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Sample records for human autoantibodies bearing

  1. Antinuclear human autoantibodies as markers in Nicotiana tabacum pollen tubes

    C. Poggialini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we report on the use of antinuclear human autoantibodies as specific markers in Nicotiana tabacum pollen tubes. The antibodies have been tested by fluorescence techniques using a confocal laser scanning microscope. All the antibodies showed specifc labelling pattern and the results, although preliminary in nature, could open new perspectives of research.

  2. Characterization of human organ donors testing positive for type 1 diabetes-associated autoantibodies

    Wiberg, A; Granstam, A; Ingvast, S; Härkönen, T; Knip, M; Korsgren, O; Skog, O

    2015-01-01

    In this study we aim to describe the characteristics of non-diabetic organ donors with circulating diabetes-associated autoantibodies collected within the Nordic Network for Islet Transplantation. One thousand and thirty organ donors have been screened in Uppsala for antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA) and islet antigen-2 (IA-2A). The 32 non-diabetic donors that tested positive for GADA (3·3% of all non-diabetic donors) were studied in more detail, together with 32 matched controls. Mean age among the autoantibody-positive donors was 52·6 (range 21–74), family history of type 1 diabetes (T1D) was unknown, and no donor was genetically predisposed for T1D regarding the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) locus. Subjects were analysed for islet cell antibodies (ICA), insulin autoantibodies (IAA) and zinc transporter 8 antibodies (ZnT8A), and pancreas morphology and clinical data were examined. Eight non-diabetic donors tested positive for two antibodies and one donor tested positive for four antibodies. No insulitis or other signs of a diabetic process were found in any of the donors. While inflammatory cells were present in all donors, subjects with high GADA titres had significantly higher CD45 cell numbers in exocrine tissue than controls. The extent of fibrosis was more pronounced in autoantibody-positive donors, even in subjects with lower GADA titres. Notably, it is possible that events not related directly to T1D (e.g. subclinical pancreatitis) may induce autoantibodies in some cases. PMID:26313035

  3. Rats and mice immunised with chimeric human/mouse proteinase 3 produce autoantibodies to mouse Pr3 and rat granulocytes

    van der Geld, Ymke M.; Hellmark, Thomas; Selga, Daina; Heeringa, Peter; Huitema, Minke G.; Limburg, Pieter C.; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: In this study, we employed chimeric human/ mouse Proteinase 3 ( PR3) proteins as tools to induce an autoantibody response to PR3 in rats and mice. Method: Rats and mice were immunised with recombinant human PR3 ( HPR3), recombinant murine PR3 ( mPR3), single chimeric human/ mouse PR3 ( HHm,

  4. Degenerated human intervertebral discs contain autoantibodies against extracellular matrix proteins

    S Capossela

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Degeneration of intervertebral discs (IVDs is associated with back pain and elevated levels of inflammatory cells. It has been hypothesised that discogenic pain is a direct result of vascular and neural ingrowth along annulus fissures, which may expose the avascular nucleus pulposus (NP to the systemic circulation and induce an autoimmune reaction. In this study, we confirmed our previous observation of antibodies in human degenerated and post-traumatic IVDs cultured in vitro. We hypothesised that the presence of antibodies was due to an autoimmune reaction against specific proteins of the disc. Furthermore we identified antigens which possibly trigger an autoimmune response in degenerative disc diseases. We demonstrated that degenerated and post-traumatic IVDs contain IgG antibodies against typical extracellular proteins of the disc, particularly proteins of the NP. We identified IgGs against collagen type II and aggrecan, confirming an autoimmune reaction against the normally immune privileged NP. We also found specific IgGs against collagens types I and V, but not against collagen type III. In conclusion, this study confirmed the association between disc degeneration and autoimmunity, and may open the avenue for future studies on developing prognostic, diagnostic and therapy-monitoring markers for degenerative disc diseases.

  5. Stable isotopes to detect food-conditioned bears and to evaluate human-bear management

    Hopkins, John B.; Koch, Paul L.; Schwartz, Charles C.; Ferguson, Jake M.; Greenleaf, Schuyler S.; Kalinowski, Steven T.

    2012-01-01

    We used genetic and stable isotope analysis of hair from free-ranging black bears (Ursus americanus) in Yosemite National Park, California, USA to: 1) identify bears that consume human food, 2) estimate the diets of these bears, and 3) evaluate the Yosemite human–bear management program. Specifically, we analyzed the isotopic composition of hair from bears known a priori to be food-conditioned or non-food-conditioned and used these data to predict whether bears with an unknown management status were food-conditioned (FC) or non-food-conditioned (NFC). We used a stable isotope mixing model to estimate the proportional contribution of natural foods (plants and animals) versus human food in the diets of FC bears. We then used results from both analyses to evaluate proactive (population-level) and reactive (individual-level) human–bear management, and discussed new metrics to evaluate the overall human–bear management program in Yosemite. Our results indicated that 19 out of 145 (13%) unknown bears sampled from 2005 to 2007 were food-conditioned. The proportion of human food in the diets of known FC bears likely declined from 2001–2003 to 2005–2007, suggesting proactive management was successful in reducing the amount of human food available to bears. In contrast, reactive management was not successful in changing the management status of known FC bears to NFC bears, or in reducing the contribution of human food to the diets of FC bears. Nine known FC bears were recaptured on 14 occasions from 2001 to 2007; all bears were classified as FC during subsequent recaptures, and human–bear management did not reduce the amount of human food in the diets of FC bears. Based on our results, we suggest Yosemite continue implementing proactive human–bear management, reevaluate reactive management, and consider removing problem bears (those involved in repeated bear incidents) from the population.

  6. Assessing bear-human conflicts in the Yukon Territory

    Lukie, Raechel Dawn

    2010-01-01

    Managing conflicts between bears and humans is vital for human safety and for the conservation of bears. This study investigated black bear (Ursus americanus) and grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) interactions with humans in 18 major communities of the Yukon Territory. I used an information theoretic approach to generate predictive models of the relative potential of bear-human interaction for the 9 conservation officer management regions in the Yukon Territory. I independently modeled interactions...

  7. Autoantibody profiling on human proteome microarray for biomarker discovery in cerebrospinal fluid and sera of neuropsychiatric lupus.

    Chaojun Hu

    Full Text Available Autoantibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from patients with neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE may be potential biomarkers for prediction, diagnosis, or prognosis of NPSLE. We used a human proteome microarray with~17,000 unique full-length human proteins to investigate autoantibodies associated with NPSLE. Twenty-nine CSF specimens from 12 NPSLE, 7 non-NPSLE, and 10 control (non-systemic lupus erythematosuspatients were screened for NPSLE-associated autoantibodies with proteome microarrays. A focused autoantigen microarray of candidate NPSLE autoantigens was applied to profile a larger cohort of CSF with patient-matched sera. We identified 137 autoantigens associated with NPSLE. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that these autoantigens were enriched for functions involved in neurological diseases (score = 43.Anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA was found in the CSF of NPSLE and non-NPSLE patients. The positive rates of 4 autoantibodies in CSF specimens were significantly different between the SLE (i.e., NPSLE and non-NPSLE and control groups: anti-ribosomal protein RPLP0, anti-RPLP1, anti-RPLP2, and anti-TROVE2 (also known as anti-Ro/SS-A. The positive rate for anti-SS-A associated with NPSLE was higher than that for non-NPSLE (31.11% cf. 10.71%; P = 0.045.Further analysis showed that anti-SS-A in CSF specimens was related to neuropsychiatric syndromes of the central nervous system in SLE (P = 0.009. Analysis with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient indicated that the titers of anti-RPLP2 and anti-SS-A in paired CSF and serum specimens significantly correlated. Human proteome microarrays offer a powerful platform to discover novel autoantibodies in CSF samples. Anti-SS-A autoantibodies may be potential CSF markers for NPSLE.

  8. Natural IgG autoantibodies are abundant and ubiquitous in human sera, and their number is influenced by age, gender, and disease.

    Eric P Nagele

    Full Text Available The presence of self-reactive IgG autoantibodies in human sera is largely thought to represent a breakdown in central tolerance and is typically regarded as a harbinger of autoimmune pathology. In the present study, immune-response profiling of human serum from 166 individuals via human protein microarrays demonstrates that IgG autoantibodies are abundant in all human serum, usually numbering in the thousands. These IgG autoantibodies bind to human antigens from organs and tissues all over the body and their serum diversity is strongly influenced by age, gender, and the presence of specific diseases. We also found that serum IgG autoantibody profiles are unique to an individual and remarkably stable over time. Similar profiles exist in rat and swine, suggesting conservation of this immunological feature among mammals. The number, diversity, and apparent evolutionary conservation of autoantibody profiles suggest that IgG autoantibodies have some important, as yet unrecognized, physiological function. We propose that IgG autoantibodies have evolved as an adaptive mechanism for debris-clearance, a function consistent with their apparent utility as diagnostic indicators of disease as already established for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  9. Trichinella and polar bears: a limited risk for humans.

    Dupouy-Camet, J; Bourée, P; Yera, H

    2017-07-01

    In this review, we identified 63 cases reported since World War II of human trichinellosis linked to the consumption of parasitized polar bear (Ursus maritimus) meat. This low number contrasts to the numerous cases of human trichinellosis related to consumption of the meat of black (U. americanus) or brown bears (U. arctos). The prevalence of Trichinella infection is high in bears, but larval muscular burden is usually lower in polar bears compared to other bear species. Polar bears, therefore, seem to play a limited role in the transmission of trichinellosis to humans, as native residents living in the Arctic traditionally consume well-cooked bear meat, and travellers and foreign hunters have only limited access to this protected species due to the declining polar bear population.

  10. Polar bear attacks on humans: Implications of a changing climate

    Wilder, James; Vongraven, Dag; Atwood, Todd C.; Hansen, Bob; Jessen, Amalie; Kochnev, Anatoly A.; York, Geoff; Vallender, Rachel; Hedman, Daryll; Gibbons, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Understanding causes of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) attacks on humans is critical to ensuring both human safety and polar bear conservation. Although considerable attention has been focused on understanding black (U. americanus) and grizzly (U. arctos) bear conflicts with humans, there have been few attempts to systematically collect, analyze, and interpret available information on human-polar bear conflicts across their range. To help fill this knowledge gap, a database was developed (Polar Bear-Human Information Management System [PBHIMS]) to facilitate the range-wide collection and analysis of human-polar bear conflict data. We populated the PBHIMS with data collected throughout the polar bear range, analyzed polar bear attacks on people, and found that reported attacks have been extremely rare. From 1870–2014, we documented 73 attacks by wild polar bears, distributed among the 5 polar bear Range States (Canada, Greenland, Norway, Russia, and United States), which resulted in 20 human fatalities and 63 human injuries. We found that nutritionally stressed adult male polar bears were the most likely to pose threats to human safety. Attacks by adult females were rare, and most were attributed to defense of cubs. We judged that bears acted as a predator in most attacks, and that nearly all attacks involved ≤2 people. Increased concern for both human and bear safety is warranted in light of predictions of increased numbers of nutritionally stressed bears spending longer amounts of time on land near people because of the loss of their sea ice habitat. Improved conflict investigation is needed to collect accurate and relevant data and communicate accurate bear safety messages and mitigation strategies to the public. With better information, people can take proactive measures in polar bear habitat to ensure their safety and prevent conflicts with polar bears. This work represents an important first step towards improving our understanding of factors influencing

  11. Genotoxic effect and antigen binding characteristics of SLE auto-antibodies to peroxynitrite-modified human DNA.

    Khan, Md Asad; Alam, Khursheed; Mehdi, Syed Hassan; Rizvi, M Moshahid A

    2017-12-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by auto-antibodies against native deoxyribonucleic acid after modification and is one of the reasons for the development of SLE. Here, we have evaluated the structural perturbations in human placental DNA by peroxynitrite using spectroscopy, thermal denaturation and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Peroxynitrite is a powerful potent bi-functional oxidative/nitrative agent that is produced both endogenously and exogenously. In experimental animals, the peroxynitrite-modified DNA was found to be highly immunogenic. The induced antibodies showed cross-reactions with different types of DNA and nitrogen bases that were modified with peroxynitrite by inhibition ELISA. The antibody activity was inhibited by approximately 89% with its immunogen as the inhibitor. The antigen-antibodies interaction between induced antibodies with peroxynitrite-modified DNA showed retarded mobility as compared to the native form. Furthermore, significantly increased binding was also observed in SLE autoantibodies with peroxynitrite-modified DNA than native form. Moreover, DNA isolated from lymphocyte of SLE patients revealed significant recognition of anti-peroxynitrite-modified DNA immunoglobulin G (IgG). Our data indicates that DNA modified with peroxynitrite presents unique antigenic determinants that may induce autoantibody response in SLE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Human cerebrospinal fluid monoclonal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor autoantibodies are sufficient for encephalitis pathogenesis.

    Kreye, Jakob; Wenke, Nina K; Chayka, Mariya; Leubner, Jonas; Murugan, Rajagopal; Maier, Nikolaus; Jurek, Betty; Ly, Lam-Thanh; Brandl, Doreen; Rost, Benjamin R; Stumpf, Alexander; Schulz, Paulina; Radbruch, Helena; Hauser, Anja E; Pache, Florence; Meisel, Andreas; Harms, Lutz; Paul, Friedemann; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Garner, Craig; Schmitz, Dietmar; Wardemann, Hedda; Prüss, Harald

    2016-10-01

    SEE ZEKERIDOU AND LENNON DOI101093/AWW213 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a recently discovered autoimmune syndrome associated with psychosis, dyskinesias, and seizures. Little is known about the cerebrospinal fluid autoantibody repertoire. Antibodies against the NR1 subunit of the NMDAR are thought to be pathogenic; however, direct proof is lacking as previous experiments could not distinguish the contribution of further anti-neuronal antibodies. Using single cell cloning of full-length immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes, we generated a panel of recombinant monoclonal NR1 antibodies from cerebrospinal fluid memory B cells and antibody secreting cells of NMDAR encephalitis patients. Cells typically carried somatically mutated immunoglobulin genes and had undergone class-switching to immunoglobulin G, clonally expanded cells carried identical somatic hypermutation patterns. A fraction of NR1 antibodies were non-mutated, thus resembling 'naturally occurring antibodies' and indicating that tolerance induction against NMDAR was incomplete and somatic hypermutation not essential for functional antibodies. However, only a small percentage of cerebrospinal fluid-derived antibodies reacted against NR1. Instead, nearly all further antibodies bound specifically to diverse brain-expressed epitopes including neuronal surfaces, suggesting that a broad repertoire of antibody-secreting cells enrich in the central nervous system during encephalitis. Our functional data using primary hippocampal neurons indicate that human cerebrospinal fluid-derived monoclonal NR1 antibodies alone are sufficient to cause neuronal surface receptor downregulation and subsequent impairment of NMDAR-mediated currents, thus providing ultimate proof of antibody pathogenicity. The observed formation of immunological memory might be relevant for clinical relapses. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on

  13. Autoantibodies and human immunodeficiency viruses infection: a case-control study.

    Chretien, P; Monier, J C; Oksman, F; San Marco, M; Escande, A; Goetz, J; Cohen, J; Baquey, A; Humbel, R L; Sibilia, J

    2003-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of organ-specific and non-specific autoantibodies in HIV-infected patients. A multicentric collaborative case-control study including 105 HIV patients and 100 sex- and age-matched HIV-negative healthy volunteers. Antinuclear, anti-ds DNA, anti-histone, anti-Sm, rheumatoid factor(IgM), anti-beta 2 glycoprotein 1, antineutrophil cytoplasmic, anti-LKM1, anti-LCA1, anti-gastric parietal cell, antiplatelet, anti-intermediate filament, anti-mitotic spindle apparatus, anti-Golgi, anti-ribosome and anti-thyroid autoantibodies were screened in six European laboratories. Only IgG and IgM anticardiolipin, IgG antiplatelet, anti-smooth muscle and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies were statistically more frequent in HIV patients. There was no correlation with the numbers of CD4+ cells except in the case of anti-smooth muscle antibodies. We were unable to find specific autoantibodies such as anti-ds DNA, anti-Sm, AMA, anti-LKM1, anti-LCA1 or anti-beta 2 GP1 antibodies in these patients. Our results indicate that the autoantibody profile of HIV infections is comparable to those of other chronic viral infections. HIV does not seem to be more autoimmunogenic than other viruses.

  14. The measurement of TSH-receptor autoantibodies in human serum by radioreceptor assay

    Truong, T.X.

    2002-01-01

    TSH receptor autoantibodies (TRAB) are valuable in Graves' disease with a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 80%. Autoantibodies levels decrease progressively with antithyroid drugs treatment or after thyroidectomy. The predictive value of the level of TSH receptor autoantibodies is diversely appreciated. Nevertheless, the vast majority of the studies agrees on the fact that high levels of TSH receptor autoantibodies predict a relapse. The feto-placental transfer of these antibodies could explain congenital hyperthyroidism of newborns from mother affected by Graves' disease. These antibodies are present in certain cases of Hashimoto thyroiditis, subacute thyroiditis or silent thyroiditis in phase of thyrotoxicosis. In Vietnam, first time we have researched determination of TRAB levels in the non disease and the Graves' disease, after treatment of antithyroid drugs and after thyroidectomy. We imported TRAB - Kit from CIS bio international France. The principle of Radioreceptor assay (RRA ) is following: TR - Ab kit utilizes a principle of competition between TSH receptor autoantibodies present in the sample and bovine TSH radiolabelled with 125 -I, facing a fixed and limited amount of soluble porcine TSH receptors. The more TSH receptor autoantibodies are present in the sample, the less 125 -I- TSH is bound to the soluble TSH receptors. Free and bound fractions are separated in adding PEG solution followed by a centrifugation. Results are calculated from a calibration curve (U/l). The samples were counted by the multi crystal gamma counter Oakfield which was supplied from IAEA (Years 2000). This is the first study in Vietnam, the concentration of TSH receptor autoantibodies (TRAB) was determined by radioreceptor assay (RRA) on 30 normal subjects and 30 Grave's disease subjects. The normal range is 1,4 □ 0.6 U/l. Max of normal is 2.99U/l. Min of normal is 3.38U/l .There are 11 males and 29 females with age from 15 to 50 years old. Mean of Graves' disease is

  15. A rapid lateral flow immunoassay for the detection of tyrosine phosphatase-like protein IA-2 autoantibodies in human serum.

    Ingrid Kikkas

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes (T1D results from the destruction of pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells and is strongly associated with the presence of islet autoantibodies. Autoantibodies to tyrosine phosphatase-like protein IA-2 (IA-2As are considered to be highly predictive markers of T1D. We developed a novel lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA based on a bridging format for the rapid detection of IA-2As in human serum samples. In this assay, one site of the IA-2As is bound to HA-tagged-IA-2, which is subsequently captured on the anti-HA-Tag antibody-coated test line on the strip. The other site of the IA-2As is bound to biotinylated IA-2, allowing the complex to be visualized using colloidal gold nanoparticle-conjugated streptavidin. For this study, 35 serum samples from T1D patients and 44 control sera from non-diabetic individuals were analyzed with our novel assay and the results were correlated with two IA-2A ELISAs. Among the 35 serum samples from T1D patients, the IA-2A LFIA, the in-house IA-2A ELISA and the commercial IA-2A ELISA identified as positive 21, 29 and 30 IA-2A-positive sera, respectively. The major advantages of the IA-2A LFIA are its rapidity and simplicity.

  16. Food availability and foraging near human developments by black bears

    Merkle, Jerod A.; Robinson, Hugh S.; Krausman, Paul R.; Alaback, Paul B.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between foraging ecology and the presence of human-dominated landscapes is important, particularly for American black bears (Ursus americanus), which sometimes move between wildlands and urban areas to forage. The food-related factors influencing this movement have not been explored, but can be important for understanding the benefits and costs to black bear foraging behavior and the fundamental origins of bear conflicts. We tested whether the scarcity of wildland foods or the availability of urban foods can explain when black bears forage near houses, examined the extent to which male bears use urban areas in comparison to females, and identified the most important food items influencing bear movement into urban areas. We monitored 16 collared black bears in and around Missoula, Montana, during 2009 and 2010, while quantifying the rate of change in green vegetation and the availability of 5 native berry-producing species outside the urban area, the rate of change in green vegetation, and the availability of apples and garbage inside the urban area. We used parametric time-to-event models in which an event was a bear location collected within 100 m of a house. We also visited feeding sites located near houses and quantified food items bears had eaten. The probability of a bear being located near a house was 1.6 times higher for males, and increased during apple season and the urban green-up. Fruit trees accounted for most of the forage items at urban feeding sites (49%), whereas wildland foods composed fruit trees, appear to be more important than the availability of garbage in influencing when bears forage near houses.

  17. Human disturbances of denning polar bears in Alaska

    Amstrup, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) give birth in dens of snow and ice. The altricial neonates cannot leave the den for >2 months post-partum and are potentially vulnerable to disturbances near dens. The coastal plain (1002) area of Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) lies in a region of known polar bear denning and also may contain >9 billion barrels of recoverable oil. Polar bears in dens could be affected in many ways by hydrocarbon development. The distribution of dens on ANWR was documented between 1981 and 1992 and responses of bears in dens to various anthropogenic disturbances were observed. Of 44 dens located by radiotelemetry on the mainland coast of Alaska and Canada, 20 (45%) were on ANWR and 15 (34%) were within the 1002 area. Thus, development of ANWR will increase the potential that denning polar bears are disturbed by human activities. However, perturbations resulting from capture, marking, and radiotracking maternal bears did not affect litter sizes or stature of cubs produced. Likewise, 10 of 12 denned polar bears tolerated exposure to exceptional levels of activity. This tolerance and the fact that investment in the denning effort increases through the winter indicated that spatial and temporal restrictions on developments could prevent the potential for many disruptions of denned bears from being realized. 16 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  18. Anti-proteinase 3 anti-neutrophil cytoplasm autoantibodies recapitulate systemic vasculitis in mice with a humanized immune system.

    Mark A Little

    Full Text Available Evidence is lacking for direct pathogenicity of human anti-proteinase-3 (PR3 antibodies in development of systemic vasculitis and granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, Wegener's granulomatosis. Progress in study of these antibodies in rodents has been hampered by lack of PR3 expression on murine neutrophils, and by different Fc-receptor affinities for IgG across species. Therefore, we tested whether human anti-PR3 antibodies can induce acute vasculitis in mice with a human immune system. Chimeric mice were generated by injecting human haematopoietic stem cells into irradiated NOD-scid-IL2Rγ⁻/⁻ mice. Matched chimera mice were treated with human IgG from patients with: anti-PR3 positive renal and lung vasculitis; patients with non-vasculitic renal disease; or healthy controls. Six-days later, 39% of anti-PR3 treated mice had haematuria, compared with none of controls. There was punctate bleeding on the surface of lungs of anti-PR3 treated animals, with histological evidence of vasculitis and haemorrhage. Anti-PR3 treated mice had mild pauci-immune proliferative glomerulonephritis, with infiltration of human and mouse leukocytes. In 3 mice (17% more severe glomerular injury was present. There were no glomerular changes in controls. Human IgG from patients with anti-PR3 autoantibodies is therefore pathogenic. This model of anti-PR3 antibody-mediated vasculitis may be useful in dissecting mechanisms of microvascular injury.

  19. Anti-proteinase 3 anti-neutrophil cytoplasm autoantibodies recapitulate systemic vasculitis in mice with a humanized immune system.

    Little, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Evidence is lacking for direct pathogenicity of human anti-proteinase-3 (PR3) antibodies in development of systemic vasculitis and granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, Wegener\\'s granulomatosis). Progress in study of these antibodies in rodents has been hampered by lack of PR3 expression on murine neutrophils, and by different Fc-receptor affinities for IgG across species. Therefore, we tested whether human anti-PR3 antibodies can induce acute vasculitis in mice with a human immune system. Chimeric mice were generated by injecting human haematopoietic stem cells into irradiated NOD-scid-IL2Rγ⁻\\/⁻ mice. Matched chimera mice were treated with human IgG from patients with: anti-PR3 positive renal and lung vasculitis; patients with non-vasculitic renal disease; or healthy controls. Six-days later, 39% of anti-PR3 treated mice had haematuria, compared with none of controls. There was punctate bleeding on the surface of lungs of anti-PR3 treated animals, with histological evidence of vasculitis and haemorrhage. Anti-PR3 treated mice had mild pauci-immune proliferative glomerulonephritis, with infiltration of human and mouse leukocytes. In 3 mice (17%) more severe glomerular injury was present. There were no glomerular changes in controls. Human IgG from patients with anti-PR3 autoantibodies is therefore pathogenic. This model of anti-PR3 antibody-mediated vasculitis may be useful in dissecting mechanisms of microvascular injury.

  20. The role of human outdoor recreation in shaping patterns of grizzly bear-black bear co-occurrence.

    Andrew Ladle

    Full Text Available Species' distributions are influenced by a combination of landscape variables and biotic interactions with other species, including people. Grizzly bears and black bears are sympatric, competing omnivores that also share habitats with human recreationists. By adapting models for multi-species occupancy analysis, we analyzed trail camera data from 192 trail camera locations in and around Jasper National Park, Canada to estimate grizzly bear and black bear occurrence and intensity of trail use. We documented (a occurrence of grizzly bears and black bears relative to habitat variables (b occurrence and intensity of use relative to competing bear species and motorised and non-motorised recreational activity, and (c temporal overlap in activity patterns among the two bear species and recreationists. Grizzly bears were spatially separated from black bears, selecting higher elevations and locations farther from roads. Both species co-occurred with motorised and non-motorised recreation, however, grizzly bears reduced their intensity of use of sites with motorised recreation present. Black bears showed higher temporal activity overlap with recreational activity than grizzly bears, however differences in bear daily activity patterns between sites with and without motorised and non-motorised recreation were not significant. Reduced intensity of use by grizzly bears of sites where motorised recreation was present is a concern given off-road recreation is becoming increasingly popular in North America, and can negatively influence grizzly bear recovery by reducing foraging opportunities near or on trails. Camera traps and multi-species occurrence models offer non-invasive methods for identifying how habitat use by animals changes relative to sympatric species, including humans. These conclusions emphasise the need for integrated land-use planning, access management, and grizzly bear conservation efforts to consider the implications of continued access for

  1. The role of human outdoor recreation in shaping patterns of grizzly bear-black bear co-occurrence.

    Ladle, Andrew; Steenweg, Robin; Shepherd, Brenda; Boyce, Mark S

    2018-01-01

    Species' distributions are influenced by a combination of landscape variables and biotic interactions with other species, including people. Grizzly bears and black bears are sympatric, competing omnivores that also share habitats with human recreationists. By adapting models for multi-species occupancy analysis, we analyzed trail camera data from 192 trail camera locations in and around Jasper National Park, Canada to estimate grizzly bear and black bear occurrence and intensity of trail use. We documented (a) occurrence of grizzly bears and black bears relative to habitat variables (b) occurrence and intensity of use relative to competing bear species and motorised and non-motorised recreational activity, and (c) temporal overlap in activity patterns among the two bear species and recreationists. Grizzly bears were spatially separated from black bears, selecting higher elevations and locations farther from roads. Both species co-occurred with motorised and non-motorised recreation, however, grizzly bears reduced their intensity of use of sites with motorised recreation present. Black bears showed higher temporal activity overlap with recreational activity than grizzly bears, however differences in bear daily activity patterns between sites with and without motorised and non-motorised recreation were not significant. Reduced intensity of use by grizzly bears of sites where motorised recreation was present is a concern given off-road recreation is becoming increasingly popular in North America, and can negatively influence grizzly bear recovery by reducing foraging opportunities near or on trails. Camera traps and multi-species occurrence models offer non-invasive methods for identifying how habitat use by animals changes relative to sympatric species, including humans. These conclusions emphasise the need for integrated land-use planning, access management, and grizzly bear conservation efforts to consider the implications of continued access for motorised

  2. The role of human outdoor recreation in shaping patterns of grizzly bear-black bear co-occurrence

    Ladle, Andrew; Steenweg, Robin; Shepherd, Brenda; Boyce, Mark S.

    2018-01-01

    Species' distributions are influenced by a combination of landscape variables and biotic interactions with other species, including people. Grizzly bears and black bears are sympatric, competing omnivores that also share habitats with human recreationists. By adapting models for multi-species occupancy analysis, we analyzed trail camera data from 192 trail camera locations in and around Jasper National Park, Canada to estimate grizzly bear and black bear occurrence and intensity of trail use....

  3. The role of human outdoor recreation in shaping patterns of grizzly bear-black bear co-occurrence

    Ladle, Andrew; Steenweg, Robin; Shepherd, Brenda; Boyce, Mark S.

    2018-01-01

    Species’ distributions are influenced by a combination of landscape variables and biotic interactions with other species, including people. Grizzly bears and black bears are sympatric, competing omnivores that also share habitats with human recreationists. By adapting models for multi-species occupancy analysis, we analyzed trail camera data from 192 trail camera locations in and around Jasper National Park, Canada to estimate grizzly bear and black bear occurrence and intensity of trail use....

  4. Bearing Witness: Citizen Journalism and Human Rights Issues

    Allan, Stuart; Sonwalkar, Prasun; Carter, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    This article assesses the potential of online news reporting to create discursive spaces for emphatic engagement--of bearing witness--at a distance, especially where human rights violations are concerned. Taking as its focus the emergent forms and practices of citizen journalism, it examines the spontaneous actions of ordinary people compelled to…

  5. Recombinant human monoclonal autoantibodies specific for citrulline-containing peptides from phage display libraries derived from patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Raats, J.M.H.; Wijnen, E.M.; Pruijn, G.J.M.; Hoogen, F.H.J. van den; Venrooij, W.J.W. van

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To isolate and characterize monoclonal autoantibodies (Mab) directed to citrullinated antigens from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Using lymphocytes from bone marrow or peripheral blood from RA patients, we constructed antibody fragment libraries representing the

  6. The comparison of the measurement of human serum thyroid globulin auto-antibodies and thyroid peroxidase auto-antibodies by CLIA and RIA

    Song Ailing; Guo Zhisheng; Sun Meili; Lian Xiaolan; Bai Yao

    2003-01-01

    The serum levels of thyroid globulin auto-antibodies (Anti-TgAb) and thyroid peroxidase auto-antibodies (Anti-TpoAb) in 37 patients with hyperthyroidism, 30 with chronic lymphocytic thyroidism, 36 with other endocrine diseases and 35 healthy persons were determined by chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) and RIA, and the results were compared with each other. The results showed: (1) The within-batch CVs of CLIA and RIA were 3.0% and 10.0%, and the between-batch CVs were 3.9% and 15.0%, respectively; (2) The levels of serum anti-TgAb and Anti-TpoAb in healthy people were 25.9±9.6 U/mL and 31.4±6.7U/mL by CLIA, while those were 11.2±2.8% and 8.7±3.0% by RIA; (3) The levels of serum anti-TgAb and Anti-TpoAb of chronic lymphocytic thyroidism were 292.6±334.1U/mL and 5043.3±3196.1U/mL (n=17) by CLIA, while those were 56.4±11.2% (n=21) and 35.4±6.9% (n=21) by RIA. It showed that levels of anti-TgAb and Anti-TpoAb of chronic lymphocytic thyroidism were much higher than that in healthy people by CLIA (P<0.001). Furthermore, the levels of Anti-TpoAb were more than 100 times of that in health people by CLIA and the specificity of Anti-TpoAb was higher; (4) The levels of anti-TgAb and Anti-TpoAb in hyperthyroid patients were 202.3±506.3U/mL and 452.9±645.8U/mL by CLIA, while those were 28.8±20.0% and 22.6±14.2% by RIA. The levels of Anti-TgAb and Anti-TpoAb in patients with other endocrine disease were 28.7±15.0U/mL and 58.8±45.7U/mL by CLIA, while those were 10.2±13.3% and 7.9±7.7% by RIA; (5) These is a significant correlation between the two methods: Anti TgAb r=0.695; and Anti-TpoAb r=0.489. This results show that it may be more sensitive and specific test of Anti-TpoAb with CLIA than with RIA. CLIA should be used as a powerful diagnostic tool in clinical because it is simple, quick and without radioisotope

  7. Enhanced insight into the autoimmune component of glaucoma: IgG autoantibody accumulation and pro-inflammatory conditions in human glaucomatous retina.

    Gramlich, Oliver W; Beck, Sabine; von Thun Und Hohenstein-Blaul, Nadine; Boehm, Nils; Ziegler, Anika; Vetter, Jan M; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Grus, Franz H

    2013-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that autoimmune components, such as autoantibodies and autoantibody depositions, play a role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimeŕs disease or Multiple Sclerosis. Due to alterations of autoantibody patterns in sera and aqueous humor, an autoimmune component is also assumed in the pathogenesis of glaucoma, a common reason for irreversible blindness worldwide. So far there has been no convincing evidence that autoantibodies are accumulated in the retina of glaucoma patients and that the local immune homeostasis might be affected. Six human glaucomatous donor eyes and nine samples from donors with no recorded ocular disease were included. Antibody microarrays were used to examine the patterns of pro-inflammatory proteins and complement proteins. Analysis of TNF-α and interleukin levels revealed a slight up-regulation exclusively in the glaucomatous group, while complement protein levels were not altered. IgG autoantibody accumulations and/or cellular components were determined by immunohistology (n = 4 per group). A significantly reduced number of retinal ganglion cells was found in the glaucomatous group (healthy: 104±7 nuclei/mm, glaucoma: 67±9 nuclei/mm; p = 0.0007). Cell loss was accompanied by strong retinal IgG autoantibody accumulations, which were at least twice as high as in healthy subjects (healthy: 5.0±0.5 IgG deposits/100 cells, glaucoma: 9.4±1.9 IgG deposits/100 cells; p = 0.004). CD27(+) cells and CD27(+)/IgG(+) plasma cells were observed in all glaucomatous subjects, but not in controls. This work provides serious evidence for the occurrence of IgG antibody deposition and plasma cells in human glaucomatous retina. Moreover, the results suggest that these IgG deposits occurred in a pro-inflammatory environment which seems to be maintained locally by immune-competent cells like microglia. Thereby, glaucoma features an immunological involvement comparable to other

  8. Enhanced insight into the autoimmune component of glaucoma: IgG autoantibody accumulation and pro-inflammatory conditions in human glaucomatous retina.

    Oliver W Gramlich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is accumulating evidence that autoimmune components, such as autoantibodies and autoantibody depositions, play a role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimeŕs disease or Multiple Sclerosis. Due to alterations of autoantibody patterns in sera and aqueous humor, an autoimmune component is also assumed in the pathogenesis of glaucoma, a common reason for irreversible blindness worldwide. So far there has been no convincing evidence that autoantibodies are accumulated in the retina of glaucoma patients and that the local immune homeostasis might be affected. METHODS AND RESULTS: Six human glaucomatous donor eyes and nine samples from donors with no recorded ocular disease were included. Antibody microarrays were used to examine the patterns of pro-inflammatory proteins and complement proteins. Analysis of TNF-α and interleukin levels revealed a slight up-regulation exclusively in the glaucomatous group, while complement protein levels were not altered. IgG autoantibody accumulations and/or cellular components were determined by immunohistology (n = 4 per group. A significantly reduced number of retinal ganglion cells was found in the glaucomatous group (healthy: 104±7 nuclei/mm, glaucoma: 67±9 nuclei/mm; p = 0.0007. Cell loss was accompanied by strong retinal IgG autoantibody accumulations, which were at least twice as high as in healthy subjects (healthy: 5.0±0.5 IgG deposits/100 cells, glaucoma: 9.4±1.9 IgG deposits/100 cells; p = 0.004. CD27(+ cells and CD27(+/IgG(+ plasma cells were observed in all glaucomatous subjects, but not in controls. CONCLUSION: This work provides serious evidence for the occurrence of IgG antibody deposition and plasma cells in human glaucomatous retina. Moreover, the results suggest that these IgG deposits occurred in a pro-inflammatory environment which seems to be maintained locally by immune-competent cells like microglia. Thereby, glaucoma features an

  9. Optimization of Diagnostic Elisa - Based Tests for the Detection of Auto-Antibodies Against Tumor Antigens in Human Serum

    Daria Štefatić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancer types worldwide and it continues to be a serious public health problem. Early detection and diagnosis are of great importance in cancer management. At present, diagnostic blood tests are based on the detection of tumor-associated markers such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, the cancer antigen CA19-9 for gastrointestinal cancer, CA15-3 for breast cancer or CA125 for ovarian cancer. The lack of sensitivity and specificity of these markers prevents their general use in cancer screening of an average risk population. Therefore, new cancer biomarkers or better screening methods are necessary to improve the diagnostics of the disease. This study was directed to the optimization of a diagnostic, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA based test to identify and validate new serum markers, such as extracellular Protein Kinase A (ecPKA and Nicotinamide A-Meth- yltransferase (NNMT. In this type of assay, the cancer antigens are quantified indirectly - by detecting the presence of auto-antibodies against tumor proteins in human serum. The result of the optimization and validation process was in the case of ecPKA a reproducible and stable assay. In case of NNMT the assay was probably not sensitive enough.

  10. Detection of autoantibodies to cytokines

    Bendtzen, K; Hansen, M B; Ross, C

    2000-01-01

    Autoantibodies to various cytokines have been reported in normal individuals and in patients with various infectious and immunoinflammatory disorders, and similar antibodies (Ab) may be induced in patients receiving human recombinant cytokines. The clinical relevance of these Ab is often difficul...

  11. Behaviour of solitary adult Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos when approached by humans on foot.

    Gro Kvelprud Moen

    Full Text Available Successful management has brought the Scandinavian brown bear (Ursus arctos L. back from the brink of extinction, but as the population grows and expands the probability of bear-human encounters increases. More people express concerns about spending time in the forest, because of the possibility of encountering bears, and acceptance for the bear is decreasing. In this context, reliable information about the bear's normal behaviour during bear-human encounters is important. Here we describe the behaviour of brown bears when encountering humans on foot. During 2006-2009, we approached 30 adult (21 females, 9 males GPS-collared bears 169 times during midday, using 1-minute positioning before, during and after the approach. Observer movements were registered with a handheld GPS. The approaches started 869±348 m from the bears, with the wind towards the bear when passing it at approximately 50 m. The bears were detected in 15% of the approaches, and none of the bears displayed any aggressive behaviour. Most bears (80% left the initial site during the approach, going away from the observers, whereas some remained at the initial site after being approached (20%. Young bears left more often than older bears, possibly due to differences in experience, but the difference between ages decreased during the berry season compared to the pre-berry season. The flight initiation distance was longer for active bears (115±94 m than passive bears (69±47 m, and was further affected by horizontal vegetation cover and the bear's age. Our findings show that bears try to avoid confrontations with humans on foot, and support the conclusions of earlier studies that the Scandinavian brown bear is normally not aggressive during encounters with humans.

  12. Native human autoantibodies targeting GIPC1 identify differential expression in malignant tumors of the breast and ovary

    Yavelsky, Victoria; Chan, Gerald; Kalantarov, Gavreel; Trakht, Ilya; Lobel, Leslie; Rohkin, Sarit; Shaco-Levy, Ruthy; Tzikinovsky, Alina; Amir, Tamar; Kohn, Hila; Delgado, Berta; Rabinovich, Alex; Piura, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    We have been studying the native humoral immune response to cancer and have isolated a library of fully human autoantibodies to a variety of malignancies. We previously described the isolation and characterization of two fully human monoclonal antibodies, 27.F7 and 27.B1, from breast cancer patients that target the protein known as GIPC1, an accessory PDZ-domain binding protein involved in regulation of G-protein signaling. Human monoclonal antibodies, 27.F7 and 27.B1, to GIPC1 demonstrate specific binding to malignant breast cancer tissue with no reactivity with normal breast tissue. The current study employs cELISA, flow cytometry, Western blot analysis as well as immunocytochemistry, and immunohistochemistry. Data is analyzed statistically with the Fisher one-tail and two-tail tests for two independent samples. By screening several other cancer cell lines with 27.F7 and 27.B1 we found consistently strong staining of other human cancer cell lines including SKOV-3 (an ovarian cancer cell line). To further clarify the association of GIPC1 with breast and ovarian cancer we carefully studied 27.F7 and 27.B1 using immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical techniques. An immunohistochemical study of normal ovarian tissue, benign, borderline and malignant ovarian serous tumors, and different types of breast cancer revealed high expression of GIPC1 protein in neoplastic cells. Interestingly, antibodies 27.F7 and 27.B1 demonstrate differential staining of borderline ovarian tumors. Examination of different types of breast cancer demonstrates that the level of GIPC1 expression depends on tumor invasiveness and displays a higher expression than in benign tumors. The present pilot study demonstrates that the GIPC1 protein is overexpressed in ovarian and breast cancer, which may provide an important diagnostic and prognostic marker and will constitute the basis for further study of the role that this protein plays in malignant diseases. In addition, this study suggests that

  13. Human footprint variation while performing load bearing tasks.

    Cara M Wall-Scheffler

    Full Text Available Human footprint fossils have provided essential evidence about the evolution of human bipedalism as well as the social dynamics of the footprint makers, including estimates of speed, sex and group composition. Generally such estimates are made by comparing footprint evidence with modern controls; however, previous studies have not accounted for the variation in footprint dimensions coming from load bearing activities. It is likely that a portion of the hominins who created these fossil footprints were carrying a significant load, such as offspring or foraging loads, which caused variation in the footprint which could extend to variation in any estimations concerning the footprint's maker. To identify significant variation in footprints due to load-bearing tasks, we had participants (N = 30, 15 males and 15 females walk at a series of speeds carrying a 20kg pack on their back, side and front. Paint was applied to the bare feet of each participant to create footprints that were compared in terms of foot length, foot width and foot area. Female foot length and width increased during multiple loaded conditions. An appreciation of footprint variability associated with carrying loads adds an additional layer to our understanding of the behavior and morphology of extinct hominin populations.

  14. Congenital heart block maternal sera autoantibodies target an extracellular epitope on the α1G T-type calcium channel in human fetal hearts.

    Linn S Strandberg

    Full Text Available Congenital heart block (CHB is a transplacentally acquired autoimmune disease associated with anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB maternal autoantibodies and is characterized primarily by atrioventricular (AV block of the fetal heart. This study aims to investigate whether the T-type calcium channel subunit α1G may be a fetal target of maternal sera autoantibodies in CHB.We demonstrate differential mRNA expression of the T-type calcium channel CACNA1G (α1G gene in the AV junction of human fetal hearts compared to the apex (18-22.6 weeks gestation. Using human fetal hearts (20-22 wks gestation, our immunoprecipitation (IP, Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence (IF staining results, taken together, demonstrate accessibility of the α1G epitope on the surfaces of cardiomyocytes as well as reactivity of maternal serum from CHB affected pregnancies to the α1G protein. By ELISA we demonstrated maternal sera reactivity to α1G was significantly higher in CHB maternal sera compared to controls, and reactivity was epitope mapped to a peptide designated as p305 (corresponding to aa305-319 of the extracellular loop linking transmembrane segments S5-S6 in α1G repeat I. Maternal sera from CHB affected pregnancies also reacted more weakly to the homologous region (7/15 amino acids conserved of the α1H channel. Electrophysiology experiments with single-cell patch-clamp also demonstrated effects of CHB maternal sera on T-type current in mouse sinoatrial node (SAN cells.Taken together, these results indicate that CHB maternal sera antibodies readily target an extracellular epitope of α1G T-type calcium channels in human fetal cardiomyocytes. CHB maternal sera also show reactivity for α1H suggesting that autoantibodies can target multiple fetal targets.

  15. [Autoantibodies as biomarkers].

    Tron, François

    2014-01-01

    Activation and differentiation of autoreactive B-lymphocytes lead to the production of autoantibodies, which are thus the direct consequence of the autoimmune process. They often constitute biomarkers of autoimmune diseases and are measured by tests displaying various diagnosis sensitivity and specificity. Autoantibody titers can be correlated to the disease activity and certain autoantibody populations associated with particular clinical manifestations or tissue lesions. The demonstration that autoantibodies appear years before the onset of autoimmune diseases indicates that their presence in healthy individuals may be a predictive marker of the occurrence of disease. Certain autoantibodies could also be predictive markers of a therapeutic response to biologics and of the occurrence of side effects as well. Thus, autoantibodies are useful tools in the diagnosis and the management of patients with organ specific or non-organ specific autoimmune diseases at different steps of the autoimmune process. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Autoantibodies to Posttranslational Modifications in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Burska, Agata N.; Hunt, Laura; Strollo, Rocky; Ryan, Brent J.; Vital, Ed; Nissim, Ahuva; Winyard, Paul G.; Emery, Paul; Ponchel, Frederique

    2014-01-01

    Autoantibodies have been associated with human pathologies for a long time, particularly with autoimmune diseases (AIDs). Rheumatoid factor (RF) is known since the late 1930s to be associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The discovery of anticitrullinated protein antibodies in the last century has changed this and other posttranslational modifications (PTM) relevant to RA have since been described. Such PTM introduce neoepitopes in proteins that can generate novel autoantibody specificities. The recent recognition of these novel specificities in RA provides a unique opportunity to understand human B-cell development in vivo. In this paper, we will review the three of the main classes of PTMs already associated with RA: citrullination, carbamylation, and oxidation. With the advancement of research methodologies it should be expected that other autoantibodies against PTM proteins could be discovered in patients with autoimmune diseases. Many of such autoantibodies may provide significant biomarker potential. PMID:24782594

  17. The clinical application of fluorescent-enzyme immunoassay to detect human thyroid peroxidase autoantibody quantitatively

    Chai Jinyan; Fang Peihua; Li Ning; Zhang Yanli

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To establish a fluorescent-enzyme immunoassay (FEIA) with recombinant human thyroid peroxidase (hTPO) as the antigen. Methods: Sera of 326 healthy people, 119 cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), 116 cases of Graves disease (untreated), 28 cases of nodular goiter, 10 ca-ses of subacute thyroiditis and 6 cases of simple goiter were measured by the FEIA with recombinant hTPO as the antigen. Rrank sum test and χ 2 -test were used in inter-groups. Results: (1) Concentration above 4000 U/L was considered to be positive. (2) The intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) and the inter-as-say CV were 4.59% ∼ 6.52% and 17.37% ∼ 17.45%. (3) The values measured by the FEIA were positively correlated with the values measured by hTPO antibody (hTPOAb) commercial kit (r=0.80, P 2 = 53.45, 39.30, 15.41 and 21.74, all P < 0.01). Conclusions: The method can be applied in the serum measurement of thyroid disease. HT presented the highest positive rate, therefore, the FEIA was an effective method in diagnosing HT. (authors)

  18. Grizzly bear-human conflicts in the Yellowstone Ecosystem, 1992-2000

    Gunther, K.A.; Haroldson, M.A.; Cain, S.L.; Copeland, J.; Frey, K.; Schwartz, C.C.

    2004-01-01

    For many years, the primary strategy for managing grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) that came into conflict with humans in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) was to capture and translocate the offending bears away from conflict sites. Translocation usually only temporarily alleviated the problems and most often did not result in long-term solutions. Wildlife managers needed to be able to predict the causes, types, locations, and trends of conflicts to more efficiently allocate resources for pro-active rather than reactive management actions. To address this need, we recorded all grizzly bear-human conflicts reported in the GYE during 1992-2000. We analyzed trends in conflicts over time (increasing or decreasing), geographic location on macro- (inside or outside of the designated Yellowstone Grizzly Bear Recovery Zone [YGBRZ]) and micro- (geographic location) scales, land ownership (public or private), and relationship to the seasonal availability of bear foods. We recorded 995 grizzly bear-human conflicts in the GYE. Fifty-three percent of the conflicts occurred outside and 47% inside the YGBRZ boundary. Fifty-nine percent of the conflicts occurred on public and 41% on private land. Incidents of bears damaging property and obtaining anthropogenic foods were inversely correlated to the abundance of naturally occurring bear foods. Livestock depredations occurred independent of the availability of bear foods. To further aid in prioritizing management strategies to reduce conflicts, we also analyzed conflicts in relation to subsequent human-caused grizzly bear mortality. There were 74 human-caused grizzly bear mortalities during the study, primarily from killing bears in defense of life and property (43%) and management removal of bears involved in bear-human conflicts (28%). Other sources of human-caused mortality included illegal kills, electrocution by downed power-lines, mistaken identification by American black bear (Ursus americanus) hunters, and vehicle strikes

  19. Bear phalanx traumatically introduced into a living human: Prehistoric evidence.

    Richards, Gary D; Ojeda, Hillary M; Jabbour, Rebecca S; Ibarra, Caitlin L; Horton, Caroline F

    2013-03-01

    Traumatically induced skeletal injuries are common and can be ascribed to a normal range of events occurring in an individual's lifetime. A subset of these trauma-induced injuries provides enhanced insight into cultural history. Such cases might include those referable to medico-surgical and religious/ritualistic practices. We describe prehistoric evidence and cultural implications of the traumatic insertion of an Ursus manual phalanx into the elbow of a living human. The injury healed and the phalanx remained in situ until death. The individual derives from the Ellis Landing shellmound and dates to a subphase of the Middle Period (≈500BC-300AD) in the California cultural sequence. The remains are of a 30-40 year-old female. Comparative data on arm morphology and pathological conditions present were collected (n=159). Three Ursus subspecies (n=15) were examined to identify the taxon represented by the phalanx. The described individual was probably wearing bear paw ornaments at the time she was crushed by a heavy object. During this event, a bear claw was driven into her cubital fossa, the basal phalangeal tubercle being impressed into the humerus. The wound healed completely. The presence of Ursus body parts indicates an elevated societal role for this female; most likely she was a shaman or healer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Saffold Virus, a Human Cardiovirus, and Risk of Persistent Islet Autoantibodies in the Longitudinal Birth Cohort Study MIDIA.

    German Tapia

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the frequency and distribution of Saffold virus in longitudinal stool samples from children, and test for association with development of persistent autoantibodies predictive of type 1 diabetes. A cohort of Norwegian children carrying the HLA genotype associated with highest risk of type 1 diabetes ("DR4-DQ8/DR3-DQ2" was followed with monthly stool samples from 3 to 35 months of age. Blood samples were tested for autoantibodies to insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase65 and Islet Antigen-2. 2077 stool samples from 27 children with ≥ 2 repeatedly positive islet autoantibodies (cases, and 53 matched controls were analysed for Saffold virus genomic RNA by semi-quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. Saffold virus was found in 53 of 2077 (2.6% samples, with similar proportions between cases (2.5% and controls (2.6%. The probability of being infected by 3 years of age was 28% (95% CI 0.18-0.40. Viral quantities ranged from <1 to almost 105 copies/μl. Estimated odds ratio between islet autoimmunity and infection episodes prior to seroconversion was 1.98 (95% CI: 0.57-6.91, p = 0.29. Saffold virus had no statistically significant association with islet autoimmunity.

  1. Bear-human interactions at Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve: Conflict risk assessment

    Smith, Tom S.; DeBruyn, Terry D.; Lewis, Tania; Yerxa, Rusty; Partridge, Steven T.

    2003-01-01

    Many bear-human conflicts have occurred in Alaska parks and refuges, resulting in area closures, property damage, human injury, and loss of life. Human activity in bear country has also had negative and substantial consequences for bears: disruption of their natural activity patterns, displacement from important habitats, injury, and death. It is unfortunate for both people and bears when conflicts occur. Fortunately, however, solutions exist for reducing, and in some instances eliminating, bear-human conflict. This article presents ongoing work at Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and National Park Service scientists who are committed to finding solutions for the bear-human conflicts that periodically occurs there.

  2. Voltage-gated potassium channel (K(v) 1) autoantibodies in patients with chagasic gut dysmotility and distribution of K(v) 1 channels in human enteric neuromusculature (autoantibodies in GI dysmotility).

    Hubball, A W; Lang, B; Souza, M A N; Curran, O D; Martin, J E; Knowles, C H

    2012-08-01

    Autoantibodies directed against specific neuronal antigens are found in a significant number of patients with gastrointestinal neuromuscular diseases (GINMDs) secondary to neoplasia. This study examined the presence of antineuronal antibodies in idiopathic GINMD and GINMD secondary to South American Trypanosomiasis. The GI distribution of voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs) was also investigated. Seventy-three patients were included in the study with diagnoses of primary achalasia, enteric dysmotility, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, esophageal or colonic dysmotility secondary to Chagas' disease. Sera were screened for specific antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase, voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs; P/Q subtype), nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs; α3 subtype), and voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs, K(V) 1 subtype) using validated immunoprecipitation assays. The distribution of six VGKC subunits (K(V) 1.1-1.6), including those known to be antigenic targets of anti-VGKC antibodies was immunohistochemically investigated in all main human GI tract regions. Three patients (14%) with chagasic GI dysmotility were found to have positive anti-VGKC antibody titers. No antibodies were detected in patients with idiopathic GINMD. The VGKCs were found in enteric neurons at every level of the gut in unique yet overlapping distributions. The VGKC expression in GI smooth muscle was found to be limited to the esophagus. A small proportion of patients with GI dysfunction secondary to Chagas' disease have antibodies against VGKCs. The presence of these channels in the human enteric nervous system may have pathological relevance to the growing number of GINMDs with which anti-VGKC antibodies have been associated. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. The impacts of intensity of human use on grizzly bear habitat selection

    Ouren, Douglas S.; Garrott, Robert A.; Watts, Raymond D.; Lukins, William J.

    2003-01-01

    Problem Statement One of the major challenges to grizzly bear preservation in the greater Yellowstone area is the impact on grizzly bear habitat selection by various types and intensities of human activities. The most prevalent of these human activities is the presence and intensity of use of motorized transportation systems. These transportation systems provide increased access into grizzly bear habitat and thus increase the risk of mortality and dilute the effectiveness of their habitat (Br...

  4. Brown bear-human interactions associated with deer hunting on Kodiak Island

    Barnes, Victor G.

    1994-01-01

    I compared distribution and range of brown bears (Ursus arctos middendorffi) with temporal and spatial distribution of Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) hunting activity on westside Kodiak Island, Alaska, to examine impacts of deer hunting on bears. Mean number of bears that annually ranged ≤5 km from the coast, >5 km inland from the coast, or in both areas was 10, 8, and 11, respectively. Bears that exclusively or seasonally occupied the coast zone were usually classed as having moderate or high potential to interact with hunters because most hunter access and effort (>95%) was via the coast. Bears that ranged exclusively inland were considered unlikely to encounter hunters. Animals that ranged in both zones often (39%) moved inland during fall (Oct-Dec) and most bears (70%) denned in the inland zone. Females that denned near the coast entered dens later (x̄ = 22 Nov) than females that denned inland (x̄ = 12 Nov). Two radio-collared bears were known to raid deer-hunting camps and 9 other marked bears were observed by hunters or were located bear during their hunt. Seven to 21% of the respondents reported having a threatening encounter with a bear and 5-26% reported losing deer meat to bears. Human-induced mortality to radio-collared bears occurred more often near the coast (5) than inland (3); 7 bears were harvested by sport hunters and 1 was killed (nonsport) in a Native village. Deer hunters killed 2 unmarked females in defense of life or property situations in the study area. High bear densities and concentrated deer-hunting activity combine to make conflicts unavoidable. Adverse impacts to bears can be minimized by maintaining low levels of human activity in inland areas and improving hunter awareness of bear ecology and behavior.

  5. Autoantibodies in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Carolin Hoffmann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. The identification of autoantibodies targeting the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R, which causes neurological and psychiatric symptoms, has reinvigorated the hypothesis that other patient subgroups may also suffer from an underlying autoimmune condition. In recent years, a wide range of neuropsychiatric diseases and autoantibodies targeting ion-channels or neuronal receptors including NMDA-R, voltage gated potassium channel complex (VGKC complex, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPA-R, γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA-R and dopamine receptor (DR were studied and conflicting reports have been published regarding the seroprevalence of these autoantibodies. A clear causative role of autoantibodies on psychiatric symptoms has as yet only been shown for the NMDA-R. Several other autoantibodies have been related to the presence of certain symptoms and antibody effector mechanisms have been proposed. However, extensive clinical studies with large multicenter efforts to standardize diagnostic procedures for autoimmune etiology and animal studies are needed to confirm the pathogenicity of these autoantibodies. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of neuronal autoantibodies in the major neuropsychiatric disorders: psychotic, major depression, autism spectrum, obsessive-compulsive and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders.

  6. Autoantibodies in Autoimmune Hepatitis.

    Muratori, Luigi; Deleonardi, Gaia; Lalanne, Claudine; Barbato, Erica; Tovoli, Alessandra; Libra, Alessia; Lenzi, Marco; Cassani, Fabio; Muratori, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The detection of diagnostic autoantibodies such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-smooth muscle antibodies (SMA), anti-liver/kidney microsomal type 1 (anti-LKM1), anti-liver cytosol type 1 (anti-LC1) and anti-soluble liver antigen (anti-SLA) is historically associated with the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. When autoimmune hepatitis is suspected, the detection of one or any combination of diagnostic autoantibodies, by indirect immunofluorescence or immuno-enzymatic techniques with recombinant antigens, is a pivotal step to reach a diagnostic score of probable or definite autoimmune hepatitis. Diagnostic autoantibodies (ANA, SMA, anti-LKM1, anti-LC1, anti-SLA) are a cornerstone in the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. Other ancillary autoantibodies, associated with peculiar clinical correlations, appear to be assay-dependent and institution-specific, and validation studies are needed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Human lymphoma mutations reveal CARD11 as the switch between self-antigen–induced B cell death or proliferation and autoantibody production

    Jeelall, Yogesh S.; Wang, James Q.; Law, Hsei-Di; Domaschenz, Heather; Fung, Herman K.H.; Kallies, Axel; Nutt, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    Self-tolerance and immunity are actively acquired in parallel through a poorly understood ability of antigen receptors to switch between signaling death or proliferation of antigen-binding lymphocytes in different contexts. It is not known whether this tolerance-immunity switch requires global rewiring of the signaling apparatus or if it can arise from a single molecular change. By introducing individual CARD11 mutations found in human lymphomas into antigen-activated mature B lymphocytes in mice, we find here that lymphoma-derived CARD11 mutations switch the effect of self-antigen from inducing B cell death into T cell–independent proliferation, Blimp1-mediated plasmablast differentiation, and autoantibody secretion. Our findings demonstrate that regulation of CARD11 signaling is a critical switch governing the decision between death and proliferation in antigen-stimulated mature B cells and that mutations in this switch represent a powerful initiator for aberrant B cell responses in vivo. PMID:23027925

  8. Relative influences of climate change and human activity on the onshore distribution of polar bears

    Wilson, Ryan R.; Regehr, Eric V.; St. Martin, Michelle; Atwood, Todd C.; Peacock, Elizabeth; Miller, Susanne; Divoky, George J.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is altering habitat for many species, leading to shifts in distributions that can increase levels of human-wildlife conflict. To develop effective strategies for minimizing human-wildlife conflict, we must understand the relative influences that climate change and other factors have on wildlife distributions. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are increasingly using land during summer and autumn due to sea ice loss, leading to higher incidents of conflict and concerns for human safety. We sought to understand the relative influence of sea ice conditions, onshore habitat characteristics, and human-provisioned food attractants on the distribution and abundance of polar bears while on shore. We also wanted to determine how mitigation measures might reduce human-polar bear conflict associated with an anthropogenic food source. We built a Bayesian hierarchical model based on 14 years of aerial survey data to estimate the weekly number and distribution of polar bears on the coast of northern Alaska in autumn. We then used the model to predict how effective two management options for handling subsistence-harvested whale remains in the community of Kaktovik, Alaska might be. The distribution of bears on shore was most strongly influenced by the presence of whale carcasses and to a lesser extent sea ice and onshore habitat conditions. The numbers of bears on shore were related to sea ice conditions. The two management strategies for handling the whale carcasses reduced the estimated number of bears near Kaktovik by > 75%. By considering multiple factors associated with the onshore distribution and abundance of polar bears we discerned what role human activities played in where bears occur and how successful efforts to manage the whale carcasses might be for reducing human-polar bear conflict.

  9. Predators or prey? Spatio-temporal discrimination of human-derived risk by brown bears.

    Ordiz, Andrés; Støen, Ole-Gunnar; Delibes, Miguel; Swenson, Jon E

    2011-05-01

    Prey usually adjust anti-predator behavior to subtle variations in perceived risk. However, it is not clear whether adult large carnivores that are virtually free of natural predation adjust their behavior to subtle variations in human-derived risk, even when living in human-dominated landscapes. As a model, we studied resting-site selection by a large carnivore, the brown bear (Ursus arctos), under different spatial and temporal levels of human activity. We quantified horizontal and canopy cover at 440 bear beds and 439 random sites at different distances from human settlements, seasons, and times of the day. We hypothesized that beds would be more concealed than random sites and that beds would be more concealed in relation to human-derived risk. Although human densities in Scandinavia are the lowest within bear ranges in Western Europe, we found an effect of human activity; bears chose beds with higher horizontal and canopy cover during the day (0700-1900 hours), especially when resting closer to human settlements, than at night (2200-0600 hours). In summer/fall (the berry season), with more intensive and dispersed human activity, including hunting, bears rested further from human settlements during the day than in spring (pre-berry season). Additionally, day beds in the summer/fall were the most concealed. Large carnivores often avoid humans at a landscape scale, but total avoidance in human-dominated areas is not possible. Apparently, bears adjust their behavior to avoid human encounters, which resembles the way prey avoid their predators. Bears responded to fine-scale variations in human-derived risk, both on a seasonal and a daily basis.

  10. Detection of autoantibodies to cytokines

    Bendtzen, K; Hansen, M B; Ross, C

    2000-01-01

    Autoantibodies to various cytokines have been reported in normal individuals and in patients with various infectious and immunoinflammatory disorders, and similar antibodies (Ab) may be induced in patients receiving human recombinant cytokines. The clinical relevance of these Ab is often difficult...... to evaluate. Not only are in vitro neutralizing cytokine Ab not necessarily neutralizing in vivo, but assays for binding and neutralizing Ab to cytokines are often difficult to interpret. For example, denaturation of immobilized cytokines in immunoblotting techniques and immunometric assays may leave Ab...

  11. Stochasticity in natural forage production affects use of urban areas by black bears: implications to management of human-bear conflicts.

    Sharon Baruch-Mordo

    Full Text Available The rapid expansion of global urban development is increasing opportunities for wildlife to forage and become dependent on anthropogenic resources. Wildlife using urban areas are often perceived dichotomously as urban or not, with some individuals removed in the belief that dependency on anthropogenic resources is irreversible and can lead to increased human-wildlife conflict. For American black bears (Ursus americanus, little is known about the degree of bear urbanization and its ecological mechanisms to guide the management of human-bear conflicts. Using 6 years of GPS location and activity data from bears in Aspen, Colorado, USA, we evaluated the degree of bear urbanization and the factors that best explained its variations. We estimated space use, activity patterns, survival, and reproduction and modeled their relationship with ecological covariates related to bear characteristics and natural food availability. Space use and activity patterns were dependent on natural food availability (good or poor food years, where bears used higher human density areas and became more nocturnal in poor food years. Patterns were reversible, i.e., individuals using urban areas in poor food years used wildland areas in subsequent good food years. While reproductive output was similar across years, survival was lower in poor food years when bears used urban areas to a greater extent. Our findings suggest that bear use of urban areas is reversible and fluctuates with the availability of natural food resources, and that removal of urban individuals in times of food failures has the potential to negatively affect bear populations. Given that under current predictions urbanization is expected to increase by 11% across American black bear range, and that natural food failure years are expected to increase in frequency with global climate change, alternative methods of reducing urban human-bear conflict are required if the goal is to prevent urban areas from

  12. Stochasticity in natural forage production affects use of urban areas by black bears: implications to management of human-bear conflicts.

    Baruch-Mordo, Sharon; Wilson, Kenneth R; Lewis, David L; Broderick, John; Mao, Julie S; Breck, Stewart W

    2014-01-01

    The rapid expansion of global urban development is increasing opportunities for wildlife to forage and become dependent on anthropogenic resources. Wildlife using urban areas are often perceived dichotomously as urban or not, with some individuals removed in the belief that dependency on anthropogenic resources is irreversible and can lead to increased human-wildlife conflict. For American black bears (Ursus americanus), little is known about the degree of bear urbanization and its ecological mechanisms to guide the management of human-bear conflicts. Using 6 years of GPS location and activity data from bears in Aspen, Colorado, USA, we evaluated the degree of bear urbanization and the factors that best explained its variations. We estimated space use, activity patterns, survival, and reproduction and modeled their relationship with ecological covariates related to bear characteristics and natural food availability. Space use and activity patterns were dependent on natural food availability (good or poor food years), where bears used higher human density areas and became more nocturnal in poor food years. Patterns were reversible, i.e., individuals using urban areas in poor food years used wildland areas in subsequent good food years. While reproductive output was similar across years, survival was lower in poor food years when bears used urban areas to a greater extent. Our findings suggest that bear use of urban areas is reversible and fluctuates with the availability of natural food resources, and that removal of urban individuals in times of food failures has the potential to negatively affect bear populations. Given that under current predictions urbanization is expected to increase by 11% across American black bear range, and that natural food failure years are expected to increase in frequency with global climate change, alternative methods of reducing urban human-bear conflict are required if the goal is to prevent urban areas from becoming population sinks.

  13. Stochasticity in Natural Forage Production Affects Use of Urban Areas by Black Bears: Implications to Management of Human-Bear Conflicts

    Baruch-Mordo, Sharon; Wilson, Kenneth R.; Lewis, David L.; Broderick, John; Mao, Julie S.; Breck, Stewart W.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid expansion of global urban development is increasing opportunities for wildlife to forage and become dependent on anthropogenic resources. Wildlife using urban areas are often perceived dichotomously as urban or not, with some individuals removed in the belief that dependency on anthropogenic resources is irreversible and can lead to increased human-wildlife conflict. For American black bears (Ursus americanus), little is known about the degree of bear urbanization and its ecological mechanisms to guide the management of human-bear conflicts. Using 6 years of GPS location and activity data from bears in Aspen, Colorado, USA, we evaluated the degree of bear urbanization and the factors that best explained its variations. We estimated space use, activity patterns, survival, and reproduction and modeled their relationship with ecological covariates related to bear characteristics and natural food availability. Space use and activity patterns were dependent on natural food availability (good or poor food years), where bears used higher human density areas and became more nocturnal in poor food years. Patterns were reversible, i.e., individuals using urban areas in poor food years used wildland areas in subsequent good food years. While reproductive output was similar across years, survival was lower in poor food years when bears used urban areas to a greater extent. Our findings suggest that bear use of urban areas is reversible and fluctuates with the availability of natural food resources, and that removal of urban individuals in times of food failures has the potential to negatively affect bear populations. Given that under current predictions urbanization is expected to increase by 11% across American black bear range, and that natural food failure years are expected to increase in frequency with global climate change, alternative methods of reducing urban human-bear conflict are required if the goal is to prevent urban areas from becoming population sinks

  14. Natural autoantibodies and complement promote the uptake of a self antigen, human thyroglobulin, by B cells and the proliferation of thyroglobulin-reactive CD4(+) T cells in healthy individuals

    Nielsen, C H; Leslie, R G; Jepsen, B S

    2001-01-01

    Serum from normal individuals contains substantial amounts of natural antibodies (NA) capable of recognizing self antigens. However, the physiological implications of this autoreactivity remain unclear. We have examined the role of self-reactive NA and complement in mediating the uptake of human...... cells are prerequisites for the proliferation of Tg-reactive CD4(+) T cells, suggesting a novel role for natural autoantibodies and complement in the regulation of autoreactivity under physiological conditions....

  15. Physiological evidence for a human-induced landscape of fear in brown bears (Ursus arctos).

    Støen, Ole-Gunnar; Ordiz, Andres; Evans, Alina L; Laske, Timothy G; Kindberg, Jonas; Fröbert, Ole; Swenson, Jon E; Arnemo, Jon M

    2015-12-01

    Human persecution is a major cause of mortality for large carnivores. Consequently, large carnivores avoid humans, but may use human-dominated landscapes by being nocturnal and elusive. Behavioral studies indicate that certain ecological systems are "landscapes of fear", driven by antipredator behavior. Because behavior and physiology are closely interrelated, physiological assessments may provide insight into the behavioral response of large carnivores to human activity. To elucidate changes in brown bears' (Ursus arctos) behavior associated with human activity, we evaluated stress as changes in heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in 12 GPS-collared, free-ranging bears, 7 males and 5 females, 3-11 years old, using cardiac-monitoring devices. We applied generalized linear regression models with HR and HRV as response variables and chest activity, time of day, season, distance traveled, and distance to human settlements from GPS positions recorded every 30 min as potential explanatory variables. Bears exhibited lower HRV, an indication of stress, when they were close to human settlements and especially during the berry season, when humans were more often in the forest, picking berries and hunting. Our findings provide evidence of a human-induced landscape of fear in this hunted population of brown bears. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Human-polar bear interactions in a changing Arctic: Existing and emerging concerns

    Atwood, Todd C.; Simac, Kristin; Breck, Stewart; York, Geoff; Wilder, James

    2017-01-01

    The behavior and sociality of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have been shaped by evolved preferences for sea ice habitat and preying on marine mammals. However, human behavior is causing changes to the Arctic marine ecosystem through the influence of greenhouse gas emissions that drive long-term change in ecosystem processes and via the presence of in situ stressors associated with increasing human activities. These changes are making it more difficult for polar bears to reliably use their traditional habitats and maintain fitness. Here, we provide an overview of how human activities in the Arctic are likely to change a polar bear’s behavior and to influence their resilience to environmental change. Developing a more thorough understanding of polar bear behavior and their capacity for flexibility in response to anthropogenic disturbances and subsequent mitigations may lead to successful near-term management interventions.

  17. Combining EL4-B5-based B-cell stimulation and phage display technology for the successful isolation of human anti-Scl-70 autoantibody fragments.

    Weber, Malte; Weiss, Etienne; Engel, Alfred M

    2003-07-01

    Scl-70 is the major antigen recognised by autoantibodies in the sera of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). The autoantibodies that specifically react with Scl-70 are highly characteristic of the disease and represent valuable markers for the diagnosis of SSc. We describe a novel strategy for cloning autoantibody fragments starting with a small blood sample from an SSc patient. B cells isolated from the collected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured in vitro using the EL4-B5 system. Anti-Scl-70 IgG-producing cells were pooled for RNA preparation followed by the generation of phagemid libraries of approximately 10(7) independent single-chain Fvs (scFvs). The screening of these libraries by phage display allowed us to isolate four anti-Scl-70 scFvs following three rounds of biopanning. About 10 times more starting blood material was needed to generate scFv libraries of similar size from PBMCs of an SSc patient and only two anti-Scl-70 scFvs were isolated after three rounds of phage selection. Together, this work shows that functional autoantibody fragments can be advantageously cloned after in vitro expansion of B cells. The isolated anti-Scl-70 autoantibody fragments represent useful tools for calibrating SSc diagnostic assays.

  18. Autoantibodies in chronic pancreatitis

    Rumessen, J J; Marner, B; Pedersen, N T

    1985-01-01

    In 60 consecutive patients clinically suspected of having chronic pancreatitis the serum concentration of the immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM), the IgG- and IgA-type non-organ-specific autoantibodies against nuclear material (ANA), smooth and striated muscle, mitochondria, basal membrane, and reti......In 60 consecutive patients clinically suspected of having chronic pancreatitis the serum concentration of the immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM), the IgG- and IgA-type non-organ-specific autoantibodies against nuclear material (ANA), smooth and striated muscle, mitochondria, basal membrane......, and reticulin, and the IgG- and IgA-type pancreas-specific antibodies against islet cells, acinus cells, and ductal cells (DA) were estimated blindly. In 23 of the patients chronic pancreatitis was verified, whereas chronic pancreatitis was rejected in 37 patients (control group). IgG and IgA were found...... in significantly higher concentrations in the patients with chronic pancreatitis than in the control group but within the normal range. ANA and DA occurred very frequently in both groups but with no statistical difference. Other autoantibodies only occurred sporadically. The findings of this study do not support...

  19. Grizzly bears as a filter for human use management in Canadian Rocky Mountain national parks

    Derek Petersen

    2000-01-01

    Canadian National Parks within the Rocky Mountains recognize that human use must be managed if the integrity and health of the ecosystems are to be preserved. Parks Canada is being challenged to ensure that these management actions are based on credible scientific principles and understanding. Grizzly bears provide one of only a few ecological tools that can be used to...

  20. Lives rendered invisible: Bearing witness to human suffering

    Mladjo Ivanovic

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the ethical challenges involved in the ways public representation structures our experiences of atrocities and facilitates an adequate awareness of and response towards the suffering of others. It points out that such an analysis should not exhaust itself in answering what makes public representations of human suffering ethically suspicious and intolerable, but should rather extend this task by clarifying how the public forms sentiments about their social and political reality by elucidating under which conditions public representation promotes broader political agendas. One of the central tenets of human rights advocacy is the widespread conviction that exposure to images and stories of human rights abuse has a mobilizing effect on western audience(s whose exposure to such knowledge can motivate them to intervene and prevent future atrocities. In order to assess the basic implications of such a conviction we must answer at least three principal clusters of questions. First, how do public representations of atrocities affect individuals and their capacities to conceive and respond to social injustices and the suffering of others? Under what circumstances may agents respond effectively to shocking content? Second, how do social powers operate within the field of perception in order to control how the viewing public is affected? And how do these effects inform and galvanize political support or opposition regarding concrete historical events? Finally, what can be said about the responsibilities of visual representation? Whose agency is it that images inform, and what reforms are necessary to make representations of suffering ethically effective means to encourage better acknowledgment of individual and collective responsibilities that would motivate the public to meet its moral and political obligations? This paper ultimately suggests that in order for politically implicated images to have an immediate critical effect on

  1. Development of a standardized ELISA for the determination of autoantibodies against human M-type phospholipase A2 receptor in primary membranous nephropathy

    Dahnrich, C.; Komorowski, L.; Probst, C.; Seitz-Polski, B.; Esnault, V.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Hofstra, J.M.; Hoxha, E.; Stahl, R.A.K.; Lambeau, G.; Stocker, W.; Schlumberger, W.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Autoantibodies against the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R1) are specific markers for primary membranous nephropathy (pMN) and anti-PLA2R1 serum levels may be useful to monitor disease activity. So far, a recombinant cell-based indirect immunofluorescence assay (RC-IFA) using

  2. Brown bear (Ursus arctos attacks resulting in human casualties in Scandinavia 1977-2016; management implications and recommendations.

