but changing established behavior carries costs, with unknown benefits. Individuals may thus modify their behavioral flexibility according to the prevailing circumstances. Social information provided by the performance leve

  14. Human Adaptive Mechatronics and Human-System Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Suzuki

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Several topics in projects for mechatronics studies, which are 'Human Adaptive Mechatronics (HAM' and 'Human-System Modelling (HSM', are presented in this paper. The main research theme of the HAM project is a design strategy for a new intelligent mechatronics system, which enhances operators' skills during machine operation. Skill analyses and control system design have been addressed. In the HSM project, human modelling based on hierarchical classification of skills was studied, including the following five types of skills: social, planning, cognitive, motion and sensory-motor skills. This paper includes digests of these research topics and the outcomes concerning each type of skill. Relationships with other research activities, knowledge and information that will be helpful for readers who are trying to study assistive human-mechatronics systems are also mentioned.

  15. Partner Influence in Diet and Exercise Behaviors: Testing Behavior Modeling, Social Control, and Normative Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Brea; Ciciurkaite, Gabriele; Brady, Christy Freadreacea; Garcia, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has documented social contagion in obesity and related health behaviors, but less is known about the social processes underlying these patterns. Focusing on married or cohabitating couples, we simultaneously explore three potential social mechanisms influencing obesity: normative body size, social control, and behavior modeling. We analyze the association between partner characteristics and the obesity-related health behaviors of focal respondents, comparing the effects of partners' body type, partners' attempts to manage respondents' eating behaviors, and partners' own health behaviors on respondents' health behaviors (physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and fast food consumption). Data on 215 partners are extracted from a larger study of social mechanisms of obesity in family and community contexts conducted in 2011 in the United States. Negative binomial regression models indicate that partner behavior is significantly related to respondent behavior (p behavior modeling mechanism in obesity-related patterns of consumption and physical activity. In contrast, we find little support for the influence of normative body size or partner social control in this sample, though generalizations about the relevance of these processes may be inappropriate. These results underscore the importance of policies and interventions that target dyads and social groups, suggesting that adoption of exercise or diet modifications in one individual is likely to spread to others, creating a social environment characterized by mutual reinforcement of healthy behavior.

  16. Testing the Validity of a Cognitive Behavioral Model for Gambling Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raylu, Namrata; Oei, Tian Po S; Loo, Jasmine M Y; Tsai, Jung-Shun

    2016-06-01

    Currently, cognitive behavioral therapies appear to be one of the most studied treatments for gambling problems and studies show it is effective in treating gambling problems. However, cognitive behavior models have not been widely tested using statistical means. Thus, the aim of this study was to test the validity of the pathways postulated in the cognitive behavioral theory of gambling behavior using structural equation modeling (AMOS 20). Several questionnaires assessing a range of gambling specific variables (e.g., gambling urges, cognitions and behaviors) and gambling correlates (e.g., psychological states, and coping styles) were distributed to 969 participants from the community. Results showed that negative psychological states (i.e., depression, anxiety and stress) only directly predicted gambling behavior, whereas gambling urges predicted gambling behavior directly as well as indirectly via gambling cognitions. Avoidance coping predicted gambling behavior only indirectly via gambling cognitions. Negative psychological states were significantly related to gambling cognitions as well as avoidance coping. In addition, significant gender differences were also found. The results provided confirmation for the validity of the pathways postulated in the cognitive behavioral theory of gambling behavior. It also highlighted the importance of gender differences in conceptualizing gambling behavior.

  17. Extraction of primitive representation from captured human movements and measured ground reaction force to generate physically consistent imitated behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariki, Yuka; Hyon, Sang-Ho; Morimoto, Jun

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we propose an imitation learning framework to generate physically consistent behaviors by estimating the ground reaction force from captured human behaviors. In the proposed framework, we first extract behavioral primitives, which are represented by linear dynamical models, from captured human movements and measured ground reaction force by using the Gaussian mixture of linear dynamical models. Therefore, our method has small dependence on classification criteria defined by an experimenter. By switching primitives with different combinations while estimating the ground reaction force, different physically consistent behaviors can be generated. We apply the proposed method to a four-link robot model to generate squat motion sequences. The four-link robot model successfully generated the squat movements by using our imitation learning framework. To show generalization performance, we also apply the proposed method to robot models that have different torso weights and lengths from a human demonstrator and evaluate the control performances. In addition, we show that the robot model is able to recognize and imitate demonstrator movements even when the observed movements are deviated from the movements that are used to construct the primitives. For further evaluation in higher-dimensional state space, we apply the proposed method to a seven-link robot model. The seven-link robot model was able to generate squat-and-sway motions by using the proposed framework.

  18. Integration of human behavior expectations in training: human behavior simulator; Integracion de las expectativas de comportamiento humano en la formacion: simulacion de comportamiento humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obeso Torices, E.

    2012-07-01

    The analysis of operating experience in nuclear Sta Maria de Garona point to fundamental human factor. After evaluation of the Peer Review, reinforcing behavior expectations was identified as improvement area. The human behavior simulator aims at minimizing human error. Making teamwork practices ensures that the equipment itself reinforces their behavior and performance in the work of the Central. The scope of practice to perform on the simulator includes all phases of execution. The team should analyze the best way to run, the impact of it on the ground and interaction with other sections, being the simulator training environment the situation closer to reality.

  19. From human behavior to the spread of mobile phone viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pu

    Percolation theory was initiated some 50 years ago as a mathematical framework for the study of random physical processes such as the flow of a fluid through a disordered porous medium. It has been proved to be a remarkably rich theory, with applications from thermodynamic phase transitions to complex networks. In this dissertation percolation theory is used to study the diffusion process of mobile phone viruses. Some methodologies widely used in statistical physics are also applied to uncover the underlying statistical laws of human behavior and simulate the spread of mobile phone viruses in a large population. I find that while Bluetooth viruses can reach all susceptible handsets with time, they spread slowly due to human mobility, offering ample opportunities to deploy antiviral software. In contrast, viruses utilizing multimedia messaging services (MMS) could infect all users in hours, but currently a phase transition on the underlying call graph limits them to only a small fraction of the susceptible users. These results explain the lack of a major mobile virus breakout so far and predict that once a mobile operating system's market share reaches the phase transition point, viruses will pose a serious threat to mobile communications. These studies show how the large datasets and tools of statistical physics can be used to study some specific and important problems, such as the spread of mobile phone viruses.

  20. Institutionalization: A Theory of Human Behavior and the Social Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam McNown Johnson

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Institutionalism is the syndrome first recognized and described in inpatient psychiatric facilities,which is now used to describe a set of maladaptive behaviors that are evoked by the pressures of living in any institutional setting. This article traces the development of the theory of institutionalization, which predicts and explains an individual’s response to that particular type of environment. The article makes note of key contributors and contributions, and of empirical studies that have advanced the theory. Underlying perspectives and assumptions are identified and earlier theoretical models are reviewed and critiqued. An updated model of the theory, which includes individual vulnerabilities, objective conditions of the institutional placement, and the resident’s perceptions of the environment, is presented. New directions in the field of institutional care and implications for social workers, particularly for those working in nursing home and prison settings, are discussed, along with recommendations for next steps for theory progression.

