Sample records for human anti-murine immunoglobulin

  1. Translocations affecting human immunoglobulin heavy chain locus

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    Sklyar I. V.


    Full Text Available Translocations involving human immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH locus are implicated in different leukaemias and lymphomas, including multiple myeloma, mantle cell lymphoma, Burkitt’s lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma. We have analysed published data and identified eleven breakpoint cluster regions (bcr related to these cancers within the IgH locus. These ~1 kbp bcrs are specific for one or several types of blood cancer. Our findings could help devise PCR-based assays to detect cancer-related translocations, to identify the mechanisms of translocations and to help in the research of potential translocation partners of the immunoglobulin locus at different stages of B-cell differentiation.

  2. Development of human anti-murine T-cell receptor antibodies in both responding and nonresponding patients enrolled in TCR gene therapy trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Davis (Jeremy); M.R. Theoret (Marc); Z. Zheng (Zhili); C.H.J. Lamers (Cor); S.A. Rosenberg (Steven); R.A. Morgan (Richard)


    textabstractPurpose: Immune responses to gene-modified cells are a concern in the field of human gene therapy, as they may impede effective treatment. We conducted 2 clinical trials in which cancer patients were treated with lymphocytes genetically engineered to express murine T-cell receptors


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    I.D. Fesenko


    Full Text Available Intravenous induction of human normal immunoglobulin is widely applied to treat various diseases; this is a highly effective and rather a safe treatment approach. According to the findings of the randomized controlled tests, the effectiveness of the given group of medications was proved in a number of immunopathologic states. On the other hand, sometimes the range of diseases, during which human normal immunoglobulin is applied, has groundlessly been extended of late. The article highlights the modern data about the contents, indications, mechanisms of impact, frequency and types of adverse reactions to the induction of human normal immunoglobulin, as well as the data about relative effectiveness of different medications.Key words: human normal immunoglobulin, adverse reactions, children.

  4. Human placental immunoglobulins show unique re-association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study re-association pattern of human placental eluate immunoglobulins with acid treated isologous and third party trophoblast derived placental microvesicles. Design: Laboratory based experimentation. Setting: Biological Sciences Department and Discipline for Reproductive Medicine University of ...

  5. Intravenous polyclonal human immunoglobulins in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Soelberg


    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is an established therapy for demyelinating diseases of the peripheral nervous system. IVIG exerts a number of effects that may be beneficial in multiple sclerosis (MS). Four double-blind IVIG trials have been performed in relapsing-remitting MS. A meta-analysis ......Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is an established therapy for demyelinating diseases of the peripheral nervous system. IVIG exerts a number of effects that may be beneficial in multiple sclerosis (MS). Four double-blind IVIG trials have been performed in relapsing-remitting MS. A meta...

  6. The monocyte binding domain(s) on human immunoglobulin G. (United States)

    Woof, J M; Nik Jaafar, M I; Jefferis, R; Burton, D R


    Monocyte binding has previously been assigned to the C gamma 3 domain of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) largely on the ability of the pFc' fragment to inhibit the monocyte-IgG interaction. This ability is markedly reduced compared to the intact parent IgG. We find this result with a conventional pFc' preparation but this preparation is found to contain trace contamination of parent IgG as demonstrated by reactivity with monoclonal antibodies directed against C gamma 2 domain and light-chain epitopes of human IgG. Extensive immunoaffinity purification of the pFc' preparation removes its inhibitory ability indicating that this originates in the trace contamination of parent IgG (or Fc). Neither of the human IgG1 paraproteins TIM, lacking the C gamma 2 domain, or SIZ, lacking the C gamma 3 domain, are found to inhibit the monocyte-IgG interaction. The hinge-deleted IgG1 Dob protein shows little or no inhibitory ability. Indirect evidence for the involvement of the C gamma 2 domain in monocyte binding is considered. We suggest finally that the site of interaction is found either on the C gamma 2 domain alone or between the C gamma 2 and C gamma 3 domains.

  7. Optimized localization of bacterial infections with technetium-99m labelled human immunoglobulin after protein charge selection

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    Welling, M. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Leiden (Netherlands)); Feitsma, H.I.J. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Leiden (Netherlands)); Calame, W. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Leiden (Netherlands)); Ensing, G.J. (Mallinckrodt Medical, Petten (Netherlands)); Goedemans, W. (Mallinckrodt Medical, Petten (Netherlands)); Pauwels, E.K.J. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Leiden (Netherlands))


    To improve the scintigraphic detection of bacterial infections a protein charge-purified fraction of polyclonal human immunoglobulin was applied as a radiopharmaceutical. This purification was achieved by attaching the immunoglobulin to an anion-exchanger column and by obtaining the column-bound fraction with buffer. The binding to bacteria in vitro and the target to non-target ratios of an experimental thigh infection with Staphylococcus aureus or Klebsiella pneumoniae in mice were evaluated to compare the purified and the unpurified immunoglobulin. The percentage of binding to all gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria used in this study was significantly (P<0.03) higher for the purified than for the unpurified immunoglobulin. For the in vivo study, mice were infected in the thigh muscle with Staph. aureus or K. pneumoniae. After 18 h 0.1 mg of technetium-99m labelled polyclonal immunoglobulin or [sup 99m]Tc-labelled protein charge-purified polyclonal human immunoglobulin was administered intravenously. At all time intervals the target (infected thighs) to non-target (non-infected thighs) ratios for both infections were significantly higher (P<0.03) for protein charge-purified polyclonal immunoglobulin than for unpurified polyclonal human immunoglobulin. Already within 1 h the infected tissues could be detected by the purified immunoglobulin. It is concluded that [sup 99m]Tc-labelled protein charge-purified immunoglobulin localizes both a gram-positive and a gram-negative thigh infection more intensely and faster than [sup 99m]Tc-labelled unpurified immunoglobulin. (orig.)

  8. Protein A affinity precipitation of human immunoglobulin G. (United States)

    Janoschek, Lars; Freiherr von Roman, Matthias; Berensmeier, Sonja


    The potential of protein A affinity precipitation as an alternative method for traditional antibody purification techniques was investigated. Recombinant produced protein A from Staphylococcus aureus (SpA) was covalently linked to the pH-responsive copolymer Eudragit(®) S-100 and used for purification of human immunoglobulin G (hIgG). The Eudragit-SpA conjugate had a static binding capacity of 93.9 ± 2.8 mg hIgG per g conjugate and a dissociation constant of 787 ± 67 nM at 7 ± 1°C. The antibody was adsorbed rapidly onto Eudragit-SpA and reached equilibrium within 5 min. An excess of hIgG binding sites, provided by the conjugate, as well as adjusted elution conditions resulted in an appropriate hIgG purification performance. In summary, Eudragit-SpA was successfully applied to capture hIgG from a protein mixture with 65% antibody yield in the elution step. Nearly 96% purity and a purification factor of 12.4 were achieved. The Eudragit-SpA conjugate showed a stable ligand density over several cycles, which enabled reusability for repeated precipitation of hIgG. According to this, pH induced affinity precipitation can be seen as a potential alternative for protein A chromatography in antibody purification processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of the Streptococcus pyogenes surface antigens recognised by pooled human immunoglobulin (United States)

    Reglinski, Mark; Gierula, Magdalena; Lynskey, Nicola N.; Edwards, Robert J.; Sriskandan, Shiranee


    Immunity to common bacteria requires the generation of antibodies that promote opsonophagocytosis and neutralise toxins. Pooled human immunoglobulin is widely advocated as an adjunctive treatment for clinical Streptococcus pyogenes infection however, the protein targets of the reagent remain ill defined. Affinity purification of the anti-streptococcal antibodies present within pooled immunoglobulin resulted in the generation of an IgG preparation that promoted opsonophagocytic killing of S. pyogenes in vitro and provided passive immunity in vivo. Isolation of the streptococcal surface proteins recognised by pooled human immunoglobulin permitted identification and ranking of 94 protein antigens, ten of which were reproducibly identified across four contemporary invasive S. pyogenes serotypes (M1, M3, M12 and M89). The data provide novel insight into the action of pooled human immunoglobulin during invasive S. pyogenes infection, and demonstrate a potential route to enhance the efficacy of antibody based therapies. PMID:26508447


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    V. B. Ivanov


    Full Text Available The article considers the experience of Russian and leading foreign regulatory agencies in organisation and conduction of preclinical and clinical trials of human immunoglobulin products. The authors suggest a classification of human immunoglobulins and provide updated information on authorization of these products in Russia. The article summarizes methodological approaches, basic scientific principles and criteria relating to expert evaluation of preclinical and clinical trials of blood products. The authors further define the expert body’s requirements for data on preclinical and clinical trials of human normal immuniglobulins and human specific immunoglobulins for the prevention and/or treatment of infectious and non-infectious diseases which are submitted as part of applications for marketing authorization or marketing authorization variation. The article suggests programs of preclinical and clinical trials for human normal immunoglobulins and human specific immunoglobulins for the prevention and/or treatment of infectious and non-infectious diseases that are aligned with the Russian legislation and Eurasian Economic Union’s regulations on medicines circulation, and have been elaborated with respect to the guidelines of the European Medicines Agency.

  11. The physiological effects of human immunoglobulin on severe bronchiolitis patients before and after treatment. (United States)

    Shan, Yan-Hua; Zhang, Yong-Gang; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Wang, Dong; Li, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Xi-Mei; Luo, Song-Yuan


    The goal of the present study is to explore the physiological effects of injected human immunoglobulin on patients with severe bronchiolitis before and after treatment. 86 young children with severe bronchiolitis were randomly divided into the observation group (43 cases) and the treatment group (43 cases). On the basis of conventional therapy, the children in the treatment group were given human immunoglobulin (400 mg/kg, 1-3 times) via intravenous injection. 60 healthy young children, as determined by a physical examination given at the Zhumadian Central Hospital, were enrolled as the control group. The T lymphocytes, cytokines, IgA, IgG, and IgM immunoglobulins in the peripheral blood of all 3 groups were measured. The clinical efficacy of the immunoglobulins to mitigate the effects of bronchiolitis and the amount of time for the reduction of symptoms to occur were observed. The serum Ca, Fe, and Zn levels of children with severe bronchiolitis were significantly lower than those of the healthy control group (p bronchiolitis than in the children in the healthy control group (p bronchiolitis children was significantly shorter for those in the treatment group than for those in the observation group. Human immunoglobulin via intravenous injection showed active therapeutical effects on trace elements, T lymphocytes, and cytokines in patients with severe bronchiolitis.

  12. Cerebellar Purkinje cells incorporate immunoglobulins and immunotoxins in vitro: implications for human neurological disease and immunotherapeutics

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    Rose John W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies reactive with intracellular neuronal proteins have been described in paraneoplastic and other autoimmune disorders. Because neurons have been thought impermeable to immunoglobulins, however, such antibodies have been considered unable to enter neurons and bind to their specific antigens during life. Cerebellar Purkinje cells - an important target in paraneoplastic and other autoimmune diseases - have been shown in experimental animals to incorporate a number of molecules from cerebrospinal fluid. IgG has also been detected in Purkinje cells studied post mortem. Despite the possible significance of these findings for human disease, immunoglobulin uptake by Purkinje cells has not been demonstrated in living tissue or studied systematically. Methods To assess Purkinje cell uptake of immunoglobulins, organotypic cultures of rat cerebellum incubated with rat IgGs, human IgG, fluorescein-conjugated IgG, and rat IgM were studied by confocal microscopy in real time and following fixation. An IgG-daunorubicin immunotoxin was used to determine whether conjugation of pharmacological agents to IgG could be used to achieve Purkinje cell-specific drug delivery. Results IgG uptake was detected in Purkinje cell processes after 4 hours of incubation and in Purkinje cell cytoplasm and nuclei by 24-48 hours. Uptake could be followed in real time using IgG-fluorochrome conjugates. Purkinje cells also incorporated IgM. Intracellular immunoglobulin did not affect Purkinje cell viability, and Purkinje cells cleared intracellular IgG or IgM within 24-48 hours after transfer to media lacking immunoglobulins. The IgG-daunomycin immunotoxin was also rapidly incorporated into Purkinje cells and caused extensive, cell-specific death within 8 hours. Purkinje cell death was not produced by unconjugated daunorubicin or control IgG. Conclusion Purkinje cells in rat organotypic cultures incorporate and clear host (rat and non

  13. Mouse-human immunoglobulin G1 chimeric antibodies with activities against Cryptococcus neoformans.


    Zebedee, S L; Koduri, R K; Mukherjee, J; Mukherjee, S.; Lee, S; Sauer, D F; Scharff, M. D.; Casadevall, A


    Passive antibody administration is a potentially useful approach for the therapy of human Cryptococcus neoformans infections. To evaluate the efficacy of the human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) constant region against C. neoformans and to construct murine antibody derivatives with reduced immunogenicities and longer half-lives in humans, two mouse-human IgG1 chimeric antibodies were generated from the protective murine monoclonal antibodies 2D10 (IgM) and 18B7 (IgG1). The 2D10 mouse-human IgG1 chi...

  14. Physiological level production of antigen-specific human immunoglobulin in cloned transchromosomic cattle.

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    Akiko Sano

    Full Text Available Therapeutic human polyclonal antibodies (hpAbs derived from pooled plasma from human donors are Food and Drug Administration approved biologics used in the treatment of a variety of human diseases. Powered by the natural diversity of immune response, hpAbs are effective in treating diseases caused by complex or quickly-evolving antigens such as viruses. We previously showed that transchromosomic (Tc cattle carrying a human artificial chromosome (HAC comprising the entire unrearranged human immunoglobulin heavy-chain (hIGH and kappa-chain (hIGK germline loci (named as κHAC are capable of producing functional hpAbs when both of the bovine immunoglobulin mu heavy-chains, bIGHM and bIGHML1, are homozygously inactivated (double knockouts or DKO. However, B lymphocyte development in these Tc cattle is compromised, and the overall production of hpAbs is low. Here, we report the construction of an improved HAC, designated as cKSL-HACΔ, by incorporating all of the human immunoglobulin germline loci into the HAC. Furthermore, for avoiding the possible human-bovine interspecies incompatibility between the human immunoglobulin mu chain protein (hIgM and bovine transmembrane α and β immunoglobulins (bIgα and bIgβ in the pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR complex, we partially replaced (bovinized the hIgM constant domain with the counterpart of bovine IgM (bIgM that is involved in the interaction between bIgM and bIgα/Igβ; human IgM bovinization would also improve the functionality of hIgM in supporting B cell activation and proliferation. We also report the successful production of DKO Tc cattle carrying the cKSL-HACΔ (cKSL-HACΔ/DKO, the dramatic improvement of B cell development in these cattle and the high level production of hpAbs (as measured for the human IgG isotype in the plasma. We further demonstrate that, upon immunization by tumor immunogens, high titer tumor immunogen-specific human IgG (hIgG can be produced from such Tc cattle.

  15. Catabolism of human γG-immunoglobulins of different heavy chain subclasses (United States)

    Spiegelberg, Hans L.; Fishkin, Ben G.; Grey, Howard M.


    The rates of catabolism of human γG-immunoglobulins of subclasses γG1, γG2, γG3, and γG4 were studied by determining the rates of elimination from the circulation of pairs of 131I-and 125I-labeled γG-myeloma proteins in 57 patients suffering from cancer other than multiple myeloma. On the average, γG1-, γG2-, and γG4-myeloma proteins were catabolized at a rate similar to that of normal γG-immunoglobulin, whereas γG3-myeloma proteins were catabolized more rapidly than normal γG-immunoglobulin. The average half-lives for the myeloma proteins were 12.3 days for normal γG, 11.6 days for γG1, 12.4 days for γG2, 8.2 days for γG3, and 11.3 days for γG4. However, significant differences in catabolic rates were observed when individual myeloma proteins of a single subclass were compared. These individual variations were present within all four heavy chain subclasses. The extent of differences ranged from 10 to 47%. The catabolic rate of normal γG was in an intermediate range when compared with myeloma proteins of relatively long and short half-lives. The rate of catabolism of an individual myeloma protein did not correlate with its light chain type, Gm factor, carbohydrate content, or electrophoretic mobility. These findings indicate that the structure(s) related to the catabolism of γG-immunoglobulins are complex and differ from one immunoglobulin molecule to another. Images PMID:4175542

  16. Mannosylerythritol lipid, a yeast extracellular glycolipid, shows high binding affinity towards human immunoglobulin G

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    Ikegami Toru


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been many attempts to develop new materials with stability and high affinity towards immunoglobulins. Some of glycolipids such as gangliosides exhibit a high affinity toward immunoglobulins. However, it is considerably difficult to develop these glycolipids into the practical separation ligand due to their limited amounts. We thus focused our attention on the feasible use of "mannosylerythritol lipid A", a yeast glycolipid biosurfactant, as an alternative ligand for immunoglobulins, and undertook the investigation on the binding between mannosylerythritol lipid A (MEL-A and human immunoglobulin G (HIgG. Results In ELISA assay, MEL-A showed nearly the same binding affinity towards HIgG as that of bovine ganglioside GM1. Fab of human IgG was considered to play a more important role than Fc in the binding of HIgG by MEL-A. The bound amount of HIgG increased depending on the attached amount of MEL-A onto poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (polyHEMA beads, whereas the amount of human serum albumin slightly decreased. Binding-amount and -selectivity of HIgG towards MEL-A were influenced by salt species, salt concentration and pH in the buffer solution. The composite of MEL-A and polyHEMA, exhibited a significant binding constant of 1.43 × 106 (M-1 for HIgG, which is approximately 4-fold greater than that of protein A reported. Conclusions MEL-A shows high binding-affinity towards HIgG, and this is considered to be due to "multivalent effect" based on the binding molar ratio. This is the first report on the binding of a natural human antibody towards a yeast glycolipid.

  17. HTJoinSolver: Human immunoglobulin VDJ partitioning using approximate dynamic programming constrained by conserved motifs. (United States)

    Russ, Daniel E; Ho, Kwan-Yuet; Longo, Nancy S


    Partitioning the human immunoglobulin variable region into variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) segments is a common sequence analysis step. We introduce a novel approximate dynamic programming method that uses conserved immunoglobulin gene motifs to improve performance of aligning V-segments of rearranged immunoglobulin (Ig) genes. Our new algorithm enhances the former JOINSOLVER algorithm by processing sequences with insertions and/or deletions (indels) and improves the efficiency for large datasets provided by high throughput sequencing. In our simulations, which include rearrangements with indels, the V-matching success rate improved from 61% for partial alignments of sequences with indels in the original algorithm to over 99% in the approximate algorithm. An improvement in the alignment of human VDJ rearrangements over the initial JOINSOLVER algorithm was also seen when compared to the Stanford.S22 human Ig dataset with an online VDJ partitioning software evaluation tool. HTJoinSolver can rapidly identify V- and J-segments with indels to high accuracy for mutated sequences when the mutation probability is around 30% and 20% respectively. The D-segment is much harder to fit even at 20% mutation probability. For all segments, the probability of correctly matching V, D, and J increases with our alignment score.

  18. Intrinsic bias and public rearrangements in the human immunoglobulin Vλ light chain repertoire. (United States)

    Hoi, K H; Ippolito, G C


    The immunoglobulin lambda (IGL) repertoires from two unrelated human blood samples, three NOD-scid-IL2Rγ(null) mice engrafted with human hematopoietic stem cells and two pairs of monozygotic twin blood samples were determined by Roche 454 sequencing to generate a total of about 700 000 IGL sequences. We applied bioinformatic analysis to examine IGL repertoires wherein, surprisingly, 20% of CDR-L3 peptide sequences were 'public' (shared across individuals); moreover, full-length IGL protein sequences (VJ recombinants) were also present in the public domain. Subtle yet significant differences in CDR-L3 nontemplated nucleotide addition, IGL V-gene family usage, and amino-acid composition distinguished the public CDR-L3 groups from the private groups. These data suggest that public CDR-L3 intervals can arise by intrinsic genetic mechanisms irrespective of different B-cell developmental milieu (human versus humanized mouse). Furthermore, the occurrence of identical public IGL protein sequences indirectly suggest the positive selection (evolutionary, somatic or both) of particular IGL chains independent of the immunoglobulin heavy chain.

  19. Competitive Protein Adsorption of Albumin and Immunoglobulin G from Human Serum onto Polymer Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Maria; Hou, Xiaolin


    Competitive protein adsorption from human serum onto unmodified polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surfaces and plasma-polymerized PET surfaces, using the monomer diethylene glycol vinyl ether (DEGVE), has been investigated using radioactive labeling. Albumin and immunoglobulin G (IgG) labeled...... with two different iodine isotopes have been added to human serum solutions of different concentrations, and adsorption has been performed using adsorption times from approximately 5 s to 24 h. DEGVE surfaces showed indications of being nonfouling regarding albumin and IgG adsorption during competitive...... protein adsorption from diluted human serum solutions with relatively low protein concentrations, but the nonfouling character was weakened when less diluted human serum solutions with higher protein concentrations were used. The observed adsorption trend is independent of adsorption time, indicating...

  20. Competitive protein adsorption of albumin and immunoglobulin G from human serum onto polymer surfaces. (United States)

    Holmberg, Maria; Hou, Xiaolin


    Competitive protein adsorption from human serum onto unmodified polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surfaces and plasma-polymerized PET surfaces, using the monomer diethylene glycol vinyl ether (DEGVE), has been investigated using radioactive labeling. Albumin and immunoglobulin G (IgG) labeled with two different iodine isotopes have been added to human serum solutions of different concentrations, and adsorption has been performed using adsorption times from approximately 5 s to 24 h. DEGVE surfaces showed indications of being nonfouling regarding albumin and IgG adsorption during competitive protein adsorption from diluted human serum solutions with relatively low protein concentrations, but the nonfouling character was weakened when less diluted human serum solutions with higher protein concentrations were used. The observed adsorption trend is independent of adsorption time, indicating that the protein concentration has a stronger influence on observed adsorption characteristics of the material than the adsorption time has.

  1. Immunoglobulin M

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pleass, Richard J; Moore, Shona C; Stevenson, Liz


    it co-evolved. In this article, we discuss the association between IgM and human malaria parasites, building on several recent publications that implicate IgM as a crucial molecule that determines both host and parasite survival. Consequently, a better understanding of this association may lead......Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is an ancient antibody class that is found in all vertebrates, with the exception of coelacanths, and is indispensable in both innate and adaptive immunity. The equally ancient human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, formed an intimate relationship with IgM with which...

  2. Correlation between parity and concentration of immunoglobulins A, G and M in human colostrum

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    Gabriel André João Striker


    Full Text Available Objective: To study the relationship between parity andimmunoglobulin concentrations in human colostrum. Methods:82 puerperas aged 21-41 years were selected, with gestationalage ≥ 37 weeks, up to the fourth parity, good nutritional status andno gestational or puerperal diseases. The inclusion criteria for thenewborn were: weight > 2,500 g, Apgar score > 7 in the firstminute and exclusive maternal breastfeeding until discharge fromthe nursery. The mothers were divided into 2 groups: A -primiparous, B - multiparous. Colostrum was collected manuallyfrom 48 to 72 hours after delivery and the immunoglobulins weremeasured by ELISA technique. Results: No differences wereobserved regarding timing to collect colostrum; the earliercolostrum was collected, the higher the concentration of immunoglobulinA; primiparous women showed higher concentrations of IgA andIgM in their colostrum than multiparous women; there were nodifferences regarding IgG concentrations in the two groups.Conclusion: Primiparous women presented higher concentrationsof IgA and IgM in their colostrum than multiparous women.

  3. Comprehensive FISH probe design tool applied to imaging human immunoglobulin class switch recombination. (United States)

    Nedbal, Jakub; Hobson, Philip S; Fear, David J; Heintzmann, Rainer; Gould, Hannah J


    We present a web engine boosted fluorescence in-situ hybridization (webFISH) algorithm using a genome-wide sequence similarity search to design target-specific single-copy and repetitive DNA FISH probes. The webFISH algorithm featuring a user-friendly interface ( maximizes the coverage of the examined sequences with FISH probes by considering locally repetitive sequences absent from the remainder of the genome. The highly repetitive human immunoglobulin heavy chain sequence was analyzed using webFISH to design three sets of FISH probes. These allowed direct simultaneous detection of class switch recombination in both immunoglobulin-heavy chain alleles in single cells from a population of cultured primary B cells. It directly demonstrated asynchrony of the class switch recombination in the two alleles in structurally preserved nuclei while permitting parallel readout of protein expression by immunofluorescence staining. This novel technique offers the possibility of gaining unprecedented insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in class switch recombination.

  4. Evaluation of unintended effects in the composition of tomatoes expressing a human immunoglobulin A against rotavirus. (United States)

    Juarez, Paloma; Fernandez-del-Carmen, Asun; Rambla, Jose L; Presa, Silvia; Mico, Amparo; Granell, Antonio; Orzaez, Diego


    The production of neutralizing immunoglobulin A (IgA) in edible fruits as a means of oral passive immunization is a promising strategy for the inexpensive treatment of mucosal diseases. This approach is based on the assumption that the edible status remains unaltered in the immunoglobulin-expressing fruit, and therefore extensive purification is not required for mucosal delivery. However, unintended effects associated with IgA expression such as toxic secondary metabolites and protein allergens cannot be dismissed a priori and need to be investigated. This paper describes a collection of independent transgenic tomato lines expressing a neutralizing human IgA against rotavirus, a mucosal pathogen producing severe diarrhea episodes. This collection was used to evaluate possible unintended effects associated with recombinant IgA expression. A comparative analysis of protein and secondary metabolite profiles using wild type lines and other commercial varieties failed to find unsafe features significantly associated with IgA expression. Preliminary, the data indicate that formulations derived from IgA tomatoes are as safe for consumption as equivalent formulations derived from wild type tomatoes.

  5. Allergen extract-induced interleukin-10 in human memory B cells inhibits immunoglobulin E production. (United States)

    Milovanovic, M; Heine, G; Zuberbier, T; Worm, M


    Elevated specific IgE antibody levels are common in atopic individuals, caused by T-helper type 2-dominated B cell activation. The induction of antigen-specific IL-10 secreting T cells is discussed as an important mechanism during specific immunotherapy. By contrast the presence and function of B cell-derived IL-10 is not well defined yet. We investigated whether type-I allergen extracts induce IL-10 expression in human B cells and analysed its functional role on IgE production. Human peripheral B cells were stimulated with grass pollen, house dust mite (HDM) (Dermatophagoides pteronyssimus; Der p) and dog allergen extract. Expression of IL-10 by activated human B cells was determined by flow cytometric analysis and ELISA. Functional analysis considering immunoglobulin production was assayed by ELISA. The allergen extracts studied induced IL-10 expression in B cells. However, the ability to induce IL-10 differed between the allergen extracts. The most potent allergen extract was dog (169+/-28 pg/mL), followed by grass pollen (141+/-10 pg/mL) and HDM allergen (125+/-11 pg/mL). Upon allergen extract stimulation only CD27 expressing memory B cells produced IL-10 and co-expressed the very early activation antigen CD69. The addition of allergen extracts to B cells activated by anti-CD40 and IL-4 selectively inhibited IgE which was dependent on allergen extract-induced IL-10. By contrast the other immunoglobulin subclasses like IgA, IgG or IgM were not altered upon allergen extract challenge. Our data indicate that allergen-activated memory B cells can modulate IgE production through secretion of IL-10.

  6. Biomarkers for non-human primate type-I hypersensitivity: antigen-specific immunoglobulin E assays. (United States)

    Clark, Darcey; Shiota, Faith; Forte, Carla; Narayanan, Padma; Mytych, Daniel T; Hock, M Benjamin


    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is the least abundant immunoglobulin in serum. However, development of an IgE immune response can induce IgE receptor-expressing cells to carry out potent effector functions. A reliable antigen-specific IgE biomarker method for use in non-human primate studies would facilitate (i) confirmation of Type-I hypersensitivity reactions during safety toxicology testing, and (ii) a better understanding of non-human primate models of allergic disease. We cloned and expressed a recombinant cynomolgus monkey IgE molecule in order to screen a panel of commercially available detection reagents raised against human IgE for cross-reactivity. The reagent most reactive to cynomolgus IgE was confirmed to be specific for IgE and did not bind recombinant cynomolgus monkey IgG1-4. A drug-specific IgE assay was developed on the MSD electrochemiluminescent (ECL) platform. The assay is capable of detecting 10 ng/mL drug-specific IgE. Importantly, the assay is able to detect IgE in the presence of excess IgG, the scenario likely to be present in a safety toxicology study. Using our ECL assay, we were able to confirm that serum from cynomolgus monkeys that had experienced clinical symptoms consistent with hypersensitivity responses contained IgE specific for a candidate therapeutic antibody. In addition, a bioassay for mast cell activation was developed using CD34(+)-derived cynomolgus monkey mast cells. This assay confirmed that plasma from animals identified as positive in the drug-specific IgE immunoassay contained biologically active IgE (i.e. could sensitize cultured mast cells), resulting in histamine release after exposure to the therapeutic antibody. These sensitive assays for Type-I hypersensitivity in the NHP can confirm that secondary events are downstream of immunogenicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Anti-ghrelin immunoglobulins modulate ghrelin stability and its orexigenic effect in obese mice and humans (United States)

    Takagi, Kuniko; Legrand, Romain; Asakawa, Akihiro; Amitani, Haruka; François, Marie; Tennoune, Naouel; Coëffier, Moïse; Claeyssens, Sophie; do Rego, Jean-Claude; Déchelotte, Pierre; Inui, Akio; Fetissov, Sergueï O.


    Obese individuals often have increased appetite despite normal plasma levels of the main orexigenic hormone ghrelin. Here we show that ghrelin degradation in the plasma is inhibited by ghrelin-reactive IgG immunoglobulins, which display increased binding affinity to ghrelin in obese patients and mice. Co-administration of ghrelin together with IgG from obese individuals, but not with IgG from anorectic or control patients, increases food intake in rats. Similarly, chronic injections of ghrelin together with IgG from ob/ob mice increase food intake, meal frequency and total lean body mass of mice. These data reveal that in both obese humans and mice, IgG with increased affinity for ghrelin enhances ghrelin’s orexigenic effect, which may contribute to increased appetite and overeating. PMID:24158035

  8. Immunochromatographic Brucella-specific immunoglobulin M and G lateral flow assays for rapid serodiagnosis of human brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Henk L.; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Solera, Javier; Clavijo, Encarnacion; Diaz, Ramon


    To fulfill the need for a simple and rapid diagnostic test for human brucellosis, we used the immunochromatographic lateral flow assay format to develop two assays, one for the detection of Brucella-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies and one for the detection of Brucella-specific IgG

  9. II Brazilian Consensus on the use of human immunoglobulin in patients with primary immunodeficiencies. (United States)

    Goudouris, Ekaterini Simões; Rego Silva, Almerinda Maria do; Ouricuri, Aluce Loureiro; Grumach, Anete Sevciovic; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz Tavares; Prando, Carolina Cardoso; Kokron, Cristina Maria; Vasconcelos, Dewton de Moraes; Tavares, Fabíola Scancetti; Silva Segundo, Gesmar Rodrigues; Barreto, Irma Cecília; Dorna, Mayra de Barros; Barros, Myrthes Anna; Forte, Wilma Carvalho Neves


    In the last few years, new primary immunodeficiencies and genetic defects have been described. Recently, immunoglobulin products with improved compositions and for subcutaneous use have become available in Brazil. In order to guide physicians on the use of human immunoglobulin to treat primary immunodeficiencies, based on a narrative literature review and their professional experience, the members of the Primary Immunodeficiency Group of the Brazilian Society of Allergy and Immunology prepared an updated document of the 1st Brazilian Consensus, published in 2010. The document presents new knowledge about the indications and efficacy of immunoglobulin therapy in primary immunodeficiencies, relevant production-related aspects, mode of use (routes of administration, pharmacokinetics, doses and intervals), adverse events (major, prevention, treatment and reporting), patient monitoring, presentations available and how to have access to this therapeutic resource in Brazil. RESUMO Nos últimos anos, novas imunodeficiências primárias e defeitos genéticos têm sido descritos. Recentemente, produtos de imunoglobulina, com aprimoramento em sua composição e para uso por via subcutânea, tornaram-se disponíveis em nosso meio. Com o objetivo de orientar o médico no uso da imunoglobulina humana para o tratamento das imunodeficiências primárias, os membros do Grupo de Assessoria em Imunodeficiências da Associação Brasileira de Alergia e Imunologia produziram um documento que teve por base uma revisão narrativa da literatura e sua experiência profissional, atualizando o I Consenso Brasileiro publicado em 2010. Apresentam-se novos conhecimentos sobre indicações e eficácia do tratamento com imunoglobulina nas imunodeficiências primárias, aspectos relevantes sobre a produção, forma de utilização (vias de administração, farmacocinética, doses e intervalos), efeitos adversos (principais efeitos, prevenção, tratamento e notificação), monitorização do

  10. Characterization of immunoglobulin A kappa autoantibodies to human lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme-3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijers, R. N.; Oude Elferink, R. P.; Mulder, J.; Kruijswijk, H.


    We have purified with a cumulative recovery of 48% from the serum of a patient the immunoglobulin A kappa subunit of the lactate dehydrogenase-immunoglobulin A kappa (LD-IgA kappa) complex. It appears that the pI range of the complex is 5.4-5.8. The Ig part of the complex showed a monoclonal

  11. [Management of adverse effects related to human immunoglobulin therapy: Recommendations for clinical practice]. (United States)

    Marie, I; Chérin, P; Michallet, M; Pelus, E; Dantal, J; Crave, J-C; Delain, J-C; Viallard, J-F


    Both intravenous and subcutaneous immunoglobulins are therapeutic modalities approved in various conditions, including primary and secondary immune deficiencies and autoimmune disorders. To date, immunoglobulins have more often been considered as a safe medication, with minor adverse effects such as hypertension, fever and chills, nausea, myalgia or headache. However, with the wider use of immunoglobulins in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, severe side effects have also been reported to occur in immunoglobulin-treated patients, especially anaphylaxis, aseptic meningitis, acute renal impairment, thrombotic events as well as haematological manifestations. This paper reviews all the potential adverse events related to immunoglobulin therapy and establishes a comprehensive guideline for the management of these events. Copyright © 2016 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. CP-25 Attenuates the Activation of CD4+ T Cells Stimulated with Immunoglobulin D in Human. (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Jing; Chen, Heng-Shi; Chen, Wen-Sheng; Dong, Jin; Dong, Xiao-Jie; Dai, Xing; Huang, Qiong; Wei, Wei


    Researchers have shown that the level of immunoglobulin D (IgD) is often elevated in patients with autoimmune diseases. The possible roles of IgD on the function of human T cell activation are still unclear. Paeoniflorin-6'-O-benzene sulfonate (code: CP-25), the chemistry structural modifications of paeoniflorin, was a novel drug of anti-inflammation and immunomodulation. The aims of this study were to determine if human CD4+ T cells could be activated by IgD via the IgD receptor (IgDR)-Lck pathway and whether the novel compound CP-25 could affect the activation of T cells by regulating Lck. Human CD4+ T cells were purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells using microbeads. T cell viability and proliferation were detected by Cell Counting Kit-8 and CFSE Cell Proliferation Kit. Cytokines secreted by T cells were assessed with the Quantibody Human Inflammation Array. The binding affinity and expression of IgDR on T cells were detected by flow cytometry, and protein expression of IgDR, Lck, and P-Lck were analyzed by western blot. IgD was shown to bind to IgDR on CD4+ T cells in a concentration-dependent manner and stimulate the activation and proliferation of these cells by enhancing phosphorylation of the activating tyrosine residue of Lck (Tyr394). CP-25 inhibited the IgD-stimulated activation and proliferation of CD4+ T cells, as well as the production of inflammatory cytokines; it was thus suggested that this process might be related to the downregulation of Lck (Tyr394) phosphorylation. These results demonstrate that IgD amplifies the activation of CD4+ T cells, which could be mediated by Lck phosphorylation. Further, CP-25, via its ability to modulate Lck, is a novel potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of human autoimmune diseases.

  13. Liposome-based immunoaffinity chromatographic assay for the quantitation of immunoglobulin E in human serum. (United States)

    Annie Ho, Ja-an; Wu, Li-Chen; Chang, Li-Hui; Hwang, Kuo-Chu; Reuben Hwu, Jih-Ru


    Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated type I allergies affect over 25% of the world's population; they are among the most common diseases in developed countries. Therefore, simple and rapid in vivo and in vitro methods for diagnosing allergies are becoming increasingly important. In this paper, we demonstrate the feasibility of using sulforhodamine B, a fluorescent dye, entrapped inside immunoliposomes, the outer surfaces of which were sensitized with IgE, as a signal amplifier for the development of a simple, rapid, and inexpensive colorimetric affinity chromatographic immunoassay for the detection of total IgE in serum. This assay operates based on competition between standards (or human serum samples) containing IgE and IgE-sensitized immunoliposomes for the limited number of antigen binding sites of immobilized anti-IgE antibodies at the antigen capture (AC) zone on the nitrocellulose membranes. The color density of the AC zone is indirectly proportional to the number of IgE units present in the test sample. The detection limit of this liposome-based immunoaffinity chromatographic assay was 0.37ng in IgE-free serum solution (equivalent to 20microL of a 18.5ngmL(-1) solution). A commercially available ELISA kit was used as a reference method to validate the proposed assay through the analysis of three human serum samples. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Extensive variation in gene copy number at the killer immunoglobulin-like receptor locus in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Vendelbosch

    Full Text Available Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs are involved in the regulation of natural killer cell cytotoxicity. Within the human genome seventeen KIR genes are present, which all contain a large number of allelic variants. The high level of homology among KIR genes has hampered KIR genotyping in larger cohorts, and determination of gene copy number variation (CNV has been difficult. We have designed a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA technique for genotyping and CNV determination in one single assay and validated the results by next-generation sequencing and with a KIR gene-specific short tandem repeat assay. In this way, we demonstrate in a cohort of 120 individuals a high level of CNV for all KIR genes except for the framework genes KIR3DL3 and KIR3DL2. Application of our MLPA assay in segregation analyses of families from the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humaine, previously KIR-genotyped by classical techniques, confirmed an earlier reported duplication and resulted in the identification of a novel duplication event in one of these families. In summary, our KIR MLPA assay allows rapid and accurate KIR genotyping and CNV detection, thus rendering improved transplantation programs and oncology treatment feasible, and enables more detailed studies on the role of KIRs in human (autoimmunity and infectious disease.

  15. Extensive variation in gene copy number at the killer immunoglobulin-like receptor locus in humans. (United States)

    Vendelbosch, Sanne; de Boer, Martin; Gouw, Remko A T W; Ho, Cynthia K Y; Geissler, Judy; Swelsen, Wendy T N; Moorhouse, Michael J; Lardy, Neubury M; Roos, Dirk; van den Berg, Timo K; Kuijpers, Taco W


    Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are involved in the regulation of natural killer cell cytotoxicity. Within the human genome seventeen KIR genes are present, which all contain a large number of allelic variants. The high level of homology among KIR genes has hampered KIR genotyping in larger cohorts, and determination of gene copy number variation (CNV) has been difficult. We have designed a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique for genotyping and CNV determination in one single assay and validated the results by next-generation sequencing and with a KIR gene-specific short tandem repeat assay. In this way, we demonstrate in a cohort of 120 individuals a high level of CNV for all KIR genes except for the framework genes KIR3DL3 and KIR3DL2. Application of our MLPA assay in segregation analyses of families from the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humaine, previously KIR-genotyped by classical techniques, confirmed an earlier reported duplication and resulted in the identification of a novel duplication event in one of these families. In summary, our KIR MLPA assay allows rapid and accurate KIR genotyping and CNV detection, thus rendering improved transplantation programs and oncology treatment feasible, and enables more detailed studies on the role of KIRs in human (auto)immunity and infectious disease.

  16. Significant Differences in Physicochemical Properties of Human Immunoglobulin Kappa and Lambda CDR3 Regions (United States)

    Townsend, Catherine L.; Laffy, Julie M. J.; Wu, Yu-Chang Bryan; Silva O’Hare, Joselli; Martin, Victoria; Kipling, David; Fraternali, Franca; Dunn-Walters, Deborah K.


    Antibody variable regions are composed of a heavy and a light chain, and in humans, there are two light chain isotypes: kappa and lambda. Despite their importance in receptor editing, the light chain is often overlooked in the antibody literature, with the focus being on the heavy chain complementarity-determining region (CDR)-H3 region. In this paper, we set out to investigate the physicochemical and structural differences between human kappa and lambda light chain CDR regions. We constructed a dataset containing over 29,000 light chain variable region sequences from IgM-transcribing, newly formed B cells isolated from human bone marrow and peripheral blood. We also used a published human naïve dataset to investigate the CDR-H3 properties of heavy chains paired with kappa and lambda light chains and probed the Protein Data Bank to investigate the structural differences between kappa and lambda antibody CDR regions. We found that kappa and lambda light chains have very different CDR physicochemical and structural properties, whereas the heavy chains with which they are paired do not differ significantly. We also observed that the mean CDR3 N nucleotide addition in the kappa, lambda, and heavy chain gene rearrangements are correlated within donors but can differ between donors. This indicates that terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase may work with differing efficiencies between different people but the same efficiency in the different classes of immunoglobulin chain within one person. We have observed large differences in the physicochemical and structural properties of kappa and lambda light chain CDR regions. This may reflect different roles in the humoral immune response. PMID:27729912

  17. A chromatographic method for the production of a human immunoglobulin G solution for intravenous use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tanaka


    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin G (IgG of excellent quality for intravenous use was obtained from the cryosupernatant of human plasma by a chromatographic method based on a mixture of ion-exchange, DEAE-Sepharose FF and arginine Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography and a final purification step by Sephacryl S-300 HR gel filtration. The yield of 10 experimental batches produced was 3.5 g IgG per liter of plasma. A solvent/detergent combination of 1% Tri (n-butyl phosphate and 1% Triton X-100 was used to inactivate lipid-coated viruses. Analysis of the final product (5% liquid IgG based on the mean for 10 batches showed 94% monomers, 5.5% dimers and 0.5% polymers and aggregates. Anticomplementary activity was 0.3 CH50/mg IgG and prekallikrein activator levels were less than 5 IU/ml. Stability at 37ºC for 30 days in the liquid state was satisfactory. IgG was stored in flasks (2.5 g/flask at 4 to 8ºC. All the characteristics of the product were consistent with the requirements of the 1997 Pharmacopée Européenne.

  18. Novel purification method of human immunoglobulin by using a thermo-responsive protein A. (United States)

    Koguma, Ichiro; Yamashita, Shuntaro; Sato, Satoshi; Okuyama, Kazuo; Katakura, Yoshinori


    We attempted to evaluate a novel purification method of immunoglobulins (IgGs) by using a mutant type of protein A. Although this mutant protein A binds to IgGs at 5°C, the IgGs are released at 40°C; hence, it was designated as thermo-responsive protein A (TRPA). We aimed to purify IgG1 from the culture supernatant of CHO cells producing AE6F4 human monoclonal IgG1. AE6F4 IgG1 was purified using only a TRPA-filled column and by modifying the temperature, without any exposure to acidic conditions. Furthermore, the purified AE6F4 IgG1 maintained the inherent binding affinity to antigen, while this property was lost in AE6F4 IgG1 purified using a conventional protein A (CPA) column possibly because of product aggregation and fragmentation. These data suggest that IgG is sensitive to acid treatment; however, it can be highly purified with retention of high affinity by using a TRPA column. Further, this purification method can be used on an industrial scale for the purification of antibody drugs. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Separation of human immunoglobulin G subclasses on a protein A monolith column. (United States)

    Leblebici, Pelin; Leblebici, M Enis; Ferreira-da-Silva, Frederico; Rodrigues, Alírio E; Pais, Luís S


    Monolithic columns have attracted significant attention for the purification of large biomolecules. In the present study, a step gradient elution method was evaluated for the separation of human immunoglobulin G (hIgG) into its subclasses on CIM (convective interaction media) r-protein A (recombinant protein A) monolithic column. hIgG was loaded onto the column and bound protein was eluted with a pH gradient. The subclass content of the eluted fractions was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results showed that separation of IgG3 from the other three subclasses can be successfully achieved with high selectivity (100%) and throughput on monolithic media. It was also revealed that enriched fractions of IgG1 and IgG2 could be obtained from purified hIgG in a 28min long chromatographic run. Three fractions with high IgG1 content (89.1%, 94.3% and 88.8%) were recovered. Furthermore, IgG2 was enriched to 64% successfully. A rapid step gradient elution scheme without any additives in buffers was proven to obtain enriched preparations of the two important subclasses with high throughput. The separation time can be reduced even more by increasing the flow rate without any loss in selectivity, which will be beneficial in industrial scale applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of the interleukin-10 subfamily members in immunoglobulin production by human B cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshoj, L; Ryder, L P; Poulsen, Lars K.


    Interleukin (IL)-10 has been shown to have various effects on B cells, including positively affecting the production of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG. Several human IL-10-related molecules have been identified. These include IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, IL-26, IL-28 and IL-29. To determine...... the effects of the IL-10 analogues on the class switch recombination in B cells, we analysed Ig production from naïve B cells stimulated with these cytokines in the presence of anti-CD40. None of the cytokines were found to induce Ig production by themselves in the presence of anti-CD40 Ab. However, all...... cytokines inhibited the production of IgA and IgG induced by anti-CD40 Ab alone. In combination with anti-CD40 Ab and IL-4, IgG4 were inhibited in cultures stimulated with IL-20, IL-22, IL-26, IL-28 and IL-29 compared with IL-4 and anti-CD40 Ab alone, whereas all IL-10 analogues increased the production...

  1. Suppression of cytokine-dependent human T-cell proliferation by intravenous immunoglobulin. (United States)

    Amran, D; Renz, H; Lack, G; Bradley, K; Gelfand, E W


    Human intravenous immunoglobulin (hIVIG) modifies the course of numerous immune-mediated diseases, but its specific mode of action remains unknown. In order to delineate possible immunoregulatory mechanisms, we studied the effects of hIVIG on the in vitro proliferation of human T cells. Cells from normal donors were stimulated with anti-CD3 antibody, tetanus toxoid antigen or the combination of a phorbol ester/ionomycin (P/I) and incubated with increasing concentrations of hIVIG (1 mg/ml to 10 mg/ml) for three to seven days. Addition of hIVIG inhibited anti-CD3 and tetanus but not P/I-induced proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of exogenous IL-2 to the cultures overcame the inhibitory effect of hIVIG; addition of IL-4 was ineffective. To further define the effect of hIVIG on specific cell populations, competent, purified T cells were stimulated with anti-CD3 or phorbol ester for three days in the presence of hIVIG. Addition of hIVIG blocked anti-CD3 and phorbol ester-induced stimulation of competent T cells. In cultures of competent T cells, either IL-2 or IL-4 was successful in reversing the hIVIG-induced inhibition. In these cultures, hIVIG also significantly prevented the synthesis/secretion of both IL-2 and IL-4 in PDB-stimulated competent T cells. Taken together, these data suggest that one mechanism of action of hIVIG may be through its interference with cytokine-dependent T-cell proliferation.

  2. Hinge-Region O-Glycosylation of Human Immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3)* (United States)

    Plomp, Rosina; Dekkers, Gillian; Rombouts, Yoann; Visser, Remco; Koeleman, Carolien A.M.; Kammeijer, Guinevere S.M.; Jansen, Bas C.; Rispens, Theo; Hensbergen, Paul J.; Vidarsson, Gestur; Wuhrer, Manfred


    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is one of the most abundant proteins present in human serum and a fundamental component of the immune system. IgG3 represents ∼8% of the total amount of IgG in human serum and stands out from the other IgG subclasses because of its elongated hinge region and enhanced effector functions. This study reports partial O-glycosylation of the IgG3 hinge region, observed with nanoLC-ESI-IT-MS(/MS) analysis after proteolytic digestion. The repeat regions within the IgG3 hinge were found to be in part O-glycosylated at the threonine in the triple repeat motif. Non-, mono- and disialylated core 1-type O-glycans were detected in various IgG3 samples, both poly- and monoclonal. NanoLC-ESI-IT-MS/MS with electron transfer dissociation fragmentation and CE-MS/MS with CID fragmentation were used to determine the site of IgG3 O-glycosylation. The O-glycosylation site was further confirmed by the recombinant production of mutant IgG3 in which potential O-glycosylation sites had been knocked out. For IgG3 samples from six donors we found similar O-glycan structures and site occupancies, whereas for the same samples the conserved N-glycosylation of the Fc CH2 domain showed considerable interindividual variation. The occupancy of each of the three O-glycosylation sites was found to be ∼10% in six serum-derived IgG3 samples and ∼13% in two monoclonal IgG3 allotypes. PMID:25759508

  3. Characterization of Entamoeba histolytica intermediate subunit lectin-specific human monoclonal antibodies generated in transgenic mice expressing human immunoglobulin loci. (United States)

    Tachibana, Hiroshi; Cheng, Xun-Jia; Tsukamoto, Hideo; Itoh, Johbu


    Four fully human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to Entamoeba histolytica intermediate subunit lectin (Igl) were prepared in XenoMouse mice, which are transgenic mice expressing human immunoglobulin loci. Examination of the reactivities of these MAbs to recombinant Igl1 and Igl2 of E. histolytica showed that XEhI-20 {immunoglobulin G2(kappa) [IgG2(kappa)]} and XEhI-28 [IgG2(kappa)] were specific to Igl1, XEhI-B5 [IgG2(kappa)] was specific to Igl2, and XEhI-H2 [IgM(kappa)] was reactive with both Igls. Gene analyses revealed that the V(H) and V(L) germ lines were VH3-48 and L2 for XEhI-20, VH3-21 and L2 for XEhI-28, VH3-33 and B3 for XEhI-B5, and VH4-4 and A19 for XEhI-H2, respectively. Flow cytometry analyses showed that the epitopes recognized by all of these MAbs were located on the surfaces of living trophozoites. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that most Igl1 and Igl2 proteins were colocalized on the surface and in the cytoplasm, but different localization patterns in intracellular vacuoles were also present. The preincubation of trophozoites with XEhI-20, XEhI-B5, and XEhI-H2 caused significant inhibition of the adherence of trophozoites to Chinese hamster ovary cells, whereas preincubation with XEhI-28 did not do so. XEhI-20, XEhI-B5, and XEhI-H2 were injected intraperitoneally into hamsters 24 h prior to intrahepatic challenge with E. histolytica trophozoites. One week later, the mean abscess size in groups injected with one of the three MAbs was significantly smaller than that in controls injected with polyclonal IgG or IgM isolated from healthy humans. These results demonstrate that human MAbs to Igls may be applicable for immunoprophylaxis of amebiasis.

  4. High Efficiency of Human Normal Immunoglobulin for Intravenous Administration in a Patient with Kawasaki Syndrome Diagnosed in the Later Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana V. Sleptsova


    Full Text Available The article describes a case of late diagnosis of mucocutaneous lymphonodular syndrome (Kawasaki syndrome. At the beginning of the therapy, the child had fever, conjunctivitis, stomatitis, rash, solid swelling of hands and feet, and coronaritis with the development of aneurysms. The article describes the successful use of normal human immunoglobulin for intravenous administration at a dose of 2 g/kg body weight per course in combination with acetylsalicylic acid at the dose of 80 mg/kg per day. After 3 days of treatment, the rash disappeared; limb swelling and symptoms of conjunctivitis significantly reduced; and laboratory parameters of disease activity became normal (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein concentration. After 3 months, inflammation in the coronary arteries was stopped. After 6 months, a regression of coronary artery aneurysms was recorded. No adverse effects during the immunoglobulin therapy were observed.

  5. Intravenous human immunoglobulins for refractory recurrent pericarditis: a systematic review of all published cases. (United States)

    Imazio, Massimo; Lazaros, George; Picardi, Elisa; Vasileiou, Panagiotis; Carraro, Mara; Tousoulis, Dimitrios; Belli, Riccardo; Gaita, Fiorenzo


    Refractory recurrent pericarditis is a major clinical challenge after colchicine failure, especially in corticosteroid-dependent patients. Human intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIGs) have been proposed as possible therapeutic options for these cases. The goal of this systematic review is to assess the efficacy and safety of IVIGs in this context. Studies reporting the use of IVIG for the treatment of recurrent pericarditis and published up to October 2014 were searched in several databases. All references found, upon initial assessment at title and abstract level for suitability, were consequently retrieved as full reports for further appraisal. Among the 18 citations retrieved, 17 reports (4 case series and 13 single case reports, with an overall population of 30 patients) were included. The mean disease duration was 14 months and the mean number of recurrences before IVIG was 3. Approximately 47% of patients had idiopathic recurrent pericarditis, 10% had an infective cause, and the remainder a systemic inflammatory disease. Nineteen out of the 30 patients (63.3%) were on corticosteroids at IVIG commencement. IVIGs were generally administered at a dose of 400-500 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days with repeated cycles according to the clinical response. Complications were uncommon (headache in ~3%) and not life-threatening. After a mean follow-up of approximately 33th months, recurrences occurred in 26.6% of cases after the first IVIG cycle, and 22 of the 30 patients (73.3%) were recurrence-free. Five patients (16.6%) were on corticosteroids at the end of the follow-up. IVIGs are rapidly acting, well tolerated, and efficacious steroid-sparing agents in refractory pericarditis.

  6. Usefulness of high-dose intravenous human immunoglobulins treatment for refractory recurrent pericarditis. (United States)

    Moretti, Michele; Buiatti, Alessandra; Merlo, Marco; Massa, Laura; Fabris, Enrico; Pinamonti, Bruno; Sinagra, Gianfranco


    The management of refractory recurrent pericarditis is challenging. Previous clinical reports have noted a beneficial effect of high-dose intravenous human immunoglobulins (IvIgs) in isolated and systemic inflammatory disease-related forms. In this article, we analyzed retrospectively our clinical experience with IvIg therapy in a series of clinical cases of pericarditis refractory to conventional treatment. We retrospectively analyzed 9 patients (1994 to 2010) with refractory recurrent pericarditis, who received high-dose IvIg as a part of their medical treatment. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), steroids, or colchicine treatment was not discontinued during IvIg treatment. No patients had a history of autoimmune or connective tissue diseases. During an average period of 11 months from the first recurrence, patients had experienced a mean of 5 relapses before the first IvIg treatment. In 4 cases, patients showed complete clinical remission with no further relapse after the first IvIg cycle. Two patients experienced a single minor relapse, responsive to short-term nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In 2 patients, we performed a second cycle of IvIg after a recurrence of pericarditis, with subsequent complete remission. One patient did not respond to 3 cycles of IvIg and subsequently underwent pericardial window and long-term immunosuppressive treatment. No major adverse effect was observed in consequence of IvIg administration in all the cases. In conclusion, although IvIg mode of action is still poorly understood in this setting, this treatment can be considered as an option in patients with recurrent pericarditis refractory to conventional medical treatment and, in our small series, has proved to be effective in 8 of 9 cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Signals sustaining human immunoglobulin V gene hypermutation in isolated germinal centre B cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Dahlenborg; J.D. Pound (J.); J. Gordon (Jocelynne); C.A.K. Borrebaeck (C. A K); R. Carlsson (R.)


    textabstractAffinity maturation of antibody responses depends on somatic hypermutation of the immunoglobulin V genes. Hypermutation is initiated specifically in proliferating B cells in lymphoid germinal centres but the signals driving this process remain unknown. This study identifies signals that

  8. Neutralizing antibodies to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-1alpha and interferon-alpha but not other cytokines in human immunoglobulin preparations. (United States)

    Wadhwa, M; Meager, A; Dilger, P; Bird, C; Dolman, C; Das, R G; Thorpe, R


    Human immunoglobulin preparations are used therapeutically for various disorders. Such therapy is generally safe but adverse effects occasionally occur in recipients. It has been suggested that antibodies to cytokines present in clinical immunoglobulin products may contribute to undesirable effects in recipients. Therefore, we investigated intravenous and intramuscular immunoglobulin products for the presence of cytokine-specific neutralizing antibodies. Using validated bioassays, we detected neutralizing activity against human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon-alpha2a (IFN-alpha2a) and interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha) in immunoglobulin products. We found no neutralization of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, macrophage colony-stimulating factor, stem cell factor, IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, oncostatin M (OSM) and IFN-gamma. Most batches which neutralized IFN-alpha2a activity also neutralized other IFN-alpha subtypes, IFN-omega and IFN-beta. Most products (94%) neutralized the biological activity of GM-CSF. No correlation between batches and their ability to neutralize bioactivities of GM-CSF, IFN-alpha2a and IL-1alpha was found. This neutralizing activity could be traced to plasma pools used for manufacture of immunoglobulins. The neutralization was mediated by specific cytokine antibodies contained within immunoglobulin products as it was present in specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) fractions eluted from cytokine affinity chromatography columns. Specific binding of such IgG fractions to cytokines in immunoblots and in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) was observed. This contrasts with the broad non-specific recognition of cytokine proteins observed using unfractionated immunoglobulins in ELISAs. This is the first comprehensive study showing the presence of neutralizing antibodies against GM-CSF, IL-1alpha, or IFN-alpha2a in immunoglobulin products.

  9. Rotavirus specific plasma secretory immunoglobulin in children with acute gastroenteritis and children vaccinated with an attenuated human rotavirus vaccine


    Herrera Daniel; Vásquez Camilo; Corthésy Blaise E.; Franco M. A.; Angel Juana


    Rotavirus (RV)-specific secretory immunoglobulin (RV-sIg) has been previously detected in serum of naturally RV infected children and shown to reflect the intestinal Ig immune response. Total plasma sIga and plasma RV-sIg were evaluated by eLIsa in children with gastroenteritis due or not due to RV infection and in 50 children vaccinated with the attenuated RIX4414 human RV vaccine and 62 placebo recipients. RV-sIg was only detected in children with evidence of previous RV infection or with a...

  10. Treatment with human immunoglobulin G improves the early disease course in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. (United States)

    Zschüntzsch, Jana; Zhang, Yaxin; Klinker, Florian; Makosch, Gregor; Klinge, Lars; Malzahn, Dörthe; Brinkmeier, Heinrich; Liebetanz, David; Schmidt, Jens


    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe hereditary myopathy. Standard treatment by glucocorticosteroids is limited because of numerous side effects. The aim of this study was to test immunomodulation by human immunoglobulin G (IgG) as treatment in the experimental mouse model (mdx) of DMD. 2 g/kg human IgG compared to human albumin was injected intraperitoneally in mdx mice at the age of 3 and 7 weeks. Advanced voluntary wheel running parameters were recorded continuously. At the age of 11 weeks, animals were killed so that blood, diaphragm, and lower limb muscles could be removed for quantitative PCR, histological analysis and ex vivo muscle contraction tests. IgG compared to albumin significantly improved the voluntary running performance and reduced muscle fatigability in an ex vivo muscle contraction test. Upon IgG treatment, serum creatine kinase values were diminished and mRNA expression levels of relevant inflammatory markers were reduced in the diaphragm and limb muscles. Macrophage infiltration and myopathic damage were significantly ameliorated in the quadriceps muscle. Collectively, this study demonstrates that, in the early disease course of mdx mice, human IgG improves the running performance and diminishes myopathic damage and inflammation in the muscle. Therefore, IgG may be a promising approach for treatment of DMD. Two monthly intraperitoneal injections of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) improved the early 11-week disease phase of mdx mice. Voluntary running was improved and serum levels of creatine kinase were diminished. In the skeletal muscle, myopathic damage was ameliorated and key inflammatory markers such as mRNA expression of SPP1 and infiltration by macrophages were reduced. The study suggests that IgG could be explored as a potential treatment option for Duchenne muscular dystrophy and that pre-clinical long-term studies should be helpful. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  11. Anti-Human Platelet Antigen-1a Immunoglobulin G Preparation Intended to Prevent Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Jan Weng

    Full Text Available Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT is a severe disease that is caused by maternal alloantibodies generated during pregnancy or at delivery as a result of incompatibility between maternal and fetal human platelet antigens (HPAs inherited from the father. Antibody-mediated immune suppression using anti-HPA-1a immunoglobulins is thought to be able to prevent FNAIT caused by HPA-1a. A fractionation process to prepare anti-HPA-1a immunoglobulin (Ig G (IgG from human plasma was therefore developed. Anti-HPA-1a plasma was obtained from volunteer mothers who underwent alloimmunization against HPA-1a during a previous pregnancy. Plasma was cryoprecipitated and the supernatant treated with caprylic acid and solvent/detergent (S/D, purified by chromatography, nanofiltered, concentrated, and sterile-filtered. The anti-HPA-1a immunoglobulin fraction was characterized for purity and safety. PAK12 and quantitative monoclonal antibody immobilization of platelet antigen (MAIPA assays were used to detect anti-HPA-1a IgG. Hepatitis C virus (HCV removal during nanofiltration was assessed by spiking experiments, using cell culture-derived reporter HCV and luciferase analysis. The caprylic acid treatment precipitated non-Ig proteins yielding a 90% pure Ig supernatant. S-HyperCel chromatography of the S/D-treated supernatant followed by HyperCel STAR AX provided high IgG recovery (>80% and purity (>99.5%, and efficient IgA and IgM removal. Concentrations of complement factors C3 and C4 were < 0.5 and < 0.4 mg/dL, respectively. The final IgG could be nanofiltered on Planova 20N under conditions removing more than 3 log HCV infectivity to baseline mock infection level, and concentrated to ca. 30 g/L. Proteolytic activity and thrombin generation were low in the final fraction. The Pak12 and MAIPA assays showed good recovery of anti-HPA-1a throughout the process. Clinical-grade HPA-1a IgG can be prepared using a process compliant with current quality

  12. Rotavirus specific plasma secretory immunoglobulin in children with acute gastroenteritis and children vaccinated with an attenuated human rotavirus vaccine. (United States)

    Herrera, Daniel; Vásquez, Camilo; Corthésy, Blaise; Franco, Manuel A; Angel, Juana


    Rotavirus (RV)-specific secretory immunoglobulin (RV-SIg) has been previously detected in serum of naturally RV infected children and shown to reflect the intestinal Ig immune response. Total plasma SIgA and plasma RV-SIg were evaluated by ELISA in children with gastroenteritis due or not due to RV infection and in 50 children vaccinated with the attenuated RIX4414 human RV vaccine and 62 placebo recipients. RV-SIg was only detected in children with evidence of previous RV infection or with acute RV gastroenteritis. Vaccinees had higher RV-SIg titers than placebo recipients and RV-SIg titers increased after the second vaccine dose. RV-SIg measured after the second dose correlated with protection when vaccinees and placebo recipients were analyzed jointly. RV-SIg may serve as a valuable correlate of protection for RV vaccines.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    A small polypeptide from pUL57 of human cytomegalovirus was identified as a major target for the immunoglobulin M antibody response. This antigen seems to be superior to antigenic fragments from pp150 and p52 in the identification of sera from acutely infected patients. It may therefore represent an

  14. Synthetic rabbit-human antibody conjugate as a control in immunoassays for immunoglobulin M specific to hepatitis E virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Rui


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In assays for anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV immunoglobulin M (IgM, large volumes of the patient's sera cannot be easily obtained for use as a positive control. In this study, we investigated an alternative chemical method in which rabbit anti-HEV IgG was conjugated with human IgM and was used as a positive control in the anti-HEV IgM assay. Rabbit anti-HEV IgG was isolated from immune sera by chromatography on protein A-Sepharose and was conjugated with human IgM by using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropylcarbodiimide (EDC as a crosslinker. Results The specific anti-HEV IgG antibody titer was 100,000 times that of the negative control, i.e., prebleed rabbit serum. The results of anti-HEV IgM enzyme-linked immunosobent assay showed that the antibody conjugate was similar to anti-HEV IgM antibodies produced in humans. The results of a stability experiment showed that the antibody conjugate was stable for use in external quality assessment or internal quality control trials. Conclusions We concluded that the chemically conjugated rabbit-human antibody could be used instead of the traditional serum control as a positive control in the anti-HEV IgM assay.

  15. Precise and in situ genetic humanization of 6 Mb of mouse immunoglobulin genes. (United States)

    Macdonald, Lynn E; Karow, Margaret; Stevens, Sean; Auerbach, Wojtek; Poueymirou, William T; Yasenchak, Jason; Frendewey, David; Valenzuela, David M; Giallourakis, Cosmas C; Alt, Frederick W; Yancopoulos, George D; Murphy, Andrew J


    Genetic humanization, which involves replacing mouse genes with their human counterparts, can create powerful animal models for the study of human genes and diseases. One important example of genetic humanization involves mice humanized for their Ig genes, allowing for human antibody responses within a mouse background (HumAb mice) and also providing a valuable platform for the generation of fully human antibodies as therapeutics. However, existing HumAb mice do not have fully functional immune systems, perhaps because of the manner in which they were genetically humanized. Heretofore, most genetic humanizations have involved disruption of the endogenous mouse gene with simultaneous introduction of a human transgene at a new and random location (so-called KO-plus-transgenic humanization). More recent efforts have attempted to replace mouse genes with their human counterparts at the same genetic location (in situ humanization), but such efforts involved laborious procedures and were limited in size and precision. We describe a general and efficient method for very large, in situ, and precise genetic humanization using large compound bacterial artificial chromosome-based targeting vectors introduced into mouse ES cells. We applied this method to genetically humanize 3-Mb segments of both the mouse heavy and κ light chain Ig loci, by far the largest genetic humanizations ever described. This paper provides a detailed description of our genetic humanization approach, and the companion paper reports that the humoral immune systems of mice bearing these genetically humanized loci function as efficiently as those of WT mice.

  16. Micro-bead injection spectroscopy for label-free automated determination of immunoglobulin G in human serum. (United States)

    Ramos, Inês I; Magalhães, Luís M; Barreiros, Luisa; Reis, Salette; Lima, José L F C; Segundo, Marcela A


    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) represents the major fraction of antibodies in healthy adult human serum, and deviations from physiological levels are a generic marker of disease corresponding to different pathologies. Therefore, screening methods for IgG evaluation are a valuable aid to diagnostics. The present work proposes a rapid, automatic, and miniaturized method based on UV-vis micro-bead injection spectroscopy (μ-BIS) for the real-time determination of human serum IgG with label-free detection. Relying on attachment of IgG in rec-protein G immobilized in Sepharose 4B, a bioaffinity column is automatically assembled, where IgG is selectively retained and determined by on-column optical density measurement. A "dilution-and-shoot" approach (50 to 200 times) was implemented without further sample treatment because interferences were flushed out of the column upon sample loading, with minimization of carryover and cross-contamination by automatically discarding the sorbent (0.2 mg) after each determination. No interference from human serum albumin at 60 mg mL-1 in undiluted sample was found. The method allowed IgG determination in the range 100-300 μg mL-1 (corresponding to 5.0-60 mg mL-1 in undiluted samples), with a detection limit of 33 μg mL-1 (1.7 mg mL-1 for samples, dilution factor of 50). RSD values were human serum spiked with IgG at high pathological levels were 97.8-101.4%. Comparison to commercial ELISA kit showed no significant difference for tested samples (n = 8). Moreover, time-to-result decreased from several hours to determination of total serum human Immunoglobulin G (IgG). The method was designed for Lab-on-Valve (LOV) platforms using a miniaturised protein G bioaffinity separative approach. IgG are separated from serum matrix components upon quantification with low non-specific binding in less than 5 min.

  17. Aggregation analysis of pharmaceutical human immunoglobulin preparations using size-exclusion chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation sedimentation velocity. (United States)

    Krayukhina, Elena; Uchiyama, Susumu; Nojima, Kiyoko; Okada, Yoshiaki; Hamaguchi, Isao; Fukui, Kiichi


    In the pharmaceutical industry, analysis of soluble aggregates in pharmaceutical formulations is most commonly performed using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). However, owing to concerns that aggregates can be overlooked by SEC analysis, it has been suggested that its results should be confirmed with orthogonal methods. One of the main alternative methods for SEC is analytical ultracentrifugation sedimentation velocity (AUC-SV), which has been indicated as an important tool for the measurement of protein aggregation. The present study aimed to show that AUC-SV can be effectively applied for the characterization of marketed immunoglobulin pharmaceutical preparations to support the results obtained by SEC. In addition, the present research aimed to assess the appropriateness of two integration approaches for the quantitative analysis of the SEC results. Thus, the aggregates were measured in seven different preparations of human immunoglobulins by AUC-SV and SEC, and the acquired chromatographic data were processed by using either the vertical drop method or the Gaussian skim approach, implemented in the Empower II chromatography data software (Waters, Tokyo, Japan). The results of aggregation measurements performed using AUC-SV were in good agreement with those obtained using SEC. As expected, the Gaussian skim integration approach inherently provided lower estimates of aggregation content than the results of the vertical drop method. The finding of this study confirmed the complementary nature of AUC-SV to SEC for aggregate composition analysis and underscored the important role that the different integration methods can play in the quantitative interpretation of chromatographic results. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Immunoglobulin analysis tool: a novel tool for the analysis of human and mouse heavy and light chain transcripts. (United States)

    Rogosch, Tobias; Kerzel, Sebastian; Hoi, Kam Hon; Zhang, Zhixin; Maier, Rolf F; Ippolito, Gregory C; Zemlin, Michael


    Sequence analysis of immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy and light chain transcripts can refine categorization of B cell subpopulations and can shed light on the selective forces that act during immune responses or immune dysregulation, such as autoimmunity, allergy, and B cell malignancy. High-throughput sequencing yields Ig transcript collections of unprecedented size. The authoritative web-based IMGT/HighV-QUEST program is capable of analyzing large collections of transcripts and provides annotated output files to describe many key properties of Ig transcripts. However, additional processing of these flat files is required to create figures, or to facilitate analysis of additional features and comparisons between sequence sets. We present an easy-to-use Microsoft(®) Excel(®) based software, named Immunoglobulin Analysis Tool (IgAT), for the summary, interrogation, and further processing of IMGT/HighV-QUEST output files. IgAT generates descriptive statistics and high-quality figures for collections of murine or human Ig heavy or light chain transcripts ranging from 1 to 150,000 sequences. In addition to traditionally studied properties of Ig transcripts - such as the usage of germline gene segments, or the length and composition of the CDR-3 region - IgAT also uses published algorithms to calculate the probability of antigen selection based on somatic mutational patterns, the average hydrophobicity of the antigen-binding sites, and predictable structural properties of the CDR-H3 loop according to Shirai's H3-rules. These refined analyses provide in-depth information about the selective forces acting upon Ig repertoires and allow the statistical and graphical comparison of two or more sequence sets. IgAT is easy to use on any computer running Excel(®) 2003 or higher. Thus, IgAT is a useful tool to gain insights into the selective forces and functional properties of small to extremely large collections of Ig transcripts, thereby assisting a researcher to mine a data set

  19. The interaction between calreticulin and immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin Y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllegaard, Karen Mai; Duus, Karen; Træholt, Sofie Dietz


    accumulating in support of calreticulin as a polypeptide binding chaperone. In contrast to mammalian immunoglobulin G (IgG), which has complex type N-glycans, chicken immunoglobulin Y (IgY) possesses a monoglucosylated high mannose N-linked glycan, which is a ligand for calreticulin. Here, we have used solid...... and solution-phase assays to analyze the in vitro binding of calreticulin, purified from human placenta, to human IgG and chicken IgY in order to compare the interactions. In addition, peptides from the respective immunoglobulins were included to further probe the binding specificity of calreticulin....... The experiments demonstrate the ability of calreticulin to bind to denatured forms of both IgG and IgY regardless of the glycosylation state of the proteins. Furthermore, calreticulin exhibits binding to peptides (glycosylated and non-glycosylated) derived from trypsin digestion of both immunoglobulins...