    Ole-Gunnar Støen

    Full Text Available Human persecution and habitat loss have endangered large carnivore populations worldwide, but some are recovering, exacerbating old conflicts. Carnivores can injure and kill people; the most dramatic form of wildlife-human conflict. In Scandinavia, the brown bear (Ursus arctos population increased from ~500 bears in 1977 to ~3300 in 2008, with an increase in injuries, fatalities, and public fear of bear attacks. We reviewed media coverage and interviewed victims to explore how bear population trends, hunter education, and other factors may have influenced the number of injuries and fatalities in Scandinavia from 1977 to 2016. We found 42 incidents with 42 injuries and 2 fatalities; 42 were adult men, one was an adult woman conducting forestry work, and one was a boy skiing off-piste. Thirty-three adult men were hunting bears, moose, or small game, often with a hunting dog, and 26 had shot at the bear at 8±11 m before injury. Eleven nonhunters were conducting forestry work, inspecting a hunting area, picking berries, tending livestock, hiking, harassing a denned bear, and one person was killed outside his house at night. Eight of the 11 incidents of nonhunters involved female bears with cubs; three of these family groups were in dens and two were on carcasses. The annual number of hunters injured/killed was mostly influenced by the increase in the bear population size. The pattern was similar regarding injuries/fatalities to other outdoor users, but the relation with the bear population size was weaker than for hunters, and the null model was equally supported. Bear physiology at denning may make encounters with bears more risky in the fall, when bears show prehibernation behavior. Awareness and education efforts, especially among hunters, seem important to ensure human safety. Recreationists and forestry workers should avoid dense vegetation or make noise to warn bears of their presence.

  3. Monitoring the wild black bear's reaction to human and environmental stressors

    Iaizzo Paul A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bears are among the most physiologically remarkable mammals. They spend half their life in an active state and the other half in a state of dormancy without food or water, and without urinating, defecating, or physical activity, yet can rouse and defend themselves when disturbed. Although important data have been obtained in both captive and wild bears, long-term physiological monitoring of bears has not been possible until the recent advancement of implantable devices. Results Insertable cardiac monitors that were developed for use in human heart patients (Reveal® XT, Medtronic, Inc were implanted in 15 hibernating bears. Data were recovered from 8, including 2 that were legally shot by hunters. Devices recorded low heart rates (pauses of over 14 seconds and low respiration rates (1.5 breaths/min during hibernation, dramatic respiratory sinus arrhythmias in the fall and winter months, and elevated heart rates in summer (up to 214 beats/min (bpm and during interactions with hunters (exceeding 250 bpm. The devices documented the first and last day of denning, a period of quiescence in two parturient females after birthing, and extraordinary variation in the amount of activity/day, ranging from 0 (winter to 1084 minutes (summer. Data showed a transition toward greater nocturnal activity in the fall, preceding hibernation. The data-loggers also provided evidence of the physiological and behavioral responses of bears to our den visits to retrieve the data. Conclusions Annual variations in heart rate and activity have been documented for the first time in wild black bears. This technique has broad applications to wildlife management and physiological research, enabling the impact of environmental stressors from humans, changing seasons, climate change, social interactions and predation to be directly monitored over multiple years.

  4. Circulating Autoantibodies in Age-Related Macular Degeneration Recognize Human Macular Tissue Antigens Implicated in Autophagy, Immunomodulation, and Protection from Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis.

    Alessandro Iannaccone

    Full Text Available We investigated sera from elderly subjects with and without age-related macular degeneration (AMD for presence of autoantibodies (AAbs against human macular antigens and characterized their identity.Sera were collected from participants in the Age-Related Maculopathy Ancillary (ARMA Study, a cross-sectional investigation ancillary to the Health ABC Study, enriched with participants from the general population. The resulting sample (mean age: 79.2±3.9 years old included subjects with early to advanced AMD (n = 131 and controls (n = 231. Sera were tested by Western blots for immunoreactive bands against human donor macular tissue homogenates. Immunoreactive bands were identified and graded, and odds ratios (OR calculated. Based on these findings, sera were immunoprecipitated, and subjected to 2D gel electrophoresis (GE. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS was used to identify the targets recognized by circulating AAbs seen on 2D-GE, followed by ELISAs with recombinant proteins to confirm LC-MS/MS results, and quantify autoreactivities.In AMD, 11 immunoreactive bands were significantly more frequent and 13 were significantly stronger than in controls. Nine of the more frequent bands also showed stronger reactivity. OR estimates ranged between 4.06 and 1.93, and all clearly excluded the null value. Following immunoprecipitation, 2D-GE and LC-MS/MS, five of the possible autoreactivity targets were conclusively identified: two members of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 family, HSPA8 and HSPA9; another member of the HSP family, HSPB4, also known as alpha-crystallin A chain (CRYAA; Annexin A5 (ANXA5; and Protein S100-A9, also known as calgranulin B that, when complexed with S100A8, forms calprotectin. ELISA testing with recombinant proteins confirmed, on average, significantly higher reactivities against all targets in AMD samples compared to controls.Consistent with other evidence supporting the role of inflammation and the

  5. Anti-interleukin-1 alpha autoantibodies in humans: Characterization, isotype distribution, and receptor-binding inhibition--higher frequency in Schnitzler's syndrome (urticaria and macroglobulinemia)

    Saurat, J.H.; Schifferli, J.; Steiger, G.; Dayer, J.M.; Didierjean, L.

    1991-01-01

    Since autoantibodies (Abs) to cytokines may modify their biologic activities, high-affinity binding factors for interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha BF) were characterized in human sera. IL-1 alpha BF was identified as IgG (1) by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation followed by immunodiffusion autoradiography, (2) by ligand-blotting method, (3) by ligand binding to affinity-immobilized serum IgG, and (4) by IgG affinity purification followed by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation. IL-1 alpha binding activity resided in the F(ab)2 fragment. The apparent equilibrium constant was in the range of IgG found after immunization with conventional antigens (i.e., 10(-9) to 10(-10) mol/L). Anti-IL-1 alpha IgG auto-Abs represented only an extremely small fraction of total IgG (less than 1/10(-5)). Some sera with IL-1 alpha BF and purified IgG thereof were able to inhibit by 96% to 98% the binding of human recombinant IL-1 alpha to its receptor on murine thymoma EL4-6.1 cells, whereas other sera did not. When 125I-labeled anti-IL-1 alpha IgG complexes were injected into rats, they prolonged the plasma half-life of 125I-labeled IL-1 alpha several fold and altered its tissue distribution. The predominant class was IgG (12/19), mainly IgG4 (9/19), but in five of the sera, anti-IL-1 alpha IgA was also detected. In a screening of 271 sera, IL-1 alpha BF was detected in 17/98 normal subjects and was not more frequent in several control groups of patients, except in patients with Schnitzler's syndrome (fever, chronic urticaria, bone pain, and monoclonal IgM paraprotein) (6/9; p less than 0.005). The pathologic significance of these auto-Abs remains to be determined

  6. Behavioural differences between single scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos) and females with dependent young when experimentally approached by humans.

    Sahlén, Veronica; Ordiz, Andrés; Swenson, Jon E; Støen, Ole Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Carnivore-human encounters that result in human injury present a conservation and management challenge and it is therefore important to understand under what conditions such incidents occur. Females with cubs are often involved when humans are injured by brown bears Ursus arctos. In Scandinavia, this is particularly true for unarmed recreational forest users. Our aim was to document behavioural differences between single bears and females with cubs in order to develop recommendations to minimize the risk of injuries to recreational forest users. We documented the reactions of GPS-collared females with cubs and single brown bears to experimental approaches by humans to 50 m from the bear on 42 and 108 occasions, respectively. The majority of females with cubs (95%) and single bears (89%) left when approached. Bears that left were passed at shorter distances and were in more open areas than those that stayed. Both groups had similar flight initiation distances, which were longer for bears that were active at the time of the disturbance. Females with cubs selected more open habitat than single bears, also for the new site they selected following disturbance. Females with cubs, particularly active females with cubs of the year, moved greater distances and spent more time active following the approach. Females with cubs and single bears were seen or heard in 26% and 14% of the approaches, respectively. None of the bears displayed any aggressive behaviour during the approaches. Females with cubs selected more open habitat, perhaps predisposing them to encountering people that are not involved in hunting activities, which might be the primary explanation why females with cubs are most frequently involved when unarmed people are injured by bears in Scandinavia. To mitigate injury risks, one must consider factors that bring bears closer to human activity in the first place.

  7. Rapid induction of autoantibodies during ARDS and septic shock

    Meduri G Umberto

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the induction of humoral responses directed against human autoantigens during acute inflammation. We utilized a highly sensitive antibody profiling technology to study autoantibodies in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS and severe sepsis, conditions characterized by intensive immune activation leading to multiple organ dysfunction. Methods Using Luciferase Immunoprecipitation Systems (LIPS, a cohort of control, ARDS and sepsis patients were tested for antibodies to a panel of autoantigens. Autoantibody titers greater than the mean plus 3 SD of the 24 control samples were used to identify seropositive samples. Available longitudinal samples from different seropositive ARDS and sepsis patient samples, starting from within the first two days after admission to the intensive care, were then analyzed for changes in autoantibody over time. Results From screening patient plasma, 57% of ARDS and 46% of septic patients without ARDS demonstrated at least one statistically significant elevated autoantibody compared to the controls. Frequent high titer antibodies were detected against a spectrum of autoantigens including potassium channel regulator, gastric ATPase, glutamic decarboxylase-65 and several cytokines. Analysis of serial samples revealed that several seropositive patients had low autoantibodies at early time points that often rose precipitously and peaked between days 7-14. Further, the use of therapeutic doses of corticosteroids did not diminish the rise in autoantibody titers. In some cases, the patient autoantibody titers remained elevated through the last serum sample collected. Conclusion The rapid induction of autoantibodies in ARDS and severe sepsis suggests that ongoing systemic inflammation and associated tissue destruction mediate the break in tolerance against these self proteins.

  8. Grizzly bear

    Schwartz, C.C.; Miller, S.D.; Haroldson, M.A.; Feldhamer, G.; Thompson, B.; Chapman, J.

    2003-01-01

    The grizzly bear inspires fear, awe, and respect in humans to a degree unmatched by any other North American wild mammal. Like other bear species, it can inflict serious injury and death on humans and sometimes does. Unlike the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) of the sparsely inhabited northern arctic, however, grizzly bears still live in areas visited by crowds of people, where presence of the grizzly remains physically real and emotionally dominant. A hike in the wilderness that includes grizzly bears is different from a stroll in a forest from which grizzly bears have been purged; nighttime conversations around the campfire and dreams in the tent reflect the presence of the great bear. Contributing to the aura of the grizzly bear is the mixture of myth and reality about its ferocity. unpredictable disposition, large size, strength, huge canines, long claws, keen senses, swiftness, and playfulness. They share characteristics with humans such as generalist life history strategies. extended periods of maternal care, and omnivorous diets. These factors capture the human imagination in ways distinct from other North American mammals. Precontact Native American legends reflected the same fascination with the grizzly bear as modern stories and legends (Rockwell 1991).

  9. Autoantibodies in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis

    du Bois Ron

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The pathogenesis of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA involves injury, an immune/inflammatory response and fibrosis. The cause of the injury is unknown, but the identification of serum autoantibodies makes an autoimmune aetiology attractive. The core study on which this commentary is based used novel cloning and serum screening technologies in order to identify new public and private autoantibodies in sera from 12 patients with CFA. Largely negative conclusions were drawn from that study. However, we suggest that the prevalence of autoantibodies may have been underestimated, that the study was timely and that this approach is worth pursuing further.

  10. Characteristics of human - sloth bear (Melursus ursinus) encounters and the resulting human casualties in the Kanha-Pench corridor, Madhya Pradesh, India

    Dhamorikar, Aniruddha H.; Mehta, Prakash; Bargali, Harendra; Gore, Kedar

    2017-01-01

    Sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) caused the highest number of human deaths between 2001 and 2015 and ranked second compared to other wild animals in causing human casualties in the Kanha-Pench corridor area. We studied the patterns of sloth bear attacks in the region to understand the reasons for conflict. We interviewed 166 victims of sloth bear attacks which occurred between 2004 and 2016 and found that most attacks occurred in forests (81%), with the greatest number of those (42%) occurring ...

  11. [Hashimoto's encephalopathy and autoantibodies].

    Yoneda, Makoto

    2013-04-01

    Encephalopathy occasionally occurs in association with thyroid disorders, but most of these are treatable. These encephalopathies include a neuropsychiatric disorder associated with hypothyroidism, called myxedema encephalopathy. Moreover, Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) has been recognized as a new clinical disease based on an autoimmune mechanism associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Steroid treatment was successfully administered to these patients. Recently, we discovered that the serum autoantibodies against the NH2-terminal of α-enolase (NAE) are highly specific diagnostic biomarkers for HE. Further, we analyzed serum anti-NAE autoantibodies and the clinical features in many cases of HE from institutions throughout Japan and other countries. Approximately half of assessed HE patients carry anti-NAE antibodies. The age was widely distributed with 2 peaks (20-30 years and 50-70 years). Most HE patients were in euthyroid states, and all patients had anti-thyroid (TG) antibodies and anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies. Anti-TSH receptor (TSH-R) antibodies were observed in some cases. The common neuropsychiatry features are consciousness disturbance and psychosis, followed by cognitive dysfunction, involuntary movements, seizures, and ataxia. Abnormalities on electroencephalography (EEG) and decreased cerebral blood flow on brain SPECT were common findings, whereas abnormal findings on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were rare. HE patients have various clinical phenotypes such as the acute encephalopathy form, the chronic psychiatric form, and other particular clinical forms, including limbic encephalitis, progressive cerebellar ataxia, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)-like form. The cerebellar ataxic form of HE clinically mimics spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) and is characterized by the absence of nystagmus, absent or mild cerebellar atrophy, and lazy background activities on EEG. Taken together, these data suggest that the possibility of

  12. Pituitary autoantibodies in endocrine disorders

    Bensing, Sophie

    2005-01-01

    Autoimmune endocrine disorders are characterised by the development of autoantibodies to specific autoantigens in the target organs. Lymphocytic hypophysitis (LyH) is a disease characterised by inflammation of the pituitary gland, often resulting in hypopituitarism. The aetiology of LyH is considered to be autoimmune. However, only a few pituitary autoantigens have so far been identified. Reliable autoantibody markers are requested in the diagnostic procedure of LyH to avoid...

  13. Measurement of antiacetylcholine receptor auto-antibodies in ...

    Two different acetylcholine receptor (AChR) preparations derived from amputated human muscle (AChRAMP) and from the human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line TE671 (AChRTE67,) were compared in radio-immunoprecipitation assays for the detection of AChR auto-antibodies in serum specimens from 20 patients with ...

  14. Environmental contaminants activate human and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) pregnane X receptors (PXR, NR1I2) differently

    Lille-Langøy, Roger, E-mail: Roger.lille-langoy@bio.uib.no [University of Bergen, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 7803, N-5020 Bergen (Norway); Goldstone, Jared V. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 266 Woods Hole Road, 02543-1050 Woods Hole, MA (United States); Rusten, Marte [University of Bergen, Department of Molecular Biology, P.O. Box 7803, N-5020 Bergen (Norway); Milnes, Matthew R. [Mars Hill University, 100 Athletic Street, Box 6671, Mars Hill, 28754 NC (United States); Male, Rune [University of Bergen, Department of Molecular Biology, P.O. Box 7803, N-5020 Bergen (Norway); Stegeman, John J. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 266 Woods Hole Road, 02543-1050 Woods Hole, MA (United States); Blumberg, Bruce [University of California, Irvine, 92697 CA (United States); Goksøyr, Anders [University of Bergen, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 7803, N-5020 Bergen (Norway)

    2015-04-01

    Background: Many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) accumulate readily in polar bears because of their position as apex predators in Arctic food webs. The pregnane X receptor (PXR, formally NR1I2, here proposed to be named promiscuous xenobiotic receptor) is a xenobiotic sensor that is directly involved in metabolizing pathways of a wide range of environmental contaminants. Objectives: In the present study, we comparably assess the ability of 51 selected pharmaceuticals, pesticides and emerging contaminants to activate PXRs from polar bears and humans using an in vitro luciferase reporter gene assay. Results: We found that polar bear PXR is activated by a wide range of our test compounds (68%) but has a slightly more narrow ligand specificity than human PXR that was activated by 86% of the 51 test compounds. The majority of the agonists identified (70%) produces a stronger induction of the reporter gene via human PXR than via polar bear PXR, however with some notable and environmentally relevant exceptions. Conclusions: Due to the observed differences in activation of polar bear and human PXRs, exposure of each species to environmental agents is likely to induce biotransformation differently in the two species. Bioinformatics analyses and structural modeling studies suggest that amino acids that are not part of the ligand-binding domain and do not interact with the ligand can modulate receptor activation. - Highlights: • Comparative study of ligand activation of human and polar bear PXRs. • Polar bear PXR is a promiscuous ligand-activated nuclear receptor but less so than human PXR. • Environmental contaminants activate human and polar bear PXRs differently. • Expression and ligand promiscuity indicate that PXR is a xenosensor in polar bears.

  15. Environmental contaminants activate human and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) pregnane X receptors (PXR, NR1I2) differently

    Lille-Langøy, Roger; Goldstone, Jared V.; Rusten, Marte; Milnes, Matthew R.; Male, Rune; Stegeman, John J.; Blumberg, Bruce; Goksøyr, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) accumulate readily in polar bears because of their position as apex predators in Arctic food webs. The pregnane X receptor (PXR, formally NR1I2, here proposed to be named promiscuous xenobiotic receptor) is a xenobiotic sensor that is directly involved in metabolizing pathways of a wide range of environmental contaminants. Objectives: In the present study, we comparably assess the ability of 51 selected pharmaceuticals, pesticides and emerging contaminants to activate PXRs from polar bears and humans using an in vitro luciferase reporter gene assay. Results: We found that polar bear PXR is activated by a wide range of our test compounds (68%) but has a slightly more narrow ligand specificity than human PXR that was activated by 86% of the 51 test compounds. The majority of the agonists identified (70%) produces a stronger induction of the reporter gene via human PXR than via polar bear PXR, however with some notable and environmentally relevant exceptions. Conclusions: Due to the observed differences in activation of polar bear and human PXRs, exposure of each species to environmental agents is likely to induce biotransformation differently in the two species. Bioinformatics analyses and structural modeling studies suggest that amino acids that are not part of the ligand-binding domain and do not interact with the ligand can modulate receptor activation. - Highlights: • Comparative study of ligand activation of human and polar bear PXRs. • Polar bear PXR is a promiscuous ligand-activated nuclear receptor but less so than human PXR. • Environmental contaminants activate human and polar bear PXRs differently. • Expression and ligand promiscuity indicate that PXR is a xenosensor in polar bears

  16. Myositis specific autoantibodies: changing insights in pathophysiology and clinical associations.

    Hengstman, G.J.D.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Venrooij, W.J.W. van

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Defined autoantibodies are found in about half of the patients with myositis. Traditionally, these autoantibodies have been divided into myositis specific autoantibodies (MSAs) and myositis associated autoantibodies. Several studies have shown that MSAs are associated with

  17. Detection of human bacterial pathogens in ticks collected from Louisiana black bears (Ursus americanus luteolus).

    Leydet, Brian F; Liang, Fang-Ting

    2013-04-01

    There are 4 major human-biting tick species in the northeastern United States, which include: Amblyomma americanum, Amblyomma maculatum, Dermacentor variabilis, and Ixodes scapularis. The black bear is a large mammal that has been shown to be parasitized by all the aforementioned ticks. We investigated the bacterial infections in ticks collected from Louisiana black bears (Ursus americanus subspecies luteolus). Eighty-six ticks were collected from 17 black bears in Louisiana from June 2010 to March 2011. All 4 common human-biting tick species were represented. Each tick was subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting select bacterial pathogens and symbionts. Bacterial DNA was detected in 62% of ticks (n=53). Rickettsia parkeri, the causative agent of an emerging spotted fever group rickettsiosis, was identified in 66% of A. maculatum, 28% of D. variabilis, and 11% of I. scapularis. The Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, was detected in 2 I. scapularis, while one A. americanum was positive for Borrelia bissettii, a putative human pathogen. The rickettsial endosymbionts Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae, rickettsial endosymbiont of I. scapularis, and Rickettsia amblyommii were detected in their common tick hosts at 21%, 39%, and 60%, respectively. All ticks were PCR-negative for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia spp., and Babesia microti. This is the first reported detection of R. parkeri in vector ticks in Louisiana; we also report the novel association of R. parkeri with I. scapularis. Detection of both R. parkeri and B. burgdorferi in their respective vectors in Louisiana demands further investigation to determine potential for human exposure to these pathogens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Autoantibody profiling in APS.

    Roggenbuck, D; Somma, V; Schierack, P; Borghi, M O; Meroni, P L

    2014-10-01

    The international consensus for the classification of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) requires clinical and laboratory criteria to be considered at an equal level for diagnosing APS. Thus, detection of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) being a hallmark of APS has been the object of intensive investigation over the past 40 years. However, appropriate detection of aPL still remains a laboratory challenge due to their heterogeneity comprising autoantibodies reactive to different phospholipid-binding plasma proteins, such as beta-2 glycoprotein I (β2GPI) and prothrombin. The relevance of aPL interacting with phospholipids other than cardiolipin (CL, diphosphatidylglycerol), such as phosphatidylserine (PS), remains elusive with regard to the diagnosis of APS. Recently, the concept of aPL profiling has been introduced to assess the risk of thrombotic complications in patients with APS. New assay techniques, apart from enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) recommended by the international consensus for the classification of APS, have been proposed for multiplexing of aPL testing. Line immunoassays (LIAs) employing a novel hydrophobic solid phase for the simultaneous detection of different aPL seem to be an intriguing alternative. We evaluated a novel multiplex LIA employing a hydrophobic membrane coated with different phospholipid (PL)-binding proteins or PLs. The performance characteristics of this new multiplexing assay technique demonstrated its usefulness for aPL profiling. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. Mechanisms of Autoantibody-Induced Pathology

    Ralf J. Ludwig

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Autoantibodies are frequently observed in healthy individuals. In a minority of these individuals, they lead to manifestation of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis or Graves’ disease. Overall, more than 2.5% of the population is affected by autoantibody-driven autoimmune disease. Pathways leading to autoantibody-induced pathology greatly differ among different diseases, and autoantibodies directed against the same antigen, depending on the targeted epitope, can have diverse effects. To foster knowledge in autoantibody-induced pathology and to encourage development of urgently needed novel therapeutic strategies, we here categorized autoantibodies according to their effects. According to our algorithm, autoantibodies can be classified into the following categories: (1 mimic receptor stimulation, (2 blocking of neural transmission, (3 induction of altered signaling, triggering uncontrolled (4 microthrombosis, (5 cell lysis, (6 neutrophil activation, and (7 induction of inflammation. These mechanisms in relation to disease, as well as principles of autoantibody generation and detection, are reviewed herein.

  20. [Autoantibody profile in myositis].

    Allenbach, Y; Benveniste, O

    2014-07-01

    Patients suffering from muscular symptoms or with an increase of creatine kinase levels may present a myopathy. In such situations, clinicians have to confirm the existence of a myopathy and determine if it is an acquired or a genetic muscular disease. In the presence of an acquired myopathy after having ruled out an infectious, a toxic agent or an endocrine cause, physicians must identify which type of idiopathic myopathy the patient is presenting: either a myositis including polymyositis, dermatomyositis, and inclusion body myositis, or an immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy. Histopathology examination of a muscle biopsy is determinant but detection of autoantibody is now also crucial. The myositis-specific antibodies and myositis-associated antibodies lead to a serologic approach complementary to the histological classification, because strong associations of myositis-specific antibodies with clinical features and survival have been documented. The presence of anti-synthetase antibodies is associated with an original histopathologic pattern between polymyositis and dermatomyositis, and defines a syndrome where interstitial lung disease drives the prognosis. Anti-MDA-5 antibody are specifically associated with dermatomyositis, and define a skin-lung syndrome with a frequent severe disease course. Anti-TIF1-γ is also associated with dermatomyositis but its presence is frequently predictive of a cancer association whereas anti-MI2 is associated with the classical dermatomyositis. Two specific antibodies, anti-SRP and anti-HMGCR, are observed in patients with immune-mediated necrotizing myopathies and may be very useful to distinguish acquired myopathies from dystrophic muscular diseases in case of a slow onset and to allow the initiation of effective therapy. Copyright © 2013 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Natural landscape features, human-related attractants, and conflict hotspots: A spatial analysis of human-grizzly bear conflicts

    Wilson, S.M.; Madel, M.J.; Mattson, D.J.; Graham, J.M.; Burchfield, J.A.; Belsky, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    There is a long history of conflict in the western United States between humans and grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) involving agricultural attractants. However, little is known about the spatial dimensions of this conflict and the relative importance of different attractants. This study was undertaken to better understand the spatial and functional components of conflict between humans and grizzly bears on privately owned agricultural lands in Montana. Our investigations focused on spatial associations of rivers and creeks, livestock pastures, boneyards (livestock carcass dump sites), beehives, and grizzly bear habitat with reported human-grizzly bear conflicts during 1986-2001. We based our analysis on a survey of 61 of 64 livestock producers in our study in the Rocky Mountain East Front, Montana. With the assistance of livestock and honey producers, we mapped the locations of cattle and sheep pastures, boneyards, and beehives. We used density surface mapping to identify seasonal clusters of conflicts that we term conflict hotspots. Hotspots accounted for 75% of all conflicts and encompassed approximately 8% of the study area. We also differentiated chronic (4 or more years of conflicts) from non-chronic hotspots (fewer than 4 years of conflict). The 10 chronic hotpots accounted for 58% of all conflicts. Based on Monte Carlo simulations, we found that conflict locations were most strongly associated with rivers and creeks followed by sheep lambing areas and fall sheep pastures. Conflicts also were associated with cattle calving areas, spring cow-calf pastures, summer and fall cattle pastures, and boneyards. The Monte Carlo simulations indicated associations between conflict locations and unprotected beehives at specific analysis scales. Protected (fenced) beehives were less likely to experience conflicts than unprotected beehives. Conflicts occurred at a greater rate in riparian and wetland vegetation than would be expected. The majority of conflicts occurred in a

  2. “It's Just a Matter of Time:” Lessons from Agency and Community Responses to Polar Bear-inflicted Human Injury

    Aimee L Schmidt; Douglas A Clark

    2018-01-01

    Bear-inflicted human injuries or deaths are often widely publicised, controversial, and evoke substantial social responses that articulate public expectations about bear management. In this paper, we examine how local people and management agencies (i.e. Manitoba Conservation, Parks Canada, and the Town of Churchill) responded to a polar bear-inflicted human injury in Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. On November 1st, 2013, two people in Churchill were badly mauled by a polar bear. The incident sh...

  3. Autoantibodies associated with prenatal and childhood exposure to environmental chemicals in faroese children

    Osuna, Christa E; Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pál

    2014-01-01

    to both neural (neurofilaments, cholineacetyltransferase, astrocyte glial fibrillary acidic protein, and myelin basic protein) and non-neural (actin, desmin, and keratin) antigens were measured and the associations of these autoantibody concentrations with chemical exposures were assessed using linear...... of autoantibodies. However, it is not known if autoantibodies similarly will be generated and detectable in humans following toxicant exposures. Therefore, we conducted a pilot study to investigate if autoantibodies specific for neural and non-neural antigens could be detected in children at age 7 years who have...... been exposed to environmental chemicals. Both prenatal and age-7 exposures to mercury, PCBs, and PFCs were measured in 38 children in the Faroe Islands who were exposed to widely different levels of these chemicals due to their seafood-based diet. Concentrations of IgM and IgG autoantibodies specific...

  4. Glycerol restores the p53 function in human lingual cancer cells bearing mutant p53

    Ota, Ichiro; Yane, Katsunari; Yuki, Kazue; Kanata, Hirokazu; Hosoi, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Hiroshi

    2001-01-01

    Mutations in p53, tumor suppressor gene, have recently been shown to have an impact on the clinical course of several human tumors, including head and neck cancers. The genetic status of the p53 gene has been focused on as the most important candidate among various cancer-related genes for prognosis-predictive assays of cancer therapy. We examined the restoration of radiation- or cisplatin (CDDP)-induced p53-dependent apoptosis in human lingual cancer cells. The results suggest that glycerol is effective in inducing a conformational change of p53 and restoring normal function of mutant p53, leading to enhanced radiosensitivity or chemosensitivity through the induction of apoptosis. We have also represented the same results in vivo as in vitro. Thus, this novel tool for enhancement of radiosensitivity or chemosensitivity in cancer cells bearing m p53 may be applicable for p53-targeted cancer therapy. (author)

  5. Immunospecific red cell binding of iodine 125-labeled immunoglobulin G erythrocyte autoantibodies

    Masouredis, S.P.; Branks, M.J.; Garratty, G.; Victoria, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    The primary interaction of autoantibodies with red cells has been studied by using labeled autoantibodies. Immunoglobulin G red cell autoantibodies obtained from IgG antiglobulin-positive normal blood donors were labeled with radioactive iodine and compared with alloanti-D with respect to their properties and binding behavior. Iodine 125 -labeled IgG autoantibody migrated as a single homogeneous peak with the same relative mobility as human IgG on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The isoelectric focusing pattern of labeled autoantibodies varied from donor to donor but was similar to that of alloanti-D, consisting of multiple IgG populations with isoelectric points in the neutral to alkaline range. 125 I-autoantibody bound to all human red cells of common Rh phenotypes. Evidence for immunospecific antibody binding of the labeled autoantibody was based on variation in equilibrium binding to nonhuman and human red cells of common and rare phenotypes, enhanced binding after red cell protease modification, antiglobulin reactivity of cell-bound IgG comparable to that of cell-bound anti-D, and saturation binding in autoantibody excess. Scatchard analysis of two 125 I-autoantibody preparations yielded site numbers of 41,500 and 53,300 with equilibrium constants of 3.7 and 2.1 X 10(8) L X mol-1. Dog, rabbit, rhesus monkey, and baboon red cells were antigen(s) negative by quantitative adsorption studies adsorbing less than 3% of the labeled autoantibody. Reduced ability of rare human D--red blood cells to adsorb the autoantibody and identification of donor autoantibodies that bind to Rh null red blood cells indicated that eluates contained multiple antibody populations of complex specificities in contrast to anti-D, which consists of a monospecific antibody population. Another difference is that less than 70% of the autoantibody IgG was adsorbed by maximum binding red blood cells as compared with greater than 85% for alloanti-D

  6. Environmental contaminants activate human and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) pregnane X receptors (PXR, NR1I2) differently.

    Lille-Langøy, Roger; Goldstone, Jared V; Rusten, Marte; Milnes, Matthew R; Male, Rune; Stegeman, John J; Blumberg, Bruce; Goksøyr, Anders

    2015-04-01

    Many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) accumulate readily in polar bears because of their position as apex predators in Arctic food webs. The pregnane X receptor (PXR, formally NR1I2, here proposed to be named promiscuous xenobiotic receptor) is a xenobiotic sensor that is directly involved in metabolizing pathways of a wide range of environmental contaminants. In the present study, we comparably assess the ability of 51 selected pharmaceuticals, pesticides and emerging contaminants to activate PXRs from polar bears and humans using an in vitro luciferase reporter gene assay. We found that polar bear PXR is activated by a wide range of our test compounds (68%) but has a slightly more narrow ligand specificity than human PXR that was activated by 86% of the 51 test compounds. The majority of the agonists identified (70%) produces a stronger induction of the reporter gene via human PXR than via polar bear PXR, however with some notable and environmentally relevant exceptions. Due to the observed differences in activation of polar bear and human PXRs, exposure of each species to environmental agents is likely to induce biotransformation differently in the two species. Bioinformatics analyses and structural modeling studies suggest that amino acids that are not part of the ligand-binding domain and do not interact with the ligand can modulate receptor activation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. “It's Just a Matter of Time:” Lessons from Agency and Community Responses to Polar Bear-inflicted Human Injury

    Aimee L Schmidt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bear-inflicted human injuries or deaths are often widely publicised, controversial, and evoke substantial social responses that articulate public expectations about bear management. In this paper, we examine how local people and management agencies (i.e. Manitoba Conservation, Parks Canada, and the Town of Churchill responded to a polar bear-inflicted human injury in Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. On November 1st, 2013, two people in Churchill were badly mauled by a polar bear. The incident shocked the community, highlighted problems such as a lack of bear safety education, and led to reviews of institutional policies for preventing polar bear-human conflicts. We used qualitative analysis methods to describe what is said (about polar bears, about people, and about management and what is done (changes in behaviours and changes in policies/practices when someone is attacked by a polar bear in Churchill. Results show that polar bear management agencies in Churchill respond remarkably well to errors in procedure, but are often unable to address the many underlying systematic drivers of polar bear-human conflict. Hence, managerial reactions to bear-human conflicts are successful at addressing the proximate cause of the problem, but offer few long-term solutions.

  8. Human perspectives and conservation of grizzly bears in Banff National Park, Canada.

    Chamberlain, Emily C; Rutherford, Murray B; Gibeau, Michael L

    2012-06-01

    Some conservation initiatives provoke intense conflict among stakeholders. The need for action, the nature of the conservation measures, and the effects of these measures on human interests may be disputed. Tools are needed to depolarize such situations, foster understanding of the perspectives of people involved, and find common ground. We used Q methodology to explore stakeholders' perspectives on conservation and management of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) in Banff National Park and the Bow River watershed of Alberta, Canada. Twenty-nine stakeholders participated in the study, including local residents, scientists, agency employees, and representatives of nongovernmental conservation organizations and other interest groups. Participants rank ordered a set of statements to express their opinions on the problems of grizzly bear management (I-IV) and a second set of statements on possible solutions to the problems (A-C). Factor analysis revealed that participants held 4 distinct views of the problems: individuals associated with factor I emphasized deficiencies in goals and plans; those associated with factor II believed that problems had been exaggerated; those associated with factor III blamed institutional flaws such as disjointed management and inadequate resources; and individuals associated with factor IV blamed politicized decision making. There were 3 distinct views about the best solutions to the problems: individuals associated with factor A called for increased conservation efforts; those associated with factor B wanted reforms in decision-making processes; and individuals associated with factor C supported active landscape management. We connected people's definitions of the problem with their preferred solutions to form 5 overall problem narratives espoused by groups in the study: the problem is deficient goals and plans, the solution is to prioritize conservation efforts (planning-oriented conservation advocates); the problem is flawed

  9. Study on therapy of 188Re labelled stannic sulfur suspension in nude mice bearing human colon tumor

    Li Huiyuan; Wu Yuanfang; Dong Mo

    2003-01-01

    The effect of therapy, tissue distribution and stability are studied in nude mice bearing human colon tumor after injections of 188 Re labelled stannic sulfur suspension. The tissues are observed with electric microscope. The results show that 188 Re labelled stannic sulfur suspension is stabilized in the tumor and its inhibitive effects on human colon tumor cells are obvious. 188 Re labelled stannic sulfur suspension is a potential radiopharmaceuticals for therapy of human tumor

  10. Human autoantibodies against Clq: lack of cross reactivity with the collectins mannan-binding protein, lung surfactant protein A and bovine conglutinin.

    Mårtensson, U; Thiel, S; Jensenius, J C; Sjöholm, A G

    1996-03-01

    The collectins, a group of humoral C-type lectins, have globular and collagen-like regions and share structural features with the complement protein C1q. The question was asked if autoantibodies to the collagen-like region of C1q (anti-C1qCLR) might cross-react with collectins, such as mannan-binding protein (MBP), lung surfactant protein A (SP-A) and bovine conglutinin (BK). Anti-C1qCLR antibodies of the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) type and anti-C1qCLR antibodies of the hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome (HUVS) type were investigated. Cross-absorption and elution experiments combined with antibody detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot analysis gave no evidence of cross-reactive anti-C1qCLR antibodies. However, one serum with HUVS type anti-C1qCLR antibodies contained anti-MBP antibodies that were cross-reactive with SP-A. Judging from results of ELISA inhibition experiments and immunoblot analysis, four SLE sera contained antibodies to native BK, while two sera with HUVS type anti-C1qCLR antibodies contained antibodies to epitopes of denatured BK. This might imply that autoimmunity to collagen-like structures is not restricted to C1qCLR in HUVS and HUVS/SLE overlap syndromes.

  11. Extrapancreatic Autoantibody Profiles in Type I Diabetes

    Burbelo, Peter D.; Lebovitz, Evan E.; Bren, Kathleen E.; Bayat, Ahmad; Paviol, Scott; Wenzlau, Janet M.; Barriga, Katherine J.; Rewers, Marian; Harlan, David M.; Iadarola, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Type I diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by destruction of insulin-producing β-cells in the pancreas. Although several islet cell autoantigens are known, the breadth and spectrum of autoantibody targets has not been fully explored. Here the luciferase immunoprecipitation systems (LIPS) antibody profiling technology was used to study islet and other organ-specific autoantibody responses in parallel. Examination of an initial cohort of 93 controls and 50 T1D subjects revealed that 16% of the diabetic subjects showed anti-gastric ATPase autoantibodies which did not correlate with autoantibodies against GAD65, IA2, or IA2-β. A more detailed study of a second cohort with 18 potential autoantibody targets revealed marked heterogeneity in autoantibody responses against islet cell autoantigens including two polymorphic variants of ZnT8. A subset of T1D subjects exhibited autoantibodies against several organ-specific targets including gastric ATPase (11%), thyroid peroxidase (14%), and anti-IgA autoantibodies against tissue transglutaminase (12%). Although a few T1D subjects showed autoantibodies against a lung-associated protein KCNRG (6%) and S100-β (8%), no statistically significant autoantibodies were detected against several cytokines. Analysis of the overall autoantibody profiles using a heatmap revealed two major subgroups of approximately similar numbers, consisting of T1D subjects with and without organ-specific autoantibodies. Within the organ-specific subgroup, there was minimal overlap among anti-gastric ATPase, anti-thyroid peroxidase, and anti-transglutaminase seropositivity, and these autoantibodies did not correlate with islet cell autoantibodies. Examination of a third cohort, comprising prospectively collected longitudinal samples from high-risk individuals, revealed that anti-gastric ATPase autoantibodies were present in several individuals prior to detection of islet autoantibodies and before clinical onset of T1D. Taken together

  12. Human eyelid meibomian glands and tarsal muscle are recognized by autoantibodies from patients affected by a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in El-Bagre, Colombia, South America.

    Abreu-Velez, Ana Maria; Howard, Michael S; Hashimoto, Takashi; Grossniklaus, Hans E

    2010-03-01

    Previously, we described a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) in Colombia, South America (El Bagre-EPF). Continuing our characterization of this variant of EPF, we now focus on one of our previously reported clinical findings: the presence of ocular lesions. These ocular lesions are seen in patients having extensive skin involvement, as measured by the Lund and Browder scale, which is generally used for patients with skin burns. We specifically searched for evidence of autoreactivity to various eyelid structures in these patients and correlated our immunologic data with the clinical findings. We performed indirect immunofluorescence studies using normal-appearing human eyelid skin from routine blepharoplasties as substrate tissue. We tested sera from 12 patients with El Bagre-EPF and ocular lesions, 5 patients with sporadic (nonendemic) pemphigus foliaceus, and 20 healthy control subjects (10 from the El Bagre-EPF endemic area and 10 from nonendemic areas). We used fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated goat antiserum to human total IgG/IgA/IgM as a secondary antibody. In addition, we used fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated antibodies to human fibrinogen, albumin, IgG, IgE, C1q, and C3, Texas Red (Rockland Immunochemicals, Inc, Gilbertsville, PA), Alexa Fluor 555, or Alexa Fluor 594 (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). Ki-67 (a cell proliferation marker) was used to determine the cell proliferation rate, and nuclear counterstaining was performed with either 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole or Topro III (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). We observed autoreactivity to multiple eyelid structures, including meibomian glands and tarsal muscle bundles at different levels, and some areas of the epidermis and the dermis close to the isthmus of the eyelids. Tarsal plate autoreactivity was seen in 10 of 12 of the El Bagre-EPF sera and in one control with pemphigus erythematosus. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation using an eyelid sample as a substrate with 1 mmol/L of sodium

  13. Human-Wildlife Conflict and Environmental Education: Evaluating a Community Program to Protect the Andean Bear in Ecuador

    Espinosa, Santiago; Jacobson, Susan K.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental education is a widespread, yet relatively unexamined strategy to reduce human-wildlife conflicts. We evaluated knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intentions toward bear conservation after five years of environmental education in a Quichua community. Conflicts with livestock predation created mixed attitudes and behaviors toward bear…

  14. Radioimmunoimaging of nude mice bearing human lung adenocarcinoma xenografts after injecting 131I-McAbs

    Liu Liang

    1992-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (Lc86a-C5, Lc86a-H8) directed against human lung adenocarcinoma cell line LTEP-a-2 and normal BALB/c IgG were labelled with iodine-131 by chloramine T. The 131 I-McAbs and 131 I-IgG were respectively injected into the peritoneal cavities of nude mice bearing transplanted human lung adenocarcinoma cell line LTEP-a-2. After 72 h, the tumor tissue in nude mice injected with 131 I-McAbs was distinguishable from normal tissues as a very clear image obtained during gamma scintigraphy. No difference was found between tumor and normal tissues in the nude mice injected with 131 I-IgG. The tumor: blood ration was 3.1:1 in nude injected with 131 I McAb(H8) and 0.9:1 in nude mice injected with 131 I-IgG respectively. This indicates that the tumor tissue image was the result of specific binding of the 131 I-McAbs, which have high specificity and affinity both in vitro and in vivo, to tumor cells, and these monoclonal antibodies may serve as potential agents in tumor diagnosis and treatment

  15. Autoantibody to MDM2: A Potential Serological Marker of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Liu, Yuan; Dai, Liping; Liu, Weihong; Shi, Guixiu; Zhang, Jianying

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is one of the systemic autoimmune diseases characterized by the polyclonal autoantibody production. The human homologue of the mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) is well known as the negative regulator of p53. MDM2 has been reported to be overexpressed in SLE animal model and to promote SLE. Since abnormally expressed proteins can induce autoimmune response, anti-MDM2 autoantibody was examined in SLE patients. Methods. Anti-MDM2 antibody in sera from...

  16. Characteristics of human - sloth bear (Melursus ursinus) encounters and the resulting human casualties in the Kanha-Pench corridor, Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Dhamorikar, Aniruddha H; Mehta, Prakash; Bargali, Harendra; Gore, Kedar

    2017-01-01

    Sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) caused the highest number of human deaths between 2001 and 2015 and ranked second compared to other wild animals in causing human casualties in the Kanha-Pench corridor area. We studied the patterns of sloth bear attacks in the region to understand the reasons for conflict. We interviewed 166 victims of sloth bear attacks which occurred between 2004 and 2016 and found that most attacks occurred in forests (81%), with the greatest number of those (42%) occurring during the collection of Non-Timber Forest Produce (NTFP), 15% during the collection of fuelwood and 13% during grazing of livestock. The remainder took place at forest edges or in agricultural fields (19%), most occurring when person(s) were working in fields (7%), defecating (5%), or engaged in construction work (3%). Most victims were between the ages of 31 to 50 (57%) and most (54%) were members of the Gond tribe. The majority of attacks occurred in summer (40%) followed by monsoon (35%) and winter (25%). Forty-four percent of victims were rescued by people, while 43% of the time bears retreated by themselves. In 60% of attacks, a single bear was involved, whereas 25% involved adult females with dependent cubs and the remainder (15%) of the cases involved a pair of bears. We discuss the compensation program for attack victims as well as other governmental programs which can help reduce conflict. Finally, we recommend short-term mitigation measures for forest-dependent communities.

  17. Characteristics of human - sloth bear (Melursus ursinus encounters and the resulting human casualties in the Kanha-Pench corridor, Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Aniruddha H Dhamorikar

    Full Text Available Sloth bears (Melursus ursinus caused the highest number of human deaths between 2001 and 2015 and ranked second compared to other wild animals in causing human casualties in the Kanha-Pench corridor area. We studied the patterns of sloth bear attacks in the region to understand the reasons for conflict. We interviewed 166 victims of sloth bear attacks which occurred between 2004 and 2016 and found that most attacks occurred in forests (81%, with the greatest number of those (42% occurring during the collection of Non-Timber Forest Produce (NTFP, 15% during the collection of fuelwood and 13% during grazing of livestock. The remainder took place at forest edges or in agricultural fields (19%, most occurring when person(s were working in fields (7%, defecating (5%, or engaged in construction work (3%. Most victims were between the ages of 31 to 50 (57% and most (54% were members of the Gond tribe. The majority of attacks occurred in summer (40% followed by monsoon (35% and winter (25%. Forty-four percent of victims were rescued by people, while 43% of the time bears retreated by themselves. In 60% of attacks, a single bear was involved, whereas 25% involved adult females with dependent cubs and the remainder (15% of the cases involved a pair of bears. We discuss the compensation program for attack victims as well as other governmental programs which can help reduce conflict. Finally, we recommend short-term mitigation measures for forest-dependent communities.

  18. Impacts of Human Recreation on Brown Bears (Ursus arctos): A Review and New Management Tool.

    Fortin, Jennifer K; Rode, Karyn D; Hilderbrand, Grant V; Wilder, James; Farley, Sean; Jorgensen, Carole; Marcot, Bruce G

    2016-01-01

    Increased popularity of recreational activities in natural areas has led to the need to better understand their impacts on wildlife. The majority of research conducted to date has focused on behavioral effects from individual recreations, thus there is a limited understanding of the potential for population-level or cumulative effects. Brown bears (Ursus arctos) are the focus of a growing wildlife viewing industry and are found in habitats frequented by recreationists. Managers face difficult decisions in balancing recreational opportunities with habitat protection for wildlife. Here, we integrate results from empirical studies with expert knowledge to better understand the potential population-level effects of recreational activities on brown bears. We conducted a literature review and Delphi survey of brown bear experts to better understand the frequencies and types of recreations occurring in bear habitats and their potential effects, and to identify management solutions and research needs. We then developed a Bayesian network model that allows managers to estimate the potential effects of recreational management decisions in bear habitats. A higher proportion of individual brown bears in coastal habitats were exposed to recreation, including photography and bear-viewing than bears in interior habitats where camping and hiking were more common. Our results suggest that the primary mechanism by which recreation may impact brown bears is through temporal and spatial displacement with associated increases in energetic costs and declines in nutritional intake. Killings in defense of life and property were found to be minimally associated with recreation in Alaska, but are important considerations in population management. Regulating recreation to occur predictably in space and time and limiting recreation in habitats with concentrated food resources reduces impacts on food intake and may thereby, reduce impacts on reproduction and survival. Our results suggest that

  19. The impacts of human recreation on brown bears (Ursus arctos): A review and new management tool

    Fortin-noreus, Jennifer; Rode, Karyn D.; Hilderbrand, Grant V; Wilder, James; Farley, Sean; Jorgensen, Carole; Marcot, Bruce G.

    2016-01-01

    Increased popularity of recreational activities in natural areas has led to the need to better understand their impacts on wildlife. The majority of research conducted to date has focused on behavioral effects from individual recreations, thus there is a limited understanding of the potential for population-level or cumulative effects. Brown bears (Ursus arctos) are the focus of a growing wildlife viewing industry and are found in habitats frequented by recreationists. Managers face difficult decisions in balancing recreational opportunities with habitat protection for wildlife. Here, we integrate results from empirical studies with expert knowledge to better understand the potential population-level effects of recreational activities on brown bears. We conducted a literature review and Delphi survey of brown bear experts to better understand the frequencies and types of recreations occurring in bear habitats and their potential effects, and to identify management solutions and research needs. We then developed a Bayesian network model that allows managers to estimate the potential effects of recreational management decisions in bear habitats. A higher proportion of individual brown bears in coastal habitats were exposed to recreation, including photography and bear-viewing than bears in interior habitats where camping and hiking were more common. Our results suggest that the primary mechanism by which recreation may impact brown bears is through temporal and spatial displacement with associated increases in energetic costs and declines in nutritional intake. Killings in defense of life and property were found to be minimally associated with recreation in Alaska, but are important considerations in population management. Regulating recreation to occur predictably in space and time and limiting recreation in habitats with concentrated food resources reduces impacts on food intake and may thereby, reduce impacts on reproduction and survival. Our results suggest that

  20. Trehalose Liposomes Suppress the Growth of Tumors on Human Lung Carcinoma-bearing Mice by Induction of Apoptosis In Vivo.

    Ichihara, Hideaki; Kuwabara, Keiji; Matsumoto, Yoko

    2017-11-01

    Previous evidence demonstrates that trehalose liposomes (DMTreC14) composed of L-α-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and α-D-glycopyranosyl-α-D-glucopyranoside monomyristate (TreC14) inhibit proliferation and invasion on lung carcinoma (A549 cells) in vitro. Here, we aimed to investigate suppressive effects of DMTreC14 on the growth of tumor on human lung carcinoma bearing mice. DMTreC14 composed of 30 mol% DMPC and 70 mol% TreC14 were prepared by the sonication method. Anti-tumor activities of DMTreC14 using the subcutaneous and orthotopic graft-bearing mice of A549 cells were investigated in vivo. The remarkable reduction of volume and weight in subcutaneous tumors on subcutaneous lung carcinoma-bearing mice topically administrated with DMTreC14 were obtained. Apoptotic-positive cells in the subcutaneous tumor slice of subcutaneous lung carcinoma-bearing mice topically administrated with DMTreC14 were observed using TUNEL staining. Lung weights on the orthotopic graft-bearing mice of lung carcinoma intravenously administrated with DMTreC14 were markedly decreased compared to those of the control group. Remarkable decrease in dimensions of tumor area of lung on the orthotopic graft-bearing mice of lung carcinoma intravenously administrated with DMTreC14 was obtained in histological analysis using the hematoxylin and eosin staining. Remarkably high anti-tumor activities of DMTreC14 for the subcutaneous and orthotopic graft-bearing mice of lung carcinoma accompanied with apoptosis were revealed for the first time in vivo. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  1. A proposed lexicon of terms and concepts for human-bear management in North America

    Hopkins, John B.; Herrero, Stephen; Shideler, Richard T.; Gunther, Kerry A.; Schwartz, Charles C.; Kalinowski, Steven T.

    2010-01-01

    We believe that communication within and among agency personnel in the United States and Canada about the successes and failures of their human–bear (Ursidae) management programs will increase the effectiveness of these programs and of bear research. To communicate more effectively, we suggest agencies clearly define terms and concepts used in human–bear management and use them in a consistent manner. We constructed a human–bear management lexicon of terms and concepts using a modified Delphi method to provide a resource that facilitates more effective communication among human–bear management agencies. Specifically, we defined 40 terms and concepts in human–bear management and suggest definitions based on discussions with 13 other professionals from the United States and Canada. Although new terms and concepts will emerge in the future and definitions will evolve as we learn more about bear behavior and ecology, our purpose is to suggest working definitions for terms and concepts to help guide human–bear management and research activities in North America. Applications or revisions of these definitions may be useful outside of North America.

  2. Identification of high-affinity anti-IL-1 α autoantibodies in normal human serum as an interfering substance in a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for IL-1 α

    Mae, N.; Liberato, D.J.; Chizzonite, R.; Satoh, H.

    1991-01-01

    A highly reproducible, sensitive, and specific sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for recombinant human IL-1 α (rhIL-1 alpha) has been developed. Results from this ELISA have demonstrated that the concentration of rhIL-1 α added to normal human serum (NHS) decreased by 16.3% after 3 h and 24.9% after 6 h at room temperature. Molecular exclusion column chromatography with Sephacryl S-300 HR revealed that 125I-labeled IL-1 α added to normal human serum rapidly formed higher molecular weight complexes without indication of proteolytic degradation. The observed reduction in immunoreactivity was correlated with this protein complex formation and accounted for the apparent instability of rhIL-1 α in NHS. Immunoblot analysis indicated that the molecular weight of the binding protein was 150-160K, and the IL-1 α binding activity was removed and recovered from NHS by Protein-G affinity chromatography; indicating that the binding protein was IL-1 α-specific IgG. The binding of 125I-labeled IL-1 α to the serum binding proteins could be inhibited by unlabeled IL-1 alpha (IC50 = 7.4 x 10(-11) M) but not by unlabeled IL-1 β. Kinetic analysis with 125I-labeled IL-1 alpha revealed that the average binding affinity of these IL-1 α-specific IgGs was 4.7 x 10(10) M-1. These results suggest that these autoantibodies may interfere with the detection of IL-1 α in human serum by various assay systems and also could be a regulator of circulating IL-1 α

  3. Myositis specific autoantibodies; specificity and clinical applications.

    Hengstman, G.J.D.

    2005-01-01

    The sera of about half of the patients with myositis contain autoantibodies that are specific for this group of diseases compared to other inflammatory connective tissue disorders. In a recent study we showed that these myositis specific autoantibodies (MSAs) are also specific for myositis as

  4. Impacts of Human Recreation on Brown Bears (Ursus arctos: A Review and New Management Tool.

    Jennifer K Fortin

    Full Text Available Increased popularity of recreational activities in natural areas has led to the need to better understand their impacts on wildlife. The majority of research conducted to date has focused on behavioral effects from individual recreations, thus there is a limited understanding of the potential for population-level or cumulative effects. Brown bears (Ursus arctos are the focus of a growing wildlife viewing industry and are found in habitats frequented by recreationists. Managers face difficult decisions in balancing recreational opportunities with habitat protection for wildlife. Here, we integrate results from empirical studies with expert knowledge to better understand the potential population-level effects of recreational activities on brown bears. We conducted a literature review and Delphi survey of brown bear experts to better understand the frequencies and types of recreations occurring in bear habitats and their potential effects, and to identify management solutions and research needs. We then developed a Bayesian network model that allows managers to estimate the potential effects of recreational management decisions in bear habitats. A higher proportion of individual brown bears in coastal habitats were exposed to recreation, including photography and bear-viewing than bears in interior habitats where camping and hiking were more common. Our results suggest that the primary mechanism by which recreation may impact brown bears is through temporal and spatial displacement with associated increases in energetic costs and declines in nutritional intake. Killings in defense of life and property were found to be minimally associated with recreation in Alaska, but are important considerations in population management. Regulating recreation to occur predictably in space and time and limiting recreation in habitats with concentrated food resources reduces impacts on food intake and may thereby, reduce impacts on reproduction and survival. Our

  5. Isolation and characterization of cDNA encoding the 80-kDa subunit protein of the human autoantigen Ku (p70/p80) recognized by autoantibodies from patients with scleroderma-polymyositis overlap syndrome

    Mimori, Tsuneyo; Ohosone, Yasuo; Hama, Nobuaki; Suwa, Akira; Akizuki, Masashi; Homma, Mitsuo; Griffith, A.J.; Hardin, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Anti-Ku (p70/p80) autoantibodies in patients with scleroderma-polymyositis overlap syndrome recognize a 70-kDa/80-kDa protein heterodimer which binds to terminal regions of double-stranded DNA. In the present study, the authors isolated full-length cDNAs that encode the 80-kDa Ku subunit. Initial screening of a human spleen cDNA library with anti-Ku antibodies yielded a cDNA of 1.0 kilobase (kb) (termed K71) encoding a portion of the 80-kDa Ku polypeptide (identification based on immunological criteria). In RNA blots, this cDNA hybridized with two mRNAs of 3.4 and 2.6 kb. In vitro transcription and translation experiments produced an immunoprecipitable polypeptide which comigrated with the 80-kDa Ku subunit. The Ku80-6 cDNA proved to be 3304 nucleotides in length, with an additional poly(A) tail, closely approximating the size of the larger mRNA. It contains a single long open reading frame encoding 732 amino acids. The putative polypeptide has a high content of acidic amino acids and a region with periodic repeat of leucine in every seventh position which may form the leucine zipper structure. In genomic DNA blots, probes derived from the opposite ends of cDNA Ku80-6 hybridized with several nonoverlapping restriction fragments from human leukocyte DNA, indicating that the gene encoding the 80-kDa Ku polypeptide is divided into several exons by intervening sequences

  6. The Role of Pathogenic Autoantibodies in Autoimmunity

    Merrill J. Rowley

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The serological presence of autoantibodies is diagnostic of autoimmunity, and these autoantibodies may be present for many years before the presentation of autoimmune disease (AID. Although a pathogenic role has been demonstrated for various autoantibodies reactive with cell surface and extracellular autoantigens, studies using monoclonal antibodies (mAb show not all antibodies in the polyclonal response are pathogenic. Differences depend on Fab-mediated diversity in epitope specificity, Fc-mediated effects based on immunoglobulin (Ig class and subclass, activation of complement, and the milieu in which the reaction occurs. These autoantibodies often occur in organ-specific AID and this review illustrates their pathogenic and highly specific effects. The role of autoantibodies associated with intracellular antigens is less clear. In vitro they may inhibit or adversely affect well-defined intracellular biochemical pathways, yet, in vivo they are separated from their autoantigens by multiple cellular barriers. Recent evidence that Ig can traverse cell membranes, interact with intracellular proteins, and induce apoptosis has provided new evidence for a pathogenic role for such autoantibodies. An understanding of how autoantibodies behave in the polyclonal response and their role in pathogenesis of AID may help identify populations of culprit B-cells and selection of treatments that suppress or eliminate them.

  7. Spatial representation of magnitude in humans (Homo sapiens), Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), and American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Johnson-Ulrich, Zoe; Vonk, Jennifer

    2018-05-04

    The spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect is the tendency for humans to respond faster to relatively larger numbers on the left or right (or with the left or right hand) and faster to relatively smaller numbers on the other side. This effect seems to occur due to a spatial representation of magnitude either in occurrence with a number line (wherein participants respond to relatively larger numbers faster on the right), other representations such as clock faces (responses are reversed from number lines), or culturally specific reading directions, begging the question as to whether the effect may be limited to humans. Given that a SNARC effect has emerged via a quantity judgement task in Western lowland gorillas and orangutans (Gazes et al., Cog 168:312-319, 2017), we examined patterns of response on a quantity discrimination task in American black bears, Western lowland gorillas, and humans for evidence of a SNARC effect. We found limited evidence for SNARC effect in American black bears and Western lowland gorillas. Furthermore, humans were inconsistent in direction and strength of effects, emphasizing the importance of standardizing methodology and analyses when comparing SNARC effects between species. These data reveal the importance of collecting data with humans in analogous procedures when testing nonhumans for effects assumed to bepresent in humans.

  8. Autoantibodies

    ... Antibodies Beta-2 Glycoprotein 1 Antibodies Antiphospholipid Antibodies (APA) Lupus anticoagulants (LA) Endocrine/metabolic system Diabetes-related ... Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. What ...

  9. Major antigen of liver kidney microsomal autoantibodies in idiopathic autoimmune hepatitis is cytochrome P450db1.

    Manns, M P; Johnson, E F; Griffin, K J; Tan, E M; Sullivan, K F

    1989-01-01

    Type 1, liver kidney microsomal autoantibodies (LKM-1) are associated with a subgroup of idiopathic autoimmune type, chronic active hepatitis (CAH). The antigenic specificity of LKM-1 autoantibodies from 13 patients was investigated by immunoblot analysis of human liver microsomal proteins. Polypeptides of 50, 55, and 64 kD were detected with these antisera. A high titer LKM-1 serum was selected to screen a human liver lambda gt11 cDNA expression library, resulting in the isolation of several...

  10. Polar bear hemoglobin and human Hb A0: same 2,3-diphosphoglycerate binding site but asymmetry of the binding?

    Pomponi, Massimo; Bertonati, Claudia; Patamia, Maria; Marta, Maurizio; Derocher, Andrew E; Lydersen, Christian; Kovacs, Kit M; Wiig, Oystein; Bårdgard, Astrid J

    2002-11-01

    Polar bear (Ursus maritimus) hemoglobin (Hb) shows a low response to 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), compared to human Hb A0, even though these proteins have the same 2,3-DPG-binding site. In addition, polar bear Hb shows a high response to chloride and an alkaline Bohr effect (deltalog P50/deltapH) that is significantly greater than that of human Hb A0. The difference in sequence Pro (Hb A0)-->Gly (polar bear Hb) at position A2 in the A helix seems to be critical for reduced binding of 2,3-DPG. Our results also show that the A2 position may influence not only the flexibility of the A helix, but that differences in flexibility of the first turn of the A helix may affect the unloading of oxygen for the intrinsic ligand affinities of the alpha and beta chains. However, preferential binding to either chain can only take place if there is appreciable asymmetric binding of the phosphoric effector. Regarding this point, 31P NMR data suggest a loss of symmetry of the 2,3-DPG-binding site in the deoxyHb-2,3-DPG complex.

  11. Antineuronal Autoantibodies : Molecular Characterization and Clinical Implication

    Hameete, M.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371750539

    2017-01-01

    Neurological autoimmune disorders associated with antineuronal autoantibodies result from an immune reaction directed at neuronal self-antigens. When affecting the central nervous system these can be divided into two subgroups: ‘classical’ paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) and autoimmune

  12. Autoantibodies in systemic sclerosis: Unanswered questions

    CRISTIANE eKAYSER

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis (SSc is an autoimmune disease characterized by vascular abnormalities, and cutaneous and visceral fibrosis. Serum autoantibodies directed to multiple intracellular antigens are present in more than 95% of patients and are considered a hallmark of SSc. They are helpful biomarkers for the early diagnosis of SSc and are associated with distinctive clinical manifestations. With the advent of more sensitive, multiplexed immunoassays, new and old questions about the relevance of autoantibodies in SSc are emerging. In this review we discuss the clinical relevance of autoantibodies in SSc emphasizing the more recently published data. Moreover, we will summarize recent advances regarding the stability of SSc autoantibodies over the course of disease, whether they are mutually exclusive and their potential roles in the disease pathogenesis.

  13. Bearing system

    Kapich, Davorin D.

    1987-01-01

    A bearing system includes backup bearings for supporting a rotating shaft upon failure of primary bearings. In the preferred embodiment, the backup bearings are rolling element bearings having their rolling elements disposed out of contact with their associated respective inner races during normal functioning of the primary bearings. Displacement detection sensors are provided for detecting displacement of the shaft upon failure of the primary bearings. Upon detection of the failure of the primary bearings, the rolling elements and inner races of the backup bearings are brought into mutual contact by axial displacement of the shaft.

  14. An autoantibody against Nε-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL): Possible involvement in the removal of CEL-modified proteins by macrophages

    Mera, Katsumi; Nagai, Ryoji; Takeo, Kazuhiro; Izumi, Miyoko; Maruyama, Toru; Otagiri, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A higher amount of autoantibody against CEL than that of other AGEs was observed in human plasma. → The purified human anti-CEL autoantibody specifically reacted with CEL. → Anti-CEL antibody accelerated the uptake of 125 I-CEL-HSA by macrophage in vitro. → Endocytic uptake of 125 I-CEL-HSA by mice liver was accelerated in the presence of anti-CEL antibody. -- Abstract: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are believed to play a significant role in the development of diabetic complications. In this study, we measured the levels of autoantibodies against several AGE structures in healthy human plasma and investigated the physiological role of the autoantibodies. A high titer of the autoantibody against N ε -(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) was detected in human plasma compared with other AGE structures such as CML and pentosidine. The purified human anti-CEL autoantibody reacted with CEL-modified human serum albumin (CEL-HSA), but not CML-HSA. A rabbit polyclonal anti-CEL antibody, used as a model autoantibody against CEL, accelerated the uptake of CEL-HSA by macrophages, but did not enhance the uptake of native HSA. Furthermore, when 125 I-labeled CEL-HSA was injected into the tail vein of mice, accumulation of 125 I-CEL-HSA in the liver was accelerated by co-injection of the rabbit anti-CEL antibody. These results demonstrate that the autoantibody against CEL in plasma may play a role in the macrophage uptake of CEL-modified proteins.

  15. Low prevalence of liver-kidney microsomal autoantibodies of type 1 (LKM1) in hepatitis C seropositive subjects on Crete, Greece.

    Drygiannakis, D; Lionis, C; Drygiannakis, I; Pappas, G; Kouroumalis, E

    2001-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a serious problem on the Greek island of Crete, where a high prevalence of antibodies against hepatitis C (anti-HCV) has recently been reported. This article reports the findings of a study carried out in Crete, which investigated the prevalence of serum autoantibodies in patients with chronic hepatitis C. One hundred and forty two patients (59 men and 83 women), who were found anti-HCV seropositive in two hospitals and two Primary Health Care Centres in Crete, were eligible. Sixty healthy blood donors (46 men, 14 women), which were negative to anti-HCV, were used as the control group. They were randomly selected from those attending Rethymnon Hospital. Autoantibodies were identified using the indirect immunofluorescence (IFL) technique on human epithelial cells from larynx cancer (HEp-2 cells), rat liver-kidney-stomach substrate (CT3) and Chrithidia Luciliae (CL). Serum autoantibodies were detected in 104 HCV patients, yielding an overall prevalence of 73.2%. The most frequent autoantibodies were antinuclear antibodies (ANA), positive in 72 patients (50.7%). Anti-smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA) were detected in 33 patients (23.2%). Only one patient was positive for LKM1 autoantibodies. No autoantibodies were found in 38 patients (26.7%). Autoantibodies were also found in 5 out of the 60 examined healthy blood donors (8.3%). Autoantibodies, mainly ANA and ASMA are very common in HCV seropositive patients from Crete. By contrast LKM1 autoantibodies are exceptionally rare in these patients.

  16. Contactin-1 and Neurofascin-155/-186 Are Not Targets of Auto-Antibodies in Multifocal Motor Neuropathy.

    Kathrin Doppler

    Full Text Available Multifocal motor neuropathy is an immune mediated disease presenting with multifocal muscle weakness and conduction block. IgM auto-antibodies against the ganglioside GM1 are detectable in about 50% of the patients. Auto-antibodies against the paranodal proteins contactin-1 and neurofascin-155 and the nodal protein neurofascin-186 have been detected in subgroups of patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Recently, auto-antibodies against neurofascin-186 and gliomedin were described in more than 60% of patients with multifocal motor neuropathy. In the current study, we aimed to validate this finding, using a combination of different assays for auto-antibody detection. In addition we intended to detect further auto-antibodies against paranodal proteins, specifically contactin-1 and neurofascin-155 in multifocal motor neuropathy patients' sera. We analyzed sera of 33 patients with well-characterized multifocal motor neuropathy for IgM or IgG anti-contactin-1, anti-neurofascin-155 or -186 antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, binding assays with transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells and murine teased fibers. We did not detect any IgM or IgG auto-antibodies against contactin-1, neurofascin-155 or -186 in any of our multifocal motor neuropathy patients. We conclude that auto-antibodies against contactin-1, neurofascin-155 and -186 do not play a relevant role in the pathogenesis in this cohort with multifocal motor neuropathy.

  17. Study on biodistribution and imaging of radioiodinated antisense oligonucleotides in nude mice bearing human lymphoma

    Wang, R.F.; Shen, J.; Zhang, C.L.; Liu, M.; Guo, F.Q.

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of sporadic lymphoma has risen due to an increase in immunosuppressed patients, particularly those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Sometimes suspect lymphoma has an undetectable location and we can not get the pathological specimen. Management of lymphoma is also difficult because the persistence of a significant number of residual tumor cells after intensive treatment. These relative failures can be attributed to make us choose this study for opening a new diagnostic and therapeutic field of lymphoma from molecular level. Immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain framework region (FR) of V1 family have been verified to be a major determinant of malignant phenotype of V1 family B-cell lymphoma. Most of targets for tumor antisense therapy study are protooncogenes, such as c-myc, bc1-2, which are broad -spectrum tumor imaging agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using radioiodine labeled FR antisense oligonucleotides (ASONs) as an imaging agent or antisense therapeutic radiopharmaceutical in lymphoma. A 18-mer partial phosphorothioate oligonucleotide sequence was synthesized and grafted in 5 ' with a tyramine group which was further labeled with 125 I or 131 I using the chloramine T method. Normal CD-1 mice were injected via a tail vein with 148 kBq of 125 I-FR-ASON (2∼3 μ g). Animals were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4 and 24 h and tissue samples were studied. Liposome-mediated 3.33 MBq of 131 I-FR-ASON (7 ∼ 9μ g) was injected intratumorally into tumor-bearing BALB/c mice (6 weeks after inoculation of 10 7 Namalwa cells) meanwhile liposome-mediated 131 I labeled sense oligonucleotides served as controls. Biodistribution was monitored by sequential scintigraphy and organ radioactivity measurement 24 h after injection. The percentage of the injected dose per gram (%ID/g) of tumor and tumor/ non-tumor tissue ratios (T/NT) were calculated for each group of mice and the difference between two groups was assessed. The 5

  18. Clinical significance of autoantibodies in autoimmune hepatitis.

    Liberal, Rodrigo; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

    2013-10-01

    The accurate diagnosis and classification of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) rely upon the detection of characteristic autoantibodies. Positivity for anti-nuclear (ANA) and/or anti-smooth muscle (SMA) autoantibodies defines AIH type 1 (AIH-1), whereas anti-liver kidney microsomal type 1 (anti-LKM1) and/or anti-liver cytosol type 1 (anti-LC1) define AIH type 2 (AIH-2). ANA and SMA, and less commonly anti-LKM1, have also been detected in de-novo autoimmune hepatitis developing after liver transplantation, a condition that may affect patients transplanted for non-autoimmune liver disease. The diagnostic autoantibodies associated with AIH-1 are also detected in the paediatric AIH/sclerosing cholangitis overlap syndrome, referred to as autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis (ASC). ASC, like adult primary sclerosing cholangitis, is often associated with atypical perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (p-ANCA), although p-ANCA are also detected in other autoimmune liver diseases. These associations highlight the necessity for simple and prompt diagnostic autoantibody testing, and the requirement for the accurate interpretation of the results of the tests in the clinical context. Fine-mapping of antigenic autoantibody targets has facilitated the development of rapid molecular assays that have the potential to revolutionise the field if properly standardised and when used in combination with classical immunofluorescence. Despite their diagnostic significance, the pathogenic role of the various autoantibodies and the mechanisms by which they can potentially inflict damage onto the liver cell remain a topic for further research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated small-vessel vasculitis

    Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    Purpose of reviews This review focuses on recent advance in the diagnosis pathogenesis and treatment of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated small-vessel vasculitis. Recent findings Antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies are closely associated with Wegener's granulomatosis and

  20. 21 CFR 866.5870 - Thyroid autoantibody immunological test system.

    2010-04-01

    ... the thyroid autoantibodies (antibodies produced against the body's own tissues). Measurement of thyroid autoantibodies may aid in the diagnosis of certain thyroid disorders, such as Hashimoto's disease (chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis), nontoxic goiter (enlargement of thyroid gland), Grave's disease...

  1. Measurements of auto-antibodies to α-synuclein in the serum and cerebral spinal fluids of patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Akhtar, Rizwan S; Licata, Joseph P; Luk, Kelvin C; Shaw, Leslie M; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M-Y

    2018-03-03

    Biomarkers for α-synuclein are needed for diagnosis and prognosis in Parkinson's disease (PD). Endogenous auto-antibodies to α-synuclein could serve as biomarkers for underlying synucleinopathy, but previous assessments of auto-antibodies have shown variability and inconsistent clinical correlations. We hypothesized that auto-antibodies to α-synuclein could be diagnostic for PD and explain its clinical heterogeneity. To test this hypothesis, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for measuring α-synuclein auto-antibodies in human samples. We evaluated 69 serum samples (16 healthy controls (HC) and 53 PD patients) and 145 CSF samples (52 HC and 93 PD patients) from our Institution. Both serum and CSF were available for 24 participants. Males had higher auto-antibody levels than females in both fluids. CSF auto-antibody levels were significantly higher in PD patients as compared to HC, whereas serum levels were not significantly different. CSF auto-antibody levels did not associate with amyloid-β 1-42 , total tau, or phosphorylated tau. CSF auto-antibody levels correlated with performance on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, even when controlled for CSF amyloidβ 1-42 . CSF hemoglobin levels, as a proxy for contamination of CSF by blood during lumbar puncture, did not influence these observations. Using recombinant α-synuclein with N- and C-terminal truncations, we found that CSF auto-antibodies target amino acids 100 through 120 of α-synuclein. We conclude that endogenous CSF auto-antibodies are significantly higher in PD patients as compared to HC, suggesting that they could indicate the presence of underlying synucleinopathy. These auto-antibodies associate with poor cognition, independently of CSF amyloidβ 1-42 ., and target a select C-terminal region of α-synuclein. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Rheumatic Disease Autoantibodies in Autoimmune Liver Diseases.

    Utiyama, Shirley R R; Zenatti, Katiane B; Nóbrega, Heloisa A J; Soares, Juliana Z C; Skare, Thelma L; Matsubara, Caroline; Muzzilo, Dominique A; Nisihara, Renato M

    2016-08-01

    Autoimmune liver diseases (ALDs) are known to be associated with systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs) and their autoantibodies. We aimed to study the prevalence of SARDs and related autoantibodies, as well as their prognostic implications in a group of patients with ALDs. This was a cross-sectional study. Sixty patients with ALDs (38.3% with autoimmune hepatitis; 11.7% with primary biliary cirrhosis; 25% with primary sclerosing cholangitis and 25% with overlap syndrome) were studied for the presence of SARDs and their autoantibodies. There was autoimmune rheumatic disease in 20% of the studied sample. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were the commonest (11.6% and 5%, respectively). Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) were present in 35% of the patients, followed by anti-Ro (20.0%); anti-nucleosome (18.3%); rheumatoid factor (10%) anti-CCP (8.3%); anti-RNP (8.3%); anti-ds-DNA (6.6%); anti-La (3.3%); anti-Sm (3.3%), anti-ribosomal P (3.3%). Anti-Ro (p = 0.0004), anti-La (p = 0.03), anti-RNP (p = 0.04) and anti-Sm (p = 0.03) were commonly found in patients with SARD, but not anti-DNA, anti-nucleosome and anti-ribosomal P. No differences were found in liver function tests regarding to the presence of autoantibodies. There was a high prevalence of SARD and their autoantibodies in ALD patients. Anti-Ro, anti-La, anti-RNP and anti-Sm positivity points to an association with systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases. The presence of autoantibodies was not related to liver function tests.