  1. Modeling and Analyzing Academic Researcher Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc Huu Nguyen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This paper suggests a theoretical framework for analyzing the mechanism of the behavior of academic researchers whose interests are tangled and vary widely in academic factors (the intrinsic satisfaction in conducting research, the improvement in individual research ability, etc. or non-academic factors (career rewards, financial rewards, etc.. Furthermore, each researcher also has his/her different academic stances in their preferences about academic freedom and academic entrepreneurship. Understanding the behavior of academic researchers will contribute to nurture young researchers, to improve the standard of research and education as well as to boost collaboration in academia-industry. In particular, as open innovation is increasingly in need of the involvement of university researchers, to establish a successful approach to entice researchers into enterprises’ research, companies must comprehend the behavior of university researchers who have multiple complex motivations. The paper explores academic researchers' behaviors through optimizing their utility functions, i.e. the satisfaction obtained by their research outputs. This paper characterizes these outputs as the results of researchers' 3C: Competence (the ability to implement the research, Commitment (the effort to do the research, and Contribution (finding meaning in the research. Most of the previous research utilized the empirical methods to study researcher's motivation. Without adopting economic theory into the analysis, the past literature could not offer a deeper understanding of researcher's behavior. Our contribution is important both conceptually and practically because it provides the first theoretical framework to study the mechanism of researcher's behavior. Keywords: Academia-Industry, researcher behavior, ulrich model’s 3C.

  2. Human body modeling in injury biomechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Happee, R.; Morsink, P.L.J.; Horst, M.J. van der; Wismans, J.S.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Mathematical modelling is widely used for crash-safety research and design. However, most occupant models used in crash simulations are based on crash dummies and thereby inherit their apparent limitations. This paper describes a mathematical model of the real human body for impact loading. A combin

  3. Modeling human operator involvement in robotic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wewerinke, P.H.

    1991-01-01

    A modeling approach is presented to describe complex manned robotic systems. The robotic system is modeled as a (highly) nonlinear, possibly time-varying dynamic system including any time delays in terms of optimal estimation, control and decision theory. The role of the human operator(s) is modeled

  4. The dynamics of human behavior in the public goods game with institutional incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yali; Zhang, Boyu; Tao, Yi

    2016-06-24

    The empirical research on the public goods game (PGG) indicates that both institutional rewards and institutional punishment can curb free-riding and that the punishment effect is stronger than the reward effect. Self-regarding models that are based on Nash equilibrium (NE) strategies or evolutionary game dynamics correctly predict which incentives are best at promoting cooperation, but individuals do not play these rational strategies overall. The goal of our study is to investigate the dynamics of human decision making in the repeated PGG with institutional incentives. We consider that an individual's contribution is affected by four factors, which are self-interest, the behavior of others, the reaction to rewards, and the reaction to punishment. We find that people on average do not react to rewards and punishment, and that self-interest and the behavior of others sufficiently explain the dynamics of human behavior. Further analysis suggests that institutional incentives promote cooperation by affecting the self-regarding preference and that the other-regarding preference seems to be independent of incentive schemes. Because individuals do not change their behavioral patterns even if they were not rewarded or punished, the mere potential to punish defectors and reward cooperators can lead to considerable increases in the level of cooperation.

  5. [Diversity and development of positional behavior in non-human primates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Qi, Xiao-Guang; Zhang, Kan; Zhang, Pei; Guo, Song-Tao; Wei, Wei; Li, Bao-Guo

    2012-10-01

    In long-term evolution, wildlife in general and primates in particular have formed specific patterns of behavior to adapt to a diverse variety of habitat environments. Current research on positional behavior in non-human primates has been found to explain a great deal about primate adaptability diversification, ecology, anatomy and evolution. Here, we summarize the noted classifications and differences in seasonal, site-specific and sex-age positional behaviors while also reviewing the development and status of non-human primate positional behavior research. This review is intended to provide reference for the future research of non-human primates and aid in further research on behavioral ecology of primates.

  6. Complex transition to cooperative behavior in a structured population model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Miranda

    Full Text Available Cooperation plays an important role in the evolution of species and human societies. The understanding of the emergence and persistence of cooperation in those systems is a fascinating and fundamental question. Many mechanisms were extensively studied and proposed as supporting cooperation. The current work addresses the role of migration for the maintenance of cooperation in structured populations. This problem is investigated in an evolutionary perspective through the prisoner's dilemma game paradigm. It is found that migration and structure play an essential role in the evolution of the cooperative behavior. The possible outcomes of the model are extinction of the entire population, dominance of the cooperative strategy and coexistence between cooperators and defectors. The coexistence phase is obtained in the range of large migration rates. It is also verified the existence of a critical level of structuring beyond that cooperation is always likely. In resume, we conclude that the increase in the number of demes as well as in the migration rate favor the fixation of the cooperative behavior.

  7. Modeling the Turning Speed and Car Following Behaviors of Autonomous Vehicles in a Virtual World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo-González José Gerardo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with mathematical models for controlling vehicles behavior in a virtual world, where two behaviors are considered: 1 curve turning and 2 car following situations, in this last is essential to provide a safety distance between the leader and the follower and at the same time keep the follower not delayed with respect to the leader, and in a curve turning the complexity is to provide a safety speed inside the curve and keep the car inside the lane. Using basic information as vehicles position, mathematical models can be developed for explaining the heading angle and the autonomous vehicles speed on curves, i.e. the controlled by the models. A model that predicts the autonomous vehicle speed on curves is developed considering previous data in other curves. Two models that control the acceleration/deceleration behavior of autonomous vehicles in a car following situation are proposed. In the first model, the parameters are calibrated with a proposed algorithm which enables accuracy in order to imitate the human behavior for accelerating and braking, and the second model provides a safety distance between the follower and the leader at sudden stops of the latter and employs the acceleration/deceleration top capabilities to follow the leader car similar to the human behavior.

  8. Remeshed smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation of the mechanical behavior of human organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieber, Simone E; Walther, Jens H; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2004-01-01

    In computer aided surgery the accurate simulation of the mechanical behavior of human organs is essential for the development of surgical simulators. In this paper we introduce particle based simulations of two different human organ materials modeled as linear viscoelastic solids. The constitutive equations for the material behavior are discretized using a particle approach based on the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method while the body surface is tracked using level sets. A key aspect of this approach is its flexibility which allows the simulation of complex time varying topologies with large deformations. The accuracy of the original formulation is significantly enhanced by using a particle reinitialization technique resulting in remeshed Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (rSPH). The mechanical parameters of the systems used in the simulations are derived from experimental measurements on human cadaver organs. We compare the mechanical behavior of liver- and kidney-like materials based on the dynamic simulations of a tensile test case. Moreover, we present a particle based reconstruction of the liver topology and its strain distribution under a small local load. Finally, we demonstrate a unified formulation of fluid structure interaction based on particle methods.