  20. Mice with megabase humanization of their immunoglobulin genes generate antibodies as efficiently as normal mice. (United States)

    Murphy, Andrew J; Macdonald, Lynn E; Stevens, Sean; Karow, Margaret; Dore, Anthony T; Pobursky, Kevin; Huang, Tammy T; Poueymirou, William T; Esau, Lakeisha; Meola, Melissa; Mikulka, Warren; Krueger, Pamela; Fairhurst, Jeanette; Valenzuela, David M; Papadopoulos, Nicholas; Yancopoulos, George D


    Mice genetically engineered to be humanized for their Ig genes allow for human antibody responses within a mouse background (HumAb mice), providing a valuable platform for the generation of fully human therapeutic antibodies. Unfortunately, existing HumAb mice do not have fully functional immune systems, perhaps because of the manner in which their genetic humanization was carried out. Heretofore, HumAb mice have been generated by disrupting the endogenous mouse Ig genes and simultaneously introducing human Ig transgenes at a different and random location; KO-plus-transgenic humanization. As we describe in the companion paper, we attempted to make mice that more efficiently use human variable region segments in their humoral responses by precisely replacing 6 Mb of mouse Ig heavy and kappa light variable region germ-line gene segments with their human counterparts while leaving the mouse constant regions intact, using a unique in situ humanization approach. We reasoned the introduced human variable region gene segments would function indistinguishably in their new genetic location, whereas the retained mouse constant regions would allow for optimal interactions and selection of the resulting antibodies within the mouse environment. We show that these mice, termed VelocImmune mice because they were generated using VelociGene technology, efficiently produce human:mouse hybrid antibodies (that are rapidly convertible to fully human antibodies) and have fully functional humoral immune systems indistinguishable from those of WT mice. The efficiency of the VelocImmune approach is confirmed by the rapid progression of 10 different fully human antibodies into human clinical trials.

  1. Experience with Subgam, a Subcutaneously Administered Human Normal Immunoglobulin (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Dash

    Full Text Available A multi-centre, non-comparative study examining the efficacy and safety of Subgam, a normal immunoglobulin (IgG given weekly as a rapid subcutaneous infusion to patients with primary immune deficiency (PID, is reported. Also included is a summary of adverse drug reactions associated with the use of marketed Subgam in the UK.50 patients with stable PID on IgG therapy were enrolled: Stage 1 included three infusions with prior IgG product followed by 6 months with Subgam, Stage 2 involved long-term Subgam therapy up to 4 years.Stage 1, 85% of the subjects aged >12 years and 93% of the subjects aged <12 years achieved IgG levels ≥6 and ≥4 g/L, respectively at all observations. There were 3.62 infections/patient/year during Subgam treatment. The most common product-related events were infusion site reactions (50% of patients. Recent post-hoc pharmacokinetics analysis of the post-infusion serum total IgG concentration indicated that the mean dose-normalised incremental IgG AUCτ following intravenous dosing (120.5 was 1.64-fold that of the dose-normalised mean incremental IgG AUCτ following subcutaneous dosing (73.6, corresponding to an estimated IgG bioavailability for subcutaneous dosing of 61%. Only 34 post-licensing adverse reactions have been received in 30 patients over a period of 10 years; fourteen were classed as serious as defined by the ICH guidelines on good clinical practice. The most common post-licensing adverse reaction was infusion site reaction (7 reports. There were 7 reports of flu-like symptoms (pyrexia/shivering/rigors/feeling hot or cold, 2 other reports of combined flu-like symptoms and infusion site reactions, 5 reports of generalised skin reactions, and 3 reports of combined infusion site and skin reactions. There were also reports of anaphylaxis (2 reports and 8 other adverse events (including headache. In conclusion, Subgam is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of NCT

  2. The immunopathology of human schistosomiasis-III: immunoglobulin isotype profiles and response to praziquantel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romelia M Ramírez


    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin (Ig isotype (IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, IgM, IgD and IgE levels were investigated, both pre- and post-treatment with praziquantel (PZQ, in 43 adults and children chronically infected with Schistosoma mansoni , by means of a two-site, isotype-specific immunoenzymometric assay. The patients were classified as responders (R or non-responders (NR on the basis of their circumoval precipitin test (COPT results 12 months after treatment. In comparison with controls, pre-treatment R children showed significantly higher levels of IgG, IgG1, IgG4 (p<0.001 and IgE (p<0.01, and diminished IgG2 (p<0.05, while NR children showed significantly elevated levels only of IgE (p<0.05. Twelve months after therapy, R children maintained significantly lower levels of IgG2, but showed significantly decreased levels of IgG, IgG1, IgG4, and IgE, while the Ig isotype profile of NR children was unaltered. Adult R and NR showed similar isotype profiles before chemotherapy, with the exception of significantly elevated IgM levels in R. Twelve months after therapy, R adults showed significantly decreased levels of IgG, IgG1, and IgG4, while NR adults showed only diminshed IgG4 levels. These results reveal different Ig isotype profiles in untreated adults and children chronically infected with S. mansoni. The results further show that the pre-treatment Ig isotype profile may be significantly modified after an effective R to chemotherapy, accounted for by down regulation of the IgG1 isotype in association with negative seroconversion of the COPT in R patients. The COPT reaction has been associated with the highly specific egg glycoprotein antigen w1, which shows a significant reduction in reactivity six months after treatment. IgG1 may thus play a main role in the response against the w1 antigen.

  3. Immunoglobulin lambda light chain gene rearrangements in human B-cell malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Tümkaya (Talip)


    textabstractLymphocytes form the specific immune system, capable of recognizing and responding to any foreign antigen, while remaining indifferent to self components. Throughout human life, lymphocytes are continuously generated from pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells. These hematopoietic stem

  4. Immunoglobulins from Animal Models of Motor Neuron Disease and from Human Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients Passively Transfer Physiological Abnormalities to the Neuromuscular Junction (United States)

    Apel, Stanley H.; Engelhardt, Jozsef I.; Garcia, Jesus; Stefani, Enrico


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating human disease of upper and lower motoneurons of unknown etiology. In support of the potential role of autoimmunity in ALS, two immune-mediated animal models of motoneuron disease have been developed that resemble ALS with respect to the loss of motoneurons, the presence of IgG within motoneurons and at the neuromuscular junction, and with respect to altered physiology of the motor nerve terminal. To provide direct evidence for the primary role of humoral immunity, passive transfer with immunoglobulins from the two animal models and human ALS was carried out. Mice injected with serum or immunoglobulins from the animal disease models and human ALS but not controls demonstrated IgG in motoneurons and at the neuromuscular junction. The mice also demonstrated an increase in miniature end-plate potential (mepp) frequency, with normal amplitude and time course and normal resting membrane potential, indicating an increased resting quantal release of acetylcholine from the nerve terminal. The ability to transfer motoneuron dysfunction with serum immunoglobulins provides evidence for autoimmune mechanisms in the pathogenesis of both the animal models and human ALS.

  5. Human milk secretory immunoglobulin a and lactoferrin N-glycans are altered in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Smilowitz, Jennifer T; Totten, Sarah M; Huang, Jincui; Grapov, Dmitry; Durham, Holiday A; Lammi-Keefe, Carol J; Lebrilla, Carlito; German, J Bruce


    Very little is known about the effects of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on lactation and milk components. Recent reports suggested that hyperglycemia during pregnancy was associated with altered breast milk immune factors. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) and N-glycans of milk immune-modulatory proteins are implicated in modulation of infant immunity. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of GDM on HMO and protein-conjugated glycan profiles in breast milk. Milk was collected at 2 wk postpartum from women diagnosed with (n = 8) or without (n = 16) GDM at week 24-28 in pregnancy. Milk was analyzed for HMO abundances, protein concentrations, and N-glycan abundances of lactoferrin and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). HMOs and N-glycans were analyzed by mass spectrometry and milk lactoferrin and sIgA concentrations were analyzed by the Bradford assay. The data were analyzed using multivariate modeling confirmed with univariate statistics to determine differences between milk of women with compared with women without GDM. There were no differences in HMOs between milk from women with vs. without GDM. Milk from women with GDM compared with those without GDM was 63.6% lower in sIgA protein (P milk free oligosaccharide abundances but decreased total protein and glycosylation of sIgA and increased glycosylation of lactoferrin in transitional milk. The results suggest that maternal glucose dysregulation during pregnancy has lasting consequences that may influence the innate immune protective functions of breast milk.

  6. Molecular modeling and multi-spectroscopic approaches to study the interaction between antibacterial drug and human immunoglobulin G. (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Min, Suotian; Liu, Zhifeng; Zhang, Shengrui


    Mechanistic and conformational studies on the interaction of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) with human immunoglobulin G (HIgG) were performed by molecular modeling and multi-spectroscopic methods. The interaction mechanism was firstly predicted through molecular modeling that confirmed the interaction between SMX and HIgG. The binding parameters and thermodynamic parameters at different temperatures had been calculated according to the Stern-Volmer, Scatchard, Sips and Van 't Hoff equations, respectively. Experimental results showed that the fluorescence intensity of HIgG was quenched by the gradual addition of SMX. The binding constants of SMX with HIgG decreased with the increase of temperature, which meant that the quenching mechanism was a static quenching. Meanwhile, the results also confirmed that there was one independent class of binding site on HIgG for SMX during their interaction. The thermodynamic parameters of the reaction, namely standard enthalpy ΔH(0) and entropy ΔS(0), had been calculated to be -14.69 kJ·mol(-1) and 22.99 J·mol(-1) ·K(-1), respectively, which suggested that the electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions were the predominant intermolecular forces in stabilizing the SMX-HIgG complex. Furthermore, experimental results obtained from three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy confirmed that the conformational structure of HIgG was altered in the presence of SMX. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Human Milk Secretory Immunoglobulin A and Lactoferrin N-Glycans Are Altered in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus123 (United States)

    Smilowitz, Jennifer T.; Totten, Sarah M.; Huang, Jincui; Grapov, Dmitry; Durham, Holiday A.; Lammi-Keefe, Carol J.; Lebrilla, Carlito; German, J. Bruce


    Very little is known about the effects of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on lactation and milk components. Recent reports suggested that hyperglycemia during pregnancy was associated with altered breast milk immune factors. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) and N-glycans of milk immune-modulatory proteins are implicated in modulation of infant immunity. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of GDM on HMO and protein-conjugated glycan profiles in breast milk. Milk was collected at 2 wk postpartum from women diagnosed with (n = 8) or without (n = 16) GDM at week 24–28 in pregnancy. Milk was analyzed for HMO abundances, protein concentrations, and N-glycan abundances of lactoferrin and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). HMOs and N-glycans were analyzed by mass spectrometry and milk lactoferrin and sIgA concentrations were analyzed by the Bradford assay. The data were analyzed using multivariate modeling confirmed with univariate statistics to determine differences between milk of women with compared with women without GDM. There were no differences in HMOs between milk from women with vs. without GDM. Milk from women with GDM compared with those without GDM was 63.6% lower in sIgA protein (P lactoferrin total N-glycans (P lactoferrin fucose and sialic acid N-glycans (P lactoferrin in transitional milk. The results suggest that maternal glucose dysregulation during pregnancy has lasting consequences that may influence the innate immune protective functions of breast milk. PMID:24047700

  8. Clinical applications of immunoglobulin: update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Cristina Zago Novaretti


    Full Text Available Human immunoglobulin is the most used blood product in the clinical practice. Immunoglobulin applications have increased quickly since the elucidation of its immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory properties which turned this blood product into a precious tool in the treatment of numerous diseases that present with humoral immune deficiency or that cause immune system dysfunction. Currently, the approved indications for Ig are: primary immunodeficiencies, secondary immunodeficiencies (multiple myeloma or chronic lymphoid leukemia, Kawasaki syndrome, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, Guillain Barré syndrome, graft-versus-host disease following bone marrow transplantation and repeat infections in HIV children. On the other hand, there are numerous "off-label" indications of immunoglobulin, which represent 20-60% of all clinical applications of this drug. It is important to study all these indications and, above all, the scientific evidence for its use, in order to provide patients with a new therapeutic option without burdening the health system. This review results from a wide selection of papers identified in the Pubmed and Lilacs scientific electronic databases. A group of descriptors were used from human immunoglobulin to the names of each disease that immunoglobulin is clinically applied. Our main objective is to list the numerous indications of immunoglobulin, both authorized and "off-label" and to analyze these indications in the light of the most recent scientific evidence.

  9. Cloning and expression of human immunoglobulin G4 (hIgG4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was verified by sequencing and cloned into pQE-2 expression vector to construct pQE-2-IgG4. The latter was transformed Escherichia coli M15 cells, recombinant protein expression induced by IPTG and the expression was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis. Key words: Human IgG4, hinge region, cDNA, ...

  10. Role of neutralizing anti-murine interleukin-17A monoclonal antibody on chronic ozone-induced airway inflammation in mice. (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Fei, Xia; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Zhang, Peng-Yu; Li, Feng; Bao, Wu-Ping; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Zhou, Xin


    Exposure to ozone has led to airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness, which potential mechanisms relate to ozone-induced oxidative stress. IL-17 is a growing target for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The aim of the study was to examine the inhibitory effects of anti-murine interleukin-17A monoclonal antibody (IL-17mAb) on adverse effects of ozone which are noted above. After C57/BL6 mice were exposed to ozone (2.5ppm; 3h) for 12 times over 6 weeks, IL-17mAb, PBS was intraperitoneally injected into mice 1h after ozone or air exposure for 6 weeks and mice were studied 24h after final exposure, monitoring bronchial responsiveness, airway inflammatory cells, lung histology, levels of neutrophil-related chemokine and proinflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and serum, the expression of IL-17A mRNA and protein, glucocorticoid receptors (GR), and the phosphorylation of p38MAPK in lung tissues. The administration of IL-17mAb reduced the ozone-induced increases in total cells, especially neutrophils; decreased levels of cytokines, including IL-8 in BAL fluid, IL-8 and IL-17A in serum; mitigated the severity of airway hyperresponsiveness; attenuated lung inflammation scores and histologic analysis confirmed the suppression of lung inflammation, compared with the administration of a control PBS. Exposure to ozone results in increases in IL-17A production rate, mRNA and protein levels of IL-17A and the protein level of GR. These effects were halted and reversed by IL-17mAb treatment. Furthermore, IL-17mAb also reduced the phosphorylation of p38MAPK. Therefore, we conclude that IL-17mAb may be a useful therapy in ozone-related diseases, including COPD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Human Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-Mediated Acute Liver Failure and Rescue by Immunoglobulin in Human Hepatocyte Transplant TK-NOG Mice. (United States)

    Uchida, Takuro; Hiraga, Nobuhiko; Imamura, Michio; Tsuge, Masataka; Abe, Hiromi; Hayes, C Nelson; Aikata, Hiroshi; Ishida, Yuji; Tateno, Chise; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; Ohdan, Hideki; Murakami, Kazunari; Chayama, Kazuaki


    Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are critical in eliminating infection. We developed an animal model in which HBV-infected human hepatocytes are targeted by HBV-specific CTLs. After HBV inoculation in human hepatocyte-transplanted herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase-NOG mice, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were administered, and albumin, HBV DNA, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and cytokine levels were analyzed. Histopathological and flow-cytometric analysis of infiltrating human immune cells were performed, and the efficacy of CTL-associated antigen-4 immunoglobulin (CTLA4Ig) against liver damage was evaluated. PBMC treatment resulted in massive hepatocyte damage with elevation of ALT, granzyme A, and gamma interferon and decrease in albumin and HBV DNA. The number of liver-infiltrating human lymphocytes and CD8-positive cells was significantly higher in HBV-infected mice. HBV-specific CTLs were detected by core and polymerase peptide-major histocompatibility complex-tetramer, and the population of regulatory T cells was significantly decreased in HBV-infected mice. Serum hepatitis B surface (HBs) antigen became negative, and HBs antibody appeared. CTLA4Ig treatment strongly inhibited infiltration of mononuclear cells. CTLA4Ig treatment will be used to treat patients who develop severe acute hepatitis B to prevent liver transplantation or lethality. This animal model is useful for virological and immunological analysis of HBV infection and to develop new therapies for severe acute hepatitis B. Without liver transplantation, some HBV-infected patients will die from severe liver damage due to acute overreaction of the immune system. No effective treatment exists, due in part to the lack of a suitable animal model. An animal model is necessary to investigate the mechanism of hepatitis and to develop therapeutic strategies to prevent acute liver failure in HBV infection. We developed an animal model in which

  12. High-throughput isolation of immunoglobulin genes from single human B cells and expression as monoclonal antibodies (United States)

    Liao, Hua-Xin; Levesque, Marc C.; Nagel, Ashleigh; Dixon, Ashlyn; Zhang, Ruijun; Walter, Emmanuel; Parks, Robert; Whitesides, John; Marshall, Dawn J.; Hwang, Kwan-Ki; Yang, Yi; Chen, Xi; Gao, Feng; Munshaw, Supriya; Kepler, Thomas B.; Denny, Thomas; Moody, M. Anthony; Haynes, Barton F.


    Defining human B cell repertoires to viral pathogens is critical for design of vaccines that induce broadly protective antibodies to infections such as HIV-1 and influenza. Single B cell sorting and cloning of immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy- and light-chain variable regions (VH and VL) is a powerful technology for defining anti-viral B cell repertoires. However, the Ig-cloning step is time-consuming and prevents high-throughput analysis of the B cell repertoire. Novel linear Ig heavy- and light-chain gene expression cassettes were designed to express Ig VH and VL genes isolated from sorted single B cells as IgG1 antibody without a cloning step. The cassettes contain all essential elements for transcriptional and translational regulation, including CMV promoter, Ig leader sequences, constant region of IgG1 heavy- or Ig light-chain, poly(A) tail and substitutable VH or VL genes. The utility of these Ig gene expression cassettes was established using synthetic VH or VL genes from an anti-HIV-1 gp41 mAb 2F5 as a model system, and validated further using VH and VL genes isolated from cloned EBV-transformed antibody-producing cell lines. Finally, this strategy was successfully used for rapid production of recombinant influenza mAbs from sorted single human plasmablasts after influenza vaccination. These Ig gene expression cassettes constitute a highly efficient strategy for rapid expression of Ig genes for high-throughput screening and analysis without cloning. PMID:19428587

  13. Precise determination of the diversity of a combinatorial antibody library gives insight into the human immunoglobulin repertoire. (United States)

    Glanville, Jacob; Zhai, Wenwu; Berka, Jan; Telman, Dilduz; Huerta, Gabriella; Mehta, Gautam R; Ni, Irene; Mei, Li; Sundar, Purnima D; Day, Giles M R; Cox, David; Rajpal, Arvind; Pons, Jaume


    Antibody repertoire diversity, potentially as high as 10(11) unique molecules in a single individual, confounds characterization by conventional sequence analyses. In this study, we present a general method for assessing human antibody sequence diversity displayed on phage using massively parallel pyrosequencing, a novel application of Kabat column-labeled profile Hidden Markov Models, and translated complementarity determining region (CDR) capture-recapture analysis. Pyrosequencing of domain amplicon and RCA PCR products generated 1.5 x 10(6) reads, including more than 1.9 x 10(5) high quality, full-length sequences of antibody variable fragment (Fv) variable domains. Novel methods for germline and CDR classification and fine characterization of sequence diversity in the 6 CDRs are presented. Diverse germline contributions to the repertoire with random heavy and light chain pairing are observed. All germline families were found to be represented in 1.7 x 10(4) sequences obtained from repeated panning of the library. While the most variable CDR (CDR-H3) presents significant length and sequence variability, we find a substantial contribution to total diversity from somatically mutated germline encoded CDRs 1 and 2. Using a capture-recapture method, the total diversity of the antibody library obtained from a human donor Immunoglobulin M (IgM) pool was determined to be at least 3.5 x 10(10). The results provide insights into the role of IgM diversification, display library construction, and productive germline usages in antibody libraries and the humoral repertoire.

  14. Immunoglobulin V(H) gene sequence analysis of spontaneous murine immunoglobulin secreting B-cell tumours with clinical features of human disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, D.; Arkel, C. van; King, C.A.; Meirvenne, S. van; Greef, C. de; Thielemans, K.; Radl, J.; Stevenson, F.K.


    The 5T series of multiple myelomas (MM) and Waldenstrsom's macroglobulinaemia-like lymphomas (WM), which developed spontaneously in ageing mice of the C57BL/KaLwRij strain, shows clinical and biological features that closely resemble their corresponding human diseases. In order to compare the

  15. Preparation, purification and virus inactivation of intravenous immunoglobulin from human plasma. (United States)

    Aghaie, A; Pourfatollah, A A; Bathaie, S Z; Moazzeni, S M; Khorsand Mohammad Pour, H; Banazadeh, S


    IVIG can be prepared from fractionation of normal human plasma and it is used as a therapeutic drug for treatment of various diseases. IVIG has been for some time the high-growth product within the plasma derived products, at both a global and a national country level. Fractionation was performed according to Cohn method with some modifications. Fraction II was first produced and then it was used for purification and virus inactivation steps. Two methods of virus inactivation (pasteurization at 60 degrees C for 10 hours and solvent/detergent treatment with TnBP and Tween 80) were used and validated. A chromatography method (cation exchange chromatography on CM Sepharose FF) was also added to obtain high purity. The final product (in liquid and freeze dried formulation) meets European Pharmacopeias requirements. The amount of PKA and aggregates was beyond the acceptance limit. The intactness of the IVIG was also examined by circular dichroism (secondary and tertiary structure). It was stable after 6 months of storage. Since Iran market is completely dependant on importation of plasma derived products, it is important to develop such methods for production of IVIG to obtain regional demands.

  16. Prognostic relevance of pancreatic uptake of technetium-99m labelled human polyclonal immunoglobulins in patients with type 1 diabetes

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    Barone, R.; Procaccini, E.; Chianelli, M.; Annovazzi, A.; Fiore, V.; Nardi, G.; Ronga, G.; Signore, A. [Servizio Medicina Nucleare, II Clinica Medica, University ``La Sapienza``, Rome (Italy); Hawa, M. [Department of Diabetes and Metabolism, St. Bartholomew`s Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Pozzilli, P. [Department of Diabetes and Metabolism, St. Bartholomew`s Hospital, London (United Kingdom)]|[Libero Istituto Universitario Campus Bio-Medico, Rome (Italy); IMDIAB Study Group


    Insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes (IDDM) is caused by the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells. Approximately 10%-20% of patients may benefit from adjuvant immunotherapy upon diagnosis of the disease in order to protect residual beta-cell function. It has been suggested that this subgroup of patients differs from others by virtue of the presence of residual pancreatic inflammation and beta-cell function. In this study we have investigated to what extent technetium-99m-labelled human polyclonal immunoglobulins ({sup 99m}Tc-HIG) accumulate in the pancreas of IDDM patients at the time of diagnosis and 1 year thereafter, with a view to ascertaining whether HIG scintigraphy is useful for the identification of IDDM patients with residual pancreatic inflammation. Patients with recent-onset IDDM (n=15) were investigated at the time of diagnosis and 1 year later, and ten age- and sex-matched normal subjects were also studied. Gamma camera imaging and target to background ratio, analysed blind by three independent readers, were used to quantify the radioactivity in the pancreatic region and findings were correlated with metabolic, immunological and clinical parameters. Seven out of 15 newly diagnosed IDDM patients showed a significant accumulation of radiolabelled HIG in the pancreas (pancreas/bone ratio higher than the mean +2SD of normal subjects). One year after diagnosis, pancreatic accumulation of HIG was still detectable in most IDDM patients who were positive at the time of diagnosis. Six out of seven patients with positive scintigraphy had a partial clinical remission. These results indicate that HIG scintigraphy at the time of onset of diabetes identifies a subset of patients with residual beta-cell function who may benefit from adjuvant immunotherapy. (orig.) With 2 figs., 20 tabs., 23 refs.

  17. Simultaneous administration of 111In-human immunoglobulin and 99mTc-HMPAO labelled leucocytes in inflammatory bowel disease. (United States)

    Mairal, L; de Lima, P A; Martin-Comin, J; Baliellas, C; Xiol, X; Roca, M; Ricart, Y; Ramos, M


    Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) labelled leucocytes and indium-111 polyclonal immunoglobulin (IgG) were simultaneously injected into a group of 27 patients routinely referred for the investigation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Ten-minute anterior abdomen and tail on detector views were obtained at 30 min, 4 h and 24 h p.i. of both tracers. The diagnosis of IBD was obtained in all cases by endoscopy with biopsy and/or surgery. Images were blindly evaluated by two experienced observers who only knew of the clinical suspicion of IBD. IBD was confirmed in 20 patients (12 with Crohn's disease and eight with ulcerative colitis). Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 100%, 85% and 96% respectively for labelled leucocytes and 70%, 85% and 74% for IgG. Both IgG and leucocyte scans were normal in six out of seven patients in whom a diagnosis of IBD was excluded; the remaining patient, with ischaemic colitis, was falsely positive with both agents. As far as disease extension is concerned, the IgG study localized 27 diseased segments, whereas 49 were seen with the leucocyte study. Eighty-four segments were normal and 25 showed tracer uptake with both agents. Twenty-four were positive only with the leucocyte study and two were positive only with the IgG study. Agreement between the agents was 80.7%. These results confirm that 111In-human polyclonal scintigraphy is less sensitive than 99mTc-HMPAO scintigraphy both for the diagnosis of IBD and in the evaluation of disease extension. Nevertheless, if leucocyte labelling is not available, labelled IgG can be used only for diagnostic purposes.

  18. Anion exchange chromatographic distribution of human monoclonal immunoglobulin G is determined by heavy chain subclass and level of sialic acid expression

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    Ilić Vesna


    Full Text Available Anion exchange chromatography is widely accepted method for purification of immunoglobulins. In this work, we used human monoclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG with structure and solubility of normal human IgG as a model for studying chromatographic behavior of particular molecular forms of IgG. Human sera with monoclonal IgG were fractionated on strong anion exchanger, Q Sepharose Fast Flow. With 20 mM Tris pH 7.5 as a start buffer, 42% of human monoclonal IgG passed through column, and 58% of them remained adsorbed. Bound monoclonal IgG were eluted from the exchanger by linear increasing of concentration of NaCl from 0 to 0.5 M. Chromatographic distribution of human monoclonal IgG correlated with their electrophoretic mobility in agarose gels, and it was dependent on γ heavy chain isotype. Light chain type, as well as serum concentration of monoclonal IgG did not influence their chromatographic behavior. The level of heavy chain sialic acid expression, but not of galactose and N-acetylglucosamine, significantly determined chromatographic distribution of serum monoclonal IgG. Additionally to the information on the chromatographic behavior of human monoclonal IgG, we believe that presented data could provide useful information about the possible use of Q Sepharose Fast Flow matrix for the isolation of specific molecular forms of human IgG.

  19. Characterization of Entamoeba histolytica Intermediate Subunit Lectin-Specific Human Monoclonal Antibodies Generated in Transgenic Mice Expressing Human Immunoglobulin Loci ▿ (United States)

    Tachibana, Hiroshi; Cheng, Xun-Jia; Tsukamoto, Hideo; Itoh, Johbu


    Four fully human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to Entamoeba histolytica intermediate subunit lectin (Igl) were prepared in XenoMouse mice, which are transgenic mice expressing human immunoglobulin loci. Examination of the reactivities of these MAbs to recombinant Igl1 and Igl2 of E. histolytica showed that XEhI-20 {immunoglobulin G2(κ) [IgG2(κ)]} and XEhI-28 [IgG2(κ)] were specific to Igl1, XEhI-B5 [IgG2(κ)] was specific to Igl2, and XEhI-H2 [IgM(κ)] was reactive with both Igls. Gene analyses revealed that the VH and VL germ lines were VH3-48 and L2 for XEhI-20, VH3-21 and L2 for XEhI-28, VH3-33 and B3 for XEhI-B5, and VH4-4 and A19 for XEhI-H2, respectively. Flow cytometry analyses showed that the epitopes recognized by all of these MAbs were located on the surfaces of living trophozoites. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that most Igl1 and Igl2 proteins were colocalized on the surface and in the cytoplasm, but different localization patterns in intracellular vacuoles were also present. The preincubation of trophozoites with XEhI-20, XEhI-B5, and XEhI-H2 caused significant inhibition of the adherence of trophozoites to Chinese hamster ovary cells, whereas preincubation with XEhI-28 did not do so. XEhI-20, XEhI-B5, and XEhI-H2 were injected intraperitoneally into hamsters 24 h prior to intrahepatic challenge with E. histolytica trophozoites. One week later, the mean abscess size in groups injected with one of the three MAbs was significantly smaller than that in controls injected with polyclonal IgG or IgM isolated from healthy humans. These results demonstrate that human MAbs to Igls may be applicable for immunoprophylaxis of amebiasis. PMID:19001071

  20. Leptospira Immunoglobulin-Like Protein B Interacts with the 20th Exon of Human Tropoelastin Contributing to Leptospiral Adhesion to Human Lung Cells

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    Ching-Lin Hsieh


    Full Text Available Leptospira immunoglobulin-like protein B (LigB, a surface adhesin, is capable of mediating the attachment of pathogenic leptospira to the host through interaction with various components of the extracellular matrix (ECM. Human tropoelastin (HTE, the building block of elastin, confers resilience and elasticity to lung, and other tissues. Previously identified Ig-like domains of LigB, including LigB4 and LigB12, bind to HTE, which is likely to promote Leptospira adhesion to lung tissue. However, the molecular mechanism that mediates the LigB-HTE interaction is unclear. In this study, the LigB-binding site on HTE was further pinpointed to a N-terminal region of the 20th exon of HTE (HTE20N. Alanine mutants of basic and aromatic residues on HTE20N significantly reduced binding to the LigB. Additionally, HTE-binding site was narrowed down to the first β-sheet of LigB12. On this binding surface, residues F1054, D1061, A1065, and D1066 were critical for the association with HTE. Most importantly, the recombinant HTE truncates could diminish the binding of LigB to human lung fibroblasts (WI-38 by 68%, and could block the association of LigA-expressing L. biflexa to lung cells by 61%. These findings should expand our understanding of leptospiral pathogenesis, particularly in pulmonary manifestations of leptospirosis.

  1. CIG-DB: the database for human or mouse immunoglobulin and T cell receptor genes available for cancer studies

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    Furue Motoki


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunoglobulin (IG or antibody and the T-cell receptor (TR are pivotal proteins in the immune system of higher organisms. In cancer immunotherapy, the immune responses mediated by tumor-epitope-binding IG or TR play important roles in anticancer effects. Although there are public databases specific for immunological genes, their contents have not been associated with clinical studies. Therefore, we developed an integrated database of IG/TR data reported in cancer studies (the Cancer-related Immunological Gene Database [CIG-DB]. Description This database is designed as a platform to explore public human and murine IG/TR genes sequenced in cancer studies. A total of 38,308 annotation entries for IG/TR proteins were collected from GenBank/DDBJ/EMBL and the Protein Data Bank, and 2,740 non-redundant corresponding MEDLINE references were appended. Next, we filtered the MEDLINE texts by MeSH terms, titles, and abstracts containing keywords related to cancer. After we performed a manual check, we classified the protein entries into two groups: 611 on cancer therapy (Group I and 1,470 on hematological tumors (Group II. Thus, a total of 2,081 cancer-related IG and TR entries were tabularized. To effectively classify future entries, we developed a computational method based on text mining and canonical discriminant analysis by parsing MeSH/title/abstract words. We performed a leave-one-out cross validation for the method, which showed high accuracy rates: 94.6% for IG references and 94.7% for TR references. We also collected 920 epitope sequences bound with IG/TR. The CIG-DB is equipped with search engines for amino acid sequences and MEDLINE references, sequence analysis tools, and a 3D viewer. This database is accessible without charge or registration at, and the search results are freely downloadable. Conclusions The CIG-DB serves as a bridge between immunological gene data and cancer studies, presenting

  2. Loci associated with N-glycosylation of human immunoglobulin G show pleiotropy with autoimmune diseases and haematological cancers.

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    Gordan Lauc

    Full Text Available Glycosylation of immunoglobulin G (IgG influences IgG effector function by modulating binding to Fc receptors. To identify genetic loci associated with IgG glycosylation, we quantitated N-linked IgG glycans using two approaches. After isolating IgG from human plasma, we performed 77 quantitative measurements of N-glycosylation using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC in 2,247 individuals from four European discovery populations. In parallel, we measured IgG N-glycans using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS in a replication cohort of 1,848 Europeans. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association study (GWAS results identified 9 genome-wide significant loci (P<2.27 × 10(-9 in the discovery analysis and two of the same loci (B4GALT1 and MGAT3 in the replication cohort. Four loci contained genes encoding glycosyltransferases (ST6GAL1, B4GALT1, FUT8, and MGAT3, while the remaining 5 contained genes that have not been previously implicated in protein glycosylation (IKZF1, IL6ST-ANKRD55, ABCF2-SMARCD3, SUV420H1, and SMARCB1-DERL3. However, most of them have been strongly associated with autoimmune and inflammatory conditions (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, diabetes type 1, multiple sclerosis, Graves' disease, celiac disease, nodular sclerosis and/or haematological cancers (acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, Hodgkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. Follow-up functional experiments in haplodeficient Ikzf1 knock-out mice showed the same general pattern of changes in IgG glycosylation as identified in the meta-analysis. As IKZF1 was associated with multiple IgG N-glycan traits, we explored biomarker potential of affected N-glycans in 101 cases with SLE and 183 matched controls and demonstrated substantial discriminative power in a ROC-curve analysis (area under the curve = 0.842. Our study shows that it is possible to identify new loci that control glycosylation of a single plasma protein

  3. Rapid Assay for Simultaneous Detection and Differentiation of Immunoglobulin G Antibodies to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Group M, HIV-1 Group O, and HIV-2


    Vallari, Ana S.; Hickman, Robert K.; Hackett, John R.; Brennan, Catherine A.; Varitek, Vincent A.; Devare, Sushil G.


    A rapid immunodiagnostic test that detects and discriminates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections on the basis of viral type, HIV type 1 (HIV-1) group M, HIV-1 group O, or HIV-2, was developed. The rapid assay for the detection of HIV (HIV rapid assay) was designed as an instrument-free chromatographic immunoassay that detects immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to HIV. To assess the performance of the HIV rapid assay, 470 HIV-positive plasma samples were tested by PCR and/or Western b...

  4. Affinity composite cryogel discs functionalized with Reactive Red 120 and Green HE 4BD dye ligands: Application on the separation of human immunoglobulin G subclasses

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    Huseynli, Sabina; Baydemir, Gözde; Sarı, Esma [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry Division, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Elkak, Assem [Laboraory of “Valorisation des Ressources Naturelles et Produits de Santé (VRNPS)”, Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology, Lebanese University, Rafic Hariri University Campus, Hadath (Lebanon); Denizli, Adil, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry Division, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey)


    Naturally produced by the human immune system, immunoglobulin nowadays is widely used for in vivo and in vitro purposes. The increased needs for pure immunoglobulin have prompted researchers to find new immunoglobulin chromatographic separation processes. Cryogels as chromatographic adsorbents, congregate several mechanical features including good compatibility, large pore structure, flexibility, short diffusion pathway and stability. These different characteristics make them a good alternative to conventional chromatographic methods and allowing their potential use in separation technology. In the present study, two sets of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) based beads were prepared and functionalized with Reactive Red 120 (RR) and Reactive Green HE 4BD (RG) dyes, and then embedded into supermacroporous cryogels. The morphology, physical and chemical features of the prepared bead embedded composite cryogel discs (CCDs) were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), swelling test, elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that the embedded composite cryogel discs have a specific surface area of 192.0 m{sup 2}/g with maximum adsorption capacity of HIgG 239.8 mg/g for the RR functionalized CCD and 170 mg/g for RG functionalized CCD columns, both at pH 6.2. - Highlights: • Dye attached composite cryogel discs were prepared to separate HIgG subclasses. • Composite cryogels characterized by swelling, FTIR, SEM and elemental analysis. • Reactive Green HE 4B and Reactive Red 120 dyes were used as the affinity ligand. • HIgG and subclasses were separate from both aqueous solution and human plasma.

  5. Segmental duplication as one of the driving forces underlying the diversity of the human immunoglobulin heavy chain variable gene region

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    Gao Richeng


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Segmental duplication and deletion were implicated for a region containing the human immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IGHV gene segments, 1.9III/hv3005 (possible allelic variants of IGHV3-30 and hv3019b9 (a possible allelic variant of IGHV3-33. However, very little is known about the ranges of the duplication and the polymorphic region. This is mainly because of the difficulty associated with distinguishing between allelic and paralogous sequences in the IGHV region containing extensive repetitive sequences. Inability to separate the two parental haploid genomes in the subjects is another serious barrier. To address these issues, unique DNA sequence tags evenly distributed within and flanking the duplicated region implicated by the previous studies were selected. The selected tags in single sperm from six unrelated healthy donors were amplified by multiplex PCR followed by microarray detection. In this way, individual haplotypes of different parental origins in the sperm donors could be analyzed separately and precisely. The identified polymorphic region was further analyzed at the nucleotide sequence level using sequences from the three human genomic sequence assemblies in the database. Results A large polymorphic region was identified using the selected sequence tags. Four of the 12 haplotypes were shown to contain consecutively undetectable tags spanning in a variable range. Detailed analysis of sequences from the genomic sequence assemblies revealed two large duplicate sequence blocks of 24,696 bp and 24,387 bp, respectively, and an incomplete copy of 961 bp in this region. It contains up to 13 IGHV gene segments depending on haplotypes. A polymorphic region was found to be located within the duplicated blocks. The variants of this polymorphism unusually diverged at the nucleotide sequence level and in IGHV gene segment number, composition and organization, indicating a limited selection pressure in general. However

  6. Effect of yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® on faecal excretion of secretory immunoglobulin A and human beta-defensin 2 in healthy adult volunteers

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    Kabeerdoss Jayakanthan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Probiotics are used to provide health benefits. The present study tested the effect of a probiotic yoghurt on faecal output of beta-defensin and immunoglobulin A in a group of young healthy women eating a defined diet. Findings 26 women aged 18-21 (median 19 years residing in a hostel were given 200 ml normal yoghurt every day for a week, followed by probiotic yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® (109 in 200 ml for three weeks, followed again by normal yoghurt for four weeks. Stool samples were collected at 0, 4 and 8 weeks and assayed for immunoglobulin A and human beta-defensin-2 by ELISA. All participants tolerated both normal and probiotic yoghurt well. Human beta-defensin-2 levels in faeces were not altered during the course of the study. On the other hand, compared to the basal sample, faecal IgA increased during probiotic feeding (P = 0.0184 and returned to normal after cessation of probiotic yoghurt intake. Conclusions Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® increased secretory IgA output in faeces. This property may explain the ability of probiotics to prevent gastrointestinal and lower respiratory tract infections.

  7. Effect of yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® on faecal excretion of secretory immunoglobulin A and human beta-defensin 2 in healthy adult volunteers. (United States)

    Kabeerdoss, Jayakanthan; Devi, R Shobana; Mary, R Regina; Prabhavathi, D; Vidya, R; Mechenro, John; Mahendri, N V; Pugazhendhi, Srinivasan; Ramakrishna, Balakrishnan S


    Probiotics are used to provide health benefits. The present study tested the effect of a probiotic yoghurt on faecal output of beta-defensin and immunoglobulin A in a group of young healthy women eating a defined diet. 26 women aged 18-21 (median 19) years residing in a hostel were given 200 ml normal yoghurt every day for a week, followed by probiotic yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® (10⁹ in 200 ml) for three weeks, followed again by normal yoghurt for four weeks. Stool samples were collected at 0, 4 and 8 weeks and assayed for immunoglobulin A and human beta-defensin-2 by ELISA. All participants tolerated both normal and probiotic yoghurt well. Human beta-defensin-2 levels in faeces were not altered during the course of the study. On the other hand, compared to the basal sample, faecal IgA increased during probiotic feeding (P = 0.0184) and returned to normal after cessation of probiotic yoghurt intake. Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® increased secretory IgA output in faeces. This property may explain the ability of probiotics to prevent gastrointestinal and lower respiratory tract infections.

  8. Immunoglobulin G Determination in Human Serum and Milk Using an Immunosensor of New Conception Fitted with an Enzyme Probe as Transducer

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    Mauro Tomassetti


    Full Text Available To completely overcome the problem of the presence of urea in the serum, which can be the cause (especially at low immunoglobulin G concentrations of a small but non negligible interference in the enzyme reaction of the enzymatic marker, when the measurement was performed by a potentiometric immunosensor that we constructed and characterized in previous work, and which used urease as marker, we have now constructed an entirely different and highly innovative immunosensor. This new device uses the enzyme alkaline phosphatase as marker, sodium phenylphosphate as substrate but above all, a tyrosinase biosensor obtained by coupling a Clark type gas diffusion amperometric electrode and the tyrosinase enzyme, immobilized in a cellulose triacetate membrane, as transducer. After optimizing the ‘competitive’ measurement procedures, the new immunosensor was used to determine both HIgG and the anti-HIgG, with a limit of detection (LOD of the order of 3x10-11 M. Clearly this highly innovative construction geometry makes the immunosensor extremely selective. This makes it possible to determine immunoglobulin G both in human serum and milk without the slightest interference by any urea present in these biological matrixes.

  9. Immunoglobulin G Determination in Human Serum and Milk Using an Immunosensor of New Conception Fitted with an Enzyme Probe as Transducer. (United States)

    Campanella, Luigi; Lelo, Dalina; Martini, Elisabetta; Tomassetti, Mauro


    To completely overcome the problem of the presence of urea in the serum, which can be the cause (especially at low immunoglobulin G concentrations) of a small but non negligible interference in the enzyme reaction of the enzymatic marker, when the measurement was performed by a potentiometric immunosensor that we constructed and characterized in previous work, and which used urease as marker, we have now constructed an entirely different and highly innovative immunosensor. This new device uses the enzyme alkaline phosphatase as marker, sodium phenylphosphate as substrate but above all, a tyrosinase biosensor obtained by coupling a Clark type gas diffusion amperometric electrode and the tyrosinase enzyme, immobilized in a cellulose triacetate membrane, as transducer. After optimizing the 'competitive' measurement procedures, the new immunosensor was used to determine both HIgG and the anti-HIgG, with a limit of detection (LOD) of the order of 3x10-11 M. Clearly this highly innovative construction geometry makes the immunosensor extremely selective. This makes it possible to determine immunoglobulin G both in human serum and milk without the slightest interference by any urea present in these biological matrixes.

  10. Leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 is expressed on human megakaryocytes and negatively regulates the maturation of primary megakaryocytic progenitors and cell line

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    Xue, Jiangnan, E-mail: [Department of Immunology, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai 264003 (China); Zhang, Xiaoshu; Zhao, Haiya; Fu, Qiang; Cao, Yanning; Wang, Yuesi; Feng, Xiaoying; Fu, Aili [Department of Immunology, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai 264003 (China)


    Research highlights: {yields} LAIR-1 is expressed on human megakaryocytes from an early stage. {yields} Up-regulation of LAIR-1 negatively regulates megakaryocytic differentiation of cell line. {yields} LAIR-1 negatively regulates the differentiation of primary megakaryocytic progenitors. -- Abstract: Leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 (LAIR-1) is an inhibitory collagen receptor which belongs to the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily. Although the inhibitory function of LAIR-1 has been extensively described in multiple leukocytes, its role in megakaryocyte (MK) has not been explored so far. Here, we show that LAIR-1 is expressed on human bone marrow CD34{sup +}CD41a{sup +} and CD41a{sup +}CD42b{sup +} cells. LAIR-1 is also detectable in a fraction of human cord blood CD34{sup +} cell-derived MK that has morphological characteristics of immature MK. In megakaryoblastic cell line Dami, the membrane protein expression of LAIR-1 is up-regulated significantly when cells are treated with phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Furthermore, cross-linking of LAIR-1 in Dami cells with its natural ligand or anti-LAIR-1 antibody leads to the inhibition of cell proliferation and PMA-promoted differentiation when examined by the MK lineage-specific markers (CD41a and CD42b) and polyploidization. In addition, we also observed that cross-linking of LAIR-1 results in decreased MK generation from primary human CD34{sup +} cells cultured in a cytokines cocktail that contains TPO. These results suggest that LAIR-1 is a likely candidate for an early marker of MK differentiation, and provide initial evidence indicating that LAIR-1 serves as a negative regulator of megakaryocytopoiesis.

  11. Perspectives on Immunoglobulins in Colostrum and Milk

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    Peter K. Theil


    Full Text Available Immunoglobulins form an important component of the immunological activity found in milk and colostrum. They are central to the immunological link that occurs when the mother transfers passive immunity to the offspring. The mechanism of transfer varies among mammalian species. Cattle provide a readily available immune rich colostrum and milk in large quantities, making those secretions important potential sources of immune products that may benefit humans. Immune milk is a term used to describe a range of products of the bovine mammary gland that have been tested against several human diseases. The use of colostrum or milk as a source of immunoglobulins, whether intended for the neonate of the species producing the secretion or for a different species, can be viewed in the context of the types of immunoglobulins in the secretion, the mechanisms by which the immunoglobulins are secreted, and the mechanisms by which the neonate or adult consuming the milk then gains immunological benefit. The stability of immunoglobulins as they undergo processing in the milk, or undergo digestion in the intestine, is an additional consideration for evaluating the value of milk immunoglobulins. This review summarizes the fundamental knowledge of immunoglobulins found in colostrum, milk, and immune milk.

  12. Immunoenzymatic determination of immunoglobulins secreted by human peripheral blood lymphocytes in pokeweed mitogen and lipo-polysaccharide stimulated cultures. (United States)

    Quintiliani, L; Iudicone, P; Guglielmetti, M; Buzzonetti, A


    Immunoglobulins (Ig) production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 27 healthy subjects at the 6th and 12th day of in vitro stimulation by pokeweed mitogen (PWM) or bacterial lipo-polysaccharide (LPS) was investigated. Total IgG, IgA, IgM in the culture supernatants were measured by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The average values of Ig production (in ng per ml of culture supernatants) under PWM and LPS stimulation after 12 days of culture are respectively: 3397 and 2557 for IgG, 512 and 374 for IgA, 3172 and 1439 for IgM. The use of PWM and LPS mitogens for stimulating Ig secreting cells may provide insights into the nature of the interacting cells on immune responses and into the pathogenesis of different diseases.

  13. Immunoglobulins in nasal secretions of healthy humans: structural integrity of secretory immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) and occurrence of neutralizing antibodies to IgA1 proteases of nasal bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, L; Rasmussen, TT; Reinholdt, Jesper


    Certain bacteria, including overt pathogens as well as commensals, produce immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) proteases. By cleaving IgA1, including secretory IgA1, in the hinge region, these enzymes may interfere with the barrier functions of mucosal IgA antibodies, as indicated by experiments in vitro. P...

  14. Perspectives on Immunoglobulins in colostrum and milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, W L; Theil, Peter Kappel


    a readily available immune rich colostrum and milk in large quantities, making those secretions important potential sources of immune products that may benefit humans. Immune milk is a term used to describe a range of products of the bovine mammary gland that have been tested against several human diseases......Immunoglobulins form an important component of the immunological activity found in milk and colostrum. They are central to the immunological link that occurs when the mother transfers passive immunity to the offspring. The mechanism of transfer varies among mammalian species. Cattle provide....... The use of colostrum or milk as a source of immunoglobulins, whether intended for the neonate of the species producing the secretion or for a different species, can be viewed in the context of the types of immunoglobulins in the secretion, the mechanisms by which the immunoglobulins are secreted...

  15. Determination of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin in human serum with capillary zone electrophoresis. Sample preparation strategies for the removal of interferences caused by increased levels of immunoglobulins. (United States)

    Lanz, Christian; Falmagne, Jean-Bernard; de l'Escaille, François; Marti, Ulrich; Thormann, Wolfgang


    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) in fused-silica capillaries is an effective analytical approach for the separation and determination of the transferrin (Tf) isoforms and thus carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) in human serum. Sera of patients with progressed liver cirrhosis are prone to interferences in the beta region which prevent the proper determination of CDT by CZE without additional sample preparation. Efforts to identify, reduce or even eliminate these interferences have been undertaken. Data obtained by ultrafiltration, affinity subtraction procedures using protein A, protein L and antibodies against immunoglobulins or Tf, and immunopurification of Tf suggest that the interferences in the patient sera are caused by increased levels of IgA and IgM and are best eliminated by immunopurification. Avian IgY antibody spin column immunocapture of serum Tf followed by CZE analysis of the stripped and concentrated fraction is shown to provide an attractive approach for CDT monitoring in sera with beta region interferences.

  16. Comparison of three immunosensor methods (surface plasmon resonance, screen-printed and classical amperometric immunosensors) for immunoglobulin G determination in human serum and animal or powdered milks. (United States)

    Tomassetti, Mauro; Martini, Elisabetta; Campanella, Luigi; Favero, Gabriele; Carlucci, Luciano; Mazzei, Franco


    Within the framework of research carried out by our team aimed at developing new immunological methods to determine proteins such as immunoglobulins G in different biological matrixes, for instance, serum and milk, tests were performed on several immunosensors based on different transducer types, i.e. amperometric (classical or screen-printed) electrodes for hydrogen peroxide. Lastly the feasibility of constructing immunosensors based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was investigated. "Competitive" immunological procedures were used in the first two cases. Conversely, the surface plasmon resonance transduction technique allowed a "direct" measurement. Applications were performed on human serum, powdered milks for babies and particularly on several animal milks, in the case of buffalo milk seeking a routine control method to identify possible inflammatory affections in the animals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Primary structure of the major glycans of the N-acetyllactosamine type derived from the human immunoglobulins M from two patients with Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Cahour, A.; Debeire, P.; Hartmann, L.; Montreuil, J.; Halbeek, H. van


    The carbohydrate chains of the pathological human immunoglobulins M from two patients with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia were released by hydrazinolysis. The N-acetyllactosamine-type glycans were obtained by affinity chromatography on concanavalin A and fractionated by high-voltage paper

  18. Efficacy, pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of Flebogamma 10% DIF, a high-purity human intravenous immunoglobulin, in primary immunodeficiency. (United States)

    Berger, Melvin; Pinciaro, Paul J; Althaus, Arthur; Ballow, Mark; Chouksey, Akhilesh; Moy, James; Ochs, Hans; Stein, Mark


    Flebogamma 10% DIF represents an evolution of intravenous immune globulin from the previous 5% product to be administered at higher rates and with smaller infusion volumes. Pathogen safety is enhanced by the combination of multiple methods with different mechanisms of action. The objective of this study as to evaluate the efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and safety of Flebogamma 10% DIF for immunoglobulin replacement therapy in primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDD). Flebogamma 10% DIF was administered to 46 subjects with well-defined PIDD at a dose of 300-600 mg/kg every 21-28 days for 12 months. Serious bacterial infection rate was 0.025/subject/year. Half-life in serum of the administered IgG was approximately 35 days. No serious treatment-related adverse event (AE) occurred in any patient. Most of the potentially treatment-related AEs occurred during the infusion, accounting for 20% of the 601 infusions administered. Flebogamma 10% DIF is efficacious and safe, has adequate pharmacokinetic properties, and is well-tolerated for the treatment of PIDD.

  19. Effects of smoking, mother's age, body mass index, and parity number on lipid, protein, and secretory immunoglobulin A concentrations of human milk. (United States)

    Bachour, Pamela; Yafawi, Rula; Jaber, Farouk; Choueiri, Elias; Abdel-Razzak, Ziad


    This study investigated the effect of smoking, mother's age, body mass index (BMI), and parity number on density, lipids, proteins, and secreted immunoglobulin A (SIgA) of human milk. Transitional and mature milk samples were collected from 23 nursing smoker mothers and 43 nursing nonsmoker mothers. Proteins, lipids, and SIgA concentrations were determined as well as the milk density and the general protein profile. Our investigation showed that the milk of smokers contained less lipids and proteins (statistically significant 26% and 12% decrease, respectively), whereas milk density was unchanged. SIgA concentration was 27% lower in milk from smokers, but the decrease was not statistically significant. The general protein profile showed no significant smoking-associated changes in the four identified proteins (β-casein, immunoglobulin A heavy chain, serum albumin, and lactoferrin). Mothers' age and residential area showed noticeable but statistically nonsignificant differences in some of the measured parameters. However, parity number, lactation stage, and BMI were associated with a significant modification of milk composition. Mature milk contained more lipids and less protein, whereas the increase of parity number was associated with an increase in lipid concentration. The group of overweight mothers showed lower milk protein concentration in comparison with the normal group. Multivariate analysis showed a statistically significant interaction effect of the variables (smoking, parity number, lactation stage, age, and BMI) on lipids and between some of them on proteins and SIgA. Our study showed that smoking was associated with lower milk lipid and protein concentrations and that the parity number and BMI were associated with a change in milk lipids and proteins content, respectively.

  20. Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin a secretion increases after 4-weeks ingestion of chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement in humans: a randomized cross over study (United States)


    Background Chlorella, a unicellular green alga that grows in fresh water, contains high levels of proteins, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fibers. Some studies have reported favorable immune function-related effects on biological secretions such as blood and breast milk in humans who have ingested a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement. However, the effects of chlorella-derived supplement on mucosal immune functions remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether chlorella ingestion increases the salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) secretion in humans using a blind, randomized, crossover study design. Methods Fifteen men took 30 placebo and 30 chlorella tablets per day for 4 weeks separated by a 12-week washout period. Before and after each trial, saliva samples were collected from a sterile cotton ball that was chewed after overnight fasting. Salivary SIgA concentrations were measured using ELISA. Results Compliance rates for placebo and chlorella ingestions were 97.0 ± 1.0% and 95.3 ± 1.6%, respectively. No difference was observed in salivary SIgA concentrations before and after placebo ingestion (P = 0.38). However, salivary SIgA concentrations were significantly elevated after chlorella ingestion compared to baseline (P chlorella ingestion than before intake (P chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement increases salivary SIgA secretion and possibly improves mucosal immune function in humans. PMID:21906314

  1. Collaborative study for establishment of a global standard for the potency assay of human anti-D immunoglobulin. (United States)

    Thorpe, S J; Sands, D; Fox, B; Schäffner, G; Yu, M W; Behr-Gross, M-E


    An international collaborative study aimed at establishing a global standard for the potency assay of anti-D immunoglobulin was started in 2002. 25 laboratories participated in this study run under the common aegis of the World Health Organization, the United States Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA) and the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines (EDQM). The potencies of three candidate materials and the US-FDA standard (lot 3) included for comparison were evaluated using AutoAnalyzer, competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay (competitive EIA), flow cytometric methods or own "in-house" methods. Critical reagent, standardised procedures and standardised assay design were provided for either method, where appropriate. Central statistical evaluation of the potency data submitted by the participants was performed using a parallel line model. Agreement between laboratories and assay methods for all samples was observed. Intra-laboratory variability was lowest for laboratories performing flow cytometry and highest for laboratories that performed their in-house methods. Inter-laboratory variability was acceptable for all samples when assayed by AutoAnalyzer, competitive (EIA) and flow cytometric methods. It was concluded that sample A is most suitable to serve as a global standard and that sample C could serve as a reserve European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) batch provided that suitable stability is demonstrated. Sample A was adopted by the Ph. Eur. Commission at its 115th session (March 2003) as the first Ph. Eur. BRP (available from the EDQM: catalog number Y0000219) with the assigned potency of 285 IU/ampoule.

  2. Immunoglobulins in Cerebrospinal Fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellebjerg, Finn Thorup


    across blood-CSF barriers, and their concentrations increase with the general increase in CSF protein concentrations observed in a wide range of neurological diseases. Therefore, methods that take the normal diffusion of immunoglobulins into account are needed for quantitative assessment of intrathecal...... immunoglobulin synthesis. Intrathecally synthesised immunoglobulins are usually of restricted clonality, and electrophoresis-based methods can be used for detecting this in the form of oligoclonal bands. These methods depend on comparing paired CSF and blood samples. Qualitative analyses for the assessment...... of intrathecally synthesised oligoclonal bands are more technically demanding, but are more sensitive for the detection of intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis, and are less susceptible to artefacts induced by blood-CSF barrier disturbances than quantitative methods. The same general principles apply both...

  3. Survival and digestibility of orally-administered immunoglobulin preparations containing IgG through the gastrointestinal tract in humans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jasion, Victoria S; Burnett, Bruce P


    .... Oral administration of Ig preparations from human serum as well as bovine colostrum and serum have been tested and proven to be safe as well as effective in human clinical trials for a variety...

  4. Atypical antigen recognition mode of a shark immunoglobulin new antigen receptor (IgNAR) variable domain characterized by humanization and structural analysis. (United States)

    Kovalenko, Oleg V; Olland, Andrea; Piché-Nicholas, Nicole; Godbole, Adarsh; King, Daniel; Svenson, Kristine; Calabro, Valerie; Müller, Mischa R; Barelle, Caroline J; Somers, William; Gill, Davinder S; Mosyak, Lidia; Tchistiakova, Lioudmila


    The immunoglobulin new antigen receptors (IgNARs) are a class of Ig-like molecules of the shark immune system that exist as heavy chain-only homodimers and bind antigens by their single domain variable regions (V-NARs). Following shark immunization and/or in vitro selection, V-NARs can be generated as soluble, stable, and specific high affinity monomeric binding proteins of ∼12 kDa. We have previously isolated a V-NAR from an immunized spiny dogfish shark, named E06, that binds specifically and with high affinity to human, mouse, and rat serum albumins. Humanization of E06 was carried out by converting over 60% of non-complementarity-determining region residues to those of a human germ line Vκ1 sequence, DPK9. The resulting huE06 molecules have largely retained the specificity and affinity of antigen binding of the parental V-NAR. Crystal structures of the shark E06 and its humanized variant (huE06 v1.1) in complex with human serum albumin (HSA) were determined at 3- and 2.3-Å resolution, respectively. The huE06 v1.1 molecule retained all but one amino acid residues involved in the binding site for HSA. Structural analysis of these V-NARs has revealed an unusual variable domain-antigen interaction. E06 interacts with HSA in an atypical mode that utilizes extensive framework contacts in addition to complementarity-determining regions that has not been seen previously in V-NARs. On the basis of the structure, the roles of various elements of the molecule are described with respect to antigen binding and V-NAR stability. This information broadens the general understanding of antigen recognition and provides a framework for further design and humanization of shark IgNARs.

  5. Human CD72 splicing isoform responsible for resistance to systemic lupus erythematosus regulates serum immunoglobulin level and is localized in endoplasmic reticulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitomi Yuki


    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD72 is an inhibitory co-receptor expressed on B cells. We previously demonstrated significant association of the polymorphism of the CD72 gene with susceptibility to human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE in individuals carrying a SLE-susceptible FCGR2B genotype (FCGR2B-232Thr/Thr. The human CD72 locus generates a splicing isoform that lacks exon 8 (CD72Δex8 as well as full-length CD72 (CD72fl, and the CD72 polymorphism regulates exon 8 skipping. Results Here we demonstrated that individuals carrying the disease-protective CD72 genotype exhibit significantly lower serum immunoglobulin levels than do individuals carrying other CD72 genotypes (P CD72 genotype, the protein level of CD72Δex8 was increased in individuals carrying the disease-protective CD72 genotype, suggesting a crucial role of CD72Δex8 in regulation of antibody production. By expressing these human CD72 isoforms in mouse cell lines, we further demonstrated that CD72Δex8 is accumulated in endoplasmic reticulum (ER and fails to regulate BCR signaling whereas human CD72fl is efficiently transported to the cell surface and inhibits signaling through the B cell antigen receptor (BCR, as is the case for mouse CD72. Conclusion Human CD72 polymorphism appears to regulate antibody production as well as susceptibility to SLE by regulating expression of ER-localizing CD72Δex8.

  6. Immunoglobulin A Protease Variants Facilitate Intracellular Survival in Epithelial Cells By Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae That Persist in the Human Respiratory Tract in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy F; Kirkham, Charmaine; Gallo, Mary C; Yang, Yang; Wilding, Gregory E; Pettigrew, Melinda M


    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) persists in the airways in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). NTHi expresses 4 immunoglobulin (Ig)A protease variants (A1, A2, B1, B2) with distinct cleavage specificities for human IgA1. Little is known about the different roles of IgA protease variants in NTHi infection. Twenty-six NTHi isolates from a 20-year longitudinal study of COPD were analyzed for IgA protease expression, survival in human respiratory epithelial cells, and cleavage of lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1). IgA protease B1 and B2-expressing strains showed greater intracellular survival in host epithelial cells than strains expressing no IgA protease (P protease A1 or A2 (P protease expression showed reduced survival in host cells compared with the same strain that expressed IgA protease B1 (P = .006) or B2 (P = .015). IgA proteases B1 and B2 cleave LAMP1. Passage of strains through host cells selected for expression of IgA proteases B1 and B2 but not A1. IgA proteases B1 and B2 cleave LAMP1 and mediate intracellular survival in respiratory epithelial cells. Intracellular persistence of NTHi selects for expression of IgA proteases B1 and B2. The variants of NTHi IgA proteases play distinct roles in pathogenesis of infection.

  7. Rationale for the development of IMC-3G3, a fully human immunoglobulin G subclass 1 monoclonal antibody targeting the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha. (United States)

    Shah, Gaurav D; Loizos, Nick; Youssoufian, Hagop; Schwartz, Jonathan D; Rowinsky, Eric K


    A large body of evidence suggests that the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family and associated receptors are potential targets in oncology therapeutic development because of their critical roles in the proliferation and survival of various cancers and in the regulation and growth of the tumor stroma and blood vessels. Several small molecules that nonspecifically target the PDGF signaling axis are in current use or development as anticancer therapies. However, for the majority of these agents, PDGF and its receptors are neither the primary targets nor the principal mediators of anticancer activity. IMC-3G3, a fully human monoclonal antibody of the immunoglobulin G subclass 1, specifically binds to the human PDGF receptor alpha (PDGFRalpha) with high affinity and blocks PDGF ligand binding and PDGFRalpha activation. The results of preclinical studies and the frequent expression of PDGFRalpha in many types of cancer and in cancer-associated stroma support a rationale for the clinical development of IMC-3G3. Currently, IMC-3G3 is being evaluated in early clinical development for patients with several types of solid malignancies. (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.

  8. Enhancing the Affinity of Anti-Human α-Thrombin 15-mer DNA Aptamer and Anti-Immunoglobulin E Aptamer by PolyT Extension. (United States)

    Bai, Yunlong; Li, Yapiao; Zhang, Dapeng; Wang, Hailin; Zhao, Qiang


    Aptamer affinity capillary electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF) for protein detection takes advantage of aptamers for their ease of synthesis and labeling, small size, and having many negative charges. Its success relies on the high binding affinity of aptamers. One 15-mer DNA aptamer (5'-GGT TGG TGT GGT TGG-3', Apt15) shows desirable specificity for human α-thrombin, an important enzyme with multiple functions in blood. However, Apt15 has weak binding affinity, and the use of Apt15 in affinity CE-LIF analysis remains challenging. Here we reported that extension of Apt15 at the 3'-end with a polyT tail having length of 18 T or longer significantly enhanced its affinity and enabled a well-isolated and stable peak for thrombin-aptamer complex in affinity CE. It was likely that the improvement of binding affinity resulted from double binding, an additional interaction of the polyT tail with thrombin in addition to the Apt15 section binding to thrombin. With dye-labeled Apt15 having a T25 tail, we achieved detection of thrombin at concentrations as low as 0.1 nM by affinity CE-LIF. This aptamer probe specifically bound to human α-thrombin, showing negligible affinity for human β- and γ-thrombin, which are proteolyzed derivatives of human alpha α-thrombin and share similar structure. This strategy of adding a polyT extension also enhanced the binding affinity of anti-immunoglobulin E aptamer in CE-LIF analysis, showing that the affinity enhancement approach is not limited to the thrombin-binding aptamer and has potential for more applications in bioanalysis.

  9. Effect of yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® on faecal excretion of secretory immunoglobulin A and human beta-defensin 2 in healthy adult volunteers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kabeerdoss, Jayakanthan; Devi, R Shobana; Mary, R Regina; Prabhavathi, D; Vidya, R; Mechenro, John; Mahendri, N V; Pugazhendhi, Srinivasan; Ramakrishna, Balakrishnan S


    Probiotics are used to provide health benefits. The present study tested the effect of a probiotic yoghurt on faecal output of beta-defensin and immunoglobulin A in a group of young healthy women eating a defined diet...

  10. IgAT (Immunoglobulin Analysis Tool: A novel tool for the analysis of human and mouse heavy and light chain transcripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eRogosch


    Full Text Available Sequence analysis of immunoglobulin (Ig heavy and light chain transcripts can refine categorization of B cell subpopulations and can shed light on the selective forces that act during immune responses or immune dysregulation, such as autoimmunity, allergy, and B cell malignancy. High-throughput sequencing yields Ig transcript collections of unprecedented size. The authoritative web-based IMGT/HighV-QUEST program is capable of analyzing large collections of transcripts and provides annotated output files to describe many key properties of Ig transcripts. However, additional processing of these flat files is required to create figures, or to facilitate analysis of additional features and comparisons between sequence sets. We present an easy-to-use Microsoft® Excel® based software, named Immunoglobulin Analysis Tool (IgAT, for the summary, interrogation, and further processing of IMGT/HighV-QUEST output files. IgAT generates descriptive statistics and high-quality figures for collections of murine or human Ig heavy or light chain transcripts ranging from 1 to 150,000 sequences. In addition to traditionally studied properties of Ig transcripts—such as the usage of germline gene segments, or the length and composition of the CDR-3 region—IgAT also uses published algorithms to calculate the probability of antigen selection based on somatic mutational patterns, the average hydrophobicity of the antigen-binding sites, and predictable structural properties of the CDR-H3 loop according to Shirai’s H3-rules. These refined analyses provide in-depth information about the selective forces acting upon Ig repertoires and allow the statistical and graphical comparison of two or more sequence sets. IgAT is easy to use on any computer running Excel® 2003 or higher. Thus, IgAT is a useful tool to gain insights into the selective forces and functional properties of small to extremely large collections of Ig transcripts, thereby assisting a researcher to

  11. Cleavage of a recombinant human immunoglobulin A2 (IgA2)-IgA1 hybrid antibody by certain bacterial IgA1 proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senior, B; Dunlop, JI; Batten, MR


    To understand more about the factors influencing the cleavage of immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) by microbial IgA1 proteases, a recombinant human IgA2/IgA1 hybrid molecule was generated. In the hybrid, termed IgA2/A1 half hinge, a seven-amino-acid sequence corresponding to one half of the duplicated...... sequence making up the IgA1 hinge was incorporated into the equivalent site in IgA2. Insertion of the IgA1 half hinge into IgA2 did not affect antigen binding capacity or the functional activity of the hybrid molecule, as judged by its ability to bind to IgA Fcalpha receptors and trigger respiratory bursts...... in neutrophils. Although the IgA2/A1 hybrid contained only half of the IgA1 hinge, it was found to be cleaved by a variety of different bacterial IgA1 proteases, including representatives of those that cleave IgA1 in the different duplicated halves of the hinge, namely, those of Prevotella melaninogenica...

  12. Technetium-99m human polyclonal immunoglobulin g studies and conventional bone scans to detect active joint inflammation in chronic rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berna, Ll.; Torres, G.; Estorch, M.; Martinez-Duncker, D.; Carrio, I. (Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Diez, C. (Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Rheumatology)


    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic polyarthritis in which active inflammed joints coexist with joints in remission. We performed bone scans ({sup 99m}Tc-DPD) and {sup 99m}Tc human polyclonal immunoglobulin G scans ({sup 99m}Tc-IgG) in 18 patients with rheumatoid arthritis to assess the uptake in actively inflammed joints and in joints in which remission after inflammation had occurred. A quantitative analysis of tracer uptake in each joint was performed on both scans. In 123 joints without current active inflammation, an increased {sup 99m}Tc-DPD uptake was observed (2.31{+-}1.27), whereas no {sup 99m}Tc-IgG uptake was noted (1.18{+-}0.32). Some 78 joints with mild pain or swelling exhibited increased {sup 99m}Tc-DPD uptake (2.48{+-}1.14) and increased {sup 99m}Tc-IgG uptake (1.76{+-}0.50; P<0.001), white 21 joints with moderate to severe pain or swelling exhibited increased {sup 99m}Tc-DPD uptake (2.39{+-}0.93) and increased {sup 99m}Tc-IgG uptake (1.79{+-}0.51; P<0.001). In conclusion, {sup 99m}Tc-IgG scans distinguish between joints with and without active inflammation in chronic rheumatoid arthritis, whereas bone scans do not. Thus, {sup 99m}Tc-IgG scans may be useful in identifying joints with current active inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. (orig.).