  3. Quantification of HER2 autoantibodies in the amplification phenomenon of HER2 in breast cancer

    Lauterlein, Jens-Jacob L; Petersen, Eva R B; Olsen, Dorte Aa

    2011-01-01

    Gene amplification of HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) is a well-known phenomenon in various cancers. However, little is known about the mechanism of the gene amplification phenomenon itself. Autoantibodies to cellular receptors have been described in several cancer types. We hypot...

  4. Biodistribution and SPECT imaging of 99Tcm labeling NGR peptide in nude mice bearing human HePG2 hepatoma

    Ma Wenhui; Wang Jing; Yang Weidong; Li Guiyu; Ma Xiaowei; Wang Zhe

    2012-01-01

    A peptide containing the Asn-Gly-Arg (NGR) sequence was radiolabeled by 99 Tc m and its radiochemical characteristics, biodistribution and SPECT imaging in nude mice bearing human HePG2 hepatoma were evaluated. 99 Tc m -NGR was prepared directly with a labeling yield higher than 90%, and the radiochemical purity (RCP) higher than 95%. Nude mice bearing human HePG2 hepatoma were randomly divided into 6 groups with 3 mice in each group. The control group mice were blocked by injecting 100 μg unlabeled NGR 0.5 h before 99 Tc m -NGR injection. The mice were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 h after caudal intravenous injection of 7.4 MBq 99 Tc m -NGR. The uptakes of kidney and liver were very high. Tumor uptake was (2.52±0.62)% ID/g at 1 h, with the highest uptake of (7.26±2.71) %ID/g. At 12 h, the uptake was still (3.93±1.93) %ID/g. In comparison, the uptake of the blocked control group was (1.29±0.85) %ID/g. The SPECT static images of 3 mice and the tumor/muscle (T/NT) value were obtained. The highest T/NT value was 3.25 at 4 h. The xenografted tumor became visible at 1 h and the clearest image of the tumor was observed at 12 h. Results from this work shows that 99 Tc m -NGR can be efficiently prepared, can favorably target tumor angiogenesis, and should be a potential probe in tumor therapy. (authors)

  5. Autoantibodies in SLE: Specificities, Isotypes and Receptors

    Barbara Dema

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE is characterized by a wide spectrum of auto-antibodies which recognize several cellular components. The production of these self-reactive antibodies fluctuates during the course of the disease and the involvement of different antibody-secreting cell populations are considered highly relevant for the disease pathogenesis. These cells are developed and stimulated through different ways leading to the secretion of a variety of isotypes, affinities and idiotypes. Each of them has a particular mechanism of action binding to a specific antigen and recognized by distinct receptors. The effector responses triggered lead to a chronic tissue inflammation. DsDNA autoantibodies are the most studied as well as the first in being characterized for its pathogenic role in Lupus nephritis. However, others are of growing interest since they have been associated with other organ-specific damage, such as anti-NMDAR antibodies in neuropsychiatric clinical manifestations or anti-β2GP1 antibodies in vascular symptomatology. In this review, we describe the different auto-antibodies reported to be involved in SLE. How autoantibody isotypes and affinity-binding to their antigen might result in different pathogenic responses is also discussed.

  6. Origins of anti-DNA autoantibodies

    Schwartz, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    The direction of research in autoimmunity was strongly influenced by three notable discoveries made more than 25 year ago: anti-DNA anti-bodies in lupus serum, the immunofluorescent antinuclar antibody test and the NZB mouse. Now another turning point has been reached for three new reasons: the discovery of the hybridoma technic, advances in cellular immunology and the use of molecular biology to solve immunological problems. These developments have motivated fresh approaches to questions about the origins and pathogenic mechanisms of autoantibodies. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has a conspicuous position in the field of autoimmunity for several reasons. Its diverse manifestations have attracted a correspondingly diverse group of investigators whose interests range from molecular biology to therapeutic trials; superb models of the disease occur spontaneously in animals; and the extensive variety of autoantibodies in SLE provides an abundance of investigative reagents. An explanation of the origins of these autoantibodies is one of the major goals of research in the disease. The autoantibodies that bind to DNA are of central interest. They occur in almost all patients with active SLE, they often fluctuate with its clinical activity, and they participate in forming its lesions

  7. Autoantibodies and their antigens in autoimmune hepatitis.

    Bogdanos, Dimitrios P; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

    2009-08-01

    Autoantibody detection assists in the diagnosis and allows differentiation of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) type 1 (AIH-1), characterized by antinuclear antibody (ANA) and/or smooth muscle antibody (SMA), and type 2 (AIH-2), distinguished by the presence of antibodies to liver-kidney microsome type 1 (anti-LKM1) and/or antibodies to liver cytosol type 1 (anti-LC1). Detection of atypical perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA) and anti-soluble liver antigen (SLA) antibodies can act as an additional pointer toward the diagnosis of AIH, particularly in the absence of the conventional autoantibodies. Routine autoantibody testing by indirect immunofluorescence has been recently complemented by molecular assays based on purified or recombinant antigens. Although the AIH-1-specific ANA and SMA targets need better definition, those of anti-LKM1 and anti-LC1 in AIH-2 have been clearly identified; the fine specificity of antibody reactivity and its clinical relevance to disease pathogenesis are the focus of ongoing investigation. This article critically discusses the current knowledge of the diagnostic and clinical significance of AIH-related autoantibody reactivities, focusing on key issues that the physician needs to be aware of to be able to request the appropriate testing and to interpret correctly the laboratory results within the clinical context of the patient. Copyright Thieme Medical Publishers.

  8. GPCR-autoantibodies in chronic heart failure.

    Boivin-Jahns, Valerie; Jahns, Roland

    2018-06-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a syndrome characterized by shortness of breath, fluid retention, and a progressive reduction in cardiac function. More than 60% of the cases are ischemic in origin (i.e., due to myo-cardial infarction) and about 30% are caused by non-ischemic myocardial damage (i.e., due to genetic or non-genetic causes like myocardial inflammation). Because of alterations in both cellular and humoral immunity patients with non-ischemic CHF often develop abnormal or misled immune responses, including cross-reacting antibodies and/or autoantibodies to various cardiac anti-gens. Non-ischemic myo-cardial damage was found to progress to CHF particularly, when associated (a) with the generation of autoantibodies directed against distinct myocyte membrane proteins critically involved in cardiac function - like G-protein coup-led membrane receptors (GPCRs), or (b) with virus persistence in the myocardium. This article will review current knowledge on the pathophysiological relevance of GPCR-autoreactivity in CHF by giving an overview on the so far available evidence from pre-clinical, clinical and epidemiological studies on the CHF-inducing potential of GPCR-autoantibodies and thereon based novel therapeutic approaches in GPCR autoantibody-associated CHF.

  9. CERTIFICATION REPORT The certification of the mass concentration of immunoglobulin G proteinase 3 anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (IgG PR3 ANCA) in human serum: ERM® - DA483/IFCC

    MONOGIOUDI EVANTHIA; HUTU DANA PETRONELA; CHAROUD-GOT JEAN; SHELDON JOANNA; SCHIMMEL HEINZ; TRAPMANN STEFANIE; MERONI PIERLUIGI; EMONS HENDRIK; ZEGERS INGRID

    2017-01-01

    This report describes the production and certification of ERM-DA483/IFCC, a serum protein reference material intended for the standardisation of measurements of immunoglobulin G proteinase 3 anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (IgG PR3 ANCA). The material was produced according to ISO Guide 34:2009 [ ] and is certified in accordance with ISO Guide 35:2006. The raw material used to prepare ERM-DA483/IFCC was a plasmapheresis material containing a high concentration of IgG PR3 ANCA. A...

  10. Frequency and levels of autoantibodies in healthy adult Omanis

    Al-Jabri, Ali A.; A-Belushi Mohammad; Nanze, Herburt

    2003-01-01

    A previous pilot study showed high frequency of anti-smooth muscle autoantibody in Omani blood donors and pregnant women. We conducted this larger-scale study to investigate the frequency and significance of several autoantibodies in healthy individuals from different regions of Oman. Sera obtained from 1537 healthy Omanis (1153 males and 384 females ), ranging in age from 18 to 57 years, tested for the presence of ten different autoantibodies using indirect immunofluoresence, haemagglutination and latex agglutination techniques. Low levels of autoantibodies were detected in 33.5%, whereas a few individuals (1.8%) showed high autoantibody titres. Anti-smooth muscle autoantibodies (ASMA) were the most prevalent (11%). Anti-nuclear autoantibodies (ANA) were the second most prevalent (7.6%). Anti-thyroid microsomal autoantibodies (ATMA) and anti-thyroglobulin autoantibodies (ATA) were present in 6.5% and 4.4% of individuals,respectively. The other autoantibodies were detected much less frequently: anti-parietal cells autoandibodies (APCA) were found in 1.6%,anti-brush border antibodies (ABBA) in 1.3% anti-reticulin autoantibodies (ARA) in 1%, anti-mitochondrial antibodies in 0.8%, antiglomerular basement membrane antibodies (AGBMA) in 0.7% and rheumatoid factor(RF) in 0.4%.Low levels of autoantibodies were detected in 33.5%, whereas a few individuals (1.8%) showed high autoantibody titres. Anti-smooth muscle autoantibodies (ASMA) were the most prevalent (11%). Anti-nuclear autoantibodies (ANA) were the second most prevalent (7.6%). Anti-thyroid microsomal autoantibodies (ATMA) and anti-thyroglobulin autoantibodies (ATA) were present in 6.5% and 4.4% of individuals,respectively. The other autoantibodies were detected much less frequently: anti-parietal cells autoandibodies (APCA) were found in 1.6%,anti-brush border antibodies (ABBA) in 1.3% anti-reticulin autoantibodies (ARA) in 1%, anti-mitochondrial antibodies in 0.8%, antiglomerular basement membrane antibodies

  11. Journal bearing

    Menke, John R.; Boeker, Gilbert F.

    1976-05-11

    1. An improved journal bearing comprising in combination a non-rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a first bearing surface, a rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a confronting second bearing surface having a plurality of bearing elements, a source of lubricant adjacent said bearing elements for supplying lubricant thereto, each bearing element consisting of a pair of elongated relatively shallowly depressed surfaces lying in a cylindrical surface co-axial with the non-depressed surface and diverging from one another in the direction of rotation and obliquely arranged with respect to the axis of rotation of said rotatable member to cause a flow of lubricant longitudinally along said depressed surfaces from their distal ends toward their proximal ends as said bearing members are rotated relative to one another, each depressed surface subtending a radial angle of less than 360.degree., and means for rotating said rotatable bearing member to cause the lubricant to flow across and along said depressed surfaces, the flow of lubricant being impeded by the non-depressed portions of said second bearing surface to cause an increase in the lubricant pressure.

  12. Tumor trapping of 5-fluorouracil: In vivo 19F NMR spectroscopic pharmacokinetics in tumor-bearing humans and rabbits

    Wolf, W.; Servis, K.L.; El-Tahtawy, A.; Singh, M.; Ray, M.; Shani, J.; Presant, C.A.; King, M.; Wiseman, C.; Blayney, D.; Albright, M.J.; Atkinson, D.; Ong, R.; Barker, P.B.; Ring, R. III

    1990-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) were studied in vivo in patients with discrete tumors and in rabbits bearing VX2 tumors by using 19 F NMR spectroscopy. Free 5FU was detected in the tumors of four of the six patients and in all VX2 tumors but not in normal rabbit tissues. No other metabolites were seen in these tumors, contrary to the extensive catabolism previously documented using 19 F NMR spectroscopy in both human and animal livers. The tumor pool of free 5FU in those human tumors that trapped 5FU was determined to have a half-life of 0.4-2.1 hr, much longer than expected and significantly longer than the half-life of 5FU in blood (5-15 min), whereas the half-life of trapped 5FU in the VX2 tumors ranged from 1.05 to 1.22 hr. These studies document that NMR spectroscopy is clinically feasible in vivo, allows noninvasive pharmacokinetic analyses at a drug-target tissue in real time, and may produce therapeutically important information at the time of drug administration. Demonstration of the trapping of 5FU in tumors provides both a model for studying metabolic modulation in experimental tumors (in animals) and a method for testing modulation strategies clinically (in patients)

  13. Hyperactivity and learning deficits in transgenic mice bearing a human mutant thyroid hormone beta1 receptor gene.

    McDonald, M P; Wong, R; Goldstein, G; Weintraub, B; Cheng, S Y; Crawley, J N

    1998-01-01

    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a human syndrome mapped to the thyroid receptor beta (TRbeta) gene on chromosome 3, representing a mutation of the ligand-binding domain of the TRbeta gene. The syndrome is characterized by reduced tissue responsiveness to thyroid hormone and elevated serum levels of thyroid hormones. A common behavioral phenotype associated with RTH is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To test the hypothesis that RTH produces attention deficits and/or hyperactivity, transgenic mice expressing a mutant TRbeta gene were generated. The present experiment tested RTH transgenic mice from the PV kindred on behavioral tasks relevant to the primary features of ADHD: hyperactivity, sustained attention (vigilance), learning, and impulsivity. Male transgenic mice showed elevated locomotor activity in an open field compared to male wild-type littermate controls. Both male and female transgenic mice exhibited impaired learning of an autoshaping task, compared to wild-type controls. On a vigilance task in an operant chamber, there were no differences between transgenics and controls on the proportion of hits, response latency, or duration of stimulus tolerated. On an operant go/no-go task measuring sustained attention and impulsivity, there were no differences between controls and transgenics. These results indicate that transgenic mice bearing a mutant human TRbeta gene demonstrate several behavioral characteristics of ADHD and may serve a valuable heuristic role in elucidating possible candidate genes in converging pathways for other causes of ADHD.

  14. Hyperactivity and Learning Deficits in Transgenic Mice Bearing a Human Mutant Thyroid Hormone β1 Receptor Gene

    McDonald, Michael P.; Wong, Rosemary; Goldstein, Gregory; Weintraub, Bruce; Cheng, Sheue-yann; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    1998-01-01

    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a human syndrome mapped to the thyroid receptor β (TRβ) gene on chromosome 3, representing a mutation of the ligandbinding domain of the TRβ gene. The syndrome is characterized by reduced tissue responsiveness to thyroid hormone and elevated serum levels of thyroid hormones. A common behavioral phenotype associated with RTH is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To test the hypothesis that RTH produces attention deficits and/or hyperactivity, transgenic mice expressing a mutant TRβ gene were generated. The present experiment tested RTH transgenic mice from the PV kindred on behavioral tasks relevant to the primary features of ADHD: hyperactivity, sustained attention (vigilance), learning, and impulsivity. Male transgenic mice showed elevated locomotor activity in an open field compared to male wild-type littermate controls. Both male and female transgenic mice exhibited impaired learning of an autoshaping task, compared to wild-type controls. On a vigilance task in an operant chamber, there were no differences between transgenics and controls on the proportion of hits, response latency, or duration of stimulus tolerated. On an operant go/no-go task measuring sustained attention and impulsivity, there were no differences between controls and transgenics. These results indicate that transgenic mice bearing a mutant human TRβ gene demonstrate several behavioral characteristics of ADHD and may serve a valuable heuristic role in elucidating possible candidate genes in converging pathways for other causes of ADHD. PMID:10454355

  15. An autoantibody against N{sup {epsilon}}-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL): Possible involvement in the removal of CEL-modified proteins by macrophages

    Mera, Katsumi [Department of Biopharmaceutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Nagai, Ryoji, E-mail: nagai-883@umin.ac.jp [Department of Food and Nutrition, Laboratory of Nutritional Science and Biochemistry, Japan Women' s University, Tokyo (Japan); Takeo, Kazuhiro; Izumi, Miyoko [Department of Biopharmaceutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Maruyama, Toru [Department of Biopharmaceutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Center for Clinical Pharmaceutical Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Otagiri, Masaki [Department of Biopharmaceutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sojo University, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2011-04-08

    Highlights: {yields} A higher amount of autoantibody against CEL than that of other AGEs was observed in human plasma. {yields} The purified human anti-CEL autoantibody specifically reacted with CEL. {yields} Anti-CEL antibody accelerated the uptake of {sup 125}I-CEL-HSA by macrophage in vitro. {yields} Endocytic uptake of {sup 125}I-CEL-HSA by mice liver was accelerated in the presence of anti-CEL antibody. -- Abstract: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are believed to play a significant role in the development of diabetic complications. In this study, we measured the levels of autoantibodies against several AGE structures in healthy human plasma and investigated the physiological role of the autoantibodies. A high titer of the autoantibody against N{sup {epsilon}}-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) was detected in human plasma compared with other AGE structures such as CML and pentosidine. The purified human anti-CEL autoantibody reacted with CEL-modified human serum albumin (CEL-HSA), but not CML-HSA. A rabbit polyclonal anti-CEL antibody, used as a model autoantibody against CEL, accelerated the uptake of CEL-HSA by macrophages, but did not enhance the uptake of native HSA. Furthermore, when {sup 125}I-labeled CEL-HSA was injected into the tail vein of mice, accumulation of {sup 125}I-CEL-HSA in the liver was accelerated by co-injection of the rabbit anti-CEL antibody. These results demonstrate that the autoantibody against CEL in plasma may play a role in the macrophage uptake of CEL-modified proteins.

  16. Polar bears at risk

    Norris, S.; Rosentrater, L.; Eid, P.M. [WWF International Arctic Programme, Oslo (Norway)

    2002-05-01

    rains also destroy the denning habitat of ringed seals, the polar bears' primary prey. Declines in the ringed seal population would mean a loss of food for polar bears. A trend toward stronger winds and increasing ice drift observed in some parts of the Arctic over the last five decades will likely increase energy expenditures and stress levels in polar bears that spend most of their lives on drifting sea ice. Polar bears face other limiting factors as well. Historically, the main threat to polar bears has been hunting. Satisfactory monitoring information has been obtained for most polar bear populations in recent years, however there is concern about hunting in areas without formal quota systems, such as Greenland. A range of toxic pollutants, including heavy metals, radioactivity, and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are found throughout the Arctic. Of greatest concern are the effects of POPs on polar bears, which include a general weakening of the immune system, reduced reproductive success and physical deformities. The expansion of oil development in the Arctic poses additional threats; for example, disturbances to denning females in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska could undermine recruitment of the Beaufort Sea polar bear population. These threats, along with other effects of human activity in the Arctic, combine to pressure polar bears and their habitat. Large carnivores are sensitive indicators of ecosystem health and can be used to define the minimum area necessary to preserve intact ecosystems. WWF has identified the polar bear as a unique symbol of the complexities and interdependencies of the arctic marine ecosystem as it works toward its goal of preserving biodiversity for future generations.

  17. Effect of all-trans retinoic acid combined with trichostatin A on the nude mice bearing human follicular thyroid carcinoma

    Yu Libo; Yuan Gengbiao

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of iodine uptake of the follicular thyroid carcinoma cell line (FTC-133) and nude mice bearing human follicular thyroid carcinoma after the induction with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), trichostatin A (TSA) or ATRA combined with TSA. Methods: After the induction with ATRA, TSA, or ATRA combined with TSA in different concentrations for 96 h, the iodine uptake of FTC-133 cells was observed. The concentrations for different groups were as follows: ATRA 1.0 ×10 -6 mol/L(A low group), ATRA 1.0 × 10 -4 mol/L (A high group), TSA 1.65 ×10 -7 mol/L (T group), A low + T group, A high + T group and ethanol (control group). Cell quantities and morphology were observed by HE staining. FTC-133 cells were subcutaneously injected into nude mice. Twelve nude mice were randomly divided into 4 groups after tumor formation: ATRA group (2 mg/kg, intragastric administration), TSA group (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection), combined therapy group (ATRA + TSA, the same doses as above) and saline control group (10 ml/kg, intragastric and intraperitoneal administration, respectively). Drugs were administered to the tumor-bearing mice according to the mouse body mass daily. At the 22nd day, the tumor-bearing mice were injected with 37 MBq 131 I intraperitoneally. The biodistribution of 131 I and gamma imaging were performed at 4, 6, 12 and 24 h after the injection respectively. Histopathological examinations of the tumor samples were taken after imaging completion. The results were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) with SPSS 13.0. Results: The cellular iodine uptake were (23 885 ± 616.0) and (13 849 ±728.2) counts · min -1 · 10 -6 cells in the A low + T group and A high + T group respectively, and the data were (985 ± 84.2) - (17 600 ± 782.7) counts · min -1 · 10 -6 in the other groups (F=600.879, P<0.001). The % ID/g of tumor at 6 h was 6.17 ±0.46 in the combined group and it increased to 9.34 ±0.61 at 12 h and 11.19 ± 0.98 at 24 h. The

  18. GAS BEARING

    Skarstrom, C.W.

    1960-09-01

    A gas lubricated bearing for a rotating shaft is described. The assembly comprises a stationary collar having an annular member resiliently supported thereon. The collar and annular member are provided with cooperating gas passages arranged for admission of pressurized gas which supports and lubricates a bearing block fixed to the rotatable shaft. The resilient means for the annular member support the latter against movement away from the bearing block when the assembly is in operation.

  19. Strategies for building reference standards for autoantibodies

    Joanna eSheldon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Producing robust, certified, traceable reference material for autoantibody testing is a vital element in maintaining the validity of results that are generated in the daily clinical laboratory routine. This is a huge challenge because of the high number of variables involved in the detection and measurement of the autoantibodies. The production of such materials is time consuming and needs rigorous attention to detail; this is best achieved by an overarching independent body who will oversee the process in a not for profit manner.Much effort has been made to build international standards for quantitative and qualitative assays based on monoclonal antibodies, obtained from affinity purification and plasmapheresis. The big challenge is to respect individual differences in immune response to the same antigen. A promising ongoing initiative is the construction of pools with monospecific samples from different individuals.

  20. Muscle autoantibodies in myasthenia gravis: beyond diagnosis?

    Meriggioli, Matthew N; Sanders, Donald B

    2012-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder of the neuromuscular junction. A number of molecules, including ion channels and other proteins at the neuromuscular junction, may be targeted by autoantibodies leading to abnormal neuromuscular transmission. In approximately 85% of patients, autoantibodies, directed against the postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor can be detected in the serum and confirm the diagnosis, but in general, do not precisely predict the degree of weakness or response to therapy. Antibodies to the muscle-specific tyrosine kinase are detected in approximately 50% of generalized myasthenia gravis patients who are seronegative for anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies, and levels of anti-muscle-specific tyrosine kinase antibodies do appear to correlate with disease severity and treatment response. Antibodies to other muscle antigens may be found in the subsets of myasthenia gravis patients, potentially providing clinically useful diagnostic information, but their utility as relevant biomarkers (measures of disease state or response to treatment) is currently unclear. PMID:22882218

  1. Thyroid Autoantibodies Display both “Original Antigenic Sin” and Epitope Spreading

    Sandra M. McLachlan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for original antigenic sin in spontaneous thyroid autoimmunity is revealed by autoantibody interactions with immunodominant regions on thyroid autoantigens, thyroglobulin (Tg, thyroid peroxidase (TPO, and the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR A-subunit. In contrast, antibodies induced by immunization of rabbits or mice recognize diverse epitopes. Recognition of immunodominant regions persists despite fluctuations in autoantibody levels following treatment or over time. The enhancement of spontaneously arising pathogenic TSHR antibodies in transgenic human thyrotropin receptor/NOD.H2h4 mice by injecting a non-pathogenic form of TSHR A-subunit protein also provides evidence for original antigenic sin. From other studies, antigen presentation by B cells, not dendritic cells, is likely responsible for original antigenic sin. Recognition of restricted epitopes on the large glycosylated thyroid autoantigens (60-kDa A-subunit, 100-kDa TPO, and 600-kDa Tg facilitates exploring the amino acid locations in the immunodominant regions. Epitope spreading has also been revealed by autoantibodies in thyroid autoimmunity. In humans, and in mice that spontaneously develop autoimmunity to all three thyroid autoantigens, autoantibodies develop first to Tg and later to TPO and the TSHR A-subunit. The pattern of intermolecular epitope spreading is related in part to the thyroidal content of Tg, TPO and TSHR A-subunit and to the molecular sizes of these proteins. Importantly, the epitope spreading pattern provides a rationale for future antigen-specific manipulation to block the development of all thyroid autoantibodies by inducing tolerance to Tg, first in the autoantigen cascade. Because of its abundance, Tg may be the autoantigen of choice to explore antigen-specific treatment, preventing the development of pathogenic TSHR antibodies.

  2. Prenatal Exposure to Autism-Specific Maternal Autoantibodies Alters Proliferation of Cortical Neural Precursor Cells, Enlarges Brain, and Increases Neuronal Size in Adult Animals.

    Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica; Camacho, Jasmin; Fox, Elizabeth; Miller, Elaine; Ariza, Jeanelle; Kienzle, Devon; Plank, Kaela; Noctor, Stephen C; Van de Water, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) affect up to 1 in 68 children. Autism-specific autoantibodies directed against fetal brain proteins have been found exclusively in a subpopulation of mothers whose children were diagnosed with ASD or maternal autoantibody-related autism. We tested the impact of autoantibodies on brain development in mice by transferring human antigen-specific IgG directly into the cerebral ventricles of embryonic mice during cortical neurogenesis. We show that autoantibodies recognize radial glial cells during development. We also show that prenatal exposure to autism-specific maternal autoantibodies increased stem cell proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the embryonic neocortex, increased adult brain size and weight, and increased the size of adult cortical neurons. We propose that prenatal exposure to autism-specific maternal autoantibodies directly affects radial glial cell development and presents a viable pathologic mechanism for the maternal autoantibody-related prenatal ASD risk factor. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Biological variation of thyroid autoantibodies and thyroglobulin

    Jensen, Esther; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Blaabjerg, Ole

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been shown that the level of serum thyroid antibodies affects serum thyrotropin (TSH) concentrations in men and women, and that these autoantibodies in combination with serum TSH are predictive of future thyroid disease. As the biological variation of these autoantibodies.......5-258 kIU/L), the CV biological was 11.3%, while the CV analytical was 10.6%. For TgAb (5.6 to 148 kIU/L) CV biological was 8.5% and CV analytical was 9.0%. The woman with TRAb had a CV biological of 4.8%, while the analytical variation in duplicates was 3.9% at a level of 2.8 IU/L. CONCLUSIONS......: It is possible to measure TPOAb and TgAb in all samples with the AutoDELFIA. There is no systematic variation in autoantibodies during the menstrual cycle. The biological coefficient of variation for TPOAb and TgAb was 11.3% and 8.5%, respectively...

  4. Natural autoantibodies and complement promote the uptake of a self antigen, human thyroglobulin, by B cells and the proliferation of thyroglobulin-reactive CD4(+) T cells in healthy individuals

    Nielsen, C H; Leslie, R G; Jepsen, B S

    2001-01-01

    of complement receptor types 1 (CR1, CD35) and 2 (CR2, CD21). T cell responsiveness to Tg was examined in a preparation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) cultured in the presence of autologous serum. A subset of CD4(+) T cells exhibited a dose-dependent proliferative response to Tg, which...... cells are prerequisites for the proliferation of Tg-reactive CD4(+) T cells, suggesting a novel role for natural autoantibodies and complement in the regulation of autoreactivity under physiological conditions....... was strongly inhibited by complement inactivation and by immunoabsorption of Tg-reactive antibodies. Furthermore, this T cell response was abrogated by depletion of B cells from the PBMC culture. These data imply that uptake of complement-opsonized Tg / anti-Tg complexes and subsequent presentation of Tg by B...

  5. Radiolabeling of anti-human prostatic specific membrane antigen antibody with 99Tcm and its biodistribution in nude mice bearing human prostate cancer

    Tu Shaohua; Shen Jiangfan; Tao Rong; Ji Xiaowen; Wang Yancheng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the binding affinity of 99 Tc m labeled anti-human prostatic specific membrane antigen (PSMA) monoclonal antibody (McAb) J591 to prostate cancer cells and the biodistribution of 99 Tc m -J591 in nude mice bearing human prostate cancer. Methods: The McAb J591 was labeled with vTcm by improved Schwarz method and the labeled McAb was purified by Sephadex G-50. The binding affinity of J591 with prostate cancer cells was measured by Flow Cytometry. The nude mice bearing PSMA-positive C4-2 prostate carcinoma xenografts were served as experiment groups, mice with PSMA-negative pc3 tumors served as controls. The biodistribution of 99 Tc m -J591 were carried out in both model nude mice. Results: The radiolabeling efficiency of 99 Tc m -J591 was 78.9±6.2%, and radiochemical purity was more than 90% after purification. The 99 Tc m -J591 showed a good combination with PSMA-positive C4-2 cells and no combination with PSMA-negative PC3 cells in vitro. The biodistribution results showed that 99 Tcm-J591 was accumulated in tumor tissue during the 2-24 hours after injection in experiment groups, and no significant uptake in control group. The uptake of 99 Tcm-J591 in tumor tissue reached a maximum 15.91±5.16 % ID/g in experimental group at 12h post-injection. There was a significant difference compared with controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: The monoclonal antibody J591 exhibits an excellent immuno-reactivity and tumor targeting property, and it may be used in diagnosis and target therapy of prostate cancer. (authors)

  6. The Prevalence of Antithyroid Autoantibodies in Normal Korean Population*

    Lee, Myung Shik; Lee, Dong Soo; Han, Jin Suk; Cho, Bo Youn; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Munho

    1986-01-01

    The prevalence of antithyroid autoantibodies and the relationship between the presence of autoantibodies and thyroid functions were studied in 848 apparently normal Korean adults with tanned red cell agglutination technique. Results are summarized as follows: 1) The prevalence of antimicrosimal antibody (MCHA) and antithyroglobulin antibody (TGHA) were 4.4% and 1.9% in 458 males, and 12.4% and 5.0% in 390 females, respectively. Both autoantibodies were more prevalent in female (pantithyroid autoantibody of high titer (⩾1:1002) was related to alteration of thyroid functions suggesting the existence of “subclinical autoimmune thyroiditis” state. PMID:15759373

  7. A poliomyelitis model through mucosal infection in transgenic mice bearing human poliovirus receptor, TgPVR21

    Nagata, Noriyo; Iwasaki, Takuya; Ami, Yasushi; Sato, Yuko; Hatano, Ikuyoshi; Harashima, Ayako; Suzaki, Yuriko; Yoshii, Takao; Hashikawa, Tsutomu; Sata, Tetsutaro; Horiuchi, Yoshinobu; Koike, Satoshi; Kurata, Takeshi; Nomoto, Akio

    2004-01-01

    Transgenic mice bearing the human poliovirus receptor (TgPVR) are less susceptible to oral inoculation, although they are susceptible to parenteral inoculation. We investigated the susceptibility of TgPVR 21 line [Arch. Virol. 130 (1994) 351] to poliovirus through various mucosal routes. Intranasal inoculation of a neurovirulent Mahoney strain (OM1) caused flaccid paralysis with viral replication in the central nervous system at a dose of 10 6 cell culture infectious dose (CCID 50 ), in contrast, no paralysis following oral or intragastric inoculation of the same dose. Intranasal inoculation of a vaccine strain, Sabin 1, at 10 6 CCID 50 , resulted in no paralysis. Initial replication of poliovirus in the nasal cavity was confirmed by virus isolation and detection of negative-stranded replicative intermediates by RT-PCR and viral antigens using a high-sensitive immunohistochemistry and genome/transcripts by in situ hybridization. Poliovirus-specific IgG antibodies were elevated in the sera of surviving TgPVR21. This model can be used as a mucosal infection model and for differentiation of neurovirulent and attenuated poliovirus strains

  8. Radioimmunotherapy of Nude Mice Bearing Human Colon Carcinoma with I-131 Labeled Anti-carcinoembryonic Antigen

    Kim, Byung Tae; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Sang Eun; Choi, Yong; Chi, Dae Yoon; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon; Chung, Hong Keun

    1995-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of various factors on the therapeutic effect of the I-l3l labeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody(anti-CEA antibody). Tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (MTT) was used to compare in vitro cytotoxicity of 3 Korean colon cancer cell lines (SNU-C2A, SNU-C4, SNU-C5) for selection of proper 2 cell lines in this study. The changes of the size of tumor which was xenografted to nude mice (balb/c nu/nu) were compared in 4 groups (group treated I-131 labeled anti-CEA antibody, group treated with non-radiolabeled anti-CEA antibody, group treated with I-131. labeled anti-human chorionic gonadotropin monoclonal antibody (anti-hCG antibody) as nonspecific antibody, and group injected with normal saline as a control). Immunohistochemical staining and in vivo autoradiography were performed after excision of the xenografted tumor. The results were as below mentioned. The in vitro cytotoxic effect of I-131 labeled anti-CEA antibody is most prominent in SNU-C5 cell line between 3 cancer cell lines. The changes of xenografted tumor size in both SNU-C4 and SNU-C5 cell tumors at the thirteenth day after injection of the antibodies were smallest in the group treated with I-131 labeled anti-CEA antibody (SNU-C4/SNU-C5; 324/342%) comparing with other groups, group treated with anti-CEA antibody (622/660%), group treated with I-131 anti-hCG antibody (538/546%), and control group(1030/724%) (p<0.02 in SNU-C4 and p<0.1in SNU-C5 at the 13th day after injection of antibodies). On the thirteenth day after injection of the antibodies nude mice were sacreficed to count the radiouptake of tumor and to check the changes of tumor size. Correlations between radiouptake and change of tumor size were calculated in each groups and significant negative correlation was only obtained in the group treated with I-131 anti-CEA antibody (p<0.05). There were no correlations between antigenic expression of carcinoembryonic antigen and

  9. Low prevalence of liver-kidney microsomal autoantibodies of type 1 (LKM1 in hepatitis C seropositive subjects on Crete, Greece

    Pappas Georgios

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C is a serious problem on the Greek island of Crete, where a high prevalence of antibodies against hepatitis C (anti-HCV has recently been reported. This article reports the findings of a study carried out in Crete, which investigated the prevalence of serum autoantibodies in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Patients and Methods One hundred and forty two patients (59 men and 83 women, who were found anti-HCV seropositive in two hospitals and two Primary Health Care Centres in Crete, were eligible. Sixty healthy blood donors (46 men, 14 women, which were negative to anti-HCV, were used as the control group. They were randomly selected from those attending Rethymnon Hospital. Autoantibodies were identified using the indirect immunofluorescence (IFL technique on human epithelial cells from larynx cancer (HEp-2 cells, rat liver-kidney-stomach substrate (CT3 and Chrithidia Luciliae (CL. Results Serum autoantibodies were detected in 104 HCV patients, yielding an overall prevalence of 73.2%. The most frequent autoantibodies were antinuclear antibodies (ANA, positive in 72 patients (50.7%. Anti-smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA were detected in 33 patients (23.2%. Only one patient was positive for LKM1 autoantibodies. No autoantibodies were found in 38 patients (26.7%. Autoantibodies were also found in 5 out of the 60 examined healthy blood donors (8.3%. Conclusions Autoantibodies, mainly ANA and ASMA are very common in HCV seropositive patients from Crete. By contrast LKM1 autoantibodies are exceptionally rare in these patients.

  10. Development of Type 1 Diabetes in Wild Bank Voles Associated With Islet Autoantibodies and the Novel Ljungan Virus

    Niklasson, Bo; Heller, Knud Erik; Schønecker, Bryan

    2003-01-01

    Clethrionomys Glareolus, Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Autoantibodies, IA-2 Autoantibodies, Insulin Autoantibodies, Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus, Ljungan Virus, Parechovirus, Picorna Virus......Clethrionomys Glareolus, Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Autoantibodies, IA-2 Autoantibodies, Insulin Autoantibodies, Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus, Ljungan Virus, Parechovirus, Picorna Virus...

  11. Electrochemiluminescence assays for insulin and glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies improve prediction of type 1 diabetes risk.

    Miao, Dongmei; Steck, Andrea K; Zhang, Li; Guyer, K Michelle; Jiang, Ling; Armstrong, Taylor; Muller, Sarah M; Krischer, Jeffrey; Rewers, Marian; Yu, Liping

    2015-02-01

    We recently developed new electrochemiluminescence (ECL) insulin autoantibody (IAA) and glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 autoantibody (GADA) assays that discriminate high-affinity, high-risk diabetes-specific autoantibodies from low-affinity, low-risk islet autoantibodies (iAbs) detected by radioassay (RAD). Here, we report a further validation of the ECL-IAA and -GADA assays in 3,484 TrialNet study participants. The ECL assay and RAD were congruent in those with prediabetes and in subjects with multiple autoantibodies, but only 24% (P<0.0001) of single RAD-IAA-positive and 46% (P<0.0001) of single RAD-GADA-positive were confirmed by the ECL-IAA and -GADA assays, respectively. During a follow-up (mean, 2.4 years), 51% of RAD-IAA-positive and 63% of RAD-GADA-positive subjects not confirmed by ECL became iAb negative, compared with only 17% of RAD-IAA-positive (P<0.0001) and 15% of RAD-GADA-positive (P<0.0001) subjects confirmed by ECL assays. Among subjects with multiple iAbs, diabetes-free survival was significantly shorter if IAA or GADA was positive by ECL and negative by RAD than if IAA or GADA was negative by ECL and positive by RAD (P<0.019 and P<0.0001, respectively). Both positive and negative predictive values in terms of progression to type 1 diabetes mellitus were superior for ECL-IAA and ECL-GADA, compared with RADs. The prevalence of the high-risk human leukocyte antigen-DR3/4, DQB1*0302 genotype was significantly higher in subjects with RAD-IAA or RAD-GADA confirmed by ECL. In conclusion, both ECL-IAA and -GADA are more disease-specific and better able to predict the risk of progression to type 1 diabetes mellitus than the current standard RADs.

  12. Autoantibody response against NALP5/MATER in primary ovarian insufficiency and in autoimmune Addison's disease.

    Brozzetti, Annalisa; Alimohammadi, Mohammad; Morelli, Silvia; Minarelli, Viviana; Hallgren, Åsa; Giordano, Roberta; De Bellis, Annamaria; Perniola, Roberto; Kämpe, Olle; Falorni, Alberto

    2015-05-01

    NACHT leucine-rich-repeat protein 5 (NALP5)/maternal antigen that embryo requires (MATER) is an autoantigen in hypoparathyroidism associated with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1) but is also expressed in the ovary. Mater is an autoantigen in experimental autoimmune oophoritis. The objectives of the study were to determine the frequency of NALP5/MATER autoantibodies (NALP5/MATER-Ab) in women with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) and in patients with autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) and to evaluate whether inhibin chains are a target for autoantibodies in POI. Autoantibodies against NALP5/MATER and inhibin chains-α and -βA were determined by radiobinding assays in 172 patients with AAD without clinical signs of gonadal insufficiency, 41 women with both AAD and autoimmune POI [steroidogenic cell autoimmune POI (SCA-POI)], 119 women with idiopathic POI, 19 patients with APS1, and 211 healthy control subjects. NALP5/MATER-Ab were detected in 11 of 19 (58%) sera from APS1 patients, 12 of 172 (7%) AAD sera, 5 of 41 (12%) SCA-POI sera, 0 of 119 idiopathic POI sera and 1 of 211 healthy control sera (P < .001). None of 160 POI sera, including 41 sera from women with SCA-POI and 119 women with idiopathic POI, and none of 211 healthy control sera were positive for inhibin chain-α/βA autoantibodies. NALP5/MATER-Ab are associated with hypoparathyroidism in APS1 but are present also in patients with AAD and in women with SCA-POI without hypoparathyroidism. Inhibin chains do not appear to be likely candidate targets of autoantibodies in human POI.

  13. Genome-wide association analysis of autoantibody positivity in type 1 diabetes cases.

    Vincent Plagnol

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The genetic basis of autoantibody production is largely unknown outside of associations located in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC human leukocyte antigen (HLA region. The aim of this study is the discovery of new genetic associations with autoantibody positivity using genome-wide association scan single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP data in type 1 diabetes (T1D patients with autoantibody measurements. We measured two anti-islet autoantibodies, glutamate decarboxylase (GADA, n = 2,506, insulinoma-associated antigen 2 (IA-2A, n = 2,498, antibodies to the autoimmune thyroid (Graves' disease (AITD autoantigen thyroid peroxidase (TPOA, n = 8,300, and antibodies against gastric parietal cells (PCA, n = 4,328 that are associated with autoimmune gastritis. Two loci passed a stringent genome-wide significance level (p<10(-10: 1q23/FCRL3 with IA-2A and 9q34/ABO with PCA. Eleven of 52 non-MHC T1D loci showed evidence of association with at least one autoantibody at a false discovery rate of 16%: 16p11/IL27-IA-2A, 2q24/IFIH1-IA-2A and PCA, 2q32/STAT4-TPOA, 10p15/IL2RA-GADA, 6q15/BACH2-TPOA, 21q22/UBASH3A-TPOA, 1p13/PTPN22-TPOA, 2q33/CTLA4-TPOA, 4q27/IL2/TPOA, 15q14/RASGRP1/TPOA, and 12q24/SH2B3-GADA and TPOA. Analysis of the TPOA-associated loci in 2,477 cases with Graves' disease identified two new AITD loci (BACH2 and UBASH3A.

  14. IgG4 autoantibodies are inhibitory in the autoimmune disease bullous pemphigoid.

    Zuo, Yagang; Evangelista, Flor; Culton, Donna; Guilabert, Antonio; Lin, Lin; Li, Ning; Diaz, Luis; Liu, Zhi

    2016-09-01

    The IgG4 subclass of antibodies exhibits unique characteristics that suggest it may function in an immunoregulatory capacity. The inhibitory function of IgG4 has been well documented in allergic disease by the demonstration of IgG4 blocking antibodies, but similar functions have not been explored in autoimmune disease. Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is a subepidermal autoimmune blistering disease characterized by autoantibodies directed against BP180 and an inflammatory infiltrate including eosinophils and neutrophils. Animal models have revealed that the NC16A region within BP180 harbors the critical epitopes necessary for autoantibody mediated disease induction. BP180 NC16A-specific IgG belong to the IgG1, IgG3, and IgG4 subclasses. The purpose of this study was to determine effector functions of different IgG subclasses of NC16A-specific autoantibodies in BP. We find that IgG4 anti-NC16A autoantibodies inhibit the binding of IgG1 and IgG3 autoantibodies to the NC16A region. Moreover, IgG4 anti-NC16A blocks IgG1 and IgG3 induced complement fixation, neutrophil infiltration, and blister formation clinically and histologically in a dose-dependent manner following passive transfer to humanized BP180-NC16A mice. These findings highlight the inhibitory role of IgG4 in autoimmune disease and have important implications for the treatment of BP as well as other antibody mediated inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Absence of anti-hypocretin receptor 2 autoantibodies in post pandemrix narcolepsy cases.

    Guo Luo

    Full Text Available A recent publication suggested molecular mimicry of a nucleoprotein (NP sequence from A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8 strain, the backbone used in the construction of the reassortant strain X-179A that was used in Pandemrix® vaccine, and reported on anti-hypocretin (HCRT receptor 2 (anti-HCRTR2 autoantibodies in narcolepsy, mostly in post Pandemrix® narcolepsy cases (17 of 20 sera. In this study, we re-examined this hypothesis through mass spectrometry (MS characterization of Pandemrix®, and two other pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1-2009 vaccines, Arepanrix® and Focetria®, and analyzed anti-HCRTR2 autoantibodies in narcolepsy patients and controls using three independent strategies.MS characterization of Pandemrix® (2 batches, Arepanrix® (4 batches and Focetria® (1 batch was conducted with mapping of NP 116I or 116M spectrogram. Two sets of narcolepsy cases and controls were used: 40 post Pandemrix® narcolepsy (PP-N cases and 18 age-matched post Pandemrix® controls (PP-C, and 48 recent (≤6 months early onset narcolepsy (EO-N cases and 70 age-matched other controls (O-C. Anti-HCRTR2 autoantibodies were detected using three strategies: (1 Human embryonic kidney (HEK 293T cells with transient expression of HCRTR2 were stained with human sera and then analyzed by flow cytometer; (2 In vitro translation of [35S]-radiolabelled HCRTR2 was incubated with human sera and immune complexes of autoantibody and [35S]-radiolabelled HCRTR2 were quantified using a radioligand-binding assay; (3 Optical density (OD at 450 nm (OD450 of human serum immunoglobulin G (IgG binding to HCRTR2 stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1 cell line was measured using an in-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA.NP 116M mutations were predominantly present in all batches of Pandemrix®, Arepanrix® and Focetria®. The wild-type NP109-123 (ILYDKEEIRRIWRQA, a mimic to HCRTR234-45 (YDDEEFLRYLWR, was not found to bind to DQ0602. Three or four subjects were found positive

  16. Increased immune complexes of hypocretin autoantibodies in narcolepsy.

    Deloumeau, Aude; Bayard, Sophie; Coquerel, Quentin; Déchelotte, Pierre; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Carlander, Bertrand; Cochen De Cock, Valérie; Fetissov, Sergueï O; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2010-10-13

    Hypocretin peptides participate in the regulation of sleep-wake cycle while deficiency in hypocretin signaling and loss of hypocretin neurons are causative for narcolepsy-cataplexy. However, the mechanism responsible for alteration of the hypocretin system in narcolepsy-cataplexy and its relevance to other central hypersomnias remain unknown. Here we studied whether central hypersomnias can be associated with autoantibodies reacting with hypocretin-1 peptide present as immune complexes. Serum levels of free and dissociated (total) autoantibodies reacting with hypocretin-1 peptide were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and analyzed with regard to clinical parameters in 82 subjects with narcolepsy-cataplexy, narcolepsy without cataplexy or idiopathic hypersomnia and were compared to 25 healthy controls. Serum levels of total but not free IgG autoantibodies against hypocretin-1 were increased in narcolepsy-cataplexy. Increased levels of complexed IgG autoantibodies against hypocretin-1 were found in all patients groups with a further increase in narcolepsy-cataplexy. Levels of total IgM hypocretin-1 autoantibodies were also elevated in all groups of patients. Increased levels of anti-idiotypic IgM autoantibodies reacting with hypocretin-1 IgG autoantibodies affinity purified from sera of subjects with narcolepsy-cataplexy were found in all three groups of patients. Disease duration correlated negatively with serum levels of hypocretin-1 IgG and IgM autoantibodies and with anti-idiotypic IgM autoantibodies. Central hypersomnias and particularly narcolepsy-cataplexy are characterized by higher serum levels of autoantibodies directed against hypocretin-1 which are present as immune complexes most likely with anti-idiotypic autoantibodies suggesting their relevance to the mechanism of sleep-wake cycle regulation.

  17. Increased immune complexes of hypocretin autoantibodies in narcolepsy.

    Aude Deloumeau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypocretin peptides participate in the regulation of sleep-wake cycle while deficiency in hypocretin signaling and loss of hypocretin neurons are causative for narcolepsy-cataplexy. However, the mechanism responsible for alteration of the hypocretin system in narcolepsy-cataplexy and its relevance to other central hypersomnias remain unknown. Here we studied whether central hypersomnias can be associated with autoantibodies reacting with hypocretin-1 peptide present as immune complexes. METHODOLOGY: Serum levels of free and dissociated (total autoantibodies reacting with hypocretin-1 peptide were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and analyzed with regard to clinical parameters in 82 subjects with narcolepsy-cataplexy, narcolepsy without cataplexy or idiopathic hypersomnia and were compared to 25 healthy controls. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Serum levels of total but not free IgG autoantibodies against hypocretin-1 were increased in narcolepsy-cataplexy. Increased levels of complexed IgG autoantibodies against hypocretin-1 were found in all patients groups with a further increase in narcolepsy-cataplexy. Levels of total IgM hypocretin-1 autoantibodies were also elevated in all groups of patients. Increased levels of anti-idiotypic IgM autoantibodies reacting with hypocretin-1 IgG autoantibodies affinity purified from sera of subjects with narcolepsy-cataplexy were found in all three groups of patients. Disease duration correlated negatively with serum levels of hypocretin-1 IgG and IgM autoantibodies and with anti-idiotypic IgM autoantibodies. CONCLUSION: Central hypersomnias and particularly narcolepsy-cataplexy are characterized by higher serum levels of autoantibodies directed against hypocretin-1 which are present as immune complexes most likely with anti-idiotypic autoantibodies suggesting their relevance to the mechanism of sleep-wake cycle regulation.

  18. Anti-IL-1alpha autoantibodies in early rheumatoid arthritis

    Forslind, K; Svensson, Birte; Svenson, M

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the potential predictive value of autoantibodies against IL1-alpha (anti-IL-1alpha) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA).......To investigate the potential predictive value of autoantibodies against IL1-alpha (anti-IL-1alpha) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA)....

  19. Measurement of anti- acetylcholine receptor auto-antibodies in ...

    auto-antibodies in myasthenia gravis. K. J. Steenkamp, W. Duim, M. s. Myer,. S. C. K. Malfeld, R. Anderson. Two different acetylcholine receptor (AChR) preparations derived from ... the detection of AChR auto-antibodies in serum specimens from 20 ... 4°C. Thereafter, 1 ml of washing solution (phosphate- buffered saline ...

  20. The determination of thyroid hormone autoantibodies and its clinical significance

    Zhu Li; Zhao Zhiying; Wang Zhenghua Lian Xiaolan; Guo Zhisheng; Bai Yao; Su Wei

    2003-01-01

    To study the reasons of falsely high concentrations of serum thyroid hormone and the way of determination of thyroid hormone autoantibodies, the experiments of thyroid hormone autoantibodies binding reaction, dilution testing, calibration curves and their check analysis were performed. Results showed that the combination of the autoantibodies with 125 I-T 3 or 125 I-T 4 was specific, the binding rates were 58.77% and 49.05% respectively and 7-12 times higher than control groups. The radioactive peaks of the autoantibodies and rabbit anti-T 3 or T 4 antibody appeared on the same position in radio electrophoretogram analysis and these antibodies were considered as IgG. The important reasons of falsely high concentrations of serum thyroid hormone are the presence of anti-thyroid hormone antibodies. Determination of thyroid hormone autoantibodies significantly benefits diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease

  1. High Prevalence of Autoantibodies to hLAMP-2 in Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis

    Kain, Renate; Tadema, Henko; McKinney, Eoin F.; Benharkou, Alexandra; Brandes, Ricarda; Peschel, Andrea; Hubert, Virginie; Feenstra, Tjerk; Sengoelge, Guerkan; Stegeman, Coen; Heeringa, Peter; Lyons, Paul A.; Smith, Kenneth G. C.; Kallenberg, Cees; Rees, Andrew J.

    The involvement of autoantibodies to human lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (hLAMP-2) in anti neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitis is controversial because of the absence of confirmatory data subsequent to the initial reports of their high prevalence in this disease. We

  2. Public Perceptions of Bears and Management Interventions in Japan

    Sakurai, Ryo; Jacobson, Susan K.

    2011-01-01

    Conservation of bears is a challenge globally. In Japan, Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) and brown bears (Ursus arctos) are considered a nuisance because of agricultural and property damage and personal human danger due to occasional human casualties. Reduction of human–bear conflicts in Japan would improve long-term conservation of bears and reduce risks to human health and safety. To understand Japanese perceptions of and experience with bears, we analyzed results of 5 public surveys...

  3. Autoantibodies in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Lifang Wen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, is characterized by irreversible airflow limitation based on obstructive bronchiolitis, emphysema, and chronic pulmonary inflammation. Inhaled toxic gases and particles, e.g., cigarette smoke, are major etiologic factors for COPD, while the pathogenesis of the disease is only partially understood. Over the past decade, an increasing body of evidence has been accumulated for a link between COPD and autoimmunity. Studies with clinical samples have demonstrated that autoantibodies are present in sera of COPD patients and some of these antibodies correlate with specific disease phenotypes. Furthermore, evidence from animal models of COPD has shown that autoimmunity against pulmonary antigens occur during disease development and is capable of mediating COPD-like symptoms. The idea that autoimmunity could contribute to the development of COPD provides a new angle to understand the pathogenesis of the disease. In this review article, we provide an advanced overview in this field and critically discuss the role of autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of COPD.

  4. Detection of anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibodies in the sera of Chinese neuromyelitis optica patients

    Miao Li; Weiheng Su; Jie Wang; Francesco Pisani; Antonio Frigeri; Tonghui Ma

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we recruited 10 neuromyelitis optica patients, two multiple sclerosis patients and two myelitis patients. Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79) cells transfected with a human aquaporin-4-mCherry fusion protein gene were used to detect anti-aquaporin-4 antibody in neuromyelitis optica patient sera by immunofluorescence. Anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibody was stably detected by immunofluorescence in neuromyelitis optica patient sera exclusively. The sensitivity of the assay for neuromyelitis optica was 90% and the specificity for neuromyelitis optica was 100%. The anti-aquaporin-4 antibody titers in sera were tested with serial dilutions until the signal disappeared. A positive correlation was detected between Expanded Disability Status Scale scores and serum anti-aquaporin-4 antibody titers. The anti-aquaporin-4 antibody assay is highly sensitive and specific in the sera of Chinese neuromyelitis optica patients. Detection of aquaporin-4 autoantibody is important for the diagnosis and treatment of neuromyelitis optica.

  5. Detection of anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibodies in the sera of Chinese neuromyelitis optica patients.

    Li, Miao; Su, Weiheng; Wang, Jie; Pisani, Francesco; Frigeri, Antonio; Ma, Tonghui

    2013-03-15

    In this study, we recruited 10 neuromyelitis optica patients, two multiple sclerosis patients and two myelitis patients. Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79) cells transfected with a human aquaporin-4-mCherry fusion protein gene were used to detect anti-aquaporin-4 antibody in neuromyelitis optica patient sera by immunofluorescence. Anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibody was stably detected by immunofluorescence in neuromyelitis optica patient sera exclusively. The sensitivity of the assay for neuromyelitis optica was 90% and the specificity for neuromyelitis optica was 100%. The anti-aquaporin-4 antibody titers in sera were tested with serial dilutions until the signal disappeared. A positive correlation was detected between Expanded Disability Status Scale scores and serum anti-aquaporin-4 antibody titers. The anti-aquaporin-4 antibody assay is highly sensitive and specific in the sera of Chinese neuromyelitis optica patients. Detection of aquaporin-4 autoantibody is important for the diagnosis and treatment of neuromyelitis optica.

  6. Detection of anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibodies in the sera of Chinese neuromyelitis optica patients★

    Li, Miao; Su, Weiheng; Wang, Jie; Pisani, Francesco; Frigeri, Antonio; Ma, Tonghui

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we recruited 10 neuromyelitis optica patients, two multiple sclerosis patients and two myelitis patients. Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79) cells transfected with a human aquaporin-4-mCherry fusion protein gene were used to detect anti-aquaporin-4 antibody in neuromyelitis optica patient sera by immunofluorescence. Anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibody was stably detected by immunofluorescence in neuromyelitis optica patient sera exclusively. The sensitivity of the assay for neuromyelitis optica was 90% and the specificity for neuromyelitis optica was 100%. The anti-aquaporin-4 antibody titers in sera were tested with serial dilutions until the signal disappeared. A positive correlation was detected between Expanded Disability Status Scale scores and serum anti-aquaporin-4 antibody titers. The anti-aquaporin-4 antibody assay is highly sensitive and specific in the sera of Chinese neuromyelitis optica patients. Detection of aquaporin-4 autoantibody is important for the diagnosis and treatment of neuromyelitis optica. PMID:25206717

  7. Genetic polymorphism of human cytochrome P-450 (S)-mephenytoin 4-hydroxylase. Studies with human autoantibodies suggest a functionally altered cytochrome P-450 isozyme as cause of the genetic deficiency

    Meier, U.T.; Meyer, U.A.

    1987-01-01

    The metabolism of the anticonvulsant mephenytoin is subject to a genetic polymorphism. In 2-5% of Caucasians and 18-23% of Japanese subjects a specific cytochrome P-450 isozyme, P-450 meph, is functionally deficient or missing. The authors have accumulated evidence that autoimmune antibodies observed in sera of patients with tienilic acid induced hepatitis (anti-liver kidney microsome 2 or anti-LKM2 antibodies) specifically recognize the cytochrome P-450 involved in the mephrenytoin hydroxylation polymorphism. This is demonstrated by immunoinhibition and immunoprecipitation of microsomal (S)-mephenytoin 4-hydroxylation activity and by the recognition by anti-LKM2 antibodies of a single [ 125 I]-protein band on immunoblots of human liver microsomes after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or isoelectric focusing. The cytochrome P-450 recognized by anti-LKM2 antibodies was immunopurified from microsomes derived from livers of extensive (EM) or poor metabolizers (PM) of (S)-mephenytoin. Comparison of the EM-type cytochrome P-450 to that isolated from PM livers revealed no difference in regard to immuno-cross-reactivity, molecular weight, isoelectric point, relative content in microsomes, two-dimensional tryptic peptide maps, one-dimensional peptide maps with three proteases, amino acid composition, and amino-terminal protein sequence. Finally, the same protein was precipitated from microsomes prepared from the liver biopsy of a subject phenotyped in vivo as a poor metabolizer of mephenytoin. These data strongly suggest that the mephenytoin hydroxylation deficiency is caused by a minor structural change leading to a functionally altered cytochrome P-450 isozyme

  8. Isotypes and antigenic profiles of pemphigus foliaceus and pemphigus vulgaris autoantibodies.

    Hacker, Mary K; Janson, Marleen; Fairley, Janet A; Lin, Mong-Shang

    2002-10-01

    In this study we systematically characterized isotype profiles and antigenic and tissue specificity of antidesmoglein autoantibodies from patients with pemphigus foliaceus (PF) and pemphigus vulgaris (PV) using enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assays (ELISA), indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) staining, and immunoblotting (IB). In PF, we found that IgG1 antidesmoglein-1 (Dsg1) reacts with a linear epitope(s) on the ectodomain of Dsg1, while its IgG4 counterpart recognizes a conformational epitope(s). These two subclasses of anti-Dsg1 are both capable of recognizing tissues from monkey esophagus and adult human skin, but IgG1 is not able to react with mouse skin, which may explain why this isotype of anti-Dsg1 failed to induce PF-like lesions in the passive transfer animal model. In mucosal PV patients, we found that both IgG1 and IgG4 only recognized monkey esophagus tissue by IIF, except in one patient, indicating that these antibodies react with a unique conformational epitope(s) that is present in mucosal but not skin tissue. In generalized PV, IgG1 anti-Dsg3 autoantibodies appeared to recognize a linear epitope(s) on the Dsg3 ectodomain. In contrast, IgG4 anti-Dsg3 antibodies recognized both linear and conformational epitopes on the Dsg3 molecule. Interestingly, the IgG1 anti-Dsg3 antibodies failed to react with human and mouse skin tissues, suggesting that this subclass of autoantibodies may not play an essential role in the development of PV suprabasilar lesions. In summary, we conclude that this study further elucidates the pathological mechanisms of PF and PV autoantibodies by revealing their distinct isotype and antigenic profiles. This information may help us to better understand the autoimmune mechanisms underlying the development of pemphigus.

  9. Non-organ specific autoantibodies in children with chronic hepatitis C.

    Bortolotti, F; Vajro, P; Balli, F; Giacchino, R; Crivellaro, C; Barbera, C; Cataleta, M; Muratori, L; Pontisso, P; Nebbia, G; Zancan, L; Bertolini, A; Alberti, A; Bianchi, F

    1996-11-01

    Recent studies in adult patients have established a relationship between hepatitis C virus infection and the presence of liver-kidney microsomal autoantibody type 1 (LKM1). Conversely, little is known regarding the relationship between hepatitis C and autoimmunity in children. In this study, we investigated non-organ specific autoantibodies in 40 otherwise healthy Italian children with chronic hepatitis C. All but four patients included in the study were asymptomatic. Liver histology, obtained in 35, showed features ranging from minimal to mild chronic hepatitis. Autoantibodies were investigated by indirect immunofluorescence. HCV RNA was assayed by the polymerase chain reaction in 34 cases and viral genotypes were determined. Antinuclear antibodies were detected in three (7.5%) cases, one with a homogeneous pattern; smooth muscle autoantibodies in seven (17.5%) cases, always with V (vessels only) specificity and LKM1 in four (10%), at titers ranging from 1:20 and 1:2560. Clinical and virologic features did not significantly differ between autoantibody positive and negative cases, although infections with HCV genotypes 1a and 2 were more frequent in LKM1-positive patients. During observation, the child with the highest LKM1 titre was unsuccessfully treated with alpha interferon but responded to steroids. Twelve LKM1 negative children were also treated with interferon and one developed low LKM1 titers concomitant with an alanine aminotransferase flare. The sera of the five LKM1-positive children with investigated by immunoblotting with a human microsomal fraction and peptide 257-269 of cytochrome P450IID6. Only the serum of the child with the highest LKM1 titers was reactive. These results show that a consistent proportion of children with chronic hepatitis C circulate non-organ specific autoantibodies. The prevalence of LKM1 is greater than in adults and this could raise problems for the treatment of the disease with interferon. The analysis of LKM1 target antigens

  10. GPIHBP1 autoantibodies in a patient with unexplained chylomicronemia

    Hu, Xuchen; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Hovingh, G. Kees

    2017-01-01

    into the frequency of the GPIHBP1 autoantibody syndrome in patients with unexplained chylomicronemia. Methods We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to screen for GPIHBP1 autoantibodies in 33 patients with unexplained chylomicronemia and then used Western blots and immunocytochemistry studies to characterize....... The patient had no history of autoimmune disease, but his plasma was positive for antinuclear antibodies. Conclusions One of 33 patients with unexplained chylomicronemia had the GPIHBP1 autoantibody syndrome. Additional studies in large lipid clinics will be helpful for better defining the frequency...

  11. Hydrodynamic bearings

    Bonneau, Dominique; Souchet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    This Series provides the necessary elements to the development and validation of numerical prediction models for hydrodynamic bearings. This book describes the rheological models and the equations of lubrication. It also presents the numerical approaches used to solve the above equations by finite differences, finite volumes and finite elements methods.

  12. Aquaporin-4 autoantibodies in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders: comparison between tissue-based and cell-based indirect immunofluorescence assays

    Chan Koon H

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD are severe central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating disorders (CNS IDD characterized by monophasic or relapsing, longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM and/or optic neuritis (ON. A significant proportion of NMOSD patients are seropositive for aquaporin-4 (AQP4 autoantibodies. We compared the AQP4 autoantibody detection rates of tissue-based indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIFA and cell-based IIFA. Methods Serum of Chinese CNS IDD patients were assayed for AQP4 autoantibodies by tissue-based IIFA using monkey cerebellum and cell-based IIFA using transfected HEK293 cells which express human AQP4 on their cell membranes. Results In total, 128 CNS IDD patients were studied. We found that 78% of NMO patients were seropositive for AQP4 autoantibodies by cell-based IIFA versus 61% by tissue-based IFA (p = 0.250, 75% of patients having relapsing myelitis (RM with LETM were seropositive by cell-based IIFA versus 50% by tissue-based IIFA (p = 0.250, and 33% of relapsing ON patients were seropositive by cell-based IIFA versus 22% by tissue-based IIFA (p = 1.000; however the differences were not statistically significant. All patients seropositive by tissue-based IIFA were also seropositive for AQP4 autoantibodies by cell-based IIFA. Among 29 NMOSD patients seropositive for AQP4 autoantibodies by cell-based IIFA, 20 (69% were seropositive by tissue-based IIFA. The 9 patients seropositive by cell-based IIFA while seronegative by tissue-based IIFA had NMO (3, RM with LETM (3, a single attack of LETM (1, relapsing ON (1 and a single ON attack (1. Among 23 NMO or RM patients seropositive for AQP4 autoantibodies by cell-based IIFA, comparison between those seropositive (n = 17 and seronegative (n = 6 by tissue-based IIFA revealed no differences in clinical and neuroradiological characteristics between the two groups. Conclusion Cell-based IIFA is slightly more sensitive

  13. A sensitive radio-immunoassay for serum thyroglobulin -including a correct screening for thyroglobulin autoantibodies

    Laurberg, Peter; Pedersen, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    A new thyroglobulin (Tg) assay employing polyethylene glycol (PEG) for separation of free and antibody bound : 125 I:Tg is described. By choosing a suitable PEG concentration the non-specific precipitation of free [ 125 I]Tg was kept low while both [ 125 I]Tg bound to rabbit anti-Tg immunoglobulins and to human Tg autoantibodies were precipitated. For all sera a 'blank' incubation with no rabbit anti-Tg immunoglobulins was run in parallel with the assay tubes. Hence any interference of Tg autoantibodies would be detected. A two-phase incubation gave a very low detection limit of 0.2 μg/l. The inter-assay coefficient of variation was 9.4% and the intra-assay coefficient of variation was 5.6%. Dilution curves of normal sera were parallel to the standard curve and Tg standards added to normal sera were recovered quantitatively. Twelve out of 60 normal sera from the Randers area contained Tg autoantibodies. The average serum Tg in the 48 sera without antibody was 44.6 ± 5.2 μg/l. (author)

  14. Prognostic relevance of Bmi-1 expression and autoantibodies in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Liu, Wan-li; Li, Man-zhi; Song, Li-bing; Zeng, Mu-sheng; Guo, Xian-zhi; Zhang, Lan-jun; Wang, Jun-ye; Zhang, Ge; Guan, Su; Chen, Yu-min; Kong, Qing-li; Xu, Li-hua

    2010-01-01

    Overexpression of Bmi-1 has been observed in a variety of cancers, and it has been suggested to be an independent prognostic marker for the patients. The objective of this study was to determine the level of Bmi-1 expression or its autoantibodies in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and to correlate it with clinicopathologic data. We first examined Bmi-1 expression in ESCC cell lines and tumor samples by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. We then analyzed Bmi-1 protein expression in 171 clinicopathologically characterized ESCC cases by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we detected its autoantibodies in sera of patients with ESCC by ELISA. We found that Bmi-1 expression was higher in the immortalized cells, cancer cell lines and most cancer tissue than in non-tumorous control tissue at both mRNA and protein level. In addition, Bmi-1 expression was observed in 64.3% (110 of 171) archive ESCC specimen by immunohistochemistry analysis, and the location of Bmi-1 in ESCC was in the nuclei instead of cytoplasm of tumor cells. There was a significant difference of Bmi-1 expression in patients categorized according to stage (P = 0.003) and pN classification (P = 0.047). Multivariate analysis suggested that Bmi-1 expression was an independent prognostic marker for ESCC patients. A prognostic significance of Bmi-1 was also found in the subgroup of T3~T4 and N1 tumor classification. Bmi-1 autoantibodies were detected in sera of 39.0% (62 of 159) ESCC patients. The correlations between anti-Bmi-1 antibodies and tumor stage (P = 0.040), or lymph node status (P < 0.001) were significant. Our results suggest that Bmi-1 protein is a valuable marker of ESCC progression. The presence of Bmi-1 autoantibodies in sera from patients with ESCC may have clinical utility in esophageal cancer diagnosis

  15. Chronic malaria revealed by a new fluorescence pattern on the antinuclear autoantibodies test.

    Benjamin Hommel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several clinical forms of malaria such as chronic carriage, gestational malaria or hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly may follow a cryptic evolution with afebrile chronic fatigue sometimes accompanied by anemia and/or splenomegaly. Conventional parasitological tests are often negative or not performed, and severe complications may occur. Extensive explorations of these conditions often include the search for antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA. METHODS: We analysed fluorescence patterns in the ANA test in patients with either chronic cryptic or acute symptomatic malaria, then conducted a one-year prospective study at a single hospital on all available sera drawn for ANA detections. We then identified autoantibodies differentially expressed in malaria patients and in controls using human protein microarray. RESULTS: We uncovered and defined a new, malaria-related, nucleo-cytoplasmic ANA pattern displaying the specific association of a nuclear speckled pattern with diffuse cytoplasmic perinuclearly-enhanced fluorescence. In the one-year prospective analysis, 79% of sera displaying this new nucleo-cytoplasmic fluorescence were from patients with malaria. This specific pattern, not seen in other parasitic diseases, allowed a timely reorientation of the diagnosis toward malaria. To assess if the autoantibody immune response was due to autoreactivity or molecular mimicry we isolated 42 autoantigens, targets of malarial autoantibodies. BLAST analysis indicated that 23 of recognized autoantigens were homologous to plasmodial proteins suggesting autoimmune responses directly driven by the plasmodial infection. CONCLUSION: In patients with malaria in whom parasitological tests have not been performed recognition of this new, malaria-related fluorescence pattern on the ANA test is highly suggestive of the diagnosis and triggers immediate, easy confirmation and adapted therapy.

  16. Autoantibody detection in type 2 autoimmune hepatitis using a chimera recombinant protein.

    Vitozzi, Susana; Lapierre, Pascal; Djilali-Saiah, Idriss; Alvarez, Fernando

    2002-04-01

    Autoantibodies against cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6), known as anti-liver/kidney microsome type 1 (LKM1) and/or anti-human formiminotransferase cyclodeaminase, formally known as anti-liver cytosol type 1 (LC1) define type 2 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). The aims of this work are to develop a sensitive and specific test to detect anti-LKM1 and/or anti-LC1 autoantibodies and to establish the prevalence of anti-LC1. Sera from children with type 2 AIH (n=48) and those from a control group (n=100) were evaluated for anti-LKM1 and anti-LC1 by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Western blotting. Each serum sample was assayed for reactivity against formiminotransferase cyclodeaminase and CYP2D6 alone or as part of a recombinant chimera protein. By ELISA with recombinant chimera protein, 50 serum samples were positive, 48 from patients with type 2 AIH and 2 from patients with chronic hepatitis C. Twenty-five of 48 (52%) patients studied were positive for both CYP2D6 and LC1 autoantibodies. Anti-LC1, either as the only marker or associated with anti-LKM1, was positive in 34/48 (71%). By Western blotting, anti-LC1 was found in 27/48 (56%) patients. This ELISA technique has proven to be antigen-specific and more sensitive than Western blot for the detection of anti-LC1 and anti-LKM1 autoantibodies. The prevalence of anti-LC1 (71%) confirms it as an important immunomarker in type 2 AIH.

  17. Clinical and Pathological Roles of Ro/SSA Autoantibody System

    Ryusuke Yoshimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-Ro/SSA antibodies are among the most frequently detected autoantibodies against extractable nuclear antigens and have been associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and Sjögren's syndrome (SS. Although the presence of these autoantibodies is one of the criteria for the diagnosis and classification of SS, they are also sometimes seen in other systemic autoimmune diseases. In the last few decades, the knowledge of the prevalence of anti-Ro/SSA antibodies in various autoimmune diseases and symptoms has been expanded, and the clinical importance of these antibodies is increasing. Nonetheless, the pathological role of the antibodies is still poorly understood. In this paper, we summarize the milestones of the anti-Ro/SSA autoantibody system and provide new insights into the association between the autoantibodies and the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases.

  18. Bearing structures

    Lee, A.S.; Preece, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    A hydrostatic bearing for the lower end of the vertical shaft of a sodium pump comprises a support shell encircling the shaft and a bush located between the shell and shaft. Liquid sodium is fed from the pump outlet to the bush/shaft and bush/shell interfaces to provide hydrostatic support. The bush outer surface and the shell inner surface are of complementary part-spherical shape and the bush floats relative to the shaft so that the bush can align itself with the shaft axis. Monitoring of the relative rotational speed of the bush with respect to the shaft (such rotation being induced by the viscous drag forces present) is also performed for the purposes of detecting abnormal operation of the bearing or partial seizure, at least one magnet is rotatable with the bush, and a magnetic sensor provides an output having a frequency related to the speed of the bush. (author)

  19. Journal Bearings

    Renato Brancati

    1999-01-01

    determined after acquiring and analysing the orbits described by the journal axis for assigned unbalance values in different operating conditions. Analysis of the results shows some particular operating features that were not entirely predicted by the theoretical model and which may give rise to malfunctions in the rotor-tilting pad bearings system. The tests were carried out in the rotor dynamics laboratory of the Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica per l'Energetica at the University of Naples.

  20. Modulation of intracellular Ca2+ via L-type calcium channels in heart cells by the autoantibody directed against the second extracellular loop of the alpha1-adrenoceptors.

    Bkaily, Ghassan; El-Bizri, Nesrine; Bui, Michel; Sukarieh, Rami; Jacques, Danielle; Fu, Michael L X

    2003-03-01

    The effects of methoxamine, a selective alpha1-adrenergic receptor agonist, and the autoantibody directed against the second extracellular loop of alpha1-adrenoceptors were studied on intracellular free Ca2+ levels using confocal microscopy and ionic currents using the whole-cell patch clamp technique in single cells of 10-day-old embryonic chick and 20-week-old fetal human hearts. We observed that like methoxamine, the autoantibody directed against the second extracellular loop of alpha1-adrenoreceptors significantly increased the L-type calcium current (I(Ca(L))) but had no effect on the T-type calcium current (I(Ca(T))), the delayed outward potassium current, or the fast sodium current. This effect of the autoantibody was prevented by a prestimulation of the receptors with methoxamine and vice versa. Moreover, treating the cells with prazosin, a selective alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonist blocked the methoxamine and the autoantibody-induced increase in I(Ca(L)), respectively. In absence of prazosin, both methoxamine and the autoantibody showed a substantial enhancement in the frequency of cell contraction and that of the concomitant cytosolic and nuclear free Ca2+ variations. The subsequent addition of nifedipine, a specific L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, reversed not only the methoxamine or the autoantibody-induced effect but also completely abolished cell contraction. These results demonstrated that functional alpha1-adrenoceptors exist in both 10-day-old embryonic chick and 20-week-old human fetal hearts and that the autoantibody directed against the second extracellular loop of this type of receptors plays an important role in stimulating their activity via activation of L-type calcium channels. This loop seems to have a functional significance by being the target of alpha1-receptor agonists like methoxamine.

  1. Camshaft bearing arrangement

    Aoi, K.; Ozawa, T.