  9. A social learning model of adolescent contraceptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balassone, M L

    1991-12-01

    Decision making and socialization models have advanced our knowledge of adolescent contraceptive behavior. They also show the vital role values, attitudes, and beliefs play in contraceptive use. A social work professor builds on these models and adds values, attitudes, and beliefs to a new social learning model of contraceptive behavior to improve on the weaknesses of those models. This new model considers contraceptive behavior an active response instead of a passive response. It uses 3 major components to explain how adolescents learn and preserve contraceptive behaviors. They include environmental context, cognitive influences, and behavior executive constraints. Accurate sexuality information, available contraceptive services, and availability of role models constitute the environmental context. These environmental factors either support or limit contraceptive use. Perception of need and consequences is a cognitive influence and embraces judgment of immediate and delayed consequences and probability and susceptibility to pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); perception of pregnancy/STD seriousness; and expectation regarding personal mastery. The other cognitive influence is decision making processed which involved generating, evaluating, and selecting alternatives. Advantages of this model are its flexibility to apply it to different groups of adolescents and its emphasis on reducing the risk of acquiring an STD as well as pregnancy prevention. Researchers of contraceptive behavior among adolescents should consider all 3 model components when designing research that aims to predict birth control behavior.

  10. HUMAN METHAMPHETAMINE PHARMACOKINETICS SIMULATED IN THE RAT: BEHAVIORAL AND NEUROCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF A 72- HOUR BINGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczenski, Ronald; Segal, David S.; Melega, William P.; Lacan, Goran; McCunney, Stanley J.

    2009-01-01

    Bingeing is one pattern of high dose methamphetamine (METH) abuse which involves continuous drug taking over several days and can result in psychotic behaviors for which the brain pathology remains poorly-defined. A corresponding animal model of this type of METH exposure may provide novel insights into the neurochemical and behavioral sequelae associated with this condition. Accordingly, to simulate the pharmacokinetic profile of a human METH binge exposure in rats we used a computer-controlled, intravenous METH procedure (dynamic infusion) to overcome species differences in METH pharmacokinetics and to replicate the human 12-h plasma METH half-life. Animals were treated over 13 weeks with escalating METH doses, using dynamic infusion, and then exposed to a binge in which drug was administered every 3 h for 72h. Throughout the binge, behavioral effects included unabated intense oral stereotypies in the absence of locomotion and in the absence of sleep. Decrements in regional brain dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin levels, measured at 1 and 10 h after the last injection of the binge, had, with the exception of caudate-putamen dopamine and frontal cortex serotonin, recovered by 48 h. At 10 h after the last injection of the binge, [3H]ligand binding to dopamine and vesicular monoamine transporters in caudate-putamen were reduced by 35% and 13%, respectively. In a separate METH binge treated cohort, post-binge behavioral alterations were apparent in an attenuated locomotor response to a METH challenge infusion at 24h after the last injection of the binge. Collectively, the changes we characterized during and following a METH binge suggest that for humans under similar exposure conditions, multiple time-dependent neurochemical deficits contribute to their behavioral profiles. PMID:19571794

  11. Human methamphetamine pharmacokinetics simulated in the rat: behavioral and neurochemical effects of a 72-h binge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczenski, Ronald; Segal, David S; Melega, William P; Lacan, Goran; McCunney, Stanley J

    2009-10-01

    Bingeing is one pattern of high-dose methamphetamine (METH) abuse, which involves continuous drug taking over several days and can result in psychotic behaviors for which the brain pathology remains poorly defined. A corresponding animal model of this type of METH exposure may provide novel insights into the neurochemical and behavioral sequelae associated with this condition. Accordingly, to simulate the pharmacokinetic profile of a human METH binge exposure in rats, we used a computer-controlled, intravenous METH procedure (dynamic infusion, DI) to overcome species differences in METH pharmacokinetics and to replicate the human 12-h plasma METH half-life. Animals were treated over 13 weeks with escalating METH doses, using DI, and then exposed to a binge in which drug was administered every 3 h for 72 h. Throughout the binge, behavioral effects included unabated intense oral stereotypies in the absence of locomotion and in the absence of sleep. Decrements in regional brain dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin levels, measured at 1 and 10 h after the last injection of the binge, had, with the exception of caudate-putamen dopamine and frontal cortex serotonin, recovered by 48 h. At 10 h after the last injection of the binge, [(3)H]ligand binding to dopamine and vesicular monoamine transporters in caudate-putamen were reduced by 35 and 13%, respectively. In a separate METH binge-treated cohort, post-binge behavioral alterations were apparent in an attenuated locomotor response to a METH challenge infusion at 24 h after the last injection of the binge. Collectively, the changes we characterized during and after a METH binge suggest that for human beings under similar exposure conditions, multiple time-dependent neurochemical deficits contribute to their behavioral profiles.

  12. [Development of human embryonic stem cell model for toxicity evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guang-yan; Cao, Tong; Ouyang, Hong-wei; Peng, Shuang-qing; Deng, Xu-liang; Li, Sheng-lin; Liu, He; Zou, Xiao-hui; Fu, Xin; Peng, Hui; Wang, Xiao-ying; Zhan, Yuan

    2013-02-18

    The current international standard for toxicity screening of biomedical devices and materials recommend the use of immortalized cell lines because of their homogeneous morphologies and infinite proliferation which provide good reproducibility for in vitro cytotoxicity screening. However, most of the widely used immortalized cell lines are derived from animals and may not be representative of normal human cell behavior in vivo, in particular in terms of the cytotoxic and genotoxic response. Therefore, It is vital to develop a model for toxicity evaluation. In our studies, two Chinese human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines as toxicity model were established. hESC derived tissue/organ cell model for tissue/organ specific toxicity evaluation were developed. The efficiency and accuracy of using hESC model for cytoxicity, embryotoxicity and genotoxicity evaluation were confirmed. The results indicated that hESCs might be good tools for toxicity testing and biosafety evaluation in vitro.

  13. Different Motile Behaviors of Human Hematopoietic Stem versus Progenitor Cells at the Osteoblastic Niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Foster

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in our understanding of interactions between mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs and their niche, little is known about communication between human HSCs and the microenvironment. Using a xenotransplantation model and intravital imaging, we demonstrate that human HSCs display distinct motile behaviors to their hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC counterparts, and the same pattern can be found between mouse HSCs and HPCs. HSCs become significantly less motile after transplantation, while progenitor cells remain motile. We show that human HSCs take longer to find their niche than previously expected and suggest that the niche be defined as the position where HSCs stop moving. Intravital imaging is the only technique to determine where in the bone marrow stem cells stop moving, and future analyses should focus on the environment surrounding the HSC at this point.