  13. Polyclonal immunoglobulins from a chronic hepatitis C virus patient protect human liver-chimeric mice from infection with a homologous hepatitis C virus strain. (United States)

    Vanwolleghem, Thomas; Bukh, Jens; Meuleman, Philip; Desombere, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Alter, Harvey; Purcell, Robert H; Leroux-Roels, Geert


    The role of the humoral immune response in the natural course of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is widely debated. Most chronically infected patients have immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies capable of neutralizing HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp) in vitro. It is, however, not clear whether these IgG can prevent a de novo HCV infection in vivo and contribute to the control of viremia in infected individuals. We addressed this question with homologous in vivo protection studies in human liver-urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)(+/+) severe combined immune deficient (SCID) mice. Chimeric mice were loaded with chronic phase polyclonal IgG and challenged 3 days later with a 100% infectious dose of the acute phase H77C virus, both originating from patient H. Passive immunization induced sterilizing immunity in five of eight challenged animals. In the three nonprotected animals, the HCV infection was attenuated, as evidenced by altered viral kinetics in comparison with five control IgG-treated animals. Plasma samples obtained from the mice at viral challenge neutralized H77C-HCVpp at dilutions as high as 1/400. Infection was completely prevented when, before administration to naïve chimeric mice, the inoculum was pre-incubated in vitro at an IgG concentration normally observed in humans. Polyclonal IgG from a patient with a long-standing HCV infection not only displays neutralizing activity in vitro using the HCVpp system, but also conveys sterilizing immunity toward the ancestral HCV strain in vivo, using the human liver-chimeric mouse model. Both experimental systems will be useful tools to identify neutralizing antibodies for future clinical use.

  14. Identification of a human immunodominant B-cell epitope within the immunoglobulin A1 protease of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felici Franco


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The IgA1 protease of Streptococcus pneumoniae is a proteolytic enzyme that specifically cleaves the hinge regions of human IgA1, which dominates most mucosal surfaces and is the major IgA isotype in serum. This protease is expressed in all of the known pneumococcal strains and plays a major role in pathogen's resistance to the host immune response. The present work was focused at identifying the immunodominant regions of pneumococcal IgA1 protease recognized by the human antibody response. Results An antigenic sequence corresponding to amino acids 420–457 (epiA of the iga gene product was identified by screening a pneumococcal phage display library with patients' sera. The epiA peptide is conserved in all pneumococci and in two out of three S. mitis strains, while it is not present in other oral streptococci so far sequenced. This epitope was specifically recognized by antibodies present in sera from 90% of healthy adults, thus representing an important target of the humoral response to S. pneumoniae and S. mitis infection. Moreover, sera from 68% of children less than 4 years old reacted with the epiA peptide, indicating that the human immune response against streptococcal antigens occurs during childhood. Conclusion The broad and specific recognition of the epiA polypeptide by human sera demonstrate that the pneumococcal IgA1 protease contains an immunodominant B-cell epitope. The use of phage display libraries to identify microbe or disease-specific antigens recognized by human sera is a valuable approach to epitope discovery.

  15. 6th International Immunoglobulin Symposium: poster presentations. (United States)

    Fernandez-Cruz, E; Kaveri, S V; Peter, H-H; Durandy, A; Cantoni, N; Quinti, I; Sorensen, R; Bussel, J B; Danieli, M G; Winkelmann, A; Bayry, J; Käsermann, F; Späth, P; Helbert, M; Salama, A; van Schaik, I N; Yuki, N


    The posters presented at the 6th International Immunoglobulin Symposium covered a wide range of fields and included both basic science and clinical research. From the abstracts accepted for poster presentation, 12 abstracts were selected for oral presentations in three parallel sessions on immunodeficiencies, autoimmunity and basic research. The immunodeficiency presentations dealt with novel, rare class-switch recombination (CSR) deficiencies, attenuation of adverse events following IVIg treatment, association of immunoglobulin (Ig)G trough levels and protection against acute infection in patients with X-linked agammaglobulinaemia (XLA) and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), and the reduction of class-switched memory B cells in patients with specific antibody deficiency (SAD). The impact of intravenous immunoglobulin on fetal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, pregnancy and postpartum-related relapses in multiple sclerosis and refractory myositis, as well as experiences with subcutaneous immunoglobulin in patients with multi-focal motor neuropathy, were the topics presented in the autoimmunity session. The interaction of dendritic cell (DC)-SIGN and alpha2,6-sialylated IgG Fc and its impact on human DCs, the enrichment of sialylated IgG in plasma-derived IgG, as wells as prion surveillance and monitoring of anti-measles titres in immunoglobulin products, were covered in the basic science session. In summary, the presentations illustrated the breadth of immunoglobulin therapy usage and highlighted the progress that is being made in diverse areas of basic and clinical research, extending our understanding of the mechanisms of immunoglobulin action and contributing to improved patient care.

  16. Fundamental characteristics of the immunoglobulin VH repertoire of chickens in comparison with those of humans, mice, and camelids. (United States)

    Wu, Leeying; Oficjalska, Katarzyna; Lambert, Matthew; Fennell, Brian J; Darmanin-Sheehan, Alfredo; Ní Shúilleabháin, Deirdre; Autin, Bénédicte; Cummins, Emma; Tchistiakova, Lioudmila; Bloom, Laird; Paulsen, Janet; Gill, Davinder; Cunningham, Orla; Finlay, William J J


    Examination of 1269 unique naive chicken V(H) sequences showed that the majority of positions in the framework (FW) regions were maintained as germline, with high mutation rates observed in the CDRs. Many FW mutations could be clearly related to the modulation of CDR structure or the V(H)-V(L) interface. CDRs 1 and 2 of the V(H) exhibited frequent mutation in solvent-exposed positions, but conservation of common structural residues also found in human CDRs at the same positions. In comparison with humans and mice, the chicken CDR3 repertoire was skewed toward longer sequences, was dominated by small amino acids (G/S/A/C/T), and had higher cysteine (chicken, 9.4%; human, 1.6%; and mouse, 0.25%) but lower tyrosine content (chicken, 9.2%; human, 16.8%; and mouse 26.4%). A strong correlation (R(2) = 0.97) was observed between increasing CDR3 length and higher cysteine content. This suggests that noncanonical disulfides are strongly favored in chickens, potentially increasing CDR stability and complexity in the topology of the combining site. The probable formation of disulfide bonds between CDR3 and CDR1, FW2, or CDR2 was also observed, as described in camelids. All features of the naive repertoire were fully replicated in the target-selected, phage-displayed repertoire. The isolation of a chicken Fab with four noncanonical cysteines in the V(H) that exhibits 64 nM (K(D)) binding affinity for its target proved these constituents to be part of the humoral response, not artifacts. This study supports the hypothesis that disulfide bond-constrained CDR3s are a structural diversification strategy in the restricted germline v-gene repertoire of chickens.

  17. Field evaluation of an immunoglobulin G anti-F1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serodiagnosis of human plague in Madagascar. (United States)

    Rasoamanana, B; Leroy, F; Boisier, P; Rasolomaharo, M; Buchy, P; Carniel, E; Chanteau, S


    Bacteriological isolation of Yersinia pestis is the reference test for confirming plague infection, but recovery of the pathogen from human samples is usually very poor. When the etiology of the disease cannot be bacteriologically confirmed, it may be useful to possess alternative tests such as detection of specific circulating antibodies to help guide the diagnosis. In the present study, the immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-F1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been applied to various human sera to evaluate its large-scale applicability in the high-endemicity plague foci of Madagascar. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 91.4%, and its specificity was 98.5%. The positive and negative predictive values were 96 and 96.6%, respectively. Seroconversion was observed on day 7 after onset of the disease. Patients with a positive ELISA result could be separated into high (82%) and low (18%) IgG anti-F1 responders. Cross-reactions with eight other infectious diseases prevalent in Madagascar were scarce and were found in 1 of 27 Mycobacterium tuberculosis-, 3 of 34 Schistosoma haematobium-, and 1 of 41 Salmonella-infected patients. Finally, the efficiency of the IgG anti-F1 ELISA was evaluated during the Mahajanga, Madagascar, plague outbreak of 1995. When the number of ELISA-positive patients was added to the number of bacteriologically confirmed and probable cases, the number of positive patients was increased by 35%. In conclusion, although it does not replace bacteriology, IgG anti-F1 ELISA is a useful and powerful tool for retrospective diagnosis and epidemiological surveillance of plague outbreaks.

  18. Is There a Role for the Enteral Administration of Serum-Derived Immunoglobulins in Human Gastrointestinal Disease and Pediatric Critical Care Nutrition? (United States)

    Van Arsdall, Melissa; Haque, Ikram; Liu, Yuying; Rhoads, J Marc


    Twenty years ago, there was profound, international interest in developing oral human, bovine, or chicken egg-derived immunoglobulin (Ig) for the prevention and nutritional treatment of childhood malnutrition and gastrointestinal disease, including acute diarrhea and necrotizing enterocolitis. Although such Ig products were shown to be effective, with both nutritional and antidiarrheal benefits, interest waned because of their cost and because of the perceived risk of bovine serum encephalitis (BSE). BSE is no longer considered a barrier to use of oral Ig, because the WHO has declared the United States to be BSE-free since the early 2000s. Low-cost bovine-derived products with high Ig content have been developed and are regulated as medical foods. These new products, called serum bovine Igs (SBIs), facilitate the management of chronic or severe gastrointestinal disturbances in both children and adults and are regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration. Well-established applications for use of SBIs include human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated enteropathy and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. However, SBIs and other similar products could potentially become important components of the treatment regimen for other conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, by aiding in disease control without immunosuppressive side effects. In addition, SBIs may be helpful in conditions associated with the depletion of circulating and luminal Igs and could potentially play an important role in critical care nutrition. The rationale for their use is to facilitate intraluminal microbial antibody coating, an essential process in immune recognition in the gut which is disturbed in these conditions, thereby leading to intestinal inflammation. Thus, oral Ig may emerge as an important "add-on" therapy for a variety of gastrointestinal and nutritional problems during the next decade. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Low pH inactivation for xenotropic gamma retrovirus in recombinant human TNF-α receptor immunoglobulin G and mechanism of inactivation. (United States)

    Ma, Rong; Cui, Xiaolan


    CHO-derived recombinant proteins for human therapeutic are used commonly. There are noninfectious endogenous retroviruses in CHO cells. Validation study for inactivation process is required. Murine xenotropic gamma retrovirus (X-MulV) is a model virus in validation study. In our previous study, optimum conditions for X-MulV inactivation were sifted. In this study, we performed a further research on low pH inactivation for evaluation of X-MulV clearance in manufacturing of recombinant human TNF-α receptor immunoglobulin G fusion proteins (rhTNF-α) for injection. Cell-based infectivity assay was used for the evaluation of X-MulV clearance. RhTNF-α were spiked with X-MulV and were inactivated at pH 3.60 ∼ 3.90, 25 ± 2 °C, and 0 ∼ 240 min, respectively. Samples incubated at the conditions for 15 ∼ 180 min were not inactivated effectively. For 4 h incubation, log10 reductions were achieved 5.0 log10. Biological activity of rhTNF-α incubated at pH 3.60, 25 °C for 4 h, which was assayed on murine L929 fibroblasts cells, was not affected by low pH. Env gene of X-MulV, which was detected by conventional PCR method for the first time, was not detected after incubation at pH 3.60, and it may be the mechanism of low pH inactivation. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Immunoglobulins for preventing hepatitis A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jian Ping; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Fei, Yutong


    Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention.......Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention....

  1. Transgenic expression of human cytoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen4-immunoglobulin (hCTLA4Ig) by porcine skin for xenogeneic skin grafting. (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Yang, Hua-Qiang; Jiang, Wen; Fan, Na-Na; Zhao, Ben-Tian; Ou-Yang, Zhen; Liu, Zhao-Ming; Zhao, Yu; Yang, Dong-Shan; Zhou, Xiao-Yang; Shang, Hai-Tao; Wang, Lu-Lu; Xiang, Peng-Ying; Ge, Liang-Peng; Wei, Hong; Lai, Liang-Xue


    Porcine skin is frequently used as a substitute of human skin to cover large wounds in clinic practice of wound care. In our previous work, we found that transgenic expression of human cytoxicT-lymphocyte associated antigen4-immunoglobulin (hCTLA4Ig) in murine skin graft remarkably prolonged its survival in xenogeneic wounds without extensive immunosuppression in recipients, suggesting that transgenic hCTLA4Ig expression in skin graft may be an effective and safe method to prolong xenogeneic skin graft survival. In this work, using a transgene construct containing hCTLA4Ig coding sequence under the drive of human Keratine 14 (k14) promoter, hCTLA4Ig transgenic pigs were generated by somatic nuclear transfer. The derived transgenic pigs were healthy and exhibited no signs of susceptibility to infection. The hCTLA4Ig transgene was stably transmitted through germline over generations, and thereby a transgenic pig colony was established. In the derived transgenic pigs, hCTLA4Ig expression in skin was shown to be genetically stable over generations, and detected in heart, kidney and corneal as well as in skin. Transgenic hCTLA4Ig protein in pigs exhibited expected biological activity as it suppressed human lymphocyte proliferation in human mixed lymphocyte culture to extents comparable to those of commercially purchased purified hCTLA4Ig protein. In skin grafting from pigs to rats, transgenic porcine skin grafts exhibited remarkably prolonged survival compared to the wild-type skin grafts derived from the same pig strain (13.33 ± 3.64 vs. 6.25 ± 2.49 days, P porcine skin graft survival in xenogeneic wounds. The transgenic pigs generated in this work can be used as a reproducible resource to provide porcine skin grafts with extended survival for wound coverage, and also as donors to investigate the impacts of hCTLA4Ig on xenotransplantation of other organs (heart, kidney and corneal) due to the ectopic transgenic hCTLA4Ig expression.

  2. Enhanced and sustained activation of human B cells by anti-immunoglobulin conjugated to the EBV glycoprotein gp350. (United States)

    Goeckeritz, B E; Lees, A; Vos, Q; Tsokos, G C; Kuhlbusch, K; Mond, J J


    We coupled a monoclonal anti-human IgD to the gp350 gylcoprotein of Epstein-Barr virus, which has been shown to bind to the complement receptor 2 (CR2), and compared its B cell stimulatory ability to that of anti-Ig and to a multivalent anti-Ig-dextran conjugate. The anti-Ig-gp350 conjugate stimulated higher levels of human B cell proliferation in vitro than did anti-Ig or anti-Ig conjugated to control viral protein, comparable to the proliferation stimulated by the multivalent anti-Ig-dextran. This enhanced proliferation was dependent on binding of the conjugate to CR2, inasmuch as an anti-CD2 antibody blocked the enhanced proliferative response. This enhanced proliferative response was associated with prolonged elevations of intracellular ionized calcium, which was comparable to the response stimulated by anti-Ig-dextran. These findings suggest the use of gp350 as a carrier molecule for weakly immunogenic peptides or antigens which, when bound to gp350, would enhance B cell clonal expansion and activation of antigen-specific B cells.

  3. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  4. Targeting FMS-related tyrosine kinase receptor 3 with the human immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody IMC-EB10. (United States)

    Youssoufian, Hagop; Rowinsky, Eric K; Tonra, James; Li, Yiwen


    FMS-related tyrosine kinase receptor 3 (FLT3) is a class III receptor tyrosine kinase that holds considerable promise as a therapeutic target in hematologic malignancies. Current efforts directed toward the development of small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors of FLT3 may be limited by off-target toxicities and the development of drug resistance. Target-specific antibodies could overcome these hurdles and provide additional mechanisms to enhance the antitumor efficacy of FLT3 inhibitors. IMC-EB10 is a novel antibody directed against FLT3. The binding of IMC-EB10 to FLT3 results in antiproliferative effects in vitro and in mouse models engrafted with human leukemia cells that harbor wild-type or constitutively activated FLT3. Future clinical trials will test these notions formally and will identify the most appropriate opportunities for this member of a new generation of antileukemic therapies. (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.

  5. Development of a metal/chelate polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate monolith capillary for selective depletion of immunoglobulin G from human plasma for proteomics. (United States)

    Khaparde, Ashish; M A, Vijayalakshmi; Tetala, Kishore K R


    In this study, we report the development of a new poly HEMA (HEMA-co-DEGDA-co-DATD) monolith capillary functionalized with "IDA-Cu (II) complex". Of the two tested crosslinkers (methylene bisacrylamide (MBAAm) and diethylene glycol diacrylate (DEGDA)), presence of DEGDA has enhanced the monolith rigidity. Structural assembly of these monoliths are organized with highly interconnected large globule like structures and dominated by macropore region. Iminodiacetic acid (IDA) immobilization was performed using two chemical approaches (i. aldehyde - secondary amine reaction and ii. epoxy - sec. amine reaction). FT-IR analysis confirmed successful IDA immobilization in both cases. For the first time, a reaction of sec. amine ligand with aldehyde functional material was successfully reported. Overall, the Cu (II)-IDA monolith capillary showed good permeability (3.05×10 -13m2), high IgG adsorption capacity and reusablilty even after 5 consecutive adsorption-desorption cycles. The amount of protein (IgG/HSA) adsorbed on Cu (II)-IDA monolith prepared via the two chemistries is almost similar. Using this affinity monolith capillary, we selectively depleted ∼95% of IgG from human plasma (dilution of 1:16). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Distinct TLR-mediated cytokine production and immunoglobulin secretion in human newborn naïve B cells. (United States)

    Pettengill, Matthew A; van Haren, Simon D; Li, Ning; Dowling, David J; Bergelson, Ilana; Jans, Jop; Ferwerda, Gerben; Levy, Ofer


    Neonatal innate immunity is distinct from that of adults, which may contribute to increased susceptibility to infection and limit vaccine responses. B cells play critical roles in protection from infection and detect PAMPs via TLRs, that, when co-activated with CD40, can drive B-cell proliferation and Ab production. We characterized the expression of TLRs in circulating B cells from newborns and adults, and evaluated TLR- and CD40-mediated naïve B-cell class-switch recombination (CSR) and cytokine production. Gene expression levels of most TLRs was similar between newborn and adult B cells, except that newborn naïve B cells expressed more TLR9 than adult naïve B cells. Neonatal naïve B cells demonstrated impaired TLR2- and TLR7- but enhanced TLR9-mediated cytokine production. Significantly fewer newborn naïve B cells underwent CSR to produce IgG, an impairment also noted with IL-21 stimulation. Additionally, co-stimulation via CD40 and TLRs induced greater cytokine production in adult B cells. Thus, while newborn naïve B cells demonstrate adult-level expression of TLRs and CD40, the responses to stimulation of these receptors are distinct. Relatively high expression of TLR9 and impaired CD40-mediated Ig secretion contributes to distinct innate and adaptive immunity of human newborns and may inform novel approaches to early-life immunization. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Expression of Immunoglobulin Receptors with Distinctive Features Indicating Antigen Selection by Marginal Zone B Cells from Human Spleen (United States)

    Colombo, Monica; Cutrona, Giovanna; Reverberi, Daniele; Bruno, Silvia; Ghiotto, Fabio; Tenca, Claudya; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Hadzidimitriou, Anastasia; Ceccarelli, Jenny; Salvi, Sandra; Boccardo, Simona; Calevo, Maria Grazia; De Santanna, Amleto; Truini, Mauro; Fais, Franco; Ferrarini, Manlio


    Marginal zone (MZ) B cells, identified as surface (s)IgMhighsIgDlowCD23low/−CD21+CD38− B cells, were purified from human spleens, and the features of their V(D)J gene rearrangements were investigated and compared with those of germinal center (GC), follicular mantle (FM) and switched memory (SM) B cells. Most MZ B cells were CD27+ and exhibited somatic hypermutations (SHM), although to a lower extent than SM B cells. Moreover, among MZ B-cell rearrangements, recurrent sequences were observed, some of which displayed intraclonal diversification. The same diversifying sequences were detected in very low numbers in GC and FM B cells and only when a highly sensitive, gene-specific polymerase chain reaction was used. This result indicates that MZ B cells could expand and diversify in situ and also suggested the presence of a number of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-expressing B cells in the MZ. The notion of antigen-driven expansion/selection in situ is further supported by the VH CDR3 features of MZ B cells with highly conserved amino acids at specific positions and by the finding of shared (“stereotyped”) sequences in two different spleens. Collectively, the data are consistent with the notion that MZ B cells are a special subset selected by in situ antigenic stimuli. PMID:23877718

  8. Scintigraphic evaluation of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis: A comparison of technetium-99m human non-specific immunoglobulins, leucocytes and albumin nanocolloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberatore, M.; Clemente, M.; Iurilli, A.P.; Di Rocco, E.; Centi Colella, A. (Policlinico ' Umberto Io' , Rome (Italy). Dept. of Experimental Medicine); Zorzin, L.; Marini, M. (Rome-1 Univ. (Italy). Inst. of Rheumatology)


    Technetium-99m-labelled, non-specific, polyclonal, human immunoglobulin G ({sup 99m}Tc-hig) has been used to quantify synovial inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. A comparison was carried out between the scintigraphic results obtained with this tracer, {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime-labelled white blood cells ({sup 99m}Tc-WBC) and {sup 99m}Tc-albumin nanocolloids ({sup 99m}Tc-Nc). Twenty patients affected by rheumatoid arthritis and suffering from clinically active synovitis were studied with {sup 99m}Tc-hig. The number and sites of the involved joints had been previously assessed on the basis of the presence of pain and/or swelling. A radiological examination had already been carried out on all the joints. Two days after the {sup 99m}Tc-hig scan, 10 patients (group 1) underwent {sup 99m}Tc-WBC scintigraphy and the other 10 (group 2) underwent a {sup 99m}Tc-NC scan. The results show that the results of {sup 99m}Tc-hig and {sup 99m}Tc-NC scans are in agreement with clinical examinations in the majority of cases. However, a certain number of positive joint scans corresponding to negative clinical examinations was found. The numerical distribution of these results according to the radiological stages seems to show that {sup 99m}Tc-hig is more useful than {sup 99m}Tc-NC in the initial phases of the disease. The {sup 99m}Tc-WBC scan was negative in a consistent percentage of the joints previously assessed as clinically and {sup 99m}Tc-hig scan positive. (orig.).

  9. Analysis of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors and their human leukocyte antigen-ligands gene polymorphisms in Iranian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. (United States)

    Akhtari, M; Farazmand, A; Mahmoudi, M; Akbarian, M; Ahmadzadeh, N; Mirkazemi, Z; Mostafaei, S; Jamshidi, A R


    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease. Natural killer (NK) cells play a critical role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders that mainly express killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs). The present study was undertaken to determine the association of the KIR alleles, genotypes, and KIR-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) ligand gene combinations with the susceptibility to SLE. The genotyping of 17 KIR and 5 HLA loci was performed using the polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP) method. The study population consisted of 230 SLE patients and 273 ethnical-, age-, and sex-matched healthy controls. The association of the polymorphisms with the prevalence of 11 clinical criteria in patients was analyzed. The carrier frequency of HLA-A-Bw4 was modestly decreased in the SLE patients. The prevalence of hematological and renal disorders was significantly increased in patients with combination of KIR3DL1(+); HLA-B-Bw4(Thr80+) and KIR2DS1(+); HLA-C2(+) genes, respectively. Female patients with combination of KIR2DL2(+); HLA-C1(-) genes were more likely to develop serositis. In addition the prevalence of renal disorders, oral ulcer and serositis was significantly increased in male patients with KIR3DP1(+), KIR2DS1(+), and KIR2DS3(+) genotypes respectively. Our results showed that the presence of activating KIR receptors alone or in combination with their HLA ligands and the absence of inhibitory KIRs in combination with their HLA ligands may activate NK cells and are significantly correlated with the prevalence of renal disease, hematologic disorders, serositis, and oral ulcer in SLE patients. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Seroprevalence of human papillomavirus immunoglobulin G antibodies among women presenting at the reproductive health clinic of a university teaching hospital in Nigeria (United States)

    Aminu, M; Gwafan, JZ; Inabo, HI; Oguntayo, AO; Ella, EE; Koledade, AK


    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the cause of 90%–95% of squamous cell cancers. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV can lead to development of precancerous lesions of the cervix in 5%–10% of infected women, and can progress to invasive cervical cancer 15–20 years later. This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of HPV immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies among women of reproductive age attending a reproductive health clinic at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria. Methods The study was descriptive, cross-sectional, and experimental, combining the use of a structured questionnaire and analysis of serum samples obtained from 350 consecutive consenting women. The serum samples were analyzed for IgG antibodies to HPV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results We found a seroprevalence of 42.9% (150/350) for IgG antibodies to HPV in these women. Women aged 45–49 years and those who had their sexual debut aged 20–23 years had the highest HPV seroprevalence, ie, 50% (57/114) and 51.1% (46/90), respectively. Presence of antibodies varied according to sociodemographic factors, but was significantly associated with educational status, tribe, and religion (PHuman papillomavirus infection was not significantly associated with the reproductive characteristics and sexual behavior of the women. Antibodies to HPV were detected in 50.0% (9/18) of women with a family history of cervical cancer and in 30.8% (4/13) of those with a history or signs of WHIM (warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, immunodeficiency, myelokathexis) syndrome as a genetic disorder (P>0.05). Conclusion Further studies are needed to determine the HPV serotypes and evaluate the risk of natural development of HPV-related malignancies among women in the study area. PMID:24868172

  11. Phase I pharmacologic and biologic study of ramucirumab (IMC-1121B), a fully human immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2. (United States)

    Spratlin, Jennifer L; Cohen, Roger B; Eadens, Matthew; Gore, Lia; Camidge, D Ross; Diab, Sami; Leong, Stephen; O'Bryant, Cindy; Chow, Laura Q M; Serkova, Natalie J; Meropol, Neal J; Lewis, Nancy L; Chiorean, E Gabriela; Fox, Floyd; Youssoufian, Hagop; Rowinsky, Eric K; Eckhardt, S Gail


    PURPOSE To evaluate the safety, maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics (PKs), pharmacodynamics, and preliminary anticancer activity of ramucirumab (IMC-1121B), a fully human immunoglobulin G(1) monoclonal antibody targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with advanced solid malignancies were treated once weekly with escalating doses of ramucirumab. Blood was sampled for PK studies throughout treatment. The effects of ramucirumab on circulating vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), soluble VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, tumor perfusion, and vascularity using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging were assessed. Results Thirty-seven patients were treated with 2 to 16 mg/kg of ramucirumab. After one patient each developed dose-limiting hypertension and deep venous thrombosis at 16 mg/kg, the next lower dose (13 mg/kg) was considered the MTD. Nausea, vomiting, headache, fatigue, and proteinuria were also noted. Four (15%) of 27 patients with measurable disease had a partial response (PR), and 11 (30%) of 37 patients had either a PR or stable disease lasting at least 6 months. PKs were characterized by dose-dependent elimination and nonlinear exposure consistent with saturable clearance. Mean trough concentrations exceeded biologically relevant target levels throughout treatment at all dose levels. Serum VEGF-A increased 1.5 to 3.5 times above pretreatment values and remained in this range throughout treatment at all dose levels. Tumor perfusion and vascularity decreased in 69% of evaluable patients. CONCLUSION Objective antitumor activity and antiangiogenic effects were observed over a wide range of dose levels, suggesting that ramucirumab may have a favorable therapeutic index in treating malignancies amenable to VEGFR-2 inhibition.

  12. Rapid assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of immunoglobulin G antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) group M, HIV-1 group O, and HIV-2. (United States)

    Vallari, A S; Hickman, R K; Hackett, J R; Brennan, C A; Varitek, V A; Devare, S G


    A rapid immunodiagnostic test that detects and discriminates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections on the basis of viral type, HIV type 1 (HIV-1) group M, HIV-1 group O, or HIV-2, was developed. The rapid assay for the detection of HIV (HIV rapid assay) was designed as an instrument-free chromatographic immunoassay that detects immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to HIV. To assess the performance of the HIV rapid assay, 470 HIV-positive plasma samples were tested by PCR and/or Western blotting to confirm the genotype of the infecting virus. These samples were infected with strains that represented a wide variety of HIV strains including HIV-1 group M (subtypes A through G), HIV-1 group O, and HIV-2 (subtypes A and B). The results showed that the HIV genotype identity established by the rapid assay reliably (469 of 470 samples) correlates with the HIV genotype identity established by PCR or Western blotting. A total of 879 plasma samples were tested for IgG to HIV by a licensed enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (470 HIV-positive samples and 409 HIV-negative samples). When they were tested by the rapid assay, 469 samples were positive and 410 were negative (99.88% agreement). Twelve seroconversion panels were tested by both the rapid assay and a licensed EIA. For nine panels identical results were obtained by the two assays. For the remaining three panels, the rapid assay was positive one bleed later in comparison to the bleed at which the EIA was positive. One hundred three urine samples, including 93 urine samples from HIV-seropositive individuals and 10 urine samples from seronegative individuals, were tested by the rapid assay. Ninety-one of the ninety-three urine samples from HIV-seropositive individuals were found to be positive by the rapid assay. There were no false-positive results (98.05% agreement). Virus in all urine samples tested were typed as HIV-1 group M. These results suggest that a rapid assay based on the detection of IgG specific for selected

  13. Immunoglobulin preparations for intravenous administration. A review of their biologic activities and comparison of various preparation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H


    Substitution therapy with human immunoglobulin preparations is well established in disorders of primary or secondary deficiencies of humoral immunity. However, modifications of the immunoglobulins are required to achieve tolerance for the preferred intravenous route of administration. Several...

  14. Immunoglobulin G Determination in Human Serum and Milk Using an Immunosensor of New Conception Fitted with an Enzyme Probe as Transducer


    Campanella, Luigi; Lelo, Dalina; Martini, Elisabetta; Tomassetti, Mauro


    To completely overcome the problem of the presence of urea in the serum, which can be the cause (especially at low immunoglobulin G concentrations) of a small but non negligible interference in the enzyme reaction of the enzymatic marker, when the measurement was performed by a potentiometric immunosensor that we constructed and characterized in previous work, and which used urease as marker, we have now constructed an entirely different and highly innovative immunosensor. This new device use...

  15. Salivary immunoglobulin A and serum antibodies to Streptococcus mutans ribosomal preparations in dental caries-free and caries-susceptible human subjects.


    Gregory, R.L.; Filler, S J; Michalek, S M; McGhee, J R


    Caries-free subjects or individuals with low caries susceptibility exhibited significantly higher (P less than 0.001) levels of naturally occurring salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) and serum IgG, IgA, and IgM antibodies to a Streptococcus mutans ribosomal preparation than subjects with high caries susceptibility. Absorption of saliva and serum samples with S. mutans ribosomal preparations, but not with other S. mutans antigens or with Escherichia coli and Neisseria gonorrhoeae ribosomal prepar...

  16. Major immunoglobulin classes of the echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) (United States)

    Atwell, J. L.; Marchalonis, J. J.; Ealey, E. H. M.


    The Australian echidna responds to the antigen Salmonella adelaide flagella by producing antibodies characterized by mol. wt of 900,000 and 150,000. After cleavage of interchain disulphide bonds, both the high and low mol. wt immunoglobulins can be resolved into light and heavy polypeptide chains. In both cases, the light chains resemble those of other vertebrate immunoglobulins in size (22,500 Daltons) and electrophoretic mobility. The 900,000 Dalton immunoglobulin contains heavy chains similar to human μ chains in size (70,000 Daltons) and electrophoretic mobility. The 150,000 Dalton immunoglobulin contains a different class of heavy chain, similar in size (50,000 Daltons) and electrophoretic mobility to human γ chains. Proportional mass contributions of the light and heavy chains to the intact molecule suggest the structure of the intact molecules could be represented by (L2, μ2)5 and (L2, γ2) for the high and low mol. wt immunoglobulins respectively. These configurations are similar to those described for human γM and γG immunoglobulins. The results are relevant to theories of the evolution of the different classes of immunoglobulins. While the echidna is distinctly more primitive than eutherian mammals and still retains structural features characteristic of reptiles, its major immunoglobulin classes are very similar to human IgM and IgG. The striking similarities between the γ-like heavy chain of the echnidna and human IgG heavy chains suggest that the echidna may be the first species in which a γ chain gene directly homologous to mammalian γ chain genes is expressed. ImagesFIG. 4 PMID:4761634

  17. Recombination in immunoglobulin gene loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komisarenko S. V.


    Full Text Available Gene network of the lymphoid cell differentiation coordinates precisely the recombination process in immunoglobulin gene loci. In our opinion, cellular microRNAs can contribute to the allelic exclusion through microRNA-directed DNA methylation and participate in retargeting recombinases activity from the gene loci of heavy immunoglobulin chains to the gene loci of light chains

  18. Intravenous immunoglobulins for epilepsy. (United States)

    Geng, JinSong; Dong, JianCheng; Li, Youping; Ni, Hengjian; Jiang, Kui; Shi, Li Li; Wang, GuoHua


    Epilepsy is a common neurological condition, with an estimated incidence of 50 per 100,000 persons. People with epilepsy may present with various types of immunological abnormalities, such as low serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels, lack of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass and identification of certain types of antibodies. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment may represent a valuable approach and its efficacy has important implications for epilepsy management. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 1, 2011. To examine the effects of IVIg on the frequency and duration of seizures, quality of life and adverse effects when used as monotherapy or as add-on treatment for people with epilepsy. For the latest update, we searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialized Register (2 February 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) via the Cochrane Register of Studies Online (2 February 2017), MEDLINE (Ovid, 1946 to 2 February 2017), Web of Science (1898 to 2 February 2017), ISRCTN registry (2 February 2017), WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP, 2 February 2017), the US National Institutes of Health (2 February 2017), and reference lists of articles. Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials of IVIg as monotherapy or add-on treatment in people with epilepsy. Two review authors independently assessed the trials for inclusion and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information. Outcomes included percentage of people rendered seizure-free, 50% or greater reduction in seizure frequency, adverse effects, treatment withdrawal and quality of life. We included one study (61 participants). The included study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-centre trial which compared the treatment efficacy of IVIg as an add-on with a placebo add-on in patients with refractory epilepsy. There was no significant difference between

  19. Neutralizing activities of human immunoglobulin derived from donors in Japan against mosquito-borne flaviviruses, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and dengue virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunoki M


    Full Text Available Mikihiro Yunoki,1-3 Takeshi Kurosu,2 Ritsuko Kubota Koketsu,2,4 Kazuo Takahashi,5 Yoshinobu Okuno,4 Kazuyoshi Ikuta2,4 1Research and Development Division, Japan Blood Products Organization, Tokyo, 2Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka, 3Pathogenic Risk Evaluation, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Hokkaido, 4Research and Development Division, The Research Foundation for Microbial Diseases of Osaka University, Kagawa, 5Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Osaka, Japan Abstract: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV, West Nile virus (WNV, and dengue virus (DenV are causal agents of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, and dengue fever, respectively. JEV is considered to be indigenized and widespread in Japan, whereas WNV and DenV are not indigenized in Japan. Globulin products seem to reflect the status of the donor population according to antivirus neutralization activity. However, the anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralization activities of globulin products derived from donors in Japan have not been clarified. Furthermore, potential candidates for the development of an effective immunotherapeutic drug for encephalitis caused by JEV, WNV, or DenV have also not been identified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the overall status of the donor population in Japan based on globulin products by evaluating anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralizing activities of intravenous immunoglobulin. Overall, intravenous immunoglobulin products showed stable neutralizing activity against JEV but showed no or only weak activity against WNV or DenV. These results suggest that the epidemiological level against WNV and DenV in the donor population of Japan is still low, suggesting that these viruses are not yet indigenized. In addition, JEV vaccinations and/or infections in the donor population do not induce a cross-reactive antibody against WNV. Keywords

  20. [Contribution of immunoglobulin assays to the diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis in patients immunologically suspect (immunofluorescence and ELISA). A preliminary report (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Mangenot, M; Chaize, J; Haase, M; Desfontaine, M; Duvallet, G; Moreau, J P


    Can the diagnosis of sleeping sickness in patients immunologically suspect, without seeing the parasite, be obtained by dosing IgG and IgM? The authors demonstrate that two groups of people with positive immunodiagnosis, one parasitologically confirmed and the other not confirmed, do not show significant difference when dosing immunoglobulins. These two groups respectively show a significant difference when compared with a parasitologically and immunologicaly negative group. The simultaneous increase in IgG and IgM might confirm the immunodiagnosis.

  1. Polyclonal immunoglobulins from a chronic hepatitis C virus patient protect human liver-chimeric mice from infection with a homologous hepatitis C virus strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanwolleghem, Thomas; Bukh, Jens; Meuleman, Philip


    The role of the humoral immune response in the natural course of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is widely debated. Most chronically infected patients have immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies capable of neutralizing HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp) in vitro. It is, however, not clear whether these Ig...... were loaded with chronic phase polyclonal IgG and challenged 3 days later with a 100% infectious dose of the acute phase H77C virus, both originating from patient H. Passive immunization induced sterilizing immunity in five of eight challenged animals. In the three nonprotected animals, the HCV...

  2. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for refractory recurrent pericarditis. (United States)

    del Fresno, M Rosa; Peralta, Julio E; Granados, Miguel Ángel; Enríquez, Eugenia; Domínguez-Pinilla, Nerea; de Inocencio, Jaime


    Recurrent pericarditis is a troublesome complication of idiopathic acute pericarditis and occurs more frequently in pediatric patients after cardiac surgery (postpericardiotomy syndrome). Conventional treatment with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, and colchicine is not always effective or may cause serious adverse effects. There is no consensus, however, on how to proceed in those patients whose disease is refractory to conventional therapy. In such cases, human intravenous immunoglobulin, immunosuppressive drugs, and biological agents have been used. In this report we describe 2 patients with refractory recurrent pericarditis after cardiac surgery who were successfully treated with 3 and 5 monthly high-dose (2 g/kg) intravenous immunoglobulin until resolution of the effusion. Our experience supports the effectiveness and safety of this therapy. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Comparative removal of solvent and detergent viral inactivating agents from human intravenous immunoglobulin G preparations using SDR HyperD and C18 sorbents. (United States)

    Burnouf, Thierry; Sayed, Makram A; Radosevich, Miryana; El-Ekiaby, Magdy


    The capacity of hydrophobic octadecyl (C18) and SDR HyperD materials to remove the combination of 1% (v/v) solvent (tri-n-butyl phosphate, TnBP) with 1% (v/v) nonionic detergents (Triton X-100 and Triton X-45) used for viral inactivation of plasma-derived polyvalent intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) preparation has been evaluated. Efficient removal of TnBP (SDR HyperD/7 ml of IVIG. Binding capacities of TnBP were greater than 140 mg/g of C18 and greater than 318 mg/g of dry SDR HyperD. Complete removal of Triton X-45 (SDR HyperD/7 ml of IVIG or above, corresponding to binding capacities in excess of 70 mg/g of C18 and in excess of 159 mg/g of dry SDR HyperD. Residual Triton X-100 was less than 30 ppm at a ratio of 4 g/14 ml of immunoglobulin G (IgG) for the C18 sorbent. Triton X-100 was less than 10 ppm when using SDR HyperD at a ratio of 0.66 g/7 ml of IgG, corresponding to a binding capacity of approximately 106 mg of Triton X-100/g of dry SDR HyperD. Good recoveries of IVIG were achieved in the effluent from both sorbents.

  4. The catabolism of human γG immunoglobulins of different heavy chain subclasses. III. The catabolism of heavy chain disease proteins and of Fc fragments of myeloma proteins (United States)

    Spiegelberg, H. L.; Fishkin, B. G.


    The catabolism of 131I and 125I paired labelled Fc fragments of myeloma proteins and of H chain disease proteins of different heavy chain subclasses was studied in men and monkeys. In contrast to the previously demonstrated catabolic heterogeneity of intact γG immunoglobulins, the Fc fragments and H chain disease proteins of all subclasses tested were catabolized at a similar rate. These data suggest that structures not present on the Fc fragments are responsible for the faster turnover rate of γG3 immunoglobulins and for the differences in half-lives of myeloma proteins within a given subclass. The catabolic features of the H chain disease proteins differed from those of intact γG. Although the whole body half-lives of the two proteins were similar, the fractional turnover rate of the H chain disease proteins was higher than that of γG, on the average 8% of the intravascular pool/day as compared to 4% for γG. One-half to 1% of the intravascular pool of the H chain disease protein and less than 0·1% of the γG was excreted into the urine. An average of 24% of the H chain disease proteins and 44% of the γG equilibrated into the intravascular compartment. PMID:4624553

  5. Pasteurization of IgM-enriched Immunoglobulin

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    Kamran Mousavi Hosseini


    Full Text Available Human plasma proteins are important for therapy or prophylaxis of human diseases. Due to the preparation of human plasma proteins from human plasma pools and risk of contamination with human viruses, different viral reduction treatments such as: pasteurization, solvent/detergent, dry heat treatment, steam treatment, beta-propiolactone/UV and nanofiltration have been implemented. As pasteurization can be performed for liquid protein, this method (a 10-hour heat treatment of the aqueous solutions at 60°C was introduced into the manufacturing procedure of IgM-enriched immunoglobulin, to improve its safety further. The efficiency of this method for inactivation of viruses was evaluated by the use of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (a non-enveloped virus and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR Virus (a lipid-enveloped virus. Pasteurization inactivated Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus by 7 log10 and for IBR Virus by 5log10. These findings show a significant added measure of virus safety associated with pasteurization of IgM-enriched immunoglobulin preparation.

  6. Binding of CLL subset 4 B-cell receptor immunoglobulins to viable human memory B lymphocytes requires a distinctive IGKV somatic mutation. (United States)

    Catera, Rosa; Liu, Yun; Gao, Chao; Yan, Xiao-Jie; Magli, Amanda; Allen, Steven L; Kolitz, Jonathan E; Rai, Kanti R; Chu, Charles C; Feizi, Ten; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Chiorazzi, Nicholas


    Amino acid replacement mutations in certain CLL stereotyped B-cell receptor (BCR) immunoglobulins (IGs) at defined positions within antigen-binding sites strongly imply antigen selection. Prime examples of this are CLL subset 4 BCR IGs using IGHV4-34/IGHD5-18/IGHJ6 and IGKV2-30/IGKJ2 rearrangements. Conspicuously and unlike most CLL IGs, subset 4 IGs do not bind apoptotic cells. By testing the (auto)antigenic reactivities of subset 4 IGs toward viable lymphoid-lineage cells and specific autoantigens typically bound by IGHV4-34+ IGs, we found IGs from both subset 4 and non-subset 4 IGHV4-34-expressing CLL cases bind naïve B cells. However, only subset 4 IGs react with memory B cells. Furthermore, subset 4 IGs do not bind DNA nor i or I carbohydrate antigens, common targets of IGHV4-34-utilizing antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus and cold agglutinin disease, respectively. Notably, we found that subset 4 IG binding to memory B lymphocytes depends on an aspartic acid at position 66 of FR3 in the rearranged IGKV2-30 gene; this amino acid residue is acquired by somatic mutation. Our findings illustrate the importance of positive and negative selection criteria for structural elements in CLL IGs and suggest that autoantigens driving normal B cells to become subset 4 CLL cells differ from those driving IGHV4-34+ B cells in other diseases.

  7. Simultaneous administration of {sup 111}In-human immunoglobulin and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO labelled leucocytes in inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mairal, L. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, CSUB, Hospital Princeps d`Espanya, Barcelona (Spain); Lima, P.A. de [Bolsista do Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (Brazil); Martin-Comin, J. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, CSUB, Hospital Princeps d`Espanya, Barcelona (Spain); Baliellas, C. [Dept. of Gastroenterology, CSUB, Hospital Princeps d`Espanya, Barcelona (Spain); Xiol, X. [Dept. of Gastroenterology, CSUB, Hospital Princeps d`Espanya, Barcelona (Spain); Roca, M. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, CSUB, Hospital Princeps d`Espanya, Barcelona (Spain); Ricart, Y. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, CSUB, Hospital Princeps d`Espanya, Barcelona (Spain); Ramos, M. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, CSUB, Hospital Princeps d`Espanya, Barcelona (Spain)


    Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) labelled leucocytes and indium-111 polyclonal immunoglobulin (IgG) were simultaneously injected into a group of 27 patients routinely referred for the investigation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Ten-minute anterior abdomen and tail on detector views were obtained at 30 min, 4 h and 24 h p.i. of both tracers. The diagnosis of IBD was obtained in all cases by endoscopy with biopsy and/or surgery. Images were blindly evaluated by two experienced observers who only knew of the clinical suspicion of IBD. IBS was confirmed in 20 patients (12 with Crohn`s disease and eight with ulcerative colitis). Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 100%, 85% and 96% respectively for labelled leucocytes and 70%, 85% and 74% for IgG. Both IgG and leucocyte scans were normal in six out of seven patients in whom a diagnosis of IBD was excluded; the remaining patient, with ischaemic colitis, was falsely positive with both agents. As far as disease extension is concerned, the IgG study localized 27 diseased segments, whereas 49 were seen with the leucocyte study. Eighty-four segments were normal and 25 showed tracer uptake with both agents. Twenty-four were positive only with the leucocyte study and two were positive only with the IgG study. Agreement between the agents was 80.7%. (orig./UG)

  8. Human plasma-derived immunoglobulin G fractionated by an aqueous two-phase system, caprylic acid precipitation, and membrane chromatography has a high purity level and is free of detectable in vitro thrombogenic activity. (United States)

    Vargas, M; Segura, Á; Wu, Y-W; Herrera, M; Chou, M-L; Villalta, M; León, G; Burnouf, T


    Instituto Clodomiro Picado has developed an immunoglobulin G (IgG) plasma fractionation process combining a polyethylene glycol/phosphate aqueous two-phase system (ATPS), caprylic acid precipitation and anion-exchange membrane chromatography. We evaluated the purity and in vitro thrombogenicity of such IgG, in line with current international requirements. Contributions of the different production steps to reduce thrombogenicity were assessed at 0·2 l-scale, and then the methodology was scaled-up to a 10 l-scale and final products (n = 3) were analysed. Purity, immunoglobulin composition, and subclass distribution were determined by electrophoretic and immunochemical methods. The in vitro thrombogenic potential was determined by a thrombin generation assay (TGA) using a Technothrombin fluorogenic substrate. Prekallikrein activator (PKA), plasmin, factor Xa, thrombin and thrombin-like activities were assessed using S-2302, S-2251, S-2222, S-2238 and S-2288 chromogenic substrates, respectively, and FXI by an ELISA. The thrombogenicity markers were reduced mostly during the ATPS step and were found to segregate mostly into the discarded liquid upper phase. The caprylic acid precipitation eliminated the residual procoagulant activity. The IgG preparations made from the 10 l-batches contained 100% gamma proteins, low residual IgA and undetectable IgM. The IgG subclass distribution was not substantially affected by the process. TGA and amidolytic activities revealed an undetectable in vitro thrombogenic risk and the absence of proteolytic enzymes in the final product. Fractionating human plasma by an ATPS combined with caprylic acid and membrane chromatography resulted in an IgG preparation of high purity and free of a detectable in vitro thrombogenic risk. © 2014 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  9. BET proteins are a key component of immunoglobulin gene expression. (United States)

    Shim, Jung Min; Lee, Jin S; Russell, Kirsty E; Wiegman, Coen H; Barnes, Peter J; Fear, David; Adcock, Ian M; Durham, Andrew L


    BET proteins have been shown to regulate gene expression including inflammatory genes. In order to investigate the role of the BET proteins in immunoglobulin production we treated the human B-cell line CLNH11.4 and primary human B cells and ozone-exposed mice with BET inhibitors (JQ1 or IBET151). Both proliferation and IgG production were reduced by JQ1 in a concentration-dependent manner. JQ1 significantly reduced immunoglobulin gene transcription. In vivo treatment of ozone-exposed mice with the BET inhibitor IBET151 similarly inhibited ozone-induced immunoglobulin production. JQ1 did not reduce the protein levels of Brd4 or Oct2 per se but reduced the ability of Brd4 and Oct2 to co-immunoprecipitate and of Oct2 to bind to immunoglobulin gene promoters. Our results indicate that BET proteins including Brd4 play a crucial role regulation B-cell-specific gene expression and immunoglobulin production.

  10. Hyaluronidase facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin in primary immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolles S


    Full Text Available Stephen Jolles Department of Immunology, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, UK Abstract: Immunoglobulin (Ig-replacement therapy represents the mainstay of treatment for patients with primary antibody deficiency and is administered either intravenously (IVIg or subcutaneously (SCIg. While hyaluronidase has been used in clinical practice for over 50 years, the development of a high-purity recombinant form of this enzyme (recombinant human hyaluronidase PH20 has recently enabled the study of repeated and more prolonged use of hyaluronidase in facilitating the delivery of SC medicines. It has been used in a wide range of clinical settings to give antibiotics, local anesthetics, insulin, morphine, fluid replacement, and larger molecules, such as antibodies. Hyaluronidase has been used to help overcome the limitations on the maximum volume that can be delivered into the SC space by enabling dispersion of SCIg and its absorption into lymphatics. The rate of facilitated SCIg (fSCIg infusion is equivalent to that of IVIg, and the volume administered at a single site can be greater than 700 mL, a huge increase over conventional SCIg, at 20–40 mL. The use of fSCIg avoids the higher incidence of systemic side effects of IVIg, and it has higher bioavailability than SCIg. Data on the long-term safety of this approach are currently lacking, as fSCIg has only recently become available. fSCIg may help several areas of patient management in primary antibody deficiency, and the extent to which it may be used in future will depend on long-term safety data and cost–benefit analysis. Keywords: enzyme facilitated IgG infusion, recombinant human hyaluronidase PH20, subcutaneous immunoglobulin, intravenous immunoglobulin, primary immunodeficiency disease

  11. Thrombocytopenia in common variable immunodeficiency patients – clinical course, management, and effect of immunoglobulins (United States)

    Siedlar, Maciej; Kowalczyk, Danuta; Szaflarska, Anna; Błaut-Szlósarczyk, Anita; Zwonarz, Katarzyna


    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency of humoral immunity with heterogeneous clinical features. Diagnosis of CVID is based on hypogammaglobulinaemia, low production of specific antibodies, and disorders of cellular immunity. The standard therapy includes replacement of specific antibodies with human immunoglobulin, prophylaxis, and symptomatic therapy of infections. High prevalence of autoimmunity is characteristic for CVID, most commonly: thrombocytopaenia and neutropaenia, celiac disease, and systemic autoimmune diseases. The study included seven children diagnosed with CVID and treated with immunoglobulin substitution from 2 to 12 years. Thrombocytopenia was diagnosed prior to CVID in four children, developed during immunoglobulin substitution in three children. In one boy with CVID and thrombocytopaenia, haemolytic anaemia occurred, so a diagnosis of Evans syndrome was established. Therapy of thrombocytopaenia previous to CVID included steroids and/or immunoglobulins in high dose, and azathioprine. In children with CVID on regular immunoglobulin substitution, episodes of acute thrombocytopaenia were associated with infections and were treated with high doses of immunoglobulins and steroids. In two patients only chronic thrombocytopaenia was noted. Splenectomy was necessary in one patient because of severe course of thrombocytopaenia. The results of the study indicated a supportive role of regular immunoglobulin substitution in patients with CVID and chronic thrombocytopaenia. However, regular substitution of immunoglobulins in CVID patients did not prevent the occurrence of autoimmune thrombocytopaenia episodes or exacerbations of chronic form. In episodes of acute thrombocytopaenia or exacerbations of chronic thrombocytopaenia, infusions of immunoglobulins in high dose are effective, despite previous regular substitution in the replacing dose. PMID:26155188

  12. Thrombocytopenia in common variable immunodeficiency patients - clinical course, management, and effect of immunoglobulins. (United States)

    Pituch-Noworolska, Anna; Siedlar, Maciej; Kowalczyk, Danuta; Szaflarska, Anna; Błaut-Szlósarczyk, Anita; Zwonarz, Katarzyna


    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency of humoral immunity with heterogeneous clinical features. Diagnosis of CVID is based on hypogammaglobulinaemia, low production of specific antibodies, and disorders of cellular immunity. The standard therapy includes replacement of specific antibodies with human immunoglobulin, prophylaxis, and symptomatic therapy of infections. High prevalence of autoimmunity is characteristic for CVID, most commonly: thrombocytopaenia and neutropaenia, celiac disease, and systemic autoimmune diseases. The study included seven children diagnosed with CVID and treated with immunoglobulin substitution from 2 to 12 years. Thrombocytopenia was diagnosed prior to CVID in four children, developed during immunoglobulin substitution in three children. In one boy with CVID and thrombocytopaenia, haemolytic anaemia occurred, so a diagnosis of Evans syndrome was established. Therapy of thrombocytopaenia previous to CVID included steroids and/or immunoglobulins in high dose, and azathioprine. In children with CVID on regular immunoglobulin substitution, episodes of acute thrombocytopaenia were associated with infections and were treated with high doses of immunoglobulins and steroids. In two patients only chronic thrombocytopaenia was noted. Splenectomy was necessary in one patient because of severe course of thrombocytopaenia. The results of the study indicated a supportive role of regular immunoglobulin substitution in patients with CVID and chronic thrombocytopaenia. However, regular substitution of immunoglobulins in CVID patients did not prevent the occurrence of autoimmune thrombocytopaenia episodes or exacerbations of chronic form. In episodes of acute thrombocytopaenia or exacerbations of chronic thrombocytopaenia, infusions of immunoglobulins in high dose are effective, despite previous regular substitution in the replacing dose.

  13. Use of intravenous immunoglobulin in neonates with haemolytic disease and immune thrombocytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković-Sovtić Gordana


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Intravenous immunoglobulin is a blood product made of human polyclonal immunoglobulin G. The mode of action of intravenous immunoglobulin is very complex. It is indicated in treatment of neonatal immune thrombocytopenia and haemolytic disease of the newborn. The aim of the study was to present our experience in the use of intravenous immunoglobulin in a group of term neonates. Methods. We analysed all relevant clinical and laboratory data of 23 neonates who recieved intravenous immunoglobulin during their hospitalization in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Mother and Child Health Care Institute over a five year period, from 2006. to 2010. Results. There were 11 patients with haemolytic disease of the newborn and 12 neonates with immune thrombocytopenia. All of them recieved 1-2 g/kg intravenous immunoglobulin in the course of their treatment. There was no adverse effects of intravenous immunoglobulin use. The use of intravenous immunoglobulin led to an increase in platelet number in thrombocytopenic patients, whereas in those with haemolytic disease serum bilirubin level decreased significantly, so that some patients whose bilirubin level was very close to the exchange transfusion criterion, avoided this procedure. Conclusion. The use of intravenous immunoglobulin was shown to be an effective treatment in reducing the need for exchange transfusion, duration of phototherapy and the length of hospital stay in neonates with haemolytic disease. When used in treatment of neonatal immune thrombocytopenia, it leads to an increase in the platelet number, thus decreasing the risk of serious complications of thrombocytopenia.

  14. Immunoglobulin adsorption on modified surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, M.G.E.G.


    Preservation of biological functioning of proteins during immobilisation is of special interest in various biomedical and biotechnical applications. In industry physical adsorption of immunoglobulins (IgGs) onto solid surfaces is still the predominant immobilisation procedure because it is

  15. Early Death from Rabies Despite of Receiving Immunoglobulin and Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Sadeghi


    Full Text Available Rabies is a viral disease with the high rate of mortality, which is non-curable after presenting clinical signs weather in humans or animals. Persons who are bitten by suspicious animals can be protected from rabies, in case of early referring to the health care preventive centers. However, the rate of durability and safety are questionable among those received immunoglobulin and vaccine. Here, it was reported a 57 year-old woman who was bitten by a jackal and died, despite of receiving immunoglobulin and rabies vaccine.  

  16. Do Australian immunoglobulin products meet international measles antibody titer standards? (United States)

    Young, Megan K; Bertolini, Joseph; Kotharu, Pushpa; Maher, Darryl; Cripps, Allan W


    The effectiveness of passive immunisation post-exposure to measles appears subject to a dose-response effect. New Zealand and the United Kingdom have increased the recommended dose of polyclonal human immunoglobulin for post-exposure prophylaxis within the last decade in response to concerns about decreasing levels of measles antibodies in these products. This study used the plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT) to measure the titer of measles-specific antibodies in Australian immunoglobulin products for post-exposure prophylaxis and compared the utility of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to the PRNT in available Australian and international samples: Australian intramuscular (n = 10), Australian intravenous (n = 28), New Zealand intramuscular (n = 2), Hizentra (subcutaneous)(USA) (n = 3), and Privigen (intravenous)(USA) (n = 2). Measles titres in Australian IM and IV immunoglobulins ranged from 51 to 76 IU/mL and 6 to 24 IU/mL respectively, as measured by PRNT calibrated to the WHO 3 rd international standard. ELISA titres were variable but higher than PRNT titres in all tested samples. Measles antibody titres in Australian immunoglobulin products meet consensus-prescribed international thresholds. Development of a convenient, standardized, readily accessible assay for determination of measles titres in immunoglobulin products would be useful for future studies and facilitate international comparisons.

  17. Levels of serum immunoglobulins in apparently healthy children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Hemorheology Research Unit, Department of Human Physiology and 1Department of Hematology, Immunology and Blood Transfusion, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences,. University of Port Harcourt, PMB 5323, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Summary: Serum levels of the immunoglobulins: IgG, IgA ...

  18. Mechanism of immunoglobulin G4 Fab-arm exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rispens, Theo; Ooijevaar-de Heer, Pleuni; Bende, Onno; Aalberse, Rob C.


    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies are symmetrical molecules that may be regarded as covalent dimers of 2 half-molecules, each consisting of a light chain and a heavy chain. Human IgG4 is an unusually dynamic antibody, with half-molecule exchange ("Fab-arm exchange") resulting in asymmetrical,

  19. An application of mass spectrometry for quality control of biologicals: Highly sensitive profiling of plasma residuals in human plasma-derived immunoglobulin. (United States)

    Limonier, Franck; Van Steendam, Katleen; Waeterloos, Geneviève; Brusselmans, Koen; Sneyers, Myriam; Deforce, Dieter


    Thromboembolic events (TEE) associated to trace amounts of plasmatic activated coagulation factor XI (FXIa) in administrated immunoglobulin (Ig) have recently raised concerns and hence there is a need for highly sensitive profiling of residual plasma source proteins. This study aims to consider LC-ESI-QTOF data-dependent acquisition in combination with sample fractionation for this purpose. Sample fractionation proved mandatory to enable identification of plasma residuals. Two approaches were compared: Ig depletion with protein G - protein A affinity chromatography and low-abundant protein enrichment with a combinatorial peptide ligand library (ProteoMiner™, Bio-Rad). The latter allowed a higher number of identifications. Highly sensitive detection of prothrombotic FXIa was assessed with confident identification of a 1ng/mg spike. Moreover, different residuals compositions were profiled for various commercial Ig products. Using a quantitative label free analysis, a TEE-positive Ig batch was distinguished from other regular Ig products, with increased levels of FXIa but also other unique proteins. This could have prevented the recently observed TEE problems with Ig. The method is a convenient tool to better characterize Ig products after any plasma pool or manufacture process change, gaining insights in the product quality profile without any prior information required. This study characterized residual plasma proteins in Ig products, using bottom-up LC-MS/MS with conventional data-dependent acquisition, preceded by sample fractionation. Without any prior information or target-specific development, >30 proteins were identified in a commercial Ig product. Quality control relevance was demonstrated with the identification of FXIa spiked at 1ng/mg in Ig, which is below the minimal thrombotic dose of 3ng/mg observed in an in vivo model. Relative label-free quantitation highlighted significant differences in normalized abundances of residual proteins between Ig

  20. Development of graphene oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrene sulfonate) thin film-based electrochemical surface plasmon resonance immunosensor for detection of human immunoglobulin G (United States)

    Pothipor, Chammari; Lertvachirapaiboon, Chutiparn; Shinbo, Kazunari; Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao; Ounnunkad, Kontad; Baba, Akira


    An electrochemically synthesized graphene oxide (GO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)/poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) thin film-based electrochemical surface plasmon resonance (EC-SPR) sensor chip was developed and employed for the detection of human immunoglobulin G (IgG). GO introduced the carboxylic group on the film surface, which also allowed electrochemical control, for the immobilization of the anti-IgG antibody via covalent bonding through amide coupling reaction. The SPR sensitivity of the detection was improved under the control by applying an electrochemical potential, by which the sensitivity was increased by the increment in applied potential. Among the open-circuit and different applied potentials in the range of ‑1.0 to 0.50 V, the EC-SPR immunosensor at an applied potential of 0.50 V exhibited the highest sensitivity of 6.08 × 10‑3 mL µg‑1 cm‑2 and linearity in the human IgG concentration range of 1.0 to 10 µg mL‑1 with a relatively low detection limit of 0.35 µg mL‑1. The proposed sensor chip is promising for immunosensing at the physiological level.

  1. Ingestion of host immunoglobulin by Sarcoptes scabiei

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    Simson Tarigan


    Full Text Available Scabies is one of the most important diseases in human and veterinary medicine. The available control measures that rely on acaricides are unsustainable, costly and environmentally unfriendly. Vaccination which is supposedly the most attractive alternative control, is sustainable, potentially cheap and environmentally friendly. Recent development in protein biochemistry and recombinant technology have facilitated the development of anti-parasite vaccine which in the past was impossible. One prerequisite for the anti-parasite-vaccine development is that the parasite has to ingest its host immunoglobulin. This study, therefore, was designed to determine whether Sarcoptes scabiei, a non blood-feeding parasite that resides on the avascular cornified layer of the skin, ingest its host immunoglobulin. Sections of routinely processed mites and skin from a mangy goat were probed with peroxidase-conjugated-anti-goat IgG and the immune complex was visualised with diaminobenzidine solution. To determine whether the ingested IgG was still intact or had been fragmented by the proteolytic enzymes, immunoblotting analysis of SDS-PAGE- fractionated proteins extracted from washed mites was performed. Quantification of IgG was done byan Elisa using purified goat IgG as control. This study showed that IgG in the mites confined to the mite’s gut only, and only a fraction of mite population ingested the IgG. The ingested IgG, as shown by immunoblot analysis, was mostly still intact. This study indicates that development of anti-scabies vaccines is reasonable.

  2. Mecanismos de acción de la inmunoglobulina humana en las enfermedades dermatológicas pediátricas Action mechanisms of human immunoglobulin in pediatric dermatological diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain R. Rodríguez Orozco


    Full Text Available El uso de inmunomoduladores en dermatología pediátrica ha devenido necesidad de la práctica clínica contemporánea. Por otro lado, el continuo descubrimiento de moléculas involucradas en la fisiopatología de muchas enfermedades dermatológicas asociadas a trastornos inmunológicos obliga a revisar continuamente las aplicaciones de estos. El presente trabajo propone mostrar algunos mecanismos de acción que justifican el uso de la inmunoglobulina humana en algunas enfermedades dermatológicas pediátricas y facilita al médico la discusión sobre la conveniencia del uso de estas a la luz de la fisiopatología actual de estas enfermedades y del estado del paciente.The use of immunomodulators in pediatric dermatology has turned into a need of contemporary clinical practice. On the other hand, the continuous discovery of molecules involved in the physiopathology of many dermatological diseases associated with immunological disorders leads to the constant review of the application of these immunomodulators. This paper is aimed at showing some action mechanisms that justify the use of human immunoglobulin in some pediatric dermatological diseases and allows physicians to discuss the convenience of its utilization in the light of the present physiopathology of these diseases and of the patient’s state.

  3. Comparative mapping of DNA probes derived from the V{sub k} immunoglobulin gene regions on human and great ape chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, N.; Wienberg, J.; Ermert, K. [Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)] [and others


    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of cosmid clones of human V{sub K} gene regions to human and primate chromosomes contributed to the dating of chromosome reorganizations in evolution. A clone from the K locus at 2p11-p12 (cos 106) hybridized to the assumed homologous chromosome bands in the chimpanzees Pan troglodytes (PTR) and P. paniscus (PPA), the Gorilla gorilla (GGO), and the orangutan Pongo Pygmaeus (PPY). Human and both chimpanzees differed from gorilla and orangutan by the mapping of cos 170, a clone derived from chromosome 2cen-q11.2; the transposition of this orphon to the other side of the centromere can, therefore, be dated after the human/chimpanzee and gorilla divergence. Hybridization to homologous bands was also found with a cosmid clone containing a V{sub K}I orphon located on chromosome 1 (cos 115, main signal at 1q31-q32), although the probe is not fully unique. Also, a clone derived from the orphon V{sub K} region on chromosome 22q11 (cos 121) hybridized to the homologous bands in the great apes. This indicates that the orphons on human chromosomes 1 and 22 had been translocated early in primate evolution. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Clinical severity of visceral leishmaniasis is associated with changes in immunoglobulin g fc N-glycosylation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardinassi, L.G.; Dotz, V.; Hipgrave Ederveen, A.; de Almeida, R.P.; Nery Costa, C.H.; Costa, D.L.; de Jesus, A.R.; Mayboroda, O.A.; Garcia, G.R.; Wuhrer, M.; de Miranda Santos, I.K.


    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has a high fatality rate if not treated; nevertheless, the majority of human infections with the causative agent, Leishmania infantum chagasi, are asymptomatic. Although VL patients often present with increased levels of serum immunoglobulins, the contribution of

  5. Clinical Aspects of Intravenous Immunoglobulin Use in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jordan, S. C; Toyoda, M; Kahwaji, J; Vo, A. A


    Intravenous immunoglobulin products (IVIG) are derived from pooled human plasma from thousands of donors and have been used for the treatment of primary immunodeficiency disorders for nearly 30 years...

  6. Selective staining of CdS on ZnO biolabel for ultrasensitive sandwich-type amperometric immunoassay of human heart-type fatty-acid-binding protein and immunoglobulin G. (United States)

    Qin, Xiaoli; Xu, Aigui; Liu, Ling; Sui, Yuyun; Li, Yunlong; Tan, Yueming; Chen, Chao; Xie, Qingji


    We report on an ultrasensitive metal-labeled amperometric immunoassay of proteins, which is based on the selective staining of nanocrystalline cadmium sulfide (CdS) on ZnO nanocrystals and in-situ microliter-droplet anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) detection on the immunoelectrode. Briefly, antibody 1 (Ab1), bovine serum albumin (BSA), antigen and ZnO-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) labeled antibody 2 (Ab2-ZnO-MWCNTs) were successively anchored on a β-cyclodextrin-graphene sheets (CD-GS) nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE), forming a sandwich-type immunoelectrode (Ab2-ZnO-MWCNTs/antigen/BSA/Ab1/CD-GS/GCE). CdS was selectively grown on the catalytic ZnO surfaces through chemical reaction of Cd(NO3)2 and thioacetamide (ZnO-label/CdS-staining), due to the presence of an activated cadmium hydroxide complex on ZnO surfaces that can decompose thioacetamide. A beforehand cathodic "potential control" in air and then injection of 7μL of 0.1M aqueous HNO3 on the immunoelectrode allow dissolution of the stained CdS and simultaneous cathodic preconcentration of atomic Cd onto the electrode surface, thus the following in-situ ASV detection can be used for immunoassay with enhanced sensitivity. Under optimized conditions, human immunoglobulin G (IgG) and human heart-type fatty-acid-binding protein (FABP) are analyzed by this method with ultrahigh sensitivity, excellent selectivity and small reagent-consumption, and the limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) are 0.4fgmL(-1) for IgG and 0.3fgmL(-1) for FABP (equivalent to 73 FABP molecules in the 6μL sample employed). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Structural repertoire of immunoglobulin λ light chains

    KAUST Repository

    Chailyan, Anna


    The immunoglobulin λ isotype is present in nearly all vertebrates and plays an important role in the human immune system. Despite its importance, few systematic studies have been performed to analyze the structural conformation of its variable regions, contrary to what is the case for κ and heavy chains. We show here that an analysis of the structures of λ chains allows the definition of a discrete set of recurring conformations (canonical structures) of their hypervariable loops and, most importantly, the identification of sequence constraints that can be used to predict their structure. We also show that the structural repertoire of λ chains is different and more varied than that of the κ chains, consistently with the current view of the involvement of the two major light-chain families in complementary strategies of the immune system to ensure a fine tuning between diversity and stability in antigen recognition. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. VH Replacement Footprint Analyzer-I, a Java-Based Computer Program for Analyses of Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Genes and Potential VH Replacement Products in Human and Mouse. (United States)

    Huang, Lin; Lange, Miles D; Zhang, Zhixin


    VH replacement occurs through RAG-mediated secondary recombination between a rearranged VH gene and an upstream unrearranged VH gene. Due to the location of the cryptic recombination signal sequence (cRSS, TACTGTG) at the 3' end of VH gene coding region, a short stretch of nucleotides from the previous rearranged VH gene can be retained in the newly formed VH-DH junction as a "footprint" of VH replacement. Such footprints can be used as markers to identify Ig heavy chain (IgH) genes potentially generated through VH replacement. To explore the contribution of VH replacement products to the antibody repertoire, we developed a Java-based computer program, VH replacement footprint analyzer-I (VHRFA-I), to analyze published or newly obtained IgH genes from human or mouse. The VHRFA-1 program has multiple functional modules: it first uses service provided by the IMGT/V-QUEST program to assign potential VH, DH, and JH germline genes; then, it searches for VH replacement footprint motifs within the VH-DH junction (N1) regions of IgH gene sequences to identify potential VH replacement products; it can also analyze the frequencies of VH replacement products in correlation with publications, keywords, or VH, DH, and JH gene usages, and mutation status; it can further analyze the amino acid usages encoded by the identified VH replacement footprints. In summary, this program provides a useful computation tool for exploring the biological significance of VH replacement products in human and mouse.