    1986-06-10

    A bearing arrangement is described for the camshaft of an internal combustion engine or the like which camshaft is formed along its length in axial order with a first bearing surface, a first cam lobe, a second bearing surface, a second cam lobe, a third bearing surface, a third cam lobe and a fourth bearing surface, the improvement comprising first bearing means extending around substantially the full circumference of the first bearing surface and journaling the first bearing surface, second bearing means extending around substantially less than the circumference of the second bearing surface and journaling the second bearing surface, third bearing means extending around substantially less than the circumference of the third bearing surface and journaling the third bearing surface, and fourth bearing means extending around substantially the full circumference of the fourth bearing surface and journaling the first bearing surface.

  2. Landscape features and attractants that predispose grizzly bears to risk of conflicts with humans: A spatial and temporal analysis on privately owned agricultural land

    Wilson, Seth Mark

    Grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) deaths in the US tend to be concentrated on the periphery of core habitats. These deaths were often preceded by conflicts with humans. Management removals of "nuisance" and or habituated grizzly bears are a leading cause of death in many populations. This exploratory study focuses on the conditions that lead to human-grizzly bear conflicts on private lands near core habitat. I examined spatial associations among reported human-grizzly bear conflicts during 1986--2001, landscape features, and agricultural-attractants in north-central Montana. I surveyed 61 of a possible 64 active livestock related land users and I used geographic information system (GIS) techniques to collect information on cattle and sheep pasture locations, seasons of use, and bone yard (carcass dumps) and beehive locations. I used GIS spatial analyses, univariate tests, and logistic regression models to explore the associations among conflicts, landscape features, and attractants. A majority (75%) of conflicts were found in distinct seasonal conflict hotspots. Conflict hotspots with spatial overlap were associated with riparian vegetation, bone yards, and beehives in close proximity to one another and accounted for 62% of all conflicts. Consistently available seasonal attractants in overlapping hotspots such as calving areas, sheep lambing areas and spring, summer, and fall sheep and cattle pastures appear to perpetuate the occurrence of conflicts. I found that lambing areas and spring and summer sheep pastures were strongly associated with conflict locations as were cattle calving areas, spring cow/calf pastures, fall pastures, and bone yards. Logistic regression modeling revealed that the presence of riparian vegetation within a 1.6 km search radius strongly influenced the likelihood of conflict. After controlling for riparian vegetation, I found that unmanaged bone yards, unfenced and fenced beehives, all increased the odds of conflict. For every 1 km moved away

  3. Simplified approaches for the development of an ELISA to detect circulating autoantibodies to p53 in cancer patients

    Tayapiwatana Chatchai

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recognition that human tumors stimulate the production of autoantibodies has initiated the use of this immune response as serological markers for the early diagnosis and management of cancer. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA is the most common method used in detecting autoantibodies, which involves coating the microtiter plate with the tumor associated antigen (TAA of interest and allowing serum antibodies to bind. The patient's sample is directly in contact with the coating antigen so the protein used for coating must be pure to avoid non-specific binding. In this study, a simplified method to selectively and specifically immobilize TAAs onto microtiter plates in order to detect circulating autoantibodies in cancer patients without prior purification process was described. Wild type full-length p53 protein was produced in fusion with biotin carboxyl carrier peptide (BCCP or hexahistidine [(His6] using pAK400 and pET15b(+ vectors, respectively. The recombinant p53 fusion protein produced was then subjected to react with either a commercial p53 monoclonal antibody (mAb or sera from lung cancer patients and healthy volunteers in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA format. Results Both of the immobilized p53 fusion proteins as well as the purified (His6-p53 fusion protein had a similar dose response of detection to a commercial p53 mAb (DO7. When the biotinylated p53-BCCP fusion protein was used as an antigen to detect p53 autoantibodies in clinical samples, the result showed that human serum reacted strongly to avidin-coated microwell even in the absence of the biotinylated p53-BCCP fusion protein, thus compromised its ability to differentiate weakly positive sera from those that were negative. In contrast, the (His6-p53 protein immobilized directly onto Ni+ coated microplate was able to identify the p53 autoantibody positive serum. In addition, its reactivity to clinical serum samples highly correlated

  4. LKM3 autoantibodies in hepatitis C cirrhosis: a further phenomenon of the HCV-induced autoimmunity.

    Csepregi, A; Nemesánszky, E; Luettig, B; Obermayer-Straub, P; Manns, M P

    2001-03-01

    Chronic hepatitis C is frequently associated with laboratory markers-including LKM1 autoantibodies--of autoimmunity. A 62-yr-old woman with hepatitis C cirrhosis presented autoantibodies against liver and kidney microsomal proteins. By further evaluation of autoantibodies using ELISA and immunoblotting LKM1 and LKM3 autoantibodies could be revealed. The target antigen of LKM3 autoantibodies proved to be UGT-1.1 isoenzyme. In the absence of chronic hepatitis D infection or autoimmune hepatitis type 2, this is the first case that reports the occurrence of LKM3 autoantibodies in HCV-induced chronic liver disease.

  5. Preparation and evaluation of 99Tcm-(HYNIC-[Lys3] -bombesin) (tricine) (TPPTS) for imaging the Balb/c nude mice bearing human pancreatic cancer

    Tian Wei; Wang Feng; Li Shaohua; Shao Guoqiang; Hou Yanjie; Wang Zizheng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To synthesize 99 Tc m - (hydrazinonictinamide- [Lys 3 ] -bombesin) (tricine)(trisodium triphenylphosphine-3,3',3 - trisulfonate) ((HYNIC-[Lys 3 ]-BBS) (tricine) (TPPTS)) and evaluate its biodistribution and binding capability with tumor tissue in Balb/c nude mice bearing human pancreatic cancer xenografts. Methods: HYNIC was conjugated to the [Lys 3 ] -BBS at pH=9.0 with SnCl 2 as reducing agent and both tricine and TPPTS as coligands for 99 Tc m -labeling. 99 Tc m -HYNIC-[Lys 3 ]-BBS)(tricine) (TPPTS) was purified by Sep-Pak C18 cartridge and was analysed by HPLC. The radiochemical purity and radiolabeling yield were measured. The stability of 99 Tc m -(HYNIC-[Lys 3 ]-BBS) (tricine)(TPPTS) in serum, biodistribution (% ID/g) in the normal mice and imaging of the Balb/c nude mice bearing human pancreatic cancer xenografts in vivo were studied. Results: The radiolabeling yield was (90±2)% and the radiochemical purity was over 95%. The radiochemical purity after 4 h in serum was over 85%. The distribution in normal mice showed rapid clearance from blood (the uptake was (0.07±0.01) %ID/g at 2 h postinjection). 99 Tc m -(HYNIC-[Lys 3 ]-BBS) (tricine) (TPPTS) was excreted mainly via the kidney with little radioactivity accumulation in the liver and gastrointestinal tract (the uptake of liver, stomach, intestine was (0.27±0.03), (0.06±0.03), (0.04±0.00) %ID/g at 2 h postinjection). Marked uptake of radioactivity was found in tumor tissue of the Balb/c nude mice bearing human pancreatic cancer with maximum T/NT ratio of 3.71±0.57 at 2 h postinjection. Conclusions: 99 Tc m -(HYNIC-[Lys 3 ]-BBS)(tricine) (TPPTS) can be easily prepared with high radiolabeling yield and radiochemical purity. The stability in serum and good biodistribution characteristics make it useful for the diagnosis of human pancreatic cancer with over-expression of the gastric-releasing peptide(GRP) receptor. (authors)

  6. Autoantibodies against Cytochrome P450 Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme in Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) Affected with Hypoadrenocorticism (Addison's Disease).

    Boag, Alisdair M; Christie, Michael R; McLaughlin, Kerry A; Syme, Harriet M; Graham, Peter; Catchpole, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Canine hypoadrenocorticism likely arises from immune-mediated destruction of adrenocortical tissue, leading to glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid deficiency. In humans with autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) or autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS), circulating autoantibodies have been demonstrated against enzymes associated with adrenal steroid synthesis. The current study investigates autoantibodies against steroid synthesis enzymes in dogs with spontaneous hypoadrenocorticism. Coding regions of canine CYP21A2 (21-hydroxylase; 21-OH), CYP17A1 (17-hydroxylase; 17-OH), CYP11A1 (P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme; P450scc) and HSD3B2 (3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; 3βHSD) were amplified, cloned and expressed as 35S-methionine radiolabelled recombinant protein. In a pilot study, serum samples from 20 dogs with hypoadrenocorticism and four unaffected control dogs were screened by radio-immunoprecipitation assay. There was no evidence of reactivity against 21-OH, 17-OH or 3βHSD, but five dogs with hypoadrenocorticism showed immunoreactivity to P450scc compared with controls. Serum samples were subsequently obtained from 213 dogs diagnosed with hypoadrenocorticism and 110 dogs from a hospital control population. Thirty control dogs were randomly selected to establish a threshold for antibody positivity (mean + 3 × standard deviation). Dogs with hypoadrenocorticism were more likely to be P450scc autoantibody positive than hospital controls (24% vs. 1.2%, respectively; p = 0.0016). Sex was significantly associated with the presence of P450scc autoantibodies in the case population, with 30% of females testing positive compared with 17% of males (p = 0.037). Significant associations with breed (p = 0.015) and DLA-type (DQA1*006:01 allele; p = 0.017) were also found. This cross-sectional study indicates that P450scc autoantibodies are present in a proportion of dogs affected with hypoadrenocorticism.

  7. Autoantibodies against Cytochrome P450 Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme in Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris Affected with Hypoadrenocorticism (Addison's Disease.

    Alisdair M Boag

    Full Text Available Canine hypoadrenocorticism likely arises from immune-mediated destruction of adrenocortical tissue, leading to glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid deficiency. In humans with autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD or autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS, circulating autoantibodies have been demonstrated against enzymes associated with adrenal steroid synthesis. The current study investigates autoantibodies against steroid synthesis enzymes in dogs with spontaneous hypoadrenocorticism. Coding regions of canine CYP21A2 (21-hydroxylase; 21-OH, CYP17A1 (17-hydroxylase; 17-OH, CYP11A1 (P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme; P450scc and HSD3B2 (3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; 3βHSD were amplified, cloned and expressed as 35S-methionine radiolabelled recombinant protein. In a pilot study, serum samples from 20 dogs with hypoadrenocorticism and four unaffected control dogs were screened by radio-immunoprecipitation assay. There was no evidence of reactivity against 21-OH, 17-OH or 3βHSD, but five dogs with hypoadrenocorticism showed immunoreactivity to P450scc compared with controls. Serum samples were subsequently obtained from 213 dogs diagnosed with hypoadrenocorticism and 110 dogs from a hospital control population. Thirty control dogs were randomly selected to establish a threshold for antibody positivity (mean + 3 × standard deviation. Dogs with hypoadrenocorticism were more likely to be P450scc autoantibody positive than hospital controls (24% vs. 1.2%, respectively; p = 0.0016. Sex was significantly associated with the presence of P450scc autoantibodies in the case population, with 30% of females testing positive compared with 17% of males (p = 0.037. Significant associations with breed (p = 0.015 and DLA-type (DQA1*006:01 allele; p = 0.017 were also found. This cross-sectional study indicates that P450scc autoantibodies are present in a proportion of dogs affected with hypoadrenocorticism.

  8. Brief Communication: Maternal Plasma Autoantibodies Screening in Fetal Down Syndrome

    Karol Charkiewicz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Imbalance in the metabolites levels which can potentially be related to certain fetal chromosomal abnormalities can stimulate mother’s immune response to produce autoantibodies directed against proteins. The aim of the study was to determine the concentration of 9000 autoantibodies in maternal plasma to detect fetal Down syndrome. Method. We performed 190 amniocenteses and found 10 patients with confirmed fetal Down syndrome (15th–18th weeks of gestation. For the purpose of our control we chose 11 women without confirmed chromosomal aberration. To assess the expression of autoantibodies in the blood plasma, we used a protein microarray, which allows for simultaneous determination of 9000 proteins per sample. Results. We revealed 213 statistically significant autoantibodies, whose expression decreased or increased in the study group with fetal Down syndrome. The second step was to create a classifier of Down syndrome pregnancy, which includes 14 antibodies. The predictive value of the classifier (specificity and sensitivity is 100%, classification errors, 0%, cross-validation errors, 0%. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that the autoantibodies may play a role in the pathophysiology of Down syndrome pregnancy. Defining their potential as biochemical markers of Down syndrome pregnancy requires further investigation on larger group of patients.

  9. β2-glycoprotein-1 autoantibodies from patients with antiphospholipid syndrome are sufficient to potentiate arterial thrombus formation in a mouse model

    Arad, Ariela; Proulle, Valerie; Furie, Richard A.; Furie, Barbara C.

    2011-01-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome is characterized by thrombosis, recurrent fetal loss, and the presence of the lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibodies, or anti–β2-glycoprotein-1 (anti–β2-GP1) antibodies. Although anti–β2-GP1 antibodies have been documented as a biomarker for diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome, their direct role in the pathogenesis of thrombosis is unknown. We have demonstrated using intravital microscopy that anti–β2-GP1 autoantibodies purified from the sera of patients with antiphospholipid syndrome complicated by thrombosis greatly amplify thrombus size after laser-induced vessel wall injury in live mice. Anti–β2-GP1 autoantibodies from 3 patients with antiphospholipid syndrome were affinity-purified using human β2-GP1 bound to agarose. The effects of purified anti–β2-GP1 IgG autoantibodies, of anti–β2-GP1–depleted IgG, and of IgG from normal human sera on thrombus formation were measured in mice after arterial injury in the cremaster muscle. Before injury, purified anti–β2-GP1 IgG autoantibodies, anti–β2-GP1 antibody–depleted IgG, or IgG from normal human sera were infused. Increasing amounts of purified anti–β2-GP1 autoantibodies increased thrombus size in a dose-dependent manner, whereas neither anti–β2-GP1 antibody-depleted IgG nor IgG from normal serum affected thrombus size. These results indicate that anti–β2-GP1 IgG autoantibodies in antiphospholipid syndrome patient sera are not only a marker of antiphospholipid syndrome but are directly involved in the pathogenesis of thrombosis. PMID:21245481

  10. Detection of at-risk pregnancy by means of highly sensitive assays for thyroid autoantibodies

    Stagnaro-Green, A.; Roman, S.H.; Cobin, R.H.; El-Harazy, E.; Alvarez-Marfany, M.; Davies, T.F.

    1990-01-01

    The authors screened 552 women who presented to their obstetrician in the first trimester of pregnancy using highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the presence of thyroglobulin and thyroidperoxidase autoantibodies and found an incidence of positivity of 19.6%. The tendency to secrete detectable levels of thyroid autoantibodies was significantly correlated with an increased rate of miscarriage. Thyroid autoantibody-positive women miscarried at a rate of 17%, compared with 8.4% for the autoantibody-negative women. Individual levels of thyroglobulin and thyroidperoxidase autoantibodies were similarly related to this increased miscarriage rate, with no evidence of autoantibody specificity in the relationship. Furthermore, the increase in miscarriages could not be explained by differences in thyroid hormone levels, the presence of cardiolipin autoantibodies, maternal age, gestational age at the time of maternal entry into the study, or previous obstetric history. They conclude that thyroid autoantibodies are an independent marker of at-risk pregnancy

  11. Walking paths to and from a goal differ: on the role of bearing angle in the formation of human locomotion paths.

    Manish Sreenivasa

    Full Text Available The path that humans take while walking to a goal is the result of a cognitive process modulated by the perception of the environment and physiological constraints. The path shape and timing implicitly embeds aspects of the architecture behind this process. Here, locomotion paths were investigated during a simple task of walking to and from a goal, by looking at the evolution of the position of the human on a horizontal (x,y plane. We found that the path while walking to a goal was not the same as that while returning from it. Forward-return paths were systematically separated by 0.5-1.9m, or about 5% of the goal distance. We show that this path separation occurs as a consequence of anticipating the desired body orientation at the goal while keeping the target in view. The magnitude of this separation was strongly influenced by the bearing angle (difference between body orientation and angle to goal and the final orientation imposed at the goal. This phenomenon highlights the impact of a trade-off between a directional perceptual apparatus-eyes in the head on the shoulders-and and physiological limitations, in the formation of human locomotion paths. Our results give an insight into the influence of environmental and perceptual variables on human locomotion and provide a basis for further mathematical study of these mechanisms.

  12. Autoantibodies against Muscarinic Type 3 Receptor in Sjögren's Syndrome Inhibit Aquaporin 5 Trafficking

    Lee, Byung Ha; Gauna, Adrienne E.; Perez, Geidys; Park, Yun-jong; Pauley, Kaleb M.; Kawai, Toshihisa; Cha, Seunghee

    2013-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that mainly targets the salivary and lacrimal glands. It has been controversial whether anti-muscarinic type 3 receptor (α-M3R) autoantibodies in patients with SjS inhibit intracellular trafficking of aquaporin-5 (AQP5), water transport protein, leading to secretory dysfunction. To address this issue, GFP-tagged human AQP5 was overexpressed in human salivary gland cells (HSG-hAQP5) and monitored AQP5 trafficking to the plasma membrane following carbachol (CCh, M3R agonist) stimulation. AQP5 trafficking was indeed mediated by M3R stimulation, shown in partial blockage of trafficking by M3R-antagonist 4-DAMP. HSG-hAQP5 pre-incubated with SjS plasma for 24 hours significantly reduced AQP5 trafficking with CCh, compared with HSG-hAQP5 pre-incubated with healthy control (HC) plasma. This inhibition was confirmed by monoclonal α-M3R antibody and pre-absorbed plasma. Interestingly, HSG-hAQP5 pre-incubated with SjS plasma showed no change in cell volume, compared to the cells incubated with HC plasma showing shrinkage by twenty percent after CCh-stimulation. Our findings clearly indicate that binding of anti-M3R autoantibodies to the receptor, which was verified by immunoprecipitation, suppresses AQP5 trafficking to the membrane and contribute to impaired fluid secretion in SjS. Our current study urges further investigations of clinical associations between SjS symptoms, such as degree of secretory dysfunction, cognitive impairment, and/or bladder irritation, and different profiles (titers, isotypes, and/or specificity) of anti-M3R autoantibodies in individuals with SjS. PMID:23382834

  13. Dynamic PET evaluation of elevated FLT level after sorafenib treatment in mice bearing human renal cell carcinoma xenograft.

    Ukon, Naoyuki; Zhao, Songji; Yu, Wenwen; Shimizu, Yoichi; Nishijima, Ken-Ichi; Kubo, Naoki; Kitagawa, Yoshimasa; Tamaki, Nagara; Higashikawa, Kei; Yasui, Hironobu; Kuge, Yuji

    2016-12-01

    Sorafenib, an oral multikinase inhibitor, has anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic activities and is therapeutically effective against renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Recently, we have evaluated the tumor responses to sorafenib treatment in a RCC xenograft using [Methyl- 3 H(N)]-3'-fluoro-3'-deoxythythymidine ([ 3 H]FLT). Contrary to our expectation, the FLT level in the tumor significantly increased after the treatment. In this study, to clarify the reason for the elevated FLT level, dynamic 3'-[ 18 F]fluoro-3'-deoxythymidine ([ 18 F]FLT) positron emission tomography (PET) and kinetic studies were performed in mice bearing a RCC xenograft (A498). The A498 xenograft was established in nude mice, and the mice were assigned to the control (n = 5) and treatment (n = 5) groups. The mice in the treatment group were orally given sorafenib (20 mg/kg/day p.o.) once daily for 3 days. Twenty-four hours after the treatment, dynamic [ 18 F]FLT PET was performed by small-animal PET. Three-dimensional regions of interest (ROIs) were manually defined for the tumors. A three-compartment model fitting was carried out to estimate four rate constants using the time activity curve (TAC) in the tumor and the blood clearance rate of [ 18 F]FLT. The dynamic pattern of [ 18 F]FLT levels in the tumor significantly changed after the treatment. The rate constant of [ 18 F]FLT phosphorylation (k 3 ) was significantly higher in the treatment group (0.111 ± 0.027 [1/min]) than in the control group (0.082 ± 0.009 [1/min]). No significant changes were observed in the distribution volume, the ratio of [ 18 F]FLT forward transport (K 1 ) to reverse transport (k 2 ), between the two groups (0.556 ± 0.073 and 0.641 ± 0.052 [mL/g] in the control group). Our dynamic PET studies indicated that the increase in FLT level may be caused by the phosphorylation of FLT in the tumor after the sorafenib treatment in the mice bearing a RCC xenograft. Dynamic PET studies with kinetic

  14. Mapping of epitopes for autoantibodies to the Type 1 diabetes autoantigen IA-2 by peptide phage display and molecular modelling: Overlap of antibody and T-cell determinants

    A. Dromey, James; Weenink, Sarah M.; Peters, Günther H.J.

    2004-01-01

    IA-2 is a major target of autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes. IA-2 responsive T cells recognize determinants within regions represented by amino acids 787–817 and 841–869 of the molecule. Epitopes for IA-2 autoantibodies are largely conformational and not well defined. In this study, we used peptide......, and aromatic residues and amino acids contributing to the epitope investigated using site-directed mutagenesis. Mutation of each of amino acids Asn858, Glu836, and Trp799 reduced 96/3 Ab binding by >45%. Mutations of these residues also inhibited binding of serum autoantibodies from IA-2 Ab-positive type 1...... phage display and homology modeling to characterize the epitope of a monoclonal IA-2 Ab (96/3) from a human type 1 diabetic patient. This Ab competes for IA-2 binding with Abs from the majority of patients with type 1 diabetes and therefore binds a region close to common autoantibody epitopes. Alignment...

  15. Natural autoantibodies: from 'horror autotoxicus' to 'gnothi seauton'.

    Avrameas, S

    1991-05-01

    The immune system of normal unimmunized animals is characterized by the presence of B cells synthesizing and secreting mainly polyreactive, but also monoreactive, IgM and IgG natural antibodies that can react with a variety of self constituents. These antibodies, like the autoantibodies appearing in several immunopathological states, use the same genetic elements as the antibodies directed against environmental antigens, and seem to be encoded by unmutated germ-line genes. Accumulating evidence indicates that these natural auto-antibodies exert various biological roles, both related and unrelated to the immune system. In this article, Stratis Avrameas proposes that natural auto-antibodies, by interacting with the large number of self constituents present in an organism, establish an extensive dynamic network that contributes to the general homeostasis of the organism.

  16. Anti-LC1 autoantibodies in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    Béland, Kathie; Lapierre, Pascal; Marceau, Gabriel; Alvarez, Fernando

    2004-03-01

    Various autoantibodies have been reported in patients chronically infected by hepatitis C virus. 2% to 10% of theses patients have anti-liver-kidney microsome type 1 (anti-LKM1) autoantibodies. In type 2 autoimmune hepatitis, anti-LKM1 autoantibodies are frequently associated with anti-liver-cytosol type 1 (anti-LC1) autoantibodies. To determine the prevalence of anti-LC1 autoantibodies in a hepatitis C-positive population and characterize their reactivity. 146 patients suffering from liver diseases, of which 99 were chronically infected by hepatitis C virus, were tested by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation to detect and characterize anti-LC1 autoantibodies. 12% of this hepatitis C population had anti-LC1 autoantibodies. LC1 positivity by Western blotting was 30% of LC1+ sera. Epitopes were found throughout the protein but linear epitopes were situated in the 395-541 amino acid region of formiminotransferase cyclodeaminase. Three putative conformational epitopes were identified by phage display. Anti-LC1 autoantibodies are as prevalent as anti-LKM1 autoantibodies in patients infected with hepatitis C virus and their production is not dependent of anti-LKM1 autoantibodies formation. Autoantibody reactivity against the anti-LC1 antigen is different in hepatitis C than in type 2 autoimmune hepatitis. Anti-LC1 autoantibodies can now be regarded as a serological marker of autoimmunity in chronic hepatitis C infection.

  17. Eastern slopes grizzly bear project

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    The cumulative effects of human activities on the grizzly bears in the central Canadian Rockies are not well known. As a result, a project was initiated in 1994 to address the urgent requirement for accurate scientific information on the habitat and populations of grizzly bears in the area of the Banff National Park and Kananaskis Country. This area is probably the most heavily used and developed area where the grizzly still survives. The information gathered throughout the course of this study will be used to better protect and manage the bears and other sensitive carnivores in the region. Using telemetry, researchers are monitoring 25 grizzly bears which were radio-collared in a 22,000 square-kilometer area in the upper Bow Valley drainage of the eastern Alberta slopes. The researchers involved in the project are working with representatives from Husky Oil and Talisman Energy on the sound development of the Moose Mountain oil and gas field without adversely affecting the grizzly bear population. Information collected over seven years indicated that the grizzly bears have few and infrequent offspring. Using the information gathered so far, the location of the Moose Mountain to Jumping Pound pipeline was carefully selected, since the bears recover very slowly from high mortality, and also considering that the food and cover had already been compromised by the high number of roads, trails and other human activities in the area. The status of the population and habitat of the grizzly bear will be assessed upon the conclusion of the field research phase in 2001. Models will be updated using the data obtained during eight years and will assist in the understanding of complex variables that affect grizzly bears.

  18. Anti-tumor effect of 131I labeled 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin on human non-small cell lung cancer in xenograft-bearing nude mice

    Sun Jin; Liu Lu; Zhu Xiaoli; Chen Daozhen; Gao Wen; Jiang Xinyu; Huang Ying

    2008-01-01

    Objective: 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) has been developed as a novel heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitor being used in clinical trials. HSP90 is known as a molecular target for tumor therapy. The goal of this study was to investigate the inhibitive effects of 131 I labeled 17-AAG on human non-small cell lung cancer in xenograft-bearing nude mice. Methods: 17-AAG was labeled with 131 I. Twenty-eight BALB/c nude mice bearing H460 human non-small cell lung carcinoma tumor xenograft were randomly divided into seven groups, one control group and six treatment groups according to the route of administration (via tail vein injection or intratumoral injection) and the doses of injected radio-activity (5.5 MBq x 2 with 8 d interval, 11.0 MBq and 5.5 MBq). Two additional mice were treated with intratumoral injection of Na 131 I solution that was served as seintigraphic imaging controls. In each group two mice underwent scintigraphy at 2 h, 6 h, 24 h, 2 d, 3 d, 7 d, 10 d and 16 d. After 16 d the tumor inhibition rate was calculated. Then all of the mice were sacrificed and the tumor tissues were obtained for histological examination and immunohistochemical assay. Results: Persistent accumulation of 131 I-17-AAG in the tumors was seen on seintigraphic images. Tumor inhibiting effect was demonstrated in all treatment groups with varying degrees. The highest tumor inhibition rate (86.77 ± 4.57)% was shown in the group with interval intratumoral injection (5.5 MBq x 2). There was no significant difference of tumor inhibition rates between 5.5 MBq x 2 group (via tail vein injection) and 11.0 MBq group( via tail vein injection, q=1.67, P>0.05). While among the other treatment groups, there was significant difference in tumor inhibition rates( q=3.16-24.34, all P 131 I-17-AAG may effectively inhibit the tumor growth and expression of HSP90α antigen expression in non-small cell lung cancer bearing nude mice. The more prominent anti-tumor effect may be

  19. Immunoregulation by naturally occurring and disease-associated autoantibodies

    Nielsen, Claus H; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    The role of naturally occurring autoantibodies (NAbs) in homeostasis and in disease manifestations is poorly understood. In the present chapter, we review how NAbs may interfere with the cytokine network and how NAbs, through formation of complement-activating immune complexes with soluble self......-antigens, may promote the uptake and presentation of self-molecules by antigen-presenting cells. Both naturally occurring and disease-associated autoantibodies against a variety of cytokines have been reported, including NAbs against interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, granulocyte-macrophage colony...

  20. Characterization and potential clinical applications of autoantibodies against cytokines

    de Lemos Rieper, Carina; Galle, Pia; Hansen, Morten Bagge

    2009-01-01

    Autoantibodies recognizing cytokines arise in certain patients during the course of therapy with recombinant cytokines, although they may arise spontaneously as well. They are typically high avidity and in vitro neutralizing IgG antibodies present in picomolar to nanomolar concentrations. Methodo......Autoantibodies recognizing cytokines arise in certain patients during the course of therapy with recombinant cytokines, although they may arise spontaneously as well. They are typically high avidity and in vitro neutralizing IgG antibodies present in picomolar to nanomolar concentrations...

  1. Autoantibodies against GPIHBP1 as a Cause of Hypertriglyceridemia

    Beigneux, Anne P; Miyashita, Kazuya; Ploug, Michael

    2017-01-01

    lipoprotein lipase from reaching the capillary lumen. Patients with GPIHBP1 deficiency have low plasma levels of lipoprotein lipase, impaired intravascular hydrolysis of triglycerides, and severe hypertriglyceridemia (chylomicronemia). During the characterization of a monoclonal antibody-based immunoassay......-rich lipoproteins and causing severe hypertriglyceridemia. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Leducq Foundation.)........ Three of the six patients had systemic lupus erythematosus. One of these patients who had GPIHBP1 autoantibodies delivered a baby with plasma containing maternal GPIHBP1 autoantibodies; the infant had severe but transient chylomicronemia. Two of the patients with chylomicronemia and GPIHBP1...

  2. The myositis autoantibody phenotypes of the juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies.

    Rider, Lisa G; Shah, Mona; Mamyrova, Gulnara; Huber, Adam M; Rice, Madeline Murguia; Targoff, Ira N; Miller, Frederick W

    2013-07-01

    The juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (JIIM) are systemic autoimmune diseases characterized by skeletal muscle weakness, characteristic rashes, and other systemic features. In follow-up to our study defining the major clinical subgroup phenotypes of JIIM, we compared demographics, clinical features, laboratory measures, and outcomes among myositis-specific autoantibody (MSA) subgroups, as well as with published data on adult idiopathic inflammatory myopathy patients enrolled in a separate natural history study. In the present study, of 430 patients enrolled in a nationwide registry study who had serum tested for myositis autoantibodies, 374 had either a single specific MSA (n = 253) or no identified MSA (n = 121) and were the subject of the present report. Following univariate analysis, we used random forest classification and exact logistic regression modeling to compare autoantibody subgroups. Anti-p155/140 autoantibodies were the most frequent subgroup, present in 32% of patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) or overlap myositis with JDM, followed by anti-MJ autoantibodies, which were seen in 20% of JIIM patients, primarily in JDM. Other MSAs, including anti-synthetase, anti-signal recognition particle (SRP), and anti-Mi-2, were present in only 10% of JIIM patients. Features that characterized the anti-p155/140 autoantibody subgroup included Gottron papules, malar rash, "shawl-sign" rash, photosensitivity, cuticular overgrowth, lowest creatine kinase (CK) levels, and a predominantly chronic illness course. The features that differed for patients with anti-MJ antibodies included muscle cramps, dysphonia, intermediate CK levels, a high frequency of hospitalization, and a monocyclic disease course. Patients with anti-synthetase antibodies had higher frequencies of interstitial lung disease, arthralgia, and "mechanic's hands," and had an older age at diagnosis. The anti-SRP group, which had exclusively juvenile polymyositis, was characterized by high

  3. Negligible colon cancer risk from food-borne acrylamide exposure in male F344 rats and nude (nu/nu mice-bearing human colon tumor xenografts.

    Jayadev Raju

    Full Text Available Acrylamide, a possible human carcinogen, is formed in certain carbohydrate-rich foods processed at high temperature. We evaluated if dietary acrylamide, at doses (0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg diet reflecting upper levels found in human foods, modulated colon tumorigenesis in two rodent models. Male F344 rats were randomized to receive diets without (control or with acrylamide. 2-weeks later, rats in each group received two weekly subcutaneous injections of either azoxymethane (AOM or saline, and were killed 20 weeks post-injections; colons were assessed for tumors. Male athymic nude (nu/nu mice bearing HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells-derived tumor xenografts received diets without (control or with acrylamide; tumor growth was monitored and mice were killed 4 weeks later. In the F344 rat study, no tumors were found in the colons of the saline-injected rats. However, the colon tumor incidence was 54.2% and 66.7% in the control and the 2 mg/kg acrylamide-treated AOM-injected groups, respectively. While tumor multiplicity was similar across all diet groups, tumor size and burden were higher in the 2 mg/kg acrylamide group compared to the AOM control. These results suggest that acrylamide by itself is not a "complete carcinogen", but acts as a "co-carcinogen" by exacerbating the effects of AOM. The nude mouse study indicated no differences in the growth of human colon tumor xenografts between acrylamide-treated and control mice, suggesting that acrylamide does not aid in the progression of established tumors. Hence, food-borne acrylamide at levels comparable to those found in human foods is neither an independent carcinogen nor a tumor promoter in the colon. However, our results characterize a potential hazard of acrylamide as a colon co-carcinogen in association with known and possibly other environmental tumor initiators/promoters.

  4. Distribution and pharmacokinetics of the prodrug daunorubicin-GA3 in nude mice bearing human ovarian cancer xenografts

    Houba, PHJ; Boven, E; van der Meulen-Muileman, IH; Leenders, RGG; Scheeren, JW; Pinedo, HM; Haisma, HJ

    1999-01-01

    N-[4-daunorubicin-N-carbonyl (oxymethyl)phenyl] O-beta-glucuronyl carbamate (DNR-GA3) is a glucuronide prodrug of daunorubicin (DNR) which induced a better tumor growth delay than DNR when studied at equitoxic doses in three human ovarian cancer xenografts. These results suggested that the prodrug

  5. Quantitation of autoantibodies in systemic autoimmune diseases : clinically useful?

    Kallenberg, C. G. M.; Stegeman, C. A.; Bootsma, H.; Biji, M.; Limburg, P. C.

    2006-01-01

    Serial assessment of levels of autoantibodies has been proposed as being clinically useful in certain systemic autoimmune diseases. In particular, attention has been given to anti-dsDNA antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and ANCA in the ANCA-associated vasculitides (AAV). Much

  6. Clinical utility of autoantibodies and biologic markers in rheumatoid ...

    Objective: To review the current and emerging auto-antibodies and biologic markers in rheumatoid arthritis. Data source: Published original research work and reviews were searched in English related to pathophysiology, diagnosis and auto antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis. Study design: Only articles that emphasis on ...

  7. Autoantibody Profiling in Lupus Patients using Synthetic Nucleic Acids

    Klecka, Martin; Thybo, Christina; Macaubas, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    Autoantibodies to nuclear components of cells (antinuclear antibodies, ANA), including DNA (a-DNA), are widely used in the diagnosis and subtyping of certain autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Despite clinical use over decades, precise, reproducible measurement of a...

  8. Using large-scale public health data to explore the evolutionary biology of human pregnancy and child bearing

    Hollegaard, Birgitte

    . Consequently, research has increasingly focused on the underlying causes of disease, shaped by human evolution. Evolutionary medicine is a relatively new field, specifically bridging the gap between conventional medicine and evolutionary biology: Instead of asking how we get sick, we can apply evolutionary...... explanations for this phenomenon. This thesis demonstrates how taking an evolutionary perspective can help us to better understand important aspects of health and medicine that remain opaque, using the specific example of pregnancy-related conditions.......Medicine has made a giant leap forward over the last century when it comes to the treatment of human disease, but even the most cutting edge 21st century medicine cannot prevent new diseases arising, nor those thought to be extinct developing resistance to pharmaceuticals and returning...

  9. Hyperactivity and Learning Deficits in Transgenic Mice Bearing a Human Mutant Thyroid Hormone β1 Receptor Gene

    McDonald, Michael P.; Wong, Rosemary; Goldstein, Gregory; Weintraub, Bruce; Cheng, Sheue-yann; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    1998-01-01

    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a human syndrome mapped to the thyroid receptor β (TRβ) gene on chromosome 3, representing a mutation of the ligandbinding domain of the TRβ gene. The syndrome is characterized by reduced tissue responsiveness to thyroid hormone and elevated serum levels of thyroid hormones. A common behavioral phenotype associated with RTH is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To test the hypothesis that RTH produces attention deficits and/or hyperactivity...

  10. Anti-hepatocarcinoma effects of berberine nanosuspension against human HepG2 and Huh7 cells as well as H22 tumor bearing mice

    Wang, Zhi-ping; Wu, Jun-biao; Zhou, Qun; Wang, Yi-fei; Chen, Tongsheng

    2014-09-01

    Hepatocarcinoma, a malignant cancer, threaten human life badly. It is a current issue to seek the effective natural remedy from plant to treat cancer due to the resistance of the advanced hepatocarcinoma to chemotherapy. Berberine (Ber), an isoquinoline derivative alkaloid, has a wide range of pharmacological properties and is considered to have anti-hepatocarcinoma effects. However its low oral bioavailability restricts its wide application. In this report, Ber nanosuspension (Ber-NS) composed of Ber and D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) was prepared by high pressure homogenization technique. Both in vitro and in vivo anti-hepatocarcinoma effects of Ber-NS relative to effcacy of bulk Ber were evaluated. The particle size and zeta potential of Ber-NS were 73.1 +/- 3.7 nm and 6.99 +/- 0.17 mV, respectively. Ber-NS exhibited significant inhibitory effects against human HepG2 and Huh7 cells, and the corresponding IC50 values were 8.1 and 4.7 μg/ml (18.3 and 6.5 μg/ml of Ber solution). In vivo studies also showed higher antitumor efficacy, and inhibition rates was 63.7% (41.4 % of Ber solution) at 100 mg/kg intragastric administration in the H22 solid tumor bearing mice. These results suggest that the delivery of Ber as a nanosuspension is a promising approach for treating hepatocarcinoma.

  11. Comparison of clinical and laboratory characteristics in children with type 1 diabetes according to pancreatic autoantibodies

    Ji Hae Choi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is any difference in the clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with autoantibody-positive and patients with autoantibody-negative type 1 diabetes at initial presentation. Methods:We analyzed 96 patients under 18 years of age with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. One or both of the pancreatic autoantibodies-glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies (GADA and insulin autoantibody (IAA-were measured in all patients, and we reviewed clinical and laboratory characteristics according to the presence of these autoantibodies. Results:GADA was examined in 48 of 87 patients, and 55.2% of patients were positive. IAA was checked in 88 patients, and 39.8% were positive. Both GADA and IAA were measured in 83 patients, and 22.8% had both antibodies. The patients who had one or both autoantibodies (autoantibody-positive group were younger than those not having any autoantibody (autoantibody-negative group. The autoantibody-positive group had lower BMI, corrected sodium level, and serum effective osmolarity, compared to the autoantibody-negative group (P&lt;0.05. Similar differences were found between the GADA-positive and GADA-negative groups. However, there were no significant differences between the IAA- positive and IAA-negative groups. Conclusion:The prevalence of pancreatic autoantibodies was significantly higher in the under-6 years age group than in the other age groups. These findings suggest that measurement of autoantibodies at the initial diagnosis of diabetes is very useful for detecting immune-mediated type 1 diabetes and providing intensive insulin therapy, especially in younger children.

  12. Rheumatic Disease Autoantibodies in Patients with Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases.

    Nisihara, Renato; Pigosso, Yasmine; Prado, Nathalia; Utiyama, Shirley R R; Carvalho, Gisah; Skare, Thelma

    2018-06-04

    Patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATD) such as Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) may have non-organ specific autoantibodies such as ANA (antinuclear antibodies) and RF (rheumatoid factor). To study the prevalence of rheumatic autoantibodies in a group of ATD patients without known rheumatic diseases and to evaluate its association with the patients' epidemiological and treatment profile. To follow positive non-organ specific autoantibody-positive ATD individuals to investigate whether they will develop a rheumatic disorder. A sample of 154 ATD patients (70 HT and 84 GD; mean age 45.3 ± 14.2) had determination of ANA by immunofluorescence, using hep-2 cells as substrate, extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) profile by ELISA kits and RF by latex agglutination. Epidemiological and treatment profile were obtained through chart review. These patients were followed for the mean period of five years, between 2010 to 2015. Positive ANA was found in 17.5% (27/154) of the patients: anti-Ro/SS-A in 4/154 (2.5%); anti-RNP in 4/154 (2.5%) and anti-La/SS-B in 3/154 (1.9%). None had anti-Sm antibodies. RF was detected in 12/154 (7.7%) of ATD patients and was more common in older individuals (p = 0.007). There was a positive association between the presence of RF and ANA (p = 0.03; OR = 3.89; 95% CI = 1.1-13.3). None of the patients with positive autoantibodies developed clinical rheumatic diseases during the period of observation. We found rheumatic autoantibodies in 17.5% of ATD patients without rheumatic diseases. None of them were associated with the appearance of clinical rheumatic disorder during the period of five years. ©2018The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Diagnostic Utility of Auto-Antibodies in Inflammatory Muscle Diseases.

    Allenbach, Y; Benveniste, O

    2015-01-01

    To date, there are four main groups of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM): polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM), immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM) and sporadic inclusion body myositis; based on clinical presentation and muscle pathology. Nevertheless, important phenotypical differences (either muscular and/or extra-muscular manifestations) within a group persist. In recent years, the titration of different myositis-specific (or associated) auto-antibodies as a diagnostic tool has increased. This is an important step forward since it may facilitate, at a viable cost, the differential diagnosis between IIM and other myopathies. We have now routine access to assays for the detection of different antibodies. For example, IMNM are related to the presence of anti-SRP or anti-HMGCR. PM is associated with anti-synthetase antibodies (anti-Jo-1, PL-7, PL-12, OJ, and EJ) and DM with anti-Mi-2, anti-SAE, anti-TIF-1-γ and anti-NXP2 (both associated with cancer) or anti-MDA5 antibodies (associated with interstitial lung disease). Today, over 30 myositis specific and associated antibodies have been characterised, and all groups of myositis may present one of those auto-antibodies. Most of them allow identification of homogenous patient groups, more precisely than the classical international classifications of myositis. This implies that classification criteria could be modified accordingly, since these auto-antibodies delineate groups of patients suffering from myositis with consistent clinical phenotype (muscular and extra-muscular manifestations), common prognostic (cancer association, presence of interstitial lung disease, mortality and risk of relapse) and treatment responses. Nevertheless, since numerous auto-antibodies have been recently characterised, the exact prevalence of myositis specific antibodies remains to be documented, and research of new auto-antibodies in the remaining seronegative group is still needed.

  14. The Use of Electrochemiluminescence Assays to Predict Autoantibody and Glycemic Progression Toward Type 1 Diabetes in Individuals with Single Autoantibodies.

    Sosenko, Jay M; Yu, Liping; Skyler, Jay S; Krischer, Jeffrey P; Gottlieb, Peter A; Boulware, David; Miao, Dongmei; Palmer, Jerry P; Steck, Andrea K

    2017-03-01

    Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assays have shown promise for enhancing the prediction of type 1 diabetes (T1D) with autoantibodies. We thus studied relatives of T1D patients to determine whether ECL assays can be used to refine risk assessments for T1D among individuals either positive for single GADA or single mIAA autoantibodies. TrialNet Pathway to Prevention (PTP) study participants with either GADA or mIAA single autoantibodies were tested for ECL positivity during their participation in the TrialNet PTP study. Those ECL positive (ECL + ) were compared with those ECL negative (ECL - ) for conversion to multiple autoantibodies, 6-month glycemic progression (PS6M), and the progression to T1D. The progression to multiple autoantibodies was significantly higher for those GADA/ECL + (n = 107) than those GADA/ECL - (n = 78) (P = 0.001) and for those mIAA/ECL + (n = 24) than those mIAA/ECL - (n = 63) (P < 0.001). The hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals were 3.42 (1.58-7.39; P < 0.01) for GADA and 8.15 (3.02-22.00; P < 0.001) for mIAA. GADA/ECL + and mIAA/ECL + participants had significantly higher PS6M values than their ECL - counterparts (P = 0.001 for GADA and P = 0.009 for mIAA). Of those GADA/ECL + , 14% progressed to T1D; of those mIAA/ECL + , 17% progressed to T1D. Only 1 individual (positive for GADA) of the 141 who was ECL - progressed to T1D (median follow-up: 5 years). ECL measurements appear to have utility for natural history studies and prevention trials of individuals with single autoantibodies. Those ECL + are at appreciable risk for developing multiple autoantibodies and for glycemic progression toward T1D, whereas those ECL - are at very low risk.

  15. Passive magnetic bearing configurations

    Post, Richard F [Walnut Creek, CA

    2011-01-25

    A journal bearing provides vertical and radial stability to a rotor of a passive magnetic bearing system when the rotor is not rotating and when it is rotating. In the passive magnetic bearing system, the rotor has a vertical axis of rotation. Without the journal bearing, the rotor is vertically and radially unstable when stationary, and is vertically stable and radially unstable when rotating.

  16. Prevalence of IgG Autoantibodies against GD3 Ganglioside in Acute Zika Virus Infection

    Nico, Dirlei; Conde, Luciana; Rivera-Correa, Juan L.; Vasconcelos-dos-Santos, Andréia; Mesentier-Louro, Louise; Freire-de-Lima, Leonardo; Arruda, Mônica Barcellos; Freire-de-Lima, Celio Geraldo; Ferreira, Orlando da Costa; Lopes Moreira, Maria Elisabeth; Zin, Andrea Araújo; Vasconcelos, Zilton Farias Meira; Otero, Rosalia Mendez; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa Beatriz; Tanuri, Amilcar; Todeschini, Adriane Regina; Savino, Wilson; Rodriguez, Ana; Morrot, Alexandre

    2018-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) disease has become a global health emergency with devastating effects on public health. Recent evidences implicate the virus as an emergent neuropathological agent promoting serious pathologies of the human nervous system, that include destructive and malformation consequences such as development of ocular and fetal brain lesions, microcephaly in neonates, and Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) in adults. These neurological disorders of both central and peripheral nervous systems are thought to be associated to the neurotropic properties of the virus that has ability to infect neural stem cells as well as peripheral neurons, a hallmark of its pathogenicity. The presence of autoantibodies against gangliosides plays a pivotal role in the etiogenesis of GBS and a variety of neurological disorders. Gangliosides are a class of galactose-containing cerebrosides mainly expressed in nervous system tissues playing a critical role in the physiology of neural cells and neurogenesis. Herein, our findings indicate that patients at acute phase of ZIKV infection without any neurological signs show increased levels of IgG autoantibody against GD3 gangliosides, a class of glycolipid found to be highly expressed in neural stem cell acting in the maintenance of their self-renewal cellular capacity. It is possible that a pathological threshold of these antibodies is only acquired in secondary or subsequent infections. In the light of these evidences, we propose that the target of GD3 by autoimmune responses may possibly has an effect in the neuropathy and neurogenesis disorder seen during ZIKV infection. PMID:29594116

  17. Bone loss and aggravated autoimmune arthritis in HLA-DRβ1-bearing humanized mice following oral challenge with Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Sandal, Indra; Karydis, Anastasios; Luo, Jiwen; Prislovsky, Amanda; Whittington, Karen B; Rosloniec, Edward F; Dong, Chen; Novack, Deborah V; Mydel, Piotr; Zheng, Song Guo; Radic, Marko Z; Brand, David D

    2016-10-26

    The linkage between periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis is well established. Commonalities among the two are that both are chronic inflammatory diseases characterized by bone loss, an association with the shared epitope susceptibility allele, and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies. To explore immune mechanisms that may connect the two seemingly disparate disorders, we measured host immune responses including T-cell phenotype and anti-citrullinated protein antibody production in human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR1 humanized C57BL/6 mice following exposure to the Gram-negative anaerobic periodontal disease pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. We measured autoimmune arthritis disease expression in mice exposed to P. gingivalis, and also in arthritis-resistant mice by flow cytometry and multiplex cytokine-linked and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. We also measured femoral bone density by microcomputed tomography and systemic cytokine production. Exposure of the gingiva of DR1 mice to P. gingivalis results in a transient increase in the percentage of Th17 cells, both in peripheral blood and cervical lymph nodes, a burst of systemic cytokine activity, a loss in femoral bone density, and the generation of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies. Importantly, these antibodies are not produced in response to P. gingivalis treatment of wild-type C57BL/6 mice, and P. gingivalis exposure triggered expression of arthritis in arthritis-resistant mice. Exposure of gingival tissues to P. gingivalis has systemic effects that can result in disease pathology in tissues that are spatially removed from the initial site of infection, providing evidence for systemic effects of this periodontal pathogen. The elicitation of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies in an HLA-DR1-restricted fashion by mice exposed to P. gingivalis provides support for the role of the shared epitope in both periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis. The ability of P. gingivalis to induce disease

  18. Autoantibodies to N-terminally truncated GAD improve clinical phenotyping of individuals with adult-onset diabetes: Action LADA 12.

    Achenbach, Peter; Hawa, Mohammed I; Krause, Stephanie; Lampasona, Vito; Jerram, Samuel T; Williams, Alistair J K; Bonifacio, Ezio; Ziegler, Anette G; Leslie, R David

    2018-04-04

    Adult-onset type 1 diabetes, in which the 65 kDa isoform of GAD (GAD65) is a major autoantigen, has a broad clinical phenotype encompassing variable need for insulin therapy. This study aimed to evaluate whether autoantibodies against N-terminally truncated GAD65 more closely defined a type 1 diabetes phenotype associated with insulin therapy. Of 1114 participants with adult-onset diabetes from the Action LADA (latent autoimmune diabetes in adults) study with sufficient sera, we selected those designated type 1 (n = 511) or type 2 diabetes (n = 603) and retested the samples in radiobinding assays for human full-length GAD65 autoantibodies (f-GADA) and N-terminally truncated (amino acids 96-585) GAD65 autoantibodies (t-GADA). Individuals' clinical phenotypes were analysed according to antibody binding patterns. Overall, 478 individuals were f-GADA-positive, 431 were t-GADA-positive and 628 were negative in both assays. Risk of insulin treatment was augmented in t-GADA-positive individuals (OR 4.69 [95% CI 3.57, 6.17]) compared with f-GADA-positive individuals (OR 3.86 [95% CI 2.95, 5.06]), irrespective of diabetes duration. Of 55 individuals who were f-GADA-positive but t-GADA-negative, i.e. with antibody binding restricted to the N-terminus of GAD65, the phenotype was similar to type 2 diabetes with low risk of progression to insulin treatment. Compared with these individuals with N-terminal GAD65-restricted GADA, t-GADA-positive individuals were younger at diagnosis (p = 0.005), leaner (p N-terminally truncated GAD65 autoantibodies is associated with the clinical phenotype of autoimmune type 1 diabetes and predicts insulin therapy.

  19. Use of Dried Capillary Blood Sampling for Islet Autoantibody Screening in Relatives: A Feasibility Study.

    Bingley, Polly J; Rafkin, Lisa E; Matheson, Della; Steck, Andrea K; Yu, Liping; Henderson, Courtney; Beam, Craig A; Boulware, David C

    2015-12-01

    Islet autoantibody testing provides the basis for assessment of risk of progression to type 1 diabetes. We set out to determine the feasibility and acceptability of dried capillary blood spot-based screening to identify islet autoantibody-positive relatives potentially eligible for inclusion in prevention trials. Dried blood spot (DBS) and venous samples were collected from 229 relatives participating in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention Study. Both samples were tested for glutamic acid decarboxylase, islet antigen 2, and zinc transporter 8 autoantibodies, and venous samples were additionally tested for insulin autoantibodies and islet cell antibodies. We defined multiple autoantibody positive as two or more autoantibodies in venous serum and DBS screen positive if one or more autoantibodies were detected. Participant questionnaires compared the sample collection methods. Of 44 relatives who were multiple autoantibody positive in venous samples, 42 (95.5%) were DBS screen positive, and DBS accurately detected 145 of 147 autoantibody-negative relatives (98.6%). Capillary blood sampling was perceived as more painful than venous blood draw, but 60% of participants would prefer initial screening using home fingerstick with clinic visits only required if autoantibodies were found. Capillary blood sampling could facilitate screening for type 1 diabetes prevention studies.

  20. Restoring a reputation: invoking the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights to bear on pharmaceutical pricing.

    Hurst, Daniel J

    2017-03-01

    In public health, the issue of pharmaceutical pricing is a perennial problem. Recent high-profile examples, such as the September 2015 debacle involving Martin Shkreli and Turing Pharmaceuticals, are indicative of larger, systemic difficulties that plague the pharmaceutical industry in regards to drug pricing and the impact it yields on their reputation in the eyes of the public. For public health ethics, the issue of pharmaceutical pricing is rather crucial. Simply, individuals within a population require pharmaceuticals for disease prevention and management. In order to be effective, these pharmaceuticals must be accessibly priced. This analysis will explore the notion of corporate social responsibility in regards to pharmaceutical pricing with an aim of restoring a positive reputation upon the pharmaceutical industry in the public eye. The analysis will utilize the 2005 United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization's Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (UDBHR) to establish implications regarding the societal responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies in a global context. To accomplish this, Article 14 of the UDBHR-social responsibility and health-will be articulated in order to advocate a viewpoint of socially responsible capitalism in which pharmaceutical companies continue as profit-making ventures, yet establish moral concern for the welfare of all their stakeholders, including the healthcare consumer.

  1. Autoantibody profile in individuals with chronic hepatitis C.

    Marconcini, Maíra Luciana; Fayad, Leonardo; Shiozawa, Maria Beatriz Cacese; Dantas-Correa, Esther Buzaglo; Lucca Schiavon, Leonardo de; Narciso-Schiavon, Janaína Luz

    2013-01-01

    Autoantibodies are often produced during infection with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV), but it remains controversial whether they influence the biochemical profile and histological features of this disease. Therefore, this current study sought to describe these autoantibodies and evaluate their impact on the clinical and histological presentation of hepatitis C. This cross-sectional analytical study assessed patients with HCV (RNA+) from October 2011 to July 2012. This study included 66 patients, with a mean age of 53.2±10.5 years. Of these patients, 60.6% were male, and 54.3% presented with genotype 1. Non-organ-specific autoantibodies (NOSA) were detected in 24% of the patients; of these, 7.6% were anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA+), 26.7% were anti-smooth muscle antibodies (SMA+) and 6.8% were liver kidney microsomal type 1 antibodies (LKM1+). With respect to the thyroid autoantibodies, 7.4% were anti-peroxidase (ATPO+) antibodies, and none were anti-thyroglobulin (ATG+) antibodies. Regarding celiac disease autoantibodies, 5.8% were endomysial antibodies (EMA+), and no transglutaminase (TTG+) antibodies were detected. Cryoglobulins were found in 2.1% of patients. When NOSA+ individuals were compared to patients without the presence of NOSAs, they exhibited higher median alkaline phosphatase (0.7 vs. 0.6 xULN; p=0.041), lower median platelet counts (141,500.0 vs. 180,500.0/mm 3 ; p=0.036), lower mean prothrombin activity (72.6±11.5% vs. 82.2±16.0%; p=0.012) and an increased prevalence of significant fibrosis (E≥2) (45.5% vs. 18.2%; p=0.012). There was also a tendency for a greater proportion of NOSA+ cases to have marked periportal activity (APP≥3) (44.5% vs. 15.6%; p=0.087). In addition to the high prevalence of autoantibodies associated with HCV infection, it was observed that NOSA positivity was associated with a more severe histological and biochemical profile of hepatitis C infection.

  2. Autoantibody profile in individuals with chronic hepatitis C

    Maíra Luciana Marconcini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Autoantibodies are often produced during infection with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV, but it remains controversial whether they influence the biochemical profile and histological features of this disease. Therefore, this current study sought to describe these autoantibodies and evaluate their impact on the clinical and histological presentation of hepatitis C. Methods This cross-sectional analytical study assessed patients with HCV (RNA+ from October 2011 to July 2012. Results This study included 66 patients, with a mean age of 53.2±10.5 years. Of these patients, 60.6% were male, and 54.3% presented with genotype 1. Non-organ-specific autoantibodies (NOSA were detected in 24% of the patients; of these, 7.6% were anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA+, 26.7% were anti-smooth muscle antibodies (SMA+ and 6.8% were liver kidney microsomal type 1 antibodies (LKM1+. With respect to the thyroid autoantibodies, 7.4% were anti-peroxidase (ATPO+ antibodies, and none were anti-thyroglobulin (ATG+ antibodies. Regarding celiac disease autoantibodies, 5.8% were endomysial antibodies (EMA+, and no transglutaminase (TTG+ antibodies were detected. Cryoglobulins were found in 2.1% of patients. When NOSA+ individuals were compared to patients without the presence of NOSAs, they exhibited higher median alkaline phosphatase (0.7 vs. 0.6 xULN; p=0.041, lower median platelet counts (141,500.0 vs. 180,500.0/mm 3 ; p=0.036, lower mean prothrombin activity (72.6±11.5% vs. 82.2±16.0%; p=0.012 and an increased prevalence of significant fibrosis (E≥2 (45.5% vs. 18.2%; p=0.012. There was also a tendency for a greater proportion of NOSA+ cases to have marked periportal activity (APP≥3 (44.5% vs. 15.6%; p=0.087. Conclusions In addition to the high prevalence of autoantibodies associated with HCV infection, it was observed that NOSA positivity was associated with a more severe histological and biochemical profile of hepatitis C infection.

  3. The biodistribution and pretargeting radioimmunoimaging of the fusion protein of anti-CEA single-chain antibody and core-streptavidin in human rectocolonic tumor bearing nude mice

    Yang Weidong; Li Biao; Zhu Chengmo; Jiang Xufeng; Feng Guowei; Wu Xiangpu

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the biodistribution and two-step pretargeting radioimmunoimaging of the fusion protein of anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) single-chain antibody (ScFv) and core-streptavidin in human rectocolonic tumor bearing nude mice. Methods: Before the injection of 153 Sm-biotin, the fusion protein of ScFv-core-streptavidin was pretargeted for 24 h (200 μg every nude mouse), 24 h later 153 Sm-biotin was injected. The uptake of radioactivity in tumor and normal tissues in 20 nude mice was measured at 1, 4, 8 and 24 h and the other 3 nude mice was scanned at 8 and 24 h after peritoneal injection of 153 Sm-biotin. Results: The tumor to blood ratio (tumor/blood) reached 0.49 , 1.21, 1.56 and 3.09 at 1, 4, 8 and 24 h respectively. Radioactivity concentration peaked at 8 h in tumor site and demonstrated a 'hot' area, with significant decreasing its background at 24 h. Conclusion: The fusion protein can elevate the tumor/blood ratio, shorten pretargeting and imaging process and also improve image quality

  4. Development and Evaluation of Titanium Spacesuit Bearings

    Rhodes, Richard; Battisti, Brian; Ytuarte, Raymond, Jr.; Schultz, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    The Z-2 Prototype Planetary Extravehicular Space Suit Assembly is a continuation of NASA's Z-series of spacesuits, designed with the intent of meeting a wide variety of exploration mission objectives, including human exploration of the Martian surface. Incorporating titanium bearings into the Z-series space suit architecture allows us to reduce mass by an estimated 23 lbs per suit system compared to the previously used stainless steel bearing race designs, without compromising suit functionality. There are two obstacles to overcome when using titanium for a bearing race- 1) titanium is flammable when exposed to the oxygen wetted environment inside the space suit and 2) titanium's poor wear properties are often challenging to overcome in tribology applications. In order to evaluate the ignitability of a titanium space suit bearing, a series of tests were conducted at White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) that introduced the bearings to an extreme test profile, with multiple failures imbedded into the test bearings. The testing showed no signs of ignition in the most extreme test cases; however, substantial wear of the bearing races was observed. In order to design a bearing that can last an entire exploration mission (approx. 3 years), design parameters for maximum contact stress need to be identified. To identify these design parameters, bearing test rigs were developed that allow for the quick evaluation of various bearing ball loads, ball diameters, lubricants, and surface treatments. This test data will allow designers to minimize the titanium bearing mass for a specific material and lubricant combination and design around a cycle life requirement for an exploration mission. This paper reviews the current research and testing that has been performed on titanium bearing races to evaluate the use of such materials in an enriched oxygen environment and to optimize the bearing assembly mass and tribological properties to accommodate for the high bearing cycle life for an

  5. The prediction of type 1 diabetes by multiple autoantibody levels and their incorporation into an autoantibody risk score in relatives of type 1 diabetic patients.

    Sosenko, Jay M; Skyler, Jay S; Palmer, Jerry P; Krischer, Jeffrey P; Yu, Liping; Mahon, Jeffrey; Beam, Craig A; Boulware, David C; Rafkin, Lisa; Schatz, Desmond; Eisenbarth, George

    2013-09-01

    We assessed whether a risk score that incorporates levels of multiple islet autoantibodies could enhance the prediction of type 1 diabetes (T1D). TrialNet Natural History Study participants (n = 784) were tested for three autoantibodies (GADA, IA-2A, and mIAA) at their initial screening. Samples from those positive for at least one autoantibody were subsequently tested for ICA and ZnT8A. An autoantibody risk score (ABRS) was developed from a proportional hazards model that combined autoantibody levels from each autoantibody along with their designations of positivity and negativity. The ABRS was strongly predictive of T1D (hazard ratio [with 95% CI] 2.72 [2.23-3.31], P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve areas (with 95% CI) for the ABRS revealed good predictability (0.84 [0.78-0.90] at 2 years, 0.81 [0.74-0.89] at 3 years, P < 0.001 for both). The composite of levels from the five autoantibodies was predictive of T1D before and after an adjustment for the positivity or negativity of autoantibodies (P < 0.001). The findings were almost identical when ICA was excluded from the risk score model. The combination of the ABRS and the previously validated Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1 Risk Score (DPTRS) predicted T1D more accurately (0.93 [0.88-0.98] at 2 years, 0.91 [0.83-0.99] at 3 years) than either the DPTRS or the ABRS alone (P ≤ 0.01 for all comparisons). These findings show the importance of considering autoantibody levels in assessing the risk of T1D. Moreover, levels of multiple autoantibodies can be incorporated into an ABRS that accurately predicts T1D.

  6. Thyroid autoantibodies and differentiated thyroid cancer: revue of 662 cases

    Izembart, M.; Dagousset, F.; Chevalier, A.; Hassid, V.; Leger, A.; Barritault, L.; Clerc, J.

    1999-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid autoantibodies is clearly increased in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. The aim of this study was to re-evaluate frequency and evolution of anti-thyroglobulin and anti-microsomal (anti-peroxidase) autoantibodies in 662 patients with thyroid carcinoma treated with 131 radioiodine. Ours results obtained with 'classical' methods confirmed others earlier reports. When using more sensitive methods to detect thyroglobulin antibodies we obtained an increase in positive results and a more frequent association with anti-microsomal antibodies. Antibodies became undetectable with a variable period, ranging from a few months to 13 years in one case. If we suppose that the disappearance of antibodies is linked to the thyroid tissue disappearance, thyroid cancer follow up ought to include anti-thyroglobulin and anti-peroxidase antibodies, both directed against thyroid antigens. A decrease of both antibodies seems to indicate a favorable prognostic factor whereas an increase may suggest relapse. (author)

  7. Phylogeography of mitochondrial DNA variation in brown bears and polar bears

    Shields, Gerald F.; Adams, Deborah; Garner, Gerald W.; Labelle, Martine; Pietsch, Jacy; Ramsay, Malcolm; Schwartz, Charles; Titus, Kimberly; Williamson, Scott

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed 286 nucleotides of the middle portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of 61 brown bears from three locations in Alaska and 55 polar bears from Arctic Canada and Arctic Siberia to test our earlier observations of paraphyly between polar bears and brown bears as well as to test the extreme uniqueness of mitochondrial DNA types of brown bears on Admiralty, Baranof, and Chichagof (ABC) islands of southeastern Alaska. We also investigated the phylogeography of brown bears of Alaska's Kenai Peninsula in relation to other Alaskan brown bears because the former are being threatened by increased human development. We predicted that: (1) mtDNA paraphyly between brown bears and polar bears would be upheld, (2) the mtDNA uniqueness of brown bears of the ABC islands would be upheld, and (3) brown bears of the Kenai Peninsula would belong to either clade II or clade III of brown bears of our earlier studies of mtDNA. All of our predictions were upheld through the analysis of these additional samples.

  8. Phylogeography of mitochondrial DNA variation in brown bears and polar bears.

    Shields, G F; Adams, D; Garner, G; Labelle, M; Pietsch, J; Ramsay, M; Schwartz, C; Titus, K; Williamson, S

    2000-05-01

    We analyzed 286 nucleotides of the middle portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of 61 brown bears from three locations in Alaska and 55 polar bears from Arctic Canada and Arctic Siberia to test our earlier observations of paraphyly between polar bears and brown bears as well as to test the extreme uniqueness of mitochondrial DNA types of brown bears on Admiralty, Baranof, and Chichagof (ABC) islands of southeastern Alaska. We also investigated the phylogeography of brown bears of Alaska's Kenai Peninsula in relation to other Alaskan brown bears because the former are being threatened by increased human development. We predicted that: (1) mtDNA paraphyly between brown bears and polar bears would be upheld, (2) the mtDNA uniqueness of brown bears of the ABC islands would be upheld, and (3) brown bears of the Kenai Peninsula would belong to either clade II or clade III of brown bears of our earlier studies of mtDNA. All of our predictions were upheld through the analysis of these additional samples. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  9. Extrahepatic Manifestations and Autoantibodies in Patients with Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    Takashi Himoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection frequently have many extrahepatic manifestations, as persistent HCV infection often triggers lymphoproliferative disorders and metabolic abnormalities. These manifestations primarily include autoimmune disorders such as cryoglobulinemia, Sjögren’s syndrome, and autoimmune thyroid disorders. It has been well established that chronic HCV infection plays important roles in the production of non-organ-specific autoantibodies, including antinuclear antibodies and smooth muscle antibodies, and organ-specific autoantibodies such as thyroid autoantibodies. However, the clinical significance of autoantibodies associated with the extrahepatic manifestations caused by HCV infection has not been fully recognized. In this paper, we mainly focus on the relationship between extrahepatic manifestations and the emergence of autoantibodies in patients with HCV infection and discuss the clinical relevance of the autoantibodies in the extrahepatic disorders.

  10. Female Infertility and Serum Auto-antibodies: a Systematic Review.

    Deroux, Alban; Dumestre-Perard, Chantal; Dunand-Faure, Camille; Bouillet, Laurence; Hoffmann, Pascale

    2017-08-01

    On average, 10 % of infertile couples have unexplained infertility. Auto-immune disease (systemic lupus erythematosus, anti-phospholipid syndrome) accounts for a part of these cases. In the last 20 years, aspecific auto-immunity, defined as positivity of auto-antibodies in blood sample without clinical or biological criteria for defined diseases, has been evoked in a subpopulation of infertile women. A systematic review was performed (PUBMED) using the MESH search terms "infertility" and "auto-immunity" or "reproductive technique" or "assisted reproduction" or "in vitro fertilization" and "auto-immunity." We retained clinical and physiopathological studies that were applicable to the clinician in assuming joint management of both infertility associated with serum auto-antibodies in women. Thyroid auto-immunity which affects thyroid function could be a cause of infertility; even in euthyroidia, the presence of anti-thyroperoxydase antibodies and/or thyroglobulin are related to infertility. The presence of anti-phospholipid (APL) and/or anti-nuclear (ANA) antibodies seems to be more frequent in the population of infertile women; serum auto-antibodies are associated with early ovarian failure, itself responsible for fertility disorders. However, there exist few publications on this topic. The methods of dosage, as well as the clinical criteria of unexplained infertility deserve to be standardized to allow a precise response to the question of the role of serum auto-antibodies in these women. The direct pathogenesis of this auto-immunity is unknown, but therapeutic immunomodulators, prescribed on a case-by-case basis, could favor pregnancy even in cases of unexplained primary or secondary infertility.

  11. Neuromyelitis optica in a young child with positive serum autoantibody

    Loma, Ingrid P.; Asato, Miya R.; Filipink, Robyn A.; Alper, Gulay

    2008-01-01

    Relapsing neuromyelitis optica is rare in children. The identification of highly specific serum autoantibody marker (neuromyelitis optica –immunoglobulin G) differentiates neuromyelitis optica from other demyelinating disorders particularly in clinically challenging cases. We present a child with multiple episodes of transverse myelitis and optic neuritis with positive neuromyelitis optica-immunoglobulin G titers consistent with a diagnosis of relapsing neuromyelitis optica. Serial titers of ...

  12. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies and myeloperoxidase autoantibodies in clinical expression of Churg-Strauss syndrome.

    Healy, Bridget; Bibby, Susan; Steele, Richard; Weatherall, Mark; Nelson, Harold; Beasley, Richard

    2013-02-01

    The clinical significance of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) in the phenotypic expression of Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is uncertain. We sought to investigate the relationship between ANCA status and the clinical expression of CSS in a case series derived from the US Food and Drug Administration's adverse events database. All cases of CSS reported to the US Food and Drug Administration from 1997 to April 2003 were reviewed. Information about basic demographics, suspect medication use, clinical manifestations, histologic findings, ANCA staining patterns, and the presence of antibodies to myeloperoxidase (anti-MPO) or proteinase 3 (anti-PR3) was recorded when available. There were 93 case reports of CSS with sufficient documentation, including ANCA status. There were 38 (40.9%) of 93 cases with positive ANCA results, of which 15 cases reported a positive ELISA, all of which were positive for anti-MPO. ANCA negativity was associated with an increased proportion of cardiac involvement (risk difference [RD], 38.2%; 95% CI, 25.3% to 51.0%), gastrointestinal involvement (RD, 25.5%; 95% CI, 13.9% to 37.0%), pulmonary infiltrates (odds ratio, 4.9; 95% CI, 1.5-16.2), and the outcome of a life-threatening event or death (RD, 30.9%; 95% CI, 18.7% to 43.1%) when compared with anti-MPO-positive cases. ANCA negativity was associated with a decreased proportion of peripheral neuropathy (odds ratio, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.07-0.9). These findings support the hypothesis that the presence or absence of autoantibodies influences the clinical expression and severity of CSS. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Coeliac disease autoantibodies mediate significant inhibition of tissue transglutaminase.

    Byrne, Greg

    2012-02-01

    The detection of antibodies directed against tissue transglutaminase (tTG) in serum is a sensitive and specific test for suspected coeliac disease. tTG is a ubiquitous, multifunctional enzyme that has been implicated in many important physiological processes as well as the site-specific deamidation of glutamine residues in gluten-derived peptides. This modification of gluten peptides facilitates their binding to HLA-DQ2, which results in amplification of the T-cell response to gluten. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility that patient IgA autoantibodies directed against tTG interfere with the crosslinking activity of the enzyme. IgA autoantibodies against tTG were isolated\\/depleted from patient serum and tested for their capacity to interfere with tTG activity in vitro using a sensitive fluorescence-based activity assay. We have demonstrated that autoantibodies cause significant inhibition of tTG-mediated crosslinking at equimolar and 2:1 ratios of antibody to enzyme.

  14. Clinical Significance of Autoantibodies in Some Thyroid Disorders

    Choi, Sung Kyu; Han, Sang Ho; Kim, Young Ju; Song, Jun Ho; Lee, Man Ho; Chung, Eul Sun; Lee, Sang Jong

    1984-01-01

    Clinical measurement of thyroid autoantibodies in sera of some thyroid disorders have been widely applied since about twenty years ago. We investigated the incidence and titers of both antimicrosomal and antithyroglobulin antibodies in forty eight cases with controls and one hundred and thirty three patients with some form of thyroid disorders. The results were as follows; 1) In controls, antimicrosomal antibodies were positive in 2% but antithyroglobulin antibodies were all negative. 2) In a series of one hundred and thirty three patients with thyroid disease, antimicrosomal antibodies were positive in 44% but antithyroglobulin antibodies were positive in only 15%. 3) The rate disclosing the positive results of antimicrosomal antibodies were 71% in Hashimoto disease, 60% in Graves' disease, and 38% in primary hypothyroidism, respectively. On the other hand, the positive results of antithyroglobulin antibodies showed 21% in Graves' disease, 19% in primary hypothyroidism, and 18% in Hashimoto, disease, respectively. Though there were relatively high rate of both antimicrosomal and antithyroglobulin antibodies in patients with nodular goiter, they were only seven cases in our series. 4) The rate with the extremely high titers of antimicrosomal and antithyroglobulin antibodies (>1 : 160 2 ) was 83% and 67% in Hashimoto's disease, 50% and 67% in primary hypothyroidism, and 41% and 18% in Graves' disease. Accordingly, the thyroid autoantibodies, were commonly found higher positive rate in patients with Hashimoto disease, primary hypothyroidism, and Graves' disease. Among these disorders, the extremely high positive rate of the thyroid autoantibodies was found in patients with Hashimoto's disease.

  15. Role of Natural Autoantibodies in Ugandans With Rheumatic Heart Disease and HIV

    Daniel M. Huck

    2016-03-01

    Interpretation: We found that HIV and RHD are associated with alterations in natural autoantibody responses previously linked to an increased risk for atherosclerosis and autoimmune inflammatory disease.

  16. Teddy Bear Stories

    van Leeuwen, Theo; Caldas-Coulthardt, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a semiotic analysis of a key cultural artefact, the teddy bear. After introducing the iconography of the teddy bear, it analyses different kinds of stories to show how teddy bears are endowed with meaning in everyday life: stories from children's books, reminiscenses by adults...... bears have traditionally centred on interpersonal relations within the nuclear family, but have recently been institutionalized and commercialized....

  17. Human rotavirus strains bearing VP4 gene P[6] allele recovered from asymptomatic or symptomatic infections share similar, if not identical, VP4 neutralization specificities

    Hoshino, Yasutaka; Jones, Ronald W.; Ross, Jerri; Santos, Norma; Kapikian, Albert Z.