  14. Cognitive modelling of human temporal reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Meulen, AGB

    2003-01-01

    Modelling human reasoning characterizes the fundamental human cognitive capacity to describe our past experience and use it to form expectations as well as plan and direct our future actions. Natural language semantics analyzes dynamic forms of reasoning in which the real-time order determines the

  15. An Ontology-Based Framework for Modeling User Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmerita, Liana

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of user modeling and semantically enhanced representations for personalization. This paper presents a generic Ontology-based User Modeling framework (OntobUMf), its components, and its associated user modeling processes. This framework models the behavior of the users....... The results of this research may contribute to the development of other frameworks for modeling user behavior, other semantically enhanced user modeling frameworks, or other semantically enhanced information systems....... and classifies its users according to their behavior. The user ontology is the backbone of OntobUMf and has been designed according to the Information Management System Learning Information Package (IMS LIP). The user ontology includes a Behavior concept that extends IMS LIP specification and defines...

  16. Integration of Theory of Planned Behavior and Norm Activation Model on Student Behavior Model Using Cars for Traveling to Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiawan, R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there are clear environmental, economic, and social drawbacks in using private vehicles, students still choose cars to get to campus. This study reports an investigation of psychological factors influencing this behavior from the perspective of the Theory of Planned Behavior and Norm Activation Model. Students from three different university campuses in Surabaya, Indonesia, (n = 312 completed a survey on their car commuting behavior. Results indicated that perceived behavioral control and personal norm were the strongest factors that influence behavioral intention. Attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and personal norm explain 62.7% variance of the behavioral intention. In turn, behavioral intention explains 42.5% of the variance of the actual car use. Implications of these findings are that in order to alter the use of car, university should implement both structural and psychological interventions. Effective interventions should be designed to raise the awareness of negative aspects of car use.

  17. Modeling and Visualization of Human Activities for Multicamera Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aswin C. Sankaranarayanan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multicamera networks are becoming complex involving larger sensing areas in order to capture activities and behavior that evolve over long spatial and temporal windows. This necessitates novel methods to process the information sensed by the network and visualize it for an end user. In this paper, we describe a system for modeling and on-demand visualization of activities of groups of humans. Using the prior knowledge of the 3D structure of the scene as well as camera calibration, the system localizes humans as they navigate the scene. Activities of interest are detected by matching models of these activities learnt a priori against the multiview observations. The trajectories and the activity index for each individual summarize the dynamic content of the scene. These are used to render the scene with virtual 3D human models that mimic the observed activities of real humans. In particular, the rendering framework is designed to handle large displays with a cluster of GPUs as well as reduce the cognitive dissonance by rendering realistic weather effects and illumination. We envision use of this system for immersive visualization as well as summarization of videos that capture group behavior.

  18. Murine models of human wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jerry S; Longaker, Michael T; Gurtner, Geoffrey C

    2013-01-01

    In vivo wound healing experiments remain the most predictive models for studying human wound healing, allowing an accurate representation of the complete wound healing environment including various cell types, environmental cues, and paracrine interactions. Small animals are economical, easy to maintain, and allow researchers to take advantage of the numerous transgenic strains that have been developed to investigate the specific mechanisms involved in wound healing and regeneration. Here we describe three reproducible murine wound healing models that recapitulate the human wound healing process.

  19. Modeling Chaotic Behavior of Chittagong Stock Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Banik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stock market prediction is an important area of financial forecasting, which attracts great interest to stock buyers and sellers, stock investors, policy makers, applied researchers, and many others who are involved in the capital market. In this paper, a comparative study has been conducted to predict stock index values using soft computing models and time series model. Paying attention to the applied econometric noises because our considered series are time series, we predict Chittagong stock indices for the period from January 1, 2005 to May 5, 2011. We have used well-known models such as, the genetic algorithm (GA model and the adaptive network fuzzy integrated system (ANFIS model as soft computing forecasting models. Very widely used forecasting models in applied time series econometrics, namely, the generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic (GARCH model is considered as time series model. Our findings have revealed that the use of soft computing models is more successful than the considered time series model.

  20. Cellular Potts modeling of complex multicellular behaviors in tissue morphogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Hirashima (Tsuyoshi); E.G. Rens (Lisanne); R.M.H. Merks (Roeland)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractMathematical modeling is an essential approach for the understanding of complex multicellular behaviors in tissue morphogenesis. Here, we review the cellular Potts model (CPM; also known as the Glazier-Graner-Hogeweg model), an effective computational modeling framework. We discuss its

  1. A Simplified Model of Choice Behavior under Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Ching-Hung; Lin, Yu-Kai; Song, Tzu-Jiun; Huang, Jong-Tsun; Chiu, Yao-Chu

    2016-01-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has been standardized as a clinical assessment tool (Bechara, 2007). Nonetheless, numerous research groups have attempted to modify IGT models to optimize parameters for predicting the choice behavior of normal controls and patients. A decade ago, most researchers considered the expected utility (EU) model (Busemeyer and Stout, 2002) to be the optimal model for predicting choice behavior under uncertainty. However, in recent years, studies have demonstrated that m...

  2. A simplified model of choice behavior under uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Ching-Hung Lin; Yu-Kai Lin; Tzu-Jiun Song; Jong-Tsun Huang; Yao-Chu Chiu

    2016-01-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has been standardized as a clinical assessment tool (Bechara, 2007). Nonetheless, numerous research groups have attempted to modify IGT models to optimize parameters for predicting the choice behavior of normal controls and patients. A decade ago, most researchers considered the expected utility (EU) model (Busemeyer and Stout, 2002) to be the optimal model for predicting choice behavior under uncertainty. However, in recent years, studies have demonstrated the pr...

  3. Harnessing the power of conversations with virtual humans to change health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Glenn; Adam, Cyrille; Serri, Deborah; Bleeker, Seth; Goldman, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Skillful, collaborative conversations are powerful tools to improve physical and mental health. Whether you are a parent talking with your child about the dangers of substance abuse, an educator concerned about a student's signs of psychological distress, a veteran worried about a buddy who is contemplating suicide, or a healthcare professional wanting to better engage patients to increase treatment compliance, having the skill, confidence and motivation to engage in conversations can truly transform the health and well-being of those you interact with. Kognito develops role-play simulations that prepare individuals to effectively lead real-life conversations that measurably improve social, emotional, and physical health. The behavior change model that drives the simulations draws upon components of game mechanics, virtual human simulation technology and integrates evidence-based instructional design components as well as principles of social-cognitive theory and neuroscience such as motivational interviewing, emotional regulation, empathy and mindfulness. In the simulations, users or enter a risk-free practice environment and engage in a conversation with intelligent, fully animated, and emotionally responsive virtual characters that model human behavior. It is in practicing these conversations, and receiving feedback from a virtual coach, that users learn to better lead conversations in real life. Numerous longitudinal studies have shown that users who complete Kognito simulations demonstrate statistically significant and sustained increases in attitudinal variables that predict behavior change including preparedness, likelihood, and self-efficacy to better manage conversations. Pending the target population, each online or mobile simulation resulted in desired behavior changes ranging from increased referrals of students, patients or veterans in psychological distress to mental health support services, or increasing physician patient-centered communication or