  9. A proton nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics study of metabolic profiling in immunoglobulin a nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Weiguo; Che, Wenti; Guimai, Zuo; Chen, Jiejing [181st Hospital Guangxi, Central Laboratory, Laboratory of Metabolic Diseases Research, Guangxi Province (China); Li, Liping [Guangxi Normal University, The Life Science College, Guangxi Province (China); Li, Wuxian [Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnostics of Education Ministry, Chongqiong Medical University, Chongqing (China); Dai, Yong [Clinical Medical Research Center, the Second Clinical Medical College of Jinan University (Shenzhen People' s Hospital), Shenzhen, Guangdong Province (China)


    Objectives: Immunoglobulin A nephropathy is the most common cause of chronic renal failure among primary glomerulonephritis patients. The ability to diagnose immunoglobulin A nephropathy remains poor. However, renal biopsy is an inconvenient, invasive, and painful examination, and no reliable biomarkers have been developed for use in routine patient evaluations. The aims of the present study were to identify immunoglobulin A nephropathy patients, to identify useful biomarkers of immunoglobulin A nephropathy and to establish a human immunoglobulin A nephropathy metabolic profile. Methods: Serum samples were collected from immunoglobulin A nephropathy patients who were not using immunosuppressants. A pilot study was undertaken to determine disease-specific metabolite biomarker profiles in three groups: healthy controls (N = 23), low-risk patients in whom immunoglobulin A nephropathy was confirmed as grades I-II by renal biopsy (N = 23), and high-risk patients with nephropathies of grades IV-V (N = 12). Serum samples were analyzed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and by applying multivariate pattern recognition analysis for disease classification. Results: Compared with the healthy controls, both the low-risk and high-risk patients had higher levels of phenylalanine, myo-inositol, lactate, L6 lipids ( CH-CH{sub 2}-CH = O), L5 lipids (-CH{sub 2}-C = O), and L3 lipids (-CH{sub 2}-CH{sub 2}-C = O) as well as lower levels of {beta}-glucose, {alpha}-glucose, valine, tyrosine, phosphocholine, lysine, isoleucine, glycerolphosphocholine, glycine, glutamine, glutamate, alanine, acetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, and 1-methylhistidine. Conclusions: These metabolites investigated in this study may serve as potential biomarkers of immunoglobulin A nephropathy. Point scoring of pattern recognition analysis was able to distinguish immunoglobulin A nephropathy patients from healthy controls. However, there were no obvious differences between the low-risk and high

  10. Lung scintigraphy with nonspecific human immunoglobulin G ({sup 99m}Tc-HIG) in the evaluation of pulmonary involvement in connective tissue diseases: correlation with pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostopoulos, C.; Toubanakis, C.; Mamoulakis, C.; Gialafos, E.; Mavrikakis, M. [Alexandra University Hospital, Department of Clinical Therapeutics, Athens (Greece); Koutsikos, J.; Zerva, C.; Leondi, A. [Alexandra University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Athens (Greece); Moulopoulos, L.A. [Areteion University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Athens (Greece); Sfikakis, P.P. [Laikon University Hospital, Department of Propaedeutic Medicine, Athens (Greece)


    In patients with connective tissue diseases (CTD), the early detection and evaluation of the severity of the pulmonary involvement is mandatory. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are considered to be valuable noninvasive diagnostic modalities. Radiopharmaceuticals have also been used for this purpose. Our aim was the evaluation of technetium-labeled human polyclonal immunoglobulin G (HIG) lung scintigraphy in the early detection and assessment of the severity of the pulmonary involvement in CTD patients. Fifty-two nonsmoking CTD patients were studied by PFTs, HRCT, and HIG. According to PFTs, patients were divided in group A (impaired PFTs - abnormal pulmonary function) and group B (normal pulmonary function). Semiquantitative analysis was done on HIG and HRCT and corresponding scores were obtained. Significant difference was found between HIG scores in the two groups (0.6 {+-} 0.07 vs 0.51 {+-} 0.08, P < 0.001). There was a statistically significant negative correlation between HIG scores and PFTs results and a positive correlation between HIG and HRCT scores. HIG demonstrated similar clinical performance to HRCT. At the best cut-off levels of their score (0.56 and 7, respectively), HIG had a superior sensitivity (77.5 vs 57.5%) with lower specificity (75 vs 91.7%). The combination of the two methods increased the sensitivity of abnormal findings at the expense of specificity. HIG scintigraphy can be used in the early detection and evaluation of the severity of the pulmonary involvement in CTD, whereas, when used in combination with HRCT, the detection of affected patients can be further improved. (orig.)

  11. Humoral immunity to commensal oral bacteria in human infants: salivary secretory immunoglobulin A antibodies reactive with Streptococcus mitis biovar 1, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mutans, and Enterococcus faecalis during the first two years of life. (United States)

    Cole, M F; Bryan, S; Evans, M K; Pearce, C L; Sheridan, M J; Sura, P A; Wientzen, R L; Bowden, G H


    Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) antibodies reactive with the pioneer oral streptococci Streptococcus mitis biovar 1 and Streptococcus oralis, the late oral colonizer Streptococcus mutans, and the pioneer enteric bacterium Enterococcus faecalis in saliva samples from 10 human infants from birth to age 2 years were analyzed. Low levels of salivary SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with whole cells of all four species were detected within the first month after birth, even though S. mutans and E. faecalis were not recovered from the mouths of the infants during the study period. Although there was a fivefold increase in the concentration of SIgA between birth and age 2 years, there were no differences between the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with the four species over this time period. When the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with all four species were normalized to the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 in saliva, SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with these bacteria showed a significant decrease from birth to 2 years of age. Adsorption of each infant's saliva with cells of one species produced a dramatic reduction of antibodies recognizing the other three species. Sequential adsorption of saliva samples removed all SIgA antibody to the bacteria, indicating that the SIgA antibodies were directed to antigens shared by all four species. The induction by the host of a limited immune response to common antigens that are likely not involved in adherence may be among the mechanisms that commensal streptococci employ to persist in the oral cavity.

  12. Generic Hybrid Ligand Binding Assay Liquid Chromatography High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry-Based Workflow for Multiplexed Human Immunoglobulin G1 Quantification at the Intact Protein Level: Application to Preclinical Pharmacokinetic Studies. (United States)

    Lanshoeft, Christian; Cianférani, Sarah; Heudi, Olivier


    The quantitative analysis of human immunoglobulin G1 (hIgG1) by mass spectrometry is commonly performed using surrogate peptides after enzymatic digestion. Since some limitations are associated with this approach, a novel workflow is presented by hybridizing ligand binding assay (LBA) with liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) for hIgG1 quantification directly at the intact protein level. Different hIgG1s, including a [(13)C]-labeled version used as internal standard, were immuno-enriched from rat serum with a fully automated platform based on streptavidin coated tips and a biotinylated mouse anti-hIgG capture antibody targeting the fragment crystallizable region followed by overnight deglycosylation prior to LC-HRMS analysis. The proposed quantitative workflow utilized extracted ion chromatograms (XICs) from the nondeconvoluted full-scan MS spectrum. The assay was validated in terms of selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy/precision, carry-over, dilution linearity, and reproducibility. Consistent data between the conventional approach based on surrogate peptide analysis and our proposed workflow were obtained in vitro and in vivo with the advantage of a less extensive sample pretreatment. Multiplexing capabilities for simultaneous quantification of different hIgG1s within the same spiked sample were also exemplified. Altogether our results pave the way not only for the thorough application of intact hIgG1 quantification by LBA-LC-HRMS but also as a generic quantitative analytical method for other hIgG isotypes or next generation biotherapeutics.

  13. Association of serum anti-rotavirus immunoglobulin A antibody seropositivity and protection against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis: analysis of clinical trials of human rotavirus vaccine. (United States)

    Cheuvart, Brigitte; Neuzil, Kathleen M; Steele, A Duncan; Cunliffe, Nigel; Madhi, Shabir A; Karkada, Naveen; Han, Htay Htay; Vinals, Carla


    Clinical trials of the human rotavirus vaccine Rotarix™ (RV1) have demonstrated significant reductions in severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) in children worldwide. However, no correlate of vaccine efficacy (VE) has yet been established. This paper presents 2 analyses which aimed to investigate whether serum anti-RV IgA measured by ELISA 1 or 2 mo post-vaccination can serve as a correlate of efficacy against RVGE: (1) In a large Phase III efficacy trial (Rota-037), the Prentice criteria for surrogate endpoints was applied to anti-RV IgA seropositivity 1 mo post-vaccination. These criteria determine whether a significant vaccine group effect can be predicted from the surrogate, namely seropositivity (anti-RV IgA concentration>20 U/mL); (2) Among other GSK-sponsored RV1 VE studies, 8 studies which assessed immunogenicity at 1 or 2 mo post-vaccination in all or a sub-cohort of enrolled subjects and had at least 10 RVGE episodes were included in a meta-analysis to measure the regression between clinical VE and VE predicted from immunogenicity (VE1). In Rota-037, anti-RV IgA seropositivity post-vaccination was associated with a lower incidence of any or severe RVGE, however, the proportion of vaccine group effect explained by seropositivity was only 43.6% and 32.7% respectively. This low proportion was due to the vaccine group effect observed in seronegative subjects. In the meta-analysis, the slope of the regression between clinical VE and VE1 was statistically significant. These two independent analyses support the hypothesis that post-vaccination anti-RV IgA seropositivity (antibody concentration ≥20 U/mL) may serve as a useful correlate of efficacy in clinical trials of RV1 vaccines.

  14. Comparison of immunoglobulin E measurements on IMMULITE and ImmunoCAP in samples consisting of allergen-specific mouse-human chimeric monoclonal antibodies towards allergen extracts and four recombinant allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal B; Stender, Steen


    Specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody in vitro tests are performed on enzyme immunoassay systems. Poor agreement among systems has been reported and comparisons have been made exclusively with allergen extracts - not with recombinant allergens. Here we compare the ImmunoCAP and the IMMULITE...

  15. [Intravenous immunoglobulin in postpolio syndrome]. (United States)

    Farbu, Elisabeth; Rekand, Tiina; Gilhus, Nils Erik; Strøm, Vegard; Opheim, Arve; Stanghelle, Johan Kvalvik; Aarli, Johan A


    Postpolio syndrome is characterised by new muscular weakness, pain, and fatigue several decades after the acute polio, and affects approximately 1/4 of patients with previous paralytic polio. A 47-year-old woman with a previous history of acute poliomyelitis developed progressive muscular weakness in her left arm and right leg with muscular pain and fatigue. Clinical examination, MRI, and electromyography gave no other explanation to her progressive muscular weakness and fatigue than postpolio syndrome. She was treated with 400 mg/kg immunoglobulin intravenously for five consecutive days. At follow-up two and three months later, she had a considerable increase in isokinetic muscle strength in knee extension and flexion on the right side, and experienced less fatigue. This case suggests that stabilisation of an autoimmune dysfunction may be a therapeutic option in postpolio syndrome.

  16. Serum immunoglobulin E and hyaluronate levels in children living along major roads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shima, Masayuki; Adachi, Motoaki [Chiba Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)


    To assess the effects of automobile exhaust on human health, we determined serum concentrations of total immunoglobulin E and hyaluronate in 185 schoolchildren who lived in a district that contained major roads. Serum immunoglobulin E levels were elevated in children who had asthma or wheezing, but levels did no t differ with respect to distance of their homes from the major roads. Serum hyaluronate levels were higher in children who lived less than 50 m from the roadside, compared with children who resided a greater distance from roads. The difference, however, was significant only in a subgroup of children in whom immunoglobulin E levels exceeded 250 IU/ml. Our results suggest that serum hyaluronate levels in children reflect the effects of traffic-related air pollution. Children with high immunoglobulin E levels appeared to be particularly susceptible to the effects of automobile exhaust. 34 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Differential antibody isotype reactivity to specific antigens in human lymphatic filariasis: gp15/400 preferentially induces immunoglobulin E (IgE), IgG4, and IgG2. (United States)

    Yazdanbakhsh, M; Paxton, W A; Brandenburg, A; Van Ree, R; Lens, M; Partono, F; Maizels, R M; Selkirk, M E


    Lymphatic filarial infection in humans is associated with a strong skewing of the immune response towards the TH2 arm, with prominent interleukin 4-producing cells and elevated levels of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) and IgE antibodies in peripheral blood. To determine how such a generalized TH2 imbalance governs responses to individual parasite antigens, the profiles of isotypes of antibodies to two recombinant proteins of Brugia spp. were studied. One molecule was the C-terminal portion of the filarial heat shock protein 70 (Bpa-26), representative of a cytoplasmic protein, and the second antigen was a single unit of the tandem repeats of a Brugia polypeptide (BpL-4), a secreted product which is prominently exposed to the immune system. Serum samples from 146 individuals resident in areas in which brugian filariasis is endemic were used, and it was found that whereas the levels of IgG1 and IgG3 responses to both Bpa-26 and BpL-4 were high, IgG4 and IgE antibodies to only BpL-4, not to Bpa-26, were prominent. Thus, an antigen which is chronically exposed to the immune system elicited a TH2-dependent isotype switch, as manifested by increased IgG4 and IgE responses. Moreover, IgG4 and IgE responses to BpL-4 showed a strong negative association, suggesting that mediators other than interleukin 4 must be responsible for such differential regulation of these two isotypes. When the data were analyzed as a function of clinical status, a striking association between elevated levels of IgG3 antibodies to Bpa-26 and manifestation of chronic obstructive disease was found; elephantiasis patients showed significantly higher levels of IgG3 antibodies to Bpa-26 than microfilaremics and asymptomatic amicrofilaremics. This indicates that an imbalance of isotypes of antibodies to particular filarial antigens might play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic disease. PMID:7558279

  18. Suppression of blastogenesis and proliferation of activated CD4(+) T cells: intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) versus novel anti-human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-E monoclonal antibodies mimicking HLA-I reactivity of IVIg. (United States)

    Ravindranath, M H; Terasaki, P I; Pham, T; Jucaud, V; Kawakita, S


    Activated CD4(+) T cells undergo blastogenesis and proliferation and they express several surface receptors, including β2-microglobulin-free human leucocyte antigen (HLA) heavy chains (open conformers). Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) suppresses activated T cells, but the mechanism is unclear. IVIg reacts with HLA-Ia/Ib antigens but its reactivity is lost when the anti-HLA-E Ab is adsorbed out. Anti-HLA-E antibodies may bind to the peptides shared by HLA-E and the HLA-I alleles. These shared peptides are cryptic in intact HLA, but exposed in open conformers. The hypothesis that anti-HLA-E monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that mimic HLA-I reactivity of IVIg may suppress activated T cells by binding to the shared peptides of the open conformers on the T cell surface was tested by examining the relative binding affinity of those mAbs for open conformers coated on regular beads and for intact HLA coated on iBeads, and by comparing the effects on the suppression of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-activated T cells of three entities: IVIg, anti-HLA-E mAbs that mimic IVIg [Terasaki Foundation Laboratory (TFL)-006 and (TFL)-007]; and anti-HLA-E antibodies that do not mimic IVIg (TFL-033 and TFL-037). Suppression of blastogenesis and proliferation of those T cells by both IVIg and the anti-HLA-E mAbs was dose-dependent, the dose required with mAbs 50-150-fold lower than with IVIg. TFL-006 and TFL-007 significantly suppressed blastogenesis and proliferation of activated CD4(+) T cells, but neither the non-IVIg-mimicking mAbs nor control antibodies did so. The suppression may be mediated by Fab-binding of TFL-006/TFL-007 to the exposed shared peptides. The mAb binding to the open conformer may signal T cell deactivation because the open conformers have an elongated cytoplasmic tail with phosphorylation sites (tryosine(320)/serine(335)). © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  19. Multivalent Interactions of Human Primary Amine Oxidase with the V and C22 Domains of Sialic Acid-Binding Immunoglobulin-Like Lectin-9 Regulate Its Binding and Amine Oxidase Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Elovaara

    Full Text Available Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin-9 (Siglec-9 on leukocyte surface is a counter-receptor for endothelial cell surface adhesin, human primary amine oxidase (hAOC3, a target protein for anti-inflammatory agents. This interaction can be used to detect inflammation and cancer in vivo, since the labeled peptides derived from the second C2 domain (C22 of Siglec-9 specifically bind to the inflammation-inducible hAOC3. As limited knowledge on the interaction between Siglec-9 and hAOC3 has hampered both hAOC3-targeted drug design and in vivo imaging applications, we have now produced and purified the extracellular region of Siglec-9 (Siglec-9-EC consisting of the V, C21 and C22 domains, modeled its 3D structure and characterized the hAOC3-Siglec-9 interactions using biophysical methods and activity/inhibition assays. Our results assign individual, previously unknown roles for the V and C22 domains. The V domain is responsible for the unusually tight Siglec-9-hAOC3 interactions whereas the intact C22 domain of Siglec-9 is required for modulating the enzymatic activity of hAOC3, crucial for the hAOC3-mediated leukocyte trafficking. By characterizing the Siglec-9-EC mutants, we could conclude that R120 in the V domain likely interacts with the terminal sialic acids of hAOC3 attached glycans whereas residues R284 and R290 in C22 are involved in the interactions with the active site channel of hAOC3. Furthermore, the C22 domain binding enhances the enzymatic activity of hAOC3 although the sialic acid-binding capacity of the V domain of Siglec-9 is abolished by the R120S mutation. To conclude, our results prove that the V and C22 domains of Siglec-9-EC interact with hAOC3 in a multifaceted and unique way, forming both glycan-mediated and direct protein-protein interactions, respectively. The reported results on the mechanism of the Siglec-9-hAOC3 interaction are valuable for the development of hAOC3-targeted therapeutics and diagnostic tools.

  20. [Comparison of endoscopy, radiology and scintigraphy with Tc-99m-exametazine labeled leukocytes and In-111 labeled human polyclonal immunoglobulin G in the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease]. (United States)

    de Lima Ramos, P A; Martín-Comin, J; Muñoz, A; Baliellas, C; Vilar, L; Roca, M; Ramos, M


    The 99mTc-exametazine labelled leukocytes (99mTc-WBC) scintigraphy is an established method for the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) diagnosis, but the labelled procedure is a large and laborious process. The 111In-labelled human polyclonal immunoglobulin G (111In-IgG) can be an alternative in the non invasive IBD diagnosis. Thirty-four patients routinely referred for investigation of IBD were studied. The 99mTc-WBC and 111In-IgG were simultaneously injected and images were obtained at 30 min, 3 and 24 h post-injection. The diagnostic was established by histology of endoscopy and/or surgery samples. Images were blindly evaluated by two experienced observers who only knew of the clinical suspicion of IBD. IBD was confirmed in 27 patients (17 with Crohn's disease [CD] and 10 with ulcerative colitis [UC]). Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 88.5, 100 and 90.3% respectively for endoscopy, 73.7, 75 and 73.9% for radiology, 59.3, 85.7 and 64.7% for 111In-IgG scan and 96.3, 85.7 and 94.1% for 99mTc-WBC scan. In the diagnosis of CD involvement of small bowel, the 99mTc-WBC scan identified 9/11 patients with confirmed disease, whereas the 111In-IgG scan diagnosed only four of them. In the evaluation of colonic disease, the 99mTc-WBC scan correctly diagnosed 21/22 confirmed patients, being the 111In-IgG scan positive in 13 of them. As far as disease extension concerned, the 99mTc-WBC demonstrated a statistically significance rather number of disease segments than endoscopy, radiology and 111In-IgG scan. The 99mTc-WBC was an effective method in the diagnosis of suspected IBD patients, both in the evaluation of small bowel disease and colonic disease, with slightly best results for colonic disease, whereas the 111In-IgG scan seems to have no utility neither in diagnosis nor in extension evaluation of IBD.

  1. Use of intravenous immunoglobulins in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.K. Donyush


    Full Text Available Immunoglobulins are main component of immune defense; they take part in anti-infectious resistance of organism and regulate processes of different immune reactions. Intravenous immunoglobulins are the most frequently used products made from donor blood plasma. The need in these drugs is steadily increasing during last 15–20 years, and indications are widening due to modern hightechnology methods of production and cleaning. The article presents modern data on formula, mechanisms of action and indications for different groups of intravenous immunoglobulins (standard, hyperimmune, fortified and description of possible adverse events.Key words: immuglobulines, prophylaxis, treatment, unfavorable reaction, children.

  2. Antigenic cross-reactions among immunoglobulin of diverse vertebrates (elasmobranchs to man) detected using xenoantisera. (United States)

    Marchalonis, J J; Schluter, S F; Yang, H Y; Hohman, V S; McGee, K; Yeaton, L


    1. Antisera raised in rabbits and goats against intact immunoglobulins or their constituent light and heavy chains from man, mouse and the galapagos shark (Carcharhinus galapagenesis) were tested for their reactivity with immunoglobulins of elasmobranchs, other lower vertebrates and eutherian and prototherian mammals. 2. Xenoantisera directed against human heavy chain isotypes allowed the serological identification of IgM and IgG immunoglobulins in the echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus), a monotreme which is one of the most primitive species of extant mammals. 3. The antisera to heavy chains reacted to varying degrees with purified immunoglobulins of non-mammalian species, including the chicken, teleost fish and elasmobranchs in a fashion that was specific for immunoglobulins, but was not related to defined human isotypic markers. 4. The reactions of some antisera seem to skip species known to possess homologous immunoglobulins. 5. Antisera directed against isotypic markers of human kappa and lambda light chains reacted with shark light chains in a manner that was specific for light chain determinants but was not isotype-related. 6. Antisera directed against heavy chains of either sharks or mammals reacted with heavy chains, but not with light chains of diverse species. 7. A rabbit antiserum specific for shark light chain reacted with human and murine monoclonal lambda chains and with two synthetic peptides corresponding to human V lambda Fr3 and Fr4 sequences. 8. These results establish that a variety of antigenic markers including conformational and linear determinants can be shared among immunoglobulins of vertebrates species that had an ancestral divergence more than 400 million years ago.

  3. Comparison and Characterization of Immunoglobulin G Subclasses among Primate Species


    Shearer, Michael H.; Dark, Robyn D.; Chodosh, James; Kennedy, Ronald C.


    Little information is available on the immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses expressed in the sera of nonhuman primate species. To address this issue, we compared the IgG subclasses found in humans (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) to those of nonhuman primates, such as baboons and macaques. Cross-reactive antihuman IgG subtype-specific reagents were identified and used to analyze purified IgG from sera by solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Protein A-purified human ...

  4. Intravenous immunoglobulin for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eftimov, Filip; Winer, John B.; Vermeulen, Marinus; de Haan, Rob; van Schaik, Ivo N.


    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) causes progressive or relapsing weakness and numbness of the limbs, developing over at least two months. Uncontrolled studies suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) helps. This review was first published in 2002 and has since

  5. Intravenous immunoglobulin for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eftimov, Filip; Winer, John B.; Vermeulen, Marinus; de Haan, Rob; van Schaik, Ivo N.


    Background Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) causes progressive or relapsing weakness and numbness of the limbs, developing over at least two months. Uncontrolled studies suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) helps. Objectives To review systematically the

  6. Immunoglobulin class-switch recombination deficiencies. (United States)

    Durandy, Anne; Kracker, Sven


    Immunoglobulin class-switch recombination deficiencies (Ig-CSR-Ds) are rare primary immunodeficiencies characterized by defective switched isotype (IgG/IgA/IgE) production. Depending on the molecular defect in question, the Ig-CSR-D may be combined with an impairment in somatic hypermutation (SHM). Some of the mechanisms underlying Ig-CSR and SHM have been described by studying natural mutants in humans. This approach has revealed that T cell-B cell interaction (resulting in CD40-mediated signaling), intrinsic B-cell mechanisms (activation-induced cytidine deaminase-induced DNA damage), and complex DNA repair machineries (including uracil-N-glycosylase and mismatch repair pathways) are all involved in class-switch recombination and SHM. However, several of the mechanisms required for full antibody maturation have yet to be defined. Elucidation of the molecular defects underlying the diverse set of Ig-CSR-Ds is essential for understanding Ig diversification and has prompted better definition of the clinical spectrum of diseases and the development of increasingly accurate diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

  7. Comprehensive N-Glycan Profiling of Avian Immunoglobulin Y.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Gilgunn

    Full Text Available Recent exploitation of the avian immune system has highlighted its suitability for the generation of high-quality, high-affinity antibodies to a wide range of antigens for a number of therapeutic and biotechnological applications. The glycosylation profile of potential immunoglobulin therapeutics is species specific and is heavily influenced by the cell-line/culture conditions used for production. Hence, knowledge of the carbohydrate moieties present on immunoglobulins is essential as certain glycan structures can adversely impact their physicochemical and biological properties. This study describes the detailed N-glycan profile of IgY polyclonal antibodies from the serum of leghorn chickens using a fully quantitative high-throughput N-glycan analysis approach, based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC separation of released glycans. Structural assignments revealed serum IgY to contain complex bi-, tri- and tetra-antennary glycans with or without core fucose and bisects, hybrid and high mannose glycans. High sialic acid content was also observed, with the presence of rare sialic acid structures, likely polysialic acids. It is concluded that IgY is heavily decorated with complex glycans; however, no known non-human or immunogenic glycans were identified. Thus, IgY is a potentially promising candidate for immunoglobulin-based therapies for the treatment of various infectious diseases.

  8. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin replacement therapy in the treatment of patients with primary immunodeficiency disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Skoda-Smith


    Full Text Available Suzanne Skoda-Smith, Troy R Torgerson, Hans D OchsSeattle Children’s Research Institute and Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WashingtonAbstract: Antibody deficiency is the most frequently encountered primary immunodeficiency disease (PIDD and patients who lack the ability to make functional immunoglobulin require life-long replacement therapy to prevent serious bacterial infections. Human serum immunoglobulin manufactured from pools of donated plasma can be administered intramuscularly, intravenously or subcutaneously. With the advent of well-tolerated preparations of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg in the 1980s, the suboptimal painful intramuscular route of administration is no longer used. However, some patients continued to experience unacceptable adverse reactions to the intravenous preparations, and for others, vascular access remained problematic. Subcutaneously administered immunoglobulin (SCIg provided an alternative delivery method to patients experiencing difficulties with IVIg. By 2006, immunoglobulin preparations designed exclusively for subcutaneous administration became available. They are therapeutically equivalent to intravenous preparations and offer patients the additional flexibility for the self-administration of their product at home. SCIg as replacement therapy for patients with primary antibody deficiencies is a safe and efficacious method to prevent serious bacterial infections, while maximizing patient satisfaction and improving quality of life.Keywords: subcutaneous immunoglobulin, primary immunodeficiency disease, antibody deficiency, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, common variable immune deficiency

  9. Importance of neonatal immunoglobulin transfer for hippocampal development and behaviour in the newborn pig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Goncharova

    Full Text Available Neurological disorders are among the main clinical problems affecting preterm children and often result in the development of communication and learning disabilities later in life. Several factors are of importance for brain development, however the role of immunoglobulins (passive immunity transfer has not yet been investigated. Piglets are born agammaglobulinemic, as a result of the lack of transfer of maternal immunoglobulins in utero, thus, they serve as an ideal model to mimic the condition of immunoglobulin deficiency in preterm infants. Thirty six, unsuckled newborn piglets were fed an infant formula or colostrum and supplemented orally or intravenously with either species-specific or foreign immunoglobulin and then compared to both newborn and sow-reared piglets. Two days after the piglets were born behavioural tests (novel recognition and olfactory discrimination of conspecifics scent were performed, after which the piglets were sacrificed and blood, cerebrospinal fluid and hippocampi samples were collected for analyses. Both parameters of neuronal plasticity (neuronal maturation and synapse-associated proteins and behavioural test parameters appeared to be improved by the appearance of species-specific porcine immunoglulin in the circulation and cerebrospinal fluid of the piglets. In conclusion, we postulate possible positive clinical effects following intravenous infusion of human immunoglobulin in terms of neuronal plasticity and cognitive function in preterm infants born with low blood immunoglobulin levels.

  10. Characteristics of immunoglobulin A nephropathy with mesangial immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M deposition. (United States)

    Moriyama, Takahito; Shimizu, Ari; Takei, Takashi; Uchida, Keiko; Honda, Kazuho; Nitta, Kosaku


    There are immunoglobulin (Ig)A nephropathy (IgAN) cases showing mesangial IgG and/or IgM deposition, however, their characteristics have remained unknown. Three hundred and eighty-four IgAN patients were divided according to the existence of mesangial IgG and/or IgM deposition: IgA deposition only (A group, n = 77); IgA and IgM deposition (AM group, n = 114); IgA and IgG deposition (AG group, n = 36); and IgA, IgG and IgM deposition (AGM group, n = 157). Clinical and histological findings, and outcomes were examined and compared among these four groups. At the time of renal biopsy, serum creatinine was significantly higher in the A and AM group, however, creatinine clearance did not differ among the four groups. The ratio of glomerular obsolescence was significantly higher in the AM group than in the A and AGM group, and the ratio of glomerular tuft adhesion was significantly higher in the AM, AG and AGM group than in the A group. However, the other clinical and histological findings, electron microscopic findings and renal survivals did not differ among the four groups. Proteinuria was independently associated with an increase in risk of doubling of creatinine (P = 0.005), however, IgG and IgM depositions were not by multivariate Cox regression. The presence of other Ig classes, besides IgA deposits, was found to be associated with glomerular obsolescence and tuft adhesions, however, without any effect on renal survival in IgAN. © 2010 The Authors. Nephrology © 2010 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  11. The place of intravenous immunoglobulin in rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Seredavkina


    Full Text Available Therapy with intravenous human immunoglobulin (IVIG was and continues to remain essential for a number of diseases. At the same time the evidence base for IVIG use is extremely small in rheumatology. Clinical experience shows that IVIG is effective in treating thrombocytopenic purpura, Guillain–Barre syndrome, and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, which develop in the presence of rheumatic diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, inflammatory myopathies, and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides. The review considers indications for the use of IVIG, its dosage regimen, benefits, and adverse reactions and analyzes the Russian and foreign literature on this issue.

  12. Intravenous immunoglobulin prophylaxis in neonates on artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy of the prophylactic use of intravenous immunoglobulin (Ig) was evaluated in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of 21 pairs of ventilated neonates weighing more than 1 500 g, Each infant received 0.4 g/kglday of intravenous Ig or a similar volume of placebo daily for 5 days. Criteria used to assess the ...

  13. Immunoglobulins and their fragments on solid surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, J.A.G.



    Adsorption of immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a common step in the production of immunological tests and biosensors. The use of IgG in these applications stems from its ability to specifically bind all kinds of molecules (antigens). In these tests the IgG

  14. Immunoglobulin profile of Nigerian children with Plasmodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 18, 2008 ... high IgE and low levels of IgA and IgM are associated with the high risk of P. falciparum malaria attack in our community. ... PFMSP1 as a vaccine candidate. Globally, the ... Immunoglobulin profile and malarial parasitaemia of P. falciparum infection according to the age groups in years. One hundred and ...

  15. Facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin administration (fSCIg)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blau, Igor-Wolfgang; Conlon, Niall; Petermann, Robert


    and diverse medical needs that treatments for SID management should strive to meet. In this special report, we study the opportunities provided by facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin administration (fSCIg) to treat patients for whom the conventional routes (intravenous and subcutaneous) are sub...

  16. 6th International Immunoglobulin Symposium: poster presentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Cruz, E.; Kaveri, S. V.; Peter, H.-H.; Durandy, A.; Cantoni, N.; Quinti, I.; Sorensen, R.; Bussel, J. B.; Danieli, M. G.; Winkelmann, A.; Bayry, J.; Käsermann, F.; Späth, P.; Helbert, M.; Salama, A.; van Schaik, I. N.; Yuki, N.


    The posters presented at the 6th International Immunoglobulin Symposium covered a wide range of fields and included both basic science and clinical research. From the abstracts accepted for poster presentation, 12 abstracts were selected for oral presentations in three parallel sessions on

  17. 6th International Immunoglobulin Symposium: Poster presentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Cruz, E.; Kaveri, S.V.; Peter, H.H.; Durandy, A.; Cantoni, N.; Quinti, I.; Sorensen, R.; Bussel, J.B.; Danieli, M.G.; Winkelmann, A.; Bayry, J.; Kaesermann, F.; Spaeth, P.; Helbert, M.; Salama, A.; van Schaik, I.N.; Yuki, N.


    P>The posters presented at the 6th International Immunoglobulin Symposium covered a wide range of fields and included both basic science and clinical research. From the abstracts accepted for poster presentation, 12 abstracts were selected for oral presentations in three parallel sessions on

  18. Electrochemical Detection of Plasma Immunoglobulin as a Biomarker for Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goulielmos-Zois Garyfallou


    Full Text Available The clinical diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD represent a challenge to clinicians due to the variability of clinical symptomatology as well as the unavailability of reliable diagnostic tests. In this study, the development of a novel electrochemical assay and its potential to detect peripheral blood biomarkers to diagnose AD using plasma immunoglobulins is investigated. The immunosensor employs a gold electrode as the immobilizing substrate, albumin depleted plasma immunoglobulin as the biomarker, and polyclonal rabbit Anti-human immunoglobulin (against IgA, IgG, IgM as the receptor for plasma conjugation. The assay showed good response, sensitivity and reproducibility in differentiating plasma immunoglobulin from AD and control subjects down to 10−9 dilutions of plasma immunoglobulin representing plasma content concentrations in the pg mL−1 range. The newly developed assay is highly sensitive, less time consuming, easy to handle, can be easily modified to detect other dementia-related biomarkers in blood samples, and can be easily integrated into portable devices.

  19. The effect of chronic ammonia exposure on acute phase proteins, immunoglobulin and cytokines in laying hens (United States)

    Ammonia is a potential health hazard to both humans and animals, causing systemic low-grade inflammation based on its levels and durations. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of 45 weeks of exposure to 30 ppm NH3 on the concentrations of acute phase proteins, immunoglobulins and c...

  20. Serum immunoglobulin E and immunoglobulin G reactivity to Agaricus bisporus proteins in mushroom cultivation workers. (United States)

    Khakzad, Z; Hedayati, M T; Mahdian, S; Mayahi, S


    Although molds are regarded as the main fungal allergen sources, evidence indicates that spores of Basidiomycota including Agaricus bisporus (A. bisporus) can be also found at high concentrations in the environment and may cause as many respiratory allergies as molds. The aim of the present study was to evaluate specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against A. bisporus via immunoblotting technique in individuals working at mushroom cultivation centers. In this study, 72 workers involved in the cultivation and harvest of button mushrooms were enrolled. For the analysis of serum IgE and IgG, A. bisporus grown in Sabouraud dextrose broth was harvested and ruptured by liquid nitrogen and glass beads. The obtained sample was centrifuged and the supernatant was collected as "crude extract" (CE). CE was separated via Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The separated proteins were transferred to a nitrocellulose filter and the bands responsive to IgE and IgG were identified by anti-human conjugated antibodies. All participants were screened in terms of total IgE level. Among 72 workers, 18 (25%) had a total IgE level higher than 188 IU/mL. In SDS-PAGE, the CE of A. bisporus showed 23 different protein bands with a molecular weight range of 13-80 kDa. The sera of 23.6% and 55.5% of participants showed positive response, with specific IgE and IgG antibodies against A. bisporus in the blot, respectively. The bands with molecular weights of 62 and 68 kDa were the most reactive protein components of A. bisporus to specific IgE antibodies. Moreover, bands with molecular weights of 57 and 62 kDa showed the highest reactivity to IgG, respectively. Also, 62 and 68 kDa components were the most reactive bands with both specific IgG and IgE antibodies. The obtained findings revealed that A. bisporus has different allergens and antigens, which contribute to its potential as an aeroallergen in hypersensitivity

  1. Isotype-specific rabbit antibodies against chinchilla immunoglobulins G, M, and A. (United States)

    Konietzko, S; Koskela, M; Erdmann, G; Giebink, G S


    Chinchillas have become a preferred animal model for studying otitis media, and are also useful in studying insulin release, gastrin physiology, intestinal infection, and hepatocellular pathophysiology. Immunopathologic studies in the model, however, have been limited by absence of specific antibody reagents against chinchilla immunoglobulins. We describe a method for preparing isotype-specific rabbit antibodies against the heavy-chain components of chinchilla immunoglobulins G, M, and A. Chromatographic techniques were used to isolate chinchilla immunoglobulins from serum and breast milk; heavy-chain fractions were isolated and used as antigens to produce isotype-specific antibodies in New Zealand White rabbits. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of these antisera disclosed anti-light chain cross-reactivity, which was removed by affinity chromatography. The isolation and affinity purification techniques were highly reproducible. The availability of these reagents should greatly enhance the utility of the chinchilla in modeling human disease.

  2. Proteomic Analysis of Sera from Common Variable Immunodeficiency Patients Undergoing Replacement Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Spadaro


    Full Text Available Common variable immunodeficiency is the most common form of symptomatic primary antibody failure in adults and children. Replacement immunoglobulin is the standard treatment of these patients. By using a differential proteomic approach based on 2D-DIGE, we examined serum samples from normal donors and from matched, naive, and immunoglobulin-treated patients. The results highlighted regulated expression of serum proteins in naive patients. Among the identified proteins, clusterin/ApoJ serum levels were lower in naive patients, compared to normal subjects. This finding was validated in a wider collection of samples from newly enrolled patients. The establishment of a cellular system, based on a human hepatocyte cell line HuH7, allowed to ascertain a potential role in the regulation of CLU gene expression by immunoglobulins.

  3. Intravenous and subcutaneous immunoglobulin G replacement therapy. (United States)

    Bonilla, Francisco A


    Human polyclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) for therapeutic use has been available for decades. This drug was developed for treatment of antibody deficiency (replacement therapy), although its use has expanded into many anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory applications in recent years. This review focuses on IgG prescribing for replacement therapy. IgG for replacement is most often administered via the intravenous IgG (IVIG) or subcutaneous IgG (SCIG) routes. IVIG is usually administered every 34 weeks, and SCIG is usually administered weekly, although variations may be considered in all cases. Recently, a new product became available that uses hyaluronidase to facilitate absorption of large doses of SCIG less frequently (every 34 weeks, as with IVIG). There are important differences between the pharmacokinetics of these three routes of administration. IVIG therapy leads to high peaks and low troughs between infusions. IgG concentration fluctuates much less over time with SCIG. Hyaluronidase-facilitated SCIG is intermediate. SCIG may have lower bioavailability in comparison with IVIG and may require higher doses over time; this is not true for hyaluronidase SCIG. However, there are large variations in IgG half-life among individuals and with different products. Therefore, individualization of therapy is essential. Mild systemic flu-like adverse effects may affect up to 2025% of patients who receive IVIG, smaller fractions may experience more-severe symptoms, whereas anaphylaxis is exceedingly rare. General flu-like systemic adverse effects are minimal with SCIG (intermediate with hyaluronidase SCIG), but transient (24 hours), mild, local inflammatory symptoms at infusion sites are relatively common with both forms. Additional rare but important complications of IgG therapy include thrombotic events and hemolysis that can be seen at high doses with any route of administration. Renal adverse effects may occur with IVIG as well. The variety of IgG products and routes of

  4. Immunoglobulin A in Bovine Milk: A Potential Functional Food? (United States)

    Cakebread, Julie A; Humphrey, Rex; Hodgkinson, Alison J


    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is an anti-inflammatory antibody that plays a critical role in mucosal immunity. It is found in large quantities in human milk, but there are lower amounts in bovine milk. In humans, IgA plays a significant role in providing protection from environmental pathogens at mucosal surfaces and is a key component for the establishment and maintenance of intestinal homeostasis via innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. To date, many of the dairy-based functional foods are derived from bovine colostrum, targeting the benefits of IgG. IgA has a higher pathogenic binding capacity and greater stability against proteolytic degradation when ingested compared with IgG. This provides IgA-based products greater potential in the functional food market that has yet to be realized.

  5. Neuromyelitis Optica Immunoglobulin G in a Child


    Hudson, Lynsee A.; Bernard, Timothy J.; Tseng, Brian S.; Miller, Bradford R.; Corboy, John R.


    Neuromyelitis optica or Devic’s syndrome is an uncommon demyelinating disorder that preferentially attacks the spinal cord and optic nerves. Although it is well described in adults, childhood neuromyelitis optica has rarely been reported in the literature and is frequently misdiagnosed as severe multiple sclerosis. Recently, a serum immunoglobulin G test for neuromyelitis optica has become available which may clarify and accelerate the diagnosis. This report describes a child with recurrent m...

  6. Immunoglobulin profile of Nigerian children with Plasmodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... immunoglobulin profile of these infected children were 2.68 ± 0.019 mg/dl for IgA, 0.031 ± 0.01 mg/dl for IgD, 1358.29 ± 123.57 ng/dl for IgE, 19.09 ± 1.27 mg/dl for IgG and 2.80 ± 0.57 mg/dl for IgM. The

  7. Retinal vasculitis revealing immunoglobulin G subclass deficiency. (United States)

    Hassani, Rachid Tahiri Joutei; Rousseau, Antoine; de Monchy, Ivan; el Sanharawi, Mohamed; Gendron, Gael; Barreau, Emmanuel; Goujard, Cécile; Labetoulle, Marc


    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass deficiency is a rare primary immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by recurrent infections and autoimmune disorders. However, there have been no reports of ocular involvement, either inflammatory or infectious, in association with IgG subclass deficiency. The authors report the first case of retinal vasculitis that led to the diagnosis of IgG subclass deficiency, in a patient with a history of inflammatory bowel disease and recurrent infections of previously unknown origin.

  8. Extracorporeal Immunoglobulin Elimination for the Treatment of Severe Myasthenia Gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Langrova


    Full Text Available Myasthenia gravis (MG is a neuromuscular disorder leading to fluctuating muscle weakness and fatigue. Rarely, long-term stabilization is not possible through the use of thymectomy or any known drug therapy. We present our experience with extracorporeal immunoglobulin (Ig elimination by immunoadsorption (adsorbers with human Ig antibodies. Acetylcholine receptor antibodies (AChRAs were measured during long-term monitoring (4.7±2.9 years; range 1.1–8.0. A total of 474 samples (232 pairs were analyzed, and a drop in AChRA levels was observed (P=.025. The clinical status of patients improved and stabilized. Roughly 6.8% of patients experienced clinically irrelevant side effects. The method of Ig elimination by extracorporeal immunoadsorption (IA is a clinical application of the recent biotechnological advances. It offers an effective and safe therapy for severe MG even when the disease is resistant to standard therapy.

  9. 7th International Immunoglobulin Conference: Interlaken Leadership Awards. (United States)

    Dalakas, M C; Löscher, W N


    The research presented in this section explores novel applications of immunoglobulin (Ig) therapy in neurological disorders. The results from the upcoming and ongoing trials of Drs Honnorat and Gamez are expected to provide meaningful insights into the treatment of two serious and disabling diseases. The results already being reported from the work of Drs Schmidt and Geis in animal models seem promising, but further proof-of-concept research is warranted to translate their significance to human diseases. Dr Goebel's work in developing animal models of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) may provide new insights into predicting which CRPS patients could respond to Ig therapy or other immunotherapies. The work being made possible by a number of the Interlaken Leadership Awards may provide fundamental insights in understanding neurological disorders and improving quality of life for the patients who suffer from them. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  10. Immunoglobulin G4-Related Pancreatic and Biliary Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham Al-Dhahab


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autoimmune pancreatitis and autoimmune cholangitis are new clinical entities that are now recognized as the pancreaticobiliary manifestations of immunoglobulin (Ig G4-related disease.

  11. Influx of immunoglobulins from the vascular compartment into a grafted cornea. (United States)

    Van der Veen, G; Broersma, L; Bruyne, I; Verhagen, C; Ruijter, J; Van Rij, G; Van der Gaag, R


    To determine the effect of a fresh corneal wound or a healed corneal scar on the immunodiffusion of immunoglobulins into the cornea. F344 rats were immunized with human serum albumin (HSA) 1 week before an autologous rotational keratoplasty of the right cornea or 1 year after an autograft was performed. One group of rats also was treated with gentamicin-dexamethasone ointment in the grafted eye for 1 week after transplantation to reduce the postsurgical inflammatory signs. A serum sample was drawn every week and booster injections with HSA were given after 2 and 3 weeks. At various times after immunization, groups of rats were killed, blood and aqueous humor samples were taken, and the corneas of both eyes were removed. The corneas were divided into the graft or a 3-mm central button and the peripheral rim and weighed. The anti-HSA titer was determined in serum, aqueous humor, and both parts of the corneas. Up to 5 weeks after transplantation, the grafted cornea contained more anti-HSA immunoglobulins than did the control eye. One year postgrafting, no difference was seen. In the first weeks after keratoplasty, influx of anti-HSA from the peripheral into the central cornea was, however, neither obstructed nor enhanced. Surgical trauma in itself causes increased influx of anti-HSA immunoglobulins into the cornea. Within the cornea, a wound or a scar does not appear to be a barrier for centripetal immunoglobulin diffusion.

  12. Prophylactic immunoglobulin therapy in secondary immune deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agostini, Carlo; Blau, Igor-Wolfgang; Kimby, Eva


    INTRODUCTION: In primary immunodeficiency (PID), immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IgRT) for infection prevention is well-established and supported by a wealth of clinical data. On the contrary, very little evidence-based data is available on the challenges surrounding the use of Ig......RT in secondary immune deficiencies (SID), and most published guidelines are mere extrapolations from the experience in PID. AREAS COVERED: In this article, four European experts provide their consolidated opinion on open questions surrounding the prophylactic use of IgRT in SID, based on their clinical...

  13. Neuromyelitis Optica Immunoglobulin G in a Child (United States)

    Hudson, Lynsee A.; Bernard, Timothy J.; Tseng, Brian S.; Miller, Bradford R.; Corboy, John R.


    Neuromyelitis optica or Devic’s syndrome is an uncommon demyelinating disorder that preferentially attacks the spinal cord and optic nerves. Although it is well described in adults, childhood neuromyelitis optica has rarely been reported in the literature and is frequently misdiagnosed as severe multiple sclerosis. Recently, a serum immunoglobulin G test for neuromyelitis optica has become available which may clarify and accelerate the diagnosis. This report describes a child with recurrent myelitis and an elongated spinal cord lesion who was found to have positive neuromyelitis optica autoantibody. We believe that neuromyelitis optica autoantibody testing should be performed in cases of pediatric transverse myelitis with multiple vertical segments or recurrence. PMID:17074612

  14. Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease Mimicking Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Sekiguchi


    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin (Ig G4-related disease (also known as ‘IgG4-related sclerosing disease’, ‘IgG4-related systemic disease’ or ‘hyper-IgG4-disease’ is a recently recognized systemic fibroinflammatory disease associated with IgG4-positive plasma cells in tissue lesions. IgG4-related disease was initially described as autoimmune pancreatitis, but it is now known to affect virtually any organ. The authors describe a patient presenting with multi-organ manifestations, including airway inflammation mimicking asthma, pulmonary parenchymal infiltrates, intrathoracic lymphadenopathy, submandibular gland swelling and a kidney mass.

  15. Screening for congenital toxoplasmosis: accuracy of immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin A tests after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Ruth E; Thalib, Lukman; Tan, Hooi Kuan


    OBJECTIVES: To determine the accuracy of postnatal screening for toxoplasma-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgA. SETTING: Ten centres in three European countries. METHODS: We compared results of the first postnatal IgM or IgA test in infants with infected mothers identified by prenatal screeni...

  16. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and systemic lupus erythematosus. (United States)

    Zandman-Goddard, Gisele; Levy, Yair; Shoenfeld, Yehuda


    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease with diverse manifestations. We suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy may be beneficial and safe for various manifestations in SLE. A structured literature search of articles published on the efficacy of IVIg in the treatment of SLE between 1983 and 2005 was conducted. We searched the terms "IVIg," "intravenous immunoglobulin," "lupus," "SLE," and "systemic lupus erythematosus." The various clinical manifestations of SLE that were reported to be successfully treated by IVIg in case reports include autoimmune hemolytic anemia, acquired factor VIII inhibitors, acquired von Willebrand disease, pure red cell aplasia, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, myelofibrosis, pneumonitis, pleural effusion, pericarditis, myocarditis, cardiogenic shock, nephritis, end-stage renal disease, encephalitis, neuropsychiatric lupus, psychosis, peripheral neuropathy, polyradiculoneuropathy, and vasculitis. The most extensive experience is with lupus nephritis. There are only a few case series of IVIg use in patients with SLE with various manifestations, in which the response rate to IVIg therapy ranged from 33 to 100%. We suggest that IVIg devoid of sucrose, at a dose of 2 g/kg over a 5-d period given uniformly and at a slow infusion rate in patients without an increased risk for thromboembolic events or renal failure, is a safe and beneficial adjunct therapy for cases of SLE that are resistant to or refuse conventional treatment. The duration of therapy is yet to be established. Controlled trials are warranted.

  17. Immunoglobulin G preparation from plasma samples and analysis of its affinity kinetic binding to peptide hormones




    Authors: Romain Legrand, Kuniko Takagi & Sergueï Fetissov ### Abstract Circulating peptide hormones such as ghrelin physiologically bind plasma immunoglobulins (Ig) which protect hormone from degradation and modulate its biological activity depending on affinity of hormone / IgG binding. Because the IgG set of each individual is unique, measuring affinity kinetics of human or animal plasma IgG binding to a specific peptide hormone may provide useful information towards understandi...

  18. Immunoglobulin Concentration in Tears of Contact Lens Wearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra P Maurya


    Conclusion: The relation of immunoglobulin concentration with increasing duration of wear and material of contact lens shows that tear immunoglobulin rise accrues due to mechanical stimulation, hence contact lenses should not be used for a long period and lenses of hard nature should be discouraged. The maintenance, cleaning and deproteinization of the lenses are of high importance to avoid immunostimulation.

  19. Levels of serum immunoglobulins in apparently healthy children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Levels of serum immunoglobulins in apparently healthy children and adults in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ... Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences ... Serum levels of the immunoglobulins: IgG, IgA and IgM were determined by the single radial immunodiffusion technique of Mancini in a total of 122 apparently healthy ...

  20. Role of human-tissue transglutaminase IgG and anti-gliadin IgG antibodies in the diagnosis of coeliac disease in patients with selective immunoglobulin A deficiency. (United States)

    Lenhardt, A; Plebani, A; Marchetti, F; Gerarduzzi, T; Not, T; Meini, A; Villanacci, V; Martelossi, S; Ventura, A


    Selective IgA deficiency is associated with coeliac disease, and studies have shown an increased prevalence of coeliac disease in these patients ranging from 0.71 to 30.7%, depending on the test used for screening. To determine the sensitivity of IgG anti-gliadin-antibodies and of IgG human-tissue-transglutaminase for diagnosing coeliac disease and assessing its prevalence in subjects with IgA deficiency. We tested serum samples from 126 IgA-deficient children (66 female, median age: 10.8 years). All samples were analysed to measure IgG anti-gliadin-antibodies and IgG anti-human-tissue-transglutaminase. Patients testing positive to either test underwent intestinal biopsy. Subjects testing positive for IgG anti-human-tissue-transglutaminase underwent genetic testing for the human leucocyte antigen heterodimer. Twenty-seven of 126 subjects tested positive for IgG anti-gliadin-antibodies (five of whom tested positive also for IgG anti-human-tissue-transglutaminase) and 18 (including the aforementioned five) for IgG anti-human-tissue-transglutaminase. Intestinal biopsy was performed in 37 of the 40 patients who tested positive (three subjects refused). Eleven had positive intestinal biopsies all of whom tested positive for IgG anti-human-tissue-transglutaminase, but only five of these tested positive also for IgG anti-gliadin-antibodies. All 22 patients testing positive for anti-gliadin-antibody alone had normal intestinal mucosa. All the patients who tested positive for IgG anti-human-tissue-transglutaminase and underwent genetic screening (15/18) had the coeliac-related human leucocyte antigen. Overall, coeliac disease was diagnosed in 11 of the 126 subjects with IgA deficiency (8.7%). The prevalence of coeliac disease in subjects with total IgA deficiency was 8.7%. Assay of IgG anti-human-tissue-transglutaminase can be recommended for screening coeliac disease in IgA-deficient subjects.

  1. Genomic structure and expression of immunoglobulins in Squamata. (United States)

    Olivieri, David N; Garet, Elina; Estevez, Olivia; Sánchez-Espinel, Christian; Gambón-Deza, Francisco


    The Squamata order represents a major evolutionary reptile lineage, yet the structure and expression of immunoglobulins in this order has been scarcely studied in detail. From the genome sequences of four Squamata species (Gekko japonicus, Ophisaurus gracilis, Pogona vitticeps and Ophiophagus hannah) and RNA-seq datasets from 18 other Squamata species, we identified the immunoglobulins present in these animals as well as the tissues in which they are found. All Squamata have at least three immunoglobulin classes; namely, the immunoglobulins M, D, and Y. Unlike mammals, however, we provide evidence that some Squamata lineages possess more than one Cμ gene which is located downstream from the Cδ gene. The existence of two evolutionary lineages of immunoglobulin Y is shown. Additionally, it is demonstrated that while all Squamata species possess the λ light chain, only Iguanidae species possess the κ light chain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of vegetarian diet on serum immunoglobulin levels in children. (United States)

    Gorczyca, Daiva; Prescha, Anna; Szeremeta, Karolina


    Nutrition plays an important role in immune response. We evaluated the effect of nutrient intake on serum immunoglobulin levels in vegetarian and omnivore children. Serum immunoglobulin levels and iron status were estimated in 22 vegetarian and 18 omnivore children. Seven-day food records were used to assess the diet. There were no significant differences in serum IgA, IgM, and IgG levels between groups of children. Serum immunoglobulin levels were lower in vegetarian children with iron deficiency in comparison with those without iron deficiency. In the vegetarians, IgG level correlated positively with energy, zinc, copper, and vitamin B(6) intake. In the omnivores, these correlations were stronger with IgM level. Despite negligible differences in serum immunoglobulin levels between vegetarian and omnivore children, the impact of several nutrient intakes on IgM and IgG levels differed between groups. Low iron status in vegetarian children can lead to decreased immunoglobulin levels.

  3. Solar urticaria successfully treated with intravenous immunoglobulin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hughes, R


    Idiopathic solar urticaria (SU) is a rare, debilitating photodermatosis, which may be difficult to treat. First-line treatment with antihistamines is effective in mild cases, but remission after phototherapeutic induction of tolerance is often short-lived. Other treatment options include plasma exchange, photopheresis and cyclosporin. We present two cases of severe, idiopathic SU, which were resistant to conventional treatment. Both patients achieved remission after administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and have remained in remission at 13 months and 4 years, respectively. There are only two case reports of successful treatment of solar urticaria with IVIg. In our experience IVIg given at a total dose of 2 g\\/kg over several 5-day courses about a month apart is an effective treatment option for severe idiopathic SU. It is also generally safe, even if certainly subject to significant theoretical risks, such as induction of viral infection or anaphylaxis.

  4. Nonimmune immunoglobulin binding and multiple adhesion characterize Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes of placental origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasti, Niloofar; Namusoke, Fatuma; Chêne, Arnaud


    . A P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 variant, VAR2CSA, and the placental receptor chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) are currently the focus of PAM research. A role for immunoglobulins (IgG and IgM) from normal human serum and hyaluronic acid as additional receptors in placental sequestration have...

  5. Ghrelin-reactive immunoglobulins and anxiety, depression and stress-induced cortisol response in adolescents. The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. François (Marie); J.M. Schäfer (Johanna); C. Bole-Feysot (Christine); P. Déchelotte (Pierre); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); S.O. Fetissov (Serguei)


    textabstractBackground: Ghrelin, a hunger hormone, has been implicated in the regulation of stress-response, anxiety and depression. Ghrelin-reactive immunoglobulins (Ig) were recently identified in healthy and obese humans showing abilities to increase ghrelin's stability and orexigenic effects.

  6. Swine plasma immunoglobulins for prevention and treatment of post-weaning diarrhoea: Optimizing stability towards gut conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Chris Juul; Ballegaard, Anne-Sofie; Røjel, Nanna

    Brief description of research area: A common problem in swine production is diarrhoea in newly weaned piglets, and huge quantities of antibiotics go to treat post-weaning diarrhoeas in piglets. The use of antibiotics can lead to the development of multi- and fully resistant bacteria, which...... consequently pose a great threat to human health. Therefore, sustainable alternatives for treating post-weaning diarrhoea without using antibiotics are in demand. Swine that are old (and big) enough for slaughter have during their upbringing been challenges by many different pathogens and thus have developed...... immunity towards these pathogens, which include pathogen-specific immunoglobulins (antibodies). We hypothesis that by harvesting natural immunoglobulins from porcine blood plasma, a waste product from swine slaughter, and feeding these immunoglobulins to the piglets this can subsequently (by passive...

  7. Systematic Characterization and Comparative Analysis of the Rabbit Immunoglobulin Repertoire (United States)

    Lavinder, Jason J.; Hoi, Kam Hon; Reddy, Sai T.; Wine, Yariv; Georgiou, George


    Rabbits have been used extensively as a model system for the elucidation of the mechanism of immunoglobulin diversification and for the production of antibodies. We employed Next Generation Sequencing to analyze Ig germline V and J gene usage, CDR3 length and amino acid composition, and gene conversion frequencies within the functional (transcribed) IgG repertoire of the New Zealand white rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Several previously unannotated rabbit heavy chain variable (VH) and light chain variable (VL) germline elements were deduced bioinformatically using multidimensional scaling and k-means clustering methods. We estimated the gene conversion frequency in the rabbit at 23% of IgG sequences with a mean gene conversion tract length of 59±36 bp. Sequencing and gene conversion analysis of the chicken, human, and mouse repertoires revealed that gene conversion occurs much more extensively in the chicken (frequency 70%, tract length 79±57 bp), was observed to a small, yet statistically significant extent in humans, but was virtually absent in mice. PMID:24978027

  8. Systematic characterization and comparative analysis of the rabbit immunoglobulin repertoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason J Lavinder

    Full Text Available Rabbits have been used extensively as a model system for the elucidation of the mechanism of immunoglobulin diversification and for the production of antibodies. We employed Next Generation Sequencing to analyze Ig germline V and J gene usage, CDR3 length and amino acid composition, and gene conversion frequencies within the functional (transcribed IgG repertoire of the New Zealand white rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. Several previously unannotated rabbit heavy chain variable (VH and light chain variable (VL germline elements were deduced bioinformatically using multidimensional scaling and k-means clustering methods. We estimated the gene conversion frequency in the rabbit at 23% of IgG sequences with a mean gene conversion tract length of 59±36 bp. Sequencing and gene conversion analysis of the chicken, human, and mouse repertoires revealed that gene conversion occurs much more extensively in the chicken (frequency 70%, tract length 79±57 bp, was observed to a small, yet statistically significant extent in humans, but was virtually absent in mice.

  9. Natural immunoglobulins (contribution to a debate on biomedical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz Nelson M


    Full Text Available Immunology has contributed to biomedical education in many important ways since the creation of scientific medicine in the last quarter of the 19th century. Today, immunology is a major area of biomedical research. Nevertheless, there are many basic problems unresolved in immunological activities and phenomena. Solving these problems is probably necessary to devise predictable and safe ways to produce new vaccines, treat allergy and autoimmune diseases and perform safe transplants. This challenge involves not only technical developments but also changes in attitude, of which the most fundamental is to abandon the traditional stimulus-response perspective in favor of more "systemic" views. Describing immunological activities as the operation of a complex multiconnected network, raises biological and epistemological issues not usually dealt with in biomedical education. Here we point to one example of systemic approaches. A new form of immunoblot (Panama blot, by which the reaction of natural immunoglobulins with complex protein mixtures may be analyzed by a special software and multivariate statistics, has been recently used to characterize human autoimmune diseases. Our preliminary data show that Panama blots can also be used to characterize global (systemic immunogical changes in chronic human parasitic diseases, such as malaria and schistosomiasis mansoni, that correlate with the clinical status.

  10. Immunoglobulins: 25 Years of Immunoinformatics and IMGT-ONTOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Paule Lefranc


    Full Text Available IMGT®, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system® (CNRS and Montpellier University is the global reference in immunogenetics and immunoinformatics. By its creation in 1989, IMGT® marked the advent of immunoinformatics, which emerged at the interface between immunogenetics and bioinformatics. IMGT® is specialized in the immunoglobulins (IG or antibodies, T cell receptors (TR, major histocompatibility (MH, and IgSF and MhSF superfamilies. IMGT® has been built on the IMGT-ONTOLOGY axioms and concepts, which bridged the gap between genes, sequences and three-dimensional (3D structures. The concepts include the IMGT® standardized keywords (identification, IMGT® standardized labels (description, IMGT® standardized nomenclature (classification, IMGT unique numbering and IMGT Colliers de Perles (numerotation. IMGT® comprises seven databases, 15,000 pages of web resources and 17 tools. IMGT® tools and databases provide a high-quality analysis of the IG from fish to humans, for basic, veterinary and medical research, and for antibody engineering and humanization. They include, as examples: IMGT/V-QUEST and IMGT/JunctionAnalysis for nucleotide sequence analysis and their high-throughput version IMGT/HighV-QUEST for next generation sequencing, IMGT/DomainGapAlign for amino acid sequence analysis of IG domains, IMGT/3Dstructure-DB for 3D structures, contact analysis and paratope/epitope interactions of IG/antigen complexes, and the IMGT/mAb-DB interface for therapeutic antibodies and fusion proteins for immunological applications (FPIA.

  11. Platelet proteins cause basophil histamine release through an immunoglobulin-dependent mechanism. (United States)

    Lee, Donna Dong-Young; Muskaj, Igla; Savage, William


    A general understanding of allergic transfusion reaction mechanisms remains elusive. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed, but none have been compared experimentally. We used histamine release (HR) from healthy human donor basophils to model allergic transfusion reactions. Platelet component supernatant (plasma), platelet lysate, and manipulated platelet lysates (dialyzed, delipidated, trypsinized, mild heat-inactivated, and ultracentrifuged) were used to characterize allergic stimuli. Immunoglobulin-dependent mechanisms were investigated through cell surface immunoglobulin depletion and ibrutinib signaling inhibition. HR induced by platelet mitochondria was compared with HR by platelet lysate with or without DNase treatment. Robust, dose-responsive HR to platelet lysate was observed in two of eight nulliparous, never-transfused, healthy donors. No HR was observed with plasma. Among manipulated platelet lysates, only trypsin treatment significantly reduced HR (39% reduction; p = 0.008). HR in response to platelet lysate significantly decreased with either cell surface immunoglobulin depletion or ibrutinib pretreatment. Platelet mitochondria induced minimal basophil HR, and DNase treatment did not inhibit platelet lysate-induced HR. Type I immediate hypersensitivity to platelet proteins may be an allergic transfusion reaction mechanism. Prior sensitization to human proteins is not required for basophil responses to platelet proteins. Further study into the relative contributions of hypersensitivity to platelet versus plasma proteins in transfusion is warranted. © 2017 AABB.

  12. Conservation among vertebrate immunoglobulin chains detected by antibodies to a synthetic joining segment peptide. (United States)

    Schluter, S F; Rosenshein, I L; Hubbard, R A; Marchalonis, J J


    We used affinity purified antibodies produced against a synthetic peptide sequence corresponding to the entire J beta of a human T cell receptor gene to screen sera of man, mouse and other vertebrates to determine the presence of cross-reactive molecules. Little evidence for free alpha/beta heterodimers was found, but the antibody reacted with light chains of many vertebrate species, including characterized myeloma proteins of man and mouse. Some vertebrate orders, notably Aves, lacked polypeptide chains cross-reactive with J beta, but detectable determinants occurred in primitive vertebrates such as the galapagos shark (Carcharhinus galapagensis). In addition to the strong cross-reaction with purified light chains, human heavy chains reacted weakly with the antibody. The cross-reaction correlated with the sequence of the denatured immunoglobulins and was inhibitable with free peptide. These results establish the similarity of T cell receptor beta chains to immunoglobulin chains and support the conclusion that J region sequences were conserved, not only within mammalian immunoglobulins and T cell receptors, but in vertebrate evolution.

  13. Production of individualized V gene databases reveals high levels of immunoglobulin genetic diversity (United States)

    Corcoran, Martin M.; Phad, Ganesh E.; Bernat, Néstor Vázquez; Stahl-Hennig, Christiane; Sumida, Noriyuki; Persson, Mats A. A.; Martin, Marcel; Hedestam, Gunilla B. Karlsson


    Comprehensive knowledge of immunoglobulin genetics is required to advance our understanding of B cell biology. Validated immunoglobulin variable (V) gene databases are close to completion only for human and mouse. We present a novel computational approach, IgDiscover, that identifies germline V genes from expressed repertoires to a specificity of 100%. IgDiscover uses a cluster identification process to produce candidate sequences that, once filtered, results in individualized germline V gene databases. IgDiscover was tested in multiple species, validated by genomic cloning and cross library comparisons and produces comprehensive gene databases even where limited genomic sequence is available. IgDiscover analysis of the allelic content of the Indian and Chinese-origin rhesus macaques reveals high levels of immunoglobulin gene diversity in this species. Further, we describe a novel human IGHV3-21 allele and confirm significant gene differences between Balb/c and C57BL6 mouse strains, demonstrating the power of IgDiscover as a germline V gene discovery tool.

  14. Production of immunoglobulins in gingival tissue explant cultures from juvenile periodontitis patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, E.R.; Falkler, W.A. Jr.; Suzuki, J.B. (Univ. of Maryland Dental School, Baltimore (USA))


    B lymphocytes and plasma cells are histologically observed in granulomatous periodontal tissues of juvenile periodontitis (JP) patients. Local immune processes may participate in protective or immunopathologic roles in the pathogenesis of this disease. An in vitro explant culture system was utilized to demonstrate the production of immunoglobulins by diseased JP tissues. Immunodiffusion studies using goat anti-human gamma, alpha, or mu chain serum revealed IgG to be the major immunoglobulin present in 92% of the day 1 supernatant fluids (SF) of the 47 JP gingival tissue explant cultures. IgA was present in 15% of the SF; however, no IgM was detected. Staph Protein A isolated 14C-labeled IgG from the SF, when allowed to react with goat anti-human gamma chain serum, formed lines of precipitation. Positive autoradiographs confirmed the biosynthesis of IgG by the explant cultures. The in vitro gingival tissue explant culture system described provides a useful model for the study of localized immunoglobulins produced by diseased tissues of JP patients.

  15. Carbohydrate composition of immunoglobulins from diverse species of verterbrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acton, R.T.; Niedermeier, W.; Weinheimer, P.F.; Clem, L.W.; Leslie, G.A.; Bennett, J.C.


    Immunoglobulins and their respective heavy (H) and light (L) polypeptide chains from species representing the major classes of vertebrates were analyzed for their carbohydrate composition by gas chromatography of the alditol acetate derivatives of the monosaccharides released by acid hydrolysis. Mannose, galactose, glucosamine and sialic acid were present in the immunoglobulins from all the species investigated. Most of the carbohydrate was found associated with the H chains. Whereas species representative of the mammals and birds had mannose to galactose ratios greater than one, the ratio to these sugars to each other in the immunoglobulins from animals below the birds was on the order of one.

  16. VH Replacement Footprint Analyser-I (VHRFA-I, a Java based Computer Program for Analyses of Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Genes and Potential VH Replacement Products in Human and Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin eHuang


    Full Text Available VH replacement occurs through RAG-mediated secondary recombination between a rearranged VH gene and an upstream unrearranged VH gene. Due to the location of the cryptic Recombination Signal Sequence (cRSS, TACTGTG at the 3’ end of VH gene coding region, a short stretch of nucleotides from the previous rearranged VH gene can be retained in the newly formed VH-DH junction as a footprint of VH replacement. Such footprints can be used as markers to identify IgH genes potentially generated through VH replacement. To explore the contribution of VH replacement products to the antibody repertoire, we developed a Java based computer program, VH replacement footprint analyzer-I (VHRFA-I, to analyze published or newly obtained IgH genes from human or mouse. The VHRFA-1 program has multiple functional modules: it first uses service provided by the IMGT/V-QUEST program to assign potential VH, DH, and JH germline genes; then, it searches for VH replacement footprint motifs within the VH-DH junction (N1 regions of IgH gene sequences to identify potential VH replacement products; it can also analyze the frequencies of VH replacement products in correlation with publications, keywords, or VH, DH, and JH gene usages, and mutation status; it can further analyze the amino acid usages encoded by the identified VH replacement footprints. In summary, this program provides a useful computation tool for exploring the biological significance of VH replacement products in human and mouse.

  17. Structural Insights into Complexes of Glucose-Regulated Protein94 (Grp94) with Human Immunoglobulin G. Relevance for Grp94-IgG Complexes that Form In Vivo in Pathological Conditions (United States)

    Pagetta, Andrea; Tramentozzi, Elisa; Tibaldi, Elena; Cendron, Laura; Zanotti, Giuseppe; Brunati, Anna Maria; Vitadello, Maurizio; Gorza, Luisa; Finotti, Paola


    While the mechanism by which Grp94 displays its chaperone function with client peptides in the cell has been elucidated extensively, much less is known about the nature and properties of how Grp94 can engage binding to proteins once it is exposed on the cell surface or liberated in the extra-cellular milieu, as occurs in pathological conditions. In this work, we wanted to investigate the molecular aspects and structural characteristics of complexes that Grp94 forms with human IgG, posing the attention on the influence that glycosylation of Grp94 might have on the binding capacity to IgG, and on the identification of sites involved in the binding. To this aim, we employed both native, fully glycosylated and partially glycosylated Grp94, and recombinant, non-glycosylated Grp94, as well as IgG subunits, in different experimental conditions, including the physiological setting of human plasma. Regardless of the species and type, Grp94 engages a similar, highly specific and stable binding with IgG that involves sites located in the N-terminal domain of Grp94 and the hinge region of whole IgG. Grp94 does not form stable complex with Fab, F(ab)2 or Fc. Glycosylation turns out to be an obstacle to the Grp94 binding to IgG, although this negative effect can be counteracted by ATP and spontaneously also disappears in time in a physiological setting of incubation. ATP does not affect at all the binding capacity of non-glycosylated Grp94. However, complexes that native, partially glycosylated Grp94 forms with IgG in the presence of ATP show strikingly different characteristics with respect to those formed in absence of ATP. Results have relevance for the mechanism regulating the formation of stable Grp94-IgG complexes in vivo, in the pathological conditions associated with the extra-cellular location of Grp94. PMID:24489700

  18. Recommendations for the use of immunoglobulin therapy for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, acute idiopathic thrombocytopenia, Kawasaki disease and immunobullous diseases. Low-quality evidence shows benefit in many other uncommon autoimmune and immunodeficient conditions. In South Africa, use of immunoglobulin therapy is restricted and, given the ...