    2003-01-01

    A rotavirus VP4 gene P[6] allele has been documented in a number of countries to be characteristically associated with an endemic predominantly asymptomatic infection in neonates in maternity hospital nurseries. The mechanisms underlying the endemicity and asymptomatic nature of such neonatal infections remain unknown. Rotavirus strains sharing this same P genotype, however, have more recently been recovered from an increasing number of symptomatic diarrheal episodes in infants and young children in various parts of the world. Previously, we have shown that an asymptomatic P[6] rotavirus neonatal infection is not associated with a unique VP7 (G) serotype but may occur in conjunction with various G types. Although amino acid sequence comparisons of the VP4 gene between selected 'asymptomatic' and 'symptomatic' P[6] rotavirus strains have been reported and yielded information concerning their VP4 genotypes, serotypic comparisons of the outer capsid spike protein VP4 of such viruses have not been studied systematically by two-way cross-neutralizations. We determined the VP4 neutralization specificities of four asymptomatic and four symptomatic P[6] strains: two each of asymptomatic and symptomatic strains by two-way tests, and two each of additional asymptomatic and symptomatic strains by one-way tests. Both asymptomatic and symptomatic P[6] strains were shown to bear similar, if not identical, VP4 neutralization specificities. Thus, P[6] rotavirus strains causing asymptomatic or symptomatic infections did not appear to belong to unique P (VP4) serotypes. In addition, a close VP4 serotypic relationship between human P[6] rotavirus strains and the porcine P[6] rotavirus Gottfried strain was confirmed

  18. Autoantibodies, histocompatibility antigens and testosterone in males with alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    Gluud, C; Tage-Jensen, Ulrik Viggo; Bahnsen, M

    1981-01-01

    Titres and immunoglobulin classes of autoantibodies were examined in 69 male patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and the findings were related to particular human leucocyte antigens and serum concentration of testosterone. Both anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) and smooth muscle antibodies (SMA...... had higher titres of ANA (n.s.) and SMA (P less than 0.05) than patients without these HLA antigens. Serum concentrations of testosterone were significantly lower in ANA-positive patients than in those negative (P less than 0.05), and a similar tendency was found in SMA-positive patients....... With increasing titres of ANA the concentration of testosterone fell. Serum concentration of testosterone correlated inversely (P less than 0.05) with plasma immunoglobulin G and A. It is concluded that both genetic and hormonal factors may influence the humoral immune response in these patients....

  19. The implications of autoantibodies to a single islet antigen in relatives with normal glucose tolerance: development of other autoantibodies and progression to type 1 diabetes.

    Bingley, Polly J; Boulware, David C; Krischer, Jeffrey P

    2016-03-01

    Autoantibodies directed at single islet autoantigens are associated with lower overall risk of type 1 diabetes than multiple autoantibodies, but individuals with one autoantibody may progress to higher risk categories. We examined the characteristics of this progression in relatives followed prospectively in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention. The study population comprised 983 relatives who were single autoantibody positive with normal baseline glucose tolerance (median age 16.2 years). Samples were screened for antibodies to GAD, insulinoma-associated antigen 2 (IA-2) and insulin, and all positive samples tested for antibodies to zinc transporter 8 and islet cell antibodies. Antibodies to at least one additional islet autoantigen appeared in 118 of 983 relatives (overall 5 year risk 22%, 95% CI [17.9, 26.1]). At baseline, antibodies to GAD alone (68%) were more frequent than antibodies to insulin (26%) or IA-2 (6%), but all were associated with a similar risk of developing additional autoantibodies. Risk was associated with younger age (p = 0.002) and HLA class II genotype, but was similar in high and intermediate genetic risk groups (p = 0.65). Relatives who became multiple autoantibody positive during the follow-up had increased risk of developing diabetes comparable with the risk in relatives with multiple autoantibodies at study entry. Progression of islet autoimmunity in single autoantibody positive relatives in late childhood/adult life is associated with a predominance of autoantibodies to GAD and a distinct HLA risk profile. This heterogeneity in type 1 diabetes autoimmunity has potentially important implications for disease prevention.

  20. Anti-signal recognition particle autoantibody ELISA validation and clinical associations.

    Aggarwal, Rohit; Oddis, Chester V; Goudeau, Danielle; Fertig, Noreen; Metes, Ilinca; Stephens, Chad; Qi, Zengbiao; Koontz, Diane; Levesque, Marc C

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a quantitative anti-signal recognition particle (SRP) autoantibody serum ELISA in patients with myositis and longitudinal association with myositis disease activity. We developed a serum ELISA using recombinant purified full-length human SRP coated on ELISA plates and a secondary antibody that bound human IgG to detect anti-SRP binding. Protein immunoprecipitation was used as the gold standard for the presence of anti-SRP. Serum samples from three groups were analysed: SRP(+) myositis subjects by immunoprecipitation, SRP(-) myositis subjects by immunoprecipitation and non-myositis controls. The ELISA's sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were evaluated. Percentage agreement and test-retest reliability were assessed. Serial samples from seven SRP immunoprecipitation-positive subjects were also tested, along with serum muscle enzymes and manual muscle testing. Using immunoprecipitation, we identified 26 SRP(+) myositis patients and 77 SRP(-) controls (including 38 patients with necrotizing myopathy). Non-myositis control patients included SLE (n = 4) and SSc (n = 7) patients. Anti-SRP positivity by ELISA showed strong agreement (97.1%) with immunoprecipitation (κ = 0.94). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the anti-SRP ELISA were 88, 100, 100 and 96, respectively. The area under the curve was 0.94, and test-retest reliability was strong (r = 0.91, P < 0.001). Serial samples showed that anti-SRP levels paralleled changes in muscle enzymes and manual muscle testing. We developed a quantitative ELISA for detecting serum anti-SRP autoantibodies and validated the assay in myositis. Longitudinal assessment of SRP levels by ELISA may be a useful biomarker for disease activity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  1. Imaging of 99Tcm-labeled new cyclic RGDfK Dimer in nude mice bearing U87MG human glioma xenografts

    Jin Xiao'an; Shi Jiyun; Liu Yan; Zhu Zhaohui; Jia Bing; Liu Zhaofei; Shi Ximin; Wang Fan; Li Fang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: (1) To evaluate the effect of insertion of two 15-amino-4, 7, 10, 13-tetraoxapentadecanoic (2 PEG 4 ) linkers into cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) Dimer E [c(RGDfK)] 2 on receptor binding in vitro, (2) to assess its biodistribution in vivo and (3) to investigate the value of 99 Tc m labeled 2PEG 4 -Dimer for integrin α v β 3 -positive tumors imaging. Methods: The expression of U87 human glioma cells and integrin α v β 3 was determined by immunofluorescence staining. The half-inhibition concentrations (IC 50 ) for 125 I-cyclo (Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Tyr-Lys) (c(RGDyK)) of c (RGDyK), hydrazinonictinamide (HYNIC)-Dimer and HYNIC-2PEG 4 -Dimer binding to integrin α v β 3 were measured. 99 Tc m -HYNIC-Dimer and 99 Tc m -HYNIC-2PEG 4 -Dimer were synthesized using non-SnCl 2 formulation. Biodistribution and imaging studies were performed in nude mice bearing human glioma xenografts. The unpaired t test was used for statistical analysis. Results: The labeling yield of the two radiotracers was more than 95%, and the radiochemical purity was more than 99% through Sep-Pek C18 cartridge. HYNIC-2PEG 4 -Dimer had significantly higher binding affinity of integrin α v β 3 than c(RGDyK) and HYNIC-Dimer (IC 50 =0.8 nmol/L, 27 nmol/L and 2.4 nmol/L, respectively). Biodistribution study showed that 99 Tc m -HYNIC-2PEG 4 -Dimer was mainly excreted via the kidney. The tumor uptake of 99 Tc m -HYNIC-2PEG 4 -Dimer was higher than that of 99 Tc m -HYNIC-Dimer at 2 h post injection ((5.71±0.96) and (2.10±0.50) % ID/g, t =4.80, P 99 Tc m -HYNIC-2PEG 4 -Dimer is a promising radiotracer for integrin α v β 3 -positive tumor imaging. (authors)

  2. Trichinella surveillance in black bears (Ursus americanus) from Oregon, USA.

    Mortenson, J A; Kent, M L; Fowler, D R; Chomel, B B; Immell, D A

    2014-01-01

    We used serology and muscle digestion to test black bears (Ursus americanus) from western Oregon, USA, for Trichinella. Results indicate black bears in Oregon are not part of a sylvatic cycle for Trichinella, and risk of human exposure to Trichinella larvae from eating black bear meat from Oregon appears low.

  3. Association between anti-thyroid peroxidase and anti-cytokeratin 18 autoantibodies and bronchial asthma in women

    Hala A. Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Positive anti-TPO autoantibodies and anti-CK18 autoantibodies in asthmatic patients and their higher level in the non-allergic asthma group may strengthen the presence of a hidden autoimmune phenomenon in non-allergic asthma.

  4. 14-3-3η Autoantibodies: Diagnostic Use in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Maksymowych, Walter P.; Boire, Gilles; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Wichuk, Stephanie; Turk, Samina; Boers, Maarten; Siminovitch, Katherine A.; Bykerk, Vivian; Keystone, Ed; Tak, Paul Peter; van Kuijk, Arno W.; Landewé, Robert; van der Heijde, Desiree; Murphy, Mairead; Marotta, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    To describe the expression and diagnostic use of 14-3-3η autoantibodies in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 14-3-3η autoantibody levels were measured using an electrochemiluminescent multiplexed assay in 500 subjects (114 disease-modifying antirheumatic drug-naive patients with early RA, 135 with

  5. Autoantibodies persist in relatives to systemic lupus erythematosus patients during 12 years follow-up

    Langkilde, Henrik; Voss, A; Heegaard, N

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with presence of autoantibodies and characteristic multi-organ involvement. Relatives of SLE patients have an increased risk of autoantibody production and autoimmune diseases. METHODS: In 2001, 226 first degree relatives (FDRs...

  6. GAD65 autoantibodies in women with gestational or insulin dependent diabetes mellitus diagnosed during pregnancy

    Petersen, J S; Dyrberg, Torben Bech; Damm, P

    1996-01-01

    We have studied the presence of GAD65 autoantibodies in women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) (n = 28) or gestational diabetes (GDM) (n = 139) diagnosed during pregnancy and investigated the temporal relationship between these autoantibodies and the subsequent recurrence...

  7. Significance of myositis autoantibody in patients with idiopathic interstitial lung disease.

    Song, Ju Sun; Hwang, Jiwon; Cha, Hoon-Suk; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Suh, Gee Young; Chung, Man Pyo; Kang, Eun-Suk

    2015-05-01

    Some patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) related to connective tissue disease (CTD) have a delayed diagnosis of the underlying CTD when the ILD is categorized as idiopathic. In this study, we evaluated the frequency of myositis autoantibodies in patients diagnosed with idiopathic ILD and investigated the clinical significance stemming from the presence of the antibodies. A total 32 patients diagnosed with idiopathic ILD were enrolled in this study. We analyzed a panel of 11 myositis autoantibody specificities in the patients using a line blot immunoassay. Then, we divided them into myositis autoantibody-positive and -negative groups and compared the clinical features and laboratory data between the two groups. Of the 32 idiopathic ILD patients, 12 patients had myositis autoantibodies encompassing 9 specificities, except for anti-Mi-2 and anti-PM-Scl 100 (12/32, 38%). Anti-synthetase autoantibodies including Jo-1, EJ, OJ, PL-7, and PL-12 were present in 7 patients (7/32, 22%). The group with myositis autoantibodies presented more frequently with the symptom of mechanic's hand and showed abnormal pulmonary function test results with low forced vital capacity, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, total lung capacity, and high lactate dehydrogenase values in blood when compared with the group without myositis antibodies. We strongly suggest that patients undergo an evaluation of myositis autoantibodies, if they are diagnosed with idiopathic ILD in the presence of clinical characteristics including mechanic's hand, arthralgia, and autoantibodies which are insufficient to make a diagnosis of a specific CTD category.

  8. Cancer biomarkers defined by autoantibody signatures to aberrant O-glycopeptide epitopes

    Wandall, Hans H; Blixt, Ola; Tarp, Mads A

    2010-01-01

    Autoantibodies to cancer antigens hold promise as biomarkers for early detection of cancer. Proteins that are aberrantly processed in cancer cells are likely to present autoantibody targets. The extracellular mucin MUC1 is overexpressed and aberrantly glycosylated in many cancers; thus, we evalua...

  9. Thyroid Autoantibodies Display both “Original Antigenic Sin” and Epitope Spreading

    McLachlan, Sandra M.; Rapoport, Basil

    2017-01-01

    Evidence for original antigenic sin in spontaneous thyroid autoimmunity is revealed by autoantibody interactions with immunodominant regions on thyroid autoantigens, thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) A-subunit. In contrast, antibodies induced by immunization of rabbits or mice recognize diverse epitopes. Recognition of immunodominant regions persists despite fluctuations in autoantibody levels following treatment or over time. The enhancement of...

  10. Identification of novel autoantibodies for detection of malignant mesothelioma.

    Xufei Zhang

    Full Text Available The malignant mesothelioma (MM survival rate has been hampered by the lack of efficient and accurate early detection methods. The immune system may detect the early changes of tumor progression by responding with tumor-associated autoantibody production. Hence, in this study, we translated the humoral immune response to cancer proteins into a potential blood test for MM.A T7 phage MM cDNA library was constructed using MM tumor tissues and biopanned for tumor-associated antigens (TAAs using pooled MM patient and normal serum samples. About 1008 individual phage TAA clones from the biopanned library were subjected to protein microarray construction and tested with 53 MM and 52 control serum samples as a training group. Nine candidate autoantibody markers were selected from the training group using Tclass system and logistic regression statistical analysis, which achieved 94.3% sensitivity and 90.4% specificity with an AUC value of 0.89 in receiver operating characteristic analysis. The classifier was further evaluated with 50 patient and 50 normal serum samples as an independent blind validation, and the sensitivity of 86.0% and the specificity of 86.0% were obtained with an AUC of 0.82. Sequencing and BLASTN analysis of the classifier revealed that five of these nine candidate markers were found to have strong homology to cancer related proteins (PDIA6, MEG3, SDCCAG3, IGHG3, IGHG1.Our results indicated that using a panel of 9 autoantibody markers presented a promising accuracy for MM detection. Although the results need further validation in high-risk groups, they provided the potentials in developing a serum-based assay for MM diagnosis.

  11. Multiplex autoantibody detection for autoimmune liver diseases and autoimmune gastritis.

    Vanderlocht, Joris; van der Cruys, Mart; Stals, Frans; Bakker-Jonges, Liesbeth; Damoiseaux, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Autoantibody detection for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and autoimmune gastritis (AIG) is traditionally performed by IIF on a combination of tissues. Multiplex line/dot blots (LIA/DIA) offer multiple advantages, i.e. automation, objective reading, no interfering reactivities, no coincidental findings. In the current study we evaluated automated DIA (D-Tek) for detecting autoantibodies related to autoimmune diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. We tested samples of the Dutch EQC program and compared the results with the consensus of the participating labs. For the autoimmune liver diseases and AIG, respectively, 64 and 36 samples were tested. For anti-mitochondrial and anti-smooth muscle antibodies a concordance rate of 97% and 88% was observed, respectively. The concordance rate for anti-parietal cell antibodies was 92% when samples without EQC consensus (n=15) were excluded. For antibodies against intrinsic factor a concordance of 96% was observed. For all these antibodies discrepancies were identified that relate to the different test characteristics and the preponderance of IIF utilizing labs in the EQC program. In conclusion, we observed good agreement of the tested DIA blots with the consensus results of the Dutch EQC program. Taken together with the logistic advantages these blots are a good alternative for autoantibody detection in the respective diseases. A large prospective multicenter study is warranted to position these novel tests further in the whole spectrum of assays for the detection of these antibodies in a routine autoimmune laboratory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Serum Autoantibody Measurement for the Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Middleton, Catrin H.; Irving, William; Robertson, John F. R.; Murray, Andrea; Parsy-Kowalska, Celine B.; Macdonald, Isabel K.; McElveen, Jane; Allen, Jared; Healey, Graham F.; Thomson, Brian J.; Ryder, Stephen J.; Holdenrieder, Stefan; Chapman, Caroline J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with liver disease, and especially those with Hepatitis B or C, are at an increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) which is the third most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Inadequate screening tests largely account for presentation of advanced tumours and high mortality rates. Early detection of HCC amongst high-risk groups is paramount in improving prognosis. This research aimed to further characterise the previously described humoral immune response raised to tumour-associated antigens (TAAs) in the serum of patients with HCC. Methods Serum from 96 patients with confirmed HCC, 96 healthy controls matched for age and sex, 78 patients with confirmed liver cirrhosis and 91 patients with confirmed chronic liver disease were analysed for the presence of IgG autoantibodies raised to 41 recombinant TAAs/antigen fragments by ELISA. Results Varying autoantibody specificities (97–100%) and sensitivities (0–10%) were observed to individual TAAs. A 21-antigen panel achieved a specificity of 92% and sensitivity of 45% for the detection of HCC. This same panel identified 21% of 169 high-risk controls as having elevated autoantibody levels. A reproducible panel of 10 antigens achieved a specificity of 91% and sensitivity of 41% in HCC. 15% of 152 high-risk controls gave positive results with this panel. Conclusions This minimally invasive blood test has the potential to offer advantages over currently available tools for the identification of HCC amongst pre-disposed patients. Results are comparable to current gold standards in HCC (Ultrasonography) and to similar tests in other cancers (EarlyCDT-Lung). PMID:25093332

  13. Serum autoantibody measurement for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Catrin H Middleton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individuals with liver disease, and especially those with Hepatitis B or C, are at an increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC which is the third most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Inadequate screening tests largely account for presentation of advanced tumours and high mortality rates. Early detection of HCC amongst high-risk groups is paramount in improving prognosis. This research aimed to further characterise the previously described humoral immune response raised to tumour-associated antigens (TAAs in the serum of patients with HCC. METHODS: Serum from 96 patients with confirmed HCC, 96 healthy controls matched for age and sex, 78 patients with confirmed liver cirrhosis and 91 patients with confirmed chronic liver disease were analysed for the presence of IgG autoantibodies raised to 41 recombinant TAAs/antigen fragments by ELISA. RESULTS: Varying autoantibody specificities (97-100% and sensitivities (0-10% were observed to individual TAAs. A 21-antigen panel achieved a specificity of 92% and sensitivity of 45% for the detection of HCC. This same panel identified 21% of 169 high-risk controls as having elevated autoantibody levels. A reproducible panel of 10 antigens achieved a specificity of 91% and sensitivity of 41% in HCC. 15% of 152 high-risk controls gave positive results with this panel. CONCLUSIONS: This minimally invasive blood test has the potential to offer advantages over currently available tools for the identification of HCC amongst pre-disposed patients. Results are comparable to current gold standards in HCC (Ultrasonography and to similar tests in other cancers (EarlyCDT-Lung.

  14. Red cell autoantibodies characterized by competitive inhibition of iodine 125 Rh alloantibody binding and by immunoprecipitation of membrane proteins

    Pierce, S.W.; Victoria, E.J.; Masouredis, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between determinants recognized by warm-type immunoglobulin G red cell autoantibodies and the Rh antigens was characterized by autoantibody competitive inhibition of iodine 125 Rh alloantibody binding and autoantibody immunoprecipitation of iodine 125 red blood cell membrane proteins. The majority of blood donor autoantibody recognized epitopes that are closely related to Rh antigens as determined by competitive inhibition studies. Eighteen of 20 (90%) autoantibodies inhibited anti-Rh(c) binding, 15 inhibited anti-Rh(E), 5 inhibited anti-Rh(D), and only 2 failed to inhibit any of the three Rh alloantibodies tested. Autoantibodies that inhibited anti-Rh(D) also inhibited anti-Rh(c) and anti-Rh(E) and all those that inhibited anti-Rh(E) also inhibited anti-Rh(c). Autoantibodies that inhibited all three Rh alloantibodies immunoprecipitated 30 kd membrane polypeptides, as did two of the three autoantibodies that inhibited only anti-Rh(c) and anti-Rh(E). One autoantibody in this group and two autoantibodies that inhibited only anti-Rh(c), as well as an autoantibody that did not inhibit any of the Rh alloantibodies, immunoprecipitated only a single membrane polypeptide identified as band 3. The majority of normal donor red blood cell autoantibodies inhibited the binding of Rh alloantibodies, which indicates that they either bound to the Rh polypeptides or to epitopes on band 3 that were closely associated with the Rh complex

  15. Decrease in TSH Receptor Autoantibodies during Antithyroid Treatment

    Christensen, Niels Juel; Habekost, Gurli; Bratholm, Palle

    2011-01-01

    We have previously shown that a long noncoding RNA transcript Heg is negatively correlated with TSH receptor autoantibodies (TRAb) in patients with untreated Graves' disease and with CD14 mRNA in treated patients and controls. Thus patients with high concentrations of Heg RNA have low levels...... of TRAb or CD14 mRNA, respectively. Here we show that an additional factor, gene expression of Cdk1 in mononuclear cells, is positively related to concentrations of TRAb in patients with untreated Graves' disease. Cdk1 mRNA is very important for regulation of cell cycle activity. It is well known...

  16. Folinic acid treatment for schizophrenia associated with folate receptor autoantibodies.

    Ramaekers, V T; Thöny, B; Sequeira, J M; Ansseau, M; Philippe, P; Boemer, F; Bours, V; Quadros, E V

    2014-12-01

    Auto-antibodies against folate receptor alpha (FRα) at the choroid plexus that block N(5)-methyltetrahydrofolate (MTHF) transfer to the brain were identified in catatonic schizophrenia. Acoustic hallucinations disappeared following folinic acid treatment. Folate transport to the CNS prevents homocysteine accumulation and delivers one-carbon units for methyl-transfer reactions and synthesis of purines. The guanosine derivative tetrahydrobiopterin acts as common co-factor for the enzymes producing dopamine, serotonin and nitric oxide. Our study selected patients with schizophrenia unresponsive to conventional treatment. Serum from these patients with normal plasma homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 was tested for FR autoantibodies of the blocking type on serial samples each week. Spinal fluid was analyzed for MTHF and the metabolites of pterins, dopamine and serotonin. The clinical response to folinic acid treatment was evaluated. Fifteen of 18 patients (83.3%) had positive serum FR auto-antibodies compared to only 1 in 30 controls (3.3%) (χ(2)=21.6; pfolate flux to the CNS, which explained low CSF folate values in 6 and normal values in 7 patients. The mean±SD for CSF MTHF was diminished compared to previously established controls (t-test: 3.90; p=0.0002). A positive linear correlation existed between CSF MTHF and biopterin levels. CSF dopamine and serotonin metabolites were low or in the lower normal range. Administration of folinic acid (0.3-1mg/kg/day) to 7 participating patients during at least six months resulted in clinical improvement. Assessment of FR auto-antibodies in serum is recommended for schizophrenic patients. Clinical negative or positive symptoms are speculated to be influenced by the level and evolution of FRα antibody titers which determine folate flux to the brain with up- or down-regulation of brain folate intermediates linked to metabolic processes affecting homocysteine levels, synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin and neurotransmitters

  17. Contrasting activity patterns of sympatric and allopatric black and grizzly bears

    Schwartz, C.C.; Cain, S.L.; Podruzny, S.; Cherry, S.; Frattaroli, L.

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of grizzly (Ursus arctos) and American black bears (U. americanus) overlaps in western North America. Few studies have detailed activity patterns where the species are sympatric and no studies contrasted patterns where populations are both sympatric and allopatric. We contrasted activity patterns for sympatric black and grizzly bears and for black bears allopatric to grizzly bears, how human influences altered patterns, and rates of grizzlyblack bear predation. Activity patterns differed between black bear populations, with those sympatric to grizzly bears more day-active. Activity patterns of black bears allopatric with grizzly bears were similar to those of female grizzly bears; both were crepuscular and day-active. Male grizzly bears were crepuscular and night-active. Both species were more night-active and less day-active when ???1 km from roads or developments. In our sympatric study area, 2 of 4 black bear mortalities were due to grizzly bear predation. Our results suggested patterns of activity that allowed for intra- and inter-species avoidance. National park management often results in convergence of locally high human densities in quality bear habitat. Our data provide additional understanding into how bears alter their activity patterns in response to other bears and humans and should help park managers minimize undesirable bearhuman encounters when considering needs for temporal and spatial management of humans and human developments in bear habitats. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  18. Associations between the uptake of {sup 111}In-DTPA-trastuzumab, HER2 density and response to trastuzumab (Herceptin) in athymic mice bearing subcutaneous human tumour xenografts

    McLarty, Kristin; Cornelissen, Bart; Scollard, Deborah A. [University of Toronto, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toronto, ON (Canada); Done, Susan J. [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Biophysics, Toronto, ON (Canada)]|[University of Toronto, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Toronto, ON (Canada)]|[University Health Network, Department of Pathology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Chun, Kathy [North York General Hospital, Genetics Program, Toronto, ON (Canada); Reilly, Raymond M. [University of Toronto, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toronto, ON (Canada)]|[University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)]|[University Health Network, Toronto General Research Institute, Toronto, ON (Canada)]|[University of Toronto, Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-01-15

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the associations between uptake of {sup 111}In-DTPA-trastuzumab, tumour HER2 density and response to trastuzumab (Herceptin) of human breast cancer (BC) xenografts in athymic mice. The tumour uptake of {sup 111}In-DTPA-trastuzumab in athymic mice bearing BC xenografts with increasing HER2 density (0 to 3+) was evaluated. Specific uptake ratios were established in biodistribution (SUR) and imaging studies (ROI-SUR) using {sup 111}In-labeled mouse IgG ({sup 111}In-DTPA-mIgG). Further corrections were made for circulating radioactivity using tumour-to-blood ratios defined as a localization index (LI) and region-of-interest localization index (ROI-LI), respectively. Mice were treated with trastuzumab (Herceptin). A tumour growth inhibition index (TGI) was calculated and relative TGIs calculated by dividing the TGI of control by that of trastuzumab-treated mice. Strong, nonlinear associations with HER2 density were obtained if the uptake of {sup 111}In-DTPA-trastuzumab was corrected for nonspecific IgG localization (i.e., SUR; r{sup 2}=0.99) and circulating radioactivity (i.e., LI; r{sup 2} =0.87), but without these corrections, the association between HER2 density and tumour uptake was poor (r{sup 2}=0.22). There was a strong association between ROI-SUR and ROI-LI values and HER2 expression (r{sup 2}=0.90 and r{sup 2}=0.95), respectively. All tumours were imaged. Relative TGI values were associated with increasing uncorrected tumour uptake of {sup 111}In-DTPA-trastuzumab but not always with HER2 density (i.e., MCF-HER2-18 cells with trastuzumab-resistance). HER2 expression (0 to 3+) can be differentiated using {sup 111}In-DTPA-trastuzumab, but requires correction of tumour uptake for nonspecific IgG localization and circulating radioactivity. The uncorrected uptake of {sup 111}In-DTPA-trastuzumab was associated with tumour response to trastuzumab. (orig.)

  19. Reversal of multidrug resistance with KR-30035: evaluated with biodistribution of Tc-99m MIBI in nude mice bearing human tumor xenografts

    Kim, Jung Kyun; Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Byung Ho

    2001-01-01

    KR-30035 (KR), a new MDR reversing agent, has been found to produce a similar degree of increased Tc-99m MIBI uptake in cultured tumor cells over-expressing mdr1 mRNA compared to verapamil (VP), with less cardiovascular effects. We assessed the MDR-reversing ability of KR in vivo, and effects of various doses of KR on MIBI uptake in nude mice bearing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) positive (+) and P-gp negative (-) human tumor xenografts. P-gp (+) HCT15/CLO2 colorectal and P-gp (-) A549 non-small cell cancer cells were inoculated in each flank of 120 nude mice (20 mice x 6 groups). Group 1 (Gr1) mice received 10mg/kg Kr i.p. 3 times (x3); Gr2, 10mg/kg VP i.p. x3; Gr3, 10mg/kg KR i.p. x2 + 25mg/kg KR i.p. x1; Gr4, 10mg/kg KR i.p. x 2 + 50mg/kg i.p. x1; Gr5, 10mg/kg Kr i.p. x2 + 25mg/kg KR i.v. x1, GrC, controls. The mice were then injected with Tc-99m MIBI and sacrificed after 10 min, 30 min, 90 min and 240 min. Tumor uptake of MIBI (TU) in each group was compared. Tu in P-gp (+) and (-)tumors were both higher in Gr1 than Gr2. Washout rate between the 10 min and 4 hours was lower in Gr5 of P-gp (+) cell (0.93) than the control. Percentage increases in Tu were higher in P-gp (+) than P-gp (-) tumors with all KR doses. Pgp (+) TU were highest at 10 min (173% of GrC) and persisted up to 240 min (144%) in Gr3. Larger doses of KR resulted in a lesser degree of increase in P-gp (+) TU at 10 min (130% in Gr4 and 117% in Gr5) and 30 min (178%, 129%), but TU increased by time up to 240 min (177%, 196%). Heart and lung uptakes were markedly increased in Gr4 and Gr5 at 10 and 3C min, likely due to cardiovascular effects. No mice died. These data further suggest that KR that has significantly lower cardiovascular toxicity than verapamil can be used as an active inhibitor of MDR. Even a relatively low dose of KR significantly increased Tc-99m MIBI uptake in P-gp (+) tumors in vivo

  20. Depression of p53-independent Akt survival signals in human oral cancer cells bearing mutated p53 gene after exposure to high-LET radiation

    Nakagawa, Yosuke [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Takahashi, Akihisa [Advanced Scientific Research Leader Development Unit, Gunma University, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Kajihara, Atsuhisa; Yamakawa, Nobuhiro; Imai, Yuichiro [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Ota, Ichiro; Okamoto, Noritomo [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Mori, Eiichiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Noda, Taichi [Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Furusawa, Yoshiya [Heavy-ion Radiobiology Research Group, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kirita, Tadaaki [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Ohnishi, Takeo, E-mail: tohnishi@naramed-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-LET radiation induces efficiently apoptosis regardless of p53 gene status. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined whether high-LET radiation depresses the Akt-survival signals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-LET radiation depresses of survival signals even in the mp53 cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-LET radiation activates Caspase-9 through depression of survival signals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-LET radiation suppresses cell growth through depression of survival signals. -- Abstract: Although mutations and deletions in the p53 tumor suppressor gene lead to resistance to low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, high-LET radiation efficiently induces cell lethality and apoptosis regardless of the p53 gene status in cancer cells. Recently, it has been suggested that the induction of p53-independent apoptosis takes place through the activation of Caspase-9 which results in the cleavage of Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). This study was designed to examine if high-LET radiation depresses serine/threonine protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt) and Akt-related proteins. Human gingival cancer cells (Ca9-22 cells) harboring a mutated p53 (mp53) gene were irradiated with 2 Gy of X-rays or Fe-ion beams. The cellular contents of Akt-related proteins participating in cell survival signaling were analyzed with Western Blotting 1, 2, 3 and 6 h after irradiation. Cell cycle distributions after irradiation were assayed with flow cytometric analysis. Akt-related protein levels decreased when cells were irradiated with high-LET radiation. High-LET radiation increased G{sub 2}/M phase arrests and suppressed the progression of the cell cycle much more efficiently when compared to low-LET radiation. These results suggest that high-LET radiation enhances apoptosis through the activation of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9, and suppresses cell growth by suppressing Akt-related signaling, even in mp

  1. Novel Association Between Immune-Mediated Susceptibility Loci and Persistent Autoantibody Positivity in Type 1 Diabetes

    Brorsson, Caroline A; Onengut, Suna; Chen, Wei-Min

    2015-01-01

    Islet autoantibodies detected at disease onset in patients with type 1 diabetes are signs of an autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing β-cells. To further investigate the genetic determinants of autoantibody positivity, we performed dense immune-focused genotyping on the Immunochip array...... and tested for association with seven disease-specific autoantibodies in a large cross-sectional cohort of 6,160 type 1 diabetes-affected siblings. The genetic association with positivity for GAD autoantibodies (GADAs), IA2 antigen (IA-2A), zinc transporter 8, thyroid peroxidase, gastric parietal cells (PCAs...... and constitute candidates for early screening. Major susceptibility loci for islet autoantibodies are separate from type 1 diabetes risk, which may have consequences for intervention strategies to reduce autoimmunity....

  2. Pathological features of liver tissue in autoantibody-positive chronic hepatitis C patients after plasmaphoresis

    WU Huili

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the detection rate and features of autoantibodies in chronic hepatitis C (CHC patients after plasmaphoresis, as well as the liver pathological features of autoantibody-positive CHC patients. MethodsA total of 120 patients who were infected with hepatitis C virus after plasmaphoresis in the Hospital of Dingxi County and Dingxi Hospital of Infectious Diseases from January 1992 to December 1995 were selected as test group; 11 healthy people from the same region were selected as control group. Autoantibody detection was performed for the 120 CHC patients, and liver pathological features were compared between the autoantibody-positive group(n=44 and autoantibody-negative group(n=76 of these patients. The t test was used for comparison of continuous data, and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data. ResultsOf all 120 CHC patients who underwent plasmaphoresis, 44 (36.7% were found to have serum autoantibodies, with antinuclear antibodies as the most common type (21.7%. Compared with the autoantibody-negative group, the autoantibody-positive group had significantly higher scores of focal necrosis inside the hepatic lobules (211±0.88 vs 164±0.88, t=2.349,P=0.021 and ductular reaction inside the portal area (1.86±0.71 vs 1.13±0.66, t=4.217,P<0.001, as well as a significantly higher rate of interlobular bile duct injury (86.4% vs 55.3%, χ2=12.129,P=0.001. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the degree of liver fibrosis and hepatic steatosis (both P>0.05. ConclusionAutoantibody-positive are common in CHC patients after plasmaphoresis, and autoantibody-positive patients tend to have more severe injuries of the liver.

  3. Effect of hGC-MSCs from human gastric cancer tissue on cell proliferation, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in tumor tissue of gastric cancer tumor-bearing mice.

    Song, Lin; Zhou, Xin; Jia, Hong-Jun; Du, Mei; Zhang, Jin-Ling; Li, Liang

    2016-08-01

    To study the effect of hGC-MSCs from human gastric cancer tissue on cell proliferation, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in tumor tissue of gastric cancer tumor-bearing mice. BABL/c nude mice were selected as experimental animals and gastric cancer tumor-bearing mice model were established by subcutaneous injection of gastric cancer cells, randomly divided into different intervention groups. hGC-MSCs group were given different amounts of gastric cancer cells for subcutaneous injection, PBS group was given equal volume of PBS for subcutaneous injection. Then tumor tissue volume were determined, tumor-bearing mice were killed and tumor tissues were collected, mRNA expression of proliferation, invasion, EMT-related molecules were determined. 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 d after intervention, tumor tissue volume of hGC-MSCs group were significantly higher than those of PBS group and the more the number of hGC-MSCs, the higher the tumor tissue volume; mRNA contents of Ki-67, PCNA, Bcl-2, MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, MMP-14, N-cadherin, vimentin, Snail and Twist in tumor tissue of hGC-MSCs group were higher than those of PBS group, and mRNA contents of Bax, TIMP1, TIMP2 and E-cadherin were lower than those of PBS group. hGC-MSCs from human gastric cancer tissue can promote the tumor growth in gastric cancer tumor-bearing mice, and the molecular mechanism includes promoting cell proliferation, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Polar bears, Ursus maritimus

    Rode, Karyn D.; Stirling, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Polar bears are the largest of the eight species of bears found worldwide and are covered in a pigment-free fur giving them the appearance of being white. They are the most carnivorous of bear species consuming a high-fat diet, primarily of ice-associated seals and other marine mammals. They range throughout the circumpolar Arctic to the southernmost extent of seasonal pack ice.

  5. EcoBears

    Nielsen, Nick; Pedersen, Sandra Bleuenn; Sørensen, Jens Ager

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the EcoBears concept that aims to augment household appliances with functional and aesthetic features to promote their "use'' and "longevity of use'' to prevent their disposal. The EcoBears also aim to support the communication of environmental issues in the home setting....... We present our initial design and implementation of the EcoBears that consist of two bear modules (a mother and her cub). We also present our preliminary concept validations and lessons learned to be considered for future directions....

  6. Bearing restoration by grinding

    Hanau, H.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Chen, S. M.; Bull, H. L.

    1976-01-01

    A joint program was undertaken by the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Army Aviation Systems Command to restore by grinding those rolling-element bearings which are currently being discarded at aircraft engine and transmission overhaul. Three bearing types were selected from the UH-1 helicopter engine (T-53) and transmission for the pilot program. No bearing failures occurred related to the restoration by grinding process. The risk and cost of a bearing restoration by grinding programs was analyzed. A microeconomic impact analysis was performed.

  7. Use of Autoantibodies to Detect the Onset of Breast Cancer

    Jérôme Lacombe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of screening mammography has resulted in increased detection of early-stage breast disease, particularly for in situ carcinoma and early-stage breast cancer. However, the majority of women with abnormalities noted on screening mammograms are not diagnosed with cancer because of several factors, including radiologist assessment, patient age, breast density, malpractice concerns, and quality control procedures. Although magnetic resonance imaging is a highly sensitive detection tool that has become standard for women at very high risk of developing breast cancer, it lacks sufficient specificity and costeffectiveness for use as a general screening tool. Therefore, there is an important need to improve screening and diagnosis of early-invasive and noninvasive tumors, that is, in situ carcinoma. The great potential for molecular tools to improve breast cancer outcomes based on early diagnosis has driven the search for diagnostic biomarkers. Identification of tumor-specific markers capable of eliciting an immune response in the early stages of tumor development seems to provide an effective approach for early diagnosis. The aim of this review is to describe several autoantibodies identified during breast cancer diagnosis. We will focus on these molecules highlighted in the past two years and discuss the potential future use of autoantibodies as biomarkers of early-stage breast cancer.

  8. Obstetric and vascular APS: same autoantibodies but different diseases?

    Meroni, P L; Raschi, E; Grossi, C; Pregnolato, F; Trespidi, L; Acaia, B; Borghi, M O

    2012-06-01

    Beta2 glycoprotein I (β2GPI)-dependent antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) are the main pathogenic autoantibody population and at the same time the laboratory diagnostic tool for the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). These antibodies are responsible for both the vascular and the obstetric manifestations of the syndrome but the pathogenic mechanisms behind these manifestations are not the same. For example, thrombotic events do not appear to play a major role in APS miscarriages and a direct reactivity of β2GPI-dependent aPLs on decidual and trophoblast cells was reported. A local expression of β2GPI on these tissues was reported both in physiological conditions and in APS women, thus explaining the local tropism of the autoantibodies. The two hit hypothesis was suggested to explain why the vascular manifestations of APS may occur only occasionally in spite of the persistent presence of aPLs. This is not apparently the case for the obstetric variant of the syndrome, making the difference even more striking. A different pathogenesis may also provide the rationale for the well-known fact that the vascular and the obstetric manifestations may occur independently although in a minority of cases.

  9. Evaluation of a radioreceptor assay for TSH receptor autoantibodies

    Rootwelt, K.

    1988-02-01

    A commercial radioreceptor assay for TSH receptor autoantibodies (TRAb), based on solubilized porcine receptor and purified radio-iodinated bovine TSH, was tested in 264 subjects with a variety of thyroid disorders. The sensitivity of the assay for the detection of hyperthyroid Graves' disease was 91%. The assay specificity for Graves' disease was 95%. With the exception of one patient with Hashimoto's disease and one patient with de Quervain's subacute thyroiditis no subjects other than Graves' patients had detectable TRAb. Thus purely blocking TSII receptor autoantibodies were not detected with the assay. One female with thyroxine-treated idiopathic primary hypothyroidism who had given birth to two children with transiently elevated TSH, was found to have a circulating TSH-binding substance that resulted in an abnormally negative TRAb value, and highly discrepant results when TSH was measured with a double antibody TSH radioimmunoassay and an immunoradiometric assay. The TSH-binding substance was precipitated like a protein, but was not IgG. Similar findings have not previously been reported.

  10. Do Electrochemiluminescence Assays Improve Prediction of Time to Type 1 Diabetes in Autoantibody-Positive TrialNet Subjects?

    Fouts, Alexandra; Pyle, Laura; Yu, Liping; Miao, Dongmei; Michels, Aaron; Krischer, Jeffrey; Sosenko, Jay; Gottlieb, Peter; Steck, Andrea K.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore whether electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assays can help improve prediction of time to type 1 diabetes in the TrialNet autoantibody-positive population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS TrialNet subjects who were positive for one or more autoantibodies (microinsulin autoantibody, GAD65 autoantibody [GADA], IA-2A, and ZnT8A) with available ECL-insulin autoantibody (IAA) and ECL-GADA data at their initial visit were analyzed; after a median follow-up of 24 months, 177 of these 1,2...

  11. Glycotoxin and Autoantibodies Are Additive Environmentally Determined Predictors of Type 1 Diabetes

    Beyan, Huriya; Riese, Harriette; Hawa, Mohammed I.; Beretta, Guisi; Davidson, Howard W.; Hutton, John C.; Burger, Huibert; Schlosser, Michael; Snieder, Harold; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Leslie, R. David

    2012-01-01

    In type 1 diabetes, diabetes-associated autoantibodies, including islet cell antibodies (ICAs), reflect adaptive immunity, while increased serum Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), an advanced glycation end product, is associated with proinflammation. We assessed whether serum CML and autoantibodies predicted type 1 diabetes and to what extent they were determined by genetic or environmental factors. Of 7,287 unselected schoolchildren screened, 115 were ICA+ and were tested for baseline CML and diabetes autoantibodies and followed (for median 7 years), whereas a random selection (n = 2,102) had CML tested. CML and diabetes autoantibodies were determined in a classic twin study of twin pairs discordant for type 1 diabetes (32 monozygotic, 32 dizygotic pairs). CML was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, autoantibodies were determined by radioimmunoprecipitation, ICA was determined by indirect immunofluorescence, and HLA class II genotyping was determined by sequence-specific oligonucleotides. CML was increased in ICA+ and prediabetic schoolchildren and in diabetic and nondiabetic twins (all P < 0.001). Elevated levels of CML in ICA+ children were a persistent, independent predictor of diabetes progression, in addition to autoantibodies and HLA risk. In twins model fitting, familial environment explained 75% of CML variance, and nonshared environment explained all autoantibody variance. Serum CML, a glycotoxin, emerged as an environmentally determined diabetes risk factor, in addition to autoimmunity and HLA genetic risk, and a potential therapeutic target. PMID:22396204

  12. Myositis-specific autoantibodies: an important tool to support diagnosis of myositis.

    Betteridge, Z; McHugh, N

    2016-07-01

    The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are characterized by muscle weakness, skin disease and internal organ involvement. Autoimmunity is known to have a role in myositis pathogenesis, and myositis-specific autoantibodies, targeting important intracellular proteins, are regarded as key biomarkers aiding in the diagnosis of patients. In recent years, a number of novel myositis autoantibodies including anti-TIF1, anti-NXP2, anti-MDA5, anti-SAE, anti-HMGCR and anti-cN1A have been identified in both adult and juvenile patients. These autoantibodies correlate with distinct clinical manifestations and importantly are found in inclusion body, statin-induced, clinically amyopathic and juvenile groups of myositis patients, previously believed to be mainly autoantibody negative. In this review, we will describe the main myositis-specific and myositis-associated autoantibodies and their frequencies and clinical associations across different ages and ethnic groups. We will also discuss preliminary studies investigating correlations between specific myositis autoantibody titres and clinical markers of disease course, collectively demonstrating the utility of myositis autoantibodies as both diagnostic and prognostic markers of disease. © 2015 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  13. Eastern slopes grizzly bear project : project update

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    This report updates a study to examine the cumulative effects of human activities on the grizzly bears in the central Canadian Rockies. The project was initiated in 1994 to acquire accurate scientific information on the habitat and populations of grizzly bears in the area of the Banff National Park and Kananaskis Country. This area is probably the most heavily used and developed area where the grizzly still survives. The information gathered throughout the course of the study is used to better protect and manage the bears and other sensitive carnivores in the region. Using telemetry, researchers monitored 25 grizzly bears which were radio-collared in a 22,000 square-kilometer area in the upper Bow Valley drainage of the eastern Alberta slopes. The researchers worked with representatives from Husky Oil and Rigel Energy on the development of the Moose Mountain oil and gas field without adversely affecting the grizzly bear population. Information collected over eight years indicates that the grizzly bears have few and infrequent offspring. Using the information gathered thus far, the location of the Moose Mountain to Jumping Pound pipeline was carefully selected, since the bears suffer from high mortality, and the food and cover had already been compromised by the high number of roads, trails and other human activities in the area. The research concluded in November 2001 provides sufficient information to accurately asses the status of the grizzly bear population and habitat. The data will be analyzed and integrated in 2002 into models that reflect the variables affecting grizzly bears and a final report will be published.

  14. The experimental study on biodistribution and radioimmunoimaging of 131I labeled anti-lymphoma Fab antibody in nude mice bearing human B cell lymphoma

    Yang Xiaochun; Zhang Meihua; Shen Junkang; Shen Yongmei; Shi Yizhen; Liu Zengli

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Radioimmunoimaging is still an interesting study in the domain of nuclear medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biodistribution and radioimmunoimaging of 131 I-Fab anti- body in nude mice beating human B cell lymphoma. Methods: The immunoreactivity of Fab antibody to Raji cells was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Fab antibody and CD20 monoclonal antibody (as control) were labeled with 131 I using Iodogen method. 131 I-Fab antibody or 131 I-CD20 was injected into nude mice bearing B cell lymphoma via tail veins. The biodistribution and radioimmunoimaging results were obtained at 2, 4, 8 and 24 h postinjection, respectively. Results: The results of immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry indicated that both Fab antibody and 131 I-Fab antibody could bind strongly with membrane antigens on Raji cells, and the binding rate reached above 87%. Clear tumor image was obtained at 8 h after injection with 131 I-Fab and elimination was observed at 24 h postinjection. The clear tumor image for 131 I-CD20 antibody was obtained at 24 h post injection. The biodistribution in vivo showed that the percentage activities of injection dose per gram of tumor (% ID/g) of 131 I-Fab group at 2, 4, 8 h postinjection were higher than that of 131 I-CD20 antibody [(1.37±0.28), (1.84±0.13), (2.21±0.15)% ID/g vs (0.33±0.06), (0.62±0.08), (1.46±0.24)% ID/g, respectively; F=52.22, 278.42 and 29.00, all P 131 I-Fad and 131 I-CD20 groups at 2, 4, 8 and 24 h were [(0.22±0.03)-(5.44± 0.31)] vs[(0.04±0.01)-(3.10±0.29)], [(0.43±0.11) - (21.01±3.97)] vs [(0.11±0.05) - (7.99±1.81)], [(1.09±0.07) -(20.28±2.77)] vs [(0.48±0.06) - (23.55±1.69)], [(1.12± 0.02) - (10.29±1.78)] vs [(2.32 ± 0.34) - (33.23±6.83)], respectively. Conclusion: 131 I-Fab anti- body has advantages of small molecular weight, excellent targeting characteristics, early imaging and fast elimination, which indicates the potential application value in diagnosing B cell

  15. Ancient DNA reveals differences in behaviour and sociality between brown bears and extinct cave bears.

    Fortes, Gloria G; Grandal-d'Anglade, Aurora; Kolbe, Ben; Fernandes, Daniel; Meleg, Ioana N; García-Vázquez, Ana; Pinto-Llona, Ana C; Constantin, Silviu; de Torres, Trino J; Ortiz, Jose E; Frischauf, Christine; Rabeder, Gernot; Hofreiter, Michael; Barlow, Axel

    2016-10-01

    Ancient DNA studies have revolutionized the study of extinct species and populations, providing insights on phylogeny, phylogeography, admixture and demographic history. However, inferences on behaviour and sociality have been far less frequent. Here, we investigate the complete mitochondrial genomes of extinct Late Pleistocene cave bears and middle Holocene brown bears that each inhabited multiple geographically proximate caves in northern Spain. In cave bears, we find that, although most caves were occupied simultaneously, each cave almost exclusively contains a unique lineage of closely related haplotypes. This remarkable pattern suggests extreme fidelity to their birth site in cave bears, best described as homing behaviour, and that cave bears formed stable maternal social groups at least for hibernation. In contrast, brown bears do not show any strong association of mitochondrial lineage and cave, suggesting that these two closely related species differed in aspects of their behaviour and sociality. This difference is likely to have contributed to cave bear extinction, which occurred at a time in which competition for caves between bears and humans was likely intense and the ability to rapidly colonize new hibernation sites would have been crucial for the survival of a species so dependent on caves for hibernation as cave bears. Our study demonstrates the potential of ancient DNA to uncover patterns of behaviour and sociality in ancient species and populations, even those that went extinct many tens of thousands of years ago. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Platelet function in brown bear (Ursus arctos compared to man

    Särndahl Eva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on hemostasis and platelet function in brown bear (Ursus arctos is of importance for understanding the physiological, protective changes during hibernation. Objective The study objective was to document platelet activity values in brown bears shortly after leaving the den and compare them to platelet function in healthy humans. Methods Blood was drawn from immobilized wild brown bears 7-10 days after leaving the den in mid April. Blood samples from healthy human adults before and after clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid administration served as control. We analyzed blood samples by standard blood testing and platelet aggregation was quantified after stimulation with various agonists using multiple electrode aggregometry within 3 hours of sampling. Results Blood samples were collected from 6 bears (3 females between 1 and 16 years old and from 10 healthy humans. Results of adenosine diphosphate, aspirin, and thrombin receptor activating peptide tests in bears were all half or less of those in humans. Platelet and white blood cell counts did not differ between species but brown bears had more and smaller red blood cells compared with humans. Conclusion Using three different tests, we conclude that platelet function is lower in brown bears compared to humans. Our findings represent the first descriptive study on platelet function in brown bears and may contribute to explain how bears can endure denning without obvious thrombus building. However, the possibility that our findings reflect test-dependent and not true biological variations in platelet reactivity needs further studies.

  17. Ectopic lymphoid structures support ongoing production of class-switched autoantibodies in rheumatoid synovium.

    Humby, Frances; Bombardieri, Michele; Manzo, Antonio; Kelly, Stephen; Blades, Mark C; Kirkham, Bruce; Spencer, Jo; Pitzalis, Costantino

    2009-01-13

    Follicular structures resembling germinal centres (GCs) that are characterized by follicular dendritic cell (FDC) networks have long been recognized in chronically inflamed tissues in autoimmune diseases, including the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, it is debated whether these ectopic structures promote autoimmunity and chronic inflammation driving the production of pathogenic autoantibodies. Anti-citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies (ACPA) are highly specific markers of RA, predict a poor prognosis, and have been suggested to be pathogenic. Therefore, the main study objectives were to determine whether ectopic lymphoid structures in RA synovium: (i) express activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), the enzyme required for somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination (CSR) of Ig genes; (ii) support ongoing CSR and ACPA production; and (iii) remain functional in a RA/severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) chimera model devoid of new immune cell influx into the synovium. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and quantitative Taqman real-time PCR (QT-PCR) in synovial tissue from 55 patients with RA, we demonstrated that FDC+ structures invariably expressed AID with a distribution resembling secondary lymphoid organs. Further, AID+/CD21+ follicular structures were surrounded by ACPA+/CD138+ plasma cells, as demonstrated by immune reactivity to citrullinated fibrinogen. Moreover, we identified a novel subset of synovial AID+/CD20+ B cells outside GCs resembling interfollicular large B cells. In order to gain direct functional evidence that AID+ structures support CSR and in situ manufacturing of class-switched ACPA, 34 SCID mice were transplanted with RA synovium and humanely killed at 4 wk for harvesting of transplants and sera. Persistent expression of AID and Igamma-Cmu circular transcripts (identifying ongoing IgM-IgG class-switching) was observed in synovial grafts expressing FDCs/CD21L. Furthermore, synovial mRNA levels of AID were

  18. Genomic sequencing of Pleistocene cave bears

    Noonan, James P.; Hofreiter, Michael; Smith, Doug; Priest, JamesR.; Rohland, Nadin; Rabeder, Gernot; Krause, Johannes; Detter, J. Chris; Paabo, Svante; Rubin, Edward M.

    2005-04-01

    Despite the information content of genomic DNA, ancient DNA studies to date have largely been limited to amplification of mitochondrial DNA due to technical hurdles such as contamination and degradation of ancient DNAs. In this study, we describe two metagenomic libraries constructed using unamplified DNA extracted from the bones of two 40,000-year-old extinct cave bears. Analysis of {approx}1 Mb of sequence from each library showed that, despite significant microbial contamination, 5.8 percent and 1.1 percent of clones in the libraries contain cave bear inserts, yielding 26,861 bp of cave bear genome sequence. Alignment of this sequence to the dog genome, the closest sequenced genome to cave bear in terms of evolutionary distance, revealed roughly the expected ratio of cave bear exons, repeats and conserved noncoding sequences. Only 0.04 percent of all clones sequenced were derived from contamination with modern human DNA. Comparison of cave bear with orthologous sequences from several modern bear species revealed the evolutionary relationship of these lineages. Using the metagenomic approach described here, we have recovered substantial quantities of mammalian genomic sequence more than twice as old as any previously reported, establishing the feasibility of ancient DNA genomic sequencing programs.

  19. The plant lectin wheat germ agglutinin inhibits the binding of pemphigus foliaceus autoantibodies to desmoglein 1 in a majority of patients and prevents pathomechanisms of pemphigus foliaceus in vitro and in vivo.

    Ortiz-Urda, Susana; Elbe-Bürger, Adelheid; Smolle, Josef; Marquart, Yvonne; Chudnovsky, Yakov; Ridky, Todd W; Bernstein, Pamela; Wolff, Klaus; Rappersberger, Klemens

    2003-12-01

    Pemphigus foliaceus (PF) is a life-threatening autoimmune blistering skin disease caused by pathogenic IgG autoantibodies against desmoglein 1 (dg1), a desmosomal cadherin-type adhesion glycoprotein. Using lectins and glycosidases, we have shown that dg1 displays an N-glycosylation pattern of the complex triantennary type. We have found that lectins and glycosidases interfere with N-bound sugar residues on the amino-terminal ectodomain of dg1 and completely abolish, in vitro, the antigenicity of dg1 in most of the patients' sera. Moreover, in an ex vivo model using punch biopsies from normal human skin, we demonstrate that preincubation of the epidermis in wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) prevents PF autoantibody binding, acantholysis, and subcorneal blistering. In addition, we show that topical treatment with WGA inhibits PF autoantibody binding to keratinocytes in both newborn BALB/c mice and in organotypic human epidermis grafted onto the back of SCID mice. The epidermis of these pretreated animals displays a regular morphology, whereas control animals develop the immunopathologic phenotype of PF. These findings suggest that WGA may interfere with autoantibody binding to dg1, preventing experimental PF without affecting the adhesive function of dg1. Our observations may provide a new approach to the therapy of PF.

  20. Determination of autoantibodies to annexin XI in systemic autoimmune diseases

    Jorgensen, C S; Levantino, G; Houen, Gunnar

    2000-01-01

    Annexin XI, a calcyclin-associated protein, has been shown to be identical to a 56,000 Da antigen recognized by antibodies found in sera from patients suffering from systemic autoimmune diseases. In this work hexahistidine-tagged recombinant annexin XI (His6- rAnn XI) was used as antigen in ELISA...... experiments for determination of autoantibodies to annexin XI in sera of patients with systemic rheumatic autoimmune diseases. Immunoblotting with HeLa cell extract and with His6-rAnn XI as antigen was used for confirmation of positive ELISA results. We found eleven anti-annexin XI positive sera (3.9%) out...... of 282 sera from patients with systemic rheumatic diseases. The highest number of annexin XI positive sera were found in primary antiphospholipid syndrome (3/17), and in subacute lupus erythematosus (1/6), while lower frequencies of positive sera were found in patients with systemic sclerosis (5...

  1. Autoantibody Profiling in Lupus Patients using Synthetic Nucleic Acids

    Klecka, Martin; Thybo, Christina; Macaubas, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    specificity and reproducibility. Applying the ELISA tests to serological studies of pediatric and adult SLE, we identified novel clinical correlations. We also observed preferential recognition of a specific synthetic antigen by antibodies in SLE sera. We determined the probable basis for this finding using...... computational analyses, providing valuable structural information for future development of DNA antigens. Synthetic nucleic acid molecules offer the opportunity to standardize assays and to dissect antibody-antigen interactions.......Autoantibodies to nuclear components of cells (antinuclear antibodies, ANA), including DNA (a-DNA), are widely used in the diagnosis and subtyping of certain autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Despite clinical use over decades, precise, reproducible measurement of a...

  2. Effects of exotic species on Yellowstone's grizzly bears

    Reinhart, Daniel P.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Mattson, D.J.; Gunther, Kerry A.

    2001-01-01

    Humans have affected grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) by direct mortality, competition for space and resources, and introduction of exotic species. Exotic organisms that have affected grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Area include common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), nonnative clovers (Trifolium spp.), domesticated livestock, bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus), lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola). Some bears consume substantial amounts of dandelion and clover. However, these exotic foods provide little digested energy compared to higher-quality bear foods. Domestic livestock are of greater energetic value, but use of this food by bears often leads to conflicts with humans and subsequent increases in bear mortality. Lake trout, blister rust, and brucellosis diminish grizzly bears foods. Lake trout prey on native cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) in Yellowstone Lake; white pine blister rust has the potential to destroy native whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) stands; and management response to bovine brucellosis, a disease found in the Yellowstone bison (Bison bison) and elk (Cervus elaphus), could reduce populations of these 2 species. Exotic species will likely cause more harm than good for Yellowstone grizzly bears. Managers have few options to mitigate or contain the impacts of exotics on Yellowstone's grizzly bears. Moreover, their potential negative impacts have only begun to unfold. Exotic species may lead to the loss of substantial highquality grizzly bear foods, including much of the bison, trout, and pine seeds that Yellowstone grizzly bears currently depend upon.

  3. Ultra-precision bearings

    Wardle, F

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-precision bearings can achieve extreme accuracy of rotation, making them ideal for use in numerous applications across a variety of fields, including hard disk drives, roundness measuring machines and optical scanners. Ultraprecision Bearings provides a detailed review of the different types of bearing and their properties, as well as an analysis of the factors that influence motion error, stiffness and damping. Following an introduction to basic principles of motion error, each chapter of the book is then devoted to the basic principles and properties of a specific type of bearin

  4. Musculoskeletal manifestations and autoantibodies in children and adolescents with leprosy

    Luciana Neder

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate musculoskeletal involvement and autoantibodies in pediatric leprosy patients. Methods: 50 leprosy patients and 47 healthy children and adolescents were assessed according to musculoskeletal manifestations (arthralgia, arthritis, and myalgia, musculoskeletal pain syndromes (juvenile fibromyalgia, benign joint hypermobility syndrome, myofascial syndrome, and tendinitis, and a panel of autoantibodies and cryoglobulins. Health assessment scores and treatment were performed in leprosy patients. Results: At least one musculoskeletal manifestation was observed in 14% of leprosy patients and in none of the controls. Five leprosy patients had asymmetric polyarthritis of small hands joints. Nerve function impairment was observed in 22% of leprosy patients, type 1 leprosy reaction in 18%, and silent neuropathy in 16%. None of the patients and controls presented musculoskeletal pain syndromes, and the frequencies of all antibodies and cyoglobulins were similar in both groups (p > 0.05. Further analysis of leprosy patients demonstrated that the frequencies of nerve function impairment, type 1 leprosy reaction, and silent neuropathy were significantly observed in patients with versus without musculoskeletal manifestations (p = 0.0036, p = 0.0001, and p = 0.309, respectively, as well as multibacillary subtypes in leprosy (86% vs. 42%, p = 0.045. The median of physicians' visual analog scale (VAS, patients' VAS, pain VAS, and Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ were significantly higher in leprosy patients with musculoskeletal manifestations (p = 0.0001, p = 0.002, p = 0002, and p = 0.001, respectively. Conclusions: This was the first study to identify musculoskeletal manifestations associated with nerve dysfunction in pediatric leprosy patients. Hansen's disease should be included in the differential diagnosis of asymmetric arthritis, especially in endemic regions.

  5. Pancreatic-specific autoantibodies to glycoprotein 2 mirror disease location and behaviour in younger patients with Crohn’s disease

    Bogdanos Dimitrios P

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycoprotein 2 (GP2 was discovered as the major autoantigen of Crohn’s disease (CD-specific pancreatic autoantibodies (PAB. We investigated anti-GP2 IgA and IgG antibodies as novel serological parameters in CD and assessed their association with distinct disease phenotypes. Methods Anti-GP2 and anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA IgA and IgG were detected by ELISA employing recombinant human GP2 and phosphopeptidomannan, respectively and PAB by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF in 271 sera, 169 with CD and 102 with ulcerative colitis (UC. As healthy controls 160 adult blood donors and 65 children were included. Results Anti-GP2 IgG and/or IgA were more prevalent in CD (51/169, 30.2% than in UC (9/102, 8.9% patients and in controls (9/225, 4% (p  Conclusions Anti-GP2 IgG and IgA, constituting novel CD specific autoantibodies, appear to be associated with distinct disease phenotypes identifying patients at a younger age, with ileocolonic location, and stricturing behaviour with perianal disease.

  6. Autoantibodies to myelin basic protein catalyze site-specific degradation of their antigen.

    Ponomarenko, Natalia A; Durova, Oxana M; Vorobiev, Ivan I; Belogurov, Alexey A; Kurkova, Inna N; Petrenko, Alexander G; Telegin, Georgy B; Suchkov, Sergey V; Kiselev, Sergey L; Lagarkova, Maria A; Govorun, Vadim M; Serebryakova, Marina V; Avalle, Bérangère; Tornatore, Pete; Karavanov, Alexander; Morse, Herbert C; Thomas, Daniel; Friboulet, Alain; Gabibov, Alexander G

    2006-01-10

    Autoantibody-mediated tissue destruction is among the main features of organ-specific autoimmunity. This report describes "an antibody enzyme" (abzyme) contribution to the site-specific degradation of a neural antigen. We detected proteolytic activity toward myelin basic protein (MBP) in the fraction of antibodies purified from the sera of humans with multiple sclerosis (MS) and mice with induced experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Chromatography and zymography data demonstrated that the proteolytic activity of this preparation was exclusively associated with the antibodies. No activity was found in the IgG fraction of healthy donors. The human and murine abzymes efficiently cleaved MBP but not other protein substrates tested. The sites of MBP cleavage determined by mass spectrometry were localized within immunodominant regions of MBP. The abzymes could also cleave recombinant substrates containing encephalytogenic MBP(85-101) peptide. An established MS therapeutic Copaxone appeared to be a specific abzyme inhibitor. Thus, the discovered epitope-specific antibody-mediated degradation of MBP suggests a mechanistic explanation of the slow development of neurodegeneration associated with MS.

  7. Report on the remedial investigation of Bear Creek Valley at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 5: Appendix F - Baseline human health risk assessment report

    1996-01-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Report characterizes the nature and extent of contamination, evaluates the fate and transport of contaminants, and assesses risk to human health and the environment resulting from waste disposal and other US Department of Energy (DOE) operations in Bear Creek Valley (BCV). BCV, which is located within the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes arising from operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The primary waste units discussed in this RI Report are the S-3 Site, Oil Landfarm (OLF), Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), Sanitary Landfill 1 (SL 1), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG). These waste units, plus the contaminated media resulting from environmental transport of the wastes from these units, are the subject of this RI. This BCV RI Report represents the first major step in the decision-making process for the BCV watershed. The RI results, in concert with the follow-on FS will form the basis for the Proposed Plan and Record of Decision for all BCV sites. This comprehensive decision document process will meet the objectives of the watershed approach for BCV. Appendix F documents potential risks and provides information necessary for making remediation decisions. A quantitative analysis of the inorganic, organic, and radiological site-related contaminants found in various media is used to characterize the potential risks to human health associated with exposure to these contaminants

  8. Report on the remedial investigation of Bear Creek Valley at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 5: Appendix F -- Baseline human health risk assessment report

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Report characterizes the nature and extent of contamination, evaluates the fate and transport of contaminants, and assesses risk to human health and the environment resulting from waste disposal and other US Department of Energy (DOE) operations in Bear Creek Valley (BCV). BCV, which is located within the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes arising from operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The primary waste units discussed in this RI Report are the S-3 Site, Oil Landfarm (OLF), Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), Sanitary Landfill 1 (SL 1), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG). These waste units, plus the contaminated media resulting from environmental transport of the wastes from these units, are the subject of this RI. This BCV RI Report represents the first major step in the decision-making process for the BCV watershed. The RI results, in concert with the follow-on FS will form the basis for the Proposed Plan and Record of Decision for all BCV sites. This comprehensive decision document process will meet the objectives of the watershed approach for BCV. Appendix F documents potential risks and provides information necessary for making remediation decisions. A quantitative analysis of the inorganic, organic, and radiological site-related contaminants found in various media is used to characterize the potential risks to human health associated with exposure to these contaminants.

  9. Roller bearing geometry design

    Savage, M.; Pinkston, B. H. W.

    1976-01-01

    A theory of kinematic stabilization of rolling cylinders is extended and applied to the design of cylindrical roller bearings. The kinematic stabilization mechanism puts a reverse skew into the rolling elements by changing the roller taper. Twelve basic bearing modification designs are identified amd modeled. Four have single transverse convex curvature in their rollers while eight have rollers which have compound transverse curvature made up of a central cylindrical band surrounded by symmetric bands with slope and transverse curvature. The bearing designs are modeled for restoring torque per unit axial displacement, contact stress capacity, and contact area including dynamic loading, misalignment sensitivity and roller proportion. Design programs are available which size the single transverse curvature roller designs for a series of roller slopes and load separations and which design the compound roller bearings for a series of slopes and transverse radii of curvature. The compound rollers are proportioned to have equal contact stresses and minimum size. Design examples are also given.

  10. DW_BEAR

    Department of Homeland Security — Subset of BEAR (Bi-Weekly Examination Analysis and Reporting) data used for financial audit remediation reporting within the Coast Guard Business Intelligence (CGBI)...

  11. Simultaneous occurrence of fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia and neonatal neutropenia due to maternal neutrophilic autoantibodies

    Taaning, Ellen; Jensen, Lise; Varming, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Foetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) and neonatal neutropenia caused by maternal autoantibodies against neutrophils are rare disorders. We describe a newborn with severe thrombocytopenia and intracerebral bleeding caused by maternal anti-HPA-3a alloantibodies and mild neutropenia...

  12. Anti-C1q autoantibodies in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

    Yoshikura, Nobuaki; Kimura, Akio; Hayashi, Yuichi; Inuzuka, Takashi

    2017-09-15

    We examined anti-complement C1q (C1q) autoantibody levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). We analyzed the correlations between anti-C1q autoantibody levels and the clinical and other CSF characteristics of NMOSD. Serum and CSF anti-C1q autoantibody levels increased during the acute phase of NMOSD, reverting to the same levels as controls during remission. CSF anti-C1q autoantibody levels during the acute phase correlated with several markers reflecting disease severity, Expanded Disability Status Scale worsening, spinal cord lesion length in cases with myelitis, CSF protein and interleukin-6 levels, and CSF/serum albumin ratios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Specific removal of autoantibodies by extracorporeal immunoadsorption ameliorates experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis.

    Lazaridis, Konstantinos; Dalianoudis, Ioannis; Baltatzidi, Vasiliki; Tzartos, Socrates J

    2017-11-15

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is caused by autoantibodies, the majority of which target the muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR). Plasmapheresis and IgG-immunoadsorption are useful therapy options, but are highly non-specific. Antigen-specific immunoadsorption would remove only the pathogenic autoantibodies, reducing the possibility of side effects while maximizing the benefit. We have extensively characterized such adsorbents, but in vivo studies are missing. We used rats with experimental autoimmune MG to perform antigen-specific immunoadsorptions over three weeks, regularly monitoring symptoms and autoantibody titers. Immunoadsorption was effective, resulting in a marked autoantibody titer decrease while the immunoadsorbed, but not the mock-treated, animals showed a dramatic symptom improvement. Overall, the procedure was found to be efficient, suggesting the subsequent initiation of clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Rolling bearing analysis

    Harris, Tedric A

    2001-01-01

    One of the most well-known experts in the field brings cutting-edge research to practitioners in the new edition of this important reference. Covers the improved mathematical calculations for rolling bearing endurance developed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Society of Lubrication and Tribology Engineers. Updated with new material on Condition-Based Maintenance, new testing methods, and new bearing materials.

  15. Gear bearing drive

    Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor); Weinberg, Brian (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  16. Does despotic behavior or food search explain the occurrence of problem brown bears in Europe?

    Elfström, Marcus; Zedrosser, Andreas; Jerina, Klemen; Støen, Ole-Gunnar; Kindberg, Jonas; Budic, Lara; Jonozovič, Marko; Swenson, Jon E

    2014-01-01

    Bears foraging near human developments are often presumed to be responding to food shortage, but this explanation ignores social factors, in particular despotism in bears. We analyzed the age distribution and body condition index (BCI) of shot brown bears in relation to densities of bears and people, and whether the shot bears were killed by managers (i.e., problem bears; n = 149), in self-defense (n = 51), or were hunter-killed nonproblem bears (n = 1,896) during 1990–2010. We compared patterns between areas with (Slovenia) and without supplemental feeding (Sweden) of bears relative to 2 hypotheses. The food-search/food-competition hypothesis predicts that problem bears should have a higher BCI (e.g., exploiting easily accessible and/or nutritious human-derived foods) or lower BCI (e.g., because of food shortage) than nonproblem bears, that BCI and human density should have a positive correlation, and problem bear occurrence and seasonal mean BCI of nonproblem bears should have a negative correlation (i.e., more problem bears during years of low food availability). Food competition among bears additionally predicts an inverse relationship between BCI and bear density. The safety-search/naivety hypothesis (i.e., avoiding other bears or lack of human experience) predicts no relationship between BCI and human density, provided no dietary differences due to spatiotemporal habitat use among bears, no relationship between problem bear occurrence and seasonal mean BCI of nonproblem bears, and does not necessarily predict a difference between BCI for problem/nonproblem bears. If food competition or predation avoidance explained bear occurrence near settlements, we predicted younger problem than nonproblem bears and a negative correlation between age and human density. However, if only food search explained bear occurrence near settlements, we predicted no relation between age and problem or nonproblem bear status, or between age and human density. We found

  17. Autoantibodies in breast cancer sera are not epiphenomena and may participate in carcinogenesis

    Fernández Madrid, Félix; Maroun, Marie-Claire; Olivero, Ofelia A; Long, Michael; Stark, Azadeh; Grossman, Lawrence I; Binder, Walter; Dong, Jingsheng; Burke, Matthew; Nathanson, S David; Zarbo, Richard; Chitale, Dhananjay; Zeballos-Chávez, Rocío; Peebles, Carol

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate that autoantibodies in breast cancer sera are not epiphenomena, and exhibit unique immunologic features resembling the rheumatic autoimmune diseases. We performed a comprehensive study of autoantibodies on a collection of sera from women with breast cancer or benign breast disease, undergoing annual screening mammography. All women in this study had suspicious mammography assessment and underwent a breast biopsy. We used indirect immunofluorescence, the crithidia assay for anti-dsDNA antibodies, and multiple ELISAs for extractable nuclear antigens. Autoantibodies were detected in virtually all patients with breast cancer, predominantly of the IgG1 and IgG3 isotypes. The profile detected in breast cancer sera showed distinctive features, such as antibodies targeting mitochondria, centrosomes, centromeres, nucleoli, cytoskeleton, and multiple nuclear dots. The majority of sera showing anti-mitochondrial antibodies did not react with the M2 component of pyruvate dehydrogenase, characteristic of primary biliary cirrhosis. Anti-centromere antibodies were mainly anti-CENP-B. ELISAs for extractable nuclear antigens and the assays for dsDNA were negative. The distinctive autoantibody profile detected in BC sera is the expression of tumor immunogenicity. Although some of these features resemble those in the rheumatic autoimmune diseases and primary biliary cirrhosis, the data suggest the involvement of an entirely different set of epithelial antigens in breast cancer. High titer autoantibodies targeting centrosomes, centromeres, and mitochondria were detected in a small group of healthy women with suspicious mammography assessment and no cancer by biopsy; this suggests that the process triggering autoantibody formation starts in the pre-malignant phase and that future studies using validated autoantibody panels may allow detection of breast cancer risk in asymptomatic women. Autoantibodies developing in breast cancer are not

  18. Conflict bear translocation: investigating population genetics and fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Mukesh; Sharma, Lalit Kumar; Charoo, Samina Amin; Sathyakumar, Sambandam

    2015-01-01

    The Asiatic black bear population in Dachigam landscape, Jammu and Kashmir is well recognized as one of the highest density bear populations in India. Increasing incidences of bear-human interactions and the resultant retaliatory killings by locals have become a serious threat to the survivorship of black bears in the Dachigam landscape. The Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu and Kashmir has been translocating bears involved in conflicts, henceforth 'conflict bears' from different sites in Dachigam landscape to Dachigam National Park as a flagship activity to mitigate conflicts. We undertook this study to investigate the population genetics and the fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park. We identified 109 unique genotypes in an area of ca. 650 km2 and observed bear population under panmixia that showed sound genetic variability. Molecular tracking of translocated bears revealed that mostly bears (7 out of 11 bears) returned to their capture sites, possibly due to homing instincts or habituation to the high quality food available in agricultural croplands and orchards, while only four bears remained in Dachigam National Park after translocation. Results indicated that translocation success was most likely to be season dependent as bears translocated during spring and late autumn returned to their capture sites, perhaps due to the scarcity of food inside Dachigam National Park while bears translocated in summer remained in Dachigam National Park due to availability of surplus food resources. Thus, the current management practices of translocating conflict bears, without taking into account spatio-temporal variability of food resources in Dachigam landscape seemed to be ineffective in mitigating conflicts on a long-term basis. However, the study highlighted the importance of molecular tracking of bears to understand their movement patterns and socio-biology in tough terrains like Dachigam landscape.

  19. Conflict bear translocation: investigating population genetics and fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Mukesh

    Full Text Available The Asiatic black bear population in Dachigam landscape, Jammu and Kashmir is well recognized as one of the highest density bear populations in India. Increasing incidences of bear-human interactions and the resultant retaliatory killings by locals have become a serious threat to the survivorship of black bears in the Dachigam landscape. The Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu and Kashmir has been translocating bears involved in conflicts, henceforth 'conflict bears' from different sites in Dachigam landscape to Dachigam National Park as a flagship activity to mitigate conflicts. We undertook this study to investigate the population genetics and the fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park. We identified 109 unique genotypes in an area of ca. 650 km2 and observed bear population under panmixia that showed sound genetic variability. Molecular tracking of translocated bears revealed that mostly bears (7 out of 11 bears returned to their capture sites, possibly due to homing instincts or habituation to the high quality food available in agricultural croplands and orchards, while only four bears remained in Dachigam National Park after translocation. Results indicated that translocation success was most likely to be season dependent as bears translocated during spring and late autumn returned to their capture sites, perhaps due to the scarcity of food inside Dachigam National Park while bears translocated in summer remained in Dachigam National Park due to availability of surplus food resources. Thus, the current management practices of translocating conflict bears, without taking into account spatio-temporal variability of food resources in Dachigam landscape seemed to be ineffective in mitigating conflicts on a long-term basis. However, the study highlighted the importance of molecular tracking of bears to understand their movement patterns and socio-biology in tough terrains like Dachigam landscape.