  4. Harnessing the power of conversations with virtual humans to change health behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Cyrille; Serri, Deborah; Bleeker, Seth; Goldman, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Skillful, collaborative conversations are powerful tools to improve physical and mental health. Whether you are a parent talking with your child about the dangers of substance abuse, an educator concerned about a student’s signs of psychological distress, a veteran worried about a buddy who is contemplating suicide, or a healthcare professional wanting to better engage patients to increase treatment compliance, having the skill, confidence and motivation to engage in conversations can truly transform the health and well-being of those you interact with. Kognito develops role-play simulations that prepare individuals to effectively lead real-life conversations that measurably improve social, emotional, and physical health. The behavior change model that drives the simulations draws upon components of game mechanics, virtual human simulation technology and integrates evidence-based instructional design components as well as principles of social-cognitive theory and neuroscience such as motivational interviewing, emotional regulation, empathy and mindfulness. In the simulations, users or enter a risk-free practice environment and engage in a conversation with intelligent, fully animated, and emotionally responsive virtual characters that model human behavior. It is in practicing these conversations, and receiving feedback from a virtual coach, that users learn to better lead conversations in real life. Numerous longitudinal studies have shown that users who complete Kognito simulations demonstrate statistically significant and sustained increases in attitudinal variables that predict behavior change including preparedness, likelihood, and self-efficacy to better manage conversations. Pending the target population, each online or mobile simulation resulted in desired behavior changes ranging from increased referrals of students, patients or veterans in psychological distress to mental health support services, or increasing physician patient-centered communication or

  5. Simulation of Human-induced Vibrations Based on the Characterized In-field Pedestrian Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nimmen, Katrien; Lombaert, Geert; De Roeck, Guido; Van den Broeck, Peter

    2016-04-13

    For slender and lightweight structures, vibration serviceability is a matter of growing concern, often constituting the critical design requirement. With designs governed by the dynamic performance under human-induced loads, a strong demand exists for the verification and refinement of currently available load models. The present contribution uses a 3D inertial motion tracking technique for the characterization of the in-field pedestrian behavior. The technique is first tested in laboratory experiments with simultaneous registration of the corresponding ground reaction forces. The experiments include walking persons as well as rhythmical human activities such as jumping and bobbing. It is shown that the registered motion allows for the identification of the time variant pacing rate of the activity. Together with the weight of the person and the application of generalized force models available in literature, the identified time-variant pacing rate allows to characterize the human-induced loads. In addition, time synchronization among the wireless motion trackers allows identifying the synchronization rate among the participants. Subsequently, the technique is used on a real footbridge where both the motion of the persons and the induced structural vibrations are registered. It is shown how the characterized in-field pedestrian behavior can be applied to simulate the induced structural response. It is demonstrated that the in situ identified pacing rate and synchronization rate constitute an essential input for the simulation and verification of the human-induced loads. The main potential applications of the proposed methodology are the estimation of human-structure interaction phenomena and the development of suitable models for the correlation among pedestrians in real traffic conditions.

  6. Modeling cultural behavior for military virtual training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerbusch, P.; Schram, J.; Bosch, K. van den

    2011-01-01

    Soldiers on mission in areas with unfamiliar cultures must be able to take into account the norms of the local culture when assessing a situation, and must be able to adapt their behavior accordingly. Innovative technologies provide opportunity to train the required skills in an interactive and real

  7. Modeling Cultural Behavior for Military Virtual Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, K. van den; Kerbusch, P.J.M.; Schram, J.

    2012-01-01

    Soldiers on mission in areas with unfamiliar cultures must be able to take into account the norms of the local culture when assessing a situation, and must be able to adapt their behavior accordingly. Innovative technologies provide opportunity to train the required skills in an interactive and real

  8. Modeling User Behavior and Attention in Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    In Web search, query and click log data are easy to collect but they fail to capture user behaviors that do not lead to clicks. As search engines reach the limits inherent in click data and are hungry for more data in a competitive environment, mining cursor movements, hovering, and scrolling becomes important. This dissertation investigates how…

  9. Modeling User Behavior and Attention in Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    In Web search, query and click log data are easy to collect but they fail to capture user behaviors that do not lead to clicks. As search engines reach the limits inherent in click data and are hungry for more data in a competitive environment, mining cursor movements, hovering, and scrolling becomes important. This dissertation investigates how…

  10. Modeling the antecedents of proactive behavior at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Sharon K; Williams, Helen M; Turner, Nick

    2006-05-01

    Using a sample of U.K. wire makers (N = 282), the authors tested a model in which personality and work environment antecedents affect proactive work behavior via cognitive-motivational mechanisms. Self-reported proactive work behaviors (proactive idea implementation and proactive problem solving) were validated against rater assessments for a subsample (n = 60) of wire makers. With the exception of supportive supervision, each antecedent was important, albeit through different processes. Proactive personality was significantly associated with proactive work behavior via role breadth self-efficacy and flexible role orientation, job autonomy was also linked to proactive behavior via these processes, as well as directly; and coworker trust was associated with proactive behavior via flexible role orientation. In further support of the model, the cognitive-motivational processes for proactive work behavior differed from those for the more passive outcome of generalized compliance.

  11. Traffic Behavior Recognition Using the Pachinko Allocation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien Huynh-The

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available CCTV-based behavior recognition systems have gained considerable attention in recent years in the transportation surveillance domain for identifying unusual patterns, such as traffic jams, accidents, dangerous driving and other abnormal behaviors. In this paper, a novel approach for traffic behavior modeling is presented for video-based road surveillance. The proposed system combines the pachinko allocation model (PAM and support vector machine (SVM for a hierarchical representation and identification of traffic behavior. A background subtraction technique using Gaussian mixture models (GMMs and an object tracking mechanism based on Kalman filters are utilized to firstly construct the object trajectories. Then, the sparse features comprising the locations and directions of the moving objects are modeled by PAMinto traffic topics, namely activities and behaviors. As a key innovation, PAM captures not only the correlation among the activities, but also among the behaviors based on the arbitrary directed acyclic graph (DAG. The SVM classifier is then utilized on top to train and recognize the traffic activity and behavior. The proposed model shows more flexibility and greater expressive power than the commonly-used latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA approach, leading to a higher recognition accuracy in the behavior classification.

  12. Animal Models of Human Placentation - A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael

    2007-01-01

    This review examines the strengths and weaknesses of animal models of human placentation and pays particular attention to the mouse and non-human primates. Analogies can be drawn between mouse and human in placental cell types and genes controlling placental development. There are, however...... and endometrium is similar in macaques and baboons, as is the subsequent lacunar stage. The absence of interstitial trophoblast cells in the monkey is an important difference from human placentation. However, there is a strong resemblance in the way spiral arteries are invaded and transformed in the macaque...