  19. Beneficial use of immunoglobulins in the treatment of Sydenham chorea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.D. van Immerzeel (Tabitha); R.M. van Gilst (Ruud); N.G. Hartwig (Nico)


    textabstractThis double case report indicates that treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) is effective in patients with Sydenham chorea (SC). SC is a rare but impressive clinical manifestation following streptococcal infection. This movement disorder characterised by chorea, emotional

  20. Immunoglobulins in granular corneal dystrophy Groenouw type I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H U; Bojsen-Møller, M; Schrøder, H D


    Three patients with granular corneal dystrophy Groenouw type I underwent corneal grafting, and cryostat sections of the corneal buttons were examined immunohistochemically for immunoglobulins. Positive results were obtained for IgG, Kappa-, and Lambda chains with immunofluorescence technique. The...

  1. Immunoglobulin G antisperm antibodies and prediction of spontaneous pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leushuis, Esther; van der Steeg, Jan Willem; Steures, Pieternel; Repping, Sjoerd; Schöls, Willem; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Hompes, Peter G. A.


    Objective: To investigate the predictive capacity of immunoglobulin G ASA (direct MAR test) for spontaneous ongoing pregnancy in subfertile couples. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Nine fertility centers in The Netherlands. Patient(s): Consecutive ovulatory subfertile couples.

  2. Cytomegalovirus Immunoglobulin After Thoracic Transplantation: An Overview. (United States)

    Grossi, Paolo; Mohacsi, Paul; Szabolcs, Zoltán; Potena, Luciano


    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a highly complex pathogen which, despite modern prophylactic regimens, continues to affect a high proportion of thoracic organ transplant recipients. The symptomatic manifestations of CMV infection are compounded by adverse indirect effects induced by the multiple immunomodulatory actions of CMV. These include a higher risk of acute rejection, cardiac allograft vasculopathy after heart transplantation, and potentially bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome in lung transplant recipients, with a greater propensity for opportunistic secondary infections. Prophylaxis for CMV using antiviral agents (typically oral valganciclovir or intravenous ganciclovir) is now almost universal, at least in high-risk transplants (D+/R-). Even with extended prophylactic regimens, however, challenges remain. The CMV events can still occur despite antiviral prophylaxis, including late-onset infection or recurrent disease, and patients with ganciclovir-resistant CMV infection or who are intolerant to antiviral therapy require alternative strategies. The CMV immunoglobulin (CMVIG) and antiviral agents have complementary modes of action. High-titer CMVIG preparations provide passive CMV-specific immunity but also exert complex immunomodulatory properties which augment the antiviral effect of antiviral agents and offer the potential to suppress the indirect effects of CMV infection. This supplement discusses the available data concerning the immunological and clinical effects of CMVIG after heart or lung transplantation.

  3. Intravenous Immunoglobulin Protects Against Severe Pandemic Influenza Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Rockman


    Full Text Available Influenza is a highly contagious, acute, febrile respiratory infection that can have fatal consequences particularly in individuals with chronic illnesses. Sporadic reports suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg may be efficacious in the influenza setting. We investigated the potential of human IVIg to ameliorate influenza infection in ferrets exposed to either the pandemic H1N1/09 virus (pH1N1 or highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1. IVIg administered at the time of influenza virus exposure led to a significant reduction in lung viral load following pH1N1 challenge. In the lethal H5N1 model, the majority of animals given IVIg survived challenge in a dose dependent manner. Protection was also afforded by purified F(ab′2 but not Fc fragments derived from IVIg, supporting a specific antibody-mediated mechanism of protection. We conclude that pre-pandemic IVIg can modulate serious influenza infection-associated mortality and morbidity. IVIg could be useful prophylactically in the event of a pandemic to protect vulnerable population groups and in the critical care setting as a first stage intervention.

  4. AID is essential for immunoglobulin V gene conversion in a cultured B cell line. (United States)

    Harris, Reuben S; Sale, Julian E; Petersen-Mahrt, Svend K; Neuberger, Michael S


    Following productive V gene rearrangement, the functional immunoglobulin genes in the B lymphocytes of man and mouse are subjected to two further types of genetic modification. Class-switch recombination, a region-specific but largely nonhomologous recombination process, leads to a change in constant region of the expressed antibody. Somatic hypermutation introduces multiple single nucleotide substitutions in and around the rearranged V gene segments and underpins affinity maturation. However, in chicken and rabbits (but not man or mouse), an additional mechanism, gene conversion, is a major contributor to V gene diversification. It has been demonstrated recently that both switch recombination and hypermutation are ablated in mice and humans lacking AID, a B cell-specific protein of unknown molecular activity. Here we show that disruption of AID in the DT40 chicken B cell lymphoma leads to a failure to perform immunoglobulin V gene conversion. Thus, AID is required for all three immunoglobulin gene modification programs (gene conversion, hypermutation, and switch recombination) and acts in the initiation or execution of these processes rather than in bringing the B cell to an appropriate stage of differentiation.

  5. Immunoglobulin E and systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atta A.M.


    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease characterized by intense polyclonal production of autoantibodies and circulating immune complexes. Some reports have associated SLE with a Th2 immune response and allergy. In the present study 21 female patients with SLE were investigated for total IgE and IgE antibodies to dust house aeroallergens by an automated enzyme-linked fluorescent assay, and were also evaluated for antinuclear IgE autoantibodies by a modified indirect immunofluorescence test using HEp-2 cells as antigen substrate. Additionally, immunocapture ELISA was used to investigate serum anti-IgE IgG autoantibodies. Serum IgE above 150 IU/ml, ranging from 152 to 609 IU/ml (median = 394 IU IgE/ml, was observed in 7 of 21 SLE patients (33%, 5 of them presenting proteinuria, urinary cellular casts and augmented production of anti-dsDNA antibodies. While only 2 of 21 SLE patients (9.5% were positive for IgE antibodies to aeroallergens, all 10 patients with respiratory allergy (100% from the atopic control group (3 males and 7 females, had these immunoglobulins. SLE patients and healthy controls presented similar anti-IgE IgG autoantibody titers (X = 0.37 ± 0.20 and 0.34 ± 0.18, respectively, differing from atopic controls (0.94 ± 0.26. Antinuclear IgE autoantibodies were detected in 17 of 21 (81% sera from SLE patients, predominating the fine speckled pattern of fluorescence, that was also observed in IgG-ANA. Concluding, SLE patients can present increased IgE levels and antinuclear IgE autoantibodies without specific clinical signs of allergy or production of antiallergen IgE antibodies, excluding a possible association between SLE and allergy.

  6. Systemic sclerosis and prevalence of monoclonal immunoglobulin. (United States)

    Trad, Salim; Nosbaum, Audrey; Musset, Lucile; Ghillani-Dalbin, Pascale; Launay, David; Costedoat-Chalumeau, Nathalie; Saadoun, David; Cabane, Jean; Hachulla, Eric; Hanslik, Thomas; Frances, Camille


    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of monoclonal immunoglobulin (MIg) among patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) according to the capillary electrophoresis or immunofixation method of detection and to search for any related clinical correlations. Retrospective multicenter comparison of capillary electrophoresis and immunofixation results in SSc patients and of the characteristics of patients with and without MIg. The study included 244 SSc patients (216 women and 28 men, mean age: 55±14 years). Median time since SSc diagnosis was 51 months [0-320]; disease was diffuse in 48% of cases. Ten percent of patients had cancer, including Waldenström macroglobulinemia (n=1) and multiple myeloma (n=3). Capillary electrophoresis showed a γ-globulin anomaly in 41% of cases, and immunofixation in 18%: MIg (13.5%) and restriction of heterogeneity (4.5%). Capillary electrophoresis failed to detect 60% of the 33 MIg patients. Measurable MIg concentrations were obtained from 7 patients. MIg patients were significantly older at SSc diagnosis than those without MIg (p=0.002), had a lower diffusing capacity (p=0.002), a higher prevalence of pulmonary hypertension and cancer (p=0.002) and were more frequently positive for anti-mitochondrial and anti-beta2-glycoprotein-I antibodies (p=0.03 and p=0.02, respectively). Multivariate analyses showed that only age at test [hazard ratio 1.03 (95% CI, 1.00-1.07, p=0.04)] and presence of cancer [hazard ratio 4.46 (95% CI, 1.6-12.4, p=0.004)] were associated with MIg. Immunofixation detected a high prevalence of MIg among SSc patients especially in patients aged 50-years or older. MIg was not detected by the standard capillary electrophoresis in 60% of cases and was significantly associated with cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Serum immunoglobulin G4 and immunoglobulin G1 for distinguishing immunoglobulin G4-associated cholangitis from primary sclerosing cholangitis. (United States)

    Boonstra, Kirsten; Culver, Emma L; de Buy Wenniger, Lucas Maillette; van Heerde, Marianne J; van Erpecum, Karel J; Poen, Alexander C; van Nieuwkerk, Karin M J; Spanier, B W Marcel; Witteman, Ben J M; Tuynman, Hans A R E; van Geloven, Nan; van Buuren, Henk; Chapman, Roger W; Barnes, Eleanor; Beuers, Ulrich; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y


    The recent addition of immunoglobulin (Ig)G4-associated cholangitis (IAC), also called IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IRSC), to the spectrum of chronic cholangiopathies has created the clinical need for reliable methods to discriminate between IAC and the more common cholestatic entities, primary (PSC) and secondary sclerosing cholangitis. The current American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases practice guidelines for PSC advise on the measurement of specific Ig (sIg)G4 in PSC patients, but interpretation of elevated sIgG4 levels remains unclear. We aimed to provide an algorithm to distinguish IAC from PSC using sIgG analyses. We measured total IgG and IgG subclasses in serum samples of IAC (n = 73) and PSC (n = 310) patients, as well as in serum samples of disease controls (primary biliary cirrhosis; n = 22). sIgG4 levels were elevated above the upper limit of normal (ULN = >1.4 g/L) in 45 PSC patients (15%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 11-19). The highest specificity and positive predictive value (PPV; 100%) for IAC were reached when applying the 4 × ULN (sIgG4 > 5.6 g/L) cutoff with a sensitivity of 42% (95% CI: 31-55). However, in patients with a sIgG4 between 1 × and 2 × ULN (n = 38/45), the PPV of sIgG4 for IAC was only 28%. In this subgroup, the sIgG4/sIgG1 ratio cutoff of 0.24 yielded a sensitivity of 80% (95% CI: 51-95), a specificity of 74% (95% CI: 57-86), a PPV of 55% (95% CI: 33-75), and a negative predictive value of 90% (95% CI: 73-97). Elevated sIgG4 (>1.4 g/L) occurred in 15% of patients with PSC. In patients with a sIgG4 >1.4 and <2.8 g/L, incorporating the IgG4/IgG1 ratio with a cutoff at 0.24 in the diagnostic algorithm significantly improved PPV and specificity. We propose a new diagnostic algorithm based on IgG4/IgG1 ratio that may be used in clinical practice to distinguish PSC from IAC. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  8. Serum immunoglobulin G4 levels and Graves' disease phenotype. (United States)

    Martin, Carmen Sorina; Sirbu, Anca Elena; Betivoiu, Minodora Andreea; Florea, Suzana; Barbu, Carmen Gabriela; Fica, Simona Vasilica


    We investigated, at diagnosis, the relationship between serum immunoglobulin G4 levels and the main characteristics of Graves' disease: hyperthyroidism severity, goiter size, presence of active Graves' ophthalmopathy, antithyroid antibodies status, and titer. This prospective study included 80 newly diagnosed Graves' disease patients. The main parameters measured at diagnosis: thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, total triiodothyronine, thyroglobulin, antithyroid peroxidase antibodies, anti-thyroglobulin antibodies, thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies, immunoglobulin G4. In Graves' disease patients, serum immunoglobulin G4 levels were higher than in general population (p = 0.028) and higher in men compared to women (p = 0.002). Only one female patient with intense hypoechoic goiter, high anti-thyroglobulin antibody, and antithyroid peroxidase antibody titers had an elevated serum immunoglobulin G4 level at diagnosis. Patients with immunoglobulin G4 levels above the 75th percentile (>237.52 mg/dl, N = 20) were younger at Graves' ophthalmopathy onset (p 286.28 mg/dl, N = 8) had lower total triiodothyronine values (p = 0.001) than patients with IgG below the 90th percentile. No significant correlations were found between smoking status (p = 0.58), goiter size (p = 0.50), the presence of ophthalmopathy (p = 0.42) or thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody titers (p = 0.45) and the mean value of immunoglobulin G4 levels at diagnosis. Our data suggest that Graves' disease patients with elevated immunoglobulin G4 levels at diagnosis have a phenotype characterized by higher anti-thyroglobulin antibody and antithyroid peroxidase antibody titers, less severe T3 hyperthyroidism, younger age at ophthalmopathy onset and require a shorter duration of the first methimazole treatment cycle.

  9. Solution structure of the first immunoglobulin domain of human myotilin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikkinen, Outi [University of Helsinki, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry (Finland)], E-mail:; Permi, Perttu [University of Helsinki, Program in Structural Biology and Biophysics, Institute of Biotechnology (Finland); Koskela, Harri [University of Helsinki, Finnish Institute for Verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention (VERIFIN) (Finland); Carpen, Olli [University of Helsinki, Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience Program, Biomedicum (Finland); Ylaenne, Jari [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Biological and Environmental Science and Nanoscience Center (Finland); Kilpelaeinen, Ilkka [University of Helsinki, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry (Finland)


    Myotilin is a 57 kDa actin-binding and -bundling protein that consists of a unique serine-rich amino-terminus, two Ig-domains and a short carboxy-terminus with a PDZ-binding motif. Myotilin localizes in sarcomeric Z-discs, where it interacts with several sarcomeric proteins. Point mutations in myotilin cause muscle disorders morphologically highlighted by sarcomeric disarray and aggregation. The actin-binding and dimerization propensity of myotilin has been mapped to the Ig-domains. Here we present high-resolution structure of the first Ig-domain of myotilin (MyoIg1) determined with solution state NMR spectroscopy. Nearly complete chemical shift assignments of MyoIg1 were achieved despite several missing backbone {sup 1}H-{sup 15}N-HSQC signals. The structure derived from distance and dihedral angle restraints using torsion angle dynamics was further refined using molecular dynamics. The structure of MyoIg1 exhibits I-type Ig-fold. The absence of several backbone {sup 1}H-{sup 15}N-HSQC signals can be explained by conformational exchange taking place at the hydrophobic core of the protein.

  10. Uninvolved immunoglobulins predicting hematological response in newly diagnosed AL amyloidosis. (United States)

    Muchtar, Eli; Magen, Hila; Itchaki, Gilad; Cohen, Amos; Rosenfeld, Ra'ama; Shochat, Tzippy; Kornowski, Ran; Iakobishvili, Zaza; Raanani, Pia


    Immunoparesis serves as a marker for elevated risk for progression in plasma cell proliferative disorders. However, the impact of immunoparesis in AL amyloidosis has not been addressed. Immunoparesis was defined qualitatively as any decrease below the low reference levels of the uninvolved immunoglobulins and quantitatively, as the relative difference between the uninvolved immunoglobulins and the lower reference values. Forty-one newly diagnosed AL amyloidosis patients were included. Sixty-six percent of patients had a suppression of the uninvolved immunoglobulins. The median relative difference of the uninvolved immunoglobulins was 18% above the low reference levels [range (-71%)-210%]. Ninety percent of the patients were treated with novel agents-based regimens, mostly bortezomib-containing regimens. Nineteen percent of the patients did not attain response to first line treatment. Patients with relative difference of uninvolved immunoglobulins below -25% of the low reference levels were less likely to respond to first line treatment compared to patients with a relative difference of -25% and above [odds ratio for no response vs. partial response and better 30 [(95% CI 4.1-222.2), P=0.0004]. Patients who failed first line treatment were successfully salvaged with lenalidomide-based treatment. Immunoparesis, if assessed quantitatively, may serve as a predictor of response in AL amyloidosis patients treated with bortezomib-containing regimens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stress modulates intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael eCampos-Rodríguez


    Full Text Available Stress is a response of the central nervous system to environmental stimuli perceived as a threat to homeostasis. The stress response triggers the generation of neurotransmitters and hormones from the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis, sympathetic axis and brain gut axis, and in this way modulates the intestinal immune system. The effects of psychological stress on intestinal immunity have been investigated mostly with the restraint/immobilization rodent model, resulting in an up or down modulation of SIgA levels depending on the intensity and time of exposure to stress. SIgA is a protein complex formed by dimeric (dIgA or polymeric IgA (pIgA and the secretory component (SC, a peptide derived from the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR. The latter receptor is a transmembrane protein expressed on the basolateral side of gut epithelial cells, where it uptakes dIgA or pIgA released by plasma cells in the lamina propria. As a result, the IgA-pIgR complex is formed and transported by vesicles to the apical side of epithelial cells. pIgR is then cleaved to release SIgA into the luminal secretions of gut. Down modulation of SIgA associated with stress can have negative repercussions on intestinal function and integrity. This can take the form of increased adhesion of pathogenic agents to the intestinal epithelium and/or an altered balance of inflammation leading to greater intestinal permeability. Most studies on the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stress response have focused on systemic immunity. The present review analyzes the impact of stress (mostly by restraint/immobilization, but also with mention of other models on the generation of SIgA, pIgR and other humoral and cellular components involved in the intestinal immune response. Insights into these mechanisms could lead to better therapies for protecting against pathogenic agents and avoiding epithelial tissue damage by modulating intestinal inflammation.

  12. Signal Transduction of Immunoglobulin E Receptor Crosslinking. (United States)

    Ryan, Timothy Aidan

    In the work presented in this thesis we explore several important aspects of the mechanisms involved in the signal transduction of the crosslinking of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-receptor complexes on the surface of rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells. In order to understand what interactions may be important in determining the lateral diffusibility of this cell surface protein, quantitative fluorescence measurements were made of the distribution of fluorescence labelled IgE as well as a variety of other membrane proteins under externally applied electrical potential gradients. These measurements reveal that strong steric interactions are manifest at the typical protein concentrations on cell surfaces, and that these interactions are well accounted for in these experiments by an excluded volume model which can be expressed as a Fermi distribution. The relationship between the lateral diffusion coefficient determined from fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) experiments and those determined by analyzing the relaxation of the concentration gradients induced by externally applied electrical gradients are discussed. The cell surface interactions associated with IgE-receptor crosslinking are known to lead to dramatic changes in free ionized Ca^{2+} activity (Ca^{2+}] _{i} within the cells. Methods were developed which allowed us to study the spatio-temporal dynamics of (Ca^{2+}] _{i} during the crosslinking events using quantitative low light level imaging of the fluorescent Ca^{2+} indicator fura -2 loaded into RBL cells. These studies indicate that the cell surface crosslinking events lead to large complex oscillations of (Ca^{2+}] _{i} within the cell, which appear to be controlled by some as yet unidentified messenger molecule. Comparisons of the kinetics of the changes in (Ca^{2+}]_{i } induced within the cells with that of the crosslinking induced by a simple bivalent antigen suggest that the relevant stimulus needed to generate a (Ca ^{2+}]_{i} response is not

  13. Functionality of Immunoglobulin G and Immunoglobulin M Antibody Physisorbed on Cellulosic Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziwei Huang


    Full Text Available The functionality and aging mechanism of antibodies physisorbed onto cellulosic films was investigated. Blood grouping antibodies immunoglobulin G (IgG and immunoglobulin M (IgM were adsorbed onto smooth cellulose acetate (CAF and regenerated cellulose (RCF films. Cellulose films and adsorbed IgG layers were characterized at the air and liquid interface by X-ray and neutron reflectivity (NR, respectively. Cellulose film 208 Å thick (in air swell to 386 Å once equilibrated in water. IgG adsorbs from solution onto cellulose as a partial layer 62 Å thick. IgG and IgM antibodies were adsorbed onto cellulose and cellulose acetate films, air dried, and aged at room temperature for periods up to 20 days. Antibody functionality and surface hydrophobicity were measured everyday with the size of red blood cell (RBC agglutinates (using RBC specific to IgG/IgM and the water droplet contact angle, respectively. The functionality of the aged IgG/IgM decreases faster if physisorbed on cellulose than on cellulose acetate and correlates to surface hydrophobicity. IgG physisorbed on RCF or CAF age better and remain functional longer than physisorbed IgM. We found a correlation between antibody stability and hydrogen bond formation ability of the system, evaluated from antibody carbonyl concentration and cellulosic surface hydroxyl concentration. Antibody physisorbs on cellulose by weak dipole forces and hydrogen bonds. Strong hydrogen bonding contributes to the physisorption of antibody on cellulose into a non-functional configuration in which the molecule relaxes by rotation of hydophobic groups toward the air interface.

  14. [Sinonasal polyposis associated with a deficiency subclass immunoglobulin G: Place of substitution immunoglobulins]. (United States)

    Hoan, Nhung Tran Khai; Karmochkine, M; Laccourreye, O; Bonfils, P


    To study the effect of the introduction of a substitution by intravenous Immunoglobulins (Ig IV) at patients with immunoglobulins G (IgG) subclasses deficiency and nasal polyposis. Prospective study concerning five patients with IgG subclasses deficiency and nasal polyposis treated by Ig IV. Rhinologic, otologic and pulmonary symptoms, exacerbations of nasal polyposis, chronic otitis and asthma as well as the number of antibiotics and corticoids treatments were counted during the Ig IV substitution. To study the association between IgIV substitution and the number of exacerbations of nasal polyposis, chronic otitis, asthma and the number of antibiotics and corticoids treatments in patients with IgG subclasses deficiency and nasal polyposis. Five patients with a IgG subclass deficiency and nasal polyposis were substituted. The number of antibiotics and corticoids cures increased at one patient and remained stable at four others. The number of sinus, ear and lung infections as well as the global rhinologic score of symptoms and the endoscopic stage of the nasal polyposis remained stable. In the absence of efficiency of the treatment, this one was interrupted at the end of 6 months for patients n° 1 and n° 3, 24 months for patient n° 4 and 42 months for patient n° 5. The current study failed to highlight clinical improvement in patients wih IgG subclasses deficiency and nasal polyposis treated by Ig IV. A previous study had not allowed to find a link between IgG subclasses deficiency and severity of nasal polyposis, what seems to be confirmed by the absence of improvement brought during the substitution of this deficit in the current study.

  15. SCM, the M Protein of Streptococcus canis Binds Immunoglobulin G. (United States)

    Bergmann, Simone; Eichhorn, Inga; Kohler, Thomas P; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Goldmann, Oliver; Rohde, Manfred; Fulde, Marcus


    The M protein of Streptococcus canis (SCM) is a virulence factor and serves as a surface-associated receptor with a particular affinity for mini-plasminogen, a cleavage product of the broad-spectrum serine protease plasmin. Here, we report that SCM has an additional high-affinity immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding activity. The ability of a particular S. canis isolate to bind to IgG significantly correlates with a scm-positive phenotype, suggesting a dominant role of SCM as an IgG receptor. Subsequent heterologous expression of SCM in non-IgG binding S. gordonii and Western Blot analysis with purified recombinant SCM proteins confirmed its IgG receptor function. As expected for a zoonotic agent, the SCM-IgG interaction is species-unspecific, with a particular affinity of SCM for IgGs derived from human, cats, dogs, horses, mice, and rabbits, but not from cows and goats. Similar to other streptococcal IgG-binding proteins, the interaction between SCM and IgG occurs via the conserved Fc domain and is, therefore, non-opsonic. Interestingly, the interaction between SCM and IgG-Fc on the bacterial surface specifically prevents opsonization by C1q, which might constitute another anti-phagocytic mechanism of SCM. Extensive binding analyses with a variety of different truncated SCM fragments defined a region of 52 amino acids located in the central part of the mature SCM protein which is important for IgG binding. This binding region is highly conserved among SCM proteins derived from different S. canis isolates but differs significantly from IgG-Fc receptors of S. pyogenes and S. dysgalactiae sub. equisimilis, respectively. In summary, we present an additional role of SCM in the pathogen-host interaction of S. canis. The detailed analysis of the SCM-IgG interaction should contribute to a better understanding of the complex roles of M proteins in streptococcal pathogenesis.

  16. A phase 3 trial of IV immunoglobulin for Alzheimer disease. (United States)

    Relkin, Norman R; Thomas, Ronald G; Rissman, Robert A; Brewer, James B; Rafii, Michael S; van Dyck, Christopher H; Jack, Clifford R; Sano, Mary; Knopman, David S; Raman, Rema; Szabo, Paul; Gelmont, David M; Fritsch, Sandor; Aisen, Paul S


    We tested biweekly infusions of IV immunoglobulin (IVIg) as a possible treatment for mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia. In a phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 390 participants with mild to moderate AD to receive placebo (low-dose albumin) or IVIg (Gammagard Liquid; Baxalta, Bannockburn, IL) administered IV at doses of 0.2 or 0.4 g/kg every 2 weeks for 18 months. The primary cognitive outcome was change from baseline to 18 months on the 11-item cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale; the primary functional outcome was 18-month change on the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living Inventory. Safety and tolerability data, as well as serial MRIs and plasma samples, were collected throughout the study from all enrolled participants. No beneficial effects were observed in the dual primary outcome measures for the 2 IVIg doses tested. Significant decreases in plasma Aβ42 (but not Aβ40) levels were observed in IVIg-treated participants. Analysis of safety data showed no difference between IVIg and placebo in terms of the rate of occurrence of amyloid-related imaging abnormalities (brain edema or microhemorrhage). IVIg-treated participants had more systemic reactions (chills, rashes) but fewer respiratory infections than participants receiving placebo. Participants with mild to moderate AD showed good tolerability of treatment with low-dose human IVIg for 18 months but did not show beneficial effects on cognition or function relative to participants who received placebo. NCT00818662. This study provides Class II evidence that IVIg infusions performed every 2 weeks do not improve cognition or function at 18 months in patients with mild to moderate AD. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. Immunoglobulin Concentration in Tears of Contact Lens Wearers


    Maurya, Rajendra P.; Bhushan, Prashant; Singh, Virendra P.; Singh, Mahendra K.; Kumar, Prakash; Bhatia, Ravindra P.S.; Singh, Usha


    Purpose: To evaluate changes in the concentration of tear immunoglobulins in contact lens wearers. Methods: A total of 45 cases including 23 contact lens wearers (43 eyes) and 22 age and sex matched healthy controls having no ocular pathology were studied for immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM) in their tears by single radial immunodiffusion method. Results: Most of the cases used soft (56.6%) and semi-soft gas permeable (30.4%) contact lenses. Tear IgM was detected in only 17.4% and tear I...

  18. Inverse relation between vitamin D and serum total immunoglobulin G in the Scandinavian Cystic Fibrosis Nutritional Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pincikova, T; Nilsson, K; Moen, I E


    The hallmark of cystic fibrosis (CF) is chronic lung inflammation. The severity of lung disease is closely correlated with immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels. Beyond its contribution to the bone health, the importance of vitamin D has not been fully recognized owing to the lack of human studies...... providing evidence of its benefit. In the context of the recently described immunomodulatory functions of vitamin D, we aimed to assess the relationship between vitamin D and IgG levels....

  19. Prevalence and specificity of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin A non-complement-binding anti-HLA alloantibodies in retransplant candidates. (United States)

    Arnold, M-L; Dechant, M; Doxiadis, I I N; Spriewald, B M


    The role of complement-binding donor-directed anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies in graft rejection is well established, whereas the prevalence and relevance of non-complement-binding (NCB) anti-HLA antibodies are less well defined. The aim of our study was to establish a sensitive and reliable test system for the detection and the specification of these NCB anti-HLA antibodies. Sera from 60 patients awaiting retransplantation were analysed for the presence of anti-HLA class I alloantibodies with complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) tests. Immunoglobulin (Ig)G(all) anti-HLA class I and class II alloantibodies were differentiated on generic level by plate-based solid phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Subsequently, a modified bead-based (Luminex) assay was applied, allowing the investigation of IgG(2/4) NCB isotypes as well as IgA(1/2). The anti-HLA specificities of the NCB alloantibodies were determined and compared with known mismatches from previous transplants. Seventeen of the 60 sera (28%) were positive in the CDC increasing to 26 of 60 (43%) in the class I and 33 of 60 (55%) in the class II plate-based assay. Using the modified bead-based system 24 of 60 sera (40%) contained NCB IgG(2/4), which were mostly donor specific. In addition, a high prevalence of NCB IgA antibodies was detected (26 of 60 sera), which occurred independently of IgG(2/4) NCB, and half of which were donor specific. NCB anti-HLA alloantibodies, including the IgA isotype, can reliably be detected using the modified bead-based test system. These NCB alloantibodies had a high prevalence in retransplant candidates and were mostly donor specific.

  20. On the dark side of therapies with immunoglobulin concentrates. The adverse events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Spaeth


    Full Text Available Abstract to the dark side of therapies with human immunoglobulin G concentratesTherapy by human immunoglobulin G (IgG concentrates is a success story ongoing for decades with an ever increasing demand for this plasma product. The success of IgG concentrates on a clinical level is documented by the slowly increasing number of registered indication and the more rapid increase of the off-label uses, a topic dealt with in another contribution to this special issue of Frontiers in Immunology. A part of the success is the adverse event (AE profile of IgG concentrates which, even at life-long need for therapy, is excellent. Transmission of pathogens in the last decade could be entirely controlled through the antecedent introduction by authorities of a regulatory network and installing quality standards by the plasma fractionation industry. The cornerstone of the regulatory network is current Good Manufacturing practice. Non-infectious AEs occur rarely and mainly are mild to moderate. However, in recent times the increase in frequency of hemolytic and thrombotic AEs raised worrying questions on the possible background for these AEs. Below we review elements of non-infectious AEs , and particularly focus on hemolysis and thrombosis. We discuss how the introduction of plasma fractionation by ion-exchange chromatography and polishing by immunoaffinity chromatographic steps might alter repertoire of specificities and influence AE profiles and efficacy of IgG concentrates.

  1. Unusual recovery from acute panautonomic neuropathy after immunoglobulin therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A. A.; Vermeulen, M.; Koelman, J. H.; Wieling, W.


    A 33-year-old woman with acute idiopathic postganglionic panautonomic neuropathy experienced prompt recovery of all dysautonomic symptoms after receiving high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Her recovery was complete within 6 months after onset of disease. This unusually rapid and complete

  2. Haemolytic anaemia as a complication to intravenous immunoglobulin infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvardsen, Lars Høj; Harbo, Thomas; Christiansen, Ingelise

    performed before and two weeks after infusion of IVIg. Following treatment blood haemoglobin declined from 8.6±0.8 to 8.1±1.3mmol/l, p... naive patients are susceptible to develop haemolysis. Haemolytic anaemia is a severe side effect that seems to be more frequent after immunoglobulin infusions than previously recognized....

  3. serum immunoglobulins and circulatin g immune complexes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to heightened immune complexes and immu- noglobulins. Key words: Serum, immunoglobulins, immune complexes, Nigerians it ~. A Lil/10]” for correspondence. 28. INTRODUCTION. Factors that account for higher levels of serum gammaglobulins in persons living in the tropical regions that those in temperate regions ...

  4. Clonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangements in tissues involved by Hodgkin's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinker, M G; Poppema, S; Buys, C H; Timens, W; Osinga, J; Visser, L

    The nature of Reed-Sternberg cells, the abnormal cells of Hodgkin's disease, is controversial. Morphological and immunologic marker studies suggested different cells of origin. To investigate a possible B or T cell origin, immunoglobulin and T cell receptor gene analyses were performed on tissues

  5. Acute phase proteins and immunoglobulin classes in newly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: No single organic cause has been found for schizophrenia and its management has been difficult. More so, there are few data on the immune parameters of Nigerian schizophrenic patients on drug treatment and those that are not on treatment. Methodology: This study determines the levels of immunoglobulin

  6. Intravenous immunoglobulin in the prevention of recurrent miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole B; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre


    Immunological disturbances play a role in the majority of patients with recurrent miscarriage (RM) and therefore treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IvIg) has been tested in patients with RM in several trials. Seven placebo-controlled trials that were extremely heterogeneous with respect t...

  7. Elevated serum immunoglobulin G levels in patients with chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypergammaglobulinemia is frequently observed in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) of different causes. On the other hand, elevated levels of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) are the best diagnostic marker for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Thus, the ability to distinguish AIH patients from patients with ...

  8. Characterization of antibodies against ferret immunoglobulins, cytokines and CD markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martel, Cyril Jean-Marie; Aasted, Bent


    Ferret IgG and IgM were purified from normal serum, while ferret IgA was purified from bile. The estimated molecular weights of the immunoglobulin gamma, alpha and mu heavy chains were found to be 54 kDa, 69 kDa and 83 kDa, respectively. For immunological (ELISA) quantification of ferret immunogl...

  9. Data on haplotype-supported immunoglobulin germline gene inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Kirik


    Full Text Available Data that defines IGHV (immunoglobulin heavy chain variable germline gene inference using sequences of IgM-encoding transcriptomes obtained by Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology are described. Such inference is used to establish personalized germline gene sets for in-depth antibody repertoire studies and to detect new antibody germline genes from widely available immunoglobulin-encoding transcriptome data sets. Specifically, the data has been used to validate (Parallel antibody germline gene and haplotype analyses support the validity of immunoglobulin germline gene inference and discovery (DOI: 10.1016/j.molimm.2017.03.012 (Kirik et al., 2017 [1] the inference process. This was accomplished based on analysis of the inferred germline genes’ association to the donors’ different haplotypes as defined by their different, expressed IGHJ alleles and/or IGHD genes/alleles. The data is important for development of validated germline gene databases containing entries inferred from immunoglobulin-encoding transcriptome sequencing data sets, and for generation of valid, personalized antibody germline gene repertoires.

  10. Bacteremia and immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apart from antiphospholipid- and thyroid- autoantibodies which were reported as underlying causes of recurrent pregnancy loss, specific IgG to patermal MHC and Rh was proposed. This raises the possibility of other classes of immunoglobulin in recurrent abortion. Twenty-four pregnant women with recurrent abortion ...

  11. 21 CFR 866.5540 - Immunoglobulin G (Fd fragment specific) immunological test system. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunoglobulin G (Fd fragment specific... Test Systems § 866.5540 Immunoglobulin G (Fd fragment specific) immunological test system. (a) Identification. An immunoglobulin G (Fd fragment specific) immunological test system is a device that consists of...

  12. Immunospecific immunoglobulins and IL-10 as markers for Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense late stage disease in experimentally infected vervet monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngotho, Maina; Kagira, J.M.; Jensen, Henrik Michael Elvang


    OBJECTIVE: To determine the usefulness of IL-10 and immunoglobulin M (IgM) as biomarkers for staging HAT in vervet monkeys, a useful pathogenesis model for humans. METHODS: Vervet monkeys were infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and subsequently given sub-curative and curative treatment 28...

  13. Prognostic value of single measurements of beta-2-microglobulin, immunoglobulin A in HIV disease after controlling for CD4 lymphocyte counts and plasma HIV RNA levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullum, H; Lepri, A Cozzi; Katzenstein, T L


    The interrelationships between the CD4 lymphocyte count, plasma viral load [human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA], beta-2-microglobulin (beta2-M) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) and the mortality risk was explored in 234 HIV-infected individuals (median CD4 count 230 cells/mm3, range 1-1,247). Produ...

  14. Effects of Ramadan fasting on serum immunoglobulin G and M, and salivary immunoglobulin A concentrations. (United States)

    Develioglu, Omer Necati; Kucur, Mine; Ipek, Havva Duru; Celebi, Saban; Can, Gunay; Kulekci, Mehmet


    To investigate the effects of Ramadan fasting on serum concentrations of immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM, and salivary IgA concentrations. Blood and saliva samples were collected one week before and during the last week of Ramadan from healthy male volunteers. Albumin, total lymphocyte count, electrolytes, and IgG and IgM concentrations were determined in serum; salivary IgA concentrations were measured. Anthropometric measurements were also recorded. Samples were collected from 35 subjects (mean age 35.86 years, range 20-59 years). Weight, body mass index, albumin levels and the nutritional risk index decreased significantly during Ramadan fasting compared with before fasting. In addition, Na(+) and Cl(-) electrolyte levels were significantly decreased during Ramadan. Serum IgG concentrations decreased significantly during Ramadan compared with before fasting, but were still within the normal range. Salivary IgA concentrations also decreased significantly, whereas serum IgM levels did not change. Lymphocyte numbers increased significantly, but there was no correlation between Ig levels and lymphocyte count. Ramadan fasting did not result in severe immunological disturbances.

  15. Molecular Analysis of Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase Gene in Immunoglobulin-E Deficient Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Roa


    Full Text Available Understanding how class switch recombination (CSR is regulated to produce immunoglobulin E (IgE has become fundamental because of the dramatic increase in the prevalence of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. CSR requires the induction of the enzyme AICDA in B cells. Mutations in AICDA have been linked to Hyper-IgM syndrome (HIGM2, which shows absence of switching to IgE as well as to IgG and IgA. Although isolated IgE deficiency is a rare entity, here we show some individuals with normal serum IgM, IgG, and IgA levels that had undetectable total serum IgE levels. We have analyzed the AICDA gene in these individuals to determine if there are mutations in AICDA that could lead to selective IgE deficiency. Conformational sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE and sequencing analysis of AICDA coding sequences demonstrated sequence heterogeneity due to 5923A/G and 7888C/T polymorphisms, but did not reveal any novel mutation that might explain the selective IgE deficit.

  16. Correlation of immunoglobulin G expression and histological subtype and stage in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baokai Yang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Recently, growing evidence indicates that immunoglobulins (Igs are not only produced by mature B lymphocytes or plasma cells, but also by various normal cells types at immune privileged sites and neoplasm, including breast cancer. However, the association of breast cancer derived IgG with genesis and development of the disease has not yet been established. METHODS: In this study we examined the expression of IgG in 186 breast cancers, 20 benign breast lesions and 30 normal breast tissues. Both immunohistochemistry with antibodies to Igκ (immunoglobulin G κ light chain and Igγ (immunoglobulin G heavy chain and in situ hybridization with an antisense probe to IgG1 heavy chain constant region gene were performed. Various clinicopathological features were also analyzed. RESULTS: We found that IgG is specifically expressed in human breast cancer cells. Both infiltrating ductal carcinoma and infiltrating lobular carcinoma had significantly greater numbers of Igκ and Igγ positive cancer cells as compared with medullary carcinoma, carcinoma in situ, and benign lesions (all p<0.05. In addition, IgG expression was correlated with breast cancer histological subtypes (p<0.01 and AJCC stages (p<0.05, with more abundance of IgG expression in more malignant histological subtypes or in more advanced stage of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: IgG expression in breast cancer cells is correlated with malignancy and AJCC stages of the cancers. This suggests that breast cancer derived IgG may be associated with genesis, development and prognosis of the cancer.

  17. Mucosal immunoglobulins and B cells of Teleost fish (United States)

    Salinas, Irene; Zhang, Yong-An; Sunyer, J. Oriol


    As physical barriers that separate teleost fish from the external environment, mucosae are also active immunological sites that protect them against exposure to microbes and stressors. In mammals, the sites where antigens are sampled from mucosal surfaces and where stimulation of naive T and B lymphocytes occurs are known as inductive sites and are constituted by mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). According to anatomical location, the MALT in teleost fish is subdivided into gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT), and gill-associated lymphoid tissue (GIALT). All MALT contain a variety of leukocytes, including, but not limited to, T cells, B cells, plasma cells, macrophages and granulocytes. Secretory immunoglobulins are produced mainly by plasmablasts and plasma cells, and play key roles in the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis. Until recently, teleost fish B cells were thought to express only two classes of immunoglobulins, IgM and IgD, in which IgM was thought to be the only one responding to pathogens both in systemic and mucosal compartments. However, a third teleost immunoglobulin class, IgT/IgZ, was discovered in 2005, and it has recently been shown to behave as the prevalent immunoglobulin in gut mucosal immune responses. The purpose of this review is to summarise the current knowledge of mucosal immunoglobulins and B cells of fish MALT. Moreover, we attempt to integrate the existing knowledge on both basic and applied research findings on fish mucosal immune responses, with the goal to provide new directions that may facilitate the development of novel vaccination strategies that stimulate not only systemic, but also mucosal immunity. PMID:22133710

  18. Immunoglobulin concentration in blood serum of postcolostral calves: Ratio between immunoglobulin level and appearance of enzootic pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonić Branko


    Full Text Available The timely supply of newborn calves with optimal quantities of colostrum has a key role in the process of immune protection in the early phase of their lives. Passively acquired antibodies can protect the digestive organs from infection caused by E.coli bacteria, and it seems also from the appearance of diseases of the respiratory tract. These examinations were performed on a cattle farm where bronchopneumonia was one of the most significant health problems, and a group of 39 calves were selected for the investigations. The calves were fed with their mothers’ colostrum after birth, and then with collective milk. Immunoglobulin concentration was determined in blood samples taken during the postcolostral period, with the method using zinc-sulphate. At the age of 40 days, the calves were administered a polyvalent inactivated vaccine, and revaccinated 20 days after that (Vibak, Veterinary Department Subotica. In 74.34% calves, the immunoglobulin G concentration ranged from 26 to 40 g/l. In 25.66% calves, the immunoglobulin concentration was lower, from 8 to 25 g/l. The calves found to have a lower concentration of immunoglobulin in blood contracted bronchopneumonia more frequently, and the outcome of the disease in some cases was mortality, even.

  19. Production and Purification Immunoglobulin against E. coli in Egg Yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Nassiri


    Full Text Available Introduction Chicken is the only avian species in which polyclonal antibodies, like IgG is transported from the hen to the egg yolk in a similar manner as the transport of mammalian IgG from the mother to the fetus. Immunoglobulin Y in the chicken is transported to the egg and accumulates in the egg yolk in large quantities. IgY is an egg yolk antibody that has been used widely for treatment and prevention of infections in humans and animal. IgY is used for passive protection of the pathogen infections such as Escherichia coli, bovine and human rotavirus, bovine coronavirus, salmonella, staphylococcus and Pseudomonas. IgY is a promising candidate as an alternative to antibiotics. Eschericha coli strains of serotype O157: H7 belongs to a family of pathogenic E. coli called enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC strains responsible for hemorrhagic colitis, bloody or non-bloody diarrhea, and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. This strain of E. coli pathogenises by adhering to host intestinal epithelium and forming bacterial colonies. The purpose of this study was to produce and purify immunoglobulin Y against E. coli O157:H7 and develop specific polyclonal anti E. coli antibody in the egg yolk. Materials and Methods Sixteen-week-old laying hens (Mashhad, Iran were kept in individual cages with food and water ad libitum. Immunization of hens was performed by intramuscularly injecting killed E. coli O157: H7 with an equal volume of Freund’s complete adjuvant into two sides of chest area (Sigma, USA for the first immunization. Two booster immunizations followed up using complete and incomplete Freund’s adjuvants in two weeks interval. Freund’s adjuvant without antigen was injected to the control group. Two weeks after the last injection, the eggs were collected daily for eight weeks, marked and stored at 4 ºC. In order to IgY purification, eggs were collected. Purification of IgY from egg yolk was based on Polson and using PEG6000. Finally, the

  20. Reproduction, infection and killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor haplotype evolution. (United States)

    Penman, Bridget S; Moffett, Ashley; Chazara, Olympe; Gupta, Sunetra; Parham, Peter


    Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are encoded by one of the most polymorphic families in the human genome. KIRs are expressed on natural killer (NK) cells, which have dual roles: (1) in fighting infection and (2) in reproduction, regulating hemochorial placentation. Uniquely among primates, human KIR genes are arranged into two haplotypic combinations: KIR A and KIR B. It has been proposed that KIR A is specialized to fight infection, whilst KIR B evolved to help ensure successful reproduction. Here we demonstrate that a combination of infectious disease selection and reproductive selection can drive the evolution of KIR B-like haplotypes from a KIR A-like founder haplotype. Continued selection to survive and to reproduce maintains a balance between KIR A and KIR B.

  1. Serum immunoglobulin levels in patients with lymphoproliferative diseases in Erbil, Kurdistan region, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karwan Bahram Maulood


    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Lymphoproliferative neoplasms are among the commonest human neoplasia. Immune dysregulation is frequently associated with many of these diseases, particularly those related to B-cell origin. This study aimed to find out the immunological status of newly diagnosed patients with lymphoproliferative disorders. Methods: This study was carried out in Erbil province during the period from November 2010 to April 2011. Fifty two newly diagnosed patients (34 males and 18 females with lymphoproliferative disorders referred to Nnakaly Hospital for blood disease and 20 healthy control subjects had been included in this study. Determination of immunoglobulin subclasses by radial immunodiffusion in addition serum protein electrophoresis has been performed for each sample for the detection of monoclonal bands. Results: Serum IgM and IgA level were decreased in all groups of patients with different lymphoproliferative disorders compared to control group. Serum IgG level showed insignificant reduction in acute lymphocytic leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients, but it was increased in non Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma patients. Paraproteinemia had been seen in all patients with multiple myeloma while only 10% of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and non Hodgkin lymphoma showed paraproteinemia. No M-band had been noticed in acute lymphocytic leukemia and Hodgkin lymphoma. Conclusion: There were some conflicting data regarding serum immunoglobulin levels in newly diagnosed patients with lymphoproliferative disorders in Erbil, Iraq.

  2. [Use of monoclonal antibodies against horse immunoglobulin in an enzyme immunoassay of bacterial toxins and anatoxins]. (United States)

    Burkin, M A; Gal'vidis, I A; Iakovleva, I V; Sviridov, V V


    Immunization of BALB/c mice by horse antiserum against diphtheria made it possible to obtain IgG1 monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) 2B7E4 specific for light chains of horse immunoglobulin (Ig). Unlike commercial preparations of anti-horse immunoglobulin antibodies, which are specific for the whole Ig molecule or its Fc-fragment, the peroxidase (HRP) conjugate of the MoAb, 2B7E4-HRP did not interact with human, mouse, rabbit, and sheep Igs, or horse albumin. The conjugate obtained was used with MoAbs against bacterial toxins and commercial horse anatoxins, as a universal reagent in sandwich enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) for bacterial toxins and anatoxins. The detection sensitivity of diphtheria toxin/anatoxin equaled 0.0005 Lf/ml; tetanus toxin and anatoxin were detected with sensitivities of 20 LD50/ml and 0.005 UI/ml, respectively. A similar sandwich ELISA for botulinum anatoxins (group measurement) allowed types A, B, and E to be detected at 0.02, 0.002, and 0.001 UI/ml, respectively; selective measurement was only possible in the case of type E anatoxin (0.001 UI/ml).

  3. Using Empirical Phase Diagrams to Understand the Role of Intramolecular Dynamics in Immunoglobulin G Stability (United States)

    Ramsey, Joshua D.; Gill, Michelle L.; Kamerzell, Tim J.; Price, E. Shane; Joshi, Sangeeta B.; Bishop, Steven M.; Oliver, Cynthia N.; Middaugh, C. Russell


    Understanding the relationship between protein dynamics and stability is of paramount importance to the fields of biology and pharmaceutics. Clarifying this relationship is complicated by the large amount of experimental data that must be generated and analyzed if motions that exist over the wide range of timescales are to be included. To address this issue, we propose an approach that utilizes a multidimensional vector-based empirical phase diagram (EPD) to analyze a set of dynamic results acquired across a temperature-pH perturbation plane. This approach is applied to a humanized immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), a protein of major biological and pharmaceutical importance whose dynamic nature is linked to its multiple biological roles. Static and dynamic measurements are used to characterize the IgG and to construct both static and dynamic empirical phase diagrams. Between pH 5 and 8, a single, pH-dependent transition is observed that corresponds to thermal unfolding of the IgG. Under more acidic conditions, evidence exists for the formation of a more compact, aggregation resistant state of the immunoglobulin, known as A-form. The dynamics-based EPD presents a considerably more detailed pattern of apparent phase transitions over the temperature-pH plane. The utility and potential applications of this approach are discussed. PMID:19072858

  4. Suppression of immunoglobulin production by a novel dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitor, S-2678. (United States)

    Deguchi, Masashi; Kishino, Junji; Hattori, Maki; Furue, Yoko; Yamamoto, Mina; Mochizuki, Izumi; Iguchi, Motofumi; Hirano, Yosuke; Hojou, Kanji; Nagira, Morio; Nishitani, Yoshinori; Okazaki, Kenichi; Yasui, Kiyoshi; Arimura, Akinori


    We discovered a novel dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHO-DH) inhibitor, S-2678 ([2-fluoro-2',5'-dimethyl-4'-[6-(3-methyl-2-butenyloxy) pyridin-3-yl] biphenyl-4-yl]-(3-methyl-2-butenyl) amine). Its inhibitory activity against DHO-DH was more potent than that of A77 1726, an active metabolite of the anti-rheumatic drug leflunomide. S-2678 suppressed immunoglobulin production in mouse B cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro, with little or no inhibition of cell proliferation, probably through inhibition of class switch recombination in the immunoglobulin heavy chain loci in B cells. In vivo antibody production induced by systemic immunization with ovalbumin was dramatically suppressed by oral administration of S-2678, without any toxicological signs. However, S-2678 did not affect T-cell activation in vitro, and cytokine production induced by intravenous anti-CD3 antibody in mice. S-2678 did not affect host defense in a mouse model of Candida infection, whereas leflunomide severely impaired it. In conclusion, S-2678 selectively acts on B cells, resulting in antibody production, which suggests that it is useful for the treatment of humoral immunity-related diseases.

  5. Characterizing immunoglobulin repertoire from whole blood by a personal genome sequencer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Gao

    Full Text Available In human immune system, V(DJ recombination produces an enormously large repertoire of immunoglobulins (Ig so that they can tackle different antigens from bacteria, viruses and tumor cells. Several studies have demonstrated the utility of next-generation sequencers such as Roche 454 and Illumina Genome Analyzer to characterize the repertoire of immunoglobulins. However, these techniques typically require separation of B cell population from whole blood and require a few weeks for running the sequencers, so it may not be practical to implement them in clinical settings. Recently, the Ion Torrent personal genome sequencer has emerged as a tabletop personal genome sequencer that can be operated in a time-efficient and cost-effective manner. In this study, we explored the technical feasibility to use multiplex PCR for amplifying V(DJ recombination for IgH, directly from whole blood, then sequence the amplicons by the Ion Torrent sequencer. The whole process including data generation and analysis can be completed in one day. We tested the method in a pilot study on patients with benign, atypical and malignant meningiomas. Despite the noisy data, we were able to compare the samples by their usage frequencies of the V segment, as well as their somatic hypermutation rates. In summary, our study suggested that it is technically feasible to perform clinical monitoring of V(DJ recombination within a day by personal genome sequencers.

  6. Prevalence of selective immunoglobulin A deficiency in Greek children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. (United States)

    Giza, Styliani; Kotanidou, Eleni; Papadopoulou-Alataki, Efimia; Antoniou, Maria Christina; Maggana, Ioanna; Kyrgios, Ioannis; Galli-Tsinopoulou, Assimina


    The association of selective immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency with type 1 diabetes (T1D) remains unclear. This study was to evaluate serum IgA concentrations in Greek children and adolescents with T1D. In two hundred individuals with T1D, serum IgA concentrations were quantitatively determined using nephelometry. Immunoglobulin A deficiency was detected in 6 (3.0%) of 200 patients who were subjected to immunological evaluation. Recurrent infections were not recorded, but human papilloma virus infection was clinically suspected and confirmed by laboratory examination in a 5-year-old girl. In regard to coincidence of selective IgA deficiency with autoimmune diseases, celiac disease was detected in a girl and juvenile idiopathic arthritis in a boy. Serum IgA concentrations differed significantly when patients were grouped according to age at the beginning of the study (PIgG (PIgG (P=0.035) concentrations. There was no association or correlation of serum IgA concentrations with glycemic control. The prevalence of selective IgA deficiency in Greek children and adolescents with T1D is high (3.0%). The correlation of serum IgA concentrations with serum IgG, IgE and anti-gliadin antibody IgG concentrations needs further investigation.

  7. Subcutaneous versus intravenous immunoglobulin in multifocal motor neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, T; Andersen, Henning; Hess, A


    strength of affected muscles and (ii) the SF-36 quality of life questionnaire. Results: The two treatments were equally effective, the mean change in muscle strength after SCIG being 3.6% (95% CI -3.6% to 10.9%) vs. 4.3% (-1.3% to 10.0%) after IVIG (P = 0.86). One patient had sustained erythema and oedema......Background and purpose: For treatment of multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), we hypothesized that (i) infusion of equivalent dosages of subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) is as effective as intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and that (ii) subcutaneous infusion at home is associated with a better...... quality of life. Methods: In a randomized single-blinded cross-over study, nine IVIG responsive patients were allocated to receive either SCIG or IVIG for a period equivalent to three IVIG treatment intervals and, subsequently, crossed over to the other treatment. Primary end-points were (i) dynamometric...

  8. A role for PCNA ubiquitination in immunoglobulin hypermutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Arakawa


    Full Text Available Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA is a DNA polymerase cofactor and regulator of replication-linked functions. Upon DNA damage, yeast and vertebrate PCNA is modified at the conserved lysine K164 by ubiquitin, which mediates error-prone replication across lesions via translesion polymerases. We investigated the role of PCNA ubiquitination in variants of the DT40 B cell line that are mutant in K164 of PCNA or in Rad18, which is involved in PCNA ubiquitination. Remarkably, the PCNA(K164R mutation not only renders cells sensitive to DNA-damaging agents, but also strongly reduces activation induced deaminase-dependent single-nucleotide substitutions in the immunoglobulin light-chain locus. This is the first evidence, to our knowledge, that vertebrates exploit the PCNA-ubiquitin pathway for immunoglobulin hypermutation, most likely through the recruitment of error-prone DNA polymerases.

  9. A database of immunoglobulins with integrated tools: DIGIT.

    KAUST Repository

    Chailyan, Anna


    The DIGIT (Database of ImmunoGlobulins with Integrated Tools) database ( is an integrated resource storing sequences of annotated immunoglobulin variable domains and enriched with tools for searching and analyzing them. The annotations in the database include information on the type of antigen, the respective germline sequences and on pairing information between light and heavy chains. Other annotations, such as the identification of the complementarity determining regions, assignment of their structural class and identification of mutations with respect to the germline, are computed on the fly and can also be obtained for user-submitted sequences. The system allows customized BLAST searches and automatic building of 3D models of the domains to be performed.

  10. Intravenous Immunoglobulin in the Management of Lupus Nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott E. Wenderfer


    Full Text Available The occurrence of nephritis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of lupus nephritis is complex, involving innate and adaptive cellular and humoral immune responses. Autoantibodies in particular have been shown to be critical in the initiation and progression of renal injury, via interactions with both Fc-receptors and complement. One approach in the management of patients with lupus nephritis has been the use of intravenous immunoglobulin. This therapy has shown benefit in the setting of many forms of autoantibody-mediated injury; however, the mechanisms of efficacy are not fully understood. In this paper, the data supporting the use of immunoglobulin therapy in lupus nephritis will be evaluated. In addition, the potential mechanisms of action will be discussed with respect to the known involvement of complement and Fc-receptors in the kidney parenchyma. Results are provocative and warrant additional clinical trials.

  11. Aging and immunoglobulin isotype patterns in oral tolerance


    Faria, A M C; Ficker,S.M.; E. Speziali; Menezes, J.S.; Stransky, B.; Verdolin, B.A.; W.M. Lahmann; Rodrigues,V.S.; Vaz,N.M.


    In the present review we address oral tolerance as an important biological phenomenon and discuss how it is affected by aging. Other factors such as frequency of feeding and previous digestion of the antigen also seem to influence the establishment of oral tolerance. We also analyze immunoglobulin isotypes of specific antibodies formed by tolerant and immunized animals of different ages submitted to different conditions of oral antigen administration. Isotypic patterns were studied as a param...

  12. A Case of Immunoglobulin E Mediated Anaphylaxis to Levodropropizine


    Park, Kyung Hee; Yun, Il Seon; Choi, Soo-Young; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Hong, Chein-Soo; Park, Jung-Won


    We experienced a case of immunoglobulin E (IgE) mediated anaphylaxis to levodropropizine. The patient was an 18-year old Korean woman. After taking the common cold medication including acetaminophen, domperidone, and levodropropizine, skin rash, angioedema and anaphylaxis were developed immediately. As she was tolerable to acetaminophen alone, we thought the culprit agent was maybe a levodropropizine tablet. To confirm the culprit, she underwent skin prick test and oral drug provocation test ...

  13. Antibody structural modeling with prediction of immunoglobulin structure (PIGS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcatili, Paolo; Olimpieri, Pier Paolo; Chailyan, Anna


    Antibodies (or immunoglobulins) are crucial for defending organisms from pathogens, but they are also key players in many medical, diagnostic and biotechnological applications. The ability to predict their structure and the specific residues involved in antigen recognition has several useful appl...... on average) to build a structural model of an antibody. It is based on the concept of canonical structures of antibody loops and on our understanding of the way light and heavy chains pack together....

  14. Immunoglobulin concentration in tears of contact lens wearers. (United States)

    Maurya, Rajendra P; Bhushan, Prashant; Singh, Virendra P; Singh, Mahendra K; Kumar, Prakash; Bhatia, Ravindra P S; Singh, Usha


    To evaluate changes in the concentration of tear immunoglobulins in contact lens wearers. A total of 45 cases including 23 contact lens wearers (43 eyes) and 22 age and sex matched healthy controls having no ocular pathology were studied for immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM) in their tears by single radial immunodiffusion method. Most of the cases used soft (56.6%) and semi-soft gas permeable (30.4%) contact lenses. Tear IgM was detected in only 17.4% and tear IgG in 43.6% of contact lens wearers, while in controls IgG was detected in 9.1% but none of the controls had IgM. There was a significant rise in total tear IgA (13.17 ± 4.44 mg/dl) in contact lens wearer as compared to controls (8.93 ± 3.79 mg/dl). Rise of tear IgA was more in symptomatic patients (15.38 ± 5.28 mg/dl) and in those wearing hard (19.73 ± 5.43 mg/dl) and semi-soft contact lenses (13.31 ± 5.43 mg/dl). A significant increase in tear IgA was noticed in subjects wearing lenses for >3 years (15.69 ± 5.39 mg/dl). About 43.4% of lens wearers were symptomatic and 80% of their lenses showed deposits and/or haziness. All cases with IgM in tear were symptomatic. The relation of immunoglobulin concentration with increasing duration of wear and material of contact lens shows that tear immunoglobulin rise accrues due to mechanical stimulation, hence contact lenses should not be used for a long period and lenses of hard nature should be discouraged. The maintenance, cleaning and deproteinization of the lenses are of high importance to avoid immunostimulation.

  15. Intrathecal synthesis of free immunoglobulin light chains in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakauer, M; Schaldemose Nielsen, H; Jensen, J


    OBJECTIVE: The detection of oligoclonal immunoglobulin free light chains (FLC) in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) was compared to IgG isoelectric focusing. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples from 69 patients with possible first attacks of MS, 50 patients...... detection proved as useful as IgG analysis for the laboratory diagnosis of MS whereas the presence of intrathecal lambda FLC synthesis was less specific....

  16. Immunoglobulin D Multiple Myeloma Presenting as Spontaneous Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Al Hadidi


    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin D multiple myeloma is a rare type of multiple myeloma that usually presents as bone pain, fatigue, or weight loss. We report a case of immunoglobulin D multiple myeloma in a 53-year-old Caucasian male patient with previous medical history of anaplastic oligodendroglioma status post-surgical resection who was evaluated for back pain while mowing the lawn. His physical examination showed tenderness over the lower thoracic vertebrae with no sensory or motor impairment. Initial lab investigations showed normocytic anemia and hypercalcemia with low parathyroid hormone. Magnetic resonance imaging of thoracic spine with and without contrast showed acute pathological fracture of the T12 vertebral body with enhancing soft tissue which extended into the left ventral epidural space and left T11–T12 neural foramen. Serum protein electrophoresis showed abnormal protein band in the gamma globulin. Free light chain assay showed serum free kappa which was elevated at 3,090.0 mg/L (reference range 3.3–19.4 mg/L. Immunoglobulin D was elevated at 566.0 mg/dL (reference range <15.3 mg/dL. The patient was successfully treated with standard chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplant with complete remission 3 years after starting treatment. Advancement in the treatment of immunoglobulin D multiple myeloma urge clinicians to offer their patients new treatment options especially as of the earlier presentation of this subtype of multiple myeloma and the previous reports of worse prognosis.

  17. Effect of fluoride on salivary immunoglobulins and sialic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Görkem Ulu Güzel

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of fluoride on salivary immunoglobulin and sialic acid levels in children with dental fluorosis and healthy teeth who live in places with high fluoride concentration in drinking water. Method: Fifty-one (51 healthy children between 6 and 12 years old with no caries were randomly selected from primary schools enrolled in the dental-care program operated by the Department of Pediatric Dentistry. The children were divided into two groups: group I comprised 26 children with dental fluorosis [Thylstrup-Fejerskov Dental Fluorosis Index (TFI = 4] who lived in Isparta (2.7-2.8 ppm, and group II consisted of 25 children without dental fluorosis who were born in low-fluoride areas and had lived in Isparta for only the previous two years. Stimulated and unstimulated saliva were collected and analyzed for fluoride, salivary immunoglobulins and sialic acid levels. Results: Sialic acid level was correlated negatively with age. Levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA and secretory immunoglobulin G (sIgG were higher in children with dental fluorosis compared with those in group II, although these differences were not significant. Conclusion: Increased sIgA and sIgG levels may arrest the progression of caries in subjects with dental fluorosis. Given the risks of dental fluorosis, further studies of the effects of different fluoride levels in drinking water on salivary composition of children with mixed dentition are needed to confirm the results of our study and to provide data for comparison.

  18. Role of systemic injection of rabies immunoglobulin in rabies vaccination. (United States)

    Wu, Weichen; Liu, Shuqing; Yu, Pengcheng; Tao, Xiaoyan; Lu, Xuexin; Yan, Jianghong; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Zongshen; Zhu, Wuyang


    To determine the role of systemic injection of rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) in rabies vaccination, we analyzed the level of antibody against rabies virus in the serum of mice that received various doses of RIG combined with rabies vaccine. Our results indicate that systemic injection of RIG does not contribute detectably to passive or adaptive immunization, suggesting that the main function of RIG in individuals with category III exposure is to neutralize rabies virus via immediate local infiltration of the wound.

  19. Diversity Analysis of the Immunoglobulin M Heavy Chain Gene in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A full-length cDNA encoding the immunoglobulin (IgM) heavy chain gene of Nile tilapia was successfully cloned using the 5' and 3' RACE techniques. The complete cDNA of the Nile tilapia IgM heavy chain gene is 1,921 bp in length and has an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,740 bp, which corresponds to 580 amino acid ...

  20. Immunoglobulin M-enriched intravenous polyclonal immunoglobulins reduce bacteremia following Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in an acute respiratory distress syndrome rat model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lachmann, R. A.; van Kaam, A. H. L. C.; Haitsma, J. J.; Verbrugge, S. J. C.; Delreu, F.; Lachmann, B.


    Mechanical ventilation is known to induce bacterial translocation from the lung into the systemic circulation. This study determined the effect of immunoglobulin M (IgM)-enriched polyclonal immunoglobulins on bacteremia due to ventilation-induced translocation in an acute respiratory distress


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. V. Sviatenko


    Full Text Available Proteins A, G and L are native or recombinant proteins of microbial origin that bind to mammalian immunoglobulins. Preferably recombinant variants of proteins A, G, L are used in biotechnology for affinity sorbents production. Сomparative characteristics of proteins A, G, L and affinity sorbents on the basis of them, advantages and disadvantages of these proteins application as ligands in the affinity chromatography are done. Analysis of proteins A, G, L properties is presented. Binding specificities and affinities of these proteins differ between species and antibody subclass. Protein А has high affinity to human IgG1, IgG2, IgG4, mouse IgG2a, IgG2b, IgG3, goat and sheep IgG2, dog, cat, guinea pig, rabbit IgG. Protein G binds strongly to human, mouse, cow, goat, sheep and rabbit IgG. Protein L has ability of strong binding to immunoglobulin kappa-chains of human, mouse, rat and pig. Expediency of application of affinity chromatography with usage of sorbents on the basis of immobilized proteins A, G, L are shown for isolation and purification of antibodies different classes. Previously mentioned method is used as an alternative to conventional methods of protein purification, such as ion-exchange, hydrophobic interactions, metal affinity chromatography, ethanol precipitation due to simplicity in usage, possibility of one-step purification process, obtaining of proteins high level purity, multiuse at maintenance of proper storage and usage conditions. Affinity sorbents on the basis of immobilized proteins A, G, L are used not only for antibodies purification, but also for extraction of different antibodies fractions from blood serum.

  2. Phosphorylated-tyrosine based pseudobioaffinity adsorbent for the purification of immunoglobulin G. (United States)

    Pavan, Gisele Luiza; Lazzarotto Bresolin, Igor Tadeu; Grespan, Angélica; Alves Bueno, Sonia Maria


    The present study evaluated the phosphorylated-tyrosine (P-Tyr) based pseudobioaffinity adsorbent for the purification of human immunoglobulin G (IgG). P-Tyr was selected as a ligand to mimic the natural interactions that occur between the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif and the IgG. The ligand was coupled to bisoxirane-activated agarose gel and the effect of buffer system, pH, and conductivity was performed to elucidate the nature of IgG-P-Tyr interactions. P-Tyr-agarose was able to purify IgG from human plasma solution in HEPES buffer at pH 7.0 exhibiting a purification factor of 9.1 with IgG purity of 91% (based on ELISA analysis of albumin, transferrin, and immunoglobulins A, G, and M). The evaluation of different functional groups of P-Tyr on the adsorption of human IgG indicated the predominance of electrostatic interactions with phosphate groups, although the contributions of aromatic and carboxylic groups also play a role. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH°, ΔS°, ΔG°) for IgG adsorption onto P-Tyr-agarose were determined from the temperature dependence. The maximum IgG binding capacity at 20°C was 273.51±12.63mgg-1 and the dissociation constant value of the complex IgG-P-Tyr was in the order of 10-5molL-1 indicating low-affinity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Coevolution of Mucosal Immunoglobulins and the Polymeric Immunoglobulin Receptor: Evidence That the Commensal Microbiota Provided the Driving Force


    Kaetzel, Charlotte S.


    Immunoglobulins (Igs) in mucosal secretions contribute to immune homeostasis by limiting access of microbial and environmental antigens to the body proper, maintaining the integrity of the epithelial barrier and shaping the composition of the commensal microbiota. The emergence of IgM in cartilaginous fish represented the primordial mucosal Ig, which is expressed in all higher vertebrates. Expansion and diversification of the mucosal Ig repertoire led to the emergence of IgT in bony fishes, I...

  4. Immunological responses against human papilloma virus and human papilloma virus induced laryngeal cancer. (United States)

    Chitose, Shun-ichi; Sakazaki, T; Ono, T; Kurita, T; Mihashi, H; Nakashima, T


    This study aimed to clarify the local immune status in the larynx in the presence of infection or carcinogenesis associated with human papilloma virus. Cytological samples (for human papilloma virus detection) and laryngeal secretions (for immunoglobulin assessment) were obtained from 31 patients with laryngeal disease, during microscopic laryngeal surgery. On histological examination, 12 patients had squamous cell carcinoma, four had laryngeal papilloma and 15 had other benign laryngeal disease. Cytological samples were tested for human papilloma virus DNA using the Hybrid Capture 2 assay. High risk human papilloma virus DNA was detected in 25 per cent of patients (three of 12) with laryngeal cancer. Low risk human papilloma virus DNA was detected only in three laryngeal papilloma patients. The mean laryngeal secretion concentrations of immunoglobulins M, G and A and secretory immunoglobulin A in human papilloma virus DNA positive patients were more than twice those in human papilloma virus DNA negative patients. A statistically significant difference was observed between the secretory immunoglobulin A concentrations in the two groups. Patients with laryngeal cancer had higher laryngeal secretion concentrations of each immunoglobulin type, compared with patients with benign laryngeal disease. The study assessed the mean laryngeal secretion concentrations of each immunoglobulin type in the 12 laryngeal cancer patients, comparing human papilloma virus DNA positive patients (n = 3) and human papilloma virus DNA negative patients (n = 9); the mean concentrations of immunoglobulins M, G and A and secretory immunoglobulin A tended to be greater in human papilloma virus DNA positive cancer patients, compared with human papilloma virus DNA negative cancer patients. These results suggest that the local laryngeal immune response is activated by infection or carcinogenesis due to human papilloma virus. The findings strongly suggest that secretory IgA has inhibitory activity

  5. Analysis of a Compartmental Model of Endogenous Immunoglobulin G Metabolism with Application to Multiple Myeloma. (United States)

    Kendrick, Felicity; Evans, Neil D; Arnulf, Bertrand; Avet-Loiseau, Hervé; Decaux, Olivier; Dejoie, Thomas; Fouquet, Guillemette; Guidez, Stéphanie; Harel, Stéphanie; Hebraud, Benjamin; Javaugue, Vincent; Richez, Valentine; Schraen, Susanna; Touzeau, Cyrille; Moreau, Philippe; Leleu, Xavier; Harding, Stephen; Chappell, Michael J


    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) metabolism has received much attention in the literature for two reasons: (i) IgG homeostasis is regulated by the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), by a pH-dependent and saturable recycling process, which presents an interesting biological system; (ii) the IgG-FcRn interaction may be exploitable as a means for extending the plasma half-life of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, which are primarily IgG-based. A less-studied problem is the importance of endogenous IgG metabolism in IgG multiple myeloma. In multiple myeloma, quantification of serum monoclonal immunoglobulin plays an important role in diagnosis, monitoring and response assessment. In order to investigate the dynamics of IgG in this setting, a mathematical model characterizing the metabolism of endogenous IgG in humans is required. A number of authors have proposed a two-compartment nonlinear model of IgG metabolism in which saturable recycling is described using Michaelis-Menten kinetics; however it may be difficult to estimate the model parameters from the limited experimental data that are available. The purpose of this study is to analyse the model alongside the available data from experiments in humans and estimate the model parameters. In order to achieve this aim we linearize the model and use several methods of model and parameter validation: stability analysis, structural identifiability analysis, and sensitivity analysis based on traditional sensitivity functions and generalized sensitivity functions. We find that all model parameters are identifiable, structurally and taking into account parameter correlations, when several types of model output are used for parameter estimation. Based on these analyses we estimate parameter values from the limited available data and compare them with previously published parameter values. Finally we show how the model can be applied in future studies of treatment effectiveness in IgG multiple myeloma with simulations of serum monoclonal Ig

  6. The immunoglobulins of carcharhine sharks: a comparison of serological and biochemical properties. (United States)

    Rosenshein, I L; Marchalonis, J J


    The immunoglobulins of three carcharhine sharks were isolated from serum by means of salt precipitation and gel chromatography. The Galapagos shark (Carcharhinus galapagensis), the sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) and the tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvieri) each contained high molecular weight (18S) and low molecular weight (7S) IgM-like molecules as the major serum immunoglobulins. Both within and between species 18S and 7S immunoglobulins closely resemble each other in antigenic character, polypeptide chain composition, chain mass, amino acid composition, carbohydrate content and amino-terminal sequence. These results suggest that the immunoglobulins of carcharhine sharks have undergone little structural divergence during their evolution.