  20. Autoantibodies in infectious mononucleosis have specificity for the glycine-alanine repeating region of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen

    1987-01-01

    Viruses have been postulated to be involved in the induction of autoantibodies by: autoimmunization with tissue proteins released by virally induced tissue damage; immunization with virally encoded antigens bearing molecular similarities to normal tissue proteins; or nonspecific (polyclonal) B cell stimulation by the infection. Infectious mononucleosis (IM) is an experiment of nature that provides the opportunity for examining these possibilities. We show here that IgM antibodies produced in this disease react with at least nine normal tissue proteins, in addition to the virally encoded Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA-1). The antibodies are generated to configurations in the glycine-alanine repeat region of EBNA-1 and are crossreactive with the normal tissue proteins through similar configurations, as demonstrated by the effectiveness of a synthetic glycine-alanine peptide in inhibiting the reactions. The antibodies are absent in preillness sera and gradually disappear over a period of months after illness, being replaced by IgG anti-EBNA-1 antibodies that do not crossreact with the normal tissue proteins but that are still inhibited by the glycine-alanine peptide. These findings are most easily explained by either a molecular mimicry model of IgM autoantibody production or by the polyclonal activation of a germline gene for a crossreactive antibody. It also indicates a selection of highly specific, non-crossreactive anti-EBNA-1 antibodies during IgM to IgG isotype switching. PMID:2435830

  1. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  2. Generation of Antigen Microarrays to Screen for Autoantibodies in Heart Failure and Heart Transplantation.

    Andrzej Chruscinski

    Full Text Available Autoantibodies directed against endogenous proteins including contractile proteins and endothelial antigens are frequently detected in patients with heart failure and after heart transplantation. There is evidence that these autoantibodies contribute to cardiac dysfunction and correlate with clinical outcomes. Currently, autoantibodies are detected in patient sera using individual ELISA assays (one for each antigen. Thus, screening for many individual autoantibodies is laborious and consumes a large amount of patient sample. To better capture the broad-scale antibody reactivities that occur in heart failure and post-transplant, we developed a custom antigen microarray technique that can simultaneously measure IgM and IgG reactivities against 64 unique antigens using just five microliters of patient serum. We first demonstrated that our antigen microarray technique displayed enhanced sensitivity to detect autoantibodies compared to the traditional ELISA method. We then piloted this technique using two sets of samples that were obtained at our institution. In the first retrospective study, we profiled pre-transplant sera from 24 heart failure patients who subsequently received heart transplants. We identified 8 antibody reactivities that were higher in patients who developed cellular rejection (2 or more episodes of grade 2R rejection in first year after transplant as defined by revised criteria from the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation compared with those who did have not have rejection episodes. In a second retrospective study with 31 patients, we identified 7 IgM reactivities that were higher in heart transplant recipients who developed antibody-mediated rejection (AMR compared with control recipients, and in time course studies, these reactivities appeared prior to overt graft dysfunction. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the autoantibody microarray technique outperforms traditional ELISAs as it uses less patient

  3. Thyroid Autoantibodies and the Clinical Presentation of Moyamoya Disease: A Prospective Study.

    Lanterna, Luigi A; Galliani, Silvia; Zangari, Rosalia; Conti, Luciano; Brembilla, Carlo; Gritti, Paolo; Colleoni, Maria Luisa; Bernucci, Claudio

    2018-05-01

    Moyamoya is a rare cerebrovascular disease characterized by the progressive occlusion of the intracranial carotid artery. Thyroid autoantibodies have been found to be associated with the disease, but their clinical significance has never been studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between thyroid autoantibodies and the clinical presentation of moyamoya. This is a prospective study including 37 patients with moyamoya disease (MMD) or unilateral moyamoya (uMM). Thyroid function and thyroid autoantibodies (e.g., antithyroperoxidase and antithyroglobulin) were investigated. We studied the effect of gender, age, type of moyamoya (uMM versus MMD), and thyroid autoantibodies on the clinical presentation, dichotomized into aggressive (hemorrhage, major stroke, or frequent transient ischemic attack [TIA]) and nonaggressive presentation (headache, rare TIAs, and incidental diagnosis) according to the criteria of the Research Committee on Spontaneous Occlusion of the Circle of Willis. Of the 37 patients included in the study, the autoantibodies were elevated in 9 (24.3%). An aggressive presentation occurred in 21 patients (hemorrhage in 11, major stroke in 9, frequent TIAs in 1). The autoantibodies were elevated in 8 of the 21 patients (38.09%) with an aggressive presentation and in 1 of those presenting with minor symptoms (6.2%). The presence of elevated autoantibodies was the only variable associated with an aggressive presentation in the multivariate logistic analysis (P = .048). When the serum concentration of the thyroid autoantibodies is increased, the patients have a higher risk of an aggressive presentation. Our results support the hypothesis that activation of immune-mediated processes affects the moyamoya physiopathology. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. AUTOANTIBODIES TO GLUTAMIC ACID DECARBOXYLASE AS A PATHOGENETIC MARKER OF TYPE I DIABETES MELLITUS

    N. V. Piven; L. N. Lukhverchyk; A. I. Burakovsky; N. V. Polegenkaya; M. V. Karpovich

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. A new method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (in solid-phase ELISA format) has been developed to determine concentrations of autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase, as well as an evidencebased methodology is proposed for its medical implications, as a quantitative pathogenetic predictive marker of autoimmune diagnostics in type 1 diabetes mellitus. This technique could be implied for serial production of diagnostic reagent kits, aimed for detection of autoantibodies to g...

  5. The Emerging Importance of Non-HLA Autoantibodies in Kidney Transplant Complications

    Cardinal, Héloise; Dieudé, Mélanie; Hébert, Marie-Josée

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies that are specific to organ donor HLA have been involved in the majority of cases of antibody-mediated rejection in solid organ transplant recipients. However, recent data show that production of non-HLA autoantibodies can occur before transplant in the form of natural autoantibodies. In contrast to HLAs, which are constitutively expressed on the cell surface of the allograft endothelium, autoantigens are usually cryptic. Tissue damage associated with ischemia-reperfusion, vascular ...

  6. Two cases of erosive oral lichen planus with autoantibodies to desmoglein 3.

    Muramatsu, Ken; Nishie, Wataru; Natsuga, Ken; Fujita, Yasuyuki; Iwata, Hiroaki; Yamada, Tamaki; Yamashita, Emi; Asaka, Takuya; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the oral mucosa of unknown etiology. Clinically, the erosive type of OLP (erosive OLP) can show features similar to those of pemphigus vulgaris (PV), an autoimmune blistering disorder in which desmoglein (Dsg)3 is targeted. In addition to clinical and histopathological findings, immunological studies, including direct immunofluorescence (IF), indirect IF and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detect autoantibodies to Dsg3, are helpful in differentiating erosive OLP from PV. Here, we show two cases of erosive OLP with autoantibodies to Dsg3. Patient 1 was a 68-year-old woman with chronic erosions of the oral mucosa, in which elevated levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)G autoantibodies to Dsg1 and Dsg3 were detected by ELISA. Patient 2 was an 85-year-old woman with white striae with erosions on the lateral sides of the buccal mucosa with elevated levels of IgG autoantibodies to Dsg3 detected by ELISA. Histopathological findings from both cases showed lichenoid dermatitis, and both direct and indirect IF showed no tissue-bound IgG autoantibodies. From these findings, the diagnosis of erosive OLP was made. Immunological assays revealed both cases to have IgG-directing calcium-independent linear epitopes on Dsg3, which are suggestive of non-pathogenic autoantibodies. In addition, autoantibodies to Dsg3 in patient 2 reacted with a prosequence-possessing precursor form of Dsg3 but not with the mature form of the molecule. The present study suggests that erosive OLP may develop anti-Dsg3 autoantibodies, which should be carefully assessed. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  7. Autoantibodies directed to centromere protein F in a patient with BRCA1 gene mutation

    Moghaddas, Fiona; Joshua, Fredrick; Taylor, Roberta; Fritzler, Marvin J.; Toh, Ban Hock

    2016-01-01

    Background Autoantibodies directed to centromere protein F were first reported in 1993 and their association with malignancy has been well documented. Case We present the case of a 48-year-old Caucasian female with a BRCA1 gene mutation associated with bilateral breast cancer. Antinuclear autoantibody immunofluorescence performed for workup of possible inflammatory arthropathy showed a high titre cell cycle related nuclear speckled pattern, with subsequent confirmation by addressable laser be...

  8. Effect of iodination site on binding of radiolabeled ligand by insulin antibodies and insulin autoantibodies

    Diaz, J.L.; Wilkin, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Four human insulins and four porcine insulins, each monoiodinated to the same specific activity at one of the four tyrosine residues (A14, A19, B16, B26) and purified by reversed-phase liquid chromatography, were tested in a radiobinding assay against a panel of insulin-antibody (IA)-positive sera from 10 insulin-treated diabetics and insulin-autoantibody-positive (IAA) sera from 10 nondiabetics. Of the 10 IAA-positive sera, five were fully cross reactive with both insulin species, and five were specific for human insulin. The rank order of binding of sera with the four ligands from each species was random for IA (mean rank values of 1.9 for A14, 2.0 for A19, 2.5 for B16, and 3.6 for B26 from a possible ranking range of 1 to 4), but more consistent for non-human-insulin-specific IAA (mean rank values 1.3 for A14, 3.8 for A19, 1.7 for B16, and 3.2 for B26 for labeled human insulins; 1.2 for A14, 4.0 for A19, 1.8 for B16, and 3.0 for B26 for labeled porcine insulins). The rank order of binding was virtually uniform for human-insulin-specific IAA (mean values 1.2 for A14, 3.0 for A19, 1.8 for B16, and 4.0 for B26). The influence of iodination site on the binding of labeled insulin appears to be dependent on the proximity of the labeled tyrosine to the antibody binding site and the clonal diversity, or restriction, of insulin-binding antibodies in the test serum. When IA and IAA are measured, the implications of this study regarding the choice of assay ligand may be important

  9. Hello from the Other Side: How Autoantibodies Circumvent the Blood–Brain Barrier in Autoimmune Encephalitis

    Tyler Cutforth

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies against neuronal receptors and synaptic proteins are associated with autoimmune encephalitides (AE that produce movement and psychiatric disorders. In order to exert their pathological effects on neural circuits, autoantibodies against central nervous system (CNS targets must gain access to the brain and spinal cord by crossing the blood–brain barrier (BBB, a tightly regulated gateway formed by endothelial cells lining CNS blood vessels. To date, the pathogenic mechanisms that underlie autoantibody-triggered encephalitic syndromes are poorly understood, and how autoantibodies breach the barrier remains obscure for almost all AE syndromes. The relative importance of cellular versus humoral immune mechanisms for disease pathogenesis also remains largely unexplored. Here, we review the proposed triggers for various autoimmune encephalopathies and their animal models, as well as basic structural features of the BBB and how they differ among various CNS regions, a feature that likely underlies some regional aspects of autoimmune encephalitis pathogenesis. We then discuss the routes that antibodies and immune cells employ to enter the CNS and their implications for AE. Finally, we explore future therapeutic strategies that may either preserve or restore barrier function and thereby limit immune cell and autoantibody infiltration into the CNS. Recent mechanistic insights into CNS autoantibody entry indicate promising future directions for therapeutic intervention beyond current, short-lived therapies that eliminate circulating autoantibodies.

  10. Hello from the Other Side: How Autoantibodies Circumvent the Blood-Brain Barrier in Autoimmune Encephalitis.

    Platt, Maryann P; Agalliu, Dritan; Cutforth, Tyler

    2017-01-01

    Antibodies against neuronal receptors and synaptic proteins are associated with autoimmune encephalitides (AE) that produce movement and psychiatric disorders. In order to exert their pathological effects on neural circuits, autoantibodies against central nervous system (CNS) targets must gain access to the brain and spinal cord by crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a tightly regulated gateway formed by endothelial cells lining CNS blood vessels. To date, the pathogenic mechanisms that underlie autoantibody-triggered encephalitic syndromes are poorly understood, and how autoantibodies breach the barrier remains obscure for almost all AE syndromes. The relative importance of cellular versus humoral immune mechanisms for disease pathogenesis also remains largely unexplored. Here, we review the proposed triggers for various autoimmune encephalopathies and their animal models, as well as basic structural features of the BBB and how they differ among various CNS regions, a feature that likely underlies some regional aspects of autoimmune encephalitis pathogenesis. We then discuss the routes that antibodies and immune cells employ to enter the CNS and their implications for AE. Finally, we explore future therapeutic strategies that may either preserve or restore barrier function and thereby limit immune cell and autoantibody infiltration into the CNS. Recent mechanistic insights into CNS autoantibody entry indicate promising future directions for therapeutic intervention beyond current, short-lived therapies that eliminate circulating autoantibodies.

  11. Circulating autoantibodies to phosphorylated α-enolase are a hallmark of pancreatic cancer.

    Tomaino, Barbara; Cappello, Paola; Capello, Michela; Fredolini, Claudia; Sperduti, Isabella; Migliorini, Paola; Salacone, Paola; Novarino, Anna; Giacobino, Alice; Ciuffreda, Libero; Alessio, Massimo; Nisticò, Paola; Scarpa, Aldo; Pederzoli, Paolo; Zhou, Weidong; Petricoin Iii, Emanuel F; Liotta, Lance A; Giovarelli, Mirella; Milella, Michele; Novelli, Francesco

    2011-01-07

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a dismal prognosis and no diagnostic markers have, as of yet, been defined. In PDAC patients, α-enolase (ENOA) is up-regulated and elicits the production of autoantibodies. Here, we analyzed the autoantibody response to post-translational modifications of ENOA in PDAC patients. ENOA isolated from PDAC tissues and cell lines was characterized by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) Western blot (WB), revealing the expression of six different isoforms (named ENOA1,2,3,4,5,6) whereas only 4 isoforms (ENOA3,4,5,6) were detectable in normal tissues. As assessed by 2-DE WB, 62% of PDAC patients produced autoantibodies to the two more acidic isoforms (ENOA1,2) as opposed to only 4% of controls. Mass spectrometry showed that ENOA1,2 isoforms were phosphorylated on serine 419. ROC analysis demonstrated that autoantibodies to ENOA1,2 usefully complement the diagnostic performance of serum CA19.9 levels, achieving approximately 95% diagnostic accuracy in both advanced and resectable PDAC. Moreover, the presence of autoantibodies against ENOA1,2 correlated with a significantly better clinical outcome in advanced patients treated with standard chemotherapy. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that ENOA phosphorylation is associated with PDAC and induces specific autoantibody production in PDAC patients that may have diagnostic value.

  12. Climate Drives Polar Bear Origins

    In their provocative analysis of northern bears (“Nuclear genomic sequences reveal that polar bears are an old and distinct bear lineage,” Reports, 20 April, p. 344), F. Hailer et al. use independent nuclear loci to show that polar bears originated during the middle Pleistocene, rather than during t...

  13. Watchable Wildlife: The Black Bear

    Lynn L. Rogers

    1992-01-01

    Black bears are the bears people most often encounter. Black bears live in forests over much of North America, unlike grizzlies that live only in Alaska, northern and western Canada, and the northern Rocky Mountains. This brochure presents the latest information on black bear life and how this species responds to an ever-increasing number of campers, hikers, and...

  14. Household Portfolios and Risk Bearing over Age and Time

    Alessandro Bucciol; Raffaele Miniaci

    2011-01-01

    We exploit the US Survey of Consumer Finances from 1998 to 2007 to study households’ portfolio risk bearing. We compare four alternative measures of risk, two based on a financial portfolio and two based on a broader portfolio also including – as illiquid assets – human capital, real estate, business wealth and related debt. The measures provide a different ranking of household risk bearing, but they consistently show that risk bearing fell after 2001, and it positively correlates with wealth...

  15. Spatial Distribution of Black Bear Incident Reports in Michigan.

    McFadden-Hiller, Jamie E; Beyer, Dean E; Belant, Jerrold L

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between humans and carnivores have existed for centuries due to competition for food and space. American black bears are increasing in abundance and populations are expanding geographically in many portions of its range, including areas that are also increasing in human density, often resulting in associated increases in human-bear conflict (hereafter, bear incidents). We used public reports of bear incidents in Michigan, USA, from 2003-2011 to assess the relative contributions of ecological and anthropogenic variables in explaining the spatial distribution of bear incidents and estimated the potential risk of bear incidents. We used weighted Normalized Difference Vegetation Index mean as an index of primary productivity, region (i.e., Upper Peninsula or Lower Peninsula), primary and secondary road densities, and percentage land cover type within 6.5-km2 circular buffers around bear incidents and random points. We developed 22 a priori models and used generalized linear models and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) to rank models. The global model was the best compromise between model complexity and model fit (w = 0.99), with a ΔAIC 8.99 units from the second best performing model. We found that as deciduous forest cover increased, the probability of bear incident occurrence increased. Among the measured anthropogenic variables, cultivated crops and primary roads were the most important in our AIC-best model and were both positively related to the probability of bear incident occurrence. The spatial distribution of relative bear incident risk varied markedly throughout Michigan. Forest cover fragmented with agriculture and other anthropogenic activities presents an environment that likely facilitates bear incidents. Our map can help wildlife managers identify areas of bear incident occurrence, which in turn can be used to help develop strategies aimed at reducing incidents. Researchers and wildlife managers can use similar mapping techniques to

  16. Spatial Distribution of Black Bear Incident Reports in Michigan.

    Jamie E McFadden-Hiller

    Full Text Available Interactions between humans and carnivores have existed for centuries due to competition for food and space. American black bears are increasing in abundance and populations are expanding geographically in many portions of its range, including areas that are also increasing in human density, often resulting in associated increases in human-bear conflict (hereafter, bear incidents. We used public reports of bear incidents in Michigan, USA, from 2003-2011 to assess the relative contributions of ecological and anthropogenic variables in explaining the spatial distribution of bear incidents and estimated the potential risk of bear incidents. We used weighted Normalized Difference Vegetation Index mean as an index of primary productivity, region (i.e., Upper Peninsula or Lower Peninsula, primary and secondary road densities, and percentage land cover type within 6.5-km2 circular buffers around bear incidents and random points. We developed 22 a priori models and used generalized linear models and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC to rank models. The global model was the best compromise between model complexity and model fit (w = 0.99, with a ΔAIC 8.99 units from the second best performing model. We found that as deciduous forest cover increased, the probability of bear incident occurrence increased. Among the measured anthropogenic variables, cultivated crops and primary roads were the most important in our AIC-best model and were both positively related to the probability of bear incident occurrence. The spatial distribution of relative bear incident risk varied markedly throughout Michigan. Forest cover fragmented with agriculture and other anthropogenic activities presents an environment that likely facilitates bear incidents. Our map can help wildlife managers identify areas of bear incident occurrence, which in turn can be used to help develop strategies aimed at reducing incidents. Researchers and wildlife managers can use similar mapping

  17. Erionite induces production of autoantibodies and IL-17 in C57BL/6 mice

    Zebedeo, Christian Nash; Davis, Chad; Peña, Cecelia; Ng, Kok Wei; Pfau, Jean C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Erionite has similar chemical and physical properties to amphibole asbestos, which induces autoantibodies in mice. Current exposures are occurring in North Dakota due to the use of erionite-contaminated gravel. While erionite is known to cause mesothelioma and other diseases associated with asbestos, there is little known about its effects on the immune system. Objectives: We performed this study to determine whether erionite evokes autoimmune reactions in mice. Methods: Bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) were used to measure toxicity induced by erionite. Cytokine production by BMDM and splenocytes of C57BL/6 mice was examined by bead arrays and ELISA following exposure to erionite, amphiboles and chrysotile. Wild type C57BL/6 mice were exposed to saline, erionite, amphibole asbestos (Libby 6-Mix) or chrysotile through intratracheal instillations at equal mass (60 μg/mouse). Seven months after exposure, sera were examined for anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) and IL-17. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect immune complex deposition in the kidneys. Results: Erionite and tremolite caused increased cytokine production belonging to the T H 17 profile including IL-17, IL-6, TGF-β, and TNF-α. The frequency of ANA was increased in mice treated with erionite or amphibole compared to saline-treated mice. IL-17 and TNF-α were elevated in the sera of mice treated with erionite. The frequency of immune complex deposition in the kidneys increased from 33% in saline-treated mice to 90% with erionite. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that both erionite and amphibole asbestos induce autoimmune responses in mice, suggesting a potential for adverse effects in exposed communities. - Highlights: • Erionite, a fibrous mineral, is a current public health concern in the western USA. • Erionite exposure induces antinuclear autoantibodies in exposed mice. • Erionite induces a clear Th17 cytokine response in vitro and in vivo. • These responses were distinct

  18. Erionite induces production of autoantibodies and IL-17 in C57BL/6 mice

    Zebedeo, Christian Nash; Davis, Chad [Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID (United States); Peña, Cecelia [Northwest Nazarene University, Nampa, ID (United States); Ng, Kok Wei [Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID (United States); Pfau, Jean C., E-mail: pfaujean@isu.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Background: Erionite has similar chemical and physical properties to amphibole asbestos, which induces autoantibodies in mice. Current exposures are occurring in North Dakota due to the use of erionite-contaminated gravel. While erionite is known to cause mesothelioma and other diseases associated with asbestos, there is little known about its effects on the immune system. Objectives: We performed this study to determine whether erionite evokes autoimmune reactions in mice. Methods: Bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) were used to measure toxicity induced by erionite. Cytokine production by BMDM and splenocytes of C57BL/6 mice was examined by bead arrays and ELISA following exposure to erionite, amphiboles and chrysotile. Wild type C57BL/6 mice were exposed to saline, erionite, amphibole asbestos (Libby 6-Mix) or chrysotile through intratracheal instillations at equal mass (60 μg/mouse). Seven months after exposure, sera were examined for anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) and IL-17. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect immune complex deposition in the kidneys. Results: Erionite and tremolite caused increased cytokine production belonging to the T{sub H}17 profile including IL-17, IL-6, TGF-β, and TNF-α. The frequency of ANA was increased in mice treated with erionite or amphibole compared to saline-treated mice. IL-17 and TNF-α were elevated in the sera of mice treated with erionite. The frequency of immune complex deposition in the kidneys increased from 33% in saline-treated mice to 90% with erionite. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that both erionite and amphibole asbestos induce autoimmune responses in mice, suggesting a potential for adverse effects in exposed communities. - Highlights: • Erionite, a fibrous mineral, is a current public health concern in the western USA. • Erionite exposure induces antinuclear autoantibodies in exposed mice. • Erionite induces a clear Th17 cytokine response in vitro and in vivo. • These responses were

  19. Autoantibodies to αS1-Casein Are Induced by Breast-Feeding

    Petermann, Klaudia; Vordenbäumen, Stefan; Maas, Ruth; Braukmann, Achim; Bleck, Ellen; Saenger, Thorsten; Schneider, Matthias; Jose, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Background The generation of antibodies is impaired in newborns due to an immature immune system and reduced exposure to pathogens due to maternally derived antibodies and placental functions. During nursing, the immune system of newborns is challenged with multiple milk-derived proteins. Amongst them, caseins are the main constituent. In particular, human αS1-casein (CSN1S1) was recently shown to possess immunomodulatory properties. We were thus interested to determine if auto-antibodies to CSN1S1 are induced by breast-feeding and may be sustained into adulthood. Methods 62 sera of healthy adult individuals who were (n = 37) or were not (n = 25) breast-fed against human CSN1S1 were investigated by a new SD (surface display)-ELISA. For cross-checking, these sera were tested for anti Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibodies by a commercial ELISA. Results IgG-antibodies were predominantly detected in individuals who had been nursed. At a cut-off value of 0.4, the SD-ELISA identified individuals with a history of having been breast-fed with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 92%. Under these conditions, 35 out of 37 sera from healthy donors, who where breast-fed, reacted positively but only 5 sera of the 25 donors who were not breast-fed. The duration of breast-feeding was of no consequence to the antibody reaction as some healthy donors were only short term breast-fed (5 days minimum until 6 weeks maximum), but exhibited significant serum reaction against human CSN1S1 nonetheless. Conclusion We postulate that human CSN1S1 is an autoantigen. The antigenicity is orally determined, caused by breast-feeding, and sustained into adulthood. PMID:22496735

  20. Does despotic behavior or food search explain the occurrence of problem brown bears in Europe?

    Elfström, Marcus; Zedrosser, Andreas; Jerina, Klemen; Støen, Ole-Gunnar; Kindberg, Jonas; Budic, Lara; Jonozovic, Marko; Swenson, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Bears foraging near human developments are often presumed to be responding to food shortage, but this explanation ignores social factors, in particular despotism in bears. We analyzed the age distribution and body condition index (BCI) of shot brown bears in relation to densities of bears and people, and whether the shot bears were killed by managers (i.e., problem bears; n = 149), in self-defense (n = 51), or were hunter-killed nonproblem bears (n = 1,896) during 1990–2010. We compared patte...

  1. Tribology of alternative bearings.

    Fisher, John; Jin, Zhongmin; Tipper, Joanne; Stone, Martin; Ingham, Eileen

    2006-12-01

    The tribological performance and biological activity of the wear debris produced has been compared for highly cross-linked polyethylene, ceramic-on-ceramic, metal-on-metal, and modified metal bearings in a series of in vitro studies from a single laboratory. The functional lifetime demand of young and active patients is 10-fold greater than the estimated functional lifetime of traditional polyethylene. There is considerable interest in using larger diameter heads in these high demand patients. Highly cross-linked polyethylene show a four-fold reduction in functional biological activity. Ceramic-on-ceramic bearings have the lowest wear rates and least reactive wear debris. The functional biological activity is 20-fold lower than with highly cross-linked polyethylene. Hence, ceramic-on-ceramic bearings address the tribological lifetime demand of highly active patients. Metal-on-metal bearings have substantially lower wear rates than highly cross-linked polyethylene and wear decreases with head diameter. Bedding in wear is also lower with reduced radial clearance. Differential hardness ceramic-on-metal bearings and the application of ceramic-like coatings reduce metal wear and ion levels.

  2. Autoantibodies to a 140-kd protein in juvenile dermatomyositis are associated with calcinosis.

    Gunawardena, H

    2009-06-01

    OBJECTIVE: The identification of novel autoantibodies in juvenile dermatomyositis (DM) may have etiologic and clinical implications. The aim of this study was to describe autoantibodies to a 140-kd protein in children recruited to the Juvenile DM National Registry and Repository for UK and Ireland. METHODS: Clinical data and sera were collected from children with juvenile myositis. Sera that recognized a 140-kd protein by immunoprecipitation were identified. The identity of the p140 autoantigen was investigated by immunoprecipitation\\/immunodepletion, using commercial monoclonal antibodies to NXP-2, reference anti-p140, and anti-p155\\/140, the other autoantibody recently described in juvenile DM. DNA samples from 100 Caucasian children with myositis were genotyped for HLA class II haplotype associations and compared with those from 864 randomly selected UK Caucasian control subjects. RESULTS: Sera from 37 (23%) of 162 patients with juvenile myositis were positive for anti-p140 autoantibodies, which were detected exclusively in patients with juvenile DM and not in patients with juvenile DM-overlap syndrome or control subjects. No anti-p140 antibody-positive patients were positive for other recognized autoantibodies. Immunodepletion suggested that the identity of p140 was consistent with NXP-2 (the previously identified MJ autoantigen). In children with anti-p140 antibodies, the association with calcinosis was significant compared with the rest of the cohort (corrected P < 0.005, odds ratio 7.0, 95% confidence interval 3.0-16.1). The clinical features of patients with anti-p140 autoantibodies were different from those of children with anti-p155\\/140 autoantibodies. The presence of HLA-DRB1*08 was a possible risk factor for anti-p140 autoantibody positivity. CONCLUSION: This study has established that anti-p140 autoantibodies represent a major autoantibody subset in juvenile DM. This specificity may identify a further immunogenetic and clinical phenotype within the

  3. Complete stable remission and autoantibody specificity in myasthenia gravis.

    Baggi, Fulvio; Andreetta, Francesca; Maggi, Lorenzo; Confalonieri, Paolo; Morandi, Lucia; Salerno, Franco; Bernasconi, Pia; Montomoli, Cristina; Barberis, Massimo; Mantegazza, Renato; Antozzi, Carlo

    2013-01-08

    Patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) are subgrouped as acetylcholine receptor (AChR)-positive, muscle-specific kinase (MuSK)-positive, and AChR/MuSK-negative MG (or double negative [DN]) on the basis of autoantibody assay. We investigated the relationships between autoantibody specificity, main clinical features, and outcome of the disease, in particular the occurrence of complete stable remission (CSR), by means of a retrospective study on a cohort of 677 Italian patients with MG. A total of 517 (76%) patients with AChR-positive MG, 55 (8%) patients with MuSK-positive MG, and 105 (16%) patients with DN MG were included in the study. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to evaluate associations between baseline characteristics, antibody specificity, and CSR. Clinical stage at onset and at maximal worsening was more severe for MuSK-positive patients: bulbar impairment at maximal worsening was found in 83.6% of MuSK-positive patients compared with 58.6% of AChR-positive patients and 43.8% of DN patients (p CSR was observed in 3.6% of MuSK-positive patients compared with 22.2% of AChR-positive and 21.9% of DN patients. In the whole MG cohort, onset before age 40 (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-3.02, p = 0.002) and ocular and generalized clinical stages at maximal worsening were associated with CSR (ocular, HR = 8.05, 95% CI 1.88-34.53, p = 0.005; generalized, HR = 3.71, 95% CI 1.16-11.90, p = 0.023; bulbar, HR = 3.16, 95% CI 1.00-10.05, p = 0.051). MuSK antibodies identify a clinically distinguishable, more severe form of MG since the disease onset, with a lower occurrence of CSR. These features should be considered by the clinician in the management of this particular form of MG.

  4. Cognitive functions and autoantibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Anna Bogaczewicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Autoantibodies may occur in the course of various diseases. In the case of systemic lupus erythematosus the presence of specific autoantibodies is included in the classification criteria of the disease. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the presence of the serologic markers of systemic lupus erythematosus, i.e. anti-dsDNA, anti-Sm and anticardiolipin antibodies of the class IgM and IgG are linked with the results of neuropsychological tests evaluating selected cognitive functions in patients without overt neuropsychiatric lupus and without antiphospholipid syndrome. Material and methods: The study included 22 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. For the assessment of anti-dsDNA, anti-Sm and anticardiolipin antibodies the immunoenzymatic method was used. For neuropsychological estimation of the selected cognitive functions the attention switching test and the choice reaction time were applied, in which the results are expressed as the average delay i.e. mean correct latency, using the computer-based Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB. Results: The results of attention switching test in patients with anti-Sm antibodies were lower, but not significantly different from those obtained by the patients without such antibodies: 75.0 (73.12–88.12 vs. 92.5 (85–95. Choice reaction time was significantly longer in patients with anti-Sm antibodies in comparison to the patients without antiSm antibodies: 614.9 (520.6–740.8 vs. 476.7 (396.6–540 (p = 0.01. No significant difference was demonstrated in the results of attention switching test and choice reaction time with regard to the presence of anti-dsDNA antibodies. The results of attention switching test and choice reaction time were not different between the groups of patients with and without anticardiolipin antibodies in the IgM and IgG class. Conclusions: Anti-Sm antibodies seem to contribute to

  5. A novel microtiter plate radioimmunoassay of insulin autoantibody

    Huang Gan; Li Zhangwei; Jin Helai; Wang Xia; Wang Jianping; Zhou Zhiguang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Insulin autoantibody (IAA) is known to exist in sera of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients and pre-T1DM individuals. The aim of this study was to establish a novel mierotiter plate radioimmunoassay (RIA) for IAA and evaluate its clinical value. Methods: Diluted 125 I-insulin was mixed with 5 μl serum samples in a 96-well microtiter plate and then incubated for 72 h on an orbital plate shaker (4 degree C). The immunocomplexes were transferred to another protein a coated Millipore plate, and then the plate was washed with Tri-Buffered Saline Tween-20 (TBT) buffer. Counts per minute (CPM) was measured with liquid scintillation and luminescence counter. The positive cut-off point of IAA index was defined as ≥0.06 based on the 99-percentile of the distribution in 317 healthy individuals. The specificity and sensitivity of the assay were calculated from the samples provided by the fourth Diabetes Autoantibodies Standardization Program (DASP 2005). The IAA levels were determined in 71 T1DM and 551 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients, and 317 healthy controls. The t test, non-parametric test, χ 2 test and linear correlation analysis were performed on the data using SPSS 11.5 software. The concordance rate was estimated with Kappa value. Results: (1) The optimized testing condition was described as 2 x 10 4 CPM of 125 I-insulin, 5 μl serum sample and slowly horizontal shaking for 72 h. (2) The intra-assay CV was 4.8%-8.9% and inter-assay CV was 6.4%-10.5%. Based on DASP 2005 samples, the specificity and sensitivity of the assay were 97% (97/100) and 50% (25/50), respectively. Ninety-six serum samples with different IAA levels were selected and tested to compare between our new method and a domestic IAA RIA kit. The results showed that the IAA indices from the two methods were positively correlated (r= 0.678, P<0.001). The concordance rate was 72.9% (Kappa value=0.402). There were 25 samples with discordant results, which were positive for

  6. Interleukin-6 autoantibodies are involved in the pathogenesis of a subset of type 2 diabetes

    Fosgerau, K; Galle, P; Hansen, T

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL6) is critically involved in inflammation and metabolism. About 1% of people produce IL6 autoantibodies (aAb-IL6) that impair IL6 signaling in vivo. We tested the hypothesis that the prevalence of such aAb-IL6 is increased in type 2 diabetic patients and that aAb-IL6 plays a direct...... role in causing hyperglycemia. In humans, the prevalence of circulating high-affinity neutralizing aAb-IL6 was 2.5% in the type 2 diabetic patients and 1% in the controls (odds ratio 2.5, 95% confidence interval 1.2-4.9, P=0.01). To test for the role of aAb-IL6 in causing hyperglycemia, such aAb-IL6...... were induced in mice by a validated vaccination procedure. Mice with plasma levels of aAb-IL6 similar to the 2.5% type 2 diabetic patients developed obesity and impaired glucose tolerance (area under the curve (AUC) glucose, 2056+/-62 vs 1793+/-62, P=0.05) as compared with sham-vaccinated mice, when...

  7. Secreted histidyl-tRNA synthetase splice variants elaborate major epitopes for autoantibodies in inflammatory myositis.

    Zhou, Jie J; Wang, Feng; Xu, Zhiwen; Lo, Wing-Sze; Lau, Ching-Fun; Chiang, Kyle P; Nangle, Leslie A; Ashlock, Melissa A; Mendlein, John D; Yang, Xiang-Lei; Zhang, Mingjie; Schimmel, Paul

    2014-07-11

    Inflammatory and debilitating myositis and interstitial lung disease are commonly associated with autoantibodies (anti-Jo-1 antibodies) to cytoplasmic histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HisRS). Anti-Jo-1 antibodies from different disease-afflicted patients react mostly with spatially separated epitopes in the three-dimensional structure of human HisRS. We noted that two HisRS splice variants (SVs) include these spatially separated regions, but each SV lacks the HisRS catalytic domain. Despite the large deletions, the two SVs cross-react with a substantial population of anti-Jo-l antibodies from myositis patients. Moreover, expression of at least one of the SVs is up-regulated in dermatomyositis patients, and cell-based experiments show that both SVs and HisRS can be secreted. We suggest that, in patients with inflammatory myositis, anti-Jo-1 antibodies may have extracellular activity. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. EUROPattern Suite technology for computer-aided immunofluorescence microscopy in autoantibody diagnostics.

    Krause, C; Ens, K; Fechner, K; Voigt, J; Fraune, J; Rohwäder, E; Hahn, M; Danckwardt, M; Feirer, C; Barth, E; Martinetz, T; Stöcker, W

    2015-04-01

    Antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA) are highly informative biomarkers in autoimmune diagnostics. The increasing demand for effective test systems, however, has led to the development of a confusingly large variety of different platforms. One of them, the indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), is regarded as the common gold standard for ANA screening, as described in a position statement by the American College of Rheumatology in 2009. Technological solutions have been developed aimed at standardization and automation of IIF to overcome methodological limitations and subjective bias in IIF interpretation. In this review, we present the EUROPattern Suite, a system for computer-aided immunofluorescence microscopy (CAIFM) including automated acquisition of digital images and evaluation of IIF results. The system was originally designed for ANA diagnostics on human epithelial cells, but its applications have been extended with the latest system update version 1.5 to the analysis of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and anti-dsDNA antibodies. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. A circumpolar monitoring framework for polar bears

    Vongraven, Dag; Aars, Jon; Amstrup, Steven C.; Atkinson, Stephen N.; Belikov, Stanislav; Born, Erik W.; DeBruyn, T.D.; Derocher, Andrew E.; Durner, George M.; Gill, Michael J.; Lunn, Nicholas J.; Obbard, Martyn E.; Omelak, Jack; Ovsyanikov, Nikita; Peacock, Elizabeth; Richardson, E.E.; Sahanatien, Vicki; Stirling, Ian; Wiig, Øystein

    2012-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) occupy remote regions that are characterized by harsh weather and limited access. Polar bear populations can only persist where temporal and spatial availability of sea ice provides adequate access to their marine mammal prey. Observed declines in sea ice availability will continue as long as greenhouse gas concentrations rise. At the same time, human intrusion and pollution levels in the Arctic are expected to increase. A circumpolar understanding of the cumulative impacts of current and future stressors is lacking, long-term trends are known from only a few subpopulations, and there is no globally coordinated effort to monitor effects of stressors. Here, we describe a framework for an integrated circumpolar monitoring plan to detect ongoing patterns, predict future trends, and identify the most vulnerable polar bear subpopulations. We recommend strategies for monitoring subpopulation abundance and trends, reproduction, survival, ecosystem change, human-caused mortality, human–bear conflict, prey availability, health, stature, distribution, behavioral change, and the effects that monitoring itself may have on polar bears. We assign monitoring intensity for each subpopulation through adaptive assessment of the quality of existing baseline data and research accessibility. A global perspective is achieved by recommending high intensity monitoring for at least one subpopulation in each of four major polar bear ecoregions. Collection of data on harvest, where it occurs, and remote sensing of habitat, should occur with the same intensity for all subpopulations. We outline how local traditional knowledge may most effectively be combined with the best scientific methods to provide comparable and complementary lines of evidence. We also outline how previously collected intensive monitoring data may be sub-sampled to guide future sampling frequencies and develop indirect estimates or indices of subpopulation status. Adoption of this framework

  10. Partial tooth gear bearings

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  11. Shared Genetic Basis for Type 1 Diabetes, Islet Autoantibodies, and Autoantibodies Associated With Other Immune-Mediated Diseases in Families With Type 1 Diabetes

    Brorsson, Caroline Anna; Pociot, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    ) in autoimmune gastritis, transglutaminase (TGA) in celiac disease, and 21-hydroxylase (21-OHA) in autoimmune hypoadrenalism. In addition to the MHC region, we identify SNPs in five susceptibility loci (IFIH1, PTPN22, SH2B3, BACH2, and CTLA4) as significantly associated with more than one autoantibody at a false...

  12. Increasing ICA512 autoantibody titers predict development of abnormal oral glucose tolerance tests.

    Sanda, Srinath

    2018-03-01

    Determine if autoantibody titer magnitude and variability predict glucose abnormalities in subjects at risk for type 1 diabetes. Demographic information, longitudinal autoantibody titers, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) data were obtained from the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention study. Subjects (first and second degree relatives of individuals with type 1 diabetes) with at least 2 diabetes autoantibodies were selected for analysis. Autoantibody titer means were calculated for each subject for the duration of study participation and the relationship between titer tertiles and glucose value tertiles from OGTTs (normal, impaired, and diabetes) was assessed with a proportional odds ordinal regression model. A matched pairs analysis was used to examine the relationship between changes in individual autoantibody titers and 120-minute glucose values. Titer variability was quantified using cumulative titer standard deviations. We studied 778 subjects recruited in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention study between 2006 and 2014. Increased cumulative mean titer values for both ICA512 and GAD65 (estimated increase in proportional odds = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.39, 1.87, P < 1 × 10 -9 and 1.17, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.32, P = .016, respectively) were associated with peak 120-minute glucose values. While fluctuating titer levels were observed in some subjects, no significant relationship between titer standard deviation and glucose values was observed. ICA512 autoantibody titers associate with progressive abnormalities in glucose metabolism in subjects at risk for type 1 diabetes. Fluctuations in autoantibody titers do not correlate with lower rates of progression to clinical disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Flow cytometric immunobead assay for quantitative detection of platelet autoantibodies in immune thrombocytopenia patients.

    Zhai, Juping; Ding, Mengyuan; Yang, Tianjie; Zuo, Bin; Weng, Zhen; Zhao, Yunxiao; He, Jun; Wu, Qingyu; Ruan, Changgeng; He, Yang

    2017-10-23

    Platelet autoantibody detection is critical for immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) diagnosis and prognosis. Therefore, we aimed to establish a quantitative flow cytometric immunobead assay (FCIA) for ITP platelet autoantibodies evaluation. Capture microbeads coupled with anti-GPIX, -GPIb, -GPIIb, -GPIIIa and P-selectin antibodies were used to bind the platelet-bound autoantibodies complex generated from plasma samples of 250 ITP patients, 163 non-ITP patients and 243 healthy controls, a fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated secondary antibody was the detector reagent and mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) signals were recorded by flow cytometry. Intra- and inter-assay variations of the quantitative FCIA assay were assessed. Comparisons of the specificity, sensitivity and accuracy between quantitative and qualitative FCIA or monoclonal antibody immobilization of platelet antigen (MAIPA) assay were performed. Finally, treatment process was monitored by our quantitative FCIA in 8 newly diagnosed ITPs. The coefficient of variations (CV) of the quantitative FCIA assay were respectively 9.4, 3.8, 5.4, 5.1 and 5.8% for anti-GPIX, -GPIb, -GPIIIa, -GPIIb and -P-selectin autoantibodies. Elevated levels of autoantibodies against platelet glycoproteins GPIX, GPIb, GPIIIa, GPIIb and P-selectin were detected by our quantitative FCIA in ITP patients compared to non-ITP patients or healthy controls. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of our quantitative assay were respectively 73.13, 81.98 and 78.65% when combining all 5 autoantibodies, while the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MAIPA assay were respectively 41.46, 90.41 and 72.81%. A quantitative FCIA assay was established. Reduced levels of platelet autoantibodies could be confirmed by our quantitative FCIA in ITP patients after corticosteroid treatment. Our quantitative assay is not only good for ITP diagnosis but also for ITP treatment monitoring.

  14. Autoantibodies and immunoglobulins among atomic-bomb survivors

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Carter, R.L.; Akiyama, Mitoshi

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to atomic-bomb radiation affects immune responsiveness, such as the occurrence of autoantibodies and levels of immunoglobulins. Rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody, antithyroglobulin antibody, anti-thyroid-microsomal antibody, and immunoglobulin levels (IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE) were measured among 2061 Adult Health Study participants in Hiroshima and Nagasaki from December 1987 to November 1989. The prevalence and titers of rheumatoid factor increased in a statistically significant manner with increasing radiation dose. No radiation effect was found on the prevalence of antinuclear antibody, antithyroglobulin antibody, and anti-thyroid-microsomal antibody. A statistically significant relationship was also found between radiation exposure and the IgA level in females and the IgM levels in both sexes-both levels increased as radiation dose increased. However, the effects of radiation exposure were not large and accounted for less than 10% of the total variation in each measurement. Levels of IgG and IgE were not affected by radiation exposure. (author)

  15. Autoantibody signature differentiates Wilms tumor patients from neuroblastoma patients.

    Jana Schmitt

    Full Text Available Several studies report autoantibody signatures in cancer. The majority of these studies analyzed adult tumors and compared the seroreactivity pattern of tumor patients with the pattern in healthy controls. Here, we compared the autoimmune response in patients with neuroblastoma and patients with Wilms tumor representing two different childhood tumors. We were able to differentiate untreated neuroblastoma patients from untreated Wilms tumor patients with an accuracy of 86.8%, a sensitivity of 87.0% and a specificity of 86.7%. The separation of treated neuroblastoma patients from treated Wilms tumor patients' yielded comparable results with an accuracy of 83.8%. We furthermore identified the antigens that contribute most to the differentiation between both tumor types. The analysis of these antigens revealed that neuroblastoma was considerably more immunogenic than Wilms tumor. The reported antigens have not been found to be relevant for comparative analyses between other tumors and controls. In summary, neuroblastoma appears as a highly immunogenic tumor as demonstrated by the extended number of antigens that separate this tumor from Wilms tumor.

  16. Novel monoclonal autoantibody specificity associated with ribonucleoprotein complexes

    Winkler, A.; Watson-McKown, R.; Wise, K.

    1986-01-01

    The authors describe an IgG/sub 2a/, kappa monoclonal autoantibody (mAb) F78 derived from a 6-month old MRL-Mp lpr/lpr mouse that recognizes a novel epitope associated with small nuclear ribonuclear protein complexes (snRNP). Indirect immunofluorescent staining of HEp-2 cells with F78 showed a nonnucleolar speckled nuclear pattern characteristic of anti-RNP and anti-Sm mAbs which could be abrogated by pretreating fixed cells with 0.1M HCl prior to staining. Immunoblots of whole cell extracts (dissociated in SDS, urea and mercaptan at 4 0 C then subjected to SDS-PAGE) showed that F78 selectively bound to a component of M/sub r/ = 100,000 clearly distinct from components recognized by two mAbs described by Billings et al that detected, respectively, proteins of M/sub r/ = 70,000 associated with RNP and M/sub r/ = 13,000 associated with Sm. Incubation of extracts at 100 0 C prior to SDS-PAGE eliminated subsequent binding of F78 but not of the other nAbs. F78 as well as the other mAbs selectively immunoprecipitated characteristic patterns of small nuclear RNAs (U 1 , U 2 , U 4 , U 5 , U 6 ) from extracts of 32 P-phosphate labeled HeLa cells. These results suggest a new specificity associated with snRNP that is recognized in the MRL autoimmune response

  17. [Pathomechanism of Autoantibody Production in the Nervous System Diseases].

    Shimizu, Fumitaka; Kanda, Takashi

    2018-04-01

    Antibodies to different brain and peripheral nerve proteins have recently been found to be associated with several different autoimmune diseases. They can bind to either neuronal or non-neuronal antigens and may have a pathogenic role by themselves or in synergy with other inflammatory mediators after penetrating the blood-brain barrier or the blood-nerve barrier. In this review, we will describe the association with the impairment of immune tolerance, innate immunity, and autoantibody production of myasthenia gravis (MG), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Impairment of central tolerance, which is characterized by the repertoire selection of immature T-lymphocytes in the thymus, is seen in patients with MG who are positive for anti-Ach R antibodies. Impairment of peripheral tolerance due to activation of autoreactive T-cells and suppression of regulatory T-cells is seen in SLE. In addition, molecular mimicry between the lipooligosaccharides of Campylobacter jejuni and gangliosides of the peripheral nerves results in the production of anti-gangliosides antibodies in GBS. Next, we will describe the antibody-mediated pathology in neuromyelitis optica and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. The binding of anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies or anti-NMDAR antibodies to their respective targets initiates target internalization and complement- or antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity of the target cells. Further understanding of antibody-mediated pathology may suggest novel therapeutic strategies.

  18. Activity-regulating structural changes and autoantibody epitopes in transglutaminase 2 assessed by hydrogen/deuterium exchange

    Iversen, Rasmus; Mysling, Simon; Hnida, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    The multifunctional enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is the target of autoantibodies in the gluten-sensitive enteropathy celiac disease. In addition, the enzyme is responsible for deamidation of gluten peptides, which are subsequently targeted by T cells. To understand the regulation of TG2 activity...... and the enzyme's role as an autoantigen in celiac disease, we have addressed structural properties of TG2 in solution by using hydrogen/deuterium exchange monitored by mass spectrometry. We demonstrate that Ca(2+) binding, which is necessary for TG2 activity, induces structural changes in the catalytic core...... domain of the enzyme. Cysteine oxidation was found to abolish these changes, suggesting a mechanism whereby disulfide bond formation inactivates the enzyme. Further, by using TG2-specific human monoclonal antibodies generated from intestinal plasma cells of celiac disease patients, we observed...

  19. Quantitative assessment of human exposure to extended spectrum and AmpC β-lactamases bearing E. coli in lettuce attributable to irrigation water and subsequent horizontal gene transfer

    Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Buys, E. M.

    2017-01-01

    and irrigation water E. coli isolates was previously reported. This stochastic modeling was aimed at quantitatively assessing human exposure to ESBL/AmpC bearing E. coli through lettuce attributable to irrigation water and subsequent horizontal gene transfer. Modular process risk approach was used.......15), and prevalence of E. coli in irrigation water (ρ=0.16) had highest influence on consumer exposure. The most effective single methods in reducing consumer exposure were reduction in irrigation water microbial quality variation (87.4% reduction), storage period (49.9-87.4% reduction) and growth rate reduction...... irrigation water quality variation. The exposure levels may impose higher consumer risk than acceptable for irrigation water risk. E. coli contamination and growth related measures, as well as measures to reduce contamination with antimicrobial resistant E. coli from lettuce production environment...

  20. A fundamental study of immunoscintigraphy with sup 131 I-labeled anti-CA 19-9 and anti-CEA monoclonal antibodies; Imaging of tumor-bearing mice by IMACIS-1 and cell ELISA with human tumor cells

    Nogami, Toshihiko; Miura, Hiroshi; Ohmi, Shoichi; Kazahaya, Yasuhiro [CIS DIAGNOSTIC K.K., Chiba (Japan)

    1990-05-01

    A study was made on 2 types of {sup 131}I-labeled anti-CA 19-9 and anti-CEA mouse monoclonal antibodies (IMACIS-1) against human cancer related antigen as to their usefulness in radioimmunoimaging. Tumor-bearing nude mice were used for comparison. The transplanted tumors (SW948, COLO 201) were clearly visualized 48-72 hours after administration of IMACIS-1. Tumor/blood ratio 72 hours after administration: 8.69 in COLO 201 and 5.70 in SW948, showing ca. 10-15 times as high as those in PC-3 and HEp-2. IMACIS-1 therefore is considered useful in radioimmunoimaging of cancer. Analysis was made by in vitro cell ELISA. As a result, both of the cells specifically reacted with anti-CA 19-9 but not anti-CEA. (author).

  1. Hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate content of osteoarthritic human knee cartilage: site-specific correlation with weight-bearing force based on femorotibial angle measurement.

    Otsuki, Shuhei; Nakajima, Mikio; Lotz, Martin; Kinoshita, Mitsuo

    2008-09-01

    This study analyzed glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content in specific compartments of the knee joint to determine the impact of malalignment and helped refine indications for osteotomy. To assess malalignment, the radiological femorotibial angle (FTA) was measured and knee joints were also graded for OA severity with the Kellgren/Lawrence (K/L) classification. Cartilage samples were obtained from 36 knees of 32 OA patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery. Explants were harvested from the medial femoral condyle (MFC), lateral femoral condyle (LFC), patellar groove (PG), and lateral posterior femoral condyle (LPC). Concentrations of hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). With OA severity, the average FTA significantly increased. HA and CS content in MFC was negatively correlated with radiographic FTA. In LFC, HA ratio, which is HA content in lateral condyle divided by medial condyle and chondroitin 6 sulfate, increased until about 190 degrees FTA. Importantly, at >190 degrees these contents were significantly decreased. HA and CS content of the femoral condyle shows topographic differences that are related to OA grade and weight-bearing force based on FTA. The clinical relevance is that osteotomy may not be indicated for patients with severe varus (>190 degrees) abnormalities. (c) 2008 Orthopaedic Research Society

  2. P53 autoantibodies in 1006 patients followed up for breast cancer

    Metcalfe, Su; Wheeler, Terence K; Picken, Sheila; Negus, Susanne; Jo Milner, A

    2000-01-01

    Serial plasma samples from 1006 patients with breast cancer revealed: (i) no correlation of p53 autoantibody status with disease status at the time of sample collection, or with menopausal status at time of primary diagnosis of breast cancer; (ii) 155 out of 1006 (15%) of patients were positive for p53 autoantibodies, and these patients tended to have a persistent autoantibody status throughout follow up, irrespective of disease behaviour; and (iii) where a negative autoantibody status was found at primary diagnosis of breast cancer, this negative status persisted throughout follow up, irrespective of later disease behaviour. We conclude that screening for p53 autoantibody status is not informative on residual tumour activity nor on therapeutic responsiveness. Dysfunction of the tumour-suppressor protein, p53, may be due to either mutational or epigenetic factors, each of which may lead to accumulation of cytoplasmic p53. Abnormal accumulation of p53 in breast cancer tissue is predictive of poor prognosis [1,2]. Humoral studies [3,4] have shown that cancer patients may develop immunity to abnormally expressed p53, as revealed by p53 autoantibodies in the blood. Again, prognostic correlates have been noted, with presence of circulating p53 autoantibodies at diagnosis of breast cancer being associated with reduced overall survival [5,6] and with poor prognostic factors such as high histological grade and the absence of hormone receptors [5,7,8]. Little is known of the potential value of p53 autoantibody in follow up of cancer. In lung cancer there is evidence that autoantibodies to p53 may provide a useful tool to monitor response to therapy [9,10], whereas serial measurements of autoantibodies to p53 in 40 patients with advanced ovarian cancer were not found to be clinically useful [11]. In breast cancer some 30% of node-negative patients will relapse within 5 years, but there is no current means to predict those who are at risk. We performed the present study to

  3. Cell junction protein armadillo repeat gene deleted in velo-cardio-facial syndrome is expressed in the skin and colocalizes with autoantibodies of patients affected by a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in Colombia.

    Abreu-Velez, Ana Maria; Yi, Hong; Howard, Michael S

    2017-10-01

    We previously described a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in El Bagre, Colombia, South America (El Bagre-EPF, or pemphigus Abreu-Manu). El Bagre-EPF differs from other types of EPF clinically, epidemiologically, immunologically and in its target antigens. We reported the presence of patient autoantibodies colocalizing with armadillo repeat gene deleted in velo-cardio-facial syndrome (ARVCF), a catenin cell junction protein colocalizing with El Bagre-EPF autoantibodies in the heart and within pilosebaceous units along their neurovascular supply routes. Here we investigate the presence of ARVCF in skin and its possibility as a cutaneous El Bagre-EPF antigen. We used a case-control study, testing sera of 45 patients and 45 controls via direct and indirect immunofluorescence (DIF/IIF), confocal microscopy, immunoelectron microscopy and immunoblotting for the presence of ARVCF and its relationship with El Bagre-EPF autoantibodies in the skin. We also immunoadsorbed samples with desmoglein 1 (Dsg1) ectodomain (El Bagre-EPF antigen) by incubating with the positive ARVCF samples from DIF and IIF. ARVCF was expressed in all the samples from the cases and controls. Immunoadsorption with Dsg1 on positive ARVCF immunofluorescence DIF/IIF cases showed that the immune response was present against non-desmoglein 1 antigen(s). Overall, 40/45 patients showed colocalization of their autoantibodies with ARVCF in the epidermis; no controls from the endemic area displayed colocalization. We demonstrate that ARVCF is expressed in many areas of human skin, and colocalizes with the majority of El Bagre-EPF autoantibodies as a putative antigen.

  4. Magnetically leviated superconducting bearing

    Weinberger, Bernard R.; Lynds, Jr., Lahmer

    1993-01-01

    A magnetically levitated superconducting bearing includes a magnet (2) mounted on a shaft (12) that is rotatable around an axis of rotation and a Type II superconductor (6) supported on a stator (14) in proximity to the magnet (2). The superconductor (6) is positioned so that when it is cooled to its superconducting state in the presence of a magnetic field, it interacts with the magnet (2) to produce an attractive force that levitates the magnet (2) and supports a load on the shaft (12). The interaction between the superconductor (6) and magnet(2) also produces surface screening currents (8) that generate a repulsive force perpendicular to the load. The bearing also has means for maintaining the superconductor at a temperature below its critical temperature (16, 18). The bearing could also be constructed so the magnet (2) is supported on the stator (14) and the superconductor (6) is mounted on the shaft (12). The bearing can be operated by cooling the superconductor (6) to its superconducting state in the presence of a magnetic field.

  5. Prevalence of Trichinella spp. in black bears, grizzly bears, and wolves in the Dehcho Region, Northwest Territories, Canada, including the first report of T. nativa in a grizzly bear from Canada.

    Larter, Nicholas C; Forbes, Lorry B; Elkin, Brett T; Allaire, Danny G

    2011-07-01

    Samples of muscle from 120 black bears (Ursus americanus), 11 grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), and 27 wolves (Canis lupus) collected in the Dehcho Region of the Northwest Territories from 2001 to 2010 were examined for the presence of Trichinella spp. larvae using a pepsin-HCl digestion assay. Trichinella spp. larvae were found in eight of 11 (73%) grizzly bears, 14 of 27 (52%) wolves, and seven of 120 (5.8%) black bears. The average age of positive grizzly bears, black bears, and wolves was 13.5, 9.9, and approximately 4 yr, respectively. Larvae from 11 wolves, six black bears, and seven grizzly bears were genotyped. Six wolves were infected with T. nativa and five with Trichinella T6, four black bears were infected with T. nativa and two with Trichinella T6, and all seven grizzly bears were infected with Trichinella T6 and one of them had a coinfection with T. nativa. This is the first report of T. nativa in a grizzly bear from Canada. Bears have been linked to trichinellosis outbreaks in humans in Canada, and black bears are a subsistence food source for residents of the Dehcho region. In order to assess food safety risk it is important to monitor the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in both species of bear and their cohabiting mammalian food sources.

  6. Autoantibody Profiling in a Cohort of Pediatric and Adult Patients With Autoimmune Hepatitis.

    Villalta, Danilo; Girolami, Elia; Alessio, Maria Grazia; Sorrentino, Maria Concetta; Tampoia, Marilina; Brusca, Ignazio; Daves, Massimo; Porcelli, Brunetta; Barberio, Giuseppina; Conte, Mariaelisabetta; Pantarotto, Lisa; Bizzaro, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a rare condition characterized by the presence of autoantibodies distinctive of type 1 AIH (AIH-1) and type 2 AIH (AIH-2). The aim of this study was to evaluate the autoantibody profile in a cohort of pediatric and adult AIH patients, using both indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and a new multiplexed line-blot assay. Sera from 63 pediatric and 53 adult AIH patients were tested for antinuclear (ANA), antismooth muscle (SMA), anti-liver kidney microsome 1 (anti-LKM1), anti-liver cytosol 1 (anti-LC1) autoantibodies using IIF methods; for anti-LKM1, anti-LC1, and soluble liver antigen/liver-pancreas (anti-SLA/LP) autoantibodies using the line-blot; for anti-F-actin autoantibodies using IIF both on VSM47 cell-line and on rat intestinal epithelial cells. AIH-1 was the most common type of AIH in the adult cohort (73.6%), while AIH-2 was the most common AIH in the pediatric cohort (61.9%). Both in adult and pediatric AIH-2 anti-LKM1 were the prevalent autoantibodies. In pediatric AIH-2 anti-LC1 autoantibodies were more frequent than in adult AIH-2 (59 vs. 28.6%), and in 35.9% of cases they were present alone. In 17 patients anti-LC1 autoantibodies were detected only with the line-blot assay. The levels of anti-LKM1 and of anti-LC1 were not different between adult and pediatric AIH, and the overall agreement between the results obtained with the two IIF methods for F-actin detection was 98.8% (CI 95%: 94.4-99.7%). The line-blot assay showed a higher sensitivity than IIF for anti-LC1 detection. Anti-LKM1 and anti-LC1 autoantibody levels are not different in adults and children. An almost perfect agreement between the two IIF methods for anti-F-actin detection has been observed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Foothills model forest grizzly bear study : project update

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    This report updates a five year study launched in 1999 to ensure the continued healthy existence of grizzly bears in west-central Alberta by integrating their needs into land management decisions. The objective was to gather better information and to develop computer-based maps and models regarding grizzly bear migration, habitat use and response to human activities. The study area covers 9,700 square km in west-central Alberta where 66 to 147 grizzly bears exist. During the first 3 field seasons, researchers captured and radio collared 60 bears. Researchers at the University of Calgary used remote sensing tools and satellite images to develop grizzly bear habitat maps. Collaborators at the University of Washington used trained dogs to find bear scat which was analyzed for DNA, stress levels and reproductive hormones. Resource Selection Function models are being developed by researchers at the University of Alberta to identify bear locations and to see how habitat is influenced by vegetation cover and oil, gas, forestry and mining activities. The health of the bears is being studied by researchers at the University of Saskatchewan and the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre. The study has already advanced the scientific knowledge of grizzly bear behaviour. Preliminary results indicate that grizzlies continue to find mates, reproduce and gain weight and establish dens. These are all good indicators of a healthy population. Most bear deaths have been related to poaching. The study will continue for another two years. 1 fig.

  8. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Local Support for Black Bear Recovery Strategies

    Morzillo, Anita T.; Mertig, Angela G.; Hollister, Jeffrey W.; Garner, Nathan; Liu, Jianguo

    2010-06-01

    There is global interest in recovering locally extirpated carnivore species. Successful efforts to recover Louisiana black bear in Louisiana have prompted interest in recovery throughout the species’ historical range. We evaluated support for three potential black bear recovery strategies prior to public release of a black bear conservation and management plan for eastern Texas, United States. Data were collected from 1,006 residents living in proximity to potential recovery locations, particularly Big Thicket National Preserve. In addition to traditional logistic regression analysis, we used conditional probability analysis to statistically and visually evaluate probabilities of public support for potential black bear recovery strategies based on socioeconomic characteristics. Allowing black bears to repopulate the region on their own (i.e., without active reintroduction) was the recovery strategy with the greatest probability of acceptance. Recovery strategy acceptance was influenced by many socioeconomic factors. Older and long-time local residents were most likely to want to exclude black bears from the area. Concern about the problems that black bears may cause was the only variable significantly related to support or non-support across all strategies. Lack of personal knowledge about black bears was the most frequent reason for uncertainty about preferred strategy. In order to reduce local uncertainty about possible recovery strategies, we suggest that wildlife managers focus outreach efforts on providing local residents with general information about black bears, as well as information pertinent to minimizing the potential for human-black bear conflict.

  9. Coefficients of productivity for Yellowstone's grizzly bear habitat

    Mattson, David John; Barber, Kim; Maw, Ralene; Renkin, Roy

    2004-01-01

    This report describes methods for calculating coefficients used to depict habitat productivity for grizzly bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem. Calculations based on these coefficients are used in the Yellowstone Grizzly Bear Cumulative Effects Model to map the distribution of habitat productivity and account for the impacts of human facilities. The coefficients of habitat productivity incorporate detailed information that was collected over a 20-year period (1977-96) on the foraging behavior of Yellowstone's bears and include records of what bears were feeding on, when and where they fed, the extent of that feeding activity, and relative measures of the quantity consumed. The coefficients also incorporate information, collected primarily from 1986 to 1992, on the nutrient content of foods that were consumed, their digestibility, characteristic bite sizes, and the energy required to extract and handle each food. Coefficients were calculated for different time periods and different habitat types, specific to different parts of the Yellowstone ecosystem. Stratifications included four seasons of bear activity (spring, estrus, early hyperphagia, late hyperphagia), years when ungulate carrion and whitebark pine seed crops were abundant versus not, areas adjacent to (bear activity in each region, habitat type, and time period were incorporated into calculations, controlling for the effects of proximity to human facilities. The coefficients described in this report and associated estimates of grizzly bear habitat productivity are unique among many efforts to model the conditions of bear habitat because calculations include information on energetics derived from the observed behavior of radio-marked bears.

  10. Expression of senescent antigen on erythrocytes infected with a knobby variant of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    Winograd, E.; Greenan, J.R.T.; Sherman, I.W.

    1987-01-01

    Erythrocytes infected with a knobby variant of Plasmodium falciparum selectively bind IgG autoantibodies in normal human serum. Quantification of membrane-bound IgG, by use of 125 I-labeled protein A, revealed that erythrocytes infected with the knobby variant bound 30 times more protein A than did noninfected erythrocytes; infection with a knobless variant resulted in less than a 2-fold difference compared with noninfected erythrocytes. IgG binding to knobby erythrocytes appeared to be related to parasite development, since binding of 125 I-labeled protein A to cells bearing young trophozoites (less than 20 hr after parasite invasion) was similar to binding to uninfected erythrocytes. By immunoelectron microscopy, the membrane-bound IgG on erythrocytes infected with the knobby variant was found to be preferentially associated with the protuberances (knobs) of the plasma membrane. The removal of aged or senescent erythrocytes from the peripheral circulation is reported to involve the binding of specific antibodies to an antigen (senescent antigen) related to the major erythrocyte membrane protein band 3. Since affinity-purified autoantibodies against band 3 specifically bound to the plasma membrane of erythrocytes infected with the knobby variant of P. falciparum, it is clear that the malaria parasite induces expression of senescent antigen

  11. Autoantibodies in autoimmune thyroid disease promote immune complex formation with self antigens and increase B cell and CD4+ T cell proliferation in response to self antigens

    Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Leslie, Robert Graham Quinton

    2004-01-01

    B cells are centrally involved as antigen-presenting cells in certain autoimmune diseases. To establish whether autoantibodies form immune complexes (IC) with self-antigens in autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) and promote B cell uptake of self-antigen, sera from patients with Hashimoto......'s thyroiditis (HT), Graves' disease (GD) and healthy controls were incubated with human thyroglobulin (Tg) before adding normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The deposition of immunoglobulins and C3 fragments on B cells was then assessed. Inclusion of Tg in serum from HT patients promoted B cell capture...

  12. Autoantibodies in autoimmune thyroid disease promote immune complex formation with self antigens and increase B cell and CD4+ T cell proliferation in response to self antigens

    Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Leslie, Robert Graham Quinton

    2004-01-01

    's thyroiditis (HT), Graves' disease (GD) and healthy controls were incubated with human thyroglobulin (Tg) before adding normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The deposition of immunoglobulins and C3 fragments on B cells was then assessed. Inclusion of Tg in serum from HT patients promoted B cell capture......B cells are centrally involved as antigen-presenting cells in certain autoimmune diseases. To establish whether autoantibodies form immune complexes (IC) with self-antigens in autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) and promote B cell uptake of self-antigen, sera from patients with Hashimoto...

  13. Neuronal Surface Autoantibodies in Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Are There Implications for Depression?

    Shenghua Zong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases are affecting around 7.6–9.4% of the general population. A number of central nervous system disorders, including encephalitis and severe psychiatric disorders, have been demonstrated to associate with specific neuronal surface autoantibodies (NSAbs. It has become clear that specific autoantibodies targeting neuronal surface antigens and ion channels could cause severe mental disturbances. A number of studies have focused or are currently investigating the presence of autoantibodies in specific mental conditions such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. However, less is known about other conditions such as depression. Depression is a psychiatric disorder with complex etiology and pathogenesis. The diagnosis criteria of depression are largely based on symptoms but not on the origin of the disease. The question which arises is whether in a subgroup of patients with depression, the symptoms might be caused by autoantibodies targeting membrane-associated antigens. Here, we describe how autoantibodies targeting membrane proteins and ion channels cause pathological effects. We discuss the physiology of these antigens and their role in relation to depression. Finally, we summarize a number of studies detecting NSAbs with a special focus on cohorts that include depression diagnosis and/or show depressive symptoms.

  14. Rare myositis-specific autoantibody associations among Hungarian patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy.

    Bodoki, L; Nagy-Vincze, M; Griger, Z; Betteridge, Z; Szöllősi, L; Jobanputra, R; Dankó, K

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are systemic, chronic autoimmune diseases characterized by symmetrical, proximal muscle weakness. Homogeneous groups present with similar symptoms. The response to therapy and prognosis could be facilitated by myositis-specific autoantibodies, and in this way, give rise to immunoserological classification. The myositis-specific autoantibodies are directed against specific proteins found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus of the cells. To date, literature suggests the rarity of the co-existence of two myositis-specific autoantibodies. In this study the authors highlight rare associations of myositis-specific autoantibodies. Three hundred and thirty-seven Hungarian patients with polymyositis or dermatomyositis were studied. Their clinical findings were noted retrospectively. Specific blood tests identified six patients with the rare co-existence of myositis-specific autoantibodies, anti-Jo-1 and anti-SRP, anti-Jo-1 and anti-Mi-2, anti-Mi-2 and anti-PL-12, anti-Mi-2 and anti-SRP, and anti-SRP and anti-PL-7, respectively. This case review aims to identify the clinical importance of these rare associations and their place within the immunoserological classification.

  15. Autoantibodies to neuronal antigens in children with focal epilepsy and no prima facie signs of encephalitis.

    Borusiak, Peter; Bettendorf, Ulrich; Wiegand, Gert; Bast, Thomas; Kluger, Gerhard; Philippi, Heike; Münstermann, Dieter; Bien, Christian G

    2016-07-01

    There is increasing awareness of neuronal autoantibodies and their impact on the pathogenesis of epilepsy. We investigated children with focal epilepsy in order to provide an estimate of autoantibody frequency within a pediatric population without prima facie evidence of encephalitis using a broad panel of autoantibodies. This was done to assess the specificity of antibodies and to see whether antibodies might be of modifying influence on the course of focal epilepsies. We searched for autoantibodies in 124 patients with focal epilepsy (1-18 years; mean 10; 6 years). Sera were tested using a broad panel of surface and intracellular antigens. We found autoantibodies in 5/124 patients (4%): high-positive GAD65 antibodies (n = 1), low-positive GAD65 antibodies (N = 1), VGKC complex antibodies not reactive with LGI1 or CASPR2 (n = 3). We did not find any distinctive features distinguishing antibody positive patients from those without antibodies. The antibodies found in this cohort are probably neither disease-specific nor pathogenic. This has been suggested before for these antigenic targets. Moreover, they do not seem to modify disease severity in the antibody-positive epilepsy patients. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Association of Autoantibodies to BP180 with Disease Activity in Greek Patients with Bullous Pemphigoid

    Aikaterini Patsatsi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 39 bullous pemphigoid (BP patients were studied to assess the clinical significance of anti-BP180 and anti-BP230 circulating autoantibodies of BP and correlate their titers with the clinical scores of the BP Disease Area Index (BPDAI and the Autoimmune Bullous Skin Disorder Intensity Score (ABSIS as well as with the intensity of pruritus measured by the BPDAI pruritus component. All parameters were evaluated by the time of diagnosis (baseline, month 3, and month 6. Titers of anti-BP180 autoantibodies were strongly correlated with BPDAI (, and ABSIS (, values, as well as with BPDAI component for the intensity of pruritus (, at baseline. At month 3, titers of anti-BP180 autoantibodies were strongly correlated with BPDAI (, and ABSIS (, values, as well as with the BPDAI component for the intensity of pruritus (, . At month 6, titers of anti-BP180 autoantibodies were strongly correlated with BPDAI (, and ABSIS (, values, as well as with the BPDAI component for the intensity of pruritus (, . There was no statistically significant correlation between titers of anti-BP230 autoantibodies and the BPDAI, ABSIS, and BPDAI component for the intensity of pruritus at the same time points.

  17. Re-engineering and evaluation of anti-DNA autoantibody 3E10 for therapeutic applications.

    Rattray, Zahra; Dubljevic, Valentina; Rattray, Nicholas J W; Greenwood, Deanne L; Johnson, Caroline H; Campbell, James A; Hansen, James E

    2018-02-12

    A key challenge in the development of novel chemotherapeutics is the design of molecules capable of selective toxicity to cancer cells. Antibodies have greater target specificity compared to small molecule drugs, but most are unable to penetrate cells, and predominantly target extracellular antigens. A nuclear-penetrating anti-DNA autoantibody isolated from the MRL/lpr lupus mouse model, 3E10, preferentially localizes to tumors, inhibits DNA repair, and selectively kills cancer cells with defects in DNA repair. A murine divalent single chain variable fragment of 3E10 with mutations for improved DNA binding affinity, 3E10 (D31N) di-scFv, has previously been produced in P. pastoris and yielded promising pre-clinical findings, but is unsuitable for clinical testing. The present study reports the design, expression and testing of a panel of humanized 3E10 (D31N) di-scFvs, some of which contain CDR substitution. These variants were expressed in a modified CHO system and evaluated for their physicochemical attributes and ability to penetrate nuclei to selectively cause DNA damage accumulation in and kill cancer cells with DNA repair defects. Secondary structure was conserved and most variants retained the key characteristics of the murine 3E10 (D31N) di-scFv produced in P. pastoris. Moreover, several variants with CDR substitutions outperformed the murine prototype. In conclusion, we have designed several humanized variants of 3E10 (D31N) di-scFv that have potential for application as monotherapy or conjugates for targeted nuclear drug delivery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The molecular basis for development of proinflammatory autoantibodies to progranulin.