  13. The Human-Artifact Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    2011-01-01

    Although devices of all shapes and sizes currently dominate the technological landscape, human–computer interaction (HCI) as a field is not yet theoretically equipped to match this reality. In this article we develop the human–artifact model, which has its roots in activity theoretical HCI....... By reinterpreting the activity theoretical foundation, we present a framework that helps addressing the analysis of individual interactive artifacts while embracing that they are part of a larger ecology of artifacts. We show how the human–artifact model helps structuring the understanding of an artifact's action......-possibilities in relation to the artifact ecology surrounding it. Essential to the model is that it provides four interconnected levels of analysis and addresses the possibilities and problems at these four levels. Artifacts and their use are constantly developing, and we address development in, and of, use. The framework...

  14. Performance of fire behavior fuel models developed for the Rothermel Surface Fire Spread Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Ziel; W. Matt Jolly

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, 40 new fire behavior fuel models were published for use with the Rothermel Surface Fire Spread Model. These new models are intended to augment the original 13 developed in 1972 and 1976. As a compiled set of quantitative fuel descriptions that serve as input to the Rothermel model, the selected fire behavior fuel model has always been critical to the resulting...

  15. Behavioral analysis of marijuana effects on food intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltin, R W; Brady, J V; Fischman, M W

    1986-09-01

    Nine male research volunteers, in three groups of three subjects each, resided in a residential laboratory for up to 25 days. All contact with the experimenter was through a networked computer system and subjects' behaviors including food intake were continuously recorded. Subjects brought their own activities such as model-making, and these in combination with those provided by the laboratory resulted in rich behavior repertoires. During the first part of the day, subjects remained in their private rooms doing planned work activities, and during the remainder of the day, they were allowed to socialize. Cigarettes containing active marijuana (1.84% THC) or placebo were smoked prior to the private work period and during the social access period. A single active marijuana cigarette prior to the private work period had no effect on food intake. The administration of two or three active marijuana cigarettes during the social access period increased average daily caloric intake. The increased intake was due to an augmentation of calories consumed as between-meal snack items rather than an increase in meal size per se.

  16. The importance of behavior theory in control system modeling of physical activity sensor data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, William T; Martin, Cesar A; Rivera, Daniel E

    2014-01-01

    Among health behaviors, physical activity has the most extensive record of research using passive sensors. Control systems and other system dynamic approaches have long been considered applicable for understanding human behavior, but only recently has the technology provided the precise and intensive longitudinal data required for these analytic approaches. Although sensors provide intensive data on the patterns and variations of physical activity over time, the influences of these variations are often unmeasured. Health behavior theories provide an explanatory framework of the putative mediators of physical activity changes. Incorporating the intensive longitudinal measurement of these theoretical constructs is critical to improving the fit of control system model of physical activity and for advancing behavioral theory. Theory-based control models also provide guidance on the nature of the controllers which serve as the basis for just-in-time adaptive interventions based on these control system models.

  17. Computational Intelligence in a Human Brain Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Gaftea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the current trends in brain research domain and the current stage of development of research for software and hardware solutions, communication capabilities between: human beings and machines, new technologies, nano-science and Internet of Things (IoT devices. The proposed model for Human Brain assumes main similitude between human intelligence and the chess game thinking process. Tactical & strategic reasoning and the need to follow the rules of the chess game, all are very similar with the activities of the human brain. The main objective for a living being and the chess game player are the same: securing a position, surviving and eliminating the adversaries. The brain resolves these goals, and more, the being movement, actions and speech are sustained by the vital five senses and equilibrium. The chess game strategy helps us understand the human brain better and easier replicate in the proposed ‘Software and Hardware’ SAH Model.

  18. Computational Intelligence in a Human Brain Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Gaftea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the current trends in brain research domain and the current stage of development of research for software and hardware solutions, communication capabilities between: human beings and machines, new technologies, nano-science and Internet of Things (IoT devices. The proposed model for Human Brain assumes main similitude between human intelligence and the chess game thinking process. Tactical & strategic reasoning and the need to follow the rules of the chess game, all are very similar with the activities of the human brain. The main objective for a living being and the chess game player are the same: securing a position, surviving and eliminating the adversaries. The brain resolves these goals, and more, the being movement, actions and speech are sustained by the vital five senses and equilibrium. The chess game strategy helps us understand the human brain better and easier replicate in the proposed ‘Software and Hardware’ SAH Model.

  19. A simplified model of choice behavior under uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hung Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT has been standardized as a clinical assessment tool (Bechara, 2007. Nonetheless, numerous research groups have attempted to modify IGT models to optimize parameters for predicting the choice behavior of normal controls and patients. A decade ago, most researchers considered the expected utility (EU model (Busemeyer and Stout, 2002 to be the optimal model for predicting choice behavior under uncertainty. However, in recent years, studies have demonstrated the prospect utility (PU models (Ahn et al., 2008 to be more effective than the EU models in the IGT. Nevertheless, after some preliminary tests, we propose that Ahn et al. (2008 PU model is not optimal due to some incompatible results between our behavioral and modeling data. This study aims to modify Ahn et al. (2008 PU model to a simplified model and collected 145 subjects’ IGT performance as the benchmark data for comparison. In our simplified PU model, the best goodness-of-fit was found mostly while α approaching zero. More specifically, we retested the key parameters α, λ , and A in the PU model. Notably, the power of influence of the parameters α, λ, and A has a hierarchical order in terms of manipulating the goodness-of-fit in the PU model. Additionally, we found that the parameters λ and A may be ineffective when the parameter α is close to zero in the PU model. The present simplified model demonstrated that decision makers mostly adopted the strategy of gain-stay-loss-shift rather than foreseeing the long-term outcome. However, there still have other behavioral variables that are not well revealed under these dynamic uncertainty situations. Therefore, the optimal behavioral models may not have been found. In short, the best model for predicting choice behavior under dynamic-uncertainty situations should be further evaluated.

  20. Modelling large scale human activity in San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Marta

    2010-03-01

    Diverse group of people with a wide variety of schedules, activities and travel needs compose our cities nowadays. This represents a big challenge for modeling travel behaviors in urban environments; those models are of crucial interest for a wide variety of applications such as traffic forecasting, spreading of viruses, or measuring human exposure to air pollutants. The traditional means to obtain knowledge about travel behavior is limited to surveys on travel journeys. The obtained information is based in questionnaires that are usually costly to implement and with intrinsic limitations to cover large number of individuals and some problems of reliability. Using mobile phone data, we explore the basic characteristics of a model of human travel: The distribution of agents is proportional to the population density of a given region, and each agent has a characteristic trajectory size contain information on frequency of visits to different locations. Additionally we use a complementary data set given by smart subway fare cards offering us information about the exact time of each passenger getting in or getting out of the subway station and the coordinates of it. This allows us to uncover the temporal aspects of the mobility. Since we have the actual time and place of individual's origin and destination we can understand the temporal patterns in each visited location with further details. Integrating two described data set we provide a dynamical model of human travels that incorporates different aspects observed empirically.