  7. Improved purification of immunoglobulin G from plasma by mixed-mode chromatography. (United States)

    Chai, Dong-Sheng; Sun, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Shi, Qing-Hong


    Efficient loading of immunoglobulin G in mixed-mode chromatography is often a serious bottleneck in the chromatographic purification of immunoglobulin G. In this work, a mixed-mode ligand, 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl) aniline, was coupled to Sepharose Fast Flow to fabricate AN SepFF adsorbents with ligand densities of 15-64 mmol/L, and the chromatographic performances of these adsorbents were thoroughly investigated to identify a feasible approach to improve immunoglobulin G purification. The results indicate that a critical ligand density exists for immunoglobulin G on the AN SepFF adsorbents. Above the critical ligand density, the adsorbents showed superior selectivity to immunoglobulin G at high salt concentrations, and also exhibited much higher dynamic binding capacities. For immunoglobulin G purification, both the yield and binding capacity increased with adsorbent ligand density along with a decrease in purity. It is difficult to improve the binding capacity, purity, and yield of immunoglobulin G simultaneously in AN SepFF chromatography. By using tandem AN SepFF chromatography, a threefold increase in binding capacity as well as high purity and yield of immunoglobulin G were achieved. Therefore, the tandem chromatography demonstrates that AN SepFF adsorbent is a practical and feasible alternative to MEP HyperCel adsorbents for immunoglobulin G purification. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. 548 Immunoglobulin a Deficiency, HPV and Oral Cancer (United States)

    Alvarez, Jorge; Garip, Emilio; Benitez, Monica; Guzman, Luis


    Background Selective IgA deficiency is the most common primary immunodeficiency. Serum IgA level lower than 7 mg/dL is considered selective IgA deficiency. Most people with selective IgA deficiency are asymptomatic, with incidental findings. Others may present recurrent respiratory infections, allergic symptoms, other infections and autoimmune diseases. It represents a genetically heterogeneous group of abnormalities. We report 2 cases of IgA-deficiency, HPV, and cancer, which required oral mucosa and tongue surgery. Methods Case I: Female patient, 30 years old. Medical history: vaginal HPV and Herpes. No promiscuous conduct. Complaint: recurrent infections. Physical exam: oral white lesions are observed. Laboratory findings: serum immunoglobulin A: lower than 7 mg%, secretory immunoglobulin A: lower than 1 mg%. Both exams were repeated and determinations showed low values. Cytology - Glucose - serum protein electrophoresis - Ig G - Ig M - CD3 - CD4 - CD8 - CD19 - CD56 all determinations showed normal values. HIV I /II: negative. Biopsy of oral mucosa with the following report: severe dysplasia and intraepithelial carcinoma. Signs of HPV. Surgery was performed on oral mucosa with the following pathology report: moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Microscopic, morphological changes related to cytopathogenic viral effects. The patient presented good evolution. Case II: Female patient 40 years of age. Medical history: HPV and genital herpes. No promiscuous conduct. Complaint: leukoplakia in tongue edges. Physical examination: oral white lesions. Laboratory serum immunoglobulin A: value obtained: lower than 7 mg%. Cytology - Glucose - serum protein electrophoresis - Ig G - Ig M - CD3 - CD4 - CD8 - CD19 - CD56 with normal values. HIV I/II: negative. Surgery was performed in tongue and regional lymph node. Tongue Pathology: moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with negative edges. HPV (+) PCR. Conclusion We report on the possible association

  9. Aging and immunoglobulin isotype patterns in oral tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faria A.M.C.


    Full Text Available In the present review we address oral tolerance as an important biological phenomenon and discuss how it is affected by aging. Other factors such as frequency of feeding and previous digestion of the antigen also seem to influence the establishment of oral tolerance. We also analyze immunoglobulin isotypes of specific antibodies formed by tolerant and immunized animals of different ages submitted to different conditions of oral antigen administration. Isotypic patterns were studied as a parameter for assessing the pathways of B and T cell interactions leading to antibody production

  10. Immunoglobulin G for patients with necrotising soft tissue infection (INSTINCT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Martin B.; Hjortrup, Peter B.; Hansen, Marco B.


    Purpose: The aim of the INSTINCT trial was to assess the effect of intravenous polyspecific immunoglobulin G (IVIG) compared with placebo on self-reported physical function in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with necrotising soft tissue infection (NSTI). Methods: We randomised 100 patients...... characteristics with the exception of IVIG use before randomisation (1 dose was allowed) and rates of acute kidney injury. Median PCS scores were 36 (interquartile range 0–43) in the group assigned to IVIG and 31 (0–47) in the group assigned to placebo (mean adjusted difference 1 (95% confidence interval −7 to 10...

  11. Anti-Proteinuric Effect of Sulodexide in Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy


    Bang, Kitae; Chin, Ho Jun; Chae, Dong Wan; Joo, Kwon Wook; Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Suhnggwon; Ju, Kyung Don; Kim, Hwajung; Ahn, Curie; Oh, Kook-Hwan


    Purpose We conducted a multi-center randomized double-blind study to determine the effects of 6-month therapy with sulodexide on urinary protein excretion in patients with idiopathic Immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy. Materials and Methods A total of seventy-seven patients participated in the study. They were randomly allocated to one of three groups: sulodexide 75 mg or 150 mg daily or the placebo for 6 months. The primary end point was the achievement, at 6 months, of at least 50% reductio...

  12. A case of immunoglobulin E mediated anaphylaxis to levodropropizine. (United States)

    Park, Kyung Hee; Yun, Il Seon; Choi, Soo-Young; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Hong, Chein-Soo; Park, Jung-Won


    We experienced a case of immunoglobulin E (IgE) mediated anaphylaxis to levodropropizine. The patient was an 18-year old Korean woman. After taking the common cold medication including acetaminophen, domperidone, and levodropropizine, skin rash, angioedema and anaphylaxis were developed immediately. As she was tolerable to acetaminophen alone, we thought the culprit agent was maybe a levodropropizine tablet. To confirm the culprit, she underwent skin prick test and oral drug provocation test with the suspected one. Finally we detected levodropropizine specific IgE and confirmed the specificity by inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

  13. Antibodies under pressure: A Small-Angle X-ray Scattering study of Immunoglobulin G under high hydrostatic pressure. (United States)

    König, Nico; Paulus, Michael; Julius, Karin; Schulze, Julian; Voetz, Matthias; Tolan, Metin


    In the present work two subclasses of the human antibody Immunoglobulin G (IgG) have been investigated by Small-Angle X-ray Scattering under high hydrostatic pressures up to 5kbar. It is shown that IgG adopts a symmetric T-shape in solution which differs significantly from available crystal structures. Moreover, high-pressure experiments verify the high stability of the IgG molecule. It is not unfolded by hydrostatic pressures of up to 5kbar but a slight increase of the radius of gyration was observed at elevated pressures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Differential protein analysis of serum exosomes post-intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in patients with Kawasaki disease. (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Song, Qi-Fang; Jin, Jing-Jie; Huang, Ping; Wang, Zhou-Ping; Xie, Xiao-Fei; Gu, Xiao-Qiong; Gao, Xue-Juan; Jia, Hong-Ling


    Kawasaki disease, which is characterised by systemic vasculitides accompanied by acute fever, is regularly treated by intravenous immunoglobulin to avoid lesion formation in the coronary artery; however, the mechanism of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy is unclear. Hence, we aimed to analyse the global expression profile of serum exosomal proteins before and after administering intravenous immunoglobulin. Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the differentially expressed proteome of serum exosomes in patients with Kawasaki disease before and after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Our analysis revealed 69 differential protein spots in the Kawasaki disease group with changes larger than 1.5-fold and 59 differential ones in patients after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy compared with the control group. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the acute-phase response disappeared, the functions of the complement system and innate immune response were enhanced, and the antibacterial humoral response pathway of corticosteroids and cardioprotection emerged after administration of intravenous immunoglobulin. Further, we showed that complement C3 and apolipoprotein A-IV levels increased before and decreased after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and that the insulin-like growth factor-binding protein complex acid labile subunit displayed reverse alteration before and after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. These observations might be potential indicators of intravenous immunoglobulin function. Our results show the differential proteomic profile of serum exosomes of patients with Kawasaki disease before and after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, such as complement C3, apolipoprotein A-IV, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein complex acid labile subunit. These results may be useful in the identification of markers for monitoring intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in patients with Kawasaki disease.

  15. Antibodies, immunoglobulin genes and the bursa of Fabricius in chicken B cell development. (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Michael J H


    The bursa of Fabricius is critical for the normal development of B lymphocytes in birds. It is productively colonized during embryonic life by a limited number of B cell precursors that have undergone the immunoglobulin gene rearrangements required for expression of cell surface immunoglobulin. Immunoglobulin gene rearrangement occurs in the absence of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase and generates minimal antibody diversity. In addition, observations that immunoglobulin heavy and light chain variable gene rearrangement occur at the same time and that allelic exclusion of immunoglobulin expression is regulated at the level of variable region gene rearrangement provide a striking contrast to rodent and primate models of immunoglobulin gene assembly. Following productive colonization of the bursa, developing B cells undergo rapid proliferation and the immunoglobulin V region genes that generate the specificity of the B cell surface immunoglobulin receptor undergo diversification. Immunoglobulin diversity in birds is generated by somatic gene conversion events in which sequences derived from upstream families of pseudogenes replace homologous sequences in unique and functionally rearranged immunoglobulin heavy and light chain variable region genes. This mechanism is distinct from and much more efficient than mechanisms of antibody diversification seen in rodents and primates. While the bursal microenvironment is not required for immunoglobulin gene rearrangement and expression, it is essential for the generation of antibody diversity by gene conversion. Following hatch, gut derived antigens are taken up by the bursa. While bursal development prior to hatch occurs in the absence of exogenous antigen, chicken B cell development after hatch may therefore be influenced by the presence of environmental antigen. This review focuses on the differences between B cell development in the chicken as compared to rodent and primate models.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voja Pavlovic


    Full Text Available The effects of Cortisol upon the serum immunoglobulin concentration areexamined. The experiment involved male guinea pigs of the body weight from 300 to400 g that were nonnally fed and lived under the common laboratory conditions. Theguinea pigs were divided into an experimental and a control group. The experimentalgroup's guinea pigs were given every day (in a 6 days' period a subcutaneous dose of80 g of corti sol/kg/per day, while the control group ones were given only one ml ofthe physiological solution. Two weeks after the last received dose of Cortisol orphysiological solution the cordial puncture was applied to take a blood sample inwhich the level of the serum IgA, IgG and IgM was determined. In the experimentalgroup animals the serum IgG value was 11,2 mg/ml at the beginning and 8,7 mg/ml at the end of the experiment (reduction for 22,1%, while the TgA concentration at theend of the experiment was reduced for 5,8%, while the IgM concentration for 12,9%.The serum immunoglobulin concentration in the control group guinea pigs does notreveal any significant differences at the beginning and the end of the experiment.

  17. Electrophoresis of buffalo (bos bubalis) serum proteins including immunoglobulins. (United States)

    Satija, K C; Rajpal, S; Pandey, R; Sharma, V K


    Antigenic components of buffalo (Bos bubalis) serum, which were also components of buffalo colostrum, seminal plasma, milk whey, saliva, and tears, were investigated by the ager gel diffusion test and immunoelectrophoresis. Immunoglobulins of buffalo serum were identified by immunoelectrophoresis employing rabbit-anti-buffalo serum and rabbit-anti-buffalo gamma-globulin. Based on immunoelectrophoretic patterns immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgGA, and IgM were detected both in the serum and colostrum of buffaloes. Tears contained both IgG and IgM. Cross-reactions of buffalo serum with seminal plasma, saliva, and milk whey were observed only in the IgG region. By polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, lipoprotein (5.2% +/- 0.41), IgM (11.4% +/- 3.1), IgG (9.4% +/- 0.98), haptoglobin 21.8% +/- 3.73), transferrin (10.4% +/- 2.15), ceruloplasmin (7.8% +/- 1.3), postalbumin (20.8% +/- 2.09), and albumin (13.7% +/- 0.75) were identified provisionally.

  18. A novel immunoglobulin G monolayer silver bio-nanocomposite. (United States)

    Matea, Cristian T; Mocan, Teodora; Zaharie, Florin; Iancu, Cornel; Mocan, Lucian


    Nanoparticles have a large number of surface atoms, which translates into a significant increase in the surface energy. Once introduced in a biological environment they tend to interact with proteins and form a protein corona shell. The aim of this study was to develop a novel, silver based, bio-nanocomposite for biological applications. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) molecule was chosen for the passivation of the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in order to avoid macrophage recognition of the synthesized structures. Monodisperse IgG-folinate functionalized silver nanoparticles were obtained, with sizes around 39 nm. UV-Vis and UATR-FT-IR spectroscopies were employed to confirm the successful functionalization of the silver nanoparticles. Atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering measurements gave information about the size and shape of the nanoparticles prior and after the passivation with IgG. Immunoglobulin G formed a monolayer around the nanoparticles with the binding site seemingly in the Fc domain, leaving the two Fab regions available for antigen binding. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an IgG-folinate functionalized AgNP bionanostructure developed for biological applications. Graphical abstract:Graphical illustration for IgG-folinate silver nanoparticles functionalization steps.

  19. Immunoglobulins and C3 in the P. brasiliensis granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian M. V. Biagioni


    Full Text Available The experimental model of paracoccidioidomycosis induced in mice by the intravenous injection of yeast-forms of P. brasiliensis (Bt2 strain; 1 x 10(6 viable fungi/animal was used to evaluate sequentially 2, 4, 8, 16 and 20 weeks after inoculation: 1. The presence of immunoglobulins and C3 in the pulmonary granuloma-ta, by direct immunofluorescence; 2. The humoral (immunodiffusion test and the cellular (footpad sweeling test immune response; 3. The histopathology of lesions. The cell-immune response was positive since week 2, showing a transitory depression at week 16. Specific antibodies were first detected at week 4 and peaked at week 16. At histology, epithelioid granulomas with numerous fungi and polymorphonuclear agreggates were seen. The lungs showed progressive involvement up to week 16, with little decrease at week 20. From week 2 on, there were deposits of IgG and C3 around fungal walls within the granulomas and IgG stained cells among the mononuclear cell peripheral halo. Interstitital immunoglobulins and C3 deposits in the granulomas were not letected. IgG and C3 seen to play an early an important role in. the host defenses against P. brasiliensis by possibly cooperating in the killing of parasites and blocking the antigenic diffusion.

  20. Lymphocytes and immunoglobulin patterns across the threshold of severe obesity. (United States)

    Marzullo, Paolo; Minocci, Alessandro; Giarda, Paola; Marconi, Cecilia; Tagliaferri, Antonella; Walker, Gillian E; Scacchi, Massimo; Aimaretti, Gianluca; Liuzzi, Antonio


    The proinflammatory state of metabolic disorders encompasses the alterations in leukocyte counts and acute-phase reactants, and thus, predisposes to acute and chronic cardiovascular events linked to fat accumulation. Leptin is a marker of adiposity and also yields regulatory effects on innate and adaptive immunity; however, its role on the immune function of obese subjects remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study is to determine the influence of obesity and the role of leptin concentrations on lymphocyte counts and immunoglobulin levels as broad markers of immune function. Cross-sectional analysis in 147 obese (64 M, BMI 43 ± 8.1 kg/m(2)) and 111 age- and sex-matched controls (36 M, BMI 22.5 ± 2.6 kg/m(2)) by assessment of peripheral leukocyte counts, immunoglobulin (Ig) A, G, M levels, leptin, glucose and lipid homeostasis, and acute-phase reactants. Compared to controls, all the leukocyte components were significantly increased in obesity (p obese individuals. A significant relationship was evident between leptin and leukocyte counts (p obesity entered the equation, it acted as an independent predictor of leukocytes (β = 0.51, p obesity in association to significant increments in leukocyte counts. These latter are markedly correlated to leptin levels, insulin resistance, lipid profile, and adiposity. This circumstance, and the significant correlation seen between leptin and IgA levels, may suggest an indirect intervention of leptin in the immunologic alterations consequent to obesity and related to its cardiovascular risk.

  1. Immunoglobulin G genotypes and the risk of schizophrenia. (United States)

    Pandey, Janardan P; Namboodiri, Aryan M; Elston, Robert C


    Genes of the immune system are relevant to the etiology of schizophrenia. However, to our knowledge, no large-scale studies, using molecular methods, have been undertaken to investigate the role of highly polymorphic immunoglobulin GM (γ marker) genes in this disorder. In this investigation, we aimed to determine whether particular GM genotypes were associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia. Using a matched case-control study design, we analyzed DNA samples from 798 subjects-398 patients with schizophrenia and 400 controls-obtained from the U.S. National Institute of Mental Health Repository. GM alleles were determined by the TaqMan(®) genotyping assay. The GM 3/3; 23-/23- genotype was highly significantly associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia (p = 0.0002). Subjects with this genotype were over three times (OR 3.4; 95 % CI 1.7-6.7) as likely to develop schizophrenia as those without this genotype. Our results show that immunoglobulin GM genes are risk factors for the development of schizophrenia. Since GM alleles have been implicated in gluten sensitivity and in immunity to neurotropic viruses associated with cognitive impairment, the results presented here may help unify these two disparate areas of pathology affected in this disorder.

  2. The treatment of refractory uveitis with intravenous immunoglobulin. (United States)

    Rosenbaum, J T; George, R K; Gordon, C


    To study the treatment of uveitis that has not responded to immunosuppressive medication. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) effectively treats a variety of autoimmune diseases, but it has not been adequately studied in the treatment of uveitis. The trial included patients who satisfied criteria that included noninfectious uveitis, active inflammatory disease, and a failure to respond adequately to immunosuppressive medication. We treated two patients with IVIg (0.5 gm/day, 3 days/mo initial dosage) as a pilot study and then treated an additional eight patients with a similar dosage as part of a formal but uncontrolled protocol. Patients on the protocol have been followed for a median of 11 months and have received a median of 7.5 treatment cycles. Five of 10 patients have had a clinically important and sustained improvement in visual acuity, and two of eight protocol patients have markedly reduced their immunosuppressive medication. Intravenous immunoglobulin can benefit some patients with uveitis that is otherwise refractory to immunosuppressive therapy. Although our preliminary experience is encouraging, the use of IVIg for uveitis should be limited because of cost, toxicity, the requirement for repeated administration, and the absence of controlled trials that demonstrate efficacy.

  3. Comparison of the serological responses to Moraxella catarrhalis immunoglobulin D-binding outer membrane protein and the ubiquitous surface proteins A1 and A2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Thuan Tong; Christensen, Jens Jørgen; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld


    Moraxella catarrhalis immunoglobulin D-binding protein (MID) is a complex antigen with unique immunoglobulin D (IgD)-binding, adhesion, and hemagglutination properties. Previous studies have shown that antibodies raised against MID764-913 in rabbits inhibited M. catarrhalis adhesion to human...... alveolar epithelial cells, and immunization with MID764-913 resulted in an increased pulmonary clearance in a murine model. Strong immune responses against MID have also consistently been shown in humans. Here, the MID-specified IgG responses were compared to those of ubiquitous surface proteins A1 and A2...... (UspA1/A2) using a series of recombinant fragments that spanned all three proteins. Sera were obtained from young children, aged 6 months to 1 year (n=8) and 2 to 3 years (n=15), and healthy adults (n=16). Acute- and convalescent-phase sera from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients...

  4. Prominent plasmacytosis following intravenous immunoglobulin correlates with clinical improvement in Guillain-Barre syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izumi Mori

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High doses of pooled polyclonal IgG are commonly used to treat numerous autoimmune diseases. Their mode of action nevertheless remains only partially explained. At the same time, until now, no early biological marker has been able to predict their efficacy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a first pilot retrospective analysis, we reviewed white blood cell counts and blood smears in consecutive patients with autoimmune disease (n = 202 and non-autoimmune disease (n = 104. Autoimmune patients received either intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg, n = 103, plasma exchange (n = 78 or no specific treatment (n = 21. We then prospectively monitored consecutive autoimmune patients with IVIg injection (n = 67, or without any specific treatment (n = 10 using the same routine laboratory tests, as well as flow cytometry. Both retrospective and prospective analyses identified large plasma-cell mobilization exclusively in IVIg-treated autoimmune patients 7 days after initiation of treatment. The majority of IVIg-mobilized plasma cells were immature HLA-DR(high/CD138(low/CXCR4(low plasma cells expressing intracellular immunoglobulin G which were neither IVIg- nor human IgG-specific. Importantly, we found a strong negative correlation between the absolute number of IVIg-mobilized plasma cells and time to improve neurological function in both retrospective and prospective studies of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS, (r = -0.52, p = 0.0031, n = 30, r = -0.47, p = 0.0028, n = 40, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: IVIg promotes immature plasma-cell mobilization in patients with GBS, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, myasthenia gravis and inflammatory myopathy. Prominent day 7 plasma-cell mobilization is a favourable prognostic marker in patients with GBS receiving IVIg treatment.

  5. Effects of the manufacturing process on the anti-A isoagglutinin titers in intravenous immunoglobulin products. (United States)

    Romberg, Val; Hoefferer, Liane; El Menyawi, Ibrahim


    The first intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) preparations for clinical use were produced from human plasma by Cohn-like fractionation processes. To achieve higher purity and yield, chromatography-based processes were developed. Using two products as examples, we compare the capacity of these two manufacturing processes to reduce the levels of anti-A and anti-B isoagglutinins in IVIG, which are believed to be responsible for rare hemolytic adverse events. The isoagglutinin levels of Sandoglobulin (lyophilized, sucrose-stabilized IVIG produced by Cohn-like fractionation) and Privigen (10% l-proline-stabilized IVIG produced by a chromatography-based process) were measured by the indirect agglutination test (IAT). The intrinsic isoagglutinin reduction capacity of each fractionation step was assessed in laboratory- and industry-scale experiments using the IAT and a flow cytometry-based immunoglobulin-binding assay, respectively. The median anti-A isoagglutinin titer recorded in 248 Sandoglobulin lots was three titer steps lower than the one measured in 651 Privigen lots (1:2 vs. 1:16). Over the entire process, we measured a five-titer-step isoagglutinin reduction in laboratory-scale Cohn-like fractionation; the largest reduction was observed between Fraction (F)II+III and FII. An overall four-titer-step reduction was recorded in the industry-scale process. In contrast, none of the steps of the chromatography-based manufacturing process caused any decrease in anti-A isoagglutinin content. Similar results were obtained for anti-B isoagglutinin reduction. Unlike Cohn-like fractionation, chromatography-based IVIG manufacturing processes do not have an intrinsic capacity for isoagglutinin reduction. The addition of dedicated isoagglutinin reduction steps may help minimize the potential risk of hemolysis in IVIG-treated patients. © 2015 AABB.

  6. Efficient immunoglobulin gene disruption and targeted replacement in rabbit using zinc finger nucleases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Flisikowska

    Full Text Available Rabbits are widely used in biomedical research, yet techniques for their precise genetic modification are lacking. We demonstrate that zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs introduced into fertilized oocytes can inactivate a chosen gene by mutagenesis and also mediate precise homologous recombination with a DNA gene-targeting vector to achieve the first gene knockout and targeted sequence replacement in rabbits. Two ZFN pairs were designed that target the rabbit immunoglobulin M (IgM locus within exons 1 and 2. ZFN mRNAs were microinjected into pronuclear stage fertilized oocytes. Founder animals carrying distinct mutated IgM alleles were identified and bred to produce offspring. Functional knockout of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus was confirmed by serum IgM and IgG deficiency and lack of IgM(+ and IgG(+ B lymphocytes. We then tested whether ZFN expression would enable efficient targeted sequence replacement in rabbit oocytes. ZFN mRNA was co-injected with a linear DNA vector designed to replace exon 1 of the IgM locus with ∼1.9 kb of novel sequence. Double strand break induced targeted replacement occurred in up to 17% of embryos and in 18% of fetuses analyzed. Two major goals have been achieved. First, inactivation of the endogenous IgM locus, which is an essential step for the production of therapeutic human polyclonal antibodies in the rabbit. Second, establishing efficient targeted gene manipulation and homologous recombination in a refractory animal species. ZFN mediated genetic engineering in the rabbit and other mammals opens new avenues of experimentation in immunology and many other research fields.

  7. Immunoglobulin-Mediated Agglutination of and Biofilm Formation by Escherichia coli K-12 Require the Type 1 Pilus Fiber (United States)

    Orndorff, Paul E.; Devapali, Aditya; Palestrant, Sarah; Wyse, Aaron; Everett, Mary Lou; Bollinger, R. Randal; Parker, William


    The binding of human secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), the primary immunoglobulin in the gut, to Escherichia coli is thought to be dependent on type 1 pili. Type 1 pili are filamentous bacterial surface attachment organelles comprised principally of a single protein, the product of the fimA gene. A minor component of the pilus fiber (the product of the fimH gene, termed the adhesin) mediates attachment to a variety of host cell molecules in a mannose inhibitable interaction that has been extensively described. We found that the aggregation of E. coli K-12 by human secretory IgA (SIgA) was dependent on the presence of the pilus fiber, even in the absence of the mannose specific adhesin or in the presence of 25 mM α-CH3Man. The presence of pilus without adhesin also facilitated SIgA-mediated biofilm formation on polystyrene, although biofilm formation was stronger in the presence of the adhesin. IgM also mediated aggregation and biofilm formation in a manner dependent on pili with or without adhesin. These findings indicate that the pilus fiber, even in the absence of the adhesin, may play a role in biologically important processes. Under conditions in which E. coli was agglutinated by SIgA, the binding of SIgA to E. coli was not increased by the presence of the pili, with or without adhesin. This observation suggests that the pili, with or without adhesin, affect factors such as cell surface rigidity or electrostatic repulsion, which can affect agglutination but which do not necessarily determine the level of bound immunoglobulin. PMID:15039312

  8. Problem of immunoglobulin M co-detection in serological response to bacterial and viral respiratory pathogens among children suspected of legionellosis


    Pancer, Katarzyna Wanda


    The objective of this research was an analysis of the serological response to respiratory bacterial and viral pathogens, in 156 children admitted to hospital in Warsaw with a suspicion of legionellosis. Levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) M to Bordetella pertussis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenoviruses, human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) t. 1-4 and influenza t. A + B viruses were determined retrospectively by ELISAs. In the prospective examinations (only Legionella pn...

  9. Role of Fc gamma receptors in the activation of neutrophils by soluble and insoluble immunoglobulin aggregates isolated from the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.


    Robinson, J J; Watson, F.; Bucknall, R. C.; Edwards, S W


    OBJECTIVES--Synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis contains both soluble and insoluble immunoglobulin aggregates which activate reactive oxidant production in human neutrophils. The objectives were to determine the roles played by Fc gamma receptors in activation of neutrophils by these complexes. METHODS--Pronase treatment was used to remove Fc gamma RIII from the neutrophil surface and blocking monoclonal antibodies were used to prevent the binding of complexes to Fc gamma R...

  10. Decreased immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding to cashew allergens following sodium sulfite treatment and heating (United States)

    Cashew nut and other nut allergies can result in serious and sometimes life threatening reactions. Linear and conformational epitopes within food allergens are important for immunoglobulin E binding. Methods that disrupt allergen structure can reduce immunoglobulin E binding and lessen the likelih...

  11. The thermal stability of immunoglobulin : unfolding and aggregation of a multi-domain protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, A.W.P.; Norde, W.


    The denaturation of immunoglobulin G was studied by different calorimetric methods and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The thermogram of the immunoglobulin showed two main transitions that are a superimposition of distinct denaturation steps. It was shown that the two transitions have different

  12. The thermal stability of immunoglobulin : Unfolding and aggregation of a multi-domain protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, AWP; Norde, W

    The denaturation of immunoglobulin G was studied by different calorimetric methods and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The thermogram of the immunoglobulin showed two main transitions that are a superimposition of distinct denaturation steps. It was shown that the two transitions have different

  13. Reduction in serum levels of antimitochondrial (M2) antibodies following immunoglobulin therapy in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice reconstituted with lymphocytes from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) (United States)



    The effect of gammaglobulin treatment on autoantibody production was investigated in SCID mice reconstituted with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from patients with PBC. All reconstituted mice displayed the presence of human antimitochondrial antibodies (αM2Ab) of both IgG and IgM types before treatment with human immunoglobulin. Two weeks after i.p. injection of 20 ×106 PBMC into SCID mice, i.p. treatment with various preparations of human immunoglobulin was initiated. In control animals treated with saline, serum levels of human αM2Ab of the IgG type increased with time, peaking around 4 weeks after reconstitution. In contrast, human IgG autoantibodies rapidly decreased in all animals treated with human IgG. Treatment with a human IgM preparation had no effect on serum levels of αM2Ab of the IgG type. The results may suggest that the pronounced reduction of specific IgG autoantibodies was due to an increased catabolism of human IgG, including the autoantibodies, in the gammaglobulin-treated mice. Although the production of human αM2Ab in reconstituted mice could be easily shown, PBC-specific liver lesions or bile duct destruction were not observed, irrespective of treatment protocol. PMID:8706332

  14. Circulating immune complexes, immunoglobulin G, salivary proteins and salivary immunoglobulin A in patients with Sjögren's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadži-Mihailović Miloš


    Full Text Available Introduction. Sjögren's syndrome (SS is a chronic autoimmune disorder, with its major clinical manifestations resulting from changes in exocrine glands. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate serum concentrations of circulating immune complexes (CIC and immunoglobulin G (IgG, and salivary proteins (SP and salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA in 40 patients with SS, and to correlate these values among themselves, as well as with the unstimulated salivary flow rate (USFR and the duration of disease. Methods. The total of 40 patients were included in this research. CIC was determined using the solution of polyethylene glycol and IgG with the standard procedure of radial immunodiffusion. SP was investigated by the method of Lowry and sIgA was separated from the whole saliva using the method of immune chromatography. Results. The values of most of the studied parameters exceeded the normal range in a high degree: CIC 72.5%, IgG 70%, SP 80%. The concentrations of CIC were significantly higher in the patients with the duration of disease less than 10 years. With the decrease of USFR, the concentration of sIgA and IgG were increased with statistical significance. Conclusion The increased prevalence of abnormal values of CIC, IgG and SP indicate that the patients with SS have developed a higher level of immune reactivity. These results could be useful in diagnosis and disease activity monitoring.

  15. Differential reactivity of serum immunoglobulins from Brazilian wild mammals to staphylococcal A and streptococcal G proteins. (United States)

    Pelli, Afonso; Castellano, Lucio R; Cardoso, Marcos R S; Vasconcelos, Luís A S; Domingues, Marcos A; Ferreira, Maria B; Rodrigues, Virmondes


    Human pathogens have evolved to infect vertebrate hosts other than human beings without causing symptoms of the disease, thus permitting them to complete their life cycle and to develop into infectious forms. The identification and management of infected animals are alternatives to control dissemination of the disease and to prevent human illness. In the current study, the potential use of staphylococcal A or streptococcal G proteins was evaluated with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for seroepidemiological studies. Sera were collected from animals that were representative of 23 different Brazilian wild mammals. A high protein A binding rate was observed in all animals, except for the orders Didelphimorphia, Artiodactyla, and Rodentia, in which affinity was medium or low. Affinity for streptococcal G protein was higher in animals of the order Artiodactyla, whereas no streptococcal G protein binding was observed in samples obtained from felines (order Carnivora). Bacterial protein binding to mammalian immunoglobulins was confirmed by immunoblotting. The results suggest that secondary detection systems should be better investigated in ELISA protocols before their implementation in seroepidemiological studies involving wild mammals.

  16. Nucleotide sequences of immunoglobulin eta genes of chimpanzee and orangutan: DNA molecular clock and hominoid evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakoyama, Y.; Hong, K.J.; Byun, S.M.; Hisajima, H.; Ueda, S.; Yaoita, Y.; Hayashida, H.; Miyata, T.; Honjo, T.


    To determine the phylogenetic relationships among hominoids and the dates of their divergence, the complete nucleotide sequences of the constant region of the immunoglobulin eta-chain (C/sub eta1/) genes from chimpanzee and orangutan have been determined. These sequences were compared with the human eta-chain constant-region sequence. A molecular clock (silent molecular clock), measured by the degree of sequence divergence at the synonymous (silent) positions of protein-encoding regions, was introduced for the present study. From the comparison of nucleotide sequences of ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antitrypsin and ..beta..- and delta-globulin genes between humans and Old World monkeys, the silent molecular clock was calibrated: the mean evolutionary rate of silent substitution was determined to be 1.56 x 10/sup -9/ substitutions per site per year. Using the silent molecular clock, the mean divergence dates of chimpanzee and orangutan from the human lineage were estimated as 6.4 +/- 2.6 million years and 17.3 +/- 4.5 million years, respectively. It was also shown that the evolutionary rate of primate genes is considerably slower than those of other mammalian genes.

  17. Cerebral infarctions after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for ITP in a child. (United States)

    Lorenzana, Adonis; Armin, Samira; Sharma, Animesh; Allarakhia, Iqbal; Witkowski, Alina


    Intravenous immunoglobulin is the favored therapy in childhood immune thrombocytopenic purpura. It is usually well tolerated with manageable side effects, but venous and arterial thrombosis following its administration have been described, mostly in adults. We describe a 3-year-old girl with immune thrombocytopenic purpura and intracranial hemorrhage who received intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and subsequently developed multifocal cerebral infarctions. Product specific as well as other factors may play a role in the development of this complication of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. This is the only reported case of intravenous immunoglobulin-related thrombosis in a child with immune thrombocytopenic purpura and intracranial hemorrhage. Thrombotic complications are associated with intravenous immunoglobulin administration and this includes cerebral infarcts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An unknown guinea-pig immunoglobulin with strong antibody activity to egg albumin (United States)

    Van Es, L.; Harink, Hermina Kwant-Den; Pondman, K. W.


    About 50 per cent of guinea-pigs immunized with egg albumin possess strong antibody activity in an immunoglobulin class with antigenic properties different from those of the well-known guinea-pig immunoglobulins. This immunoglobulin is present in normal guinea-pig serum in very small amounts and its concentration rises during immunization with egg albumin. Immunization with bovine insulin or bovine γ-globulin does not stimulate increased synthesis of this immunoglobulin class. Owing to the special conditions that are needed for its stimulation it is provisionally called IgS. It was found to be a heat stable 6.5S immunoglobulin and is not involved in PCA reactions. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4 PMID:4123962


    Kazmirchuk, V Ie; Tsaryk, V V; Sydorenko, O I; Solon'ko, I I; Diuseieva, V V; Voĭtiuk, T V


    Isolated IgE deficiency is one of the most common primary immunodeficiency, which is still underestimated cause of health disorders of modern man. Recent genetic studies report that the cause of the IgE deficiency is immune dysregulation caused by polymorphisms of the gene, which is responsible for the synthesis of activation-induced cytidinedeaminase (AICDA). The Institute of Immunology and Allergology at Bogomolets NMU during the years 2012-2014 were examined 5298 patients with a range of different diseases, which could be suspected violations of immunity. All patients were conducted comprehensive immunological study, and 4476 of them were examined for content of total serum IgE. The criterion for the selection of patients for follow-up began serum IgE deficiency (5-10 kIU/l) was detected in 212 patients (4%), while the total--130 (3%). For follow-up, we are clinically selected group of patients with deficiency of IgE (n = 60) and control group (n = 30). All patients were distributed as per clinical syndromes, and the frequency of their manifestations: sinopulmonary syndrome (63%), gastrointestinal syndrome (13%), autoimmune manifestations (10%), allergic reactions (7%) and chronic fatigue syndrome (7%). The levels of serum IgG, IgA, IgM in the study group were within the age norm (IgG = 1160.00 mg/dl ± 2.88 mg/dl, IgA = 138 g/l ± 37 mg/dl, IgM = 114 mg/dl ± 30 mg/dl). However, only a small proportion of patients was observed decrease in other classes of immunoglobulins in 8 patients with IgG IgG subclasses and sIgA levels in saliva. Significant violations by cellular immunity in determining lymphocyte subpopulations by flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies also were found. Phagocytic indices were also no significant abnormalities. An important aspect of clinical deficiency of immunoglobulin E is its association with diseases of bacterial origin (H. influenza, M. catarrhalis, Str. pneumoniae), indicating a protective role of these antibodies in the mucosa

  20. Cerebral infarction 3 weeks after intravenous immunoglobulin for Miller Fisher syndrome: a case report. (United States)

    Chang, Thashi; de Alwis, Johann Shenoj; Samarasekara, Neirosha; Rajapakse, Senaka


    Intravenous immunoglobulin is considered generally safe and is used widely as proven, and sometimes empiric, treatment for an expanding list of autoimmune diseases. Thromboembolic complications following intravenous immunoglobulin therapy are rare and there have been only five previous reports of stroke occurring within 2 to 10 days of infusion. This is the first report of cerebral infarction occurring after a longer latency of 3 weeks following intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in a patient presenting with Miller Fisher syndrome. A previously well, 44-year-old Sri Lankan man progressively developed ophthalmoplegia, facial paralysis, ataxia and areflexia with neurophysiological and cerebrospinal fluid evidence consistent with the Miller Fisher syndrome. He made an unremarkable recovery with intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (0.4 g/kg/day for 5 days, total 180 g), but developed a cerebral infarct with haemorrhagic transformation 25 days later. He was noted to have a low blood pressure. Extensive investigations ruled out vasculopathic, embolic, thrombophilic and inflammatory aetiologies. Circulating intravenous immunoglobulins combined with a low blood pressure was considered the most probable cause of his stroke. Cerebral infarction following intravenous immunoglobulin is thought to be secondary to hyperviscosity, thromboemboli, vasculitis, or cerebral vasospasm and reported to occur after a short latency when the immunoglobulin load is highest. Even though the immunoglobulin load is halved by 3 weeks, our case suggests that that the predisposition to thromboembolism persists over a longer period and may result in vascular complications if synergised with other vascular risk factors. It is recommended that intravenous immunoglobulin be infused at a rate of not less than 8 hours per day and that factors predisposing to thromboembolism such as dehydration, immobilisation and low blood pressure be avoided for the duration of at least two half-lives of immunoglobulin

  1. Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment in a patient with adrenomyeloneuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jønch Aia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN is one of several phenotypes of the adrenoleukodystrophy spectrum caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene on the X chromosome. An inflammatory component is part of the disease complex ranging from severe childhood CNS demyelination to spinal cord and peripheral nerve degeneration. Case presentation We present a patient with clinical progressive AMN and severe lower limb pain. Longitudinal brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed a constant slightly elevated myoinositol/total creatine ratio during the five year treatment period, probably reflecting demyelination, microglial activation and gliosis, indicating an inflammatory response. The pain was refractory to conventional therapy but intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG treatment was highly efficient. Conclusion IVIG may be considered as a last resort for treatment of refractory pain in AMN patients with indications of an inflammatory component.

  2. The serum immunoglobulin G glycosylation signature of gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Renee Ruhaak


    Full Text Available Biomarkers may facilitate detection of gastric cancer at an earlier stage and reduce mortality. Here we sought to determine if the glycosylation profile of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG could distinguish patients with non-atrophic gastritis (NAG, duodenal ulcer (DU and gastric cancer (GC. Serum IgG was released and analyzed using nano-LC–TOF mass spectrometry. Statistically significant false discovery rate (FDR-adjusted p-values were observed for 18 glycans, eight that differed significantly between NAG and GC, three that distinguished NAG from DU, and eight that differed between DU and GC. The IgG glycosylation signature may be useful as a predictive marker for gastric cancer.

  3. Antibody structural modeling with prediction of immunoglobulin structure (PIGS)

    KAUST Repository

    Marcatili, Paolo


    © 2014 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Antibodies (or immunoglobulins) are crucial for defending organisms from pathogens, but they are also key players in many medical, diagnostic and biotechnological applications. The ability to predict their structure and the specific residues involved in antigen recognition has several useful applications in all of these areas. Over the years, we have developed or collaborated in developing a strategy that enables researchers to predict the 3D structure of antibodies with a very satisfactory accuracy. The strategy is completely automated and extremely fast, requiring only a few minutes (~10 min on average) to build a structural model of an antibody. It is based on the concept of canonical structures of antibody loops and on our understanding of the way light and heavy chains pack together.

  4. [Sialochemistry in nonneoplastic diseases of parotid gland: immunoglobulins and electrolytes]. (United States)

    Wang, S; Zhu, X; Zhu, J


    The concentration and total value of immunoglobulins (SIgA, IgG) and electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chlorine, calcium and phosphorus) in mixed saliva were examined in 28 patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS), 25 with chronic obstructive parotitis (COP), 32 with sialadenosis and 32 normal controls. The results showed that in SS group, total saliva flow rate was decreased: concentration of SIgA, IgG, electrolytes was significantly elevated; but total value of SIgA, IgG, electrolytes was markedly decreased. Decreased total value of sodium, potassium, chlorine and calcium was revealed in COP group. Elevated concentration and total value of phosphorus was found in sialadenosis group. This study indicates that examination of total value of immunoglobins and electrolytes has greater value than that of concentration. The possible mechanism of changes observed is discussed.

  5. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin preserves muscle strength in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvardsen, L H; Harbo, T; Sindrup, S H


    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) is superior to placebo treatment for maintenance of muscle strength during 12 weeks in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). The present study evaluated whether SCIG preserves muscle strength for 1 year...... evaluated after 3, 6 and 12 months. Primary end-points were changes in muscle strength evaluated by isokinetic dynamometry in four affected muscle groups and a composite score of muscle performance and function tests, including Medical Research Council (MRC) score, grip strength, 40-m walking test (40-MWT...... remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: SCIG preserves muscle strength and functional ability in patients with CIDP who previously responded to IVIG. SCIG should be considered as an alternative in long-term treatment of CIDP patients....

  6. The immunomodulatory effects of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in Kawasaki disease (United States)

    Burns, Jane C.; Franco, Alessandra


    Summary The introduction of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for modulation of inflammation in acute Kawasaki disease (KD) was a great therapeutic triumph. However, three decades later, the mechanisms underlying immune regulation by IVIG are only beginning to be revealed. Stimulation of an immature myeloid population of dendritic cells (DC) that secretes IL-10 and the elucidation of Fc-specific, HLA-restricted natural regulatory T cells (Treg) provide insights into mechanisms of IVIG. Other potential mechanisms include provision of agent-specific neutralizing antibody, anti-idiotype and anti-cytokine antibodies, blockade of activating Fcγ receptors, and stimulation of the inhibitory FcγRIIb receptor. New initiatives must seek to understand the mechanisms of IVIG in order to one day replace it with more affordable and more targeted therapies. PMID:26099344

  7. Secretory immunoglobulin purification from whey by chromatographic techniques. (United States)

    Matlschweiger, Alexander; Engelmaier, Hannah; Himmler, Gottfried; Hahn, Rainer


    Secretory immunoglobulins (SIg) are a major fraction of the mucosal immune system and represent potential drug candidates. So far, platform technologies for their purification do not exist. SIg from animal whey was used as a model to develop a simple, efficient and potentially generic chromatographic purification process. Several chromatographic stationary phases were tested. A combination of two anion-exchange steps resulted in the highest purity. The key step was the use of a small-porous anion exchanger operated in flow-through mode. Diffusion of SIg into the resin particles was significantly hindered, while the main impurities, IgG and serum albumin, were bound. In this step, initial purity was increased from 66% to 89% with a step yield of 88%. In a second anion-exchange step using giga-porous material, SIg was captured and purified by step or linear gradient elution to obtain fractions with purities >95%. For the step gradient elution step yield of highly pure SIg was 54%. Elution of SIgA and SIgM with a linear gradient resulted in a step yield of 56% and 35%, respectively. Overall yields for both anion exchange steps were 43% for the combination of flow-through and step elution mode. Combination of flow-through and linear gradient elution mode resulted in a yield of 44% for SIgA and 39% for SIgM. The proposed process allows the purification of biologically active SIg from animal whey in preparative scale. For future applications, the process can easily be adopted for purification of recombinant secretory immunoglobulin species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Síndrome de Guillain-Barré com flutuações relacionadas ao tratamento com imunoglobulina humana endovenosa (curso trifásico: relato de caso Fluctuations in Guillain-Barré syndrome related to treatment with intravenous human immunoglobulin (trifasic course: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam um caso de síndrome de Guillain-Barré (SGB, com tetraplegia e ventilação mecânica, que foi tratado com imunoglobulina humana endovenosa (IgEV, 2 g/kg, apresentando melhora clínica inicial, tendo piorado na segunda semana. Foi realizada uma segunda sessão de IgEV, também com melhora inicial, seguida de piora aos 65 dias de doença. Uma terceira etapa de IgEV foi realizada, sendo a melhora definitiva e sem outros episódios após 3 anos de seguimento. Os autores revisam a literatura sobre flutuações relacionadas ao tratamento. Concluem que na SGB é importante uma observação clínica rigorosa nas primeiras semanas após tratamento com IgEV e que seriam necessários estudos para elaborar protocolos alternativos de prevenção nesses casos.The authors report the case of a patient with severe Guillain-Barré syndrome (tetraplegic and on mechanical ventilation, that was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg, 2 g/Kg. At first, there was clinical improvement, followed by clinical deterioration two weeks later. On the second course of IVIg there was, again, clinical improvement and then deterioration, 65 days after treatment. Finally, on the third course of treatment definitive recovery was achieved and no more relapses happened so far (three years after the treatment. The authors review the literature about fluctuations related to treatment with IVIg. Conclusions are that these patients should be closely observed during the first weeks after IVIg treatment, and that further studies are still necessary to elaborate alternative protocols on the prevention of these cases.

  9. Genomic organization and expression of immunoglobulin genes in the Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus). (United States)

    Qin, T; Zhu, H; Wang, D; Hao, H; Du, W


    In science, the hamsters are widely used as a model for studying the human diseases because they display many features like humans. The utility of the Chinese hamster as a biology model can be further enhanced by further characterization of the genes encoding components of the immune system. Here, we report the genomic organization and expression of the Chinese hamster immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes. The Chinese hamster IgH locus contains 268 VH segments (132 potentially functional genes, 12 ORFs and 124 pseudogenes), 4 DH segments, 6 JH segments, four constant region genes (μ, γ, ε and α) and one reverse δ remnant fragment. The Igκ locus contains only a single Cκ gene, 4 Jκ segments and 48 Vκ segments (15 potentially functional genes and 33 pseudogenes), whereas the Igλ locus contains 4 Cλ genes, but only Cλ 3 and Cλ 4 each preceded by a Jλ gene segment. A total of 49 Vλ segments (39 potentially functional genes, 3 ORFs and 7 pseudogenes) were identified. Analysis of junctions of the recombined V(D)J transcripts reveals complex diversity in both expressed H and κ sequences, but the microhomology-directed VJ recombination obviously results in very limited diversity in the Chinese hamster λ gene despite more potential germline-encoded combinatorial diversity. This is the first study to make a comprehensive analysis of the Ig genes in the Chinese hamster, which provides insights into the Ig genes in placental mammals. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Associations between subjective symptoms and serum immunoglobulin E levels during Asian dust events. (United States)

    Otani, Shinji; Onishi, Kazunari; Mu, Haosheng; Hosoda, Takenobu; Kurozawa, Youichi; Ikeguchi, Masahide


    Asian dust is a seasonal meteorological phenomenon caused by the displacement of atmospheric pollutants from the Mongolian and Chinese deserts. Although the frequency of Asian dust events and atmospheric dust levels have steadily increased in the eastern Asia region, the effects on human health remain poorly understood. In the present study, the impact of Asian dust on human health was determined in terms of allergic reactions. A total of 25 healthy volunteers were tested for a relationship between serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and subjective symptoms during a 3-day Asian dust event recorded in April 2012. They filled daily questionnaires on the severity of nasal, pharyngeal, ocular, respiratory, and skin symptoms by a self-administered visual analog scale. Serum levels of non-specific IgE and 33 allergen-specific IgE molecules were analyzed. Spearman rank-correlation analysis revealed significant positive associations between nasal symptom scores and 2 microbial-specific IgE levels (Penicillium and Cladosporium). Microbes migrate vast distances during Asian dust events by attaching themselves to dust particles. Therefore, some of these symptoms may be associated with type 1 allergic reactions to certain type of microbes.

  11. Passive protection effect of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins on enterovirus 71 infected mice. (United States)

    Liou, Jenn-Fa; Chang, Chih-Wei; Tailiu, Jui-jane; Yu, Chun-Keung; Lei, Huan-Yao; Chen, Lih-Ren; Tai, Chein


    The objective of this study is to evaluate the passive protective efficiency of immunoglobulin in yolk (IgY) specific against human enterovirus type 71 (EV71). The antibody was raised by intramuscular immunization to 10 White Leghorn hens, with inactivated human EV71 serving as the antigen. The titer and specificity of the antibody were analyzed from purified IgY in the egg yolks of immunized hens. Results indicate that the titer of IgY specific against EV71 increased from the third week after the first immunization. The content of total IgY was 190 ± 26 mg/yolk, with an average concentration of specific IgY of 6.34 ± 3.38 mg/yolk in the eggs from 3 to 18 wk after immunization. The results of the neutralization effect of specific IgY in EV71-challenged mice demonstrate that the EV71-specific IgY, either by intraperitoneal injection or oral administration, was able to significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality in EV71 infected mice pups. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Immunoglobulin G antibody profiles against Anopheles salivary proteins in domestic animals in Senegal. (United States)

    Boulanger, Denis; Doucoure, Souleymane; Grout, Lise; Ngom, Abdoulaye; Rogerie, François; Cornelie, Sylvie; Sokhna, Cheikh; Mouchet, François; Riveau, Gilles; Simondon, François; Remoue, Franck J


    Although domestic animals may not be permissive for Plasmodium, they could nevertheless play a role in the epidemiology of malaria by attracting Anopheles away from humans. To investigate interactions between domestic animals and mosquitoes, we assayed immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies directed against the salivary proteins of Anopheles gambiae in domestic animals living in Senegalese villages where malaria is endemic. By Western blotting, sera from bovines (n=6), ovines (n=36), and caprines (n=36) did not react with Anopheles whole saliva. In contrast, equine sera recognized proteins in both saliva and salivary gland extracts. Two of the major immunogens (32 and 72 kDa) were also reactive in extracts from other major mosquito genera (Aedes and Culex), but reactions toAnopheles-specific antigens were detected in 12 of 17 horses. These data suggest that horses strongly react to Anopheles bites, and further experiments on horses are warranted to investigate the impact of this domestic animal species on the transmission of human malaria.

  13. Standardization of Immunoglobulin M Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Routine Diagnosis of Arboviral Infections (United States)

    Martin, Denise A.; Muth, David A.; Brown, Teresa; Johnson, Alison J.; Karabatsos, Nick; Roehrig, John T.


    Immunoglobulin M antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA) is a rapid and versatile diagnostic method that readily permits the combination of multiple assays. Test consolidation is especially important for arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) which belong to at least three virus families: the Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Bunyaviridae. Using prototype viruses from each of these families and a panel of well-characterized human sera, we have evaluated and standardized a combined MAC-ELISA capable of identifying virus infections caused by members of each virus family. Furthermore, by grouping antigens geographically and utilizing known serological cross-reactivities, we have reduced the number of antigens necessary for testing, while maintaining adequate detection sensitivity. We have determined that a 1:400 serum dilution is most appropriate for screening antiviral antibody, using a positive-to-negative ratio of ≥2.0 as a positive cutoff value. With a blind-coded human serum panel, this combined MAC-ELISA was shown to have test sensitivity and specificity that correlated well with those of other serological techniques. PMID:10790107

  14. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for systemic capillary leak syndrome (Clarkson disease). (United States)

    Xie, Zhihui; Chan, Eunice C; Long, Lauren M; Nelson, Celeste; Druey, Kirk M


    Systemic capillary leak syndrome is a highly rare disorder of unknown cause. The disease is characterized by episodes of transient vascular collapse, which leads to hypotensive shock and anasarca. Previous treatment of this potentially devastating condition has been largely ineffective. We evaluated intravenous immunoglobulin prophylactic therapy in a cohort of 29 patients with systemic capillary leak syndrome in a longitudinal follow-up study. All patients received treatments at the discretion of their primary providers and retrospectively via questionnaire-recorded symptoms beginning with their first documented episode of systemic capillary leak syndrome to May 31, 2014. A total of 22 of 29 patients responded to the questionnaire, and 18 of the 22 respondents received monthly prophylaxis with intravenous immunoglobulin during the study period for a median interval of 32 months. The median annual attack frequency was 2.6 per patient before intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and 0 per patient after initiation of intravenous immunoglobulin prophylaxis (P = .0001). A total of 15 of 18 subjects with a history of 1 or more acute systemic capillary leak syndrome episodes experienced no further symptoms while taking intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Intravenous immunoglobulin prophylaxis is associated with a dramatic reduction in the occurrence of systemic capillary leak syndrome attacks in most patients, with minimal side effects. A prospective, randomized trial may be necessary to fully assess the benefits of intravenous immunoglobulin for systemic capillary leak syndrome and to determine the optimal dosage and duration of therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Novel rabies virus-neutralizing epitope recognized by human monoclonal antibody: Fine mapping and escape mutant analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marissen, W.E.; Kramer, R.A.; Rice, A.; Weldon, W.C.; Niezgoda, M.; Faber, M.; Slootstra, J.W.; Meloen, R.H.; Clijsters-van der Horst, M.; Visser, T.J.; Jongeneelen, M.; Thijsse, S.; Throsby, M.; Kruif, de J.; Rupprecht, C.E.; Dietzschold, B.; Goudsmit, J.; Bakker, A.B.H.


    Anti-rabies virus immunoglobulin combined with rabies vaccine protects humans from lethal rabies infections. For cost and safety reasons, replacement of the human or equine polyclonal immunoglobulin is advocated, and the use of rabies virus-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) is recommended. We

  16. Novel rabies virus-neutralizing epitope recognized by human monoclonal antibody: fine mapping and escape mutant analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marissen, Wilfred E.; Kramer, R. Arjen; Rice, Amy; Weldon, William C.; Niezgoda, Michael; Faber, Milosz; Slootstra, Jerry W.; Meloen, Rob H.; Clijsters-van der Horst, Marieke; Visser, Therese J.; Jongeneelen, Mandy; Thijsse, Sandra; Throsby, Mark; de Kruif, John; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Goudsmit, Jaap; Bakker, Alexander B. H.


    Anti-rabies virus immunoglobulin combined with rabies vaccine protects humans from lethal rabies infections. For cost and safety reasons, replacement of the human or equine polyclonal immunoglobulin is advocated, and the use of rabies virus-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) is recommended. We

  17. Clinical severity of visceral leishmaniasis is associated with changes in immunoglobulin g fc N-glycosylation. (United States)

    Gardinassi, Luiz Gustavo; Dotz, Viktoria; Hipgrave Ederveen, Agnes; de Almeida, Roque Pacheco; Nery Costa, Carlos Henrique; Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; de Jesus, Amélia Ribeiro; Mayboroda, Oleg A; Garcia, Gustavo Rocha; Wuhrer, Manfred; de Miranda Santos, Isabel Kinney Ferreira


    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has a high fatality rate if not treated; nevertheless, the majority of human infections with the causative agent, Leishmania infantum chagasi, are asymptomatic. Although VL patients often present with increased levels of serum immunoglobulins, the contribution of antibodies to resistance or progression to disease remains unknown. Effector and regulatory functions of antibodies rely on their interactions with type I and II Fc receptors, and these interactions are tuned by the patterns of antibody Fc N-glycosylation. In view of these facts, we applied a robust method of IgG Fc N-glycopeptide profiling of serum samples from 187 patients with VL, 177 asymptomatic individuals, 116 endemic controls (individuals residing in areas where VL is endemic) and 43 nonendemic controls (individuals living in an area where VL is not endemic). We show that, in comparison to the overall IgG Fc N-glycan profiles of asymptomatic or uninfected healthy individuals, those of patients with VL are profoundly altered. These changes correlate with levels of serum cytokines and the inflammation marker C-reactive protein. We also fitted univariate and multivariate ordinal logistic regression models to demonstrate the ability of IgG Fc N-glycosylation features and immunity regulators present in serum to predict disease severity in VL patients. Importantly, we show that Fc N-glycosylation profiles change after treatment of VL. This study introduces important concepts contributing to the understanding of antibody responses in infections with Leishmania parasites and provides new insights into the pathology of human VL. Immunoglobulins (Ig) have been shown to present pro- and anti-inflammatory functions according to the profile of carbohydrates attached to their Fc region. Glycosylation features of serum IgG have been examined in relation to several autoimmune and infectious diseases and provide a mechanistic basis for the protective or pathogenic role of antibodies

  18. Fragments of the constant region of immunoglobulin light chains are constituents of AL-amyloid proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K E; Sletten, K; Westermark, Per


    Immunoglobulin light chains are the precursor proteins of AL-amyloidosis. In the fibril formation process properties of the variable part of the immunoglobulin light chains are believed to be of major importance. In this work it is shown that fragments of the constant part of the immunoglobulin l...... light chain are a constituent of the AL-amyloid proteins of kappa type. A specific antiserum has identified these fragments in gel filtration fractions where the absorbance approached the base line after the main retarded peak. The fragments are small and have been overlooked previously...

  19. Swine plasma immunoglobulins for prevention and treatment of post-weaning diarrhoea: Safety and Preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Chris Juul; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Bendix Hansen, Marie

    industry. We aim at developing a sustainable product for protection against PWD based on natural antibodies (immunoglobulins) derived directly from inexpensive raw materials. The availability of such an inexpensive and highly active immunogloulin product would allow swine producers to reduce expenses...... their adhesion to porcine epithelial cells in vitro. As the immunoglobulin fraction is intended for oral use as a feed supplement, we also tested the safety of feeding 4 grams of natural immunoglobulins to 4-5 week old weaner piglets for 14 days and observed no adverse effects. In an experimental model of E...

  20. Importance of neonatal immunoglobulin transfer for hippocampal development and behaviour in the newborn pig

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kateryna Goncharova; Liudmyla Lozinska; Ester Arevalo Sureda; Jarosław Woliński; Björn Weström; Stefan Pierzynowski


    .... Thirty six, unsuckled newborn piglets were fed an infant formula or colostrum and supplemented orally or intravenously with either species-specific or foreign immunoglobulin and then compared to both...

  1. Solid-phase radioimmunoassay of immunoglobulins G, A and M: applicability in analysis of sucrose gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksen, E.F.; Danielsen, H. (Aarhus Kommunehospital (Denmark). Medical Department C); Johansen, A.S. (Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Institute of Medical Biochemistry); Larsson, L.I. (Unit of Histochemistry, University Institute of Pathology, Copenhagen, Denmark)


    A simple and sensitive solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the detection of immunoglobulins G, A and M in sucrose gradients is described. The solid-phase consisted of immunoglobulins adsorbed to polystyrene tubes. Using buffers without detergent and /sup 125/I-labeled sheep anti-rabbit IgA as radioligand, the assay was able to detect 0.8 ng per tube in the IgG assay and 1.6 ng per tube in the IgA and IgM assays. Standard curves with antigen dissolved in 10% and 32% sucrose were superimposable and did not deviate from standard curves with antigen dissolved in buffer without sucrose. Using these techniques on ultracentrifugation samples from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, Schoenlein-Henoch nephritis and IgA glorulonephritis is was possible to detect both immunoglobulin fragments and immunoglobulin aggregates at the same time without prior dialysis of the samples.

  2. Rare problems with RhD immunoglobulin for postnatal prophylaxis after large fetomaternal haemorrhage (United States)

    Kidson-Gerber, Giselle


    We report a case of unusually large fetomaternal haemorrhage in a RhD- patient; of symptomatic non-sustained haemolysis of fetal red cells in the maternal circulation with infusion of intravenous high-dose RhD immunoglobulin; and of a failure to prevent RhD alloimmunisation. The haemolytic reaction is not previously reported in this patient group and we suggest would be limited to patients where the number of fetal red cells in the circulation is high. We advocate caution in treatment and spaced dosing of RhD immunoglobulin where the required dose is high, and refer readers to the WinRhoSDF™ RhD immunoglobulin product information for their updated dosing recommendations. There is a need for better understanding of pathophysiology and RhD immunoglobulin effects, to further reduce alloimmunisation rates, and we support the reporting of prophylaxis failures to haemovigilance programmes as is in place in the United Kingdom. PMID:27512480

  3. Immunoglobulin G response in patients with Campylobacter concisus diarrhea. (United States)

    Nielsen, Hans Linde; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Mitchell, Hazel M; Nielsen, Henrik


    Limited information is available on the systemic immunoglobulin response in patients infected with the emerging pathogen Campylobacter concisus. The aim of the present study was to detect anti-C. concisus antibodies in serum of 88 patients with C. concisus gastroenteritis. Specific IgG antibodies to C. concisus were measured in serum using an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and pooled donor serum was used as a control. The mean optical density was 0.135 (SEM: 0.020) for the 88 adult patients and 0.100 (SEM: 0.011) in controls. When using an optical density value equal to the mean +3 SEM for the control serum, 22 (25%) C. concisus-positive patients had increased IgG antibodies. Patients with high IgG levels more often reported headache, and they had a trend toward more mucus in stools, whereas IgG levels were unrelated to age, duration of diarrhea, number of stools per day, and weight loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Imaging findings of primary immunoglobulin G4-related cervical lymphadenopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Masaya; Kato, Hiroki; Goshima, Satoshi; Matsuo, Masayuki [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gifu (Japan); Kito, Yusuke [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology and Translational Research, Gifu (Japan); Mizuta, Keisuke; Aoki, Mitsuhiro [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Gifu (Japan); Kato, Keizo [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, Gifu (Japan)


    The purpose of the present study was to assess imaging findings of primary immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related cervical lymphadenopathy. Five consecutive patients with clinically, serologically, and histopathologically confirmed primary IgG4-related cervical lymphadenopathy without any other organ involvement were included. All patients underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), and four underwent {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/CT. We retrospectively reviewed the images and assessed the number, size, location, central necrosis, perinodal infiltration, penetrating vessels, and maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of the enlarged cervical nodes. Thirteen enlarged cervical nodes measuring larger than 10 mm in minimum diameter were identified. The maximum and minimum diameter of enlarged nodes ranged from 1.2 to 3.2 cm (median, 1.8 cm) and from 1.0 to 1.9 cm (median, 1.2 cm), respectively. Lymphadenopathy was unilateral in all patients, and eight enlarged nodes were located at level IB (62%), one at level II (8%), three at level IV (23%), and one at level V (8%). Central necrosis was not seen in any nodes. Perinodal infiltration was seen in only one node (8%), and penetrating vessels were seen in seven nodes (54%). The median SUVmax of nine nodes was 4.45 (range, 2.08-12.44). Eight enlarged nodes (62%) were located in the submandibular region. Central necrosis was not observed in any nodes and perinodal infiltration was observed in one node (8%). (orig.)

  5. Patterns in the complementary determining regions of immunoglobulins (CDRs). (United States)

    Lara-Ochoa, F; Vargas-Madrazo, E; Jimenez-Montano, M A; Almagro, J C


    An analysis of the frequency of use of amino acids on the CDR-1 and CDR-2 of 1500 immunoglobulins showed that the frequencies of amino acids in different positions could be fitted by two types of distribution. For some positions the frequencies were fitted by an inverse power law and for other positions by an exponential distribution. In order to see whether the more frequently used amino acids for specific positions had physicochemical properties or attributes in common, they were clustered using an algorithm normally applied to artificial intelligence problems. It was found that the amino acids in those positions fitted by the inverse power law have similar hydrophobicity and volume, which are commonly attributes of amino acids in structural positions. Thus, if these positions are critical to maintaining the structural features of the CDR domains, the rest of the positions should be either properly involved in the recognition process or irrelevant. The frequencies of amino acids in these recognition positions were fitted by the exponential law, and it was found by the clustering analysis that these amino acids share properties of a more general type, such as capability of forming hydrogen bonds, polarity, etc. This suggests that at least part of the recognition mechanism requires general properties rather than specific amino acids. Amino acids sharing the required attributes for each one of these positions are then used with random frequency.

  6. Academic stress, social support, and secretory immunoglobulin A. (United States)

    Jemmott, J B; Magloire, K


    We examined the relation of academic stress and social support to salivary concentrations of secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA), an antibody class that plays an important role in mucosal defense against acute upper respiratory tract infections. We assayed whole, unstimulated saliva samples collected from 15 healthy undergraduates 5 days before their final exam period, during their exam period, and 14 days after their last final exam for S-IgA concentrations by single radial immunodiffusion. The students rated the university's general psychological climate as being more stressful during the exam period compared with the two other periods. Paralleling this, their salivary concentrations of S-IgA were lower during the exam period. Students who reported more adequate social support at the preexam period had consistently higher S-IgA levels than did their peers reporting less adequate social support. This latter finding is consonant with the social support direct effects hypothesis, which states that social support enhances health outcomes irrespective of whether the individual is exposed to stressful experiences.

  7. Cytomegalovirus Hyper Immunoglobulin for CMV Prophylaxis in Thoracic Transplantation. (United States)

    Rea, Federico; Potena, Luciano; Yonan, Nizar; Wagner, Florian; Calabrese, Fiorella


    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection negatively influences both short- and long-term outcomes after cardiothoracic transplantation. In heart transplantation, registry analyses have shown that CMV immunoglobulin (CMVIG) with or without virostatic prophylaxis is associated with a significant reduction in mortality and graft loss versus no prophylaxis, particularly in high-risk donor (D)+/recipient (R)- transplants. Randomized comparative trials are lacking but retrospective data suggest that addition of CMVIG to antiviral prophylaxis may reduce rates of CMV-related events after heart transplantation, including the incidence of acute rejection or chronic allograft vasculopathy. However, available data consistently indicate that when CMVIG is used, it should be administered with concomitant antiviral therapy, and that evidence concerning preemptive management with CMVIG is limited, but promising. In lung transplantation, CMVIG should again only be used with concomitant antiviral therapy. Retrospective studies have shown convincing evidence that addition of CMVIG to antiviral prophylaxis lowers CMV endpoints and mortality. The current balance of evidence suggests that CMVIG prophylaxis reduces the risk of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, but a controlled trial is awaited. Overall, the relatively limited current data set suggests that prophylaxis with CMVIG in combination with antiviral therapy appears effective in D+/R- heart transplant patients, whereas in lung transplantation, addition of CMVIG in recipients of a CMV-positive graft may offer an advantage in terms of CMV infection and disease.

  8. Immunoglobulin E Antileishmanial Antibody Response in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (United States)

    Sousa-Atta, Maria L. B.; Salamé, Gregório S.; D’Oliveira, Argemiro; Almeida, Roque P.; Atta, Ajax M.; Carvalho, Edgar M.


    High levels of antileishmanial immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies are associated with disease activity in visceral leishmaniasis. Herein, we report our observations about the relationship between antileishmanial IgE antibodies and clinical aspects of cutaneous leishmaniasis. This study was carried out with 45 patients (29 male and 16 female), with ages ranging from 11 to 48 years. All subjects were from an area to which leishmaniasis is endemic, Corte de Pedra (Bahia, Brazil), and the duration of the illness was ≤30 days. The patients were classified as positive or negative for IgE serology in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with leishmanial antigens. IgE antibodies were detected in 18 patients (optical density, 0.421 ± 0.30; 95% confidence interval, 0.27 to 0.57), and only 3 (17%) had more than one ulcer. In this group the diameter of Montenegro’s reaction was 18 ± 12.2 mm. In the group with negative IgE serology, 11 of 27 patients (48%) presented two or more cutaneous ulcers, and the mean of the skin test result was 9 ± 6.9 mm. There was a positive correlation between IgE antibody levels and Montenegro’s reaction size and an inverse correlation between IgE antileishmanial antibodies and the number of skin ulcers. The presence of antileishmanial IgE antibodies in cutaneous leishmaniasis may be a result of immunoregulatory events with clinical implications. PMID:11777837

  9. [Identification and production of monoclonal antibody of Siberian tiger's immunoglobulin]. (United States)

    Zhang, Yaonglong; Zhang, Duanling; Zhou, Ming; Xue, Yuan; Hua, Yuping; Ma, Jianzhang


    To purify immunoglobulin (Ig) of Siberian Tiger and prepare monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the Ig,which can be used to develop immunological diagnostic kits for diagnosing infectious disease in Siberian Tiger. The Ig of Siberian tigers was purified with saturated ammonium sulfate combined with recombinant Protein G. The C57BL/6 mice were immunized with the purified Ig. Spleno-cytes of the mice immunized were collected and fused with the mouse myeloma cell line (Sp2/0-Ag14). The positive hybridoma clones were selected by ELISA and were identified by western blot. The sandwich ELISA was used to detect immunocompetence of the purified Ig and the mAb. We obtained three mouse hybridoma clones that produced mAbs against Ig of Siberian Tiger. The derived McAbs could recognize Ig heavy chain of Siberian Tiger specifically. The biological activity of the Ig and obtained McAbs also could be identified by detecting the antibody induced by panleukopenia virus (FPV-HLJ) vaccine in Siberian Tiger. The antibody also would be useful for assess the vaccine efficacy against the infectious disease on the Siberian Tiger. Protein G can be used in Ig purification of Siberian Tiger. The obtained McAbs from the hybridoma ADT11 in this study owned strong ability to bind Ig of Siberian Tiger and have a stable immunocompetence. They can be used to develop diagnostic methods for detecting infectious disease in Siberian Tiger and vaccine research.