    Thurner, Lorenz; Fadle, Natalie; Regitz, Evi; Kemele, Maria; Klemm, Philipp; Zaks, Marina; Stöger, Elisabeth; Bette, Birgit; Carbon, Gabi; Zimmer, Vincent; Assmann, Gunter; Murawski, Niels; Kubuschok, Boris; Held, Gerhard; Preuss, Klaus-Dieter; Pfreundschuh, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Recently we identified in a wide spectrum of autoimmune diseases frequently occurring proinflammatory autoantibodies directed against progranulin, a direct inhibitor of TNFR1 & 2 and of DR3. In the present study we investigated the mechanisms for the breakdown of self-tolerance against progranulin. Isoelectric focusing identified a second, differentially electrically charged progranulin isoform exclusively present in progranulin-antibody-positive patients. Alkaline phosphatase treatment revealed this additional progranulin isoform to be hyperphosphorylated. Subsequently Ser81, which is located within the epitope region of progranulin-antibodies, was identified as hyperphosphorylated serine residue by site directed mutagenesis of candidate phosphorylation sites. Hyperphosphorylated progranulin was detected exclusively in progranulin-antibody-positive patients during the courses of their diseases. The occurrence of hyperphosphorylated progranulin preceded seroconversions of progranulin-antibodies, indicating adaptive immune response. Utilizing panels of kinase and phosphatase inhibitors, PKCβ1 was identified as the relevant kinase and PP1 as the relevant phosphatase for phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of Ser81. In contrast to normal progranulin, hyperphosphorylated progranulin interacted exclusively with inactivated (pThr320) PP1, suggesting inactivated PP1 to cause the detectable occurrence of phosphorylated Ser81 PGRN. Investigation of possible functional alterations of PGRN due to Ser81 phosphorylation revealed, that hyperphosphorylation prevents the interaction and thus direct inhibition of TNFR1, TNFR2 and DR3, representing an additional direct proinflammatory effect. Finally phosphorylation of Ser81 PGRN alters the conversion pattern of PGRN. In conclusion, inactivated PP1 induces hyperphosphorylation of progranulin in a wide spectrum of autoimmune diseases. This hyperphosphorylation prevents direct inhibition of TNFR1, TNFR2 and DR3 by PGRN, alters the

  19. Thyrotropin Receptor Autoantibodies in differential diagnosis of hyperthyroidism in children

    A V Kiyaev

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available There was investigation carried out in group of 54 children (42 females and 12 males aged between 10.3 and 17.2 years (median - 13. years for the purpose of the estimation of the clinical significance determination of the general autoantibodies to the TSH recepetor (TBII in differential diagnostics hyperthyroidism. In 45 from 54 cases (83.3 % there was Graves’ disease (GD diagnosis set, while high level of TBII was detected amongst 44 from those children (97.8%. Amongst patients with subacute thyroiditis and uninodal toxic goiter together with 7 children, initially estimated by us as “AIT, hyperthyroidism” the values TBII were in limit of reference interval. But for all of that unexpectedly there was detected normal level of Ab-TPO amongst all patients in this group, and - normal echogenic in 6 from 7 cases. From the one hand, high level of Ab-TG and heterogeneous structure may be estimated as particular qualities of hyperthyroidism clinical course during AIT by amongst children. However, absence of the row of diagnostic signs with long-lasting euthyroid condition do not allow us to estimate that cases as hyperthyroidism phase of AIT. From the other hand, we can suppose that we observe the diagnostic of natural clinical course of GD cases in phase of immunological remission. The detection of normal level of TBII in absence of typical clinical signs of GD amongst children with manifestation of hyperthyroidism let us retreat from active therapeutic intervention and choose the method of dynamic observation.

  20. Anti-laminin-1 Autoantibodies, Pregnancy Loss and Endometriosis

    Junko Inagaki

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Laminin-1 is a major component and multifunctional glycoprotein of basement membranes that consists of three different subunits, α1, β1 and γ1 chains. It is the earliest synthesized network-forming protein during embryogenesis and plays an important role in embryonic development, embryonic implantation and placentation. We have recently shown that IgG anti-laminin-1 antibodies were significantly associated with recurrent first-trimester miscarriages and with subsequent pregnancy outcome. Interestingly, these antibodies were also observed in patients with endometriosis-associated infertility but not in patients with other causes of infertility, including tubal factors, hormonal and uterine abnormalities. Laminin-α1, -β1 and -γ1 mRNAs have been detected in 90% of endometriotic lesions and all laminin-α1, -β1 and -γ1 chains were localized in the basement membranes of glandular epithelium in endometriotic peritoneal lesions. Western blot analysis showed that anti-laminin-1 antibodies from those patients reacted with all laminin-1's chains. ELISA also confirmed that one of the target epitopes for these antibodies was located in a particular region of the laminin-1 molecule, i.e. the carboxyl-terminal globular G domain of α1 chain. IgM monoclonal anti-laminin-1 autoantibody, that we recently established, also recognized the G domain. Anti-laminin-1 antibodies from mice immunized with –mouse— laminin-1, caused a higher fetal resorption rate with lower embryonic and placental weights. Thus, anti-laminin-1 antibodies may be important in development of autoimmune-mediated reproductive failures and the assessment of the antibodies may provide a novel non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis.

  1. The Clinical Features of Myositis-Associated Autoantibodies: a Review.

    Gunawardena, Harsha

    2017-02-01

    The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) are a group of autoimmune diseases traditionally defined by clinical manifestations including skeletal muscle weakness, skin rashes, elevated skeletal muscle enzymes, and neurophysiological and/or histological evidence of muscle inflammation. Patients with myositis overlap can develop other features including parenchymal lung disease, inflammatory arthritis, gastrointestinal manifestations and marked constitutional symptoms. Although patients may be diagnosed as having polymyositis (PM) or dermatomyositis (DM) under the IIM spectrum, it is quite clear that disease course between subgroups of patients is different. For example, interstitial lung disease may predominate in some, whereas cutaneous complications, cancer risk, or severe refractory myopathy may be a significant feature in others. Therefore, tools that facilitate diagnosis and indicate which patients require more detailed investigation for disease complications are invaluable in clinical practice. The expanding field of autoantibodies (autoAbs) associated with connective tissue disease (CTD)-myositis overlap has generated considerable interest over the last few years. Using an immunological diagnostic approach, this group of heterogeneous conditions can be separated into a number of distinct clinical phenotypes. Rather than diagnose a patient as simply having PM, DM or overlap CTD, we can define syndromes to differentiate disease subsets that emphasise clinical outcomes and guide management. There are now over 15 CTD-myositis overlap autoAbs found in patients with a range of clinical manifestations including interstitial pneumonia, cutaneous disease, cancer-associated myositis and autoimmune-mediated necrotising myopathy. This review describes their diagnostic utility, potential role in disease monitoring and response to treatment. In the future, routine use of these autoAb will allow a stratified approach to managing this complex set of conditions.

  2. Neuronal autoantibodies in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis.

    Vanli-Yavuz, Ebru Nur; Erdag, Ece; Tuzun, Erdem; Ekizoglu, Esme; Baysal-Kirac, Leyla; Ulusoy, Canan; Peach, Sian; Gundogdu, Gokcen; Sencer, Serra; Sencer, Altay; Kucukali, Cem Ismail; Bebek, Nerses; Gurses, Candan; Gokyigit, Aysen; Baykan, Betul

    2016-07-01

    Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of neuronal autoantibodies (NAbs) in a large consecutive series with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) and to elucidate the clinical and laboratory clues for detection of NAbs in this prototype of frequent, drug-resistant epilepsy syndrome. Consecutive patients diagnosed with MTLE fulfilling the MRI criteria for HS were enrolled. The sera of patients and various control groups (80 subjects) were tested for eight NAbs after ethical approval and signed consents. Brain tissues obtained from surgical specimens were also investigated by immunohistochemical analysis for the presence of inflammatory infiltrates. The features of seropositive versus seronegative groups were compared and binary logistic regression analysis was performed to explore the differentiating variables. We found antibodies against antigens, contactin-associated protein-like 2 in 11 patients, uncharacterised voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex antigens in four patients, glycine receptor (GLY-R) in 5 patients, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor in 4 patients and γ-aminobutyric acid receptor A in 1 patient of 111 patients with MTLE-HS and none of the control subjects. The history of status epilepticus, diagnosis of psychosis and positron emission tomography or single-photon emission CT findings in temporal plus extratemporal regions were found significantly more frequently in the seropositive group. Binary logistic regression analysis disclosed that status epilepticus, psychosis and cognitive dysfunction were statistically significant variables to differentiate between the VGKC-complex subgroup versus seronegative group. This first systematic screening study of various NAbs showed 22.5% seropositivity belonging mostly to VGKC-complex antibodies in a large consecutive series of patients with MTLE-HS. Our results indicated a VGKC-complex autoimmunity-related subgroup in the syndrome of MTLE-HS. Published by the BMJ

  3. Actuators for Active Magnetic Bearings

    Eric H. Maslen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The literature of active magnetic bearing (AMB technology dates back to at least 1937 when the earliest work that clearly describes an active magnetic bearing system was published by Jesse Beams [...

  4. Antibodies to ribosomal P proteins of Trypanosoma cruzi in Chagas disease possess functional autoreactivity with heart tissue and differ from anti-P autoantibodies in lupus.

    Kaplan, D; Ferrari, I; Bergami, P L; Mahler, E; Levitus, G; Chiale, P; Hoebeke, J; Van Regenmortel, M H; Levin, M J

    1997-09-16

    Anti-P antibodies present in sera from patients with chronic Chagas heart disease (cChHD) recognize peptide R13, EEEDDDMGFGLFD, which encompasses the C-terminal region of the Trypanosoma cruzi ribosomal P1 and P2 proteins. This peptide shares homology with the C-terminal region (peptide H13 EESDDDMGFGLFD) of the human ribosomal P proteins, which is in turn the target of anti-P autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and with the acidic epitope, AESDE, of the second extracellular loop of the beta1-adrenergic receptor. Anti-P antibodies from chagasic patients showed a marked preference for recombinant parasite ribosomal P proteins and peptides, whereas anti-P autoantibodies from SLE reacted with human and parasite ribosomal P proteins and peptides to the same extent. A semi-quantitative estimation of the binding of cChHD anti-P antibodies to R13 and H13 using biosensor technology indicated that the average affinity constant was about 5 times higher for R13 than for H13. Competitive enzyme immunoassays demonstrated that cChHD anti-P antibodies bind to the acidic portions of peptide H13, as well as to peptide H26R, encompassing the second extracellular loop of the beta1 adrenoreceptor. Anti-P antibodies isolated from cChHD patients exert a positive chronotropic effect in vitro on cardiomyocytes from neonatal rats, which resembles closely that of anti-beta1 receptor antibodies isolated from the same patient. In contrast, SLE anti-P autoantibodies have no functional effect. Our results suggest that the adrenergic-stimulating activity of anti-P antibodies may be implicated in the induction of functional myocardial impairments observed in cChHD.

  5. Clinical utility of anti-p53 auto-antibody: systematic review and focus on colorectal cancer.

    Suppiah, Aravind; Greenman, John

    2013-08-07

    Mutation of the p53 gene is a key event in the carcinogenesis of many different types of tumours. These can occur throughout the length of the p53 gene. Anti-p53 auto-antibodies are commonly produced in response to these p53 mutations. This review firstly describes the various mechanisms of p53 dysfunction and their association with subsequent carcinogenesis. Following this, the mechanisms of induction of anti-p53 auto-antibody production are shown, with various hypotheses for the discrepancies between the presence of p53 mutation and the presence/absence of anti-p53 auto-antibodies. A systematic review was performed with a descriptive summary of key findings of each anti-p53 auto-antibody study in all cancers published in the last 30 years. Using this, the cumulative frequency of anti-p53 auto-antibody in each cancer type is calculated and then compared with the incidence of p53 mutation in each cancer to provide the largest sample calculation and correlation between mutation and anti-p53 auto-antibody published to date. Finally, the review focuses on the data of anti-p53 auto-antibody in colorectal cancer studies, and discusses future strategies including the potentially promising role using anti-p53 auto-antibody presence in screening and surveillance.

  6. How much lox is a grizzly bear worth?

    Chase, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Using grizzly bears as surrogates for "salmon ecosystem" function, the authors develop a generalizable ecosystem-based management framework that enables decision makers to quantify ecosystem-harvest tradeoffs between wild and human recipients of natural resources like fish.

  7. Ectopic lymphoid structures support ongoing production of class-switched autoantibodies in rheumatoid synovium.

    Frances Humby

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular structures resembling germinal centres (GCs that are characterized by follicular dendritic cell (FDC networks have long been recognized in chronically inflamed tissues in autoimmune diseases, including the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. However, it is debated whether these ectopic structures promote autoimmunity and chronic inflammation driving the production of pathogenic autoantibodies. Anti-citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies (ACPA are highly specific markers of RA, predict a poor prognosis, and have been suggested to be pathogenic. Therefore, the main study objectives were to determine whether ectopic lymphoid structures in RA synovium: (i express activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID, the enzyme required for somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination (CSR of Ig genes; (ii support ongoing CSR and ACPA production; and (iii remain functional in a RA/severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID chimera model devoid of new immune cell influx into the synovium.Using immunohistochemistry (IHC and quantitative Taqman real-time PCR (QT-PCR in synovial tissue from 55 patients with RA, we demonstrated that FDC+ structures invariably expressed AID with a distribution resembling secondary lymphoid organs. Further, AID+/CD21+ follicular structures were surrounded by ACPA+/CD138+ plasma cells, as demonstrated by immune reactivity to citrullinated fibrinogen. Moreover, we identified a novel subset of synovial AID+/CD20+ B cells outside GCs resembling interfollicular large B cells. In order to gain direct functional evidence that AID+ structures support CSR and in situ manufacturing of class-switched ACPA, 34 SCID mice were transplanted with RA synovium and humanely killed at 4 wk for harvesting of transplants and sera. Persistent expression of AID and Igamma-Cmu circular transcripts (identifying ongoing IgM-IgG class-switching was observed in synovial grafts expressing FDCs/CD21L. Furthermore, synovial mRNA levels of AID

  8. First results with a radioreceptor-assay (TRAK-Assay) for TSH-receptor-autoantibodies

    Becker, W.; Reiners, C.; Boerner, W.

    1983-01-01

    A new radioreceptor-assay (TRAK-assay) for autoantibodies against TSH-receptors was tested in 48 untreated thyrotoxic patients (26 regional autonomies, 22 toxic diffuse goiters). None of the 26 patients with regional autonomy showed positive autoantibody-titers. 4 patients with toxic diffuse goiter and thyrotoxic exophthalmos were TRAK-positive. Positive titers of microsomal and thyreoglobulin autoantibodies could be seen in 8 of 9 patients with positive TRAK-titers. In accordance with the conventional methods for detecting thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins the new TRAK-assay seems to be suited for differentiating between immunogenic toxic diffuse goiter (Graves' disease) and goiter with disseminated autonomy as well as for prediction of relapse. (orig.) [de

  9. Prevalence of serum anti-neuronal autoantibodies in patients admitted to acute psychiatric care

    Schou, M; Sæther, S G; Borowski, K

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Autoimmune encephalitis associated with anti-neuronal antibodies may be challenging to distinguish from primary psychiatric disorders. The significance of anti-neuronal antibodies in psychiatric patients without clear evidence of autoimmune encephalitis is unknown. We investigated...... the serum prevalence of six anti-neuronal autoantibodies in a cohort of unselected patients admitted to acute psychiatric care. METHOD: Serum was drawn from 925 patients admitted to acute psychiatric in-patient care. Psychiatric diagnoses were set according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD......)-10 criteria. Antibody analysis was performed with an indirect immunofluorescence test for N-methyl d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibodies and five other anti-neuronal autoantibodies of the immunoglobulin (Ig) classes IgA, IgG and IgM isotype. RESULTS: Anti-neuronal autoantibodies were found in 11...

  10. Stress-induced rise in serum anti-brain autoantibody levels in the rat.

    Andrejević, S; Bukilica, M; Dimitrijević, M; Laban, O; Radulovic, J; Kovacevic-Jovanovic, V; Stanojevic, S; Vasiljevic, T; Marković, B M

    1997-02-01

    Sera from Wistar rats subjected to different stress procedures were tested by ELISA for the presence of autoantibodies with specificity for neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100 protein that are preferentially localized in neurons and glia, respectively. Autoantibodies were present in sera of animals before exposure to stress, and raised with age. Anti-NSE and anti-S100 autoantibody levels were increased one day after termination of restraint (2 hours daily, 10 days) and electric tail shock (80 shocks daily, 19 days), and in fifth and tenth week of overcrowding stress. Differences between stressed and control animals were not present one month following restraint and electric tail shock and in twentieth week of overcrowding.

  11. Effect of oral administration of lactobacillus acidophilus on the immune responses and survival of BALB/c mice bearing human breast cancer

    Soltan Dallal MM

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: In according to immunomodulatory effect of probiotics and effect of these bacteria on the effectiveness of immune responses, at the present work we proposed the evaluation of oral administration of L.acidophilus on the immune statues in BALB/c mice bearing breast cancer."n"nMethods: A total of 30 In-bred BALB/c mices aged from six to eight weeks weighting 25-30g were randomly enrolled in our study, in two groups each consist of 15 mices. The L.acidophilus ATCC4356 strain used in this study was inoculated in MRS broth and cultivated for a day at 37°C under anaerobic conditions, collected by centrifugation and resuspend in Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS. After preparation of proper amount of these suspensions it was orally administered to the mice with a gastric feeding, Control mices received an equal volume of PBS in duration of study."n"nResults: Results showed the increase in production of IFnγ (p<0.005, and decrease in production of Th2 cytokines such as IL4 (p=0.347 in the L.acidophilus administered mice in comparison to control group of mice. In addition the proliferation of immune cells in probiotic group was significantly higher than controls, and most importantly probiotic administered mice showed

  12. Delayed child-bearing.

    Johnson, Jo-Ann; Tough, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    To provide an overview of delayed child-bearing and to describe the implications for women and health care providers. Delayed child-bearing, which has increased greatly in recent decades, is associated with an increased risk of infertility, pregnancy complications, and adverse pregnancy outcome. This guideline provides information that will optimize the counselling and care of Canadian women with respect to their reproductive choices. Maternal age is the most important determinant of fertility, and obstetric and perinatal risks increase with maternal age. Many women are unaware of the success rates or limitations of assisted reproductive technology and of the increased medical risks of delayed child-bearing, including multiple births, preterm delivery, stillbirth, and Caesarean section. This guideline provides a framework to address these issues. Studies published between 2000 and August 2010 were retrieved through searches of PubMed and the Cochrane Library using appropriate key words (delayed child-bearing, deferred pregnancy, maternal age, assisted reproductive technology, infertility, and multiple births) and MeSH terms (maternal age, reproductive behaviour, fertility). The Internet was also searched using similar key words, and national and international medical specialty societies were searched for clinical practice guidelines and position statements. Data were extracted based on the aims, sample, authors, year, and results. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Women who delay child-bearing are at increased risk of infertility. Prospective parents, especially women, should know that their fecundity and fertility begin to decline significantly after 32 years of age. Prospective parents should know that assisted reproductive technologies cannot guarantee a live birth or completely

  13. Government Risk-Bearing

    1993-01-01

    The u.s. government bulks large in the nation's financial markets. The huge volume of government-issued and -sponsored debt affects the pricing and volume ofprivate debt and, consequently, resource allocation between competing alternatives. What is often not fully appreciated is the substantial influence the federal government wields overresource allocation through its provisionofcreditandrisk-bearing services to the private economy. Because peopleand firms generally seekto avoid risk, atsomeprice they are willing to pay another party to assume the risk they would otherwise face. Insurance companies are a class of private-sector firms one commonly thinks of as providing these services. As the federal government has expanded its presence in the U.S. economy during this century, it has increasingly developed programs aimed at bearing risks that the private sector either would not take on at any price, or would take on but atapricethoughtto besogreatthatmostpotentialbeneficiarieswouldnotpurchase the coverage. To...

  14. Passive magnetic bearing system

    Post, Richard F.

    2014-09-02

    An axial stabilizer for the rotor of a magnetic bearing provides external control of stiffness through switching in external inductances. External control also allows the stabilizer to become a part of a passive/active magnetic bearing system that requires no external source of power and no position sensor. Stabilizers for displacements transverse to the axis of rotation are provided that require only a single cylindrical Halbach array in its operation, and thus are especially suited for use in high rotation speed applications, such as flywheel energy storage systems. The elimination of the need of an inner cylindrical array solves the difficult mechanical problem of supplying support against centrifugal forces for the magnets of that array. Compensation is provided for the temperature variation of the strength of the magnetic fields of the permanent magnets in the levitating magnet arrays.

  15. Analysis of novel Sjogren's syndrome autoantibodies in patients with dry eyes.

    Everett, Sandra; Vishwanath, Sahana; Cavero, Vanessa; Shen, Long; Suresh, Lakshmanan; Malyavantham, Kishore; Lincoff-Cohen, Norah; Ambrus, Julian L

    2017-03-07

    Dry eye is a common problem in Ophthalmology and may occur for many reasons including Sjogren's syndrome (SS). Recent studies have identified autoantibodies, anti-salivary gland protein 1 (SP1), anti-carbonic anhydrase 6 (CA6) and anti-parotid secretory protein (PSP), which occur early in the course of SS. The current studies were designed to evaluate how many patients with idiopathic dry eye and no evidence of systemic diseases from a dry eye practice have these autoantibodies. Patients from a dry eye clinic and normal controls were assessed by Schirmer's test for tear flow. Sera were assessed for autoantibodies using ELISA assays. Statistics was performed with Prism 7 software and student's unpaired t test. In this study 60% of the dry eye patients expressed one of these autoantibodies. Only 30% expressed one of the autoantibodies associated with long-standing SS, which are included in the diagnostic criteria for SS, anti-Ro and anti-La. Patients with disease for less than 2 years and mild dry eyes did not express anti-Ro or anti-La, while 25% expressed anti-SP1. Similar observations, with smaller numbers, were made when patients had not only dry eye but also dry mouth. Antibodies to SP1, CA6 and PSP occur in some patients with idiopathic dry eyes. Further studies will be needed to determine how many of these patients go on to develop systemic manifestations of SS. Testing for these autoantibodies may allow early recognition of patients with SS. This will lead to improved management of the patients and the development of new strategies to maintain normal lacrimal and salivary gland function in patients with SS.

  16. Antinuclear Matrix Protein 2 Autoantibodies and Edema, Muscle Disease, and Malignancy Risk in Dermatomyositis Patients.

    Albayda, Jemima; Pinal-Fernandez, Iago; Huang, Wilson; Parks, Cassie; Paik, Julie; Casciola-Rosen, Livia; Danoff, Sonye K; Johnson, Cheilonda; Christopher-Stine, Lisa; Mammen, Andrew L

    2017-11-01

    Dermatomyositis (DM) patients typically present with proximal weakness and autoantibodies that are associated with distinct clinical phenotypes. We observed that DM patients with autoantibodies recognizing the nuclear matrix protein NXP-2 often presented with especially severe weakness. The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical features associated with anti-NXP-2 autoantibodies. There were 235 DM patients who underwent testing for anti-NXP-2 autoantibodies. Patient characteristics, including muscle strength, were compared between those with and without these autoantibodies. The number of cancer cases observed in anti-NXP-2-positive subjects was compared with the number expected in the general population. Of the DM patients, 56 (23.8%) were anti-NXP-2-positive. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of proximal extremity weakness in patients with and without anti-NXP-2. In contrast, anti-NXP-2-positive patients had more prevalent weakness in the distal arms (35% versus 20%; P = 0.02), distal legs (25% versus 8%; P edema (36% versus 19%; P = 0.01) than anti-NXP-2-negative patients. Five anti-NXP-2-positive subjects (9%) had cancer-associated myositis, representing a 3.68-fold increased risk (95% confidence interval 1.2-8.6) compared to the expected prevalence in the general population. In DM, anti-NXP-2 autoantibodies are associated with subcutaneous edema, calcinosis, and a muscle phenotype characterized by myalgia, proximal and distal weakness, and dysphagia. As anti-NXP-2-positive patients have an increased risk of cancer, we suggest that they undergo comprehensive cancer screening. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  17. Lack of association between folate-receptor autoantibodies and neural-tube defects.

    Molloy, Anne M

    2009-07-09

    BACKGROUND: A previous report described the presence of autoantibodies against folate receptors in 75% of serum samples from women with a history of pregnancy complicated by a neural-tube defect, as compared with 10% of controls. We sought to confirm this finding in an Irish population, which traditionally has had a high prevalence of neural-tube defects. METHODS: We performed two studies. Study 1 consisted of analysis of stored frozen blood samples collected from 1993 through 1994 from 103 mothers with a history of pregnancy complicated by a neural-tube defect (case mothers), 103 mothers with a history of pregnancy but no complication by a neural-tube defect (matched with regard to number of pregnancies and sampling dates), 58 women who had never been pregnant, and 36 men. Study 2, conducted to confirm that the storage of samples did not influence the folate-receptor autoantibodies, included fresh samples from 37 case mothers, 22 control mothers, 10 women who had never been pregnant, and 9 men. All samples were assayed for blocking and binding autoantibodies against folate receptors. RESULTS: In Study 1, blocking autoantibodies were found in 17% of case mothers, as compared with 13% of control mothers (odds ratio, 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70 to 3.39), and binding autoantibodies in 29%, as compared with 32%, respectively (odds ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.44 to 1.50). Study 2 showed similar results, indicating that sample degradation was unlikely. CONCLUSIONS: The presence and titer of maternal folate-receptor autoantibodies were not significantly associated with a neural-tube defect-affected pregnancy in this Irish population.

  18. Cluster analysis of autoantibodies in 852 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus from a single center.

    Artim-Esen, Bahar; Çene, Erhan; Şahinkaya, Yasemin; Ertan, Semra; Pehlivan, Özlem; Kamali, Sevil; Gül, Ahmet; Öcal, Lale; Aral, Orhan; Inanç, Murat

    2014-07-01

    Associations between autoantibodies and clinical features have been described in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Herein, we aimed to define autoantibody clusters and their clinical correlations in a large cohort of patients with SLE. We analyzed 852 patients with SLE who attended our clinic. Seven autoantibodies were selected for cluster analysis: anti-DNA, anti-Sm, anti-RNP, anticardiolipin (aCL) immunoglobulin (Ig)G or IgM, lupus anticoagulant (LAC), anti-Ro, and anti-La. Two-step clustering and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were used. Five clusters were identified. A cluster consisted of patients with only anti-dsDNA antibodies, a cluster of anti-Sm and anti-RNP, a cluster of aCL IgG/M and LAC, and a cluster of anti-Ro and anti-La antibodies. Analysis revealed 1 more cluster that consisted of patients who did not belong to any of the clusters formed by antibodies chosen for cluster analysis. Sm/RNP cluster had significantly higher incidence of pulmonary hypertension and Raynaud phenomenon. DsDNA cluster had the highest incidence of renal involvement. In the aCL/LAC cluster, there were significantly more patients with neuropsychiatric involvement, antiphospholipid syndrome, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia. According to the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics damage index, the highest frequency of damage was in the aCL/LAC cluster. Comparison of 10 and 20 years survival showed reduced survival in the aCL/LAC cluster. This study supports the existence of autoantibody clusters with distinct clinical features in SLE and shows that forming clinical subsets according to autoantibody clusters may be useful in predicting the outcome of the disease. Autoantibody clusters in SLE may exhibit differences according to the clinical setting or population.

  19. Stacked magnet superconducting bearing

    Rigney, T.K. II; Saville, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    A superconducting bearing is described, comprising: a plurality of permanent magnets magnetized end-to-end and stacked side-by-side in alternating polarity, such that flux lines flow between ends of adjacent magnets; isolating means, disposed between said adjacent magnets, for reducing flux leakage between opposing sides of said adjacent magnets; and a member made of superconducting material having at least one surface in communication with said flux lines

  20. Radium bearing waste disposal

    Tope, W.G.; Nixon, D.A.; Smith, M.L.; Stone, T.J.; Vogel, R.A.; Schofield, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Fernald radium bearing ore residue waste, stored within Silos 1 and 2 (K-65) and Silo 3, will be vitrified for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A comprehensive, parametric evaluation of waste form, packaging, and transportation alternatives was completed to identify the most cost-effective approach. The impacts of waste loading, waste form, regulatory requirements, NTS waste acceptance criteria, as-low-as-reasonably-achievable principles, and material handling costs were factored into the recommended approach

  1. Development of an Aquaporin-4 Orthogonal Array of Particle-Based ELISA for Neuromyelitis Optica Autoantibodies Detection.

    Francesco Pisani

    Full Text Available Serological markers of Nuromyelitis Optica (NMO, an autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system, are autoantibodies targeting the astrocytic water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4. We have previously demonstrated that the main epitopes for these autoantibodies (AQP4-IgG are generated by the supramolecular arrangement of AQP4 tetramers into an Orthogonal Array of Particles (OAPs. Many tests have been developed to detect AQP4-IgG in patient sera but several procedural issues affect OAP assembly and consequently test sensitivity. To date, the protein based ELISA test shows the lowest sensitivity while representing a valid alternative to the more sensitive cell based assay (CBA, which, however, shows economic, technical and interpretation problems. Here we have developed a high perfomance ELISA in which native OAPs are used as the molecular target. To this aim a native size exclusion chromatography method has been developed to isolate integral, highly pure and AQP4-IgG-recognized OAPs from rat brain. These OAPs were immobilized and oriented on a plastic plate by a sandwich approach and 139 human sera were tested, including 67 sera from NMO patients. The OAP-ELISA showed a 99% specificity and a higher sensitivity (91% compared to the CBA test. A comparative analysis revealed an end-point titer three orders of magnitude higher than the commercial ELISA and six times higher than our in-house CBA test. We show that CNS-extracted OAPs are crucial elements in order to perform an efficient AQP4-IgG test and the OAP-ELISA developed represents a valid alternative to the CBA currently used.

  2. Magnetic translator bearings

    Hockney, Richard L. (Inventor); Downer, James R. (Inventor); Eisenhaure, David B. (Inventor); Hawkey, Timothy J. (Inventor); Johnson, Bruce G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A magnetic bearing system for enabling translational motion includes a carriage and a shaft for movably supporting the carriage; a first magnetic bearing fixed to one of the carriage and shaft and slidably received in a first channel of the other of the carriage and shaft. The first channel is generally U shaped with two side walls and a back wall. The magnetic bearing includes a pair of spaced magnetic pole pieces, each pole piece having a pair of electromagnetic coils mounted on poles on opposite ends of the pole piece proximate the side walls, and a third electromagnetic coil mounted on a pole of the pole piece proximate the backwall; a motion sensor for sensing translational motion along two axes and rotationally about three axes of the carriage and shaft relative to each other; and a correction circuit responsive to the sensor for generating a correction signal to drive the coils to compensate for any misalignment sensed between the carriage and the shaft.

  3. Pulmonary function and autoantibodies in a long-term follow-up of juvenile dermatomyositis patients

    Mathiesen, Pernille Raasthøj; Buchvald, Frederik Fouirnaies; Nielsen, Kim G

    2014-01-01

    outcome, and (iii) identify possible associations between pulmonary impairment and myositis-specific autoantibodies (MSAs).Methods. Fifty-one JDM patients performed conventional spirometry in a cross-sectional follow-up study. The scores of the Myositis Damage Index (MDI), Myositis Damage by visual...... analogue scale (MYODAM-VAS) and physician's global damage assessment were used to estimate JDM outcome. ANAs, MSAs and myositis-associated autoantibodies were analysed in all patients.Results. Forty-two patients (82%) (mean follow-up time 14.3 years) had normal lung function. Four patients (8%) were...

  4. AUTOANTIBODIES TO GLUTAMIC ACID DECARBOXYLASE AS A PATHOGENETIC MARKER OF TYPE I DIABETES MELLITUS

    N. V. Piven

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A new method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (in solid-phase ELISA format has been developed to determine concentrations of autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase, as well as an evidencebased methodology is proposed for its medical implications, as a quantitative pathogenetic predictive marker of autoimmune diagnostics in type 1 diabetes mellitus. This technique could be implied for serial production of diagnostic reagent kits, aimed for detection of autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase by means of ELISA approach. (Med. Immunol., 2011, vol. 13, N 2-3, pp 257-260

  5. Autoantibody-Targeted Treatments for Acute Exacerbations of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Michael Donahoe

    Full Text Available Severe acute exacerbations (AE of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF are medically untreatable and often fatal within days. Recent evidence suggests autoantibodies may be involved in IPF progression. Autoantibody-mediated lung diseases are typically refractory to glucocorticoids and nonspecific medications, but frequently respond to focused autoantibody reduction treatments. We conducted a pilot trial to test the hypothesis that autoantibody-targeted therapies may also benefit AE-IPF patients.Eleven (11 critically-ill AE-IPF patients with no evidence of conventional autoimmune diseases were treated with therapeutic plasma exchanges (TPE and rituximab, supplemented in later cases with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG. Plasma anti-epithelial (HEp-2 autoantibodies and matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7 were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA, respectively. Outcomes among the trial subjects were compared to those of 20 historical control AE-IPF patients treated with conventional glucocorticoid therapy prior to this experimental trial.Nine (9 trial subjects (82% had improvements of pulmonary gas exchange after treatment, compared to one (5% historical control. Two of the three trial subjects who relapsed after only five TPE responded again with additional TPE. The three latest subjects who responded to an augmented regimen of nine TPE plus rituximab plus IVIG have had sustained responses without relapses after 96-to-237 days. Anti-HEp-2 autoantibodies were present in trial subjects prior to therapy, and were reduced by TPE among those who responded to treatment. Conversely, plasma MMP7 levels were not systematically affected by therapy nor correlated with clinical responses. One-year survival of trial subjects was 46+15% vs. 0% among historical controls. No serious adverse events were attributable to the experimental medications.This pilot trial indicates specific treatments that reduce autoantibodies might benefit some severely-ill AE

  6. Differential Genetic Associations for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Based on Anti–dsDNA Autoantibody Production

    Chung, Sharon A.; Taylor, Kimberly E.; Graham, Robert R.; Nititham, Joanne; Lee, Annette T.; Ortmann, Ward A.; Jacob, Chaim O.; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.; Tsao, Betty P.; Harley, John B.; Gaffney, Patrick M.; Moser, Kathy L.; Petri, Michelle; Demirci, F. Yesim; Kamboh, M. Ilyas; Manzi, Susan; Gregersen, Peter K.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Behrens, Timothy W.; Criswell, Lindsey A.

    2011-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a clinically heterogeneous, systemic autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibody formation. Previously published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have investigated SLE as a single phenotype. Therefore, we conducted a GWAS to identify genetic factors associated with anti–dsDNA autoantibody production, a SLE–related autoantibody with diagnostic and clinical importance. Using two independent datasets, over 400,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were studied in a total of 1,717 SLE cases and 4,813 healthy controls. Anti–dsDNA autoantibody positive (anti–dsDNA +, n = 811) and anti–dsDNA autoantibody negative (anti–dsDNA –, n = 906) SLE cases were compared to healthy controls and to each other to identify SNPs associated specifically with these SLE subtypes. SNPs in the previously identified SLE susceptibility loci STAT4, IRF5, ITGAM, and the major histocompatibility complex were strongly associated with anti–dsDNA + SLE. Far fewer and weaker associations were observed for anti–dsDNA – SLE. For example, rs7574865 in STAT4 had an OR for anti–dsDNA + SLE of 1.77 (95% CI 1.57–1.99, p = 2.0E-20) compared to an OR for anti–dsDNA – SLE of 1.26 (95% CI 1.12–1.41, p = 2.4E-04), with pheterogeneity<0.0005. SNPs in the SLE susceptibility loci BANK1, KIAA1542, and UBE2L3 showed evidence of association with anti–dsDNA + SLE and were not associated with anti–dsDNA – SLE. In conclusion, we identified differential genetic associations with SLE based on anti–dsDNA autoantibody production. Many previously identified SLE susceptibility loci may confer disease risk through their role in autoantibody production and be more accurately described as autoantibody propensity loci. Lack of strong SNP associations may suggest that other types of genetic variation or non-genetic factors such as environmental exposures have a greater impact on susceptibility to anti–dsDNA – SLE. PMID

  7. Differential genetic associations for systemic lupus erythematosus based on anti-dsDNA autoantibody production.

    Sharon A Chung

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a clinically heterogeneous, systemic autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibody formation. Previously published genome-wide association studies (GWAS have investigated SLE as a single phenotype. Therefore, we conducted a GWAS to identify genetic factors associated with anti-dsDNA autoantibody production, a SLE-related autoantibody with diagnostic and clinical importance. Using two independent datasets, over 400,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were studied in a total of 1,717 SLE cases and 4,813 healthy controls. Anti-dsDNA autoantibody positive (anti-dsDNA +, n = 811 and anti-dsDNA autoantibody negative (anti-dsDNA -, n = 906 SLE cases were compared to healthy controls and to each other to identify SNPs associated specifically with these SLE subtypes. SNPs in the previously identified SLE susceptibility loci STAT4, IRF5, ITGAM, and the major histocompatibility complex were strongly associated with anti-dsDNA + SLE. Far fewer and weaker associations were observed for anti-dsDNA - SLE. For example, rs7574865 in STAT4 had an OR for anti-dsDNA + SLE of 1.77 (95% CI 1.57-1.99, p = 2.0E-20 compared to an OR for anti-dsDNA - SLE of 1.26 (95% CI 1.12-1.41, p = 2.4E-04, with p(heterogeneity<0.0005. SNPs in the SLE susceptibility loci BANK1, KIAA1542, and UBE2L3 showed evidence of association with anti-dsDNA + SLE and were not associated with anti-dsDNA - SLE. In conclusion, we identified differential genetic associations with SLE based on anti-dsDNA autoantibody production. Many previously identified SLE susceptibility loci may confer disease risk through their role in autoantibody production and be more accurately described as autoantibody propensity loci. Lack of strong SNP associations may suggest that other types of genetic variation or non-genetic factors such as environmental exposures have a greater impact on susceptibility to anti-dsDNA - SLE.

  8. Use of self-collected capillary blood samples for islet autoantibody screening in relatives: a feasibility and acceptability study.

    Liu, Y; Rafkin, L E; Matheson, D; Henderson, C; Boulware, D; Besser, R E J; Ferrara, C; Yu, L; Steck, A K; Bingley, P J

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using self-collected capillary blood samples for islet autoantibody testing to identify risk in relatives of people with Type 1 diabetes. Participants were recruited via the observational TrialNet Pathway to Prevention study, which screens and monitors relatives of people with Type 1 diabetes for islet autoantibodies. Relatives were sent kits for capillary blood collection, with written instructions, an online instructional video link and a questionnaire. Sera from capillary blood samples were tested for autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase, islet antigen-2, insulin and zinc transporter 8. 'Successful' sample collection was defined as obtaining sufficient volume and quality to provide definitive autoantibody results, including confirmation of positive results by repeat assay. In 240 relatives who returned samples, the median (range) age was 15.5 (1-49) years and 51% were male. Of these samples, 98% were sufficient for glutamic acid decarboxylase, islet antigen-2 and zinc transporter 8 autoantibody testing and 84% for insulin autoantibody testing and complete autoantibody screen. The upper 90% confidence bound for unsuccessful collection was 4.4% for glutamic acid decarboxylase, islet antigen-2 and/or zinc transporter 8 autoantibody assays, and 19.3% for insulin autoantibodies. Despite 43% of 220 questionnaire respondents finding capillary blood collection uncomfortable or painful, 82% preferred home self-collection of capillary blood samples compared with outpatient venepuncture (90% of those aged 18 years). The perceived difficulty of collecting capillary blood samples did not affect success rate. Self-collected capillary blood sampling offers a feasible alternative to venous sampling, with the potential to facilitate autoantibody screening for Type 1 diabetes risk. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  9. Do Electrochemiluminescence Assays Improve Prediction of Time to Type 1 Diabetes in Autoantibody-Positive TrialNet Subjects?

    Fouts, Alexandra; Pyle, Laura; Yu, Liping; Miao, Dongmei; Michels, Aaron; Krischer, Jeffrey; Sosenko, Jay; Gottlieb, Peter; Steck, Andrea K

    2016-10-01

    To explore whether electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assays can help improve prediction of time to type 1 diabetes in the TrialNet autoantibody-positive population. TrialNet subjects who were positive for one or more autoantibodies (microinsulin autoantibody, GAD65 autoantibody [GADA], IA-2A, and ZnT8A) with available ECL-insulin autoantibody (IAA) and ECL-GADA data at their initial visit were analyzed; after a median follow-up of 24 months, 177 of these 1,287 subjects developed diabetes. Univariate analyses showed that autoantibodies by radioimmunoassays (RIAs), ECL-IAA, ECL-GADA, age, sex, number of positive autoantibodies, presence of HLA DR3/4-DQ8 genotype, HbA1c, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) measurements were all significantly associated with progression to diabetes. Subjects who were ECL positive had a risk of progression to diabetes within 6 years of 58% compared with 5% for the ECL-negative subjects (P < 0.0001). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were compared, with the base model including age, sex, OGTT measurements, and number of positive autoantibodies by RIAs. The model with positivity for ECL-GADA and/or ECL-IAA was the best, and factors that remained significantly associated with time to diabetes were area under the curve (AUC) C-peptide, fasting C-peptide, AUC glucose, number of positive autoantibodies by RIAs, and ECL positivity. Adding ECL to the Diabetes Prevention Trial risk score (DPTRS) improved the receiver operating characteristic curves with AUC of 0.83 (P < 0.0001). ECL assays improved the ability to predict time to diabetes in these autoantibody-positive relatives at risk for developing diabetes. These findings might be helpful in the design and eligibility criteria for prevention trials in the future. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  10. Humoral and cell-mediated immune response against human retinal antigens in relation to ocular onchocerciasis

    van der Lelij, A.; Rothova, A.; Stilma, J. S.; Vetter, J. C.; Hoekzema, R.; Kijlstra, A.

    1990-01-01

    Autoimmune mechanisms are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of the chorioretinal changes in ocular onchocerciasis. The humoral autoimmune response was determined by measuring serum levels of autoantibodies, directed against human S-antigen and interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein

  11. Grizzly bears and mining in the Cheviot region

    Symbaluk, M.; Archibald, T. [Foothills Research Inst., Hinton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation described a grizzly bear research program conducted by the Foothill Research Institute at the Cheviot mine. The research program uses a satellite land classification protocol and remote sensing tools to map and identify the grizzly bear habitat. Modelling is also conducted to predict bear probabilities. Global information systems (GIS) are used to evaluate bear responses to human activities. Grizzly bear health and wellness is also assessed as part of the programs. Land maps are combined with global positioning systems (GPS) and resource selection function (RSF) models in order to map grizzly bear distribution. Data obtained from the program is used to inform decision-making and support policy development. Previous studies predicted that the grizzly bear population would disappear from the Cheviot mine area after 20 years of its being in operation. The research program provided real data to test predictions made during previous environmental assessments. Grizzly bear populations have actually increased in the mining area. It was concluded that the bears have moved more freely through industrial landscapes than previously predicted. tabs., figs.

  12. Acquired umbilical hernias in four captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Velguth, Karen E; Rochat, Mark C; Langan, Jennifer N; Backues, Kay

    2009-12-01

    Umbilical hernias are a common occurrence in domestic animals and humans but have not been well documented in polar bears. Surgical reduction and herniorrhaphies were performed to correct acquired hernias in the region of the umbilicus in four adult captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus) housed in North American zoos. Two of the four bears were clinically unaffected by their hernias prior to surgery. One bear showed signs of severe discomfort following acute enlargement of the hernia. In another bear, re-herniation led to acute abdominal pain due to gastric entrapment and strangulation. The hernias in three bears were surgically repaired by debridement of the hernia ring and direct apposition of the abdominal wall, while the large defect in the most severely affected bear was closed using polypropylene mesh to prevent excessive tension. The cases in this series demonstrate that while small hernias may remain clinically inconsequential for long periods of time, enlargement or recurrence of the defect can lead to incarceration and acute abdominal crisis. Umbilical herniation has not been reported in free-ranging polar bears, and it is suspected that factors such as body condition, limited exercise, or enclosure design potentially contribute to the development of umbilical hernias in captive polar bears.

  13. Bearing for liquid metal pump

    Dickinson, R.J.; Pennell, W.E.; Wasko, J.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid metal pump bearing support comprises a series of tangentially oriented spokes that connect the bearing cylinder to the pump internals structure. The spokes may be arranged in a plurality of planes extending from the bearing cylinder to the pump internals with the spokes in one plane being arranged alternately with those in the next plane. The bearing support structure provides the pump with sufficient lateral support for the bearing structure together with the capability of accommodating differential thermal expansion without adversely affecting pump performance

  14. Demography and population status of polar bears in western Hudson Bay

    Lunn, Nicholas J.; Regher, Eric V; Servanty, Sabrina; Converse, Sarah J.; Richardson, Evan S.; Stirling, Ian

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the demography and population status of the Western Hudson Bay (WH) polar bear subpopulation for the period 1984-2011, using live-recapture data from research studies and management actions, and dead-recovery data from polar bears harvested for subsistence purposes or removed during human-bear conflicts.

  15. Case report of a fatal bear attack documented by forensic wildlife genetics.

    Frosch, Christiane; Dutsov, Aleksandar; Georgiev, Georgi; Nowak, Carsten

    2011-08-01

    Fatal bear attacks on humans are extremely rare across Europe. Here we report a fatal bear attack on a man in Bulgaria. We used microsatellite analysis for bear individualization based on hair samples found near the man's corpse. The genetic profile of the killing bear was compared to that of a bear shot three days later near the killing scene. Our results show that the wrong bear has been shot. Shortly after our results were reported a second person was attacked by a bear nearby. This case documents the importance of forensic DNA analysis following severe wildlife attacks in order to improve wildlife management actions in regions were direct human-bear conflicts are likely to happen. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection of adrenocortical autoantibodies in Addison's disease with a peroxidase-labelled protein A technique

    R.C. Silva

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Adrenocortical autoantibodies (ACA, present in 60-80% of patients with idiopathic Addison's disease, are conventionally detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF on frozen sections of adrenal glands. The large-scale use of IIF is limited in part by the need for a fluorescence microscope and the fact that histological sections cannot be stored for long periods of time. To circumvent these restrictions we developed a novel peroxidase-labelled protein A (PLPA technique for the detection of ACA in patients with Addison's disease and compared the results with those obtained with the classical IIF assay. We studied serum samples from 90 healthy control subjects and 22 patients with Addison's disease, who had been clinically classified into two groups: idiopathic (N = 13 and granulomatous (N = 9. ACA-PLPA were detected in 10/22 (45% patients: 9/13 (69% with the idiopathic form and 1/9 (11% with the granulomatous form, whereas ACA-IIF were detected in 11/22 patients (50%: 10/13 (77% with the idiopathic form and 1/9 (11% with the granulomatous form. Twelve of the 13 idiopathic addisonians (92% were positive for either ACA-PLPA or ACA-IIF, but only 7 were positive by both methods. In contrast, none of 90 healthy subjects was found to be positive for ACA. Thus, our study shows that the PLPA-based technique is useful, has technical advantages over the IIF method (by not requiring the use of a fluorescence microscope and by permitting section storage for long periods of time. However, since it is only 60% concordant with the ACA-IIF method, it should be considered complementary instead of an alternative method to IIF for the detection of ACA in human sera.

  17. Effect of Thyroglobulin Autoantibodies on the Metabolic Clearance of Serum Thyroglobulin.

    Latrofa, Francesco; Ricci, Debora; Bottai, Sara; Brozzi, Federica; Chiovato, Luca; Piaggi, Paolo; Marinò, Michele; Vitti, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    In order to establish whether thyroglobulin autoantibodies (TgAb) influence the metabolic clearance of thyroglobulin (Tg) in humans, serum Tg and TgAb were correlated shortly after radioiodine ( 131 I) treatment. Samples were collected from 30 consecutive patients undergoing 131 I activity for Graves' hyperthyroidism at the time of treatment and every 15 days thereafter, up to 90 days. Tg and TgAb were measured by immunometric assays (functional sensitivities: 0.1 ng/mL and 8 IU/mL). Tg was detectable in all patients at day 0. Tg concentrations rose from a mean of 33.2 ng/mL [confidence interval (CI) 17.8-61.0 ng/mL] at day 0 to a mean of 214.6 ng/mL [CI 116.9-393.4 ng/mL] at day 30 and then steadily decreased, reaching the lowest concentration at day 90 (M = 10.9 ng/mL [CI 5.5-20.9 ng/mL]). Compared to their levels at day 0 (M = 23.6 IU/mL [CI 10.5-52.9 IU/mL]), TgAb remained stable through day 15 and then gradually increased up to a mean of 116.6 IU/mL [CI 51.9-262.2 IU/mL] at day 90. Patients were then split into two groups according to their TgAb status at day 0: undetectable (metabolic clearance of Tg, supporting the concept that their interference in the measurement of Tg is mainly due to an in vivo effect.

  18. Bearing construction for refrigeration compresssor

    Middleton, Marc G.; Nelson, Richard T.

    1988-01-01

    A hermetic refrigeration compressor has a cylinder block and a crankshaft rotatable about a vertical axis to reciprocate a piston in a cylinder on the cylinder block. A separate bearing housing is secured to the central portion of the cylinder block and extends vertically along the crankshaft, where it carries a pair of roller bearings to journal the crankshaft. The crankshaft has a radially extending flange which is journaled by a thrust-type roller bearing above the bearing housing to absorb the vertical forces on the crankshaft so that all three of the roller bearings are between the crankshaft and the bearing housing to maintain and control the close tolerances required by such bearings.

  19. 77 FR 70423 - Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC...

    2012-11-26

    ... Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC; Notice of..., 2012, Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC, sole licensee (transferor) and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC (transferees) filed an application for the partial the transfer of licenses...

  20. Chimeric human parainfluenza virus bearing the Ebola virus glycoprotein as the sole surface protein is immunogenic and highly protective against Ebola virus challenge

    Bukreyev, Alexander; Marzi, Andrea; Feldmann, Friederike; Zhang Liqun; Yang Lijuan; Ward, Jerrold M.; Dorward, David W.; Pickles, Raymond J.; Murphy, Brian R.; Feldmann, Heinz; Collins, Peter L.

    2009-01-01

    We generated a new live-attenuated vaccine against Ebola virus (EBOV) based on a chimeric virus HPIV3/ΔF-HN/EboGP that contains the EBOV glycoprotein (GP) as the sole transmembrane envelope protein combined with the internal proteins of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3). Electron microscopy analysis of the virus particles showed that they have an envelope and surface spikes resembling those of EBOV and a particle size and shape resembling those of HPIV3. When HPIV3/ΔF-HN/EboGP was inoculated via apical surface of an in vitro model of human ciliated airway epithelium, the virus was released from the apical surface; when applied to basolateral surface, the virus infected basolateral cells but did not spread through the tissue. Following intranasal (IN) inoculation of guinea pigs, scattered infected cells were detected in the lungs by immunohistochemistry, but infectious HPIV3/ΔF-HN/EboGP could not be recovered from the lungs, blood, or other tissues. Despite the attenuation, the virus was highly immunogenic, and a single IN dose completely protected the animals against a highly lethal intraperitoneal challenge of guinea pig-adapted EBOV

  1. Introgressive hybridization: brown bears as vectors for polar bear alleles.

    Hailer, Frank

    2015-03-01

    The dynamics and consequences of introgression can inform about numerous evolutionary processes. Biologists have therefore long been interested in hybridization. One challenge, however, lies in the identification of nonadmixed genotypes that can serve as a baseline for accurate quantification of admixture. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Cahill et al. (2015) analyse a genomic data set of 28 polar bears, eight brown bears and one American black bear. Polar bear alleles are found to be introgressed into brown bears not only near a previously identified admixture zone on the Alaskan Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof (ABC) Islands, but also far into the North American mainland. Elegantly contrasting admixture levels at autosomal and X chromosomal markers, Cahill and colleagues infer that male-biased dispersal has spread these introgressed alleles away from the Late Pleistocene contact zone. Compared to a previous study on the ABC Island population in which an Alaskan brown bear served as a putatively admixture-free reference, Cahill et al. (2015) utilize a newly sequenced Swedish brown bear as admixture baseline. This approach reveals that brown bears have been impacted by introgression from polar bears to a larger extent (up to 8.8% of their genome), than previously known, including the bear that had previously served as admixture baseline. No evidence for introgression of brown bear into polar bear is found, which the authors argue could be a consequence of selection. Besides adding new exciting pieces to the puzzle of polar/brown bear evolutionary history, the study by Cahill and colleagues highlights that wildlife genomics is moving from analysing single genomes towards a landscape genomics approach. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The paradigm of grizzly bear restoration in North America

    Schwartz, C. C.; Maehr, David S.; Noss, Reed F.; Larkin, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Grizzly bear restoration and recovery is a controversial, highly politicized process. By 1959, when the Craigheads began their pioneering work on Yellowstone grizzly bears, the species had been reduced to a remnant of its historic range. Prior to the colonization of North America by Europeans, the grizzly lived in relatively pristine habitats with aboriginal Native Americans. As civilization expanded, humans changed the face of the landscape, converting grizzly bear habitat to farms and ranches. People killed grizzlies to protect livestock and eliminate a perceived threat to human safety. In concert, habitat loss and direct human-caused mortality had effectively eliminated the grizzly from 95 percent of its historic range in the conterminous United States by the 1920s (Servheen 1989). Grizzly bear numbers had been reduced nearly 98 percent by 1975 when the species was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) (USFWS 1993).

  3. Lack of autoantibody induction by mercury exposure in artisanal gold mining settings in Colombia: Findings and a review of the epidemiology literature.

    Sánchez Rodríguez, Luz Helena; Flórez-Vargas, Oscar; Rodríguez-Villamizar, Laura Andrea; Vargas Fiallo, Yolanda; Stashenko, Elena E; Ramírez, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) has been implicated as an immunotoxicant in experimental animal models, but its role in the induction of human autoimmunity remains unclear due to contradictory findings. Therefore, it has been claimed that it is important to examine other populations in order to clarify the role of Hg in these diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational Hg exposure due to artisanal gold mining is associated with the prevalence of autoimmune biomarkers. A cross-sectional study was conducted comparing Hg-exposed gold miners (n = 164) with a control population (n = 127). Hair, blood, and 24-h urine samples were collected for measures of Hg levels, as well as of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) and rheumatoid factor (RF). Participants were clinically evaluated by a general practice physician, a rheumatologist, and a toxicologist. Statistically significant differences (p mining activities had a significant impact on autoantibodies as biomarkers of autoimmune diseases. In a review context, the epidemiological findings were interpreted in light of the conflicting data in the literature about how Hg exposure was linked to development of autoantibodies. Validation of these findings in prospective studies is needed to firmly establish the role of Hg in development of autoimmunity in human populations.

  4. Bovine lactoferricin induces caspase-independent apoptosis in human B-lymphoma cells and extends the survival of immune-deficient mice bearing B-lymphoma xenografts.

    Furlong, Suzanne J; Mader, Jamie S; Hoskin, David W

    2010-06-01

    Although current treatments based on the use of B-cell-specific anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies and aggressive combinatorial chemotherapy have improved the survival of patients suffering from B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), some individuals fail to respond to treatment and relapses remain common. New and more effective treatments for B-cell NHL are therefore required. Bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB) is a cationic antimicrobial peptide that is cytotoxic for several human tumor cell lines but does not harm healthy cells. Here we show that in vitro treatment with LfcinB caused Raji and Ramos human B-lymphoma cells to die by apoptosis, as indicated by DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, and nuclear disintegration. LfcinB killed B-lymphoma cells more efficiently at low serum concentrations and was inhibited in the presence of exogenous bovine serum albumin, suggesting partial neutralization of cationic LfcinB by anionic serum components. LfcinB-induced apoptosis in B-lymphoma cells was caspase-independent since caspase-3 activation was not detected by Western blotting and the general caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk did not prevent LfcinB-induced DNA fragmentation. Importantly, immune-deficient SCID/beige mice that were inoculated intravenously with Ramos B-lymphoma cells in order to model B-cell NHL exhibited extended survival following systemic administration of LfcinB, indicating that LfcinB warrants further investigation as a novel therapeutic agent for the possible treatment of B-cell NHL. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Frequency and distribution of highway crossings by Kenai Peninsula brown bears

    Graves, Tabitha A.; Farley, Sean; Servheen, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Highway construction and expansion through bear habitat can negatively affect brown bear populations. Highway structures can decrease habitat availability through habitat loss and restricted access, roads often displace animals and cause re-direction of natural movements, and highways can act as barriers to decrease gene flow. Lastly, highway traffic can cause direct bear and human mortality through car-animal collisions. We examined the spatial and temporal distribution of brown bear crossin...

  6. Self lubricating fluid bearings

    Kapich, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    The invention concerns self lubricating fluid bearings, which are used in a shaft sealed system extending two regions. These regions contain fluids, which have to be isolated. A first seal is fluid tight for the first region between the carter shaft and the shaft. The second seal is fluid tight between the carter and the shaft, it communicates with the second region. The first fluid region is the environment surrounding the shaft carter. The second fluid region is a part of a nuclear reactor which contains the cooling fluid. The shaft is conceived to drive a reactor circulating and cooling fluid [fr

  7. Autoantibodies Against Carbonic Anhydrase I and II in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Ahmet Menteşe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cancer, one of the principal causes of death, is a global social health problem. Autoantibodies developed against the organism’s self-antigens are detected in the sera of subjects with cancer. In recent years carbonic anhydrase (CA I and II autoantibodies have been shown in some autoimmune diseases and carcinomas, but the mechanisms underlying this immune response have not yet been explained. The aim of this study was to evaluate CA I and II autoantibodies in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML and to provide a novel perspective regarding the autoimmune basis of the disease. Materials and Methods: Anti-CA I and II antibody levels were investigated using ELISA in serum samples from 30 patients with AML and 30 healthy peers. Results: Anti-CA I and II antibody titers in the AML group were significantly higher compared with the control group (p=0.0001 and 0.018, respectively. A strong positive correlation was also determined between titers of anti-CA I and II antibodies (r=0.613, p=0.0001. Conclusion: Our results suggest that these autoantibodies may be involved in the pathogenesis of AML. More extensive studies are now needed to reveal the entire mechanism.

  8. Idiopathic factor VIII inhibitor autoantibody in a man presented after accident.

    Mansouritorghabeh, H.; Lak, M.; Heerde, W.L. van

    2009-01-01

    Acquired hemophilia A is a rare but severe autoimmune bleeding disorder caused by autoantibodies against factor VIII activity and is a potentially life-threatening hemorrhagic disorder. The incidence of acquired hemophilia A has been estimated as 1.48 cases per million per year. The overall rate of

  9. [Significance of non-organ-specific autoantibodies in HCV-related chronic hepatitis].

    Guidi, Marcello; Muratori, Paolo; Granito, Alessandro; Muratori, Luigi; Pappas, Georgios; Bianchi, Francesco B

    2005-12-01

    The preliminary question regarding the clinical issue of the antiviral therapy in the HCV related chronic hepatitis patients is: is it mandatory the research for the autoantibodies in the eligible patients for the antiviral treatment? This issue is of particular interest at the light of the the reported cases of HCV positive patients with positivity for liver kidney microsome type 1 antibody who developed a hepatitic flare during the antiviral treatment. The data from literature about the efficacy and safety on the antiviral treatment in patients with autoantibodies are few and controversial, particularly if the ones regarding antiviral drugs and more recent treatment regimens are taking into account (peg-interferon, combined therapy of interferon and ribavirin). Large and prospective studies are needed for a thorough evaluation about the potential impact of autoantibodies reactivity on the therapeutic outcome. To date, it must be confirmed that a strict monitoring of hepatic parameters is to recommend during the whole treatment phase. This in the light of a potential appearance of significant flares of aminotransferases, particularly in subjects with anti LKM-1 autoantibodies, during interferon therapy.

  10. Preferential recognition of auto-antibodies against 4-hydroxynonenal modified DNA in the cancer patients.

    Faisal, Mohammad; Shahab, Uzma; Alatar, Abdulrahman A; Ahmad, Saheem

    2017-11-01

    The structural perturbations in DNA molecule may be caused by a break in a strand, a missing base from the backbone, or a chemically changed base. These alterations in DNA that occurs naturally can result from metabolic or hydrolytic processes. DNA damage plays a major role in the mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, aging and various other patho-physiological conditions. DNA damage can be induced through hydrolysis, exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other reactive carbonyl metabolites including 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). 4-HNE is an important lipid peroxidation product which has been implicated in the mutagenesis and carcinogenesis processes. The present study examines to probe the presence of auto-antibodies against 4-hydroxynonenal damaged DNA (HNE-DNA) in various cancer subjects. In this study, the purified calf thymus DNA was damaged by the action of 4-HNE. The DNA was incubated with 4-HNE for 24 h at 37°C temperature. The binding characteristics of cancer auto-antibodies were assessed by direct binding and competitive inhibition ELISA. DNA modifications produced hyperchromicity in UV spectrum and decreased fluorescence intensity. Cancer sera exhibited enhanced binding with the 4-HNE modified calf thymus DNA as compared to its native conformer. The 4-HNE modified DNA presents unique epitopes which may be one of the factors for the auto-antibody induction in cancer patients. The HNE modified DNA presents unique epitopes which may be one of the factors for the autoantibody induction in cancer patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Usefulness of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies in diagnosing and managing systemic vasculitis

    Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    Purpose of reviewAntineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCAs) are considered important diagnostic tests in the work-up of patients suspected of vasculitis. Here we discuss new developments in the methodology of testing, the pitfalls in using these tests as diagnostic tools, and the value of

  12. Parity and 11-Year Serum Thyrotropin and Thyroid Autoantibody Change: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    Bjergved, Lena; Carlé, Allan; Jørgensen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    thyrotropin (TSH), as well as change in thyroid peroxidase autoantibody (TPOAb) status. A random sample of 4649 people aged 18-65 years participated in a population-based study in the period 1997-1998. In the study presented here, 1749 non-pregnant women with no history of thyroid disease were included who...

  13. Necrobiosis lipoidica associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and positive detection of ANA and ASMA autoantibodies.

    Borgia, Francesco; Russo, Giuseppina T; Villari, Provvidenza; Guarneri, Fabrizio; Cucinotta, Domenico; Cannavò, Serafinella P

    2015-07-01

    Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) is a rare idiopathic cutaneous condition exceptionally associated with autoimmune thyroiditis. We describe the first case of NL, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and positive detection of autoantibodies. Appropriate screening for NL in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis may clarify its real incidence and the existence of a common pathogenetic pathway.

  14. Recombinant protein to analyze autoantibodies to proteinase 3 in systemic vasculitis

    Rarok, AA; Huitema, MG; van der Leij, MJ; van der Geld, YM; Berthold, H; Schmitt, J; Stegeman, CA; Limburg, PC; Kallenberg, CGM

    2003-01-01

    The presence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies with specificity for proteinase 3 (PR3-ANCA) usually is detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with purified PR3 as a substrate. We studied the technical performance of direct and capture ELISA using a recombinant

  15. Screening for autoantibodies in patients with primary fibromyalgia syndrome and a matched control group

    Jacobsen, Søren; Høyer-Madsen, M; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1990-01-01

    Primary fibromyalgia syndrome (PFS) is a non-articular rheumatic condition characterized by chronic muscular pain. We have performed screening for autoantibodies in 20 women with PFS and in 19 age-matched healthy women. Fifty-five percent of the PFS patients had anti-smooth muscle antibodies and 40...

  16. Specificities of anti-neutrophil autoantibodies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

    Brimnes, J; Halberg, P; Jacobsen, Søren

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize antigens recognized by neutrophil-specific autoantibodies from patients with RA. Sera from 62 RA patients were screened by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF). Positive sera were further tested by ELISAs for antibodies against various granule proteins...

  17. Autoantibody levels in myositis patients correlate with clinical response during B cell depletion with rituximab.

    Aggarwal, Rohit; Oddis, Chester V; Goudeau, Danielle; Koontz, Diane; Qi, Zengbiao; Reed, Ann M; Ascherman, Dana P; Levesque, Marc C

    2016-06-01

    To determine the longitudinal trends in serum levels of four myositis-associated autoantibodies: anti-Jo-1, -transcription intermediary factor 1 γ (TIF1-γ), -signal recognition particle (SRP) and -Mi-2, after B cell depletion with rituximab, and to determine the longitudinal association of these autoantibody levels with disease activity as measured by myositis core-set measures (CSMs). Treatment-resistant adult and pediatric myositis subjects (n = 200) received rituximab in the 44-week Rituximab in Myositis Trial. CSMs [muscle enzymes, manual muscle testing (MMT), physician and patient global disease activity, HAQ, and extramuscular disease activity] were evaluated monthly and anti-Jo-1 (n = 28), -TIF1-γ (n = 23), -SRP (n = 25) and -Mi-2 (n = 26) serum levels were measured using validated quantitative ELISAs. Temporal trends and the longitudinal relationship between myositis-associated autoantibodies levels and CSM were estimated using linear mixed models. Following rituximab, anti-Jo-1 levels decreased over time (P myositis subjects decreased after B cell depletion and were correlated with changes in disease activity, whereas anti-SRP levels were only associated with longitudinal muscle enzyme levels. The strong association of anti-Jo-1 levels with clinical outcomes suggests that anti-Jo-1 autoantibodies may be a good biomarker for disease activity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Genetic loci of Staphylococcus aureus associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides

    Glasner, Corinna; de Goffau, Marcus C; van Timmeren, Mirjan M; Schulze, Mirja L; Jansen, Benita; Tavakol, Mehri; van Wamel, Willem J B; Stegeman, Coen A; Kallenberg, Cees G M; Arends, Jan P; Rossen, John W; Heeringa, Peter; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2017-01-01

    The proteinase 3 (PR3)-positive anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) has been associated with chronic nasal S. aureus carriage, which is a risk factor for disease relapse. The present study was aimed at comparing the

  19. Genetic loci of Staphylococcus aureus associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides

    C. Glasner (Corinna); M.C. De Goffau (Marcus C.); M.M. Van Timmeren (Mirjan M.); Schulze, M.L. (Mirja L.); Jansen, B. (Benita); M. Tavakol (Mehri); W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem); C.A. Stegeman; C.G.M. Kallenberg (Cees G. M.); J.P.A. Arends (Jan); J.W. Rossen (John); P. Heeringa (Peter); J.M. Dijl (Jan Maarten)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe proteinase 3 (PR3)-positive anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) has been associated with chronic nasal S. aureus carriage, which is a risk factor for disease relapse. The present study was aimed at

  20. Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in Dermatomyositis: Associations with Clinical and Laboratory Features Including Autoantibodies

    Mugii, Naoki; Hasegawa, Minoru; Matsushita, Takashi; Hamaguchi, Yasuhito; Oohata, Sacihe; Okita, Hirokazu; Yahata, Tetsutarou; Someya, Fujiko; Inoue, Katsumi; Murono, Shigeyuki; Fujimoto, Manabu; Takehara, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Objective Dysphagia develops with low frequency in patients with dermatomyositis. Our objective was to determine the clinical and laboratory features that can estimate the development of dysphagia in dermatomyositis. Methods This study included 92 Japanese patients with adult-onset dermatomyositis. The associations between dysphagia and clinical and laboratory features including disease-specific autoantibodies determined by immunoprecipitation assays were analyzed. Results Videofluoroscopy sw...

  1. Autoantibodies in a Three-Year-Old Girl with Visceral Leishmaniasis: A Potential Diagnostic Pitfall

    Gholamreza Pouladfar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, a life-threatening parasitic infection, is endemic in the Mediterranean region. Diagnosis of VL is based on epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory findings. However, sometimes, clinical features and laboratory findings overlap with those of autoimmune diseases. In some cases, autoantibodies are detected in patients with VL and this could be a potential diagnostic pitfall. In this study, we have reported on a three-year-old girl from a VL-endemic area in Iran, who presented with prolonged fever and splenomegaly. Bone marrow examination, serologic tests, and the molecular PCR assay were performed; however, results were inconclusive. The levels of anti-double stranded DNA, cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody, and perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody were elevated and, at the end, splenic biopsy was performed. The splenic tissue PCR test detected the DNA of Leishmania infantum. The patient’s condition improved with anti-Leishmania therapy, and the autoantibodies disappeared within the following four months. Clinical presentations and laboratory findings of VL and autoimmune diseases may overlap in some patients.

  2. Autoantibodies Affect Brain Density Reduction in Nonneuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients

    Jian Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between autoantibodies and brain density reduction in SLE patients without major neuropsychiatric manifestation (NPSLE. Ninety-five NPSLE patients without obvious cerebral deficits, as determined by conventional MRI, as well as 89 control subjects, underwent high-resolution structural MRI. Whole-brain density of grey matter (GMD and white matter (WMD were calculated for each individual, and correlations between the brain density, symptom severity, immunosuppressive agent (ISA, and autoantibody levels were assessed. The GMD and WMD of the SLE group decreased compared to controls. GMD was negatively associated with SLE activity. The WMD of patients who received ISA treatment were higher than that in the patients who did not. The WMD of patients with anticardiolipin (ACL or anti-SSB/La antibodies was lower than in patients without these antibodies, while the GMD was lower in patients with anti-SM or anti-U1RNP antibodies. Thus, obvious brain atrophy can occur very early even before the development of significant symptoms and specific autoantibodies might contribute to the reduction of GMD or WMD in NPSLE patients. However, ISAs showed protective effects in minimizing GMD and WMD reduction. The presence of these specific autoantibodies might help identify early brain damage in NPSLE patients.

  3. DPD epitope-specific glutamic acid decarboxylase GAD)65 autoantibodies in children with Type 1 diabetes

    To study whether DPD epitope-specific glutamate decarboxylase autoantibodies are found more frequently in children with milder forms of Type 1 diabetes. We prospectively evaluated 75 children with new-onset autoimmune Type 1 diabetes, in whom we collected demographic, anthropometric and clinical dat...

  4. Effects of the thymic microenvironment on autoantibody production in (NZB X NZW)F1 mice

    Huston, D.P.; Smathers, P.A.; Reeves, J.P.; Steinberg, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of the thymic microenvironment on autoantibody production in (NZB X NZW)F1 mice were studied. Neonatally thymectomized male and female F1 mice reconstituted with a parental or F1-irradiated thymic lobe were compared to nonreconstituted and sham-thymectomized controls. While maleness retarded the spontaneous production of ss- and ds-DNA antibodies, thymic grafts did not suppress antibodies to ss-DNA in either sex, but did suppress the production of antibodies to ds-DNA in female mice. A unique property of NZB thymic grafts was the inability to suppress anti-RBC antibodies in male mice. Thus, (i) the gender of the F1 recipient was the most important determinant of production of antibodies to ss-DNA, (ii) either maleness or the thymic microenvironment could retard production of anti-ds-DNA antibodies, and (iii) both gender and the thymic microenvironment were important in the regulation of anti-RBC antibody production. Since the administration of thymosin did not suppress autoantibody production, the effects of the thymic grafts was not solely via thymic hormone production. These studies suggest that sex hormones and/or the thymic microenvironment can exert a suppressive effect on autoantibody production and that autoantibodies differ in their susceptibility to such suppression

  5. Muller cell-specific autoantibodies in a patient with progressive loss of vision

    Peek, R.; Verbraak, F.; Coevoet, H. M.; Kijlstra, A.

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE. To study the specificity of circulating retinal autoantibodies in a patient with progressive loss of vision resembling cancer-associated retinopathy in the absence of systemic malignancy. METHODS. Patient's serum was tested for the presence of antiretinal antibodies by Western blot

  6. Natural (auto)antibodies in calves are affected by age and diet

    Khobondo, J.O.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Webb, L.E.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Parmentier, H.K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Natural autoantibodies (N(a)ab) were found in every species tested so far, and are likely important in maintaining homeostasis. Objectives: (1) To determine N(a)ab in Bos taurus calves, (2) evaluate effects of diet and age on N(a)ab binding repertoires in calves, and (3) delineate bovine

  7. No neuronal autoantibodies detected in plasma of patients with a bipolar I disorder

    Snijders, Gijsje; Titulaer, Maarten J.; Bergink, Veerle; Bastiaansen, Anna E.; Schreurs, Marco W.J.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Boks, Marco P.; Kahn, René S.; de Witte, Lot D.

    2018-01-01

    A subpopulation of patients with bipolar disorder type I (BD-I) might suffer from undiagnosed autoimmune encephalitis. We tested plasma of 104 BD-I patients with a current or recent manic episode in the past 2 years for the presence of neuronal autoantibodies using immunohistochemistry,

  8. Specific autoantibody profiles and disease subgroups correlate with circulating micro-RNA in systemic sclerosis

    Wuttge, D. M.; Carlsen, A. L.; Teku, G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the expression profiles of cell-free plasma miRNAs in SSc and to characterize their correlation with disease subgroups (lcSSc and dcSSc) and with autoantibody profiles. Methods. Using quantitative RT-PCR, the abundance of 45 mature miRNAs in plasma was determined in 95 pati...

  9. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia, as part of Evans' syndrome, caused by cold reactive IgG autoantibodies

    Jaarsma, AS; Muis, N; DeGraaf, SSN

    1996-01-01

    We describe a boy with Evans' syndrome, consisting of immune thrombocytopenic purpura at age 2 and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) at age 4. AIHA was caused by cold Ige autoantibodies. This is unusual because AIHA is generally associated with either warm IgG antibodies or cold IgM antibodies.

  10. Colostrum of Healthy Mothers Contains Broad Spectrum of Secretory IgA Autoantibodies

    Přibylová, Jaroslava; Krausová, Klára; Kocourková, I.; Rossmann, Pavel; Klimešová, Klára; Kverka, Miloslav; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 6 (2012), s. 1372-1380 ISSN 0271-9142 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/11/1252 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Autoantibodies * mucosal immunity * immunoglobulins Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.382, year: 2012

  11. The Emerging Importance of Non-HLA Autoantibodies in Kidney Transplant Complications.

    Cardinal, Héloise; Dieudé, Mélanie; Hébert, Marie-Josée

    2017-02-01

    Antibodies that are specific to organ donor HLA have been involved in the majority of cases of antibody-mediated rejection in solid organ transplant recipients. However, recent data show that production of non-HLA autoantibodies can occur before transplant in the form of natural autoantibodies. In contrast to HLAs, which are constitutively expressed on the cell surface of the allograft endothelium, autoantigens are usually cryptic. Tissue damage associated with ischemia-reperfusion, vascular injury, and/or rejection creates permissive conditions for the expression of cryptic autoantigens, allowing these autoantibodies to bind antigenic targets and further enhance vascular inflammation and renal dysfunction. Antiperlecan/LG3 antibodies and antiangiotensin II type 1 receptor antibodies have been found before transplant in patients with de novo transplants and portend negative long-term outcome in patients with renal transplants. Here, we review mounting evidence suggesting an important role for autoantibodies to cryptic antigens as novel accelerators of kidney dysfunction and acute or chronic allograft rejection. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  12. Autoantibodies to folate receptor alpha during early pregnancy and risk of oral clefts in Denmark

    Bille, Camilla; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether IgG and IgM autoantibodies to folate receptor alpha (FRalpha) in pregnant women are associated with an increased risk of oral cleft-affected offspring. A case-control study nested in the prospective Danish National Birth Cohort (100,418 pregnan...