  1. Ontology and modeling patterns for state-based behavior representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castet, Jean-Francois; Rozek, Matthew L.; Ingham, Michel D.; Rouquette, Nicolas F.; Chung, Seung H.; Kerzhner, Aleksandr A.; Donahue, Kenneth M.; Jenkins, J. Steven; Wagner, David A.; Dvorak, Daniel L.; Karban, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an approach to capture state-based behavior of elements, that is, the specification of their state evolution in time, and the interactions amongst them. Elements can be components (e.g., sensors, actuators) or environments, and are characterized by state variables that vary with time. The behaviors of these elements, as well as interactions among them are represented through constraints on state variables. This paper discusses the concepts and relationships introduced in this behavior ontology, and the modeling patterns associated with it. Two example cases are provided to illustrate their usage, as well as to demonstrate the flexibility and scalability of the behavior ontology: a simple flashlight electrical model and a more complex spacecraft model involving instruments, power and data behaviors. Finally, an implementation in a SysML profile is provided.

  2. Ontology and modeling patterns for state-based behavior representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castet, Jean-Francois; Rozek, Matthew L.; Ingham, Michel D.; Rouquette, Nicolas F.; Chung, Seung H.; Kerzhner, Aleksandr A.; Donahue, Kenneth M.; Jenkins, J. Steven; Wagner, David A.; Dvorak, Daniel L.; hide

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an approach to capture state-based behavior of elements, that is, the specification of their state evolution in time, and the interactions amongst them. Elements can be components (e.g., sensors, actuators) or environments, and are characterized by state variables that vary with time. The behaviors of these elements, as well as interactions among them are represented through constraints on state variables. This paper discusses the concepts and relationships introduced in this behavior ontology, and the modeling patterns associated with it. Two example cases are provided to illustrate their usage, as well as to demonstrate the flexibility and scalability of the behavior ontology: a simple flashlight electrical model and a more complex spacecraft model involving instruments, power and data behaviors. Finally, an implementation in a SysML profile is provided.

  3. Simulation Models of Human Decision-Making Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina RIZUN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is presentation of the new concept of human decision-making process modeling via using the analogy with Automatic Control Theory. From the author's point of view this concept allows to develop and improve the theory of decision-making in terms of the study and classification of specificity of the human intellectual processes in different conditions. It was proved that the main distinguishing feature between the Heuristic / Intuitive and Rational Decision-Making Models is the presence of so-called phenomenon of "enrichment" of the input information with human propensity, hobbies, tendencies, expectations, axioms and judgments, presumptions or bias and their justification. In order to obtain additional knowledge about the basic intellectual processes as well as the possibility of modeling the decision results in various parameters characterizing the decision-maker, the complex of the simulation models was developed. These models are based on the assumptions that:  basic intellectual processes of the Rational Decision-Making Model can be adequately simulated and identified by the transient processes of the proportional-integral-derivative controller; basic intellectual processes of the Bounded Rationality and Intuitive Models can be adequately simulated and identified by the transient processes of the nonlinear elements.The taxonomy of the most typical automatic control theory elements and their compliance with certain decision-making models with a point of view of decision-making process specificity and decision-maker behavior during a certain time of professional activity was obtained.

  4. A model of disruptive surgeon behavior in the perioperative environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Amalia; Elder, William B

    2014-09-01

    Surgeons are the physicians with the highest rates of documented disruptive behavior. We hypothesized that a unified conceptual model of disruptive surgeon behavior could be developed based on specific individual and system factors in the perioperative environment. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 operating room staff of diverse occupations at a single institution. Interviews were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Participants described episodes of disruptive surgeon behavior, personality traits of perpetrators, environmental conditions of power, and situations when disruptive behavior was demonstrated. Verbal hostility and throwing or hitting objects were the most commonly described disruptive behaviors. Participants indicated that surgical training attracts and creates individuals with particular personality traits, including a sense of shame. Interviewees stated this behavior is tolerated because surgeons have unchecked power, have strong money-making capabilities for the institution, and tend to direct disruptive behavior toward the least powerful employees. The most frequent situational stressors were when something went wrong during an operation and working with unfamiliar team members. Each factor group (ie, situational stressors, cultural conditions, and personality factors) was viewed as being necessary, but none of them alone were sufficient to catalyze disruptive behavior events. Disruptive physician behavior has strong implications for the work environment and patient safety. This model can be used by hospitals to better conceptualize conditions that facilitate disruptive surgeon behavior and to establish programs to mitigate conduct that threatens patient safety and employee satisfaction. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Organizational buying behavior: An integrated model

    OpenAIRE

    Rakić Beba

    2002-01-01

    Organizational buying behavior is decision making process by which formal organizations establish the need for purchased products and services, and identify, evaluate, and choose among alternative brands and suppliers. Understanding the buying decision processes is essential to developing the marketing programs of companies that sell to organizations, or to 'industrial customers'. In business (industrial) marketing, exchange relationships between the organizational selling center and the orga...

  6. Partner Influence in Diet and Exercise Behaviors: Testing Behavior Modeling, Social Control, and Normative Body Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciciurkaite, Gabriele; Brady, Christy Freadreacea; Garcia, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has documented social contagion in obesity and related health behaviors, but less is known about the social processes underlying these patterns. Focusing on married or cohabitating couples, we simultaneously explore three potential social mechanisms influencing obesity: normative body size, social control, and behavior modeling. We analyze the association between partner characteristics and the obesity-related health behaviors of focal respondents, comparing the effects of partners’ body type, partners’ attempts to manage respondents’ eating behaviors, and partners’ own health behaviors on respondents’ health behaviors (physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and fast food consumption). Data on 215 partners are extracted from a larger study of social mechanisms of obesity in family and community contexts conducted in 2011 in the United States. Negative binomial regression models indicate that partner behavior is significantly related to respondent behavior (p obesity-related patterns of consumption and physical activity. In contrast, we find little support for the influence of normative body size or partner social control in this sample, though generalizations about the relevance of these processes may be inappropriate. These results underscore the importance of policies and interventions that target dyads and social groups, suggesting that adoption of exercise or diet modifications in one individual is likely to spread to others, creating a social environment characterized by mutual reinforcement of healthy behavior. PMID:28033428

  7. A Behavioral Decision Making Modeling Approach Towards Hedging Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Candel, M.J.J.M.; Egelkraut, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper takes a behavioral approach toward the market for hedging services. A behavioral decision-making model is developed that provides insight into how and why owner-managers decide the way they do regarding hedging services. Insight into those choice processes reveals information needed by fi

  8. Language Intent Models for Inferring User Browsing Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsagkias, M.; Blanco, R.

    2012-01-01

    Modeling user browsing behavior is an active research area with tangible real-world applications, e.g., organizations can adapt their online presence to their visitors browsing behavior with positive effects in user engagement, and revenue. We concentrate on online news agents, and present a semi-su

  9. An Examination of a Model of Anti-Pollution Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Osamu

    1981-01-01

    Reports results of a study in which Japanese female undergraduates (N=118) responded to an environmental concern scale based upon a model of anti-pollution behavior focusing on: approach to information, confidence in science and technology, appreciation of natural beauty, causes, consequences, and purchasing and coping behaviors. (DC)

  10. A Meta-Analytic Review of Behavior Modeling Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Paul J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene F.; Chan, Daniel W. L.