  10. Chemical stabilization of porous silicon for enhanced biofunctionalization with immunoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Naveas, Vicente Torres Costa, Dario Gallach, Jacobo Hernandez-Montelongo, Raul Jose Martín Palma, Josefa Predenstinacion Garcia-Ruiz and Miguel Manso-Silván


    Full Text Available Porous silicon (PSi is widely used in biological experiments, owing to its biocompatibility and well-established fabrication methods that allow tailoring its surface. Nevertheless, there are some unresolved issues such as deciding whether the stabilization of PSi is necessary for its biological applications and evaluating the effects of PSi stabilization on the surface biofunctionalization with proteins. In this work we demonstrate that non-stabilized PSi is prone to detachment owing to the stress induced upon biomolecular adsorption. Biofunctionalized non-stabilized PSi loses the interference properties characteristic of a thin film, and groove-like structures resulting from a final layer collapse were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Likewise, direct PSi derivatization with 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTS does not stabilize PSi against immunoglobulin biofunctionalization. To overcome this problem, we developed a simple chemical process of stabilizing PSi (CoxPSi for biological applications, which has several advantages over thermal stabilization (ToxPSi. The process consists of chemical oxidation in H2O2, surface derivatization with APTS and a curing step at 120 °C. This process offers integral homogeneous PSi morphology, hydrophilic surface termination (contact angle θ = 26° and highly efficient derivatized and biofunctionalized PSi surfaces (six times more efficient than ToxPSi. All these features are highly desirable for biological applications, such as biosensing, where our results can be used for the design and optimization of the biomolecular immobilization cascade on PSi surfaces.

  11. Contribution of secondary Igkappa rearrangement to primary immunoglobulin repertoire diversification. (United States)

    Li, Shufang; Liu, Wei; Li, Yinghui; Zhao, Shaorong; Liu, Can; Hu, Mengyun; Yue, Wei; Liu, Yanhua; Wang, Yue; Yang, Rongcun; Xiang, Rong; Liu, Feifei


    Abs reactive to DNA and DNA/histone complexes are a distinguished characteristic of primary immunoglobulin repertoires in autoimmune B6.MRL-Fas(lpr) and MRL/MpJ-Fas(lpr) mice. These mice are defective in Fas receptor, which is critical for the apoptosis of autoreactive B cells by an extrinsic pathway. In the present study, we explored the possibility that bone marrow small pre-B and immature B cells from adult B6.MRL-Fas(lpr) mice and MRL/MpJ-Fas(lpr) mice respectively, which contain autoreactive B-cell antigen receptors (BCR) and manifest autoimmune syndromes, exhibit enhanced receptor editing patterns. Indeed, FAS(lpr) pre B and immature B cells were shown to possess more ongoing replacements of non-productive (nP) than productive (P) primary VκJκ rearrangements. Significantly, the P vs nP ratios of these replaced primary rearrangements were 1:2, thus indicating that κ light-chain production appears not to inhibit secondary rearrangements. In addition, we identified multiple atypical rearrangements, such as Vκ cRS (cryptic recombination signals) cleavages. These results suggest that the onset of light chain secondary rearrangements persists similarly as a non-selected mode and independent of BCR autoreactivity during certain developmental windows of bone marrow B cells in lupus-prone mice and control, and leads us to propose the function of secondary, de novo Igκ rearrangements to increase BCR diversity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nasal polyposis and immunoglobulin-G subclass deficiency. (United States)

    Tran Khai Hoan, N; Karmochkine, M; Laccourreye, O; Bonfils, P


    Study of the association between immunoglobulin-G (IgG) subclass deficiency and nasal polyposis. Longitudinal study (5 years) in a prospective cohort of 161 nasal polyposis patients. Analysis of the association between humoral immunodeficiency, rhinologic symptoms, endoscopy score and prescribed doses of local and systemic corticosteroids. The prevalence of IgG subclass deficiency was 13.7% (22/161). One patient was diagnosed with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). No significant differences were observed between the groups with and without pre-treatment deficiency for symptom severity, endoscopic score or local or systemic corticosteroid regimens at baseline or during the 5 years, following initiation of medical and surgical treatment. Only the Lund-Mackay CT score was significantly higher in the pre-treatment deficiency group. There was no correlation between the presence of humoral deficiency and either symptom evolution after medical and surgical treatment or the dose of corticosteroids needed to control disease. Thus, a link between IgG subclass deficiency and nasal polyposis seems unlikely. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Infliximab treatment of intravenous immunoglobulin-resistant Kawasaki disease (United States)

    Burns, Jane C.; Best, Brookie M.; Mejias, Asuncion; Mahony, Lynn; Fixler, David E.; Jafri, Hasan S.; Melish, Marian E.; Jackson, Mary Anne; Asmar, Basim I.; Lang, David J.; Connor, James D.; Capparelli, Edmund V.; Keen, Monica L.; Mamun, Khalid; Keenan, Gregory F.; Ramilo, Octavio


    Objective To test the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of the anti- TNF-α monoclonal antibody, infliximab, in subjects with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)-resistant Kawasaki disease (KD). Study design We conducted a multicenter, randomized, prospective trial of second IVIG infusion (2 g/kg) versus infliximab (5 mg/kg) in 24 children with acute KD and fever following initial treatment with IVIG. Primary outcome measures were infliximab safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics. Secondary outcome measures were duration of fever and changes in markers of inflammation. Results Study drug infusions were associated with cessation of fever within 24 hours in 11 of 12 subjects treated with infliximab and 8 of 12 subjects retreated with IVIG. No infusion reactions or serious adverse events were attributed to either study drug. No significant differences were observed between treatment groups in the change from baseline for laboratory variables, fever, or echocardiographic assessment of coronary arteries. Conclusion Both infliximab and a second IVIG infusion were safe and well-tolerated in subjects with KD who were resistant to standard IVIG treatment. The optimal management of patients resistant to IVIG remains to be determined. PMID:18672254

  14. Crescentic Glomerulonephritis With Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease. (United States)

    Raber, Inbar; Ediriwickrema, Asiri; Higgins, John; Kambham, Neeraja; Pao, Alan C


    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease is an uncommon autoimmune disease that affects multiple organ systems. Renal involvement typically presents as tubulointerstitial nephritis and less commonly as membranous glomerulonephritis. In this case report, we discuss a 68-year-old patient who presented with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. His renal biopsy revealed a membranoproliferative pattern of injury with fibrocellular crescents and extensive infiltration of the tubulointerstitium with IgG4-positive plasma cells. We treated the patient with both corticosteroids and rituximab because of the aggressive nature of crescentic glomerulonephritis. The patient demonstrated a partial improvement in kidney function after 2 cycles of rituximab with a decrease in serum creatinine levels from 6.9-4.7mg/dL after 6 months from presentation. This case illustrates the importance of considering IgG4-related disease in cases of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and the need for effective treatments for more aggressive forms of this recently recognized disease entity. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanical network in titin immunoglobulin from force distribution analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Stacklies


    Full Text Available The role of mechanical force in cellular processes is increasingly revealed by single molecule experiments and simulations of force-induced transitions in proteins. How the applied force propagates within proteins determines their mechanical behavior yet remains largely unknown. We present a new method based on molecular dynamics simulations to disclose the distribution of strain in protein structures, here for the newly determined high-resolution crystal structure of I27, a titin immunoglobulin (IG domain. We obtain a sparse, spatially connected, and highly anisotropic mechanical network. This allows us to detect load-bearing motifs composed of interstrand hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic core interactions, including parts distal to the site to which force was applied. The role of the force distribution pattern for mechanical stability is tested by in silico unfolding of I27 mutants. We then compare the observed force pattern to the sparse network of coevolved residues found in this family. We find a remarkable overlap, suggesting the force distribution to reflect constraints for the evolutionary design of mechanical resistance in the IG family. The force distribution analysis provides a molecular interpretation of coevolution and opens the road to the study of the mechanism of signal propagation in proteins in general.

  16. Similar Idiotypes in Antibody-Forming Cells and in Cells Synthesizing Immunoglobulins Without Detectable Antibody Function (United States)

    Cazenave, P. -A.; Ternynck, T.; Avrameas, S.


    The occurrence of immunoglobulins with and without antibody specificity and with and without idiotypic specificity was studied, by use of enzyme-labeled antigen and antibodies, in lymph node cells of rabbits immunized with horse-radish peroxidase and hen ovalbumin. Some cells, containing immunoglobulins without detectable antibody function, were shown to contain idiotypes similar to those found in antibody-producing cells. PMID:4140504


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar


    Full Text Available In the present study Immunoglobulin G was purified from serum of dog by gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-200. SDS- PAGE analysis of purified dog IgG showed major polypeptides of 66 kDa, 52.40 kDa and 20.72 kDa. The purified Immunoglobulin has been found to be immune-reactive by DID test and Western Blot analysis when treated against hyperimmune sera which was raised in rabbit.

  18. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus in a child. (United States)

    Yamazaki-Nakashimada, Marco A; Duran-McKinster, Carola; Ramírez-Vargas, Nadia; Hernandez-Bautista, Victor


    Hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis is a type of urticarial vasculitis with multisystemic involvement and poor prognosis, sometimes associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. Several therapies have been attempted with no consensus on an effective therapeutic regimen. Intravenous immunoglobulin has been used in severe manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus and recently in hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis. We present a 7-year-old girl with hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and pneumonia who responded favorably to intravenous immunoglobulin.

  19. The joining (J) chain is present in invertebrates that do not express immunoglobulins. (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Iwase, T; Takenouchi, N; Saito, M; Kobayashi, K; Moldoveanu, Z; Mestecky, J; Moro, I


    Joining (J) chain is a component of polymeric, but not monomeric, immunoglobulin (Ig) molecules and may play a role in their polymerization and transport across epithelial cells. To date, study of the J chain has been confined to vertebrates that produce Ig and in which the J chain displays a considerable degree of structural homology. The role of the J chain in Ig polymerization has been questioned and, since the J chain can be expressed in lymphoid cells that do not produce Ig, it is possible that the J chain may have other functions. To explore this possibility, we have surveyed J-chain gene, mRNA, and protein expression by using reverse transcriptase-coupled PCR, Northern blot analysis, and immunoblot analysis in invertebrate species that do not produce Ig. We report that the J-chain gene is expressed in invertebrates (Mollusca, Annelida, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and Holothuroidea), as well as in representative vertebrates (Mammalia, Teleostei, Amphibia). Furthermore, J-chain cDNA from the earthworm has a high degree of homology (68-76%) to human, mouse, and bovine J chains. Immunohistochemical studies reveal that the J chain is localized in the mucous cells of body surfaces, intestinal epithelial cells, and macrophage-like cells of the earthworm and slug. This study suggests that the J chain is a primitive polypeptide that arose before the evolution of Ig molecules and remains highly conserved in extent invertebrates and vertebrates. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8700853

  20. The MHC class II cofactor, HLA-DM, interacts with immunoglobulin in B cells (United States)

    Ayyangar, Sashi; Jiang, Wei; Rajasekaran, Narendiran; Spura, Armin; Hessell, Ann J.; Madec, Anne-Marie; Mellins, Elizabeth D.


    B cells internalize extracellular antigen into endosomes using the immunoglobulin (Ig) component of the B cell receptor. In endosomes, antigen-derived peptides are loaded onto MHC class II proteins (MHC-II). How these pathways intersect remains unclear. We find that HLA-DM (DM), a catalyst for MHC-II peptide loading, co-precipitates with Ig in lysates from human tonsillar B cells and B cell lines. The molecules in the Ig/DM complexes have mature glycans, and the complexes co-localize with endosomal markers in intact cells. A larger fraction of Ig precipitates with DM after BCR crosslinking, implying that complexes can form when DM meets endocytosed Ig. In vitro, in the endosomal pH range, soluble HLA-DM (sDM) directly binds the Ig Fab domain, and increases levels of free antigen released from immune complexes. Together, these results argue that DM and Ig intersect in the endocytic pathway of B cells with potential functional consequences. PMID:25098292

  1. Gut Microbiota-Induced Immunoglobulin G Controls Systemic Infection by Symbiotic Bacteria and Pathogens (United States)

    Zeng, Melody Y.; Cisalpino, Daniel; Varadarajan, Saranyaraajan; Hellman, Judith; Warren, H. Shaw; Cascalho, Marilia; Inohara, Naohiro; Núñez, Gabriel


    The gut microbiota is compartmentalized in the intestinal lumen and induces local immune responses, but it remains unknown whether the gut microbiota can induce systemic response and contribute to systemic immunity. We report that selective gut symbiotic gram-negative bacteria were able to disseminate systemically to induce immunoglobulin G (IgG) response, which primarily targeted gram-negative bacterial antigens and conferred protection against systemic infections by E. coli and Salmonella by directly coating bacteria to promote killing by phagocytes. T cells and Toll-like receptor 4 on B cells were important in the generation of microbiota-specific IgG. We identified murein lipoprotein (MLP), a highly conserved gram-negative outer membrane protein, as a major antigen that induced systemic IgG homeostatically in both mice and humans. Administration of anti-MLP IgG conferred crucial protection against systemic Salmonella infection. Thus, our findings reveal an important function for the gut microbiota in combating systemic infection through the induction of protective IgG. PMID:26944199

  2. Primed T cell responses to chemokines are regulated by the immunoglobulin-like molecule CD31.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhav Kishore

    Full Text Available CD31, an immunoglobulin-like molecule expressed by leukocytes and endothelial cells, is thought to contribute to the physiological regulation T cell homeostasis due to the presence of two immunotyrosine-based inhibitory motifs in its cytoplasmic tail. Indeed, loss of CD31 expression leads to uncontrolled T cell-mediated inflammation in a variety of experimental models of disease and certain CD31 polymorphisms correlate with increased disease severity in human graft-versus-host disease and atherosclerosis. The molecular mechanisms underlying CD31-mediated regulation of T cell responses have not yet been clarified. We here show that CD31-mediated signals attenuate T cell chemokinesis both in vitro and in vivo. This effect selectively affects activated/memory T lymphocytes, in which CD31 is clustered on the cell membrane where it segregates to the leading edge. We provide evidence that this molecular segregation, which does not occur in naïve T lymphocytes, might lead to cis-CD31 engagement on the same membrane and subsequent interference with the chemokine-induced PI3K/Akt signalling pathway. We propose that CD31-mediated modulation of memory T cell chemokinesis is a key mechanism by which this molecule contributes to the homeostatic regulation of effector T cell immunity.

  3. Pulsed Ultraviolet Light Reduces Immunoglobulin E Binding to Atlantic White Shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Yin Chung


    Full Text Available Pulsed ultraviolet light (PUV, a novel food processing and preservation technology, has been shown to reduce allergen levels in peanut and soybean samples. In this study, the efficacy of using PUV to reduce the reactivity of the major shrimp allergen, tropomyosin (36-kDa, and to attenuate immunoglobulin E (IgE binding to shrimp extract was examined. Atlantic white shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus extract was treated with PUV (3 pulses/s, 10 cm from light source for 4 min. Tropomyosin was compared in the untreated, boiled, PUV-treated and [boiled+PUV]-treated samples, and changes in the tropomyosin levels were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. IgE binding of the treated extract was analyzed via immunoblot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using pooled human plasma containing IgE antibodies against shrimp allergens. Results showed that levels of tropomyosin and IgE binding were reduced following PUV treatment. However, boiling increased IgE binding, while PUV treatment could offset the increased allergen reactivity caused by boiling. In conclusion, PUV treatment reduced the reactivity of the major shrimp allergen, tropomyosin, and decreased the IgE binding capacity of the shrimp extract.

  4. Pulsed ultraviolet light reduces immunoglobulin E binding to Atlantic white shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus) extract. (United States)

    Shriver, Sandra; Yang, Wade; Chung, Si-Yin; Percival, Susan


    Pulsed ultraviolet light (PUV), a novel food processing and preservation technology, has been shown to reduce allergen levels in peanut and soybean samples. In this study, the efficacy of using PUV to reduce the reactivity of the major shrimp allergen, tropomyosin (36-kDa), and to attenuate immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding to shrimp extract was examined. Atlantic white shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus) extract was treated with PUV (3 pulses/s, 10 cm from light source) for 4 min. Tropomyosin was compared in the untreated, boiled, PUV-treated and [boiled+PUV]-treated samples, and changes in the tropomyosin levels were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). IgE binding of the treated extract was analyzed via immunoblot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using pooled human plasma containing IgE antibodies against shrimp allergens. Results showed that levels of tropomyosin and IgE binding were reduced following PUV treatment. However, boiling increased IgE binding, while PUV treatment could offset the increased allergen reactivity caused by boiling. In conclusion, PUV treatment reduced the reactivity of the major shrimp allergen, tropomyosin, and decreased the IgE binding capacity of the shrimp extract.

  5. Immunoglobulin M and G antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum glutamate-rich protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld; Rowe, P; Bennett, S


    The aims of the present study were to describe the age-related immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG response to part of a 220-kDa glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) from Plasmodium falciparum and to determine possible correlations of possession of these antibodies with malaria morbidity. IgM and IgG levels...... were measured with a recombinant fusion protein consisting of the carboxy-terminal 783 amino acids of the GLURP. Samples for the study were obtained during a longitudinal malaria morbidity survey performed in The Gambia; cross-sectional surveys were performed at the beginning of the transmission season...... in May and in October. Seropositivity rates increased with age to a maximum of 77% for IgM and 95% for IgG in adults. High prevalences of seropositivity were associated with certain human leukocyte antigen class II alleles (DRw8, DR9, DR7, DR4, DQw7, and DQw2) or haplotypes. The relationship between anti...

  6. Avian B-cell development: generation of an immunoglobulin repertoire by gene conversion. (United States)

    McCormack, W T; Tjoelker, L W; Thompson, C B


    The vertebrate B-cell repertoire is capable of generating up to 10(9) different antibody molecules using relatively few germline immunoglobulin (Ig) gene segments. To generate diversity, humans and mice depend on combinatorial and junctional variations that occur during the gene rearrangement events that produce complete heavy and light chain Ig genes. This gene rearrangement process goes on continuously in the bone marrow, where each developing B cell assembles a unique heavy and light chain Ig gene from families of functional V, D, and J gene segments. In contrast, chickens have only single functional V and J segments for the heavy and light chain loci, and chicken Ig gene rearrangement occurs only during a brief period of embryonic development. A specialized organ involved in avian B-cell development, the bursa of Fabricius, provides the microenvironment necessary for the amplification of B cells that have undergone productive Ig gene rearrangements. Within the bursa, B cells also acquire somatic diversity within the rearranged V gene segments of the heavy and light chain Ig loci. Somatic diversification of chicken V gene segments occurs by intrachromosomal gene conversion, a DNA recombination process which involves unidirectional transfer of nucleotide sequence blocks from families of V region pseudogenes into the functional rearranged VH and VL genes.

  7. Stable isotope labeling of glycoprotein expressed in silkworms using immunoglobulin G as a test molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, Hirokazu [Nagoya City University, Faculty and Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Japan); Nakamura, Masatoshi [National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Genetic Resources Conservation Research Unit, Genetic Resources Center (Japan); Yokoyama, Jun [Taiyo Nippon Sanso Corporation, Tsukuba Laboratories (Japan); Zhang, Ying; Yamaguchi, Takumi [National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Institute for Molecular Science and Okazaki Institute for Integrative Bioscience (Japan); Kondo, Sachiko [Nagoya City University, Faculty and Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Japan); Kobayashi, Jun [Yamaguchi University, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture (Japan); Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y. [Shizuoka University, Laboratory of Biotechnology, Research Institute of Green Science and Technology (Japan); Nakazawa, Shiori [Nagoya University, Sugashima Marine Biological Laboratory, Graduate School of Science (Japan); Hashii, Noritaka; Kawasaki, Nana [National Institute of Health Sciences, Division of Biological Chemistry and Biologicals (Japan); Kato, Koichi, E-mail: [Nagoya City University, Faculty and Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Japan)


    Silkworms serve as promising bioreactors for the production of recombinant proteins, including glycoproteins and membrane proteins, for structural and functional protein analyses. However, lack of methodology for stable isotope labeling has been a major deterrent to using this expression system for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structural biology. Here we developed a metabolic isotope labeling technique using commercially available silkworm larvae. The fifth instar larvae were infected with baculoviruses for co-expression of recombinant human immunoglobulin G (IgG) as a test molecule, with calnexin as a chaperone. They were subsequently reared on an artificial diet containing {sup 15}N-labeled yeast crude protein extract. We harvested 0.1 mg of IgG from larva with a {sup 15}N-enrichment ratio of approximately 80 %. This allowed us to compare NMR spectral data of the Fc fragment cleaved from the silkworm-produced IgG with those of an authentic Fc glycoprotein derived from mammalian cells. Therefore, we successfully demonstrated that our method enables production of isotopically labeled glycoproteins for NMR studies.

  8. Sensing the neuronal glycocalyx by glial sialic acid binding immunoglobulin-like lectins. (United States)

    Linnartz-Gerlach, B; Mathews, M; Neumann, H


    Sialic acid binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs) are cell surface receptors of microglia and oligodendrocytes that recognize the sialic acid cap of healthy neurons and neighboring glial cells. Upon ligand binding, Siglecs typically signal through an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM) to keep the cell in a homeostatic status and support healthy neighboring cells. Siglecs can be divided into two groups; the first, being conserved among different species. The conserved Siglec-4/myelin-associated glycoprotein is expressed on oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells. Siglec-4 protects neurons from acute toxicity via interaction with sialic acids bound to neuronal gangliosides. The second group of Siglecs, named CD33-related Siglecs, is almost exclusively expressed on immune cells and is highly variable among different species. Microglial expression of Siglec-11 is human lineage-specific and prevents neurotoxicity via interaction with α2.8-linked sialic acid oligomers exposed on the neuronal glycocalyx. Microglial Siglec-E is a mouse CD33-related Siglec member that prevents microglial phagocytosis and the associated oxidative burst. Mouse Siglec-E of microglia binds to α2.8- and α2.3-linked sialic acid residues of the healthy glycocalyx of neuronal and glial cells. Recently, polymorphisms of the human Siglec-3/CD33 were linked to late onset Alzheimer's disease by genome-wide association studies. Human Siglec-3 is expressed on microglia and produces inhibitory signaling that decreases uptake of particular molecules such as amyloid-β aggregates. Thus, glial ITIM-signaling Siglecs recognize the intact glycocalyx of neurons and are involved in the modulation of neuron-glia interaction in healthy and diseased brain. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Polyvalent immunoglobulin for intravenous use interferes with cell proliferation in vitro. (United States)

    van Schaik, I N; Lundkvist, I; Vermeulen, M; Brand, A


    Intravenous immunoglobulin is used to an increasing extent in various immune-mediated diseases, but its mechanism(s) of action in vivo is incompletely understood. Previous studies have shown that intravenous immunoglobulin may interfere with autoantibodies and their production by B cells and also inhibit Fc-mediated antibody-dependent cytotoxicity. Here we describe a novel effect of intravenous immunoglobulin on proliferation of in vitro activated peripheral blood lymphocytes and autonomously growing cell lines of various origin. Independently of whether proliferation was autonomous or induced by antigen-specific or antigen-nonspecific reagents, proliferation was inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion, as measured by reduced 3H-thymidine and BrdU uptake and cell counting. The effect was not due to cytotoxic effects of intravenous immunoglobulin and was reversible after removing the intravenous immunoglobulin by washing. The IgG levels required for this inhibition of proliferation are supraphysiological but are reached in vivo during treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin.

  10. Effect of flash-heat treatment on immunoglobulins in breast milk. (United States)

    Chantry, Caroline J; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Moldoveanu, Zina; Peerson, Jan; Coutsoudis, Anna; Sibeko, Lindiwe; Abrams, Barbara


    Heat-treated expressed breast milk is recommended by the World Health Organization as an option to reduce vertical HIV transmission in resource-poor regions. Flash-heat (FH) is a low technology pasteurization method developed for home use, but its effect on quantity and quality of breast milk immunoglobulins is unknown. To evaluate FH's effect on breast milk immunoglobulin levels and antigen-binding capacity. Fifty HIV+ mothers in South Africa provided breast milk. Part of each sample served as an unheated control; the remainder was flash-heated. Total and antigen-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Paired t test was performed on log-transformed data. FH significantly decreased total IgA and IgG concentrations [geometric mean (geometric SD) 318.0 (1.9) vs. 398.2 (1.9) microg/mL and 89.1 (2.7) vs. 133.3 (2.5) microg/mL, P milk immunoglobulin activity survives FH, suggesting flash-heated breast milk is immunologically superior to breast milk substitutes. Clinical significance of this decreased immunoglobulin activity needs evaluation in prospective trials.

  11. Human polyclonal anti-hepatitis B surface antigen immunoglobulin reduces the frequency of acute rejection after liver transplantation for chronic hepatitis B A imunoglobulina policlonal humana anti-antígeno de superfície da hepatite B reduz a freqüência da rejeição aguda após transplante de fígado

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    Claudia Alves COUTO


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Use of polyclonal anti-hepatitis B surface antigen immunoglobulin (HBIg has been shown to reduce hepatitis B virus (HBV recurrence after liver transplantation (LT and to decrease the frequency of acute cellular rejection (ACR. However, the protective role of HBIg against ACR remains controversial, since HBV infection has been also associated with a lower incidence of ACR. AIM: To assess the relationship between HBIg immunoprophylaxis and the incidence of rejection after LT. METHODS: 260 patients (158 males, 43 ± 14 years old submitted to LT were retrospectively evaluated and divided into three groups, according to the presence of HBsAg and the use of HBIg. Group I was comprised of HBsAg-positive patients (n = 12 that received HBIg for more than 6 months. Group II was comprised of HBsAg-positive patients that historically have not received HBIg or have been treated irregularly for less than 3 months (n = 10. Group III was composed of 238 HBsAg-negative subjects that have not received HBIg. RESULTS: HBIg-treated patients (group I had significantly less ACR episodes, when compared to group II and III. No differences between groups II and III were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term HBIg administration contributes independently to reduce the number of ACR episodes after LT.INTRODUÇÃO: O emprego da imunoglobulina policlonal anti-antígeno de superfície da hepatite B (HBIg tem reduzido a recorrência da hepatite B após transplante hepático (TH, assim como também a freqüência de rejeição celular aguda (RCA. No entanto, o papel protetor da HBIg contra a RCA permanece controverso, pois a própria infecção por vírus B foi também associada a menor incidência de RCA. OBJETIVOS: Verificar a relação entre HBIg e a freqüência de RCA após TH. MÉTODOS: 260 pacientes (158 do sexo masculino, com 43 ± 14 anos submetidos a TH foram avaliados, retrospectivamente, e divididos em três grupos de acordo com a presença de AgHBs e uso de

  12. EFNS guidelines for the use of intravenous immunoglobulin in treatment of neurological diseases: EFNS task force on the use of intravenous immunoglobulin in treatment of neurological diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elovaara, I.; Apostolski, S.; van Doorn, P.; Gilhus, N. E.; Hietaharju, A.; Honkaniemi, J.; van Schaik, I. N.; Scolding, N.; Soelberg Sørensen, P.; Udd, B.


    Despite high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is widely used in treatment of a number of immune-mediated neurological diseases, the consensus on its optimal use is insufficient. To define the evidence-based optimal use of IVIG in neurology, the recent papers of high relevance were reviewed and

  13. Predictors of nonresponse to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in Kawasaki disease

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    Hyo Min Park


    Full Text Available &lt;b&gt;Purpose:&lt;/b&gt; It has been reported that 10% to 20% of children with Kawasaki disease (KD will not respond to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG treatment. In this study, we aimed to identify useful predictors of therapeutic failure in children with KD. &lt;b&gt;Methods:&lt;/b&gt; We examined 309 children diagnosed with KD at the Kyungpook National University Hospital and the Inje University Busan Paik Hospital between January 2005 and June 2011. We retrospectively reviewed their medical records and analyzed multiple parameters in responders and nonresponders to IVIG. &lt;b&gt;Results:&lt;/b&gt; Among the 309 children, 30 (9.7% did not respond to IVIG. They had significantly higher proportion of neutrophils, and higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, total bilirubin, and N-terminal fragment of B-type natriuretic peptide than did responders. IVIGnonresponders had a significantly longer duration of hospitalization, and more frequently experienced coronary artery lesion, and sterile pyuria. No differences in the duration of fever at initial treatment or, clinical features were noted. &lt;b&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/b&gt; Two independent predictors (ALT?#248;4 IU/L, total bilirubin?#240;.9 mg/dL for nonresponse were confirmed through multivariate logistic regression analysis. Thus elevated ALT and total bilirubin levels might be useful in predicting nonresponse to IVIG therapy in children with KD.

  14. AID-initiated purposeful mutations in immunoglobulin genes. (United States)

    Goodman, Myron F; Scharff, Matthew D; Romesberg, Floyd E


    Exposure brings risk to all living organisms. Using a remarkably effective strategy, higher vertebrates mitigate risk by mounting a complex and sophisticated immune response to counter the potentially toxic invasion by a virtually limitless army of chemical and biological antagonists. Mutations are almost always deleterious, but in the case of antibody diversification there are mutations occurring at hugely elevated rates within the variable (V) and switch regions (SR) of the immunoglobulin (Ig) genes that are responsible for binding to and neutralizing foreign antigens throughout the body. These mutations are truly purposeful. This chapter is centered on activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). AID is required for initiating somatic hypermutation (SHM) in the V regions and class switch recombination (CSR) in the SR portions of Ig genes. By converting C --> U, while transcription takes place, AID instigates a cascade of mutational events involving error-prone DNA polymerases, base excision and mismatch repair enzymes, and recombination pathways. Together, these processes culminate in highly mutated antibody genes and the B cells expressing antibodies that have achieved optimal antigenic binding undergo positive selection in germinal centers. We will discuss the biological role of AID in this complex process, primarily in terms of its biochemical properties in relation to SHM in vivo. The chapter also discusses recent advances in experimental methods to characterize antibody dynamics as a function of SHM to help elucidate the role that the AID-induced mutations play in tailoring molecular recognition. The emerging experimental techniques help to address long-standing conundrums concerning evolution-imposed constraints on antibody structure and function.

  15. Tattooing to "Toughen up": Tattoo experience and secretory immunoglobulin A. (United States)

    Lynn, Christopher D; Dominguez, Johnna T; DeCaro, Jason A


    A costly signaling model suggests tattooing inoculates the immune system to heightened vigilance against stressors associated with soft tissue damage. We sought to investigate this "inoculation hypothesis" of tattooing as a costly honest signal of fitness. We hypothesized that the immune system habituates to the tattooing stressor in repeatedly tattooed individuals and that immune response to the stress of the tattooing process would correlate with lifetime tattoo experience. Participants were 24 women and 5 men (aged 18-47). We measured immune function using secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) and cortisol (sCORT) in saliva collected before and after tattoo sessions. We measured tattoo experience as a sum of number of tattoos, lifetime hours tattooed, years since first tattoo, percent of body covered, and number of tattoo sessions. We predicted an inverse relationship between SIgA and sCORT and less SIgA immunosuppression among those with more tattoo experience. We used hierarchical multiple regression to test for a main effect of tattoo experience on post-tattoo SIgA, controlling for pretest SIgA, tattoo session duration, body mass, and the interaction between tattoo experience and test session duration. The regression model was significant (P = 0.006) with a large effect size (r(2)  = 0.711) and significant and positive main (P = 0.03) and interaction effects (P = 0.014). Our data suggest that the body habituates over time to the tattooing stressor. It is possible that individuals with healthy immune systems heal faster, making them more likely to get multiple tattoos. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:603-609, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Longitudinal stability of serum immunoglobulin G responses to periodontal bacteria. (United States)

    Papapanou, P N; Neiderud, A M; Disick, E; Lalla, E; Miller, G C; Dahlén, G


    The value of seroepidemiology in the study of periodontal infections has not been adequately explored. This study examined serum immunoglobulin (IgG) responses to periodontal bacteria in patients with periodontitis and periodontitis-free individuals over a 30-month period. Eighty-nine patients with chronic periodontitis and 42 control subjects with no deep periodontal pockets and no or minimal attachment loss (30-72 years old, 43% men) were included. Patients were examined at baseline, after completed periodontal therapy 4 months post-baseline, and at 30 months, and controls, at baseline and 30 months. IgG antibodies to 19 periodontal species were determined by checkerboard immunoblotting. On average, patients displayed at baseline up to 800-fold higher titers than controls to all but three species. Over the 30-month period, titers remained stable at low levels in controls. In patients, periodontal conditions improved from a baseline mean probing depth of 3.6 mm, bleeding on probing of 62% and an average of 21.5 pockets of=6 mm/person, to 2.5 mm mean pocket depth, 30% bleeding on probing, and 1.2 deep pockets, at 30 months. Over time, antibody titers showed a modest decline in patients, but remained significantly elevated at 30 months in comparison with controls. Antibody-level changes over time were not significantly different between subjects that did and did not receive adjunctive systemic antibiotics. Conspicuous differences in IgG titers to periodontal bacteria exist between periodontitis patients and periodontally healthy controls. Despite successful periodontal therapy, titers remained elevated over a 30-month period, suggesting that serology may mark the history of past periodontal infection. (c) Blackwell Munksgaard, 2004

  17. Placental transfer of immunoglobulins in cattle infected with Schistosoma mattheei. (United States)

    Gabriël, S; Geldhof, P; Phiri, I K; Cornillie, P; Goddeeris, B M; Vercruysse, J


    Although the epitheliochorial placenta of ruminants does not allow passage of immunoglobulins from dam to foetus specific antibodies have been detected at birth in calves born to Schistosoma mattheei-infected cows. The present study determined the prevalence of calves born with specific antibodies for S. mattheei and the origin of these antibodies. For the determination of the prevalence, 100 calves born to infected mothers in an endemic area (Zambia) were examined, 24 were seropositive. To study the origin of these antibodies placentomes of 40 naturally S. mattheei-infected cows were examined for the presence of schistosome eggs and lesions which could explain foetal priming and/or leakage of maternal antibodies and/or antigen into the foetus. Tissue damage and schistosome eggs were observed on the maternal as well as the foetal side of the placentomes. In order to determine the specific nature of the antibody response, antibody profiles against soluble adult worm antigen preparation (SWAP) of S. mattheei were compared by Western blot between dams and their newborn calves (n = 8). The specific recognition profiles were identical for the seropositive calves and their dams on SWAP mattheei. Identical recognition profiles between dams and calves were also observed when sera were analysed on Escherichia coli, a pathogen of which the foetus should be free, and would indicate passive antibody transfer from the dam. In conclusion, the present study shows that S. mattheei could induce placentome lesions and that eggs can cross the placenta. Consequently, foeti can come into contact with S. mattheei antigens in utero, and might also contain maternal antibodies from leakage through placentome lesions. As such, the infection status of the mother could have far reaching effects on the immunological status of her offspring and modify their reaction upon infection.

  18. Mechanism of immunoglobulin G adsorption on polystyrene microspheres. (United States)

    Sofińska, Kamila; Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Barbasz, Jakub


    The adsorption of polyclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) on negatively charged polystyrene microparticle suspension (latex) was studied by using the Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) measurements. Using this technique, the dependence of the electrophoretic mobility of particles on the IgG concentration in the suspension was measured for various ionic strengths and pH 3.5. The increase in the electrophoretic mobility was quantitatively interpreted in terms of the 3D electrokinetic model. On the other hand, the maximum coverage of IgG on latex was determined using the depletion method based on AFM imaging. It was shown that IgG adsorption was irreversible and that its maximum coverage on the microspheres increased from 1.4mgm(-2) for 0.001M NaCl to 2.0mgm(-2) for 0.15M NaCl. This was interpreted in terms of reduced electrostatic repulsion among adsorbed molecules. The stability of IgG monolayers on the particles was confirmed in separate experiments where changes in its electrophoretic mobility were monitored over prolonged time periods. Additionally, the acid-base properties of the IgG monolayers on latex were determined in pH cycling experiments. The isoelectric point of the IgG monolayers on the microspheres was 4.8. The results obtained in this work indicate that basic physicochemical characteristics of IgG can be acquired via electrophoretic mobility measurements using microgram quantities of the protein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass deficiency in Thai children. (United States)

    Visitsunthorn, Nualanong; Hengcrawit, Wiriya; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai; Luangwedchakam, Voravich


    Patients with Immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass deficiency may suffer from recurrent infections, mainly sino-pulmonary infection. To determine the epidemiology of IgG subclass deficiency in Thai children at a tertiary care hospital and to compare the differences between children who were diagnosed with IgG subclass deficiency by using low level criteria [less than 2 standard deviation (SD) of normal levels for age] and by using low percentage criteria (proportion of each IgG subclasses/total IgG). The study was a descriptive study of 55 children up to 15 years old with recurrent infections diagnosed as having IgG subclass deficiency but no acquired or other primary immune deficiencies except for IgA and/or IgM deficiency. Isolated IgG3 subclass deficiency was the most common IgG subclass deficiency (56.4%). IgG3 subclass deficiency, either isolated or combined with other IgG subclass deficiency, was found in 85.5% of the cases. The common age of onset was between birth and five years of age. The most common presenting symptom was recurrent sinusitis (83.6%). Majority of the cases (89.3%) were diagnosed by low percentage criteria while 12.7% were diagnosed by low level criteria. All cases with low levels of IgG subclass antibodies also had low percentages. There were no statistically significant differences in the clinical manifestations and management methods between the children who were diagnosed by low level and low percentage. IgG3 subclass deficiency was the most common IgG subclass deficiency in Thai children. The most common presenting symptom was recurrent sinusitis. Although the diagnosis could be made in the patients with recurrent upper respiratory infection by using low level criteria, but the diagnosis should be considered when the low percentage criteria are met.

  20. Impact of Selenium Supplementation in Neutropenia and Immunoglobulin Production in Childhood Cancer Patients. (United States)

    Rocha, Katya Cristina; Vieira, Maria Luiza Dos Santos; Beltrame, Registila Libania; Cartum, Jairo; Alves, Sarah Isabel P M do N; Azzalis, Ligia Ajaime; Junqueira, Virginia Berlanga Campos; Pereira, Edimar Cristiano; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso


    Essential to human health, selenium (Se) has enzymatic functions of fundamental importance to human biology due to its effects on DNA damage repair, its antioxidant properties, and cancer prevention. The best studied relationships between Se and the immune system is its role in the functions of neutrophils and of lymphocytes. Despite these observations, it is not yet clear by which mechanism Se is able to modify the immune status. This was a double-blind, crossover study: Group 1 received Se and Group 2 received placebo (30 days). After this, Group 1 received placebo and Group 2 received Se (30 days). Every 30 days, blood samples were collected for white blood cell count, red blood cell count, and Ig level measurement (IgA, IgG, IgE, IgM). Of the 36 patients, 17 were suffering from leukemia/lymphomas (LL) and 19 from solid tumors (ST). In the ST group's leukogram, a significant increase in neutrophils was observed after Se usage (P = .0192). During the analyzed period, Se minimized the triggering of neutropenia cases in both groups. IgA and IgG levels in ST patients were significantly higher than those identified in LL patients after Se usage (P = .0051 and P = .0055). For IgA, a significant increase in its production, after Se usage, was observed in the ST group when compared to the LL (P = .0011). The same did not occur to the IgM and IgE immunoglobulins. In our study, the supplementation with Se reduced the neutropenic cases (LL and ST patients) and reduced IgG and IgA levels in LL and increased in ST group.

  1. Intravenous immunoglobulin to treat hyperbilirubinemia in neonates with isolated Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

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    Wadah Khriesat


    Full Text Available Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency alone or concomitant with ABO isoimmunisation is a widespread indication for neonatal exchange transfusion. Aims To evaluate the effectiveness of Intravenous Immunoglobulin in the treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia due to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted between 2006 and 2014 at the Jordan University of Science and technology. The medical records of 43 infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit for isolated glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency hemolytic disease of the newborns were reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups. Group I, a historical cohort, included newborns born between 2006 and 2010, Treatment included phototherapy and exchange transfusion. Group II included newborns born between 2011 and 2014, where, in addition to phototherapy, intravenous immunoglobulin was administered. The duration of phototherapy and number of exchange transfusions were evaluated. Results Of 412 newborns that were admitted with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency was present in 43. Of these, 22, did not receive intravenous immunoglobulin and served as a control group. The other 21 newborns received intravenous immunoglobulin. There was no difference in the demographic characteristics between the two groups. Infants in the control group were significantly more likely to receive exchange blood transfusion than infants in the immunoglobulin treatment group, but were significantly less likely to need phototherapy. Conclusion Intravenous immunoglobulin is an effective alternative to exchange transfusion in infants with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency hemolytic disease of the newborn. It is suggested that intravenous immunoglobulin may be beneficial as a prophylaxis for infants with hyperbilirubinemia.


    Li, Jian-Ting; Guo, Cheng; Li, Ming-Long; Wei, Yong-Qing; Hou, Yan-Feng; Jiao, Yu-Lian; Zhao, Yue-Ran; Sun, Hui; Xu, Jin; Cao, Ming-Feng; Feng, Li; Yu, Gui-Na; Gao, Ling; Liu, Yi-Qing; Zhang, Bing-Chang; Zhao, Jia-Jun; Zhang, Hai-Qing


    Natural killer (NK) cells serve as primary immune surveillance and are partially regulated by combinations of killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and their human leukocyte antigen-C (HLA-C) ligands. Alterations in NK cell activity have been associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). The aim of this study was to determine whether certain KIR/HLA-C genotype combinations play a role in HT pathogenesis. The present study enrolled 107 unrelated HT patients and 108 random healthy individuals in a case-control study. Blood was collected for DNA extraction; typing of KIR genes and HLA-C alleles was performed by polymerase chain reaction with sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP), followed by electrophoresis on agarose gels. Among a panel of KIR2D/HLA-C genotype combinations, the frequency of KIR2DS2/HLA-C1 was significantly increased in HT patients compared to controls (33.64% vs. 12.96%, PHLA-C gene pairs when their corresponding activating or inhibitory KIR genes were absent in the 2 groups. Only the frequency of KIR2DS2(-)2DL2/3(+)HLA-C1(+) was significantly decreased in HT patients compared to controls (48.60% vs. 70.37%, P = .001). Our data suggest that KIR2DS2/HLA-C1 may correlate with HT pathogenesis. On the contrary, the predominance of KIR2DL2/3/HLA-C1 in the absence of KIR2DS2 suggests a potential inhibitory role in HT pathogenesis. In conclusion, our findings may further elucidate the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of HT and other autoimmune diseases. HLA-C = human leukocyte antigen-C HT = Hashimoto thyroiditis KIR = killer immunoglobulin-like receptor NK = natural killer PCR = polymerase chain reaction.

  3. New insights in the use of immunoglobulins for the management of immune deficiency (PID) patients (United States)

    Krivan, Gergely; Jolles, Stephen; Granados, Eduardo Lopes; Paolantonacci, Phillipe; Ouaja, Rabye; Cissé, Ousmane Alfa; Bernatowska, Ewa


    Immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IRT) is standard treatment for patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID). Because most of the patients with PID will require long life-time immunoglobulin replacement therapy, the quality of the prescribed products is of utmost importance. The IRT is generally administered either intravenously (abbreviated IVIG), or subcutaneously (abbreviated SCIG). Both routes have been demonstrated to be effective. The preferred route may vary at different times during a given patient’s life. Options are therefore not fixed and the choice of route for immunoglobulin therapy will depend on several factors, including patient characteristics, clinical indication, venous access, side effects, rural or remote location, treatment compliance and patient preference. Many years ago, immunoglobulin therapy was associated with side effects which may compromise patient’s compliance and quality of life of the patients. Most of the side effects were related to impurities. Recently, major advances in the manufacturing process have been made and new processes, such as the Quality by design (QbD) approach were added into the manufacturing steps to ensure patients tolerability and safety. Due to the improved purity of the immunoglobulin products obtained by these processes, the incidence of side effects is lower, while the ways of administration of Ig therapy and the choice of the regimen has widened to suit patient’s preference and needs. PMID:29181272

  4. Cloning of a hamster anti-mouse CD79B antibody sequences and identification of a new hamster immunoglobulin lambda constant IGLC gene region. (United States)

    Haggart, Ryan; Perera, Jason; Huang, Haochu


    Anti-CD79 antibodies have been effective at targeting B cell lymphoma cells and depleting B cells in animal models. In order to engineer recombinant antibodies with additional effector functions in mice, we cloned and sequenced the full-length cDNAs of the heavy and light chain of a hamster anti-mouse CD79B antibody. Although hamster antibodies represent a unique source of monoclonal antibodies against mouse, rat, and human antigens, sequence information of hamster immunoglobulins (IG) is sparse. Here, we report a new hamster (Cricetulus migratorius) IG lambda constant (IGLC) gene region that is most homologous to mouse IGLC2 and IGLC3.

  5. Immunospecific red cell binding of iodine /sup 125/-labeled immunoglobulin G erythrocyte autoantibodies

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    Masouredis, S.P.; Branks, M.J.; Garratty, G.; Victoria, E.J.


    The primary interaction of autoantibodies with red cells has been studied by using labeled autoantibodies. Immunoglobulin G red cell autoantibodies obtained from IgG antiglobulin-positive normal blood donors were labeled with radioactive iodine and compared with alloanti-D with respect to their properties and binding behavior. Iodine /sup 125/-labeled IgG autoantibody migrated as a single homogeneous peak with the same relative mobility as human IgG on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The isoelectric focusing pattern of labeled autoantibodies varied from donor to donor but was similar to that of alloanti-D, consisting of multiple IgG populations with isoelectric points in the neutral to alkaline range. /sup 125/I-autoantibody bound to all human red cells of common Rh phenotypes. Evidence for immunospecific antibody binding of the labeled autoantibody was based on variation in equilibrium binding to nonhuman and human red cells of common and rare phenotypes, enhanced binding after red cell protease modification, antiglobulin reactivity of cell-bound IgG comparable to that of cell-bound anti-D, and saturation binding in autoantibody excess. Scatchard analysis of two /sup 125/I-autoantibody preparations yielded site numbers of 41,500 and 53,300 with equilibrium constants of 3.7 and 2.1 X 10(8) L X mol-1. Dog, rabbit, rhesus monkey, and baboon red cells were antigen(s) negative by quantitative adsorption studies adsorbing less than 3% of the labeled autoantibody. Reduced ability of rare human D--red blood cells to adsorb the autoantibody and identification of donor autoantibodies that bind to Rh null red blood cells indicated that eluates contained multiple antibody populations of complex specificities in contrast to anti-D, which consists of a monospecific antibody population. Another difference is that less than 70% of the autoantibody IgG was adsorbed by maximum binding red blood cells as compared with greater than 85% for alloanti-D.

  6. A conserved gene family encodes transmembrane proteins with fibronectin, immunoglobulin and leucine-rich repeat domains (FIGLER

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    Haga Christopher L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In mouse the cytokine interleukin-7 (IL-7 is required for generation of B lymphocytes, but human IL-7 does not appear to have this function. A bioinformatics approach was therefore used to identify IL-7 receptor related genes in the hope of identifying the elusive human cytokine. Results Our database search identified a family of nine gene candidates, which we have provisionally named fibronectin immunoglobulin leucine-rich repeat (FIGLER. The FIGLER 1–9 genes are predicted to encode type I transmembrane glycoproteins with 6–12 leucine-rich repeats (LRR, a C2 type Ig domain, a fibronectin type III domain, a hydrophobic transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic domain containing one to four tyrosine residues. Members of this multichromosomal gene family possess 20–47% overall amino acid identity and are differentially expressed in cell lines and primary hematopoietic lineage cells. Genes for FIGLER homologs were identified in macaque, orangutan, chimpanzee, mouse, rat, dog, chicken, toad, and puffer fish databases. The non-human FIGLER homologs share 38–99% overall amino acid identity with their human counterpart. Conclusion The extracellular domain structure and absence of recognizable cytoplasmic signaling motifs in members of the highly conserved FIGLER gene family suggest a trophic or cell adhesion function for these molecules.

  7. Development of a sandwich ELISA for quantification of immunoglobulin G in mink blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Ronja; Chriél, Mariann; Struve, T.

    A major concern amongst the Danish mink farmers is the incidence of the syndrome pre-weaning diarrhea. The syndrome causes major management issues and decreases the welfare of the mink and increases mortality in the pre-weaning period. The etiology of the syndrome is considered multifactorial...... as a specific cause is not fully established or understood. Adding to an increased risk of developing pre-weaning diarrhea is the fact that the mink kits are born with very low levels of circulating immunoglobulins. Rapid achievement of high levels of immunoglobulins in the bloodstream is essential for the kits...... early immunity and thus their resistance against pathogenic agents found in the environment. This study describes a sandwich ELISA for quantification of the concentration of total immunoglobulin G in mink blood. The ELISA was validated with serum samples from females (n=8) and their kits (litters of 4...

  8. Higher Serum Levels of Free ĸ plus λ Immunoglobulin Light Chains Ameliorate Survival of Hemodialysis Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilo, Florian; Caspari, Christina; Scholze, Alexandra


    Background/Aims: Impaired immune function is common in patients with chronic renal failure. Now, we determined whether serum levels of free immunoglobulin light chains predict mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on hemodialysis. Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study...... of 160 hemodialysis patients with a median follow-up of 15 months (interquartile range, 3-44 months). Serum levels of free κ and λ immunoglobulin light chains were measured at the start of the study. The primary end point was mortality from any cause. Results: In survivors, median serum levels of free κ....../l (χ(2) = 5.91; p = 0.015 by log-rank, Mantel-Cox, test). We performed univariate and multivariate regression analysis showing that older age and lower serum levels of free κ plus λ immunoglobulin light chains predicted mortality in hemodialysis patients. Conclusion: Higher serum levels of free κ plus...

  9. Successful adjunctive immunoglobulin treatment in patients affected by leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD-1). (United States)

    Yamazaki-Nakashimada, Marco; Maravillas-Montero, José L; Berrón-Ruiz, Laura; López-Ortega, Orestes; Ramírez-Alejo, Noé; Acevedo-Ochoa, Ernesto; Rivas-Larrauri, Francisco; Llamas-Guillén, Beatriz; Blancas-Galicia, Lizbeth; Scheffler-Mendoza, Selma; Olaya-Vargas, Alberto; Santos-Argumedo, Leopoldo


    Two patients with a severe leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD-1) phenotype were analyzed by flow cytometry and functional assays to demonstrate the improper adhesive and phagocytic responses of their leukocytes. A single homozygous defect that involves a missense mutation (c.817G>A) that encodes for a G273R substitution in CD18 was identified in both patients. The adhesion and phagocytosis assays demonstrated the inability of patients' leukocytes to perform these functions. Expression of the LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) on the co-transfected HEK 293 cells with the mutated form of CD18 was not detected. Finally, both patients have been treated with immunoglobulin as an adjunctive therapy with positive results. We propose that intravenous immunoglobulin treatment is safe and efficacious in LAD-1 patients before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and helpful in controlling severe infections. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin appeared to help wound healing in refractory ulcers in these patients.

  10. Is intravenous immunoglobulin effective in toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome?

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    Lucas Navajas


    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome are severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions. Intravenous immunoglobulin is described as a therapeutic option, however its use is still controversial. Using Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening over 20 databases, we identified six systematic reviews, including 39 primary studies. We combined the evidence using tables for summary of findings, following the GRADE approach, and concluded there is uncertainty about the effects of intravenous immunoglobulin because the certainty of the evidence is very low; it probably leads to important adverse effects; and has high cost. Intravenous immunoglobulin should not be used outside the context of a clinical trial, or only in cases where other treatments have failed and there are no resource constraints.

  11. Bronchial Secretory Immunoglobulin A Deficiency Correlates With Airway Inflammation and Progression of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (United States)

    Cates, Justin M.; Lawson, William E.; Zaynagetdinov, Rinat; Milstone, Aaron P.; Massion, Pierre P.; Ocak, Sebahat; Ware, Lorraine B.; Lee, Jae Woo; Bowler, Russell P.; Kononov, Alexey V.; Randell, Scott H.; Blackwell, Timothy S.


    Rationale: Although airway inflammation can persist for years after smoking cessation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the mechanisms of persistent inflammation are largely unknown. Objectives: We investigated relationships between bronchial epithelial remodeling, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) expression, secretory IgA (SIgA), airway inflammation, and mural remodeling in COPD. Methods: Lung tissue specimens and bronchoalveolar lavage were obtained from lifetime nonsmokers and former smokers with or without COPD. Epithelial structural changes were quantified by morphometric analysis. Expression of pIgR was determined by immunostaining and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry was performed for IgA, CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes, and cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus antigens. Total IgA and SIgA were measured by ELISA and IgA transcytosis was studied using cultured human bronchial epithelial cells. Measurements and Main Results: Areas of bronchial mucosa covered by normal pseudostratified ciliated epithelium were characterized by pIgR expression with SIgA present on the mucosal surface. In contrast, areas of bronchial epithelial remodeling had reduced pIgR expression, localized SIgA deficiency, and increased CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte infiltration. In small airways (<2 mm), these changes were associated with presence of herpesvirus antigens, airway wall remodeling, and airflow limitation in patients with COPD. Patients with COPD had reduced SIgA in bronchoalveolar lavage. Air–liquid interface epithelial cell cultures revealed that complete epithelial differentiation was required for normal pIgR expression and IgA transcytosis. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that epithelial structural abnormalities lead to localized SIgA deficiency in COPD airways. Impaired mucosal immunity may contribute to persistent airway inflammation and progressive airway remodeling in COPD. PMID:21512171

  12. Immunoglobulin A: Fc(alpha)RI interactions induce neutrophil migration through release of leukotriene B4. (United States)

    van der Steen, Lydia; Tuk, Cornelis W; Bakema, Jantine E; Kooij, Gijs; Reijerkerk, Arie; Vidarsson, Gestur; Bouma, Gerd; Kraal, Georg; de Vries, Helga E; Beelen, Robert H J; van Egmond, Marjolein


    Exacerbations of ulcerative colitis (UC) are dominated by massive neutrophil influx in the lamina propria with concomitant mucosal ulceration. The prevalent antibody in this area is immunoglobulin A (IgA). Interestingly, the IgA Fc receptor (Fc(alpha)RI) potently activates neutrophils. As such, we investigated whether IgA-Fc(alpha)RI interaction contributes to tissue damage in UC. Response of neutrophils to bovine serum albumin-, IgG-, or IgA-coated beads and Escherichia coli was investigated with 3-dimensional culture systems, real-time video microscopy, and (fluorescence) microscopy. In vivo studies were performed using human Fc(alpha)RI transgenic mice or nontransgenic littermates. Microscopic slides of UC patients were stained for IgA, Fc(alpha)RI, and neutrophils. In vitro and in vivo cross-linking of Fc(alpha)RI on neutrophils by serum IgA or uptake of IgA-coated E coli led to neutrophil migration. The responsible chemotactic factor was identified as leukotriene B4. Moreover, dimeric IgA (dIgA), which is produced in the lamina propria, but neither secretory IgA nor IgG, was equally capable of inducing neutrophil recruitment. We furthermore showed that Fc(alpha)RI(+)-neutrophils in the colon of UC patients had phagocytosed IgA-antigen complexes. Neutrophils are the first cells that arrive at inflammatory sites once pathogens have crossed the epithelial barrier. Fc(alpha)RI-dIgA interactions therefore may constitute an essential activation step to recruit more neutrophils, hereby eradicating impending infections. However, excessive IgA-antigen complexes can sustain a perpetuating inflammatory loop in UC, hereby seriously aggravating morbidity. Novel therapeutic strategies that block dIgA-Fc(alpha)RI interactions, and therefore diminish neutrophil migration and activation, may dampen the uncontrolled inflammatory processes in these patients.

  13. Analysis and functional consequences of increased Fab-sialylation of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG after lectin fractionation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Käsermann

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that the anti-inflammatory effects of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG might be due to the small fraction of Fc-sialylated IgG. In this study we biochemically and functionally characterized sialic acid-enriched IgG obtained by Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA lectin fractionation. Two main IgG fractions isolated by elution with lactose (E1 or acidified lactose (E2 were analyzed for total IgG, F(ab'(2 and Fc-specific sialic acid content, their pattern of specific antibodies and anti-inflammatory potential in a human in vitro inflammation system based on LPS- or PHA-stimulated whole blood. HPLC and LC-MS testing revealed an increase of sialylated IgG in E1 and more substantially in the E2 fraction. Significantly, the increased amount of sialic acid residues was primarily found in the Fab region whereas only a minor increase was observed in the Fc region. This indicates preferential binding of the Fab sialic acid to SNA. ELISA analyses of a representative range of pathogen and auto-antigens indicated a skewed antibody pattern of the sialylated IVIG fractions. Finally, the E2 fraction exerted a more profound anti-inflammatory effect compared to E1 or IVIG, evidenced by reduced CD54 expression on monocytes and reduced secretion of MCP-1 (CCL2; again these effects were Fab- but not Fc-dependent. Our results show that SNA fractionation of IVIG yields a minor fraction (approx. 10% of highly sialylated IgG, wherein the sialic acid is mainly found in the Fab region. The tested anti-inflammatory activity was associated with Fab not Fc sialylation.

  14. Immunoglobulin (IG and T cell receptor (TR genes: IMGT® and the birth and rise of immunoinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Paule eLefranc


    Full Text Available IMGT®, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system®, (CNRS and Université Montpellier 2 is the global reference in immunogenetics and immunoinformatics. By its creation in 1989, IMGT® marked the advent of immunoinformatics, which emerged at the interface between immunogenetics and bioinformatics. IMGT® is specialized in the immunoglobulins (IG or antibodies, T cell receptors (TR, major histocompatibility (MH, and proteins of the IgSF and MhSF superfamilies. IMGT® has been built on the IMGT-ONTOLOGY axioms and concepts, which bridged the gap between genes, sequences and three-dimensional (3D structures. The concepts include the IMGT® standardized keywords (concepts of identification, IMGT® standardized labels (concepts of description, IMGT® standardized nomenclature (concepts of classification, IMGT unique numbering and IMGT Colliers de Perles (concepts of numerotation. IMGT® comprises 7 databases, 15,000 pages of web resources and 17 tools, and provides a high-quality and integrated system for the analysis of the genomic and expressed IG and TR repertoire of the adaptive immune responses. Tools and databases are used in basic, veterinary and medical research, in clinical applications (mutation analysis in leukemia and lymphoma and in antibody engineering and humanization. They include, as examples: IMGT/V-QUEST and IMGT/JunctionAnalysis for nucleotide sequence analysis and their high-throughput version IMGT/HighV-QUEST for next generation sequencing (500,000 sequences per batch, IMGT/DomainGapAlign for amino acid sequence analysis of IG and TR variable and constant domains and of MH groove domains, IMGT/3Dstructure-DB for 3D structures, contact analysis and paratope/epitope interactions of IG/antigen and TR/peptide-MH complexes and IMGT/mAb-DB interface for therapeutic antibodies and fusion proteins for immunological applications (FPIA.

  15. Predictors of shingles reports at diagnosis of common variable immunodeficiency and selective immunoglobulin G subclass deficiency in 212 Alabama adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Barton


    Full Text Available We sought to determine predictors of shingles reports in adults with common variable immunodeficiency or immunoglobulin (Ig G subclass deficiency (CVID/IgGSD. We tabulated observations at diagnosis of CVID/IgGSD in 212 white adult index patients (165 women, 47 men who responded to a question about having had shingles. None had been vaccinated for herpes zoster. We analyzed age, sex, and shingles reports; blood levels of CD19+, CD4+, CD8+, and CD56+ mononuclear cells; serum levels of IgG subclasses, IgA, and IgM; and positivity for human leukocyte antigen (HLA-A and -B haplotypes. Cell counts and immunoglobulin levels were normalized with loge (ln transformation for analyses. Thirty-one patients (14.6% reported shingles; 11 reported recurrent or disseminated shingles. Patients with shingles reports had greater mean age at diagnosis of CVID/IgGSD [54±13 (standard deviation years vs. 47±12 years; P=0.0130] and a greater prevalence of HLA-A*01, B*08 positivity (35.5% vs. 17.7%; P=0.0227. In a 13-factor logistic regression model, there was a positive association of age with shingles reports [P=0.0151; odds ratio (1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.01, 1.08]. HLA-A*01, B*08 positivity was also positively associated with shingles reports [P=0.0480; odds ratio 2.61 (1.00, 6.81]. During a mean followup interval of 7.5 years after CVID/IgGSD diagnosis, the prevalence of recurrent shingles was almost five-fold greater in patients with previous shingles reports. In conclusion, in white adults at CVID/IgGSD diagnosis, age at diagnosis and positivity for HLA-A*01, B*08 have significant positive associations with reports of previous shingles.

  16. Comparative effectiveness of intravenous immunoglobulin for children with Kawasaki disease: a nationwide cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chih Lin

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Different immunoglobulin manufacturing processes may influence its effectiveness for Kawasaki disease. However, nationwide studies with longitudinal follow-up are still lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of immunoglobulin preparations from a nationwide perspective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a nationwide retrospective cohort study with a new user design. Data came from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. From 1997 to 2008, children under 2 years old who received immunoglobulin therapy for the first time under the main diagnosis of Kawasaki disease were enrolled. The manufacturing processes were divided into β-propiolactonation, acidification and those containing IgA. The endpoints were immunoglobulin non-responsiveness, acute aneurysm, prolonged use of anti-platelets or anti-coagulants, and recurrence. RESULTS: In total, 3830 children were enrolled. β-propiolactonation had a relative risk of 1.45 (95% CI 1.08~1.94 of immunoglobulin non-responsiveness, however, the relative risks for acidification and containing IgA were non-significant. For acute aneurysms, acidification had a relative risk of 1.49 (95% CI 1.17~1.90, however the relative risks for β-propiolactonation and containing IgA were non-significant. For prolonged use of anti-platelets or anti-coagulants, β-propiolactonation had a relative risk of 1.44 (95% CI 1.18~1.76, and acidification protected against them both with a relative risk of 0.82 (95% CI 0.69~0.97, whereas the relative risk for containing IgA was non-significant. For recurrence, all three factors were non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: The effectiveness of immunoglobulin may differ among different manufacturing processes. β-propiolactonation had a higher risk of treatment failure and prolonged use of anti-platelets or anti-coagulants. Acidification may increase the risk of acute coronary aneurysms.

  17. Oral immunoglobulin for the prevention of rotavirus infection in low birth weight infants. (United States)

    Pammi, Mohan; Haque, Khalid N


    Rotavirus is a common neonatal nosocomial viral infection and epidemics with the newer P(6)G9 strains have been reported. Local mucosal immunity in the intestine to rotavirus is important in the resolution of infection and protection against subsequent infections. Oral administration of anti-rotaviral immunoglobulin preparations might be a useful strategy in preventing rotaviral infections, especially in low birth weight babies. To determine the effectiveness and safety of oral immunoglobulin preparations for the prevention of rotavirus infection in hospitalized low birthweight infants (birthweight rotavirus infection compared to placebo OR no intervention; 4) at least one of the following outcomes were reported: all cause mortality during hospital stay, mortality due to rotavirus infection during hospital stay, rotavirus infection , duration of diarrhea, need for rehydration, duration of viral excretion, duration of infection control measures, length of hospital stay in days, recurrent diarrhea or chronic diarrhea. The two review authors independently abstracted data from the included trials. One published study (Barnes 1982) was eligible for inclusion in this review. Barnes 1982 found no significant difference in the rates of rotavirus infection after oral gammaglobulin versus placebo in hospitalized low birthweight babies [RR 1.27 (95% CI 0.65 to 2.37)]. In the subset of infants who became infected with rotavirus after receiving gammaglobulin or placebo for prevention of rotavirus infection, there was no significant difference in the duration of rotavirus excretion between the group who had gammaglobulin (mean 2 days, range 1 to 4 days) and the group who had placebo (mean 3 days, range 1 to 6 days). Barnes 1982 reported no adverse effects after administration of oral immunoglobulin preparations. Current evidence does not support the use of oral immunoglobulin preparations to prevent rotavirus infection in low birthweight infants. Researchers are encouraged to

  18. Immunoglobulin G bound to ovine placenta is eluted by surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design: Laboratory based experimentation. ... of pregnancy and together with the cognate antigen thereof may be useful as models for the study of maternal-fetal interaction in human pregnancy and in the development of experimental immunotherapy to immunologically compromised pregnancies in humans and livestock.

  19. Development of immunoglobulin lambda-chain-positive B cells, but not editing of immunoglobulin kappa-chain, depends on NF-kappaB signals. (United States)

    Derudder, Emmanuel; Cadera, Emily J; Vahl, J Christoph; Wang, Jing; Fox, Casey J; Zha, Shan; van Loo, Geert; Pasparakis, Manolis; Schlissel, Mark S; Schmidt-Supprian, Marc; Rajewsky, Klaus


    By genetically ablating IkappaB kinase (IKK)-mediated activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB in the B cell lineage and by analyzing a mouse mutant in which immunoglobulin lambda-chain-positive B cells are generated in the absence of rearrangements in the locus encoding immunoglobulin kappa-chain, we define here two distinct, consecutive phases of early B cell development that differ in their dependence on IKK-mediated NF-kappaB signaling. During the first phase, in which NF-kappaB signaling is dispensable, predominantly kappa-chain-positive B cells are generated, which undergo efficient receptor editing. In the second phase, predominantly lambda-chain-positive B cells are generated whose development is ontogenetically timed to occur after rearrangements of the locus encoding kappa-chain. This second phase of development is dependent on NF-kappaB signals, which can be substituted by transgenic expression of the prosurvival factor Bcl-2.

  20. A prospective study of nutritional status in immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sattianayagam, Prayman T; Lane, Thirusha; Fox, Zoe


    -diagnosed, treatment-naïve patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis attending the UK National Amyloidosis Centre. At study entry, 72 of 110 (66%) patients had a PG-SGA score of 4 or over, indicating malnutrition requiring specialist nutritional intervention. Number of amyloidotic organs, elevated alkaline......Weight loss is common in systemic immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis but there are limited data on the impact of nutritional status on outcome. Using the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) score, we prospectively examined nutritional status in 110 consecutive newly...... phosphatase, presence of autonomic neuropathy and advanced Mayo disease stage were independently associated with poor nutritional status (P...

  1. A study of immunoglobulins and complements (C3 &C4 in alopecia areata

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    Sharma R


    Full Text Available Estimation of serum Immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM and IgA and complements (C3 and C4 was carried out in 100 cases of alopecia areata as per method described by Mancini (1965.[1] Clinically patients were divided in two groups, alopecia areata circumscribed (group I and severe alopecia areata (group II. Significant decrease in levels of one or more Immunoglobulins were observed in most of the patients. However, Serum complements (C3 and C4 were within range of normal control values

  2. Estimation of serum, salivary immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin A levels and total protein, hemoglobin in smokeless tobacco chewers and oral submucous fibrosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakanth Balakrishnan


    Full Text Available Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF is a debilitating, potentially cancerous oral condition. Although areca nut is the most important causative agent, it is also considered that the disease is immunologically mediated. Aim of the Study: To establish that autoimmunity and nutritional deficiency play a role in the etiopathogenesis of OSMF. Objectives of the Study: To show that serum immunoglobulin markers (immunoglobulin-G [IgG], immunoglobulin-A [IgA] and nutritional parameters such as total serum protein (TSP, Hemoglobin (Hb play a role in causing OSMF and also to correlate serum, salivary IgG, IgA levels in OSMF patients. Settings and Design: A case-control study was done with 50 patients (25 patients who were provisionally diagnosed as OSMF - Group I, and 25 patients who were chronic smokeless tobacco chewers and who did not have any intraoral lesion - Group II. Materials and Methods: Five milliliters of blood and saliva were collected from both the groups. Quantitative analysis of serum, and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hemoglobin (Hb were estimated by spectrophotometry. Statistical Analysis: Results were analyzed by independent samples t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: All patients of OSMF showed significant (P < 0.01 increase in serum IgG, IgA, and salivary IgG levels as compared to smokeless tobacco chewers. The salivary IgA levels showed a significant decrease in OSMF patients (P < 0.05. TSP and Hb levels showed significant (P < 0.01 decrease in OSMF patients as compared to smokeless tobacco chewers. Conclusion: The elevation of immunoglobulin levels supports the concept of autoimmunity. The decrease in TSP and Hb suggests that nutritional deficiency plays a defined role in the occurrence as well as a further progression of OSMF.