  13. Urinary matrix metalloproteinases reflect renal damage in anti-neutrophil cytoplasm autoantibody-associated vasculitis

    Sanders, J.S.F.; Huitema, M.G.; Hanemaaijer, R.; Goor, H. van; Kallenberg, C.G.M.; Stegeman, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    Renal expression of MMP-2, -9, and tissue inhibitor of MMP-1 (TIMP-1) correlates with histological disease activity in anti-neutrophil cytoplasm autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). We studied whether urinary and plasma levels of MMP-2, -9, and TIMP-1 reflect renal expression of these

  14. Natural autoantibodies in Bos taurus calves during the first twelve weeks of life

    Mayasari, N.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Vries Reilingh, de G.; Kemp, B.; Parmentier, H.K.

    2016-01-01

    Natural autoantibodies (NAAb) have a role in maintaining physiological homeostasis and prevention of infections, and have been found in mammalian species tested so far. Albeit NAAb levels rise with age, little is known about the origin, function, regulation and initiation of NAAb in young

  15. Autoantibodies against Modified Histone Peptides in SLE Patients Are Associated with Disease Activity and Lupus Nephritis

    Dieker, J.W.; Berden, J.H.; Bakker, M.A.; Briand, J.P.; Muller, S.; Voll, R.; Sjowall, C.; Herrmann, M.; Hilbrands, L.B.; Vlag, J. van der

    2016-01-01

    Persistent exposure of the immune system to death cell debris leads to autoantibodies against chromatin in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Deposition of anti-chromatin/chromatin complexes can instigate inflammation in multiple organs including the kidney. Previously we identified

  16. Cytokines in relation to autoantibodies before onset of symptoms for systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Eriksson, C; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, S

    2014-06-01

    A number of cytokines and chemokines were analysed and related to autoantibodies in blood samples pre-dating the onset of symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus. Thirty-five patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (American College of Rheumatology criteria) were identified as having donated blood samples, prior to symptom onset, to the Biobank of northern Sweden. Altogether, 140 age- and sex-matched controls were also identified. The concentrations of interferon-α, interleukin-4, interleukin-9, interleukin-10, interferon inducible protein-10 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 were analysed using multiplex technology and related to autoantibodies (ANA, ENA, anti-dsDNA and anti-histone antibodies) analysed from the same blood sample. The interferon-γ inducible protein-10 levels were higher in the pre-symptomatic individuals than in controls (p systemic lupus erythematosus. An increased concentration of interferon-γ inducible protein-10 pre-dated the onset of systemic lupus erythematosus and was related to autoantibodies before the onset of disease. The levels of interferon-γ inducible protein-10 and interferon-α were correlated. These findings support the proposal that the interferon system is important early in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus and autoantibody formation. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Studies of Filipino patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: autoantibody profile of first-degree relatives.

    Navarra, S V; Ishimori, M I; Uy, E A; Hamijoyo, L; Sama, J; James, J A; Holers, V M; Weisman, M H

    2011-04-01

    This study surveyed the frequency of autoantibodies among un-affected first-degree relatives (FDRs) of Filipino systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with healthy un-related Filipino controls. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of the autoantibodies for SLE diagnosis were also assessed in this Filipino cohort. Filipino patients included in the University of Santo Tomas (UST) Lupus Database and un-affected FDRs were recruited. Healthy controls included those with no known personal or family history of autoimmune disease. The following autoantibodies were tested in all subjects: anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-dsDNA, anti-Ro/SSA, anti-chromatin, anti-thyroid microsome, and anti-cardiolipin antibodies. Participants included 232 SLE patients, 546 FDRs, and 221 healthy controls. Median age of patients was 27 (range 8-66) years with median disease duration of 27.5 (range 1-292) months. Median age of FDRs was 42.0 (range 5-87) years. Compared with healthy controls, there were significantly more FDRs with positive ANA at titers 1 : 40 to 1 : 160 (p Filipinos, with a significant proportion of un-affected FDRs of SLE patients testing positive for autoantibodies compared with healthy Filipino controls. A longitudinal observational study in this same cohort will determine which proportion of these un-affected FDRs will evolve into clinical SLE disease in the future.

  18. Implications of rapid environmental change for polar bear behavior and sociality

    Atwood, Todd C.

    2017-01-01

    Historically, the Arctic sea ice has functioned as a structural barrier that has limited the nature and extent of interactions between humans and polar bears (Ursus maritimus). However, declining sea ice extent, brought about by global climate change, is increasing the potential for human-polar bear interactions. Loss of sea ice habitat is driving changes to both human and polar bear behavior—it is facilitating increases in human activities (e.g., offshore oil and gas exploration and extraction, trans-Arctic shipping, recreation), while also causing the displacement of bears from preferred foraging habitat (i.e., sea ice over biologically productive shallow) to land in some portions of their range. The end result of these changes is that polar bears are spending greater amounts of time in close proximity to people. Coexistence between humans and polar bears will require imposing mechanisms to manage further development, as well as mitigation strategies that reduce the burden to local communities.

  19. Quantitative assessment of human exposure to extended spectrum and AmpC β-lactamases bearing E. coli in lettuce attributable to irrigation water and subsequent horizontal gene transfer.

    Njage, P M K; Buys, E M

    2017-01-02

    The contribution of the fresh produce production environment to human exposure with bacteria bearing extended spectrum β-lactamases and AmpC β-lactamases (ESBL/AmpC) has not been reported. High prevalence of ESBLs/AmpC bearing E. coli as well as a high gene transfer efficiency of lettuce and irrigation water E. coli isolates was previously reported. This stochastic modeling was aimed at quantitatively assessing human exposure to ESBL/AmpC bearing E. coli through lettuce attributable to irrigation water and subsequent horizontal gene transfer. Modular process risk approach was used for the quantitative exposure assessment and models were constructed in Ms. Excel spreadsheet with farm to consumption chain accounted for by primary production, processing, retail and consumer storage. Probability distributions were utilised to take into account the variability of the exposure estimates. Exposure resulting from ESBL/AmpC positive E. coli and gene transfer was taken into account. Monte Carlo simulation was carried out using @Risk software followed by sensitivity and scenario analysis to assess most effective single or combinations of mitigation strategies for the ESBL/AmpC positive E. coli events from farm to fork. Three percent of South African lettuce consumers are exposed to lettuce contaminated with about 10 6.4 ±10 6.7 (95% CI: 10 5.1 -10 7 ) cfu of ESBL/AmpC positive E. coli per serving. The contribution of originally positive isolates and conjugative genetic transfer was 10 6 ±10 6.7 (95% CI: 10 5 -10 7 ) and 10 5.2 ±10 5.6 (95% CI: 10 3.9 -10 5.8 ) cfu per serving respectively. Proportion of ESBL/AmpC positive E. coli (Spearman's correlation coefficient (ρ)=0.85), conjugative gene transfer (ρ=0.05-0.14), washing in chlorine water (ρ=0.18), further rinsing (ρ=0.15), and prevalence of E. coli in irrigation water (ρ=0.16) had highest influence on consumer exposure. The most effective single methods in reducing consumer exposure were reduction in irrigation

  20. Multiple Autoantibodies Display Association with Lymphopenia, Proteinuria, and Cellular Casts in a Large, Ethnically Diverse SLE Patient Cohort

    Rufei Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study evaluates high-throughput autoantibody screening and determines associated systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE clinical features in a large lupus cohort. Methods. Clinical and demographic information, along with serum samples, were obtained from each SLE study participant after appropriate informed consent. Serum samples were screened for 10 distinct SLE autoantibody specificities and examined for association with SLE ACR criteria and subcriteria using conditional logistic regression analysis. Results. In European-American SLE patients, autoantibodies against 52 kD Ro and RNP 68 are independently enriched in patients with lymphopenia, anti-La, and anti-ribosomal P are increased in patients with malar rash, and anti-dsDNA and anti-Sm are enriched in patients with proteinuria. In African-American SLE patients, cellular casts associate with autoantibodies against dsDNA, Sm, and Sm/nRNP. Conclusion. Using a high-throughput, bead-based method of autoantibody detection, anti-dsDNA is significantly enriched in patienets with SLE ACR renal criteria as has been previously described. However, lymphopenia is associated with several distinct autoantibody specificities. These findings offer meaningful information to allow clinicians and clinical investigators to understand which autoantibodies correlate with select SLE clinical manifestations across common racial groups using this novel methodology which is expanding in clinical use.

  1. An Autoimmune Myositis-Overlap Syndrome Associated With Autoantibodies to Nuclear Pore Complexes

    Senécal, Jean-Luc; Isabelle, Catherine; Fritzler, Marvin J.; Targoff, Ira N.; Goldstein, Rose; Gagné, Michel; Raynauld, Jean-Pierre; Joyal, France; Troyanov, Yves; Dabauvalle, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Autoimmune myositis encompasses various myositis-overlap syndromes, each being identified by the presence of serum marker autoantibodies. We describe a novel myositis-overlap syndrome in 4 patients characterized by the presence of a unique immunologic marker, autoantibodies to nuclear pore complexes. The clinical phenotype was characterized by prominent myositis in association with erosive, anti-CCP, and rheumatoid factor-positive arthritis, trigeminal neuralgia, mild interstitial lung disease, Raynaud phenomenon, and weight loss. The myositis was typically chronic, relapsing, and refractory to corticosteroids alone, but remitted with the addition of a second immunomodulating drug. There was no clinical or laboratory evidence for liver disease. The prognosis was good with 100% long-term survival (mean follow-up 19.5 yr). By indirect immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells, sera from all 4 patients displayed a high titer of antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA) with a distinct punctate peripheral (rim) fluorescent pattern of the nuclear envelope characteristic of nuclear pore complexes. Reactivity with nuclear pore complexes was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. In a cohort of 100 French Canadian patients with autoimmune myositis, the nuclear pore complex fluorescent ANA pattern was restricted to these 4 patients (4%). It was not observed in sera from 393 adult patients with systemic sclerosis (n = 112), mixed connective tissue disease (n = 35), systemic lupus (n = 94), rheumatoid arthritis (n = 45), or other rheumatic diseases (n = 107), nor was it observed in 62 normal adults. Autoantibodies to nuclear pore complexes were predominantly of IgG isotype. No other IgG autoantibody markers for defined connective tissue diseases or overlap syndromes were present, indicating a selective and highly focused immune response. In 3 patients, anti-nuclear pore complex autoantibody titers varied in parallel with myositis activity, suggesting a pathogenic

  2. Nanoprecipitation in bearing steels

    Barrow, A.T.W.; Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, P.E.J.

    2011-01-01

    θ-phase is the main hardening species in bearing steels and appears in both martensitically and bainitically hardened microstructures. This work presents a survey of the microstrucural features accompanying nanoprecipitation in bearing steels. Nanoprecipitate structures formed in 1C-1.5Cr wt.% with additions of Cr, Mn, Mo, Si and Ni are studied. The work is combined with thermodynamic calculations and neural networks to predict the expected matrix composition, and whether this will transform martensitically or bainitically. Martensite tetragonality, composition and the amount of retained austenite are related to hardness and the type of nanoprecipitate structures in martensitic grades. The θ-phase volume fraction, the duration of the bainite to austenite transformation and the amount of retained austenite are related to hardness and a detailed quantitative description of the precipitate nanostructures. Such description includes compositional studies using energy-dispersive spectroscopy, which shows that nanoprecipitate formation takes place under paraequilibrium. Special attention is devoted to a novel two-step bainite tempering process which shows maximum hardness; we prove that this is the most effective process for incorporating solute into the precipitates, which are finer than those resulting from one-step banitic transformation processes.

  3. Superconducting bearings in flywheels

    Coombs, T.A.; Campbell, A.M.; Ganney, I.; Lo, W. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Superconductivity (IRC); Twardowski, T. [International Energy Systems, Chester High Road, Neston, South Wirral (United Kingdom); Dawson, B. [British Nuclear Fuels, Capenhurst, South Wirral (United Kingdom)

    1998-05-01

    Investigations are being carried out into the use of superconducting magnetic bearings to levitate energy storage flywheels. In a planned program of work, Cambridge University are aiming to produce a practical bearing system for Pirouette(TM). The Pirouette(TM) system is designed to provide 5 kWh of recoverable energy which is currently recoverable at a rate of 5 kW (future revisions will provide up to 50 kW). IES (a British Nuclear Fuels subsidiary) the owners of the Pirouette(TM) machine have supplied Cambridge with a flywheel. This flywheel weighs >40 kg and is being levitated using an Evershed-type arrangement in which the superconductor is being used to stabilize the interaction between two magnets. To date we have demonstrated stable levitation in static and low speed tests in a rig designed for low speeds of rotation in air. A second rig which is currently under construction at BNFL will run in vacuum at speeds of up to 50 (orig.) 5 refs.

  4. Grizzly bear habitat selection is scale dependent.

    Ciarniello, Lana M; Boyce, Mark S; Seip, Dale R; Heard, Douglas C

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of our study is to show how ecologists' interpretation of habitat selection by grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) is altered by the scale of observation and also how management questions would be best addressed using predetermined scales of analysis. Using resource selection functions (RSF) we examined how variation in the spatial extent of availability affected our interpretation of habitat selection by grizzly bears inhabiting mountain and plateau landscapes. We estimated separate models for females and males using three spatial extents: within the study area, within the home range, and within predetermined movement buffers. We employed two methods for evaluating the effects of scale on our RSF designs. First, we chose a priori six candidate models, estimated at each scale, and ranked them using Akaike Information Criteria. Using this method, results changed among scales for males but not for females. For female bears, models that included the full suite of covariates predicted habitat use best at each scale. For male bears that resided in the mountains, models based on forest successional stages ranked highest at the study-wide and home range extents, whereas models containing covariates based on terrain features ranked highest at the buffer extent. For male bears on the plateau, each scale estimated a different highest-ranked model. Second, we examined differences among model coefficients across the three scales for one candidate model. We found that both the magnitude and direction of coefficients were dependent upon the scale examined; results varied between landscapes, scales, and sexes. Greenness, reflecting lush green vegetation, was a strong predictor of the presence of female bears in both landscapes and males that resided in the mountains. Male bears on the plateau were the only animals to select areas that exposed them to a high risk of mortality by humans. Our results show that grizzly bear habitat selection is scale dependent. Further, the

  5. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells display anti-cancer activity in SCID mice bearing disseminated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma xenografts.

    Paola Secchiero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although multimodality treatment can induce high rate of remission in many subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL, significant proportions of patients relapse with incurable disease. The effect of human bone marrow (BM mesenchymal stem cells (MSC on tumor cell growth is controversial, and no specific information is available on the effect of BM-MSC on NHL. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The effect of BM-MSC was analyzed in two in vivo models of disseminated non-Hodgkin's lymphomas with an indolent (EBV(- Burkitt-type BJAB, median survival = 46 days and an aggressive (EBV(+ B lymphoblastoid SKW6.4, median survival = 27 days behavior in nude-SCID mice. Intra-peritoneal (i.p. injection of MSC (4 days after i.p. injection of lymphoma cells significantly increased the overall survival at an optimal MSC:lymphoma ratio of 1:10 in both xenograft models (BJAB+MSC, median survival = 58.5 days; SKW6.4+MSC, median survival = 40 days. Upon MSC injection, i.p. tumor masses developed more slowly and, at the histopathological observation, exhibited a massive stromal infiltration coupled to extensive intra-tumor necrosis. In in vitro experiments, we found that: i MSC/lymphoma co-cultures modestly affected lymphoma cell survival and were characterized by increased release of pro-angiogenic cytokines with respect to the MSC, or lymphoma, cultures; ii MSC induce the migration of endothelial cells in transwell assays, but promoted endothelial cell apoptosis in direct MSC/endothelial cell co-cultures. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data demonstrate that BM-MSC exhibit anti-lymphoma activity in two distinct xenograft SCID mouse models of disseminated NHL.

  6. Frequency of autoimmune disorders and autoantibodies in patients with neuromyelitis optica.

    Pereira, Wildéa Lice de Carvalho Jennings; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Kallaur, Ana Paula; Oliveira, Sayonara Rangel; Simão, Andréa Name Colado; Lozovoy, Marcell Alysson Batisti; Schiavão, Lucas José Vaz; Rodrigues, Paula Raquel do Vale Pascoal; Alfieri, Daniela Frizon; Flauzino, Tamires; Kaimen-Maciel, Damacio Ramón

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to report the frequency of autoimmune disorders and autoantibodies in 22 patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO), as well as whether the seropositivity for autoantibodies differs between anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) positive and AQP4 negative NMO patients. Demographic, medical records, and a profile of autoantibodies were evaluated in 22 NMO patients, including AQP4, anti-thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor, antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-thyroperoxidase (anti-TPO), anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg), anti-double-stranded DNA, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic, anti-cyclic citrullinate peptide, rheumatoid factor, anti-SSA/Ro, anti-SSB/La, anti-Smith antibodies (anti-Sm), anti-ribonucleoprotein, anti-nucleosome, and anti-Scl70. Thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxin were measured. The frequency of women was higher than men (95.5% vs. 4.5%) and 68.2% were Afro-Brazilians. Six (27.3%) patients presented other autoimmune disorders, such as Hashimoto thyroiditis (n=2), Graves' disease (n=1), juvenile idiopathic arthritis (n=1), systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic sclerosis (n=1), and Raynaud's phenomenon (n=1). The most frequent autoantibodies were anti-AQP4 (54.5%), anti-nucleosome (31.8%), ANA (27.3%), anti-TPO (22.7%), and anti-Tg (22.7%). Difference was not observed in the frequency of autoimmune disorders when the patients were compared according to their anti-AQP4 status. The results of the present study underscored that the NMO patients present high frequency of autoantibodies against cellular antigens and the presence of autoimmune disorders. Further studies with large number of NMO patients may contribute to advances in the understanding of NMO disease mechanisms.

  7. Computational design of rolling bearings

    Nguyen-Schäfer, Hung

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively presents the computational design of rolling bearings dealing with many interdisciplinary difficult working fields. They encompass elastohydrodynamics (EHD), Hertzian contact theory, oil-film thickness in elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL), bearing dynamics, tribology of surface textures, fatigue failure mechanisms, fatigue lifetimes of rolling bearings and lubricating greases, Weibull distribution, rotor balancing, and airborne noises (NVH) in the rolling bearings. Furthermore, the readers are provided with hands-on essential formulas based on the up-to-date DIN ISO norms and helpful examples for computational design of rolling bearings. The topics are intended for undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical and material engineering, research scientists, and practicing engineers who want to understand the interactions between these working fields and to know how to design the rolling bearings for automotive industry and many other industries.

  8. Grease lubrication in rolling bearings

    Lugt, Piet M

    2012-01-01

    The definitive book on the science of grease lubrication for roller and needle bearings in industrial and vehicle engineering. Grease Lubrication in Rolling Bearings provides an overview of the existing knowledge on the various aspects of grease lubrication (including lubrication systems) and the state of the art models that exist today. The book reviews the physical and chemical aspects of grease lubrication, primarily directed towards lubrication of rolling bearings. The first part of the book covers grease composition, properties and rheology, including thermal

  9. Neurological Autoantibody Prevalence in Epilepsy of Unknown Etiology.

    Dubey, Divyanshu; Alqallaf, Abdulradha; Hays, Ryan; Freeman, Matthew; Chen, Kevin; Ding, Kan; Agostini, Mark; Vernino, Steven

    2017-04-01

    Autoimmune epilepsy is an underrecognized condition, and its true incidence is unknown. Identifying patients with an underlying autoimmune origin is critical because these patients' condition may remain refractory to conventional antiseizure medications but may respond to immunotherapy. To determine the prevalence of neurological autoantibodies (Abs) among adult patients with epilepsy of unknown etiology. Consecutive patients presenting to neurology services with new-onset epilepsy or established epilepsy of unknown etiology were identified. Serum samples were tested for autoimmune encephalitis Abs as well as thyroperoxidase (TPO) and glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) Abs. An antibody prevalence in epilepsy (APE) score based on clinical characteristics was assigned prospectively. Data were collected from June 1, 2015, to June 1, 2016. Presence of neurological Abs. A score based on clinical characteristics was assigned to estimate the probability of seropositivity prior to antibody test results. Good seizure outcome was estimated on the basis of significant reduction of seizure frequency at the first follow-up or seizure freedom. Of the 127 patients (68 males and 59 females) enrolled in the study, 15 were subsequently excluded after identification of an alternative diagnosis. Serum Abs suggesting a potential autoimmune etiology were detected in 39 (34.8%) cases. More than 1 Ab was detected in 7 patients (6.3%): 3 (2.7%) had TPO-Ab and voltage-gated potassium channel complex (VGKCc) Ab, 2 (1.8%) had GAD65-Ab and VGKCc-Ab, 1 had TPO-Ab and GAD65-Ab, and 1 had anti-Hu Ab and GAD65-Ab. Thirty-two patients (28.6%) had a single Ab marker. Among 112 patients included in the study, 15 (13.4%) had TPO-Ab, 14 (12.5%) had GAD65-Ab, 12 (10.7%) had VGKCc (4 of whom were positive for leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 [LGI1] Ab), and 4 (3.6%) had N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) Ab. Even after excluding TPO-Ab and low-titer GAD65-Ab, Abs strongly suggesting an

  10. Thyroid autoantibodies in autoimmune diseases Anticuerpos antitiroideos en enfermedades autoinmunes

    Regina M. Innocencio

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in the thyroid function and thyroid autoantibodies have been frequently described in patients with autoimmune diseases but seldom in antiphospholipid syndrome patients. In order to determine the prevalence of thyroid function and autoimmune abnormalities, we compared serum thyrotropin (TSH, serum free thyroxine (T4 levels, thyroid antithyroglobulin (TgAb and antithyroperoxidase (TPOAb levels of 25 patients with systemic sclerosis, 25 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 13 patients with antiphospholipid syndrome to a control group of 113 healthy individuals. Evaluation included a thorough clinical examination with particular attention to thyroid disease and a serologic immune profile including rheumatoid factor, antinuclear and anticardiolipin antibody measurements. Subclinical hypothyroidism (4.2Ciertas anormalidades en la función tiroidea y anticuerpos antitiroideos han sido frecuentemente descriptos en pacientes con enfermedades autoinmunes, y más raramente en pacientes con el síndrome antifosfolipídico. Para determinar la prevalencía de anormalidades en la función tiroidea y de autoinmunidad, comparamos los niveles séricos de tirotropina (TSH tiroxina libre en suero (T4 anticuerpos antitiroglobulina (TgAb y antitiroperoxidasa (TPOAb en 25 pacientes con esclerosis sistémica, 25 pacientes con artritis reumatoidea y 13 pacientes con el síndrome antifosfolipídico con un grupo control de 113 individuos aparentemente sanos. La evaluación incluyó un completo examen clínico con particular atención para las enfermedades de la tiroides y una evaluación inmunológica incluyendo dosaje del factor reumatoideo, anticuerpos antinucleares y anticardiolipina. Hipotiroidismo subclínico (4.2

  11. Enhancement by O6-benzyl-N2-acetylguanosine of N'-[2-chloroethyl]-N-[2-(methylsulphonyl)ethyl]-N'-nitrosourea therapeutic index on nude mice bearing resistant human melanoma.

    Debiton, E.; Cussac-Buchdhal, C.; Mounetou, E.; Rapp, M.; Dupuy, J. M.; Maurizis, J. C.; Veyre, A.; Madelmont, J. C.

    1997-01-01

    The exposure of cells to O6-benzyl-N2-acetylguanosine (BNAG) and several guanine derivatives is known to reduce the activity of O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (MGMT) and to enhance the sensitivity of Mer+ (methyl enzyme repair positive) tumour cells to chloroethylnitrosoureas (CENUs) in vitro and in vivo. High water solubility and the pharmacokinetic properties of BNAG make it a candidate for simultaneous administration with CENUs by the i.v. route in human clinical use. In vivo we have shown previously that BNAG significantly increases the efficiency of N'-[2-chloroethyl]-N-[2-(methylsulphonyl)ethyl]-N'-nitrosourea (cystemustine) against M4Beu melanoma cells (Mer+) through its cytostatic activity by the i.p. route, but also increases its toxicity. To investigate the toxicity of BNAG and cystemustine when administered simultaneously in mice, we compared the maximum tolerated dose and LD50 doses of cystemustine alone or in combination with 40 mg kg(-1) BNAG by the i.p. route. The toxicity of cystemustine was enhanced by a factor of almost 1.44 when combined with BNAG. To compare the therapeutic index of cystemustine alone and the cystemustine/BNAG combination, pharmacological tests were carried out in nude mice bearing Mer+ M4Beu human melanoma cells. Isotoxic doses were calculated using the 1.44 ratio. The treatments were administered three times by the i.v. route on days 1, 5 and 9 after s.c. inoculation of tumour cells. Although the toxicities of the treatments were equal, BNAG strongly enhanced tumour growth inhibition. These results demonstrate the increase of the therapeutic index of cystemustine by BNAG and justify the use of BNAG to enhance nitrosourea efficiency in vivo by i.v. co-injection. PMID:9365163

  12. Hydrostatic and hybrid bearing design

    Rowe, W B

    1983-01-01

    Hydrostatic and Hybrid Bearing Design is a 15-chapter book that focuses on the bearing design and testing. This book first describes the application of hydrostatic bearings, as well as the device pressure, flow, force, power, and temperature. Subsequent chapters discuss the load and flow rate of thrust pads; circuit design, flow control, load, and stiffness; and the basis of the design procedures and selection of tolerances. The specific types of bearings, their design, dynamics, and experimental methods and testing are also shown. This book will be very valuable to students of engineering des

  13. Non-organ-specific autoantibodies in children with chronic hepatitis C: clinical significance and impact on interferon treatment.

    Muratori, Paolo; Muratori, Luigi; Verucchi, Gabriella; Attard, Luciano; Bianchi, Francesco B; Lenzi, Marco

    2003-11-15

    We evaluated the prevalence and clinical significance of non-organ-specific autoantibodies (NOSAs) in 47 hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive children with abnormal alanine transaminase levels and analyzed the association between NOSAs and virus level, genotype, human leukocyte antigen status, and interferon (IFN) response. Forty-two hepatitis B virus (HBV)-positive children and 25 age- and sex-matched healthy children served as control subjects. NOSAs were found in 34% of the HCV-positive children, 12% of the HBV-positive controls, and none of the healthy control subjects. Liver-kidney microsomal antibody type 1 (LKM1) was detected in 11% of the HCV-positive children but in none of the controls. The HCV load was significantly higher in NOSA-negative than in NOSA-positive children. HCV genotype distribution and human leukocyte antigen alleles were similar, irrespective of NOSA status. Long-term response to IFN therapy was achieved by 18% of the NOSA-positive and 55% of the NOSA-negative subjects. Two LKM1-positive children developed acute, self-limited hepatocellular necrosis while receiving IFN therapy. NOSAs are frequently present in children with hepatitis C, who are less likely to benefit from IFN therapy.

  14. Ly108 expression distinguishes subsets of invariant NKT cells that help autoantibody production and secrete IL-21 from those that secrete IL-17 in lupus prone NZB/W mice.

    Tang, Xiaobin; Zhang, Bo; Jarrell, Justin A; Price, Jordan V; Dai, Hongjie; Utz, Paul J; Strober, Samuel

    2014-05-01

    Lupus is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by anti-nuclear antibodies in humans and genetically susceptible NZB/W mice that can cause immune complex glomerulonephritis. T cells contribute to lupus pathogenesis by secreting pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-17, and by interacting with B cells and secreting helper factors such as IL-21 that promote production of IgG autoantibodies. In the current study, we determined whether purified NKT cells or far more numerous conventional non-NKT cells in the spleen of NZB/W female mice secrete IL-17 and/or IL-21 after TCR activation in vitro, and provide help for spontaneous IgG autoantibody production by purified splenic CD19(+) B cells. Whereas invariant NKT cells secreted large amounts of IL-17 and IL-21, and helped B cells, non-NKT cells did not. The subset of IL-17 secreting NZB/W NKT cells expressed the Ly108(lo)CD4(-)NK1.1(-) phenotype, whereas the IL-21 secreting subset expressed the Ly108(hi)CD4(+)NK1.1(-) phenotype and helped B cells secrete a variety of IgG anti-nuclear antibodies. α-galactocylceramide enhanced the helper activity of NZB/W and B6.Sle1b NKT cells for IgG autoantibody secretion by syngeneic B cells. In conclusion, different subsets of iNKT cells from mice with genetic susceptibility to lupus can contribute to pathogenesis by secreting pro-inflammatory cytokines and helping autoantibody production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Anti-M(3) muscarinic cholinergic autoantibodies from patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome trigger production of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) from the submandibular glands.

    Reina, Silvia; Sterin-Borda, Leonor; Passafaro, Daniela; Borda, Enri

    2011-05-01

    We demonstrated that serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) from patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), interacting with the second extracellular loop of human glandular M(3) muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (M(3) mAChR), trigger the production of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were performed in the presence of M(3) mAChR synthetic peptide as antigen to detect in serum the autoantibodies. Further, MMP-3 and PGE(2) production were determined in the presence of anti-M(3) mAChR autoantibodies. An association was observed between serum and anti-M(3) mAChR autoantibodies and serum levels of MMP-3 and PGE(2) in pSS patients. Thus, we established that serum anti-M(3) mAChR autoantibodies, MMP-3 and PGE(2) may be considered to be early markers of pSS associated with inflammation. Affinity-purified anti-M(3) mAChR peptide IgG from pSS patients, whilst stimulating salivary-gland M(3) mAChR, causes an increase in the level of MMP-3 and PGE(2) as a result of the activation of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) (but not COX-1). These results provide a novel insight into the role that cholinoceptor antibodies play in the development of glandular inflammation. This is the first report showing that an antibody interacting with glandular mAChR can induce the production of pro-inflammatory mediators (MMP-3/PGE(2)). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Familial occurrence of autoimmune diseases and autoantibodies in a Caucasian population of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Corporaal, S.; Bijl, Marc; Kallenberg, Cees

    To determine the prevalence of autoimmune diseases and autoantibodies in relatives of Caucasian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) we questioned 118 patients for the prevalence of autoimmune diseases in their relatives. Multicase SLE families were selected for further investigation:

  17. Anti-Tribbles homolog 2 (TRIB2) autoantibodies in narcolepsy are associated with recent onset of cataplexy

    Kawashima, Minae; Lin, Ling; Tanaka, Susumu

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have found increased autoantibodies against Tribbles homolog 2 (anti-TRIB2) and anti-streptolysin O (ASO) in narcolepsy. In this study, we replicated this finding with a primary focus on recent onset cases....

  18. Superconducting bearings for flywheel applications

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2001-05-01

    A literature study on the application of superconducting bearings in energy storage flywheel systems. The physics of magnetic levitation and superconductors are presented in the first part of the report, followed by a discussion of the literature found on the applications of superconducting bearings in flywheels. (au)

  19. Superconducting bearings for flywheel applications

    Abrahamsen, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    A literature study on the application of superconducting bearings in energy storage flywheel systems. The physics of magnetic levitation and superconductors are presented in the first part of the report, followed by a discussion of the literature found onthe applications of superconducting bearings...

  20. Thyroid profile and autoantibodies in Type 1 diabetes subjects: A perspective from Eastern India

    Debmalya Sanyal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There has been a rise in the incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM in India. The prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies and thyroid dysfunction is common in T1DM. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the incidence of thyroid dysfunction and thyroid autoantibodies in T1DM subjects, without any history of thyroid disease, and the prevalence of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD antibody, Islet antigen-2 antibody (IA2, thyroid peroxidase (TPO, and thyroglobulin autoantibodies (Tg-AB in T1DM subjects. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional clinical-based study. Subjects and Methods: Fifty subjects (29 males, 31 females with T1DM and without any history of thyroid dysfunction were included in the study. All subjects were tested for GAD antibody, IA2 antibody, TPO antibody, thyroglobulin antibody, free thyroxine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Statistical Analysis Used: A Chi-square/pooled Chi-square test was used to assess the trends in the prevalence of hypothyroidism. A two-tailed P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 23.50 years. 9.8% of subjects were below the age of 12 years, 27.45% of subjects were of age 12–18 years, 37.25% of subjects were of age 19–30 years, and 25.49% of subjects were above 30 years. 78% were positive autoantibody for GAD, 30% for IA-2, 24% for TPO, and 16% were positive for Tg-AB. A total of 6.0% of T1DM subjects had evidence of clinical hypothyroidism, but the prevalence of subclinical hyperthyroidism (SCH varied from 32% to 68.0% for we considered different definitions of SCH as advocated by different guidelines. All subjects with overt hypothyroidism had positive GAD and thyroid autoantibodies. One (2% subject had clinical hyperthyroidism with strongly positive GAD, TPO, and Tg-AB. Conclusions: We found a high prevalence of GAD, IA2, TPO, and Tg-AB in our T1DM subjects. A substantial proportion of our subjects had undiagnosed thyroid

  1. Space Station alpha joint bearing

    Everman, Michael R.; Jones, P. Alan; Spencer, Porter A.

    1987-01-01

    Perhaps the most critical structural system aboard the Space Station is the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint which helps align the power generation system with the sun. The joint must provide structural support and controlled rotation to the outboard transverse booms as well as power and data transfer across the joint. The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint is composed of two transition sections and an integral, large diameter bearing. Alpha joint bearing design presents a particularly interesting problem because of its large size and need for high reliability, stiffness, and on orbit maintability. The discrete roller bearing developed is a novel refinement to cam follower technology. It offers thermal compensation and ease of on-orbit maintenance that are not found in conventional rolling element bearings. How the bearing design evolved is summarized. Driving requirements are reviewed, alternative concepts assessed, and the selected design is described.

  2. Flywheel Challenge: HTS Magnetic Bearing

    Werfel, F N; Floegel-Delor, U; Riedel, T; Rothfeld, R; Wippich, D; Goebel, B

    2006-01-01

    A 200 mm cylindrical engineering prototype high temperature superconducting (HTS) was designed and fabricated. Measurements show that the 17 kg PM rotor can suspend safely 1000 kg in axial direction and 470 kg radially. The rationale for the bearing performance is to stabilize a 400 kg rotor of a new compact 5 kWh/280 kW flywheel energy storage system (COM - FESS). Measurements of the magnetic bearing force, stiffness and drag-torque are presented indicated the successful targeting a milestone in the HTS bearing technology. The influence of the PM configuration and the YBCO temperature on the bearing performance was experimentally studied, providing high-force or high-stiffness behaviour. The axial stiffness 5 kN/mm at 0.5 mm displacement is the highest value of a HTS bearing we know

  3. Polar bear maternity denning in the Beaufort Sea

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Gardner, Craig L.

    1994-01-01

    The distribution of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) is circumpolar in the NOrthern Hemisphere, but known locations of maternal dens are concentrated in relatively few, widely scattered locations. Denning is either uncommon or unknown within gaps. To understand effects of industrial development and propose increases in hunting, the temporal and spatial distribution of denning in the Beaufort Sea must be known. We caputred and radiocollared polar bears between 1981 and 1991 and determined tht denning in the Beaufort Sea region was sufficient to account for the estimated population there. Of 90 dend, 48 were on drifting pack ice, 38 on land, and 4 on land-fast ice. The portions of dens on land was higher (P= 0.029) in later compared with earlier years of the study. Bears denning on pack ice drifting as far as 997 km (x=385km) while in dens. there was no difference in cun production by bears denning on land and pack ice (P =0.66). Mean entry and exit dates were 11 November and 5 April for land dens and 22 November and 26 March for pack-ice dens. Female polar bears captured in the Beaufort Sea appeared to be isolated from those caught eat of Cape Bathurst in Canada. Of 35 polar bears that denned along the mainland coast of Alaska and Canada 80% denned between 137 00'W snf 146 59'W. Bears followed to >1 den did not reuse sites and consecutive dens were 20-1,304 km apart. However radio-collared bears are largely faithful to substrate (pack-ice, land, and land-fast ice) and the general geographic area of previous dens. Bears denning on land may be vunerable to human activities such as hunting and industrial development. However, predictable denning chronology and alck of site fidelity indicate that many potential impacts on denning polar bears could be mitigated.

  4. Prognostic Classification Factors Associated With Development of Multiple Autoantibodies, Dysglycemia, and Type 1 Diabetes?A Recursive Partitioning Analysis

    Xu, Ping; Krischer, Jeffrey P.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To define prognostic classification factors associated with the progression from single to multiple autoantibodies, multiple autoantibodies to dysglycemia, and dysglycemia to type 1 diabetes onset in relatives of individuals with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Three distinct cohorts of subjects from the Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Pathway to Prevention Study were investigated separately. A recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) was used to determine the risk classes. Clini...

  5. Utility of Novel Autoantibodies in the Diagnosis of Sjögren's Syndrome Among Patients With Dry Eye.

    Karakus, Sezen; Baer, Alan N; Agrawal, Devika; Gurakar, Merve; Massof, Robert W; Akpek, Esen K

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the value of 3 novel autoantibodies [salivary protein 1 (SP1), carbonic anhydrase 6 (CA6), and parotid secretory protein (PSP)] in differentiating Sjögren's syndrome (SS)-related dry eye from non-SS dry eye. Forty-six dry eye patients with SS (SS dry eye), 14 dry eye patients without SS (non-SS dry eye), and 25 controls were included. The 2012 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria were used for the diagnosis of SS. After a detailed review of systems, the Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire, Schirmer test without anesthesia, tear film breakup time, and ocular surface staining were performed to assess dry eye. All participants underwent serological testing using a commercially available finger prick kit. Thirty-seven patients with SS (80.4%) had a positive traditional autoantibody and 28 (60.9%) had a positive novel autoantibody. Traditional autoantibodies were absent in all non-SS dry eye patients and controls. Novel autoantibodies were present in 7/14 (50%) non-SS dry eye patients and 4/25 (16%) controls. Among 3 novel autoantibodies, anti-CA6 was significantly more prevalent in the SS and non-SS dry eye groups than in controls (52.2% vs. 42.9% vs. 8.0%, P = 0.001). Dry eye patients with positive anti-CA6 alone were significantly younger than patients with only traditional autoantibodies. Anti-CA6 was associated with worse dry eye signs and symptoms. Anti-CA6 was the most prevalent novel autoantibody in patients with dry eye, and was associated with younger age and more severe disease. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether anti-CA6 is a marker for early SS or perhaps another form of an autoimmune dry eye disease.

  6. Comparison of the prevalence of islet autoantibodies according to age and disease duration in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Young Hwa Kong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThis study investigated the prevalence of islet autoantibodies in children and adults with T1DM according to their age and the duration of disease.MethodsWe measured the levels of islet autoantibodies, including antiglutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (anti-GAD Ab, and combined these with anthropometric measurements and laboratory tests of 137 patients newly diagnosed with T1DM during the last 20 years. The subjects were subdivided into four groups according to their age at the onset of the disease. We then compared the prevalence of islet autoantibodies in the different age groups with the duration of disease.ResultsAmong the 137 patients, 68.9% tested positive for islet autoantibodies (71.4% within 1 year; 67.7% after 1 year of the disease onset. Within 1 year of the onset of the disease, 66.3% of the patients were positive for the anti-GAD Ab, and 35.6% were positive for IAAs. The prevalence of islet autoantibodies was significantly higher in the prepubertal groups than in the postpubertal groups (80.0% vs. 58.3%. The rate of positive islet autoantibodies changed with the duration of disease, and it differed according to the type of autoantibody and the age of the patient.ConclusionThe rates of positive islet autoantibodies were significantly higher in younger than in older patients at the time of the diagnosis of the disease. The positive rates were significantly changed 1 year after the onset of the disease in the preschool and the children groups. So these findings suggest that we need to diagnose type 1B diabetes distinguished T2DM in aldolescent group, carefully.

  7. Anti-pentraxin 3 auto-antibodies might be protective in lupus nephritis: a large cohort study.

    Yuan, Mo; Tan, Ying; Pang, Yun; Li, Yong-Zhe; Song, Yan; Yu, Feng; Zhao, Ming-Hui

    2017-11-01

    Anti-pentraxin 3 (PTX3) auto-antibodies were found to be associated with the absence of renal involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study is to investigate the prevalence of anti-PTX3 auto-antibodies and their clinical significance based on a large Chinese lupus nephritis cohort. One hundred and ninety-six active lupus nephritis patients, 150 SLE patients without clinical renal involvement, and 100 healthy controls were enrolled. Serum anti-PTX3 auto-antibodies and PTX3 levels were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The associations between anti-PTX3 auto-antibodies and clinicopathological parameters in lupus nephritis were further analyzed. Anti-PTX3 auto-antibodies were less prevalent in active lupus nephritis patients compared with SLE without renal involvement (19.4% (38/196) versus 40.7% (61/150), p auto-antibodies were negatively correlated with proteinuria in lupus nephritis (r = -.143, p = .047). The levels of proteinuria, serum creatinine, and the prevalence of thrombotic microangiopathy were significantly higher in patients with higher PTX3 levels (≥3.207 ng/ml) and without anti-PTX3 auto-antibodies compared with patients with lower PTX3 levels (auto-antibodies (4.79 (3.39-8.28) versus 3.95 (1.78-7.0), p = .03; 168.84 ± 153.63 versus 101.44 ± 47.36, p = .01; 34.1% (14/41) versus 0% (0/9), p = .04; respectively). Anti-PTX3 auto-antibodies were less prevalent in active lupus nephritis patients compared with SLE without renal involvement and associated with less severe renal damage, especially with the combined evaluation of serum PTX3 levels.

  8. Paraneoplastic antigen Ma2 autoantibodies as specific blood biomarkers for detection of early recurrence of small intestine neuroendocrine tumors.

    Cui, Tao; Hurtig, Monica; Elgue, Graciela; Li, Su-Chen; Veronesi, Giulia; Essaghir, Ahmed; Demoulin, Jean-Baptiste; Pelosi, Giuseppe; Alimohammadi, Mohammad; Öberg, Kjell; Giandomenico, Valeria

    2010-12-30

    Small intestine neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) belong to a rare group of cancers. Most patients have developed metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis, for which there is currently no cure. The delay in diagnosis is a major issue in the clinical management of the patients and new markers are urgently needed. We have previously identified paraneoplastic antigen Ma2 (PNMA2) as a novel SI-NET tissue biomarker. Therefore, we evaluated whether Ma2 autoantibodies detection in the blood stream is useful for the clinical diagnosis and recurrence of SI-NETs. A novel indirect ELISA was set up to detect Ma2 autoantibodies in blood samples of patients with SI-NET at different stages of disease. The analysis was extended to include typical and atypical lung carcinoids (TLC and ALC), to evaluate whether Ma2 autoantibodies in the blood stream become a general biomarker for NETs. In total, 124 blood samples of SI-NET patients at different stages of disease were included in the study. The novel Ma2 autoantibody ELISA showed high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy with ROC curve analysis underlying an area between 0.734 and 0.816. Ma2 autoantibodies in the blood from SI-NET patients were verified by western blot and sequential immunoprecipitation. Serum antibodies of patients stain Ma2 in the tumor tissue and neurons. We observed that SI-NET patients expressing Ma2 autoantibody levels below the cutoff had a longer progression and recurrence-free survival compared to those with higher titer. We also detected higher levels of Ma2 autoantibodies in blood samples from TLC and ALC patients than from healthy controls, as previously shown in small cell lung carcinoma samples. Here we show that high Ma2 autoantibody titer in the blood of SI-NET patients is a sensitive and specific biomarker, superior to chromogranin A (CgA) for the risk of recurrence after radical operation of these tumors.

  9. Islet autoantibodies and residual beta cell function in type 1 diabetes children followed for 3-6 years

    Sørensen, Jesper Sand; Vaziri-Sani, Fariba; Maziarz, M

    2012-01-01

    To test if islet autoantibodies at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and after 3-6 years with T1D predict residual beta-cell function (RBF) after 3-6 years with T1D.......To test if islet autoantibodies at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and after 3-6 years with T1D predict residual beta-cell function (RBF) after 3-6 years with T1D....

  10. LEVELS OF NEUROSPECIFIC ENOLASE AND ENOLASE-SPECIFIC AUTOANTIBODIES IN BLOOD SERUM OF THE PATIENTS WITH AUTOIMMUNE THYROPATIES

    N. N. Tsybikov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The patients with autoimmune thyroiditis and various functional states of thyroid gland, and diffuse toxic goiter with pronounced thyrotoxicosis were studied for neurospecific enolase and enolase-specific autoantibodies levels in blood serum. Increased concentrations of neurospecific enolase and specific autoantibodies were revealed in all groups of the patients. A conclusion was drawn that nervous system may be involved into pathological process during development of thyropaties.

  11. Thyrotropin-Blocking Autoantibodies and Thyroid-Stimulating Autoantibodies: Potential Mechanisms Involved in the Pendulum Swinging from Hypothyroidism to Hyperthyroidism or Vice Versa

    Rapoport, Basil

    2013-01-01

    Background Thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) antibodies that stimulate the thyroid (TSAb) cause Graves' hyperthyroidism and TSHR antibodies which block thyrotropin action (TBAb) are occasionally responsible for hypothyroidism. Unusual patients switch from TSAb to TBAb (or vice versa) with concomitant thyroid function changes. We have examined case reports to obtain insight into the basis for “switching.” Summary TBAb to TSAb switching occurs in patients treated with levothyroxine (LT4); the reverse switch (TBAb to TSAb) occurs after anti-thyroid drug therapy; TSAb/TBAb alterations may occur during pregnancy and are well recognized in transient neonatal thyroid dysfunction. Factors that may impact the shift include: (i) LT4 treatment, usually associated with decreased thyroid autoantibodies, in unusual patients induces or enhances thyroid autoantibody levels; (ii) antithyroid drug treatment decreases thyroid autoantibody levels; (iii) hyperthyroidism can polarize antigen-presenting cells, leading to impaired development of regulatory T cells, thereby compromising control of autoimmunity; (iv) immune-suppression/hemodilution reduces thyroid autoantibodies during pregnancy and rebounds postpartum; (v) maternally transferred IgG transiently impacts thyroid function in neonates until metabolized; (vi) a Graves' disease model involving immunizing TSHR-knockout mice with mouse TSHR-adenovirus and transfer of TSHR antibody-secreting splenocytes to athymic mice demonstrates the TSAb to TBAb shift, paralleling the outcome of maternally transferred “term limited” TSHR antibodies in neonates. Finally, perhaps most important, as illustrated by dilution analyses of patients' sera in vitro, TSHR antibody concentrations and affinities play a critical role in switching TSAb and TBAb functional activities in vivo. Conclusions Switching between TBAb and TSAb (or vice versa) occurs in unusual patients after LT4 therapy for hypothyroidism or anti-thyroid drug treatment for Graves

  12. Identification of human cytochrome P450s as autoantigens.

    Manns, M P; Johnson, E F

    1991-01-01

    Antimicrosomal antibodies in inflammatory liver diseases all seem to be directed against members of the cytochrome P450 family of proteins. These autoantigens seem to be genetically polymorphic, the autoantibodies are inhibitory, and the autoepitopes are generally conserved among species. Anti-P450 autoantibodies share these characteristics with other autoantibodies, for example, antinuclear antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus. The identification of P450s as human autoantigens is clinically important. Diagnostic tests will be developed on the basis of cloned antigen, facilitating a better diagnosis of drug-induced and idiopathic autoimmune hepatitis. It is unknown what triggers autoantibody production against cytochrome P450 proteins. Furthermore, their pathogenetic role and thus their involvement in tissue destruction is unclear. In this context LKM1 autoantibodies may serve as a model. Although LKM1 antibodies are inhibitory, all LKM1 antibody-positive patients tested so far are extensive metabolizers for drug metabolism mediated by P450IID6 and express this protein in their livers. Thus, the inhibitory LKM1 autoantibody does not sufficiently penetrate through the intact liver cell membrane to inhibit enzyme function in vivo. Presumably, tissue destruction in autoimmune hepatitis is mediated by liver-infiltrating T lymphocytes. T lymphocytes have been cloned from liver tissue that specifically proliferate in the presence of recombinant cytochrome P450IID6. The construction of overlapping cDNA subclones is also valuable to identify immunodominant B cell as well as relevant T cell epitopes.

  13. Journal bearing impedance descriptions for rotordynamic applications

    Childs, D.W.; Moes, H.; Leeuwen, van H.J.

    1977-01-01

    Bearing impedance vectors are introduced for plain journal bearings which define the bearing reaction force components as a function of the bearing motion. Impedance descriptions are developed directly for the approximate Ocvirk (short) and Sommerfeld (long) bearing solutions. The impedance vector

  14. A study of the epitopes on steroid 21-hydroxylase recognized by autoantibodies in patients with or without Addison's disease

    Volpato, M; Prentice, L; Chen, S; Betterle, C; Rees Smith, B; Furmaniak, J

    1998-01-01

    Steroid 21-hydroxylase (21-OH) autoantibodies are found in patients with autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD), either isolated or associated with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS) type I and II and in adrenal-cortex autoantibody (ACA)-positive patients without AAD. In order to assess any differences in the 21-OH autoantibodies in these different patient groups, we have studied their reactivity with different epitopes on 21-OH using full length and modified 35S-labelled 21-OH proteins produced in an in vitro transcription/translation system. There were no major differences in the pattern of autoantibody reactivity with the different modified 21-OH proteins in patients with isolated AAD or with APS types I and II, and in 21-OH autoantibody-positive patients with clinical AAD, subclinical AAD and those maintaining a normal adrenal function. Our studies also indicate that the main epitopes for 21-OH autoantibodies in patients with different forms of autoimmune adrenal disease are located in the C-terminal end and in a central region of 21-OH. PMID:9486414

  15. Bearing and Transcending Suffering with Nature and the World: A Humanistic Account

    Hong Chen, Rosa

    2011-01-01

    To conceptualise moral education as "living and learning to bear suffering" offers a humanistic vision for choices people make in the face of drastic threats to their existence. This essay proposes that bearing and transcending suffering--part of the human narrative--helps human beings to realise their ethical potential. Grounded in…

  16. Selenium Supplementation Significantly Reduces Thyroid Autoantibody Levels in Patients with Chronic Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    Wichman, Johanna Eva Märta; Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selenium supplementation may decrease circulating thyroid autoantibodies in patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT), but the available trials are heterogenous. This study expands and critically reappraises the knowledge on this topic. METHODS: A literature search identified...... 3366 records. Controlled trials in adults (≥18 years of age) with AIT, comparing selenium with or without levothyroxine (LT4), versus placebo and/or LT4, were eligible. Assessed outcomes were serum thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin (TgAb) autoantibody levels, and immunomodulatory effects...... and LT4-untreated. Heterogeneity was estimated using I(2), and quality of evidence was assessed per outcome, using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. RESULTS: In LT4-treated populations, the selenium group had significantly lower TPOAb levels after...

  17. Autoantibodies to neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels: from neuromuscular to neuropsychiatric disorders

    Pilar eMartinez-Martinez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes of voltage-gated ion channels and ligand-gated receptor channels caused by mutation or autoimmune attack are the cause of so-called channelopathies in the central and peripheral nervous system. We present the pathophysiology of channelopathies of the neuromuscular junction in terms of loss-of-function and gain-of-function principles. Autoantibodies generally have reduced access to the CNS, but in some cases this is enough to cause disease. A review is provided of recent findings implicating autoantibodies against ligand–activated receptor channels and potassium channels in psychiatric and neurological disorders, including schizophrenia and limbic encephalitis. The emergence of channelopathy-related neuropsychiatric disorders has implications for research and practice.

  18. Association of reversible splenial lesion syndrome (RESLES) with Anti-VGKC autoantibody syndrome: a case report.

    Gilder, Thomas R; Hawley, Jason S; Theeler, Brett J

    2016-05-01

    A 50-year-old male presented with complaints of fatigue, confusion, and memory problems. Neurological evaluation revealed altered cognition, unsteady gait, ataxia, dysmetria, and weakness. MRI of the brain was initially unremarkable. Over several days, the patient experienced improvement of symptoms and a follow-up MRI revealed a small lesion in the splenium of the corpus callosum seen on diffusion weighted and T2 sequences. The patient was discovered to have elevated anti-voltage gated potassium channel serum autoantibodies. Follow-up MRI revealed resolution of the splenial lesion. The patient was treated with intravenous immune globulin, and improved back to his pre-treatment baseline. We believe this to be the first case of a reversible splenial lesion syndrome as a manifestation of the anti-voltage gated potassium channel autoantibody syndrome, and propose a pathophysiologic mechanism.

  19. Vasculitis and antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies associated with propylthiouracil therapy

    Dolman, K. M.; Gans, R. O.; Vervaat, T. J.; Zevenbergen, G.; Maingay, D.; Nikkels, R. E.; Donker, A. J.; von dem Borne, A. E.; Goldschmeding, R.

    1993-01-01

    Vasculitis is a rare complication of propylthiouracil therapy. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) have been described in association with several vasculitic disorders. We report detection of ANCA against human neutrophil elastase, proteinase 3, and myeloperoxidase in serum from six

  20. Grizzly bear corticosteroid binding globulin: Cloning and serum protein expression.

    Chow, Brian A; Hamilton, Jason; Alsop, Derek; Cattet, Marc R L; Stenhouse, Gordon; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2010-06-01

    Serum corticosteroid levels are routinely measured as markers of stress in wild animals. However, corticosteroid levels rise rapidly in response to the acute stress of capture and restraint for sampling, limiting its use as an indicator of chronic stress. We hypothesized that serum corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), the primary transport protein for corticosteroids in circulation, may be a better marker of the stress status prior to capture in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos). To test this, a full-length CBG cDNA was cloned and sequenced from grizzly bear testis and polyclonal antibodies were generated for detection of this protein in bear sera. The deduced nucleotide and protein sequences were 1218 bp and 405 amino acids, respectively. Multiple sequence alignments showed that grizzly bear CBG (gbCBG) was 90% and 83% identical to the dog CBG nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively. The affinity purified rabbit gbCBG antiserum detected grizzly bear but not human CBG. There were no sex differences in serum total cortisol concentration, while CBG expression was significantly higher in adult females compared to males. Serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in bears captured by leg-hold snare compared to those captured by remote drug delivery from helicopter. However, serum CBG expression between these two groups did not differ significantly. Overall, serum CBG levels may be a better marker of chronic stress, especially because this protein is not modulated by the stress of capture and restraint in grizzly bears. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of the serum reproductive system related autoantibodies of infertility patients in Tianjin region of China

    Huo, Yan; Xu, Yanying; Wang, Jianmei; Wang, Fang; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yujuan; Zhang, Bumei

    2015-01-01

    Object: Reproductive system related autoantibodies have been proposed to be associated with natural infertility. However, large scale systematic analysis of these of antibodies has not been conducted. The aim of this study is to analyze the positive rate of antisperm antibody (ASAb), anti-endometrium antibody (EMAb), anti-ovary antibody (AOAb), anti-zona pellucida antibody (AZP) and anticardiolipin antibody (ACA) in infertility patients in Tianjin region of China. Methods: 1305 male and 1711 ...

  2. The Analysis of the Value of the Thyroid Autoantibody Measured by Radioimmunoassay

    Chung, Jae Hoon; Lee, Myung Shik; Cho, Bo Youn; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Min, Hun Ki; Lee, Mun Ho

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate the values of the thyroid autoantibody measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and compare it with hemagglutination method (HA) in the normal and the thyroid disease, data were obtained from total 618 persons; 236 healthy persons, 217 patients with Graves disease (including 113 patients with undertreated Graves' disease), 100 Hashimoto's disease, 31 thyroid nodule, and 34 simple goiter. RSR kit made in England was used and could be detected at least 3 U/ml. The positive rates of normal group were antirnicrosomal antibody (AMA) 31.8%, antithyroglobulin antibody (ATA) 44.5% by RIA and there was no considerable change in sex and age distribution. In Graves disease, the positive rates of AMA and ATA were 90.4, 76.9% by RIA, 85, 39% by HA. In Hashimoto's disease, 94,91% by RIA, and 87,48% by HA, respectively. The autoantibody titer by RIA in thyroid autoimmune disease as welt as in normal group was more sensitive than that by HA, especially in ATA. There were linear relationships between the titer of RIA and that of HA in AMA of Graves disease and AMA and ATA of Hashimotos disease. There was no relationship among thyroid autoantibody, free T, index, TBII, and TSH. The titers of AMA and ATA were found to decrease in patients with Graves disease during the course of antithyroid drug therapy. Of the 236 normal subjects, thirty-seven (15.7%) had concentrations of above 7.5 U/ml in AMA, forty-four (18. 6%) above 9 U/ml in ATA. These values were considered as the upper limit for the normal range. In Graves disease, 82,7, 53.8% were above 7.5, 9 U/ml, respectively; In Hashimoto's disease, HZ, 79% were positive. We conclude that RIA was more sensitive than HA in measuring the thyroid autoantibody, but we will study further more for determining the normal range and its interpretation.

  3. Myositis-specific autoantibodies and their association with malignancy in Italian patients with polymyositis and dermatomyositis.

    Ceribelli, Angela; Isailovic, Natasa; De Santis, Maria; Generali, Elena; Fredi, Micaela; Cavazzana, Ilaria; Franceschini, Franco; Cantarini, Luca; Satoh, Minoru; Selmi, Carlo

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to characterize myositis-specific antibodies in a well-defined cohort of patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy and to determine their association with cancer. Sera from 40 patients with polymyositis, dermatomyositis, and controls were tested by protein and RNA immunoprecipitation to detect autoantibodies, and immunoprecipitation-Western blot was used for anti-MJ/NXP-2, anti-MDA5, and anti-TIF1γ/α identification. Medical records were re-evaluated with specific focus on cancer. Anti-MJ/NXP-2 and anti-TIF1γ/α were the most common antibodies in dermatomyositis. In six dermatomyositis cases, we found five solid forms of cancer and one Hodgkin's lymphoma in long-term remission. Among patients with cancer-associated dermatomyositis, three were positive for anti-TIF1γ/α, two for anti-Mi-2, and one for anti-MJ/NXP-2. The strongest positivity of anti-TIF1γ was seen in two active forms of cancer, and this antibody was either negative or positive at low titers in the absence of cancer or in the 7-year remission Hodgkin's lymphoma. Four out of twenty (20 %) patients with polymyositis had solid cancer, but no specific association with autoantibodies was identified; further, none of the four cases of antisynthetase syndrome had a history of cancer. No serum myositis-associated autoantibody was observed in control sera, resulting in positive predictive value 75 %, negative predictive value 78.5 %, sensitivity 50 %, specificity 92 %, and area under the ROC curve 0.7083 for the risk of paraneoplastic DM in anti-TIF1γ/α (+) patients. Myositis-specific autoantibodies can be identified thanks to the use of immunoprecipitation, and their association with cancer is particularly clear for anti-TIF1γ/α in dermatomyositis. This association should be evaluated in a prospective study by immunoprecipitation in clinical practice.

  4. Tumour auto-antibody screening: performance of protein microarrays using SEREX derived antigens

    Stempfer, René; Weinhäusel, Andreas; Syed, Parvez; Vierlinger, Klemens; Pichler, Rudolf; Meese, Eckart; Leidinger, Petra; Ludwig, Nicole; Kriegner, Albert; Nöhammer, Christa

    2010-01-01

    The simplicity and potential of minimal invasive testing using serum from patients make auto-antibody based biomarkers a very promising tool for use in diagnostics of cancer and auto-immune disease. Although several methods exist for elucidating candidate-protein markers, immobilizing these onto membranes and generating so called macroarrays is of limited use for marker validation. Especially when several hundred samples have to be analysed, microarrays could serve as a good alternative since processing macro membranes is cumbersome and reproducibility of results is moderate. Candidate markers identified by SEREX (serological identification of antigens by recombinant expression cloning) screenings of brain and lung tumour were used for macroarray and microarray production. For microarray production recombinant proteins were expressed in E. coli by autoinduction and purified His-tag (histidine-tagged) proteins were then used for the production of protein microarrays. Protein arrays were hybridized with the serum samples from brain and lung tumour patients. Methods for the generation of microarrays were successfully established when using antigens derived from membrane-based selection. Signal patterns obtained by microarrays analysis of brain and lung tumour patients' sera were highly reproducible (R = 0.92-0.96). This provides the technical foundation for diagnostic applications on the basis of auto-antibody patterns. In this limited test set, the assay provided high reproducibility and a broad dynamic range to classify all brain and lung samples correctly. Protein microarray is an efficient means for auto-antibody-based detection when using SEREX-derived clones expressing antigenic proteins. Protein microarrays are preferred to macroarrays due to the easier handling and the high reproducibility of auto-antibody testing. Especially when using only a few microliters of patient samples protein microarrays are ideally suited for validation of auto-antibody

  5. Novel Autoantibody Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers in Veterans with Gulf War Illness

    2017-10-01

    using Western blot and ELISA assays. PURPOSE: Development of peripheral biomarkers for GWI. Scope of the Research: Serum and plasma from 250 Gulf War...basic protein (MBP), Myelin Associated Glycoprotein (MAG), CaMKII, alpha-synuclein, GFAP, S100B, Western Blot, ELISA , chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS...Milestone(s) Achieved: Site 1, 4 and 5 serum and CSF data collected and set up for laboratory assays ( ELISA , western blot). Autoantibody data shipped

  6. Paving the way to understand humoral autoantibody epilepsy on the molecular level

    Guiscard eSeebohm

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Correct function of neuronal networks is enabled by a delicate interplay among neurons communicating with each other. One of the keys is the communication at chemical synapses where neurotransmitters like glutamate, GABA and glycine enable signal transfer over the synaptic cleft. Thereby, the neurotransmitters are released from the presynapse and bind as ligands to specific receptors at the postsynaptic side to allow for modulation of the postsynaptic membrane potentials. The postsynaptic electrical signal, which is highly modulated by voltage gated ion channels, spreads over the dendritic tree and is thus integrated to allow for generation of action potentials at the axon hillock. This concert of receptors and voltage gated ion channels depends on correct function of all its components. Misfunction of receptors and/or voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKC leads to diverse adverse effects in patients. Such malfunctions can be the result of inherited genetic alterations or pharmacological side effects by drugs. Recently, auto-antibodies targeting receptor or channel complexes like NMDAR, AMPAR, GABA-receptors, glycine-receptors, LGI1 or CASPR2 (previously termed VGKC-complex antibodies have been discovered. The presence of specific auto-antibodies against these targets associates with severe forms of antibody-mediated encephalitis. Understanding the molecular details of auto-antibody actions on receptor and VGKC complexes is highly desirable and may open the path to develop specific therapies to treat humoral autoimmune encephalitis. Here, we summarize the current knowledge and discuss technical approaches to fill the gap of knowledge. These techniques include electrophysiology, biochemical approaches for epitope mapping and in silico modeling to simulate molecular interactions between autoantibody and its molecular target.

  7. Osteoprotegerin autoantibodies do not predict low bone mineral density in middle-aged women.

    Vaziri-Sani, Fariba; Brundin, Charlotte; Agardh, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    Autoantibodies against osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been associated with osteoporosis. The aim was to develop an immunoassay for OPG autoantibodies and test their diagnostic usefulness of identifying women general population with low bone mineral density. Included were 698 women at mean age 55.1 years (range 50.4-60.6) randomly selected from the general population. Measurement of wrist bone mineral density (g/cm 2 ) was performed of the non-dominant wrist by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A T-score density. Measurements of OPG autoantibodies were carried by radiobinding assays. Cut-off levels for a positive value were determined from the deviation from normality in the distribution of 398 healthy blood donors representing the 99.7th percentile. Forty-five of the 698 (6.6%) women were IgG-OPG positive compared with 2 of 398 (0.5%) controls ( p  density between IgG-OPG positive (median 0.439 (range 0.315-0.547) g/cm 2 ) women and IgG-OPG negative (median 0.435 (range 0.176-0.652) g/cm 2 ) women ( p  = 0.3956). Furthermore, there was neither a correlation between IgG-OPG levels and bone mineral density (r s  = 0.1896; p  = 0.2068) nor T-score (r s  = 0.1889; p  = 0.2086). Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of IgG-OPG for low bone mineral density were 5.7% and 92.9%, and positive and negative predictive values were 7.4% and 90.8%, respectively. Elevated OPG autoantibody levels do not predict low bone mineral density in middle-aged women selected from the general population.

  8. LKM1 autoantibodies in chronic hepatitis C infection: a case of molecular mimicry?

    Marceau, Gabriel; Lapierre, Pascal; Béland, Kathie; Soudeyns, Hugo; Alvarez, Fernando

    2005-09-01

    Anti-liver-kidney microsome type 1 (LKM1) autoantibodies directed against the cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) are considered specific markers of type 2 autoimmune hepatitis, but are also found in 5% of sera from patients chronically infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV). Molecular mimicry between HCV proteins and CYP2D6 has been proposed to explain the emergence of these autoantibodies. Anti-LKM1 autoantibodies from hepatitis C-infected patients were affinity-purified against immobilized CYP2D6 protein and used to screen a phage display library. CYP2D6 conformational epitopes were identified using phage display analysis and the identification of statistically significant pairs (SSPs). Cross-reactivity between CYP2D6 and HCV protein candidates was tested by immunoprecipitation. Nineteen different clones were isolated, and their sequencing resulted in the mapping of a conformational epitope to the region of amino acids 254-288 of CYP2D6. Candidate HCV proteins for molecular mimicry included: core, E2, NS3 and NS5a. Affinity-purified autoantibodies from HCV+/LKM1+ patients immunoprecipitated either NS3, NS5a, or both, and these reactivities were specifically inhibited by immobilized CYP2D6. In conclusion, HCV+/LKM1+ sera recognize a specific conformational epitope on CYP2D6 between amino acids 254 to 288, the region that contains the major linear epitope in type 2 autoimmune hepatitis patients. Cross-reactivity due to molecular mimicry at the B-cell level was shown between the CYP2D6 and the HCV NS3 and NS5a proteins and could explain the presence of anti-LKM1 in patients chronically infected with HCV. Further investigation of the role played by this molecular mimicry in HCV-infected patients may lead to more specific strategies for diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Antibodies to AB blood group antigens mimic anti-salivary duct autoantibodies in patients with limited sicca symptoms.

    Goldblatt, F; Beroukas, D; Gillis, D; Cavill, D; Bradwell, A; Rischmueller, M; Gordon, T P

    2000-10-01

    We evaluated the clinical relevance and pathogenic significance of anti-salivary duct autoantibodies (ASDA) in Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by examining (1) their frequency in healthy controls, patients with sicca symptoms, and patients with various autoimmune and infective disorders; (2) their localization by confocal microscopy; and (3) their tissue distribution and cross reactivity with blood group antigens. Indirect immunofluorescence (IF) was performed on commercial cryostat sections of monkey parotid salivary gland. Sections were examined by fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Sera giving positive staining on the ducts were tested by IF on a range of monkey tissues and salivary glands from several mammalian species. Blocking experiments were performed with human erythrocytes of different ABO blood groups and AB antigens. We identified 2 distinct ductal staining patterns. The first resembled ASDA described in earlier studies and showed patchy bright staining of the apical (luminal) surfaces of the ducts and staining of apical cytoplasmic vesicles. The other was only observed with anti-mitochondrial antibody positive sera and stained the mitochondrial-rich ductal epithelium in a distinctive punctate pattern. Antibodies staining the apical surface of ducts were detected rarely in patients with antiRo/La autoantibody-positive primary SS (1/76) and RA (1/36) and were found in only 1115 with RA and secondary SS. ASDA were detected in sera from 13/51 (25.5%) of patients referred to our clinic with limited sicca symptoms who were anti-Ro/La antibody-negative and had no typical clinical or laboratory features of classical primary SS. The apical ductal staining pattern was not observed with sera from 63 healthy controls without sicca symptoms or in patients with autoimmune and infective disorders. Twelve of the 13 patients whose sera gave ASDA-like staining were blood group O and one group A. Ductal staining was abolished in

  10. EFFECT OF BEARING MACROGEOMETRY ON BEARING PERFORMANCE IN ELASTOHYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION

    Emin GÜLLÜ

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available During manufacturing, ideal dimension and mutual positioning of machine elements proposed in project desing can be achieved only within certain range of tolerances. These tolerances, being classified in two groups, related to micro and macro geometry of machine elements, don't have to effect the functioning of these elements. So, as for all machine elements, investigation of the effects of macro and micro tolerances for journal bearings is important. In this study, we have investigated the effect of macro geometric irregularities of journal bearings on performance characteristics. In this regard, we have studied the change of bearing performance in respect to deviation from ideal circle for an elliptic shaft with small ovality rolling in circular journal bearing.

  11. Life-threatening bleeding in a case of autoantibody-induced factor VII deficiency.

    Okajima, K; Ishii, M

    1999-02-01

    A male patient presented with life-threatening bleeding induced by autoantibody-induced factor VII (F.VII) deficiency. This patient had macroscopic hematuria, skin ecchymosis, gastrointestinal bleeding, and a neck hematoma that was causing disturbed respiration. He developed acute renal failure and acute hepatic failure, probably due to obstruction of the ureters and the biliary tract, respectively. Although activated partial thromboplastin time was normal, prothrombin time (PT) was remarkably prolonged at 71.8 seconds compared to 14.0 seconds in a normal control. Both the immunoreactive level of F.VII antigen and the F.VII activity of the patient's plasma samples were VII activity. These findings suggested the presence of a plasma inhibitor for F.VII. After administration of large doses of methylprednisolone, PT was gradually shortened and plasma levels of F.VII increased over time. Bleeding, acute renal failure, and acute hepatic failure improved markedly following the steroid treatment. These observations suggest that life-threatening bleeding can be induced by autoantibody-induced F.VII deficiency and that immunosuppressive therapy using large doses of steroid can be successful in inhibiting the production of the autoantibody.

  12. Detection and Characterization of Autoantibodies to Neuronal Cell-Surface Antigens in the Central Nervous System

    Marleen eVan Coevorden-Hameete

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune encephalitis (AIE is a group of disorders in which autoantibodies directed at antigens located on the plasma membrane of neurons induce severe neurological symptoms. In contrast to classical paraneoplastic disorders, AIE patients respond well to immunotherapy. The detection of neuronal surface autoantibodies in patients’ serum or CSF therefore has serious consequences for the patients’ treatment and follow-up and requires the availability of sensitive and specific diagnostic tests. This mini-review provides a guideline for both diagnostic and research laboratories that work on the detection of known surface autoantibodies and/or the identification of novel surface antigens. We discuss the strengths and pitfalls of different techniques for anti-neuronal antibody detection: 1 Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence on rat/ primate brain sections, 2 Immunocytochemistry of living cultured hippocampal neurons, 3 Cell Based Assay (CBA. In addition, we discuss the use of immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis for the detection of novel neuronal surface antigens, which is a crucial step in further disease classification and the development of novel CBAs.

  13. Characterization of autoantibodies in autoimmune hemolytic anemia following treatment with interferon alfa

    Bencomo Hernandez, Antonio; Gutierrez Diaz, Adys; Avila Cabrera, Onel; Rodriguez, Luis Ramon

    2012-01-01

    We studied 13 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia and autoimmune hemolytic anemia induced by interferon alfa. They underwent tests for immune protein detection and characterization of IgG subclasses in RBCs by direct antiglobulin test (PAD) and the microplate technique. Also they were applied ELISA test for quantifying immunoglobulins in the red blood cells. It was detected the presence of IgG and C3 in 53.84 % of cases, IgG alone in 23.07 % and in 15.38 % were identified IgG and IgA autoantibodies. In 11 patients the presence of IgG1 was showed and also in one case the subclass IgG3 autoantibodies was identified. The ELISA detected antibodies at concentrations of 183 IgG molecules per erythrocyte in a patient with negative PAD. In high-grade hemolysis patients, it was found a concentration of autoantibodies between 1 500 and 3 180 molecules of IgG per erythrocyte, while in low-grade hemolysis patients it behaved between 183 and 1 000 molecules. There was a negative correlation between Hb and plasma haptoglobin values with the number of IgG molecules per erythrocyte and a positive correlation between the latter with the reticulocyte count

  14. Patients with Multiple Myeloma Develop SOX2-Specific Autoantibodies after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Sebastian Kobold

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of SOX2-specific autoantibodies seems to be associated with an improved prognosis in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS. However, it is unclear if SOX2-specific antibodies also develop in established multiple myeloma (MM. Screening 1094 peripheral blood (PB sera from 196 MM patients and 100 PB sera from healthy donors, we detected SOX2-specific autoantibodies in 7.7% and 2.0% of patients and donors, respectively. We identified SOX2211–230 as an immunodominant antibody-epitope within the full protein sequence. SOX2 antigen was expressed in most healthy tissues and its expression did not correlate with the number of BM-resident plasma cells. Accordingly, anti-SOX2 immunity was not related to SOX2 expression levels or tumor burden in the patients’ BM. The only clinical factor predicting the development of anti-SOX2 immunity was application of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT. Anti-SOX2 antibodies occurred more frequently in patients who had received alloSCT (n=74. Moreover, most SOX2-seropositive patients had only developed antibodies after alloSCT. This finding indicates that alloSCT is able to break tolerance towards this commonly expressed antigen. The questions whether SOX2-specific autoantibodies merely represent an epiphenomenon, are related to graft-versus-host effects or participate in the immune control of myeloma needs to be answered in prospective studies.

  15. Role of Natural Autoantibodies in Ugandans With Rheumatic Heart Disease and HIV☆

    Huck, Daniel M.; Okello, Emmy; Mirembe, Grace; Ssinabulya, Isaac; Zidar, David A.; Silverman, Gregg J.; Getu,