    2005-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 117 studies evaluated the effects of behavior modeling training (BMT) on 6 training outcomes, across characteristics of training design. BMT effects were largest for learning outcomes, smaller for job behavior, and smaller still for results outcomes. Although BMT effects on declarative knowledge decayed over time, training…

  11. Fire behavior modeling-a decision tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Cohen; Bill Bradshaw

    1986-01-01

    The usefulness of an analytical model as a fire management decision tool is determined by the correspondence of its descriptive capability to the specific decision context. Fire managers must determine the usefulness of fire models as a decision tool when applied to varied situations. Because the wildland fire phenomenon is complex, analytical fire spread models will...

  12. Supporting Negotiation Behavior with Haptics-Enabled Human-Computer Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Küçükyılmaz, Ayşe; Sezgin, Tevfik Metin; Başdoğan, Çağatay

    2012-01-01

    An active research goal for human-computer interaction is to allow humans to communicate with computers in an intuitive and natural fashion, especially in real-life interaction scenarios. One approach that has been advocated to achieve this has been to build computer systems with human-like qualities and capabilities. In this paper, we present insight on how human-computer interaction can be enriched by employing the computers with behavioral patterns that naturally appear in human-human nego...

  13. Behavioral Model of Photovoltaic Panel in Simulink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAPLATILEK, K.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with creation and application of a model of photovoltaic panel in the MATLAB and Simulink environments. An original model of the real PV panel is applied using the model based design technique. A so-called physical model is also developed using the SimPowerSystems library. The described PV panel model is applied for maximum power optimization in the one-shot and the continuous modes. A few illustrating examples and source code parts are also presented.

  14. The interpersonal process model of demand/withdraw behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baucom, Brian R; Dickenson, Janna A; Atkins, David C; Baucom, Donald H; Fischer, Melanie S; Weusthoff, Sarah; Hahlweg, Kurt; Zimmermann, Tanja

    2015-02-01

    The demand/withdraw interaction pattern is a destructive cycle of relationship communication behavior that is associated with negative individual and relationship outcomes. Demand/withdraw behavior is thought to be strongly linked to partners' emotional reactions, but current theories are inconsistent with empirical findings. The current study proposes the interpersonal process model of demand/withdraw behavior, which includes linkages between each partners' emotional reactions and the interpersonal behavior of demanding and withdrawing. Data come from problem solving discussions of 55 German couples with observationally coded demand/withdraw behavior and fundamental frequency (f₀) to measure vocally encoded emotional arousal. Actor-partner interdependence models (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006) were used to examine associations among demand/withdraw behavior and f₀ in the overall discussion and 5-min segments. Significant cross-partner associations emerged for demanding and withdrawing behavior across the whole conversation as well as within 5-min segments, and these associations are partially accounted for by each individual's f₀. When behaviorally coded demanders expressed more vocal arousal, they demanded more and withdrew less while their partners withdrew more. In contrast, when behaviorally coded withdrawers expressed more vocal arousal, their partners demanded less and withdrew more. Findings demonstrate that demand/withdraw behavior varies between couples (i.e., some couples engage in a stronger demand/withdraw cycle than others) and between segments (i.e., when 1 partner increases demanding, the other increases withdrawing). Findings support key elements of the interpersonal process model, showing intra- and interpersonal pathways linking demand/withdraw behavior and emotion and demonstrate the importance of partners' behavioral roles in these linkages.

  15. Integrated Human Futures Modeling in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aamir, Munaf Syed [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bernard, Michael Lewis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beyeler, Walter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fellner, Karen Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hayden, Nancy Kay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jeffers, Robert Fredric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silver, Emily [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Villa, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vugrin, Eric D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engelke, Peter [Atlantic Council, Washington, D.C. (United States); Burrow, Mat [Atlantic Council, Washington, D.C. (United States); Keith, Bruce [United States Military Academy, West Point, NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Human Futures Project provides a set of analytical and quantitative modeling and simulation tools that help explore the links among human social, economic, and ecological conditions, human resilience, conflict, and peace, and allows users to simulate tradeoffs and consequences associated with different future development and mitigation scenarios. In the current study, we integrate five distinct modeling platforms to simulate the potential risk of social unrest in Egypt resulting from the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile in Ethiopia. The five platforms simulate hydrology, agriculture, economy, human ecology, and human psychology/behavior, and show how impacts derived from development initiatives in one sector (e.g., hydrology) might ripple through to affect other sectors and how development and security concerns may be triggered across the region. This approach evaluates potential consequences, intended and unintended, associated with strategic policy actions that span the development-security nexus at the national, regional, and international levels. Model results are not intended to provide explicit predictions, but rather to provide system-level insight for policy makers into the dynamics among these interacting sectors, and to demonstrate an approach to evaluating short- and long-term policy trade-offs across different policy domains and stakeholders. The GERD project is critical to government-planned development efforts in Ethiopia but is expected to reduce downstream freshwater availability in the Nile Basin, fueling fears of negative social and economic impacts that could threaten stability and security in Egypt. We tested these hypotheses and came to the following preliminary conclusions. First, the GERD will have an important short-term impact on water availability, food production, and hydropower production in Egypt, depending on the short- term reservoir fill rate. Second, the GERD will have a very small impact on

  16. Mathematical human modelling for impact loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Happee, R.; Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Lange, R. de

    2001-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of the human body is widely used for automotive crash-safety research and design. Simulations have contributed to a reduction of injury numbers by optimization of vehicle structures and restraint systems. Currently, such simulations are largely performed using occupant models b

  17. Mathematical human modelling for impact loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Happee, R.; Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Lange, R. de

    2001-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of the human body is widely used for automotive crash-safety research and design. Simulations have contributed to a reduction of injury numbers by optimization of vehicle structures and restraint systems. Currently, such simulations are largely performed using occupant models

  18. Mathematical human body modelling for impact loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Happee, R.; Morsink, P.L.J.; Wismans, J.S.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Mathematical modelling of the human body is widely used for automotive crash safety research and design. Simulations have contributed to a reduction of injury numbers by optimisation of vehicle structures and restraint systems. Currently such simulations are largely performed using occupant models

  19. Complex Systems and Human Performance Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    constitute a cognitive architecture or decomposing the work flows and resource constraints that characterize human-system interactions, the modeler...also explored the generation of so-called “ fractal ” series from simple task network models where task times are the calculated by way of a moving

  20. Models of the Human in Tantric Hinduism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne Wernicke; Flood, Gavin

    2018-01-01

    This research project explores the origins, developments and transformations of yogic models of the human (e.g. kundalini yoga, the cakra system and ritual sex) in the tantric goddess traditions or what might be called Śāktism of medieval India. These Śākta models of esoteric anatomy originating...