  3. Plasma and Mucosal Immunoglobulin M, Immunoglobulin A, and Immunoglobulin G Responses to the Vibrio cholerae O1 Protein Immunome in Adults With Cholera in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Charles, Richelle C; Nakajima, Rie; Liang, Li; Jasinskas, Al; Berger, Amanda; Leung, Daniel T; Kelly, Meagan; Xu, Peng; Kovác, Pavol; Giffen, Samantha R; Harbison, James D; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful I; Calderwood, Stephen B; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Harris, Jason B; Felgner, Philip L; Qadri, Firdausi; Ryan, Edward T


    Cholera is a severe dehydrating illness of humans caused by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 or O139. Identification of immunogenic V. cholerae antigens could lead to a better understanding of protective immunity in human cholera. We probed microarrays containing 3652 V. cholerae antigens with plasma and antibody-in-lymphocyte supernatant (ALS, a surrogate marker of mucosal immune responses) from patients with severe cholera caused by V. cholerae O1 in Bangladesh and age-, sex-, and ABO-matched Bangladeshi controls. We validated a subset of identified antigens using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, we identified 608 immunoreactive V. cholerae antigens in our screening, 59 of which had higher immunoreactivity in convalescent compared with acute-stage or healthy control samples (34 in plasma, 39 in mucosal ALS; 13 in both sample sets). Identified antigens included cholera toxin B and A subunits, V. cholerae O-specific polysaccharide and lipopolysaccharide, toxin coregulated pilus A, sialidase, hemolysin A, flagellins (FlaB, FlaC, and FlaD), phosphoenolpyruvate-protein phosphotransferase, and diaminobutyrate-2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase. This study is the first antibody profiling of the mucosal and systemic antibody responses to the nearly complete V. cholerae O1 protein immunome; it has identified antigens that may aid in the development of an improved cholera vaccine.

  4. Kinetics of dengue virus-specific serum immunoglobulin classes and subclasses correlate with clinical outcome of infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Koraka (Penelope); C. Suharti (Catarina); T.E. Setiati (Tatty); A.T.A. Mairuhu; E.C.M. van Gorp (Eric); C.E. Hack (Erik); M. Juffrie; J. Sutaryo; G.M. van der Meer; J. Groen (Jan); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)


    textabstractThe kinetics of dengue virus (DEN)-specific serum immunoglobulin classes (immunoglobulin M [IgM] and IgA) and subclasses (IgG1 to IgG4) were studied in patients suffering from dengue fever (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Serum samples from non-DEN

  5. Drug-induced cutaneous lupus erythematosus after immunoglobulin treatment in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: a case series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adrichem, Max E.; Starink, Markus V.; van Leeuwen, Ester M. M.; Kramer, Christine; van Schaik, Ivo N.; Eftimov, Filip


    We describe six patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus (cLE) during immunoglobulin G (IgG) treatment. Five patients were diagnosed with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and one patient with possible CIDP. Five patients received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and one

  6. Human inmmunoglobulin in primary immunodeficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheffler Mendoza Selma


    Full Text Available Human immunoglobulin replacement therapy has become a corner- stone in the treatment of patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PID. Currently indicated as first-line therapy for predominantly antibody deficiencies, severe combined immunodeficiencies, and some well-defined syndromes with immunodeficiencies, it is also indicated as adjunct therapy in many other PID. Although considered a high-cost medication, elegant studies had showed that patients correctly treated with human immunoglobulin replacement therapy result in lower costs derived from their health- attention. Major benefits of immunoglobulin replacement therapy include but are not restricted to: protection against infectious processes, organ damage progression-arrest, immune modulation and quality-of-life improvement. Two modalities of treatment are currently used, intravenous and subcutaneous, each has clear advantages and disadvantages when compared to the other, which are presented in this article. The correct use of human immunoglobulin for the treatment of patients with PID translates in better medical-practices improving survival and quality of life of affected patients.

  7. Serological analysis of human IgG and IgE anti-insulin antibodies by solid-phase radioimmunoassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, R.G.; Rendell, M.; Adkinson, N.F. Jr.


    A single solid-phase assay system which is useful for quantitative measurement of both IgG and IgE anti-insulin antibodies in human serum has been developed. Insulin-specific immunoglobulins are absorbed from human serum by excess quantities of insulin-agarose. After washes to remove unbound immunoglobulins, radioiodinated Staph A or rabbit anti-human IgE is added to detect bound IgG or IgE anbitodies, respectively.

  8. Distinct Expression of Immunoglobulin-Binding Proteins in Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Implicates High Protein Stability and a Characteristic Phenotype (United States)

    Rubin, Dennis; Zhang, Wenlan; Karch, Helge; Kuczius, Thorsten


    Several immunoglobulin-binding proteins of Escherichia coli (Eib) have been isolated from both non-pathogenic and pathogenic E. coli strains. Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing E. coli (STEC) contain eibG either as a single gene or in combination with eibC, while other E. coli strains harbour single or multiple eib genes. The Eib proteins bind human immunoglobulins in a non-immune manner and contribute to bacterial chain-like adherence to human epithelial cells. In this study, the EibG expression in several STEC strains was analysed under different environmental conditions. STEC produced high levels of EibG in complex media and lower levels in low-grade and minimal media under static growth conditions. This characteristic was independent on the Eib subtypes. Microscopically, EibG-expressing STEC exhibited chain formation and aggregation in all employed media, while aggregates were only visible after growth in complex medium. Once expressed, EibG proteins demonstrate high stability during prolonged incubation. Our findings indicate that the regulation of the expression of Eib proteins is highly complex, although the protein levels vary among STEC strains. However, positive upregulation conditions generally result in distinct phenotypes of the isolates. PMID:28468281

  9. Evaluation of sex, race, body mass index and pre-vaccination serum progesterone levels and post-vaccination serum anti-anthrax protective immunoglobulin G on injection site adverse events following anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) in the CDC AVA human clinical trial. (United States)

    Pondo, Tracy; Rose, Charles E; Martin, Stacey W; Keitel, Wendy A; Keyserling, Harry L; Babcock, Janiine; Parker, Scott; Jacobson, Robert M; Poland, Gregory A; McNeil, Michael M


    Anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) administered intramuscularly (IM) results in fewer adverse events (AEs) than subcutaneous (SQ) administration. Women experience more AEs than men. Antibody response, female hormones, race, and body mass index (BMI) may contribute to increased frequency of reported injection site AEs. We analyzed data from the CDC AVA human clinical trial. This double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial enrolled 1563 participants and followed them through 8 injections (AVA or placebo) over a period of 42 months. For the trial's vaccinated cohort (n=1267), we used multivariable logistic regression to model the effects of study group (SQ or IM), sex, race, study site, BMI, age, and post-vaccination serum anti-PA IgG on occurrence of AEs of any severity grade. Also, in a women-only subset (n=227), we assessed effect of pre-vaccination serum progesterone level and menstrual phase on AEs. Participants who received SQ injections had significantly higher proportions of itching, redness, swelling, tenderness and warmth compared to the IM study group after adjusting for other risk factors. The proportions of redness, swelling, tenderness and warmth were all significantly lower in blacks vs. non-black participants. We found arm motion limitation, itching, pain, swelling and tenderness were more likely to occur in participants with the highest anti-PA IgG concentrations. In the SQ study group, redness and swelling were more common for obese participants compared to participants who were not overweight. Females had significantly higher proportions of all AEs compared to males. Menstrual phase was not associated with any AEs. Female and non-black participants had a higher proportion of AVA associated AEs and higher anti-PA IgG concentrations. Antibody responses to other vaccines may also vary by sex and race. Further studies may provide better understanding for higher proportions of AEs in women and non-black participants. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Pulse methylprednisolone therapy for impending cardiac tamponade in immunoglobulin-resistant Kawasaki disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahlem, P. G.; von Rosenstiel, I. A.; Lam, J.; Kuijpers, T. W.


    We describe a boy with Kawasaki disease (KD) whose clinical course was marked by a rapid improvement upon treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and oral aspirin, which - within 14 days - was followed by the development of a large pericardial effusion with symptoms of impending cardiac

  11. Polymerization of immunoglobulin domains: A model system for the development of facilitated macromolecular assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, F.J.; Myatt, E.A.


    We have recently determined that monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains (Bence Jones proteins) are capable of reversible polymerization at room temperature. This property, as exhibited by immunoglobulin light chains (normally a component of an intact antibody molecule), may have novel implications for the development of molecular nanotechnology.'' The polymerization capability of the immunoglobulin light chain is associated with the so-called variable domain of this molecule. The variable domain is a durable, compact beta-sheet structure of molecular weight approximately 12,000. Most of the primary sequence variation is limited to one portion of the molecule, that portion associated with the contribution of immunoglobulin light chains to the recognition and binding of thousand of different antigens by antibodies. As a consequence of these variations, different light chains polymerize with different degrees of avidity, from negligible to extensive. The polymerization process depends on solution parameters such as Ph. Thus, polymerization might be induced at one pH and suppressed or reversed at another. Combinations of molecules of appropriate specificities could assemble into structures of predetermined three-dimensional forms and properties. These features suggest that Bence Jones proteins represent a powerful model system within which to develop empirical rules relevant to a technology of protein-based construction''. Development of these rules will require the combined efforts of biophysical and crystallographic studies, protein engineering, and molecular modeling. 53 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Polymerization of immunoglobulin domains: A model system for the development of facilitated macromolecular assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, F.J.; Myatt, E.A.


    We have recently determined that monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains (Bence Jones proteins) are capable of reversible polymerization at room temperature. This property, as exhibited by immunoglobulin light chains (normally a component of an intact antibody molecule), may have novel implications for the development of ``molecular nanotechnology.`` The polymerization capability of the immunoglobulin light chain is associated with the so-called variable domain of this molecule. The variable domain is a durable, compact beta-sheet structure of molecular weight approximately 12,000. Most of the primary sequence variation is limited to one portion of the molecule, that portion associated with the contribution of immunoglobulin light chains to the recognition and binding of thousand of different antigens by antibodies. As a consequence of these variations, different light chains polymerize with different degrees of avidity, from negligible to extensive. The polymerization process depends on solution parameters such as Ph. Thus, polymerization might be induced at one pH and suppressed or reversed at another. Combinations of molecules of appropriate specificities could assemble into structures of predetermined three-dimensional forms and properties. These features suggest that Bence Jones proteins represent a powerful model system within which to develop empirical rules relevant to a technology of protein-based ``construction``. Development of these rules will require the combined efforts of biophysical and crystallographic studies, protein engineering, and molecular modeling. 53 refs., 5 figs.

  13. M Cell–Targeted Ocular Immunization: Effect on Immunoglobulins in Tears, Feces, and Serum


    Phillips, Thomas E.; Sharp, Jeremy; Rodgers, Kay; Liu, Hongshan


    Conjunctival M cells are shown to bind and retro-translocate secretory IgA from the tear film. Natural IgA antibodies in tears promote uptake of topically applied immunogens and lead to immunoglobulin production at local and distant mucosae and in blood.

  14. Combined C4d and CD3 immunostaining predicts immunoglobulin (Ig)A nephropathy progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faria, B.; Henriques, C.; Matos, A. C.; Daha, M. R.; Pestana, M.; Seelen, M.

    A number of molecules have been shown recently to be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of immunoglobulin (Ig)A nephropathy (IgAN). Among these, we have selected C4d (complement lectin pathway involvement), CD3 (T cell marker, traducing interstitial inflammation), transglutaminase 2

  15. Circulating immune complexes, immunoglobulin classes (IgG, IgA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective:- To evaluate serum levels of circulating immune complexes (CICs), immunoglobulin classes (IgG, IgA and IgM) and Complement Components (C3c, C4 and Factor B) in Nigerians with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Design:- Case control study. Setting:- University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

  16. Malleable Immunoglobulin Genes and Hematopathology – The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly (United States)

    Bagg, Adam


    Immunoglobulin gene rearrangement analysis is one of the more commonly performed assays available on the hematopathology menu of clinical molecular pathology laboratories. The analysis of these rearrangements provides useful information on a number of different levels in the evaluation of lymphoproliferations. An appreciation of the various mechanisms involved in the numerous physiological pathways affecting the immunoglobulin genes, and hence antibody molecules, is central to an understanding of B-cell development vis-à-vis the generation of immunological diversity. Knowledge about the intricate complexities of these mechanisms is also germane to an evaluation of testing methodologies. With this information, it is easier to develop an understanding of how contemporary molecular testing of immunoglobulin gene rearrangements has evolved, from historically quite heterogeneous, fairly flawed, and rather ugly approaches to current more-standardized protocols. In addition, recognition of how such genetic changes with good intentions can turn bad has fostered increasing insights into the pathogenesis of B-cell lymphomas and leukemias. Despite the significant improvements in the design of immunoglobulin gene rearrangement assays, numerous pitfalls and caveats remain. Accordingly, it is crucial to consider such testing a tool, and although most useful, it is one of many tools that may be required to build cogent diagnoses. PMID:18687793

  17. Immunoglobulin superfamily receptors: cis-interactions, intracellular adapters and alternative splicing regulate adhesion. (United States)

    Brümmendorf, T; Lemmon, V


    The immunoglobulin domain is a module found in vertebrates and invertebrates. Its ability to form linear rods when deployed in series, combined with its propensity to bind specifically to other proteins has made it ideal for building cell surface receptors and cell adhesion molecules. These features have resulted in the incorporation of immunoglobulin domains into many hundreds of cell surface molecules. Recently three major advances have been made in understanding immunoglobulin receptors. One is the recognition that their intracellular binding partners are likely to link to multiple cell surface molecules, allowing cross-talk or oligomeric complex formation. A second, but related phenomenon, is their participation in cis-interactions on the extracellular surface that regulate signaling or adhesion. The third is the dramatic ability to form dozens to thousands of different isoforms via alternative splicing. Although antibodies may have been the first example of immunoglobulin-domain-containing proteins using cis-interactions to form receptor like molecules, and the grandest instance of diversity production from limited genetic material, these are clearly old ideas in this superfamily.

  18. Influence of immunoglobulin G-glycan and subclass variation on antibody effector functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, G.


    Antibodies signal to other parts of the immune system by binding of their constant domain (Fc) to receptors, such as Fc gamma receptors (FcγR) or C1q of the complement system in the case of immunoglobulin G (IgG). For these interactions the Fc-structure, influenced by subclasses or

  19. Immunoglobulin free light chains in adult atopic dermatitis patients do not correlate with disease severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, J. L.; Knipping, K.; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C. A F; Garssen, J.; De Bruin-Weller, M. S.; Hijnen, D. J.


    Background: Although total IgE levels have been proposed as a biomarker for disease severity in atopic dermatitis (AD) and are increased in the majority of AD patients, they do not correlate with disease severity during short-term follow-up. During the synthesis of immunoglobulins, free light chains

  20. Spatial and temporal expression of immunoglobulin superfamily member 1 in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joustra, Sjoerd D.; Meijer, Onno C.; Heinen, Charlotte A.; Mol, Isabel M.; Laghmani, El Houari; Sengers, Rozemarijn M. A.; Carreno, Gabriela; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Bernard, Daniel J.; Wit, Jan M.; Oostdijk, Wilma; van Pelt, Ans M. M.; Hamer, Geert; Wagenaar, Gerry T. M.


    Loss-of-function mutations in the immunoglobulin superfamily member 1 (IGSF1) gene cause an X-linked syndrome of central hypothyroidism, macroorchidism, variable prolactin and GH deficiency, delayed pubertal testosterone rise, and obesity. To understand the pathophysiology of this syndrome,

  1. The use of bovine colostrum as a source of immunoglobulin (Ig) for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the use of bovine colostrum as an alternative source of immunoglobulin for lambs was carried out at the University of Ghana's Agricultural Research Centre (Legon). The study involved a total of fifty-six lambs. Thirty-three of them were bottle-fed with frozenthawed bovine colostrum while the rest (twenty-three) ...

  2. Evaluation of Commercially Available Anti–Dengue Virus Immunoglobulin M Tests (United States)

    Hunsperger, Elizabeth A.; Yoksan, Sutee; Buchy, Philippe; Nguyen, Vinh Chau; Sekaran, Shamala D.; Enria, Delia A.; Pelegrino, Jose L.; Vázquez, Susana; Artsob, Harvey; Drebot, Michael; Gubler, Duane J.; Halstead, Scott B.; Guzmán, María G.; Margolis, Harold S.; Nathanson, Carl-Michael; Lic, Nidia R. Rizzo; Bessoff, Kovi E.; Kliks, Srisakul


    Anti–dengue virus immunoglobulin M kits were evaluated. Test sensitivities were 21%–99% and specificities were 77%–98% compared with reference ELISAs. False-positive results were found for patients with malaria or past dengue infections. Three ELISAs showing strong agreement with reference ELISAs will be included in the World Health Organization Bulk Procurement Scheme. PMID:19239758

  3. Immunoglobulin free light chains: new insights in mast cell activation and immunology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thio, M.


    In this thesis, several studies are described that elaborate on the biological properties of immunoglobulin free light chains (Ig-fLC) related to the activation of mast cells and effects on other cells. Mast cell degranulation through Ig-fLC requires two events. At first, mast cell-bound Ig-fLCs

  4. Mucosal immunoglobulins at respiratory surfaces mark an ancient association that predates the emergence of tetrapods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhen; Takizawa, Fumio; Parra, David


    Gas-exchange structures are critical for acquiring oxygen, but they also represent portals for pathogen entry. Local mucosal immunoglobulin responses against pathogens in specialized respiratory organs have only been described in tetrapods. Since fish gills are considered a mucosal surface, we hy...

  5. Neutralization effects of egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) and Fab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the neutralization effects of egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) and Fab' fragment against lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and identify possible approaches to prevent and treat LPS related injuries. Mice with third-degree burns covering 30% of the total body surface and exposed to LPS were orally ...

  6. New Immunoglobulin-like Molecules in the Serum of Bursectomized-Irradiated Chickens (United States)

    Choi, Yong Sung; Good, Robert A.


    A new immunoglobulin-like protein that was found in the sera of bursectomized and irradiated chickens is reported. Unlike IgM and IgG, this protein is apparently made only of heavy chains of IgM and contains no light chains. Images PMID:5289367

  7. Immunoglobulin M and G antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum glutamate-rich protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziegiel, M; Rowe, P; Bennett, S


    The aims of the present study were to describe the age-related immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG response to part of a 220-kDa glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) from Plasmodium falciparum and to determine possible correlations of possession of these antibodies with malaria morbidity. IgM and IgG levels...

  8. Hemolytic anemia following high dose intravenous immunoglobulin in patients with chronic neurological disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvardsen, L H; Christiansen, Ingelise; Harbo, T


    High dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is an established treatment for various neuromuscular disorders. Recently, cases of hemolytic anemia following IVIG have been observed. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of anemia and hemolysis after IVIG and its relationship...... to the AB0 blood type system....

  9. Rabies Vaccine and Rabies Immunoglobulin in Cambodia: Use and Obstacles to Use. (United States)

    Tarantola, Arnaud; Ly, Sowath; In, Sotheary; Ong, Sivuth; Peng, Yiksing; Heng, Nayyim; Buchy, Philippe


    Authorities have pledged to eliminate canine rabies by 2020 in Cambodia, a country with a very high rabies burden. Logistic and financial access to timely and adequate postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) is essential for preventing rabies in humans. We undertook a survey of the few identified sites where PEP rabies vaccination and rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) are available in Cambodia. We examined the Rabies Prevention Center at Institut Pasteur du Cambodge (rpc@ipc) database and rpc@ipc order forms for 2012 to assess vaccine and RIG use. We conducted a rapid internet survey of centers that provide rabies vaccine and RIG in Cambodia, other than rpc@ipc. The cost of a full course of intramuscular or intradermal PEP in Cambodia, with and without RIG, was also estimated. Rabies vaccination is free of charge in one foundation hospital and is accessible for a fee at Institut Pasteur du Cambodge (IPC), some institutions, and some Cambodian private clinics. In 2012, 27,500 rabies vaccine doses (0.5 mL) and 591 equine RIG doses were used to provide intradermal PEP to 20,610 persons at rpc@ipc following animal bites. Outside of rpc@ipc, an estimated total of 53,400 vaccine doses and 200 RIG doses were used in Cambodia in 2012. The wholesale cost of full rabies PEP was estimated at 50% to 100% of a Cambodian farmer's monthly wage. Local populations and travelers cannot be sure to locally access adequate and timely PEP due to high costs and low access to RIG. Travelers to high-endemic areas such as Cambodia are strongly encouraged to undergo pre-exposure vaccination or seek expert advice, as per World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. State-subsidized, pre-positioned stocks of human vaccine and RIG in bite management centers would extend the rabies prevention centers network. Support from Institut Pasteur du Cambodge for staff training, cold chain, and quality control would contribute to reducing the risk of rabies deaths in Cambodia. © 2015 International Society of

  10. Purification and characterisation of immunoglobulins from the Australian black flying fox (Pteropus alecto using anti-fab affinity chromatography reveals the low abundance of IgA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Wynne

    Full Text Available There is now an overwhelming body of evidence that implicates bats in the dissemination of a long list of emerging and re-emerging viral agents, often causing illnesses or death in both animals and humans. Despite this, there is a paucity of information regarding the immunological mechanisms by which bats coexist with highly pathogenic viruses. Immunoglobulins are major components of the adaptive immune system. Early studies found bats may have quantitatively lower antibody responses to model antigens compared to conventional laboratory animals. To further understand the antibody response of bats, the present study purified and characterised the major immunoglobulin classes from healthy black flying foxes, Pteropus alecto. We employed a novel strategy, where IgG was initially purified and used to generate anti-Fab specific antibodies. Immobilised anti-Fab specific antibodies were then used to capture other immunoglobulins from IgG depleted serum. While high quantities of IgM were successfully isolated from serum, IgA was not. Only trace quantities of IgA were detected in the serum by mass spectrometry. Immobilised ligands specific to IgA (Jacalin, Peptide M and staphylococcal superantigen-like protein also failed to capture P. alecto IgA from serum. IgM was the second most abundant serum antibody after IgG. A survey of mucosal secretions found IgG was the dominant antibody class rather than IgA. Our study demonstrates healthy P. alecto bats have markedly less serum IgA than expected. Higher quantities of IgG in mucosal secretions may be compensation for this low abundance or lack of IgA. Knowledge and reagents developed within this study can be used in the future to examine class-specific antibody response within this important viral host.

  11. M cell-targeted ocular immunization: effect on immunoglobulins in tears, feces, and serum. (United States)

    Phillips, Thomas E; Sharp, Jeremy; Rodgers, Kay; Liu, Hongshan


    This study investigates whether antigen-sampling M cells, present in the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) above organized conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue in rabbits, bind and retro-transport secretory IgA (sIgA) from the tear film. The hypothesis that IgA-mediated uptake of antigens promotes local and systemic production of immunoglobulins was tested. sIgA binding and retro-translocation by M cells was characterized by immunocytochemistry. Immunoglobulin concentrations in tears, feces and serum were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISA) after topical and systemic immunization with either goat IgG anti-rabbit IgA or nonspecific goat IgG. Endogenous sIgA was found associated with the apical membrane of conjunctival M cells. Exogenous anti-IgA immunoglobulins were translocated across M cells. Significant levels of sIgA against goat IgG were present in tears of pre-immune animals. Topical application of either goat IgG specific for rabbit IgA or nonspecific goat IgG led to similar increases in antigen-specific IgA in tear, feces, and serum. The antigen-specific IgG response in tears mirrored the serum response for both immunogens consistent with transudation of this immunoglobulin. The IgM response in tears and serum was weak for both immunogens. Systemic immunization did not sustain or enhance the local mucosal IgA responses. Conjunctival M cells bind and translocate sIgA from the tear film. Topical conjunctival immunization leads to generation of antigen-specific immunoglobulins from both local and distant mucosae and in serum. Natural antibodies, present in the tear film before immunization, may have contributed to similar immune responses to goat anti-rabbit IgA and nonspecific goat IgG.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabó Judit


    Full Text Available After organ transplantation, gamma globulin and intravenous immunoglobulin enriched with IgM are most frequently used in septic shock as early immune-support. If the explanted organ is infected, the transplantation, as a life-saving operation, can be performed if there is no systemic inflammation and the patient receives IgM enriched immunoglobulin prophylaxis during surgery. The period after transplantation can be divided into three parts from the infection point of view: the first month after transplantation, the first sixth months and the following six months. Infections within the first month are basically related to the surgical procedure. Because of the immunosuppressive therapy, the opportunistic and fungal infections are more common during the first sixth months. After this period, the occurrence and the type of infections are similar to that of the non-transplant population except for pulmonary infections. The latter is two to three times more frequent. This is explained by the secondary hypogammaglobulinaemia (lower blood levels of IgM and IgG which is caused by the steroids but most of mycophenolate mofetil by inhibition of the T and B lymphocyte proliferation. Septic shock develops with a continuing fall of IgM levels. Under these circumstances additional intravenous immunoglobulin therapy with IgM can be lifesaving. Besides, immunoglobulin concentrates with IgM may also be used in the case of viral infections without prophylaxis and/or without etiological therapy such as in the case of West Nile virus infection. As a result of the increase in antibiotic resistance, the application of immunotherapy, including immunoglobulins may become the mainstream in the treatment of septic shock.

  13. C-Terminal Domain of Hemocyanin, a Major Antimicrobial Protein from Litopenaeus vannamei: Structural Homology with Immunoglobulins and Molecular Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Ling Zhang


    Full Text Available Invertebrates rely heavily on immune-like molecules with highly diversified variability so as to counteract infections. However, the mechanisms and the relationship between this variability and functionalities are not well understood. Here, we showed that the C-terminal domain of hemocyanin (HMC from shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei contained an evolutionary conserved domain with highly variable genetic sequence, which is structurally homologous to immunoglobulin (Ig. This domain is responsible for recognizing and binding to bacteria or red blood cells, initiating agglutination and hemolysis. Furthermore, when HMC is separated into three fractions using anti-human IgM, IgG, or IgA, the subpopulation, which reacted with anti-human IgM (HMC-M, showed the most significant antimicrobial activity. The high potency of HMC-M is a consequence of glycosylation, as it contains high abundance of α-d-mannose relative to α-d-glucose and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine. Thus, the removal of these glycans abolished the antimicrobial activity of HMC-M. Our results present a comprehensive investigation of the role of HMC in fighting against infections through genetic variability and epigenetic modification.

  14. Diversity of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genes in Indonesian populations of Java, Kalimantan, Timor and Irian Jaya. (United States)

    Velickovic, M; Velickovic, Z; Panigoro, R; Dunckley, H


    Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) regulate the activity of natural killer and T cells through interactions with specific human leucocyte antigen class I molecules on target cells. Population studies performed over the last several years have established that KIR gene frequencies (GFs) and genotype content vary considerably among different ethnic groups, indicating the extent of KIR diversity, some of which have also shown the effect of the presence or absence of specific KIR genes in human disease. We have determined the frequencies of 16 KIR genes and pseudogenes and genotypes in 193 Indonesian individuals from Java, East Timor, Irian Jaya (western half of the island of New Guinea) and Kalimantan provinces of Indonesian Borneo. All 16 KIR genes were observed in all four populations. Variation in GFs between populations was observed, except for KIR2DL4, KIR3DL2, KIR3DL3, KIR2DP1 and KIR3DP1 genes, which were present in every individual tested. When comparing KIR GFs between populations, both principal component analysis and a phylogenetic tree showed close clustering of the Kalimantan and Javanese populations, while Irianese populations were clearly separated from the other three populations. Our results indicate a high level of KIR polymorphism in Indonesian populations that probably reflects the large geographical spread of the Indonesian archipelago and the complex evolutionary history and population migration in this region.

  15. Viral safety characteristics of Flebogamma DIF, a new pasteurized, solvent-detergent treated and Planova 20 nm nanofiltered intravenous immunoglobulin. (United States)

    Caballero, Santiago; Nieto, Sandra; Gajardo, Rodrigo; Jorquera, Juan I


    A new human liquid intravenous immunoglobulin product, Flebogamma DIF, has been developed. This IgG is purified from human plasma by cold ethanol fractionation, PEG precipitation and ion exchange chromatography. The manufacturing process includes three different specific pathogen clearance (inactivation/removal) steps: pasteurization, solvent/detergent treatment and Planova nanofiltration with a pore size of 20 nm. This study evaluates the pathogen clearance capacity of seven steps in the production process for a wide range of viruses through spiking experiments: the three specific steps mentioned above and also four more production steps. Infectivity of samples was measured using a Tissue Culture Infectious Dose assay (log(10) TCID(50)) or Plaque Forming Units assay (log(10) PFU). Validation studies demonstrated that each specific step cleared more than 4 log(10) for all viruses assayed. An overall viral clearance between > or =13.33 log(10) and > or =25.21 log(10), was achieved depending on the virus and the number of steps studied for each virus. It can be concluded that Flebogamma DIF has a very high viral safety profile. 2010 The International Association for Biologicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Is There a Regulatory Role of Immunoglobulins on Tissue Forming Cells Relevant in Chronic Inflammatory Lung Diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Roth


    Full Text Available Epithelial cells, fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells together form and give structure to the airway wall. These three tissue forming cell types are structure giving elements and participate in the immune response to inhaled particles including allergens and dust. All three cell types actively contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Tissue forming cells respond directly to allergens through activated immunoglobulins which then bind to their corresponding cell surface receptors. It was only recently reported that allergens and particles traffic through epithelial cells without modification and bind to the immunoglobulin receptors on the surface of sub-epithelial mesenchymal cells. In consequence, these cells secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines, thereby extending the local inflammation. Furthermore, activation of the immunoglobulin receptors can induce proliferation and tissue remodeling of the tissue forming cells. New studies using anti-IgE antibody therapy indicate that the inhibition of immunoglobulins reduces the response of tissue forming cells. The unmeasured questions are: (i why do tissue forming cells express immunoglobulin receptors and (ii do tissue forming cells process immunoglobulin receptor bound particles? The focus of this review is to provide an overview of the expression and function of various immunoglobulin receptors.

  17. EFNS guidelines for the use of intravenous immunoglobulin in treatment of neurological diseases: EFNS task force on the use of intravenous immunoglobulin in treatment of neurological diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elovaara, I.; Apostolski, S.; Doorn, P. van


    or third-line therapy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, if conventional immunomodulatory therapies are not tolerated (level B), and in relapses during pregnancy or post-partum period (good clinical practice point). IVIG seems to have a favourable effect also in paraneoplastic neurological diseases......Despite high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is widely used in treatment of a number of immune-mediated neurological diseases, the consensus on its optimal use is insufficient. To define the evidence-based optimal use of IVIG in neurology, the recent papers of high relevance were reviewed...

  18. Killer Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Allele Determination Using Next-Generation Sequencing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bercelin Maniangou


    Full Text Available The impact of natural killer (NK cell alloreactivity on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT outcome is still debated due to the complexity of graft parameters, HLA class I environment, the nature of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR/KIR ligand genetic combinations studied, and KIR+ NK cell repertoire size. KIR genes are known to be polymorphic in terms of gene content, copy number variation, and number of alleles. These allelic polymorphisms may impact both the phenotype and function of KIR+ NK cells. We, therefore, speculate that polymorphisms may alter donor KIR+ NK cell phenotype/function thus modulating post-HSCT KIR+ NK cell alloreactivity. To investigate KIR allele polymorphisms of all KIR genes, we developed a next-generation sequencing (NGS technology on a MiSeq platform. To ensure the reliability and specificity of our method, genomic DNA from well-characterized cell lines were used; high-resolution KIR typing results obtained were then compared to those previously reported. Two different bioinformatic pipelines were used allowing the attribution of sequencing reads to specific KIR genes and the assignment of KIR alleles for each KIR gene. Our results demonstrated successful long-range KIR gene amplifications of all reference samples using intergenic KIR primers. The alignment of reads to the human genome reference (hg19 using BiRD pipeline or visualization of data using Profiler software demonstrated that all KIR genes were completely sequenced with a sufficient read depth (mean 317× for all loci and a high percentage of mapping (mean 93% for all loci. Comparison of high-resolution KIR typing obtained to those published data using exome capture resulted in a reported concordance rate of 95% for centromeric and telomeric KIR genes. Overall, our results suggest that NGS can be used to investigate the broad KIR allelic polymorphism. Hence, these data improve our knowledge, not only on KIR+ NK cell alloreactivity in

  19. Immunoglobulin G1 Allotype Influences Antibody Subclass Distribution in Response to HIV gp140 Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Kratochvil


    Full Text Available Antibody subclasses exhibit extensive polymorphisms (allotypes that could potentially impact the quality of HIV-vaccine induced B cell responses. Allotypes of immunoglobulin (Ig G1, the most abundant serum antibody, have been shown to display altered functional properties in regard to serum half-life, Fc-receptor binding and FcRn-mediated mucosal transcytosis. To investigate the potential link between allotypic IgG1-variants and vaccine-generated humoral responses in a cohort of 14 HIV vaccine recipients, we developed a novel protocol for rapid IgG1-allotyping. We combined PCR and ELISA assays in a dual approach to determine the IgG1 allotype identity (G1m3 and/or G1m1 of trial participants, using human plasma and RNA isolated from PBMC. The IgG1-allotype distribution of our participants mirrored previously reported results for caucasoid populations. We observed elevated levels of HIV gp140-specific IgG1 and decreased IgG2 levels associated with the G1m1-allele, in contrast to G1m3 carriers. These data suggest that vaccinees homozygous for G1m1 are predisposed to develop elevated Ag-specific IgG1:IgG2 ratios compared to G1m3-carriers. This elevated IgG1:IgG2 ratio was further associated with higher FcγR-dimer engagement, a surrogate for potential antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP function. Although preliminary, these results suggest that IgG1 allotype may have a significant impact on IgG subclass distribution in response to vaccination and associated Fc-mediated effector functions. These results have important implications for ongoing HIV vaccine efficacy studies predicated on engagement of FcγR-mediated cellular functions including ADCC and ADCP, and warrant further investigation. Our novel allotyping protocol provides new tools to determine the potential impact of IgG1 allotypes on vaccine efficacy.

  20. Human Milk-Treatment and Quality of Banked Human Milk. (United States)

    Picaud, Jean-Charles; Buffin, Rachel


    The aim of human milk banks is to deliver safe and high quality donor human milk. Treatment of human milk has to destroy most microorganisms while preserving immunological and nutrient components, which is obtained when using low time low temperature pasteurization. However it destroys bile-simulated lipase, reduces lactoferrin, lysozyme, immunoglobulins, and bactericidal capacity of human milk. New methods are under investigation such as high temperature short time pasteurization, high pressure processing, or ultraviolet irradiation. They have been tested in experimental conditions and there are promising results, but they have to be tested in real conditions in human milk bank. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Transient spurious intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis in neurological patients after therapeutic apheresis. (United States)

    Berger, Benjamin; Hottenrott, Tilman; Leubner, Jonas; Dersch, Rick; Rauer, Sebastian; Stich, Oliver; Prüss, Harald


    The analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is usually done under steady-state conditions, when proteins (e.g., immunoglobulins) reach diffusion equilibrium between blood and CSF. However, little data has been published on CSF analysis under non-steady-state conditions after therapeutic apheresis. By reducing serum proteins (e.g., immunoglobulins), while leaving CSF unchanged, therapeutic apheresis might cause spuriously altered intrathecal immunoglobulin fractions. Based on the incidental finding of plasma exchange-induced increased intrathecal immunoglobulin fractions in a cohort of 12 unsystematically selected patients with various neurological disorders, we retrospectively investigated CSF results that had been raised during routine diagnostic work-up from 41 consecutive neurological patients (predominantly Guillain-Barré syndrome and autoimmune encephalitis) treated with plasmapheresis or immunoadsorption in a tertiary care university hospital in whom lumbar puncture (LP) was performed after a varying number of treatments of therapeutic apheresis. Only when LP was performed 1 day after therapeutic apheresis, spurious quantitative intrathecal immunoglobulin (Ig) synthesis of at least one subclass (IgG, IgA and/or IgM) was found in 68.4 % of the patients, irrespective of the number of treatments, in all age groups and independent of other previous immunotherapies (e.g., steroids). This phenomenon occurred only transiently and was almost always accompanied by an elevation of the IgG index. In one patient, an elevated IgG index was noticed even 2 days after plasmapheresis. Neither quantitative Ig synthesis, nor elevated IgG index was observed when the LP was performed three or more days after therapeutic apheresis. Spurious quantitative intrathecal Ig synthesis and increased IgG index are common findings shortly after plasmapheresis or immunoadsorption due to altered serum immunoglobulin levels. Knowledge of this phenomenon is needed for clinicians to prevent

  2. Infliximab versus intravenous immunoglobulin for refractory Kawasaki disease: a phase 3, randomized, open-label, active-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter trial. (United States)

    Mori, Masaaki; Hara, Takuma; Kikuchi, Masako; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Iwashima, Satoru; Oonishi, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Kunio; Kobayashi, Norimoto; Waki, Kenji; Suzuki, Yasuo; Otsubo, Yoshikazu; Yamada, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Chikao; Kato, Taichi; Fuse, Shigeto


    We compared the efficacy and safety of infliximab with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), a standard therapy, in a phase 3 trial (NCT01596335) for Japanese patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) showing persistent fever after initial IVIG. Patients with initial IVIG-refractory KD, aged 1-10 years, received a single dose of IV infliximab 5 mg/kg or IV polyethylene glycol-treated human immunoglobulin (VGIH) 2 g/kg on day 0. Primary outcome was defervescence rate within 48 h after the start of treatment. Safety was evaluated through day 56. Overall, 31 patients were randomized (infliximab, n = 16; VGIH, n = 15); 31.3% and 60.0% patients discontinued due to worsening KD. Defervescence rate within 48 h was greater with infliximab (76.7%) than VGIH (37.0%) (p = 0.023), and defervescence was achieved earlier with infliximab (p = 0.0072). Coronary artery lesions occurred in 1 (6.3%) and 3 (20.0%) patients receiving infliximab and VGIH, respectively, up to day 21. Adverse events occurred in 15 (93.8%) and 15 (100.0%) patients in the infliximab and VGIH groups, respectively. No serious adverse events in the infliximab group and one in the VGIH group were observed. Infliximab improved the defervescence rate within 48 h and time to defervescence versus standard therapy, and was well tolerated in patients with IVIG-refractory KD.

  3. Adsorption of human immunoglobulin to implantable alginate-poly-L-lysine microcapsules : Effect of microcapsule composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tam, Susan K.; de Haan, Bart J.; Faas, Marijke M.; Halle, Jean-Pierre; Yahia, L'Hocine; de Vos, Paul


    Alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate (APA) microcapsules continue to be the most widely Studied device for the immuno-protection of transplanted therapeutic cells. Producing APA microcapsules having a reproducible and high level of biocompatibility requires an understanding of the mechanisms of the

  4. Distinct TLR-mediated cytokine production and immunoglobulin secretion in human newborn naive B cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pettengill, M.A.; Haren, S.D. van; Li, N.; Dowling, D.J.; Bergelson, I.; Jans, J.; Ferwerda, G.; Levy, O.


    Neonatal innate immunity is distinct from that of adults, which may contribute to increased susceptibility to infection and limit vaccine responses. B cells play critical roles in protection from infection and detect PAMPs via TLRs, that, when co-activated with CD40, can drive B-cell proliferation

  5. Aberrant recombination and repair during immunoglobulin class switching in BRCA1-deficient human B cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkman, Andrea; Qvist, Per; Du, Likun


    Breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1) has a multitude of functions that contribute to genome integrity and tumor suppression. Its participation in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) during homologous recombination (HR) is well recognized, whereas its involvement in the se......Breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1) has a multitude of functions that contribute to genome integrity and tumor suppression. Its participation in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) during homologous recombination (HR) is well recognized, whereas its involvement...... of long microhomologies was found at recombination junctions derived from E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase RNF168-deficient, Fanconi anemia group J protein (FACJ, BRIP1)-deficient, or DNA endonuclease RBBP8 (CtIP)-compromised cells, whereas an increased frequency of S-region inversions was observed in breast...... cancer type 2 susceptibility protein (BRCA2)-deficient cells. Thus, BRCA1, together with its interaction partners, seems to play an important role in repairing DSBs generated during class switch recombination by promoting the classical NHEJ pathway. This may not only provide a general mechanism...

  6. The potential of intravenous immunoglobulins for cancer therapy: a road that is worth taking? (United States)

    Corbí, Angel L; Sánchez-Ramón, Silvia; Domínguez-Soto, Angeles


    Much has been learned recently about the role of immunoglobulins as effector molecules of the adaptive immunity and as active elements in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. The increasing number of pathologies where intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) display a beneficial action illustrates their therapeutic relevance. Considering recent findings on the ability of IVIg to modulate macrophage polarization, herein we review evidences on the antitumoral activity of IVIg. Fragmentary and nonconclusive, available evidences are just suggestive of the potential of IVIg in antitumoral therapy, but encourage for the generation of additional evidences through well-designed clinical trials, and for additional studies to address the molecular effects of IVIg as a means to avoid the extrapolation of data gathered from animal models.

  7. The Prospect of Immunoglobulin Y for Therapy of Canine parvovirus Infection in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Agung Suartini


    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus (CPV is a highly infectious virus. The virus causes death in dogs worldwide. The mortality rate due to infection of CPV in dog reaches 91%. Prevention of CPV infection in puppies has been done by vaccination which is effectively proven. Protective mechanisms of maternal antibodies contribute to the failure of vaccination. Highly stable characteristics of parvovirus enable the virus still exist in the environment. Various therapies are performed only to suppress the clinical symptoms but can not reduce puppy mortalities. This review discusses CPV alternative therapy and the advantages using immunoglobulin Y (IgY specific antibodies isolated from chicken egg yolk. Immunoglobulin Y will neutralize the virus, so it can not infect host cells. Intravenous IgY therapy has shown to suppress the spread of CPV infection and prevent death.

  8. Intravenous immunoglobulin in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a dose-finding trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazekas, F.; Lublin, F.D.; Li, D.


    therefore set out to test two different doses of a new formulation of immunoglobulin termed IGIV-C 10% for suppression of both clinical and MRI disease activity as well as safety. METHODS: One hundred twenty-seven patients with RRMS participated in this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo......OBJECTIVE: Several studies have reported a reduction of relapses after the long-term administration of IV immunoglobulin (IVIG) to patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), but they were mostly small and differed in terms of predefined outcome variables and treatment regimen. We......-controlled trial. Forty-four and 42 patients received treatment with 0.2 and 0.4 g/kg of IGIV-C 10%, and 41 patients received an equal volume of placebo (0.1% albumin) every 4 weeks for 48 weeks. The primary endpoint was the proportion of relapse-free patients. The main secondary endpoint was lesion activity...

  9. Injecting rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) into wounds only: A significant saving of lives and costly RIG. (United States)

    Bharti, Omesh Kumar; Madhusudana, Shampur Narayan; Wilde, Henry


    An increasing number of dog bite victims were being presented to public hospitals in Himachal Pradesh in 2014 amidst virtual non availability of any rabies immunoglobulin (RIG). Only a small quantity of equine rabies immunoglobulin (eRIG) was available from the government owned Central Research Institute (CRI) Kasauli. This available eRIG was used in 269 patients as an emergency response and only for local infiltration of severe bite wounds by suspected rabid dogs. This was followed by rabies vaccination, using the WHO approved intra-dermal Thai Red Cross Society vaccination schedule. A subgroup of 26 patients were later identified who had been severely bitten by laboratory confirmed rabid dogs. They were followed for more than one year and all were found to be alive.

  10. Overview of the pathogenesis and treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with intravenous immunoglobulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mahdi-Rogers


    Full Text Available Mohamed Mahdi-Rogers, Yusuf A RajaballyNeuromuscular Clinic, Department of Neurology, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester, UKAbstract: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP is an acquired heterogeneous disorder of immune origin affecting the peripheral nerves, causing motor weakness and sensory symptoms and signs. The precise pathophysiology of CIDP remains uncertain although B and T cell mechanisms are believed to be implicated. Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg have been shown in a number of trials to be an effective treatment for CIDP. IVIg is thought to exert its immunomodulatory effects by affecting several components of the immune system including B-cells, T-cells, macrophages and complement. This article provides an overview of the pathogenesis of CIDP and of its treatment with IVIg.Keywords: chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, intravenous immunoglobulin, pathogenesis, treatment

  11. Pyriproxyfen enhances the immunoglobulin G immune response in mice. (United States)

    Sharmin, Tanjina; Satho, Tomomitsu; Irie, Keiichi; Watanabe, Mineo; Hosokawa, Masato; Hiramatsu, Yukihiro; Talukder, Parimal; Okuno, Takahiro; Tsuruda, Shodai; Uyeda, Saori; Fukmits, Yuki; Tamura, Yukie; Nakashima, Yukihiko; Imoto, Masumi; Toda, Akihisa; Kashige, Nobuhiro; Miake, Fumio


    Pyriproxyfen is a juvenile hormone mimic of vital importance for insect development with little risk to humans. This study was performed to investigate whether large doses of pyriproxyfen affect the immune response in mammals. Mice were immunized thrice with ovalbumin in 5% ethanol, with or without pyriproxyfen or alum. Large doses of pyriproxyfen (9 or 15 mM) significantly enhanced specific total IgG immune response. This enhancement was no longer present 24 hr after treatment with pyriproxyfen. These results suggest that pyriproxyfen is a safe chemical. Moreover, pyriproxyfen induced higher titers of IgG2a and enhanced tumor necrosis factor-alpha and gamma-interferon responses whereas alum induced IgG1 with enhanced interleukin-4 and -10. These observations indicate that the mechanism of immune enhancement by pyriproxyfen may differ from that of alum. © 2013 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Limited diagnostic capacities of two commercial assays for the detection of Leptospira immunoglobulin M antibodies in Laos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blacksell, Stuart D.; Smythe, Lee; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Dohnt, Michael; Hartskeerl, Rudy; SymondS, Meegan; Slack, Andrew; Vongsouvath, Manivanh; Davong, Viengmone; Lattana, Olay; Phongmany, Simmaly; Keolouangkot, Valy; White, Nicholas J.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Newton, Paul N.


    The diagnostic utility of immunochromatographic (Leptotek) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; Panbio) tests for the detection of Leptospira immunoglobulin M antibodies was assessed in febrile adults admitted in Vientiane, Laos. Both tests demonstrated poor diagnostic accuracy using

  13. Effects of immunoadsorption and subsequent immunoglobulin G substitution on cardiopulmonary exercise capacity in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herda, L.R.; Trimpert, C.; Nauke, U.; Landsberger, M.; Hummel, A.; Beug, D.; Kieback, A.; Dorr, M.; Empen, K.; Knebel, F.; Ewert, R.; Angelow, A.; Hoffmann, W.; Felix, S.B.; Staudt, A.


    BACKGROUND: Recent data indicate that cardiac antibodies play an active role in the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and may contribute to cardiac dysfunction in patients with DCM. The present study investigated the influence of immunoadsorption with subsequent immunoglobulin G

  14. Cephazolin-Induced Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Treated with Intravenous Immunoglobulin and N-Acetylcysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Saavedra


    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis is the most severe form of drug-induced skin reaction and includes denudation of >30% of total body surface area. The mechanism of disease is not completely understood, but immunologic mechanisms, cytotoxic reactions, and delayed hypersensitivity seem to be involved. We report a case of cephazolin-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and N-acetylcysteine with excellent response.

  15. Application of immunoglobulin-binding proteins a, g, l in the affinity chromatography


    Sviatenko, О.; Gorbatiuk, O.; Vasylchenko, О.


    Proteins A, G and L are native or recombinant proteins of microbial origin that bind to mammalian immunoglobulins. Preferably recombinant variants of proteins A, G, L are used in biotechnology for affinity sorbents production. Сomparative characteristics of proteins A, G, L and affinity sorbents on the basis of them, advantages and disadvantages of these proteins application as ligands in the affinity chromatography are done. Analysis of proteins A, G, L properties is presented. Binding speci...

  16. Loss of Protein, Immunoglobulins, and Electrolytes in Exudates from Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (United States)


    administration, and continu- ous renal replacement therapy ( CRRT ) were recorded. None of the patients enrolled received anabolic steroids, immunoglobulin...Nutrition in Clinical Practice / Vol. 25, No. 5, October 2010 albumin, 1 patient was placed on CRRT , and 7 patients were treated with insulin (either...patient received corticosteroids or was placed on CRRT ; 2 patients were administered intravenous albumin, and 5 patients were treated with sliding

  17. Anti–SARS-CoV Immunoglobulin G in Healthcare Workers, Guangzhou, China


    Chen, Wei-Qing; Lu, Ci-Yong; Wong, Tze-wai; Ling, Wen-Hua; Lin, Zhong-Ning; Hao, Yuan-Tao; LIU, Qing; Fang, Ji-Qian; He, Yun; Luo, Fu-Tian; Jing, Jin; Ling, Li; Ma, Xiang; Liu, Yi-Min; Chen, Gui-Hua


    To determine the prevalence of inapparent infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) among healthcare workers, we performed a serosurvey to test for immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies to the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) among 1,147 healthcare workers in 3 hospitals that admitted SARS patients in mid-May 2003. Among them were 90 healthcare workers with SARS. As a reference group, 709 healthcare workers who worked in 2 hospitals that never admitted any SARS patients were similarly tes...

  18. Mutation Pattern of Paired Immunoglobulin Heavy and Light Variable Domains in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ghiotto, Fabio


    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients display leukemic clones bearing either germline or somatically mutated immunoglobulin heavy variable (IGHV ) genes. Most information on CLL immunoglobulins (Igs), such as the definition of stereotyped B-cell receptors (BCRs), was derived from germline unmutated Igs. In particular, detailed studies on the distribution and nature of mutations in paired heavy- and light-chain domains of CLL clones bearing mutated Igs are lacking. To address the somatic hyper-mutation dynamics of CLL Igs, we analyzed the mutation pattern of paired IGHV-diversity-joining (IGHV-D-J ) and immunoglobulin kappa/lambda variable-joining (IGK/LV-J ) rearrangements of 193 leukemic clones that displayed ≥ 2% mutations in at least one of the two immunoglobulin variable (IGV ) genes (IGHV and/or IGK/LV ). The relationship between the mutation frequency in IGHV and IGK/LV complementarity determining regions (CDRs) and framework regions (FRs) was evaluated by correlation analysis. Replacement (R) mutation frequency within IGK/LV chain CDRs correlated significantly with mutation frequency of paired IGHV CDRs in λ but not κ isotype CLL clones. CDRs of IGKV-J rearrangements displayed a lower percentage of R mutations than IGHVs. The frequency/pattern of mutations in kappa CLL Igs differed also from that in κ-expressing normal B cells described in the literature. Instead, the mutation frequency within the FRs of IGHV and either IGKV or IGLV was correlated. Notably, the amount of diversity introduced by replaced amino acids was comparable between IGHVs and IGKVs. The data indicate a different mutation pattern between κ and λ isotype CLL clones and suggest an antigenic selection that, in κ samples, operates against CDR variation.

  19. Quantitative Analysis of Repertoire Scale Immunoglobulin properties in Vaccine Induced B cell Responses (United States)


    relationships among them. To date , most immunosequencing analyses have focused on reporting qualitative trends in immunoglobulin (Ig) properties, such as usage...light chain that makes up the BCR, and is often limited to short sequence reads of ~150 bp. Nevertheless, it provides the necessary sequencing depth...influence of sequencing errors on the results. The Ebola (EBOV) virus-like particle (eVLP) vaccine candi- date can provide protection against lethal

  20. Effectiveness of prophylactic intravenous immunoglobulins in preventing infection in pediatric oncology patients: a systematic review protocol. (United States)

    Forsythe, Amy; Christian, Robin


    The objective of this review is to identify the effectiveness of prophylactic intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIGs) for the prevention of infection in pediatric oncology patients, and to identify which types of patients would benefit from the intervention, such as patients with specific diagnoses or those with previous infections. A further objective of this review is to identify the effectiveness of prophylactic IVIGs on the prevention of diffuse interstitial pneumonitis and mortality in pediatric oncology patients.The review questions are.

  1. Prenatal and infant exposure to thimerosal from vaccines and immunoglobulins and risk of autism. (United States)

    Price, Cristofer S; Thompson, William W; Goodson, Barbara; Weintraub, Eric S; Croen, Lisa A; Hinrichsen, Virginia L; Marcy, Michael; Robertson, Anne; Eriksen, Eileen; Lewis, Edwin; Bernal, Pilar; Shay, David; Davis, Robert L; DeStefano, Frank


    Exposure to thimerosal, a mercury-containing preservative that is used in vaccines and immunoglobulin preparations, has been hypothesized to be associated with increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study was designed to examine relationships between prenatal and infant ethylmercury exposure from thimerosal-containing vaccines and/or immunoglobulin preparations and ASD and 2 ASD subcategories: autistic disorder (AD) and ASD with regression. A case-control study was conducted in 3 managed care organizations (MCOs) of 256 children with ASD and 752 controls matched by birth year, gender, and MCO. ASD diagnoses were validated through standardized in-person evaluations. Exposure to thimerosal in vaccines and immunoglobulin preparations was determined from electronic immunization registries, medical charts, and parent interviews. Information on potential confounding factors was obtained from the interviews and medical charts. We used conditional logistic regression to assess associations between ASD, AD, and ASD with regression and exposure to ethylmercury during prenatal, birth-to-1 month, birth-to-7-month, and birth-to-20-month periods. There were no findings of increased risk for any of the 3 ASD outcomes. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for ASD associated with a 2-SD increase in ethylmercury exposure were 1.12 (0.83-1.51) for prenatal exposure, 0.88 (0.62-1.26) for exposure from birth to 1 month, 0.60 (0.36-0.99) for exposure from birth to 7 months, and 0.60 (0.32-0.97) for exposure from birth to 20 months. In our study of MCO members, prenatal and early-life exposure to ethylmercury from thimerosal-containing vaccines and immunoglobulin preparations was not related to increased risk of ASDs.

  2. Serum levels of immunoglobulins and severity of community-acquired pneumonia


    de la Torre, Mari C; Tor?n, Pere; Serra-Prat, Mateu; Palomera, Elisabet; G?ell, Estel; Vendrell, Ester; Y?benes, Joan Carles; Torres, Antoni; Almirall, Jordi


    Instruction There is evidence of a relationship between severity of infection and inflammatory response of the immune system. The objective is to assess serum levels of immunoglobulins and to establish its relationship with severity of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and clinical outcome. Methods This was an observational and cross-sectional study in which 3 groups of patients diagnosed with CAP were compared: patients treated in the outpatient setting (n=54), patients requiring in-patient...

  3. [Lupus nephritis associated with common variable immunodeficiency: favourable outcome with intravenous immunoglobulin treatment]. (United States)

    Geneviève, M; Bonnet, F; Michaux, C; Geffroy, C-E; Vandenhende, M-A; Combe, C; Morlat, P


    We report a 24-year-old woman who presented with a nephrotic syndrome as the revealing manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and an associated hypogammaglobulinemia related to a common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Outcome of SLE was favourable with intravenous immunoglobulin treatment solely. Relationships between SLE and CVID are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Distribution of immunoglobulin G antibody secretory cells in small intestine of Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus)


    Zhang, Wang-Dong; WANG, Wen-hui; Jia, Shuai


    Background To explore the morphological evidence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) participating in intestinal mucosal immunity, 8 healthy adult Bactrian camels used. First, IgG was successfully isolated from their serum and rabbit antibody against Bactrian camels IgG was prepared. The IgG antibody secretory cells (ASCs) in small intestine were particularly observed through immumohistochemical staining, then after were analyzed by statistical methods. Results The results showed that the IgG ASCs were...

  5. The electrophysiological response to immunoglobulin therapy in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Marit; Markvardsen, Lars Høj; Tankisi, Hatice


    OBJECTIVE: To characterize changes in motor nerve conduction studies (MNCS) and motor unit number index (MUNIX) following treatment with subcutaneous immunoglobulin and to assess whether these changes are related to muscle strength. METHODS: Data from 23 patients participating in a randomized, co......, and distally evoked CMAP duration (P=.013-.035). CONCLUSION: Proximally evoked CMAP amplitudes appear to be the best MNCS parameter to assess treatment outcome in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy....

  6. Severe Periodontal Disease Associated with Long-Term Treatment with Intravenous Immunoglobulin


    Jôice Dias Corrêa; Amanda Leal Rocha; Lidiane Cristina Machado Costa; Denise Travassos; Wagner Henriques Castro; Gustavo Pompermaier Garlet; Rodrigo Santiago Gomez; Antônio Lúcio Teixeira; Tarcília Aparecida Silva


    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is used in the treatment of neuropathy. This case report presents, for the first time, a patient with severe periodontal destruction after chronic therapy with IVIG. The patient reported having extracted his maxillary anterior teeth himself due to high mobility. Clinical examination and radiographic images show a generalized and severe periodontitis. No significant alterations in genetic or microbiological features were observed. The present case suggests tha...

  7. Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease 1 Is the Essential Nuclease during Immunoglobulin Class Switch Recombination


    Masani, Shahnaz; Han, Li; Yu, Kefei


    Immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch recombination (CSR) is initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) that catalyzes numerous DNA cytosine deaminations within switch regions. The resulting uracils are processed by uracil base excision and/or mismatch repair enzymes that ultimately generate switch region DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Uracil glycosylase 2 (UNG2) is required for CSR, most likely by removing uracils to generate abasic sites. Although it is presumed that the apurinic...

  8. Pholcodine consumption and immunoglobulin E-sensitization in atopics from Australia, Korea, and Japan


    Katelaris, Constance H.; Kurosawa, Motohiro; Moon, Hee-Bom; Borres, Magnus; Florvaag, Erik; Johansson, Stig Gunnar Olof


    Background Accumulating data indicates that pholcodine (PHO)-consuming countries have higher sero-prevalences of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-antibodies to PHO and suxamethonium (SUX) and increased frequencies of IgE-mediated anaphylaxis to neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) than nonconsuming. Withdrawing PHO-containing cough syrups resulted in a significant decrease of cases with anaphylaxis in Scandinavia. Nevertheless, the European Medicines Agency in 2011 advised to continue the unrestricted...

  9. Immunoglobulin deficiency in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis: Systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Schwitzguébel, Adrien J-P; Jandus, Peter; Lacroix, Jean-Silvain; Seebach, Jörg D; Harr, Thomas


    Several studies have shown a high prevalence of immunoglobulin deficiencies in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). We sought to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate this prevalence more precisely and to identify patients who need substitution treatment. All case series published after 1990 describing patients with CRS, which was defined as symptomatic rhinosinusitis for more than 12 weeks and documented immunoglobulin deficiencies (including deficiencies of IgG with subclasses, IgA, and IgM; specific antibody deficiencies; and potential common variable immunodeficiency), were retrieved. A meta-analysis of the proportion of any combination of common variable immunodeficiency, IgG deficiency, IgA deficiency, and IgM deficiency in patients with CRS was performed by using logit transformation of the prevalence. Recurrent CRS was defined as rhinosinusitis not controlled by appropriate conservative management for 4 months, and difficult-to-treat CRS was defined as noncontrollable rhinosinusitis despite successful sinus surgery and appropriate conservative management for at least 1 year. The meta-analysis revealed a prevalence of pooled IgG, IgA, and IgM deficiencies in 13% of patients with recurrent CRS and 23% of patients with difficult-to-treat CRS. The prevalence of IgG subclass deficiency (5% to 50%) and specific antibody deficiency (8% to 34%) was increased in patients with CRS, as was the prevalence of respiratory allergies in patients with recurrent CRS (31% to 72%). Immunoglobulin deficiency is a frequent condition in patients with CRS. An even higher prevalence of atopy was observed in patients with recurrent CRS. Therefore immunoglobulin titers and accurate allergy diagnostic workups are strongly recommended in these patients to provide specific treatments for symptom alleviation. However, there is a need for larger prospective studies addressing the effect of specific therapeutic interventions for CRS. Copyright © 2015 American

  10. Sequence of the dog immunoglobulin alpha and epsilon constant region genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, M.; Selinger, D.; Mark, G.E.; Hollis, G.F.; Hickey, G.J. [Merck Research Labs., Rathway, NJ (United States)


    The immunoglobulin alpha (IGHAC) and epsilon (IGHEC) germline constant region genes were isolated from a dog liver genomic DNA library. Sequence analysis indicates that the dog IGHEC gene is encoded by four exons spread out over 1.7 kilobases (kb). The IGHAC sequence encompasses 1.5 kb and includes all three constant region coding exons. The complete exon/intron sequence of these genes is described. 28 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Immunoglobulins of the non-galliform birds: Antibody expression and repertoire in the duck (United States)

    Lundqvist, Mats L.; Middleton, Darlene L.; Radford, Cynthia; Warr, Gregory W.; Magor, Katharine E.


    Galliform and non-galliform birds express three immunoglobulin isotypes, IgM, IgA and IgY. Beyond this we should not generalize because differences in gene organization may have functional consequences reflected in the immune response. At present, studies on non-galliform birds are largely restricted to ducks. Ducks express an alternatively spliced form of their IgY heavy chain (ν) gene, the IgY(ΔFc), that lacks the Fc region and Fc-associated secondary effector functions. It is not known how common the expression of the IgY(ΔFc) is among birds, nor the functional consequences. It is also not known whether the unusual organization of the duck IgH locus, also shared with the chicken, having the gene order of μ, α and ν, with α inverted in the locus, is unique to the galloanseriform lineage. Ducks, like chickens, have a single immunoglobulin light chain of the lambda (λ) type. Evidence suggests that ducks, like chickens, generate their immunoglobulin repertoire through a single functional rearrangement of the variable (V) region, and generate diversity through gene conversion from a pool of pseudogenes. In Southern blots of germline and rearranged bursal DNA, both the heavy and light chain loci of ducks appear to each undergo one major rearrangement event. For both heavy and light chains, the functional V region element and the pseudogenes appear to consist of a single gene family. Further analysis of 26 heavy chain joining (JH) and 27 light chain JL segments shows there is use of a single J segment in ducks, which is diversified presumably through somatic mutations and gene conversion events. Despite this limitation on the rearrangement of immunoglobulin genes, analysis of 26 DH and 122 VL sequences suggests that extensive sequence diversity is generated. PMID:16150486

  12. Immunoglobulin G4-related Kidney Disease as a Cause of Acute Renal Insufficiency. (United States)

    Li, Cai; Du, Xiao-Gang


    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related kidney disease is a systemic autoimmune disease which characterized by elevated serum IgG4 and dense infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells into tubular interstitium. It can be a mimicker of acute renal insufficiency. We herein report a rare case of IgG4-related kidney disease as a cause of acute renal insufficiency.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekantika Mandal


    Full Text Available In the present study Immunoglobulin G was purified from serum of Royal Bengal Tiger by gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-200. SDS-PAGE analysis showed the molecular weight of purified tiger IgG was 170.52 kDa. The purified Immunoglobulin has been found to be immunereactive by DID test and Western Blot analysis when treated against hyperimmune sera which was raised in rabbit.

  14. Ontogenic development of immunoglobulins (Igs)-positive lymphocytes in the lymphoid organs of native chickens of Bangladesh


    Islam, Md. Nabiul; Khan, Mohammed Zahirul Islam; Jahan, Mir Rubayet; Fujinaga, Ryutaro; Shinoda, Koh


    The first appearance, distribution and frequency of immunoglobulins (Igs)-positive lymphocytes were investigated in the lymphoid organs of native chicken’s embryos from embryonic day (ED) 8 to ED 20. The tissues from the lymphoid organs were dehydrated in alcohol, cleared in xylene, embedded in different grades of paraffin and 6-micron thick sections were immunostained by the indirect immunoperoxidase method using antichicken immunoglobulins. IgM-positive lymphocytes were first identified in ...

  15. Mathematical model for determining the binding constants between immunoglobulins, bivalent ligands, and monovalent ligands. (United States)

    Mack, Eric T; Cummings, Linda; Perez-Castillejos, Raquel


    This paper analyzes the equilibria between immunoglobulins (R(2)), homo-bifunctional ligands (L(2)), monovalent ligands (I), and their complexes. We present a mathematical model that can be used to estimate the concentration of each species present in a mixture of R(2), L(2), and I, given the initial conditions defining the total concentration of R(2), L(2), I, and four dissociation constants (K(d)(inter), K(d)(intra), K(d)(mono), and α). This model is based on fewer assumptions than previous models and can be used to describe exactly a broad range of experimental conditions. A series of curves illustrates the dependence of the equilibria upon the total concentrations of receptors and ligands, and the dissociation constants. We provide a set of guidelines for the design and analysis of experiments with a focus on estimating the binding constants from experimental binding isotherms. Two analytical equations relate the conditions for maximum aggregation in this system to the binding constants. This model is a tool to quantify the binding of immunoglobulins to antigens and a guide to understanding and predicting the experimental data of assays and techniques that employ immunoglobulins.

  16. Purification and characterisation of anti-pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide IgG immunoglobulins. (United States)

    Parker, Antony R; Lock, Emma; Iftikhar, Asma; Barber, Richard; Stubbs, Phil D; Harding, Stephen; Wallis, Gregg L F


    The production of reference materials for quantifying pneumococcal antibody concentrations relies upon large scale vaccination. An alternative simple, reproducible protocol has been developed for the affinity purification of 23 serotype anti-pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (PCP) IgG immunoglobulins. The purification protocol utilised IgG fractionation, capsular polysaccharide (CPS) adsorption, and affinity chromatography using Pneumovax®-Sepharose. Purification efficiency and method reproducibility were assessed by comparison of 4 batches of anti-PCP IgG. Immunoglobulin composition was determined using nephelometry and functionality was evaluated using VaccZyme™ ELISAs. Anti-PCP IgG preparations were ≥95% pure by SDS-PAGE analysis with no contaminating IgA or IgM immunoglobulins or IgG antigen specific antibodies towards haemophilus influenzae b, diphtheria toxoid or tetanus toxoid. The predominant IgG subclass in the preparation was IgG2. This novel purification procedure produced highly specific anti-PCP IgG preparations that compared well to both Lot 89SF and 007sp international serum standards and could be used as an alternative method for the production of reference materials. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pulmonary histopathologic findings, acid-base status, and absorption of colostral immunoglobulins in newborn calves. (United States)

    López, A; Löfstedt, J; Bildfell, R; Horney, B; Burton, S


    A study was conducted to investigate whether aspiration of amniotic fluid is associated with a deleterious effect on absorption of colostral immunoglobulins or on blood gas and acid-base values of healthy newborn calves. Fourteen calves purchased from commercial sources were transported to a research facility immediately after birth and fed colostrum with known concentrations of immunoglobulins. Blood samples for gas analyses were collected within 5 hours of birth, 24 hours later, and prior to euthanasia. Between 3 and 5 days of age, calves were euthanatized by an overdose of barbiturates. Eleven calves had evidence of bronchoaspiration of amniotic fluid, as determined by presence of meconium, squamous epithelium, or keratin in histologic sections of fixed lung or by cytologic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Blood gas tensions and pH were within reference ranges in 11 of 14 calves. Aspiration of amniotic fluid could not be linked to any specific changes in blood gas tensions, acid-base status, or absorption of colostral immunoglobulins. Presence of keratin and meconium in the lungs often was accompanied by mild exudative alveolitis and focal atelectasis. It was concluded that aspiration of small amounts of amniotic fluid with or without meconium is common in calves and is not associated with hypoxemia, respiratory acidosis, or failure of passive transfer.

  18. SC1, an immunoglobulin-superfamily cell adhesion molecule, is involved in the brain metastatic activity of lung cancer cells. (United States)

    Kubota, Yuka; Kirimura, Naoki; Shiba, Hatsuki; Adachi, Kazuhide; Tsukamoto, Yasuhiro


    SC1 is a cell adhesion molecule that belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily; this molecule was initially purified from the chick embryonic nervous system and was reported to exhibit homophilic adhesion activity. SC1 is transiently expressed in various organs during development and has been identified in numerous neoplastic tissues, including lung cancer and colorectal carcinomas. The present study focused on the encephalic metastasis of lung cancer cells with respect to the potential function of SC1, as this molecule is known to be consistently expressed in the central nervous system as well as lung cancers. SC1 complementary DNA was introduced into A549 cells, a human lung cancer-derived cell line. The stable overexpression of the SC1 protein in A549 cells was demonstrated to enhance the self-aggregation of the cells. In addition, the SC1 transfectants enhanced the metastatic and invasive potential to the encephalic parenchyma following implantation into nude mice. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that cell adhesion due interactions between SC1 on brain tissue and SC1 on lung cancer cells was involved in the malignant aspects of lung cancer, including invasion and metastasis to the brain.

  19. Chimeric protein A/G conjugate for detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii immunoglobulin G in multiple animal species. (United States)

    Schaefer, John J; White, Holly A; Schaaf, Stephanie L; Mohammed, Hussni O; Wade, Susan E


    Serological testing for toxoplasmosis diagnosis remains the method of choice in human medicine due to the accessibility of the requisite sample, the difficulty in predicting the parasite's location in the host for direct detection, and the availability of established commercial methods. In veterinary medicine, although the first 2 conditions are unchanged, there is a need for commercially produced test methods that are validated for Toxoplasma gondii detection across the range of animal species that can serve as intermediate hosts. The development of such a serological method for animals would allow the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in individual animals and a higher throughput method for population-level toxoplasmosis surveys. The incorporation of a non-species-specific chimeric protein A/G conjugate into an anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is described. Serum from potential intermediate hosts was reevaluated using this method and compared with earlier testing using an established agglutination procedure. Very good agreement between the 2 tests was noted (κ = 0.81), establishing the method as a useful option for veterinary diagnostic testing.

  20. Initial evaluation of protein A modified capillary-channeled polymer fibers for the capture and recovery of immunoglobulin G. (United States)

    Schadock-Hewitt, Abby J; Marcus, R Kenneth


    A novel protein A affinity chromatography stationary phase has been developed from polypropylene capillary-channeled polymer fibers modified with a recombinant protein A ligand for the capture and recovery of immunoglobulin G (IgG) with high specificity and yield. An SPE micropipette tip format was employed so that solvent, protein, and antibody consumption was minimized. The adsorption modification of the fiber surfaces with protein A was evaluated as a function of feed concentration and volume. Optimal modification of the fiber surface with protein A yielded a 5.7 mg/mL (bed volume) ligand capacity with the modified fibers showing stability across numerous solvent environments. Performance was evaluated through exposure to human IgG and myoglobin, individually and as a mixture. Myoglobin was used as a surrogate for host cell proteins common to growth media. The efficacy of the selective binding to the ligand is demonstrated by the 2.9:1 (IgG/protein A) binding stoichiometry. Elution with 0.1 M acetic acid yielded an 89% recovery of the captured IgG based on absorption measurements of the collected eluents. Regeneration was possible with 10 mM NaOH. Protein A modified polypropylene capillary-channeled polymer fibers show promising initial results as an affinity phase for efficient capture and purification of IgG. